close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

Sessia-3

код для вставкиСкачать
???????????? ??????????? ? ????? ?????????? ?????????
??????????? ??????????????? ??????????
??????????????? ?????????? ??????? ???????????
?????-????????????? ??????????????? ???????????
???????????????? ???????????????
_________________________________________________________________
?????????? ???
??????? ? ????????????
???????????
??????? ??????
????
????? III
???????????? ?????
??????? ????????
9а? 13 ?????? 2018 ?.
??? 001
??? 72
?34
?34 ??????? ?????? ????: ??. ????. ? 3 ?. ?. III. ???????????? ?????. ???.: ????, 2018. 341 ?.
ISBN 978-5-8088-1288-8
ISBN 978-5-8088-1291-8 (?. III)
? ?????? 2018 ?. ? ?????-????????????? ??????????????? ???????????? ???????????????? ??????????????? ???? ????????? ???????????? ??????? ??????, ??????????? ?????????? ??? ??????? ?
????????????. ?а?????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ? ??????????? ???????????, ?????????????, ??????? ?????????? ? ????????? ????? ?? ????????? ???????? ??????.
??????? ???????? ???????? ???????? ??????????? ??????? ????????????, ??????????? ?? ??????. ?????????????? ?????? ????????? ????????? ???????????? ???????????????, ????????????,
??????????? ? ?????, ????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ?????? ? ???????? ???????????????
??????????, ?????????? ????????????? ?????????????? ?????, ?? ??????????????? ? ????????????
???????????.
? ??????? ???????????? ???? ???????????? ??????? ?? ?????????? ????????? ???????????? ?
?????????????? ????, ????????? ????????????? ??????, ????????? ? ????????? ?????.
??????? ???????????? ??? ??????? ??????????, ??????????, ??????????? ? ????????? ???????
?????? ??????????? ? ???????????? ?????.
??? ????? ?????????
??????? ????????????? ????, ??????????
?. ?. ?????????
???????????? ????????:
???????? ?. ?., ?-? ????. ????, ?????????
???? ?. ?., ?-? ????. ????, ?????????
??????? ?. ?., ?-? ????. ????, ??????
???????? ?. ?., ?-? ????. ????, ?????????
????? ?. ?., ?-? ????. ????, ??????
??????? ?. ?., ?-? ????. ????, ?????????
???????? ?. ?., ?-? ????. ????, ?????????
?????? ?. ?., ????. ????. ????, ??????
???????? ?. ?., ?-? ????. ????, ?????????
??????? ?. ?., ?-? ????. ????, ?????????
??????? ?. ?., ????. ????. ????
???????? ?. ?., ?-? ????. ????, ?????????
????????????? ????????? ???????????? ???????? ?. ?. ????????
ISBN 978-5-8088-1288-8
ISBN 978-5-8088-1291-8 (?. III)
? ?????-????????????? ???????????????
??????????? ????????????????
???????????????, 2018
???????????? ?????
??????? ? ?????????
??? 141.4
?. ?. ???????
?????? ??????????? ????
?????-????????????? ???????????????
??????????? ???????????????? ???????????????
? ???????????-???????????? ???????? ???????????
? ????????? ???????????-??????????? ?????1
? ?????? ?????????? ??????????? ? ???????????-???????????? ?????? ????????? ???????????. ?????????? ? ????????????? ????????? ?? ????????? ??????? ???????????? ? ???????? ????????, ???
??????????? ???????????-???????????? ???????????????? ???????.
???????? ?????: ????????, ???????, ????????, ????????, ??????.
The article highlights static and dynamic-organic aspects of the Nicene triadology. Fragments from the works
of Basil of Caesarea and Gregory of Nyssa, where they develop the dynamic-organic triadological discourse,
are identified and analyzed.
Keywords: substance, activity, movement, hypostasis, Trinity.
???? ???????????, ???????????? ?а ????????-???????????? ?????????? ? ?????????, ???????? ?а???? ????????, ?????????????? ???? ? ????? ??????, ??????????? ??? ?? ???????, ??? ? ??
????????. ???????????? ??? ???????????, ??? ? ???????????? ??????? ?а???? ? ???? ?? ??????? ???
?а ??????? ??????? ????????????а ? ?????? ?? ?????? ???????????? ??????????, ??????????? ??????
? ???? ?-????, ??? ????????? ?????????? ? ????????.
??????????? ????? ?а???? ? ???? ???????????? ?а??????? ?а????? ?а???????????? ????? ???????? ? ??? ?????? ?а????????? ??????????? ?????????: л???????? ?????, ?? ????????? ? ????????? ???? ????? ???????????; ?? ?????????? ?? ???? ? ???????, ?????? ? ??????????, ?????????? ?а???
??????? ??????╗2. ??? ????? ???????????? ????? ??????????? ???????????? ???????? ?????????
??????? ???? ?????? ?????? ????? ? ??? ?? ??????????. ?????????? ???? ?????????? ?а?????????
??????? ????????????? ?????????????3, ??? ??? ?????????? ?? ??????????? ?????????? ?? ??????
?????????? ??????? ????? ???? ????? ????????????? ????????????? ?????????? (л???????????╗,
л??????????? ???????╗), ???? ??? ????????????? ???????????? ?? ???? ??????????, ???????? ???????? ???? (л????????╗, л???????????╗), ?а ?? ????? ??? ?а ?????????? ???????, ???????????? ???
1
???????????? ????????? ??? ????????? ??????????? ????? ??????????????? ????????????, ?????
? 18-011-01243 л???????????? ?????????-??????????????? ???????? ????????-???????????? ??????????? ?
????????????? ????? ?аIII-IV ??.╗.
2
??????? ???????????. ?????? ???????, PG 29.540.13. ??: ?????? ???????, PG 29.673.34?38.
3
C?.: ??????? ???????????. ?????? ???????, PG 29.529.20.
3
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
1
2
????????? ????, ???????? ????? (???? ???????? ???? ??? ?? ???????) . ???????, ?а???? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ? ???? ?а??????? ???????????? ????????????? ????? ????????? ????????? ???????????
? ? ?????? ????????, ??? ??? ?????????? ?ал??????????╗, ?. ?. ? ??????? ??????????? ???, ??? ?? ??
??????????? ?? ? ???3.
?? ?????????????? ??????? ?????????? ? ???? ?а ??????? ???????????? ? ????????? ????????? ? ?????? ???????? ?а ?????????? ????????? ????? ??????? ????????: ???????? ????????????
????????, ???????? ???? ???????? ?а?????????? ???????, ? ??????? ???????? ?а??????? ??????????а? ????????, ??????? ???????? ?а????????? ?????? ?а???????? ???????? ?????? ????????4, ???
??? ???????? ?????? ???????? ?а?????????? ????????????? ??????????? ??? ????????????? ????
??? ???????5. ????? ?? ????? ???????????? ????? ?а???? ? ??????. ?????? ??????, ?а????????-???????????? ????????, ??? ??? ???? ?а??????????? ???????? ???? ???????? ?а?????????????????? ??????6, ????????? ???????? ???????????? л???????╗, ??? ????? ???? ????????? ?а ???????: л???????
???? ???????? ????????╗. ??? ??????? ??????? ?????????????? ?а???????????? ?????????? ???????
?а??????? ???????????, ? ???????? ?? ????? ??????????? ??????. ??????? л??????? ???? ????????
????????╗ ????????????? ????? ??????? ???????????? ???????? ???????? ?? ??????? ???? ?????
????????: ???????? ???????????? ?ал???????????-???????????? ??????7, ? ????? ??????? ?????????? ????????? л?????? ????? ? ?????????? ????-?????╗8.
? ??????? ???????????? ?? ?? ??????? ?? ??????????????. ? ??????, ???????? ?????? ?????????, ?????? ????????? ?????? ???????, ??????? ??????? ? ???, ??? ???????? ???? ????? ?? ???????? ???????????, ?.?. ??? ??? л????╗ ???????? ???? ????????? ????????, ??????? ????, ?????????????? л?? ???????╗, ? ?? ?????????? ??????????? ? ???, ??????? ?а????? ???????? л?????? ???????╗
(??. 364 ?.) ?????:
???? ?? ??? ??????, ??? ???????????? ???? ???????? ???????, ? ?? ????????. <?> ??????????, ???
???? ?????? ???? ?а???? ?????????, ?? ???? ??? ??????, ??? <?> ??????????, ??? ??? ???????? ??????????? ?а??????? ??????? (pr╒j t╒ t┴j ?nerge?aj m?geqoj t╒n Qe╒n kekin┴sqai), ????? ?а???? ???????? ?? ????? ???????? ?????. ??????? <?> ???????????? ???? ???????? ?? ???????, ?? ????????
(o┘s?an)9.
???????????? ??????? л???????╗ ?а?????? ?ал?????????╗ ?????, ?? ??? ??????, ????????? ?? ????? ?????????? ????? ???????, ?? ????????? ?а?????????????? ????????-???????????? ?????????,
??? ? ??????? ????, ??????????????? ?????? ??? ??????- ? ??????????????????? ?????????? ???????, ?? ??????? ??????? ???? ???? ???????? ???????????? ????????. ????????? ????? ?????? ?????
???????, ? ???????????? ???????? ????? ????????? ??? ? ??????????, ? ??? ???????? ???? ???????,
???????, ?а???? ???????, ???? ???????? ???? ?????.
??????? ????? ???????? ???? ????????? ? ?а????????? ????????? ???????? ???????? ? ???
???????? л?????? ???????╗ (380-? ??.). ??????????? ?а???????????? ??????? ?? ?????????, ??????????? ?ал?????? ???????╗ ???????, ???????? ?????:
л<?> ????? [???????] ???????: ???? ???????? ?? ??????? ?????? ? ???????, ??????????? ?? ??????????, ? ??????? ?? ???????????. ????? ???? ???? ?? ????? ???? <?> ??????? ???? ????? ????????????? ?? ???????, ?? ?????: ????????? ????????? ???????, ??? ?????, ??????? ????????????
???? ? ??????? ???? ????, ???????? ?????? ???????? [?. ?. ???????????] ????????? ?????? [?. ?.
1 ??.: ??????????. ?????? ????????? 83b6-8.
2
??.: ??????????. ?????? ????????? 79a27.
3
??.: ??????????. ????????? 2? 13?15, 2b 15-18.
4
??.: ??????????. ?????????? 1020b 9-13.
5
??.: ??????????. ?????? 201a 4-6.
6
??.: ??????????. ?????? 201a 4-6.
7
?????? ??????????. ???????????-???????????? ????? 27, PG 91, 287A.
8
Doctrina patrum 258 (Diekamp). ?? ???? ??????? ??.: ?????? ?.?. ?????? [? ?????? ??????????.
? ????????? ?????????? ????????? <????????>, ????? 7] // ???. ?????? ??????????: ???????? ?а??????????? ?
?????????????? / ????. ?. ?. ???????, ?. ?. ???????, ?. ?. ??????. ???.: ?????, 2007. (???????????? ?????????. ?. 1; Smaragdos Philocalias). ?. 301?305.
9
??????? ???????????. ?????? ??????? 1, PG 29.565. 7-20. ??.: ?????? ???????, PG 29 645.20.
4
??????? ? ?????????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
????], ? ?????? ? ?????? [?. ?. ??????? ????], ? ???????, ??? ???????????? ??????????? ??? ?????????? ?????? ?а??????. <?> ??????? ??, ??? ??????????? ? ???????? ?????????? ???????? (??????????
??? ??????) ???? ?????????? ????????. ?? ???? ??? ???, ?? ??? ? ???, ??? ??????????? ??????????? ??
???????????, ??????, ??? ??? ??????? ??? ????? ????? ??????????????? ??? ?? ?????, ????? ??
?????? ????????????????? ?а???????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ????? ????? ?????????, ????? ??
??????? ????????????? ????? ????????, ??? ??? ??????? ?? ????????????. ??? ?????? ???????? ????
?? ??????? ? ?????????? ?????????? ???? ?? ????; ?? ??? ??????: л???????╗, ??? ?а????? ???? ???????
? ?????????? ????????? ?а??? [?. ?. ????????], ? ??? ???????? ? ???????????, ???, ???????, ??????
? ??? ????? ??????????? ? ???????. ?? ????????? ????? ????? ?а????????. ???????, ??? ?????-?? ????
??? ??????????, ??? ????????? ???-?? ?? ?????. ????, ????? ?????? (??? ????) ? ???????? ?????? ?
???? ?? ?????? (???? ?????? ? ?????) ?????????????? ?????? ? ???????????, ? ??????????? ???????,
??? ??? ???? ??????? ????, ?? ?? ????? ???????????? ? ???????. ??????, ???? ??? ??? ? ???? ??????? ?
?????????? ???????? ?а??? [?. ?. ????????] ? ???????? ???? ?а?????? ??????, ?? ??? ?а???? ?????? ????? ??????????, ??? ?? ?????? ????????? ??????? ???????, ??????? ?????????? ?????? ????????, ???
?? ??????????? ????? ??????, ?? ?????? ?а???????? ?? ??????? ?а?????? ? ?? ?????? ????????? ?? ??????? ??? ???????? ?? ?????? ???, ??? ??? ?? ???? ???? ???????, ?? ???????? ???????; ?? ???????????
?? ?а???, ??? ????? ??? ??????, ??? ?????????????? ?? ?????? ???????, ?? ??????????? ????????╗1.
???????? ??????? ????? ???????????? ?а??????????????? ??????????? ???????, ???????? ??????? ???????????? ???????? (??????????? ???) ??????????? ???????? ????????? ???????? ????,
???????, ?а???? ???????, ?????? ??????????? ???????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ????. ??? ????????? ???????? ?? ????????? ?????? ? ????????? ???? ? ????. ?а????? ???????? ???????, ??????????
????????? ?????? ? ???, ??? ???????? ???? ? ???? ???????? ? ?????????? ?а????????? ???? ? ?????
?????, ???????? ???????? ???????? ? ?? ??????? (????????????), ??????, ??? ??? ???????? ??????
??????, ?а??? ???? ?????, ? ??? ?????? ?? ?????????? ? ???????. ???????? ????????, ?????? ???????
??????? ???????? ???, ????? ??????? ?? ?????????? ?а???????? ?а????????? ? ???? ?? ???????? ??
???. ???????? ???? ? ????????? ???? ????? ?????????? ????????? ?????? ?????? ?? ?????? ????????? ??????????? ????????? ???????? ? ??????? ? ????? ???????? ???????? ? ??????? ??????????,
??? ???? ????????, ???????, ???? ????????.
??? ????, ????? ???????? ????? ???? ? ??????????? ???????? ? ???????, ?? ????????? ??????? ? ???????? ? ?? ??????? ??? ? л??????????╗, ?. ?. ???????? ?а?? ???????????? ??????? ????????
????????? ?а????? ?а?????????? ????????. ????? ???????? ??????? ???? ??????????? ????????? ????????, ??????? ? ????????, ???????, ??? ?? ??????, ??? ?????????? ?а??????? ????????????, ?????????, ??? ???-???????? ??????????? ?а??????? ???????, ???? ???? ? ?????? ?????????? ???? ?????
?а?????????????? ????? ??????????????? ????????.
????, ????????????????? ?????????? ???????? ??????????? ? ????????? ??????? ?????
????? ?????????, ?? ??? ??????, ???????? ? ???????????? ???????????? л???????╗ ????? ???? ???????
???????????? ????? ??????? ???????????2, ???????, ??????????, ? ???? ??? ?а ??????????? ??????.
?????? ?????а ? ?????-?? ????????????????? ????????3, ????????? ?а ????????? ?? ????? ????????
????????а ? ???????? ???? ????? (? ??????? ?? ??????? ?????? ????????а ? ????????? ????? ??.
????4). ?????? ?????а? ????????????, ??????? ???? ?а????, ?? ?????????????? ?а??????????? ????
(? ????? ??????? ??????????? ?? ?????????????????) ?а??????? ?? ???????? ??????????????? ????
????????????5.
? ???? ????? ??? ???????? ?? ???????? ???????? ?? ??? ????, ??????????????? ?а?????????
????????? ?????, ????????? ?.-?. ?????????, ???????? ???????? л???? ???? ????????????? ??????????????? ??????????????? ????╗6, ??? ?а????????-???????????? ???????????? ????????? ?????? ??
??????? (???????????? ?? ??????? ?а?????????), ?а??????? ?????????????? ????????? ??????????
?????, ??????????? ????????? ??????? ???????????? ????????? ?????????. ? ???? ?а???? ???????
1
???????? ???????. ?????? ??????? 1.1.207.1?211.9 (Jaeger).
? ???? ??????? ??????? ??.: ??????????. ?????????? 1048b6-9.
3
??? ?а??????????? ???????? ????? ???????: ??????????. ?????????? 1065b16.
4
??: ??????? ???????????. ?????? ???????, PG 29.736.7-11. ??????? ???????? ??????? ????? ??????????????, ????????, ?а??????? ?????????? (XII ?.), ?а????????? л? ???????? ?????????...╗.
5
??????????. ?????????? 1048b 18?35.
6
??., ????.: ??????? ?.-?. ???????????? ???????????. ?., 1991. ?. 29.
2
5
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
????????????? ?????????????, ???????????? ????? ????????????? ????????? ?????? (л????????╗,
л??????????╗), ??????????, ????? ???????, ????????????? ????????????, ?? ?????????? ?а???? ?
????? ???????, ?????? ??????????? ??? л??????╗ ? ????????????? ??????????? ?????????. ????????? ???????? ???????? ?? ??????? ?а??????? 361 ? 362 ?? ????????? ???????, ???????? ???????????? ????????, ?а???????????? ???????????? (359?360 ??.). ?? ?????? ???????: л??? ????? ???? ??
??????????? ???????? ??????╗ ??????? ?????????? ? ?????????????, ????? ????????? ?? ?а??????
??????? ?????? ????????????? ???? (g?noj koin╒n ╪perke?menon), ???? ????????????? ???????????
(╪lik╒n ╪poke?menon) (??????? ?????????????? ??? ????????????? ?а????????????1), ???? л??????????? (вpomerism╒j) ??????????? ?????? ?? ??????╗, ??????????? ????????:
л????? ?????? ???? ????????? ?????????? ? ????????????? ??????? ????????????? ????
(en e nai g?noj ╪perke?menon), ??? ? ?????? ???????????? ?????????? ??? ???? ? ???? (└ m?an
█lhn ╪pokeim?nhn ?p? Patr╒j ka? U?oр), ????? ?? ?????? ????????? ????????????? ??????? ???????
?????? ? ??????????? ?? ?????????????? ???? ?а???????????? ?????????? (g?nnhma), ???????????? ?? ??????? ??????. ? ???? ???? ???? ?????? ????? ????, ? ?? ??????? ??????, ?? ?? ?????
???????????? ???????? ????????????? ???? (en ╪p?rkeitai g?noj), ?? ??? [????] ???? ?????? ???? ?????????????. ????? ????? ??? ?????? ????????????? ????????? (█lh koin╛) ??? ??? ? ??? ????, ?? ?? ???
???????? ??????? (╪p╥qesij) ??? ???? ?????. ? ??? ?????????? (╨moo┌sioj) [? ?????-?????] ?а?????????????? ?? ????????? ?? ???? ????????? ? ????????? ??????, ?? ??? ?????? ???? (tж ╨mogen┴),
?? ??? ???????????, ?? ??? ?? ?????? ???? ? ???? (?k toр ?n╒j g?nouj ka? e?douj) ????????, ??? ???????????? ?????????? (вpog?nnhma) ?а???????????? ? ??????????? ?????????? (pro╥dJ), ?????????
???????? ?????????, ?????? ???????? ?а????????, ?????????? ?а???????? ????????╗.
??????????? ????? ????????? ??????????????? ????????? ???????? ????? ?????????
? ????????? ?а ?????? ???????? ?? ????2, ??? ??? ???????? ?? ?а ????? ??????? ??????. ????????? ????? ?????? ????? ???????????, ?????????? ????? ?????, ???????? ??, ?????????? (? ???????????) ???????? ???????? ????????? ????????????: ?????? ?????????????? ?? 1) ?????? ????,
2) ?????? ?????????, ?, ????? ????, 3) ?????? ??????????? ?????? ??????,а? ?????????? ????? ?????
??????????? ?а????????? ?????? ????????? ?????????, ??????? ????? ??????? ?????? л??????????????╗ ????, ?а?????? ???????, ????????? ?????????? ? ??????????. ??, ??? ????? ????? ?а?????
?????? ???????????, ?а ?????? ????????????? ???? ???????? ???? ???? ????????, ????????, ???
????? ????????. ?а???? ??, ????????? ?????? ? ?????????, ?????? ?????? ??? ??????? ??? ?????????? ?????????, ? ?.?. ?????????? ??????????? ??????????? ??????????. ???????, ?? ?????
???????????, ????? ?а???????? ??????????-?????????? ?????????? ???????? ????? ?????? ????,
???? ???? ?? ???????? ?а??? ????? ??????? ??????, ??? ??? ????????? ???? ???????????, ? л?????????╗ ? л?????????╗ (л???-????╗ ? л???╗) ? ???????????? ??????, ?????????? ???????????????
???? ??. ??????? ????????? ?? ???????? ?????????????? ???, ??????? ??? ??????????.
1
2
6
??????? ???????????. ?????? ???????, PG 29.556. 9-10.
??.: ??????????. ?????????? 1033b30.
??????? ? ?????????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
??? 141
?. ?. ??????
???????? ??????????? ????, ??????
?????-????????????? ??????????????? ???????????
???????????????? ???????????????
????????????? ??????? ????? ?а?????????? ?. ?. ????????
? ?????? ??????????? ??????????? ??????? ?????, ?????????????? ? ????? ?а???? ????? ?.?. ????????,
?а?????? ?а?????? ?? ?????? ??????? ?????. ?????????? ????? ??????? ????? ?а???????? ? ?????????,
????????? ??? ?????????? ?а?????????????? ? ??????????????? ????????.
???????? ?????: ?????, ??????????????, ?????, ???????, ????????, ??????????, ????????????, ?????????????.
M. L. Burova
Candidate of philosophy, assistant professor
Saint Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation
THE TRANSFORMATION OF THE CONCEPT OF NATION
IN THE WORKS OF N. A. BERDYAEV
The article examines the relationship of the concepts of nation, nationality and people in a number of works
by N. Ah. Berdyaev, in the period from the first to the second world war. The connection of the concept of the
nation with history and the person, change of its contents in ontological and axiological aspects is noted.
Keywords: nation, nationality, people, person, person, reality, historical, universal
????????? ? ???????? ???????-???????? ?а ??????????? ??????? ????? ???? ??????? ???
???????????? ?????????? ?????????, ??? ? ???????? ?????????, ????????????, ?????????????
? ??? ??????. ???????? ??????? ? ?????????? ???????? ????????? ?????????? ???????, ???????? ???
??????????????? ???????? ? ?????????. ? ?а?? ?? ????? ?а???????? ??????? ???? ??????????? ??????? ? ??????.
? ??????? ????? ??????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????, ?а???????? ?????? л?????? ??????╗, ?????????? ?а???? ?????? ??????? ?????. ?а????? ??????? ??? ????????? ??? ????? ?? ?????????; ????? ?????? ??????? ????????? ??????? ????????? ???????? ????????????? ??????????????
? ????????? ?????? ??????? ?????????????, ?????? ?? ??? ? ????????? ?? ???????? [2, ?. 133, 136].
??????? ?а??????? ??????? ?????, ??????????????? ? ?????????????, ??????? ?? ??????? ????????????? ?????????? ????????? ??????? ??? ?а????????????? ? ?????????? ?????????????? ? ????????????? [6, ?. 27], ?а????????? ?а?????????????? ???????? ????????, ??????? ???????????? ????????.
?? ??????? ????? ? ???????? ????????????? ??????? ??????????? ?? ?????? ???????, ???????? ?а ??????? ????????????? ?????????????????? ??? ??????????? ?????????, ?? ????????????
?????????? ??????? ????? ? ??????????????. ???????? ??????????, ???? ?????? ?а????? ???????
????????????? ?????????? ????, ??? ???? ????????????, ????????? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????????? ? ???????? ?? ????? ?а???? [3, ?. 44]. ????? ????????? ????? ? ?????????????? ???????? ????? ?а ????????, ?? ??????? ????? ???????? ?? ???????? ?а ?????????????? ? ???????????????
????????.
??????? ??? ???????? ?????? ????? ???? ???????????? ?????????, ??????? ??????? ???????? ??
?????????? ????, ??????????? ?? ???????? ??????? ??????, ??????? ??????? ???????? [4, ?. 46]. ??????? ???? ?????, ???? ?????? ??????????, ??? ???????? ??????? ???????? ??????????????? ?????????
? ?????????????. ?а ????? ??????????? ? ????????? ??????????? ??????????????, ??????????? ????? ?????????-????????????, ? ?? ??????????-??????????????? ?????????, ?????????????? ?? ?????
???? ????????????????? ???????????? ??? ???????????? ??????????????? ? ???????????????? ????????. ? ????? ??????????? ???????? ???????? ?а????????? ???????????, ????????? ???????? ? ??????????. л?????????????? ???? ????????????? ????????????????, ???? ?? ????????????? ???????? ?????,
?????? ???????, ?????? ????, ??? ???????????????? ???????? ??? ???????????????? ????????????, ???
?????? ???????? ????????╗ [4, ?. 94].
7
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
????? ???????????? ????? ??? ?????????????? ????????????? ???????, ??????? ??????????? ?а???????????, ?????????? ?????. ?????????????? ???? ????????????? ?????????? ?????, ???
????? ???? ????????, ?? ??????? ????? ????????. ??? ?а ????? ??????? ????? ??? ???????? ?????
????????????? ????????. ?? ????? ?????????? ????????, ??? ?? ??????????????? ????? л?????? ?????????????? ?????? ? ?????? ?????? ????╗ ??? ????? ?????????? [4, ?. 97, 94].
?????????????? ????????? ?? ?????? ?????????????, ?? ? ???????????. ??? ??????? ???????????? ???????????, ??? л??????????? ?а?????????? ???????? ???????? ??? ? ??????, ?????? ????????????????? ??????, ?а???????? ??? ????????? ???? ??????, ? ???????-??????????? ????????, ??????????? ?? ???????????? ???????? ???╗ [4, ?. 98]. ?? ??? ???????? ???????? ?????????????? ???????????? ??????? ???????????? ? ??????????????? ????????????. ??? ?????? ?????????????? ?????,
?????????????? ? ???????????, ????????, ?????????????. ????? ???? ?а??????????????, ???????????
?а?? ?????????? ????????? ????????, ????? ?? ????? ????? ?? ????? [4, ?. 98].
????????? ?????, ??? ????????? ?а????????????????, ??????? ???? ??????? ? ?а????????? ????????? ?а??? ?????????????? ????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????? (??? ?? ?????????????? ???????)
????????? ????? ??????????, ?а???????? ?? ??? ??????, ??? ? ?а??? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ?
??????????. ??? ?????, ?? ?????? ??????? ????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????? ??????????????,
?? ??? ????? ??????????????, ???????? ?????????????.
??? ?? ???????????? ????? ?????? ?????? ?????, ?????????? ???????, ????? ???? ????????????
??????????, ? ?? ?????????? ???????????? ??????? [4, ?. 97], ?? ???? ???????????? ?? ??? ??????????
?????????? ? ??????? ?? ????? ?????????? ?????????. ???????? ????? ???? ????? ??????, л??? ??????? ?????? ???????? ?а???????????? ??????? ?????╗, ??????? ??? ???????????? ????? ????? ???????
????????, ??? ??????????????. ??????????? ????? ???? ???????????? ?????, ???????? ??????? [4,
?. 45], ? ??????, ????? ????? ?????? ?? ????????, ??? ??????????????. ???????? ????? ????????, ? ??
???????????, ??? ????????? ?????? ???????? ????? ? ?????????????? ?а?? ???????????????.
??????????? ???? ????? ?а????????????? ?? ?а??????????????? ?????????? ????? ?????????
1917 ?. ?а?????? л????????? ???????????╗. ?? ?????? ???????? ???????? ?????????????? ???????????? ?????????????? ??? ?????????? ?????????? ? ??????? ?????. ?а???????? ??????? ???????????
???????????????, ??? ?? ????? ???? ???????? ?а?????? ?? ??????, ?? ?а????? ?????????? ??????,
????????? ??????????? ??????????? ???? ?????? ???????. ???????????? ???????????????? ???? ???????????????? ??????????????, ???????????? ?????? ???? ???????????? ?????, ?????????? ???????
[5, ?. 76].
?? ? ?а????? ???? ???? ??????? ? ?????? ?????????????, ????????????? ?????????? ?? ???????.
????? ????? ????????? ????, ?????????? ? ???????, ?????????. ?а??????? ??????????? ??????????????
???????? ????? ?????? ??????. ??????? ????????????, ??? ????? ???? ????????? ???????????? ?? ????????????, ?????????-????????????, ? ?? ??????????-??????????????? [5, ?. 76]. ??? ???????? ?? ?????
????? ?????? ??????? ???????????? ????????????????.
?????? ????????????? ???? ?????????????, ??????????? ??????????? ?????. ????????????
???????????? ?????????, ????? ??? ????, ????, ??????????, ???????, ??????????????? ???????????
?????????? ?? ?????? ??????????????????, ?? ?? ??????????? ? ?? ?????????? ????? ????? ?? ?????????????? ??????. ???????? ????? ??, ????? ???????, ??? ?????????? ????? ??? ???????? ???????????? ??????. ???????? ????? ???????? ? ???? ???????????? ????????. ?? ???????? ????????????
?????? ???? ?????????????? ?????, ?????? ???????????? ???????? ??????????? ?а????? ?????? ? ???????????? ???????????? ?????????? [5, ?. 77]. ??? ?????, ???????????? ???????? ???????? ?а???????????, ?? ?????? ????????????-????????????, ??????? ? ?? ????? ???? ???????? ?а??????????
??????. ????????? ????? ??????? ?а??? ??????????? ??????? ????????, ??????? ??????? ?????? ???????????? ?????? ????????????, ???????, ??? ????? ???? ??????? ?????, ? ?????? ????????? ?????
?????????? ?а???????? [2, ?. 103].
?? ?а??? ?? ???????? ???????????? ????? ? ???????????????
??? ???????? ?????????????? ????? ????? ???????? ? ????????, ?????? ? ????????. ??? ??????? ?а????????????? ??????, ?????, ??????? ???????????? ???? ??????????????, ?? ????? ???????
???? ??????? ? ?????. л????, ??? ?????? ???????????, ????????? ???????????????? ?а??????????????,
??? ?а?????? ????????????╗ [5, ?. 78]. ?а??????? ?????? ??????? ?а??????, ???????????. ????????????
?????????????? ???? ?????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????. ?????????? ?????????????? ???? ?????????? ???????, ??????? ?а????? [5, ?. 79]. ?????????????, ???????????? ?????????????? ???? ???????
?? ?????????????, ??????????? ?? ???????, ????????? ? ???????.
8
??????? ? ?????????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
???????????? ?а????? ??????? ????????????? ???????????. ??? ????????? ????? ?? ???? ??????? ????????????? ????????, ???????????? ??????? ???? ??? ????? ??????? ????????????? ???????.
????? ???? ??????????? ????????, ??????????? ????????, ??????, ?????? ???????????. ????? ?? ????? ???? ??????? ?а???????? ?????????, ??? ????? ???? ?????????, ??? ?? ???? ?????????, ?? ????
????? ???????????, ????? ????? ??????? ????????????? ????????, ??? ????? ? ????????? ??? ???????
?????????, ?? ?????, ??? ????????? ???????????. ????? ?????? ?????? ?а?????? ??? ?????????????
?????????? ???? ??????? ?????, ??? ?????? ?а?????? ????????????? ??????? ??? ?????. ???????????? ????? ????????? ?а?????? ??? ????????, ??? ?? ????? ????????? ??????????? ???????, ?????????
? ???????. ????? ????? ???????????? ?????????????? ????, ?а???????????? ????? ? ????????????
???????? ? ??? ??????????? ??????, ??????????? ??????? ? ??????????????. ????? ????? ???? ??????????? ????? ?а???????? ? ????????? ?? ??????? [5, ?. 79]. л? ???? ????? ??????? ?? ?????? ?????, ?? ?
???????, ??????? ??????? ??????? ? ?????????? ??? ???????. ?а????? ?????? ?? ?????? ????????????
?????????, ?? ????? ????? ???????, ??????? ? ??????, ????????? ?????, ?????? ???????? ? ?????╗ [5,
?. 84]. ????? ??????????, ??? ????? ??????????? ????????? ???????, ???????? ? ????????.
????? ?а?????? л????? ???????╗ ???????? ????????????? ????? ??????????????? ?????????
??? ?????? ?????????? ?а????????? ?????, ?а???????? ???????????. ???????????? ??? ?????? ??????
??????????? ?? ???????????? (???????????????, ??????????????) ??? ???????? ???????. ?? ? ???????????? ?????????? ????????? ?а???????????????, ?а??????????????, ????????? ???????????. ???
???????? ????????????? ????????? ????????? ?????. ???, ??????? л???????????? ?????╗ ? ?????, ??
?????? ?а??? ?????????? ???????????? ????? ???? ??????? ?????????? ??????????????. ? ????? ???????????????, ??? ??????? ???????, ?? ???????????? ?? ???????, ?? ?а????? ????????????? ? ?????????.
???????? ?????, ??? ???????? ?????????????????, ?? ???????? ???????????, ??? л?????╗ ????? ????
???????? ?????????????????. ???????????? ?? ?????? ????????????, ?? ? ???????????, ?а??? ?а????????? ?????? ???????????? ???????? ?????, ???????????? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ???? ?
????????. ?????????????? ????????????? ???? ????????? ?а?????-?? ??????????? ??????????? ?????,
?а??????? ??? ??? ????????? ? ??????? ?????? ????????. л????????????╗ ???? ????????? ?????????? ?
??????????? ???????? ??????? ????????????????; ? ??????? ??????, ? ???????????? ?????? ??? ??????????? ????? ?????? ???????, ? ???????????? ???????????????? (3).
??? ????? ???????, ???????????? ????? ????? ??? ???????????? ????????? ?? ?????????
? ??????????? ???????, ????? ????????? ???? ????????????? ??????, ?????? ??????? ?????????,
????? ?? ????????????? ?? ?????????????? ?????? ????????, ??????????? ?????. ?? ??????????
? ?????????????? ???????? ????? ???????????? ???????????????? ?? ???????????? ?????, ???????? ?а ?????? ????????? ?? ?а ????????????. ??? ????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????????
?? ??????????????? ? ???????? ???? ????????. ??????????? ????? ????? ??????? ? ?????????????
????????? ??????, ?? ??? ??? ?????????? ????? ?????????? ????? ???????????? ??????, ????. ??
??????????? ?? ??????? ????? ?? ????? ???????????? ?а?????? ?????????? ????????????? ???????????.
??? ???????????? ???????, ????? ????????????? ???????? ???? ??????????? ????? ?????, ? ?????
????? ????????? ??????? ??? ????????? ???????????? ???????????. ??????? ?????, ?????????? ????
?????? ?а????, ????????? ?????????? ?????????????????? ???????????, ??????? ??????? ?? ???????
????????????? ?????, ????? ??????????? ???? ???????????? ?????????, ???????? ??????? ????. ????? ?????????????? ????? ? ??????????? ???? ??????? ?????? ?????????? ???????, ????? ??????????
?а ???????????????? ?????????? ?? ??????????? ?а ??????????????? [5, ?. 85?86]. ?? ?а ??????? ??
????????? ?????? ???????????, ??????? ???? ???????? ??????????, ???????????? ???????? ?????????,
????? ? ???????, ?а??????? ????? ??????????? ???? ? ?????? ????? [5, ?. 89]. ?????? ????????? ????????? ????? ??????????? ?? ???? ?а???????, ??????????? ??????????? ??? ????????????, ???????????
??? ?????????? ??????.
?? ????? ?????? ??? ????????? ????? ???????? ?? ??????????????? ?а?????????????, ??????????? ????????? ?а?????????? ??????????? ? ????????????.
? ?????????????, ?????????? ??????????? ???????????? ?????? ??? ??????? ????? ????????,
??? ???????. ?а??? ????? ?? ?????????? ? ?? ????????????, ??? ????????? ?????????? ???? ? ?????????, ??? ????? ?а ??? ???????????? ? ????????? ??????? ????????, ??? ???????????????? ?????
? ????????????, ????????? ??? ?? ???????????? ???????? ????????????? ? ??????????????? ????
????? ????????? ??????????? ????????. ??????????? ???????? ???????????? ??????? ????????? ?а??????????????????. ????? ????? ??????????, ????? ??? ?а ???????????? ? ????? ????????????, ?? ?
???????????? ??? ?а?????? ? ????? ?????. ???????????? ??????????? ??????????? ????????, ??? ????
9
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
?????????? ?? ???? ???????? ??????????? ??????????????? ?????, ??????? ??? ???????? ????????????
?а????????????, ?????, ?????????????? [5, ?. 80, 81]. ?????, ?а?????? л? ??????? ? ??????? ????????╗
????????? ?? ??????????, ?????????????, ?????????? ??? ?? ??????? ?а???????? ???????????? ?????????, ? ?????????? ????? ????????? ???????? ??? ????????????? ????????.
????? ??????? ?? ??????? ??????? ???????????? ?а????? ? ?????????????????? ???????? ?
???? ?????? ??????????????, ? ????????????? ????????? ??????? ???????? ??? ?????????, ?????????????? ??????????? ????? ?????????? ?а????? ????? (???????????, ?????, ????, ??????) [2, ?. 238].
??????????? ?? ??????????? ??????? ?????????????? ?? ??? ????????????????? ? ?????????????
?? ???????????, ?? ??????? ? ?????????? ???????? ??????? ??????????? ?а????? ?????????????????? ????? ????? ? ????????? ?а???????. ???????? ????????? ????????? ????????-?????????? ?а?????
30-? ??. ?????????????? ???????? ????, ??????? ??????? [2, ?. 260, 261]. ???? ??????? ??????, ??? ??
?????? ??? ?????????????, ???? ??????????? ??? ?????????, ?????????-????????????????, ????????? ?а??????? ?????? ????????????, ???????????????? ????????????.
??????????? ???????????? ??????? ?а ??????? ?????????? ??????? ??????????? ???????
? ?? ??????????, ??????????? ? ????????????. ??? ??????? ?? ????? ?ал????????????╗, ?а??? ????????? ?????????? ?? ???????????? ????? ? ?????????????. ???????? ???????? ???????? ??? ???????????? ? ?????????????????? [2, ?. 104]. ????? ?? ??????????? ?????? ????????????? ??????????
????? ???????, ??? ?????????? ? ????, ????????? ???????? ?????????, ??????? ?? ??????? ????? ????????, ??????? ???? ????? ???????????? ??????????, ?а??? ????? ?????. ???????? ?????????? ??? ??
??? ????????, ? ??? ???????????????? ?????.
??????? ??? ?????? ????????? ???? ???????? ? ????????????? ? ????????????, ????????????? ????? ???????? ??????????? ??????????, ????????? ????? ???????, ????? ?? ??????? ????????
????????? ?а?????. ?а?????? л? ??????? ? ??????? ????????╗ ????? ????????? ?? ?????????? ???????????, ? ????? ????????, ?????, ???????? ??????????? ?? ???????? ????????????, ??????????? ??????????????, ?а??? ????? ?????????, ??????? ??????? ???????? ?? ???????????? ????? ????????? ??????
??????. ??? ???????? ???????: л????? ????? ?????? ??? ???????? ??????????? ?? ???????????? ??????????, ?????????? ?????????? ? ????????????, ?? ??? ?????????? ??????? ? ???? ????????????
?а????╗ [1, ?. 99].
?? ????? ?а?????????? ???? ????? ????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ????????, ? ???? ????? ????????????? ??? ????????? ???????????????, ??????????? ???????, ??? ????? ???? ???????? ??? ????????? ?????????? ?????. ??? ???????????? ????????? ??????????? ?????????, ?? ??????? ????????? ?????? ???????????, ????????? ?а??? ??? л??????╗, л????????????╗ ??????? ?? ??????????
????, ?????????? ????????, ????????? ?а????????????? ??????, ????? ???????? ?????, ????????? ??
?????, ???????, ????????? ???????? ? ??????????. л??????????????╗ ???????????? ?а?????, ???????
???????????? ????????????????, ??? ? ??? ?????. ?????? ???????? ?????????? ????????.
?? ????? ?? ????? ???? ?????? ???????????, ??? ???? ??????????, ??????????? ?а???????, ??
???????. ??????? ???????????? ????? ????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????, ????????? ???????????? ????? ??????, ????? ?а??????????????? ???????????, ??????? ?? ????? ??????????? ?????????
???????. ????? ????? ? ?а????????, ? ?а????????????, ?а???????? ? ??????????. ? ??? ?????????? ????
????? ????????, ???????? ?а??????????? ??????? ?????????? ??????? ????? ? ?????, ????????? ????????? ????? ? ??????, ??? ???? ????? ? ?????????????? ??? ?? ???????????. ?? ???????? ???? ?????
?????, ? л?????????????? ???? ????? ???????? ? ????????? ?а??? ??? ???? ?? ?? ???????????? ??????????. ???????????? ?????? ?а??????????? ????????. ??? ???? ???? ??????? ?????????? ??? ??????, ???
????????? ????????? ?а????????, ? ?? ???????? ?а??????????╗. ????????? ????? ???? ????? [1, ?. 99].
? ?????? ???????????? ????????? ??????? ????????????? ???? ??????? ??? ?????????????
?, ?? ??????? ??????????????, ????????? ??? ????????????? ?? ??? ??????????????, ? ?а???. ???????
??????? ????????? ???????? ????????????????, ???????? ?????????? ??????? ???????? [2, ?. 280]. ?????? ?????????????? ?????????? ????? ? ??????.
????? ??? ?? ??????????, ?? ??????????? ????????, ?? ??????? ????????????? ????????,
? ????? ?? ???????????? ?????????, ??? ??? ???? ?а ?????? ???????. ?????? ????? ???????????????
??? ????? ????????? ? ?????????, ?????????????? ??????????, ??? ?????. ????? ??? ??????? ???????
??????? ???? ????????? ??????????????. ????? ???? ?????????? ??????????, ???????????, ??????????
?????????, ?????????????? ? ??????? ??????????, ?? ????? ?а????????. ????? ???? ??????????????
??? ?????? ???????, ???????? ????, ??????????, ????????? ???????????? ? ?????????? ????????????
???????. ??????? ????? ?????? ??? ????? ??????? ?а????????????, ??????? ????? ??????, ? ????? ???10
??????? ? ?????????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
???? ?????? ? ?????, ???????? ???????? ???? ?а???????, ?. ?. ?????? ?а?????????. ???????? ?? ?а???, ???
????? ?а???????? ????? ???? ???????? ????????????? ???????. ?? ? ????? ????? ????? ??????, ????????? ?? ??? ????????? ??????, ????????????, ?????? ?а?????, ? ?? ?а????? ? ????????, ? ????????????
?а?????? ???????????? ???????? [1, ?. 101].
?????? ?? ???????????? ? ???????? ????? ???????????, ????????????? ?а ????? ? ??? ??
??????? ??????? ????????? ??? ???, ??? ?????? ????????????? ? ????????? ???????? ????????????
???????????????, ????? ??????? ??????, ??????? ????? ?а??????????????? ????????????? ?????????????. ??????? ?? ????? ???? ???????? ?а?????? ????, ?? ? ?? ????? ????? ??????????? ???? ????????????? ?а????????????, ??????? ?? ????? ???????????? ?а???????? ? ??????????? ?????, ??? ?????,
??????????????, ???????????? ????????. ????? ???????????? ????? ??????? ???????? ?? ?????? ??????????? ?а?????????, ?? ????????? ????? ?????????, ????? ???????? ?а???????, ?а??? ????? ??????????????? ? ??????????????.
?????? ?а ???????? ?????????? ? ???????????? ? ?????. ???????????? ?? ????? ????????????? ??? ????????, ??? ?а???????? ???? ?????????? ??????????, ?а??????? ??????? ???????????? ??????
????????. ?? ??????????? ?????????? ????? ???? ???????????????, ?? ????? ??? ???? ?? ??????????
????????????. ??????? ???????????? ???????????????? ????? ????????. ??????? ???????????? ??????????? ?????????, ?????????????, ????????, ??????? ???????????? ????? ?????????????? ???????
? ???????????, ???? ??? ???? ??????? ????????. ???????????? ????????????? ?а???????? ??????????
??? ?а??????? ??? ????????? ??????????, ?а??????? ??????? ????? ???? ??????????, ????????? ??? ????????? ??? ??????????? ???? ???????????, ???????????, ??????? ??????? ??????. ??????? ?????
?????, ??????? ????????? ???? ???????? ?? ??????, ?? ??? ??????? ?? ?? ?????????? ???? ??? ????
??????? [1, ?. 102].
??????? ? ???????? ?? ????????????. ??????? ????? ???? ?? ????????? ?а???????? ???????????, ? ?????????, ????? ?а??? ?? ???????????? ??????? ????????????? ??????????, ? ???????????
??????? ???? ?????????????? ???? ??? ???????? ?????????????. ??? ???????? ???????, ????? ?????
????????? ??????? л????????????╗, ??? ??? ????????, ??? ? ??? ???????? ????, ?? ??????????? ??????? ???????????? ??????????. ?? ???????????? ?????? ?????????, ????????? ???, ??? ? ????????, ???
??? ??????? ????????????????, ?????? ?а?????????-?????????????. ???????????? ?? ?????? ????????? ?????? ? ?????????????, ? ?????? ???? ??????????? ??, ??? ???? л????????╗ ????????????????
л?????????????╗ [1, ?. 102, 103].
??????? ??????? ???????? ???????????? ?? ?????? ??? ?????? ????????, ? ??? ?????????????
??????? ????????????, л? ???? ??????? ?????????????? ?????????????????, ???????????? ??????????????, ???????????? ???????? ???????????? ?а?????????????? ??????????╗ [1, ?. 103]. ??????? ????????????? ??????????? ??? ? ??? ????? ???????????????? ???????????? ???????? ??????, ???????????????? ?? ????? ????, ??????????? ??? ????????????????? ????, ????????????? ?? ???????????.
??? ?????????????? ???????????? ?????? ??? ??????? ??? ????????, ?????????? ????????????? ?
????????????. ??? ?????????? ? ???????????? ???????? ???????? ???????? ?????????, ??????????,
??????????? ?а??????? ??? ????????? ???????????????. ?????? ???????? ?а??? ???????????? ???????? ?а?????? ????? ?а???, ???????????, ???????, ?? ?????????? ??????????. ?????? ???????? ????
?????? ??????????? ????????, ????????????? ? ?????????????, ????????, ? ?? ?????????? [1, ?. 103].
????????? ???????????? ? ????????, ??????? ?? ?????? ???????? ??????? ????? ? ??????????????, ?? ?а?????????? ?????? ?? ??????????????, ? ?????? ????? ?а??? ????????????? ???????? ???
?? ?????. ?? ???????????? ?????? ??????????? ???????????? ???????? ?а????????? ??????? ???????, ?? ????? ?? ???????????? ?? ???????? ???????????? ??? ??????????????? ?а?????????? ?????
?????? ??????? ????? ?????? л??????? ???? ? ??????? ??????╗ ??????? ?????????? ??????? ?? ?????????????? ???????, ??? ???????? ???????? ??????????, ?? ?????????? ??????????.
??? ????? ?????: л?????? ???????????? ?? ???? ????????, ?? ???? ???????? ??????? ????????????? ???????; ??? ?? ????? ????????????????? ??????, ?? ???????? ?а????? ??????????? ??????????
?а????????? ? ???????╗ [7, ?. 344].
?? ?????? ???????????? ?????? ??????? ??????????? ?????, ??? ???? ????????? ??????? ?????????? ?а????? ????????, ??? ??????? ????????, ????????????? ????????????. ?? ????, ??? ???????????? ???????????? ?а??????????????, ??????? ? ?? ????????. ???????? ?? ???????????????? ?????????
?а????????????? ? ????????????????, ??????? ????????????? ?????????????? ??? ????? ?????????????, ??? ??????? ???????????????? ?а????????? ?а???????????? ? ??????????? ?а????????? ?а????????. ??????????????, ??? ??????? ???????????????? ?а????? ????????, ???? ??????? ????????????
11
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
???????????; ???????????? ??????, ??????, ??????, ????? ???????????? ???????. ?а????????? ?а???????? ?????????????? ???? ??? ?????????????? ????????, ?????????????? ?а????????? ????????????
? ?????????????? ?а????????? ????????. ??? ????? ????????????? ??????????? ??????? ?????? ?
?????? ????????
?????? ????? ??????????????? ??????????????, ??????????? ? ????????????????, ????
????????????? ????????????, ???? ???????? ???????????? ???????????????? ?? ??? ??????? ???????????? ????????. ????????? ????????? ?а ???????????? ????? ????? ?????? ????????????, ????????????? ?? ??????????? ????????? ????????, ???????? ??????????????. ?????? ?а ????????,
? ?? ?а??????????? ??????????, ?????????????? ???????? ??????????????. ??? ???????? ?????, ?????????? ? ?????? ??????-???? ?????? ??????? ????? ????????????? ? ???????????, ??? ?????? ? ???????,
????????? ?а????????????????? ????????. ? ????????, ? ?????????????? ???????? ??????????????
??????????, ???????????? ????? ???????????? [7, ?. 345]. ?????????? ?????????????? ?а ?????????????????? ????? ?а??????????, ??????, ????????? ???????? ?????. ??????? ??????????? ????????
??????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?а ???????? ???????????, ?а ???????? ????????????. ? ????
?????????? ????????? ???????, ?????????? ???? ???????????? ???????????? ???????????, ?? ?????
?????????? ?? ????? л?????╗ ??????, ??????? ??? ?????? л?????╗ [7, ?. 346]. ????? ?? ?????? ?????????
?а???????????????, ?? ?????????? ???????.
????? ???????, ??????? ?????, ??????????? ?а?????????? ???????? ?а?????? ??????? ?????,
?????? ???? ???????? ????? ?????? ??????? ?????, ??? ???? ????????? ??????? ???? ??????????.
?? ?????????, ????????? ?????????????? ??????????, ????????? ?а????????, ???????????? ????? ???????????? ?а??????????? ?????, ?????????? ??????????. ????? ?????? ???? ??????????????, ????????????????, ????? ?а?????, ??????? ???????????? ?? ?????????-???????????? ?????????? ? ???????????????, ??????????? ???? ? ??????, ????????? ???? ????????? ???????. ??? ?????????? ????????
?а??????? ??????, ??????? ???????????. ???????? ????? ?????????? ?????????????????, ?? ??????????
????? ???????????? ?а??????????????. ???????? ???????? ?????, ?????????????? ? ?????? ?????????,
??????? ????? ??????????? ????????.
????????????????? ??????
1. ??????? ?.?. ? ??????? ? ??????? ????????. ??????? ???? ? ??????? ??????. ?.: ??????????, 1995.
383 ?.
2. ??????? ?.?. ????????????. ???? ??????????? ?????????????. ?. ????????, 1991. 398 ?.
3. ????? ???????. URL: http://bookscafe.net/read/berdyaev_nikolay-smysl_istorii-190983.html#p28
(???? ?????????: 26.08.2018).
4. ??????? ?.?. ?????? ??????. ?.: ???-?? ???, 1990. 256 ?.
5. ??????? ?.?. ????????? ???????????. ?????? ?а???????? ?? ?????????? ?????????/ ??????? ?????????: ?? ??????? ?????????? ? ???????? ?????. ?.: ????????, 1991. 440 ?.
6. ??????? ?.?. ??????????? ?????? ? ??????????????? ?????? / ????. ?? ???????. ?.: ??????,1991.
608 ?.
7. ??????? ?.?. ??????? ???? ? ??????? ??????. ?.: ??????????, 1995. 383 ?.
12
??????? ? ?????????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
??? 94(47).084.1
?. ?. ?????
????????-??????????
?????-????????????? ??????????????? ???????????
???????????????? ???????????????
?. ?. ?????????
???????
?????-????????????? ??????????????? ???????????
?????? ??????????? ?????? ? ??????? ????????????
???????? ????????????? ??????? ?а???????????? 1918 ?.
?????? ????????? ???????? ???????????? ?????????? ????? ???????? ??????? ????????? ??????
?????? ??????? ????? ?а?????? 1918 ?., ??????????? ?????????? ????????????? ??????? ? ???????????? ???????????????? ??????????.
???????? ?????: ?????????? ????? ?????? ??????? ?????; ??????? (???????????????) ???????????? ??????; ???????????? ???????????; ??????? ?.?. ????????????; ????????? ?.?. ????????.
K.A. Gomon
Aspirant
Saint Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation
Y.S. Abdullaev
Student
Saint Petersburg State University
THE COLLAPSE OF THE CAUCASIAN FRONT AND THE ATTEMPT OF FORMATION
OF THE RUSSIAN CAUCASIAN CORPS IN JANUARY ? MARCH 1918
The article is devoted to attempts of the command of the Caucasian army to prevent the collapse on the Turkish
Front of the World War I in early 1918, which began because of revolutionary anarchy and disorder of public
administration in Russia.
Keywords: Caucasus frontline of the World War I; Russian (volunteer) Transcaucasian corps; the Transcaucasian Commissariat; General A. M. Przewalski; Colonel D.P. Dratsenko.
???????? ????????? ?????????????? ???????? ?????????? л??????? ?? ?????╗, ??????????
??????? ????? ?????? ???????? ? ???????? ?????????, ????? ????????? ??????? ????????? ?? ???????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ? ?а??????? ??????. ?????????? ???????? ???? ? ??, ??? ?????? ?????????? ?????? ??? ????? ?а ???? ?????, ? ????????, ?????? ?? ????? ???????? ????????, ?????????
?????????? ????????????? ????????. ?а?????????? ??????? ???????, ?? ????????????? ?????????
??????? ?. ??????, ?а????? 1917 ?. ?????? ?????????? л????????? ? ?????? ????????, ? ?????????
???????? ????? ?????????? ???????, ?????????, ??????? ???????, ?? ???????????? ???????? ??????????, ??????????? ????? ??????? ???? ?????????? ?????????? ?? ? ????? ?????? ?????? ???? ?
???????. ??????? ??????????? ????????? ????????? ??? ?????????? ????? ????????, ???, ????????,
????? ?? ??? ?а?????????? ? ?????????????, ??? ????? ??? ??? ????????? ?? ?????? ??? ????????
? ????? ???????????? ?????????╗ [1, c. 195?196]. ????????? ???????????, ???????????? ????????????? ?????????? ????? ?а???? 1917 ?. ?а??????????? ?????? [2, c. 367], ??? ????? ??????????????
????????????? ??????.
????????? ????? ?????????? ????? ??????? ?????????? ????? ?а???????? 1917 ?.: л????? ????????????? ??????????? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ???????, ????????? ??????????? ???? ????????
??? ???????????? ????????; ????? ?????????? ???????? ? ????????? ???????????? ???????????? ????????. ????????? ?????? ???????????? ??????? ??????? ??????... ??????? ??????????? ??? ?????? ?????????, ??? ? ?????? ???????? ???? ????????╗ [3, c. 186]. л??? ?а??????? ??????,а? ????? ?.?. ??????,а?
??????????? ????? ????? ?а??????????? ??????? ???????? ????? ???????????? ????? ?а???????????
13
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
????????????? ?????????? ?????, ?а??????? ?а????? ???????????? ?а???? ?? ?????? ?а??????????? ??????. ?а?????? ?????? ?????? ??? ?????? ???????????, ? ???????????? ?????? ??????? ?.?. ????????????, ????? ?????????? ? ????????? ??? ?? ??? ?????? ????????╗ [4, c. 112]. ?????? ?????????? ??????-???????????? ????????? ?????? ?а????, ??? ?а??????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ????????? ???????
?????? ??????????????? ?????????? ????? ??????????????? ?????. ????????? ??????????????? ??????? ?????? ????????? ?? ??? ??????? ??????? ?????, ?а??? ????? ?а?????????? [5, p. 20]. ?????? л???????? ? 3 ??????-?????????????? ???????? ?????????? ????? ????????????, ??? ????? ??????????????
????? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ?? ?????? ????????? ?????????, ??? ???? ????????????? ???????
??????, ??????????? ???????? ????????????? ?????? ?????????? ? ??? ???????? ??????╗ [6, c. 145].
???????????? ?????? ?????????? ????? ??????? ????? ??????, ?????????????? ?????????.
???????? ????? ??????? ??????? л? ????╗ ? л? ?????╗ ?????????????? ??????????? ???? ?а?????? ??????-????????, ???????????? ??????????? ???????????, ???? ?????? ????? ?а ???? ?? ??????.
????? ???????????? ????? ??????????????, ???????? ?? ??, ??? ????? ????????????, ? ????? ?? ?????
?? ????. ????????? ?? ?????????? ?????? ???????????? ??? ??????, ??? ??????? ???????????? ???????????????? ?????????? ?????????? ????????????? ?? ???????? ?????? ??????????? ? ???????
?а?????? 1917 ?. ??????????? ????? ?????? ? ???????????? ???????????, ?????????? ? ?????????? ??
???? ??????????, ?а??? ????? ? ?а??????? ???????. ?? ????????? 4 ??????? ??????????? ??????????,
л???????? ?? ???????? ?????????? ?а?????? ???????, ????????????, ????? ??????????? ?????????????
? ???? ?а ????, ??? ?????? ?????????? ?????????????????? ??? ????????? ??????????? ??????╗
????? ????????? ??????????? ????????? ????????????, ?????????? ?????????? ??????? ???????? ?
л?????????? ????????? ? ???????? ??????? ??????????? ?а??????? ???????? ??????? ? ????????????? ??????????? ??????╗ [6, c. 144].
???????????? ??????? ????????????? ???????????? ?????????????? ??? ???????, ?????????
???????????? ????????? ??????, ????????? ???????? ??????? ?????????? ?? ?????, ??? ?а????????
???????????. ?????????? ???????? ?????????? ?а??????? ??????? ????? ????? ???? ??????, ?????????????? ?????? ??????????????? ???????, ????????? ??????? ?а?????? ????????? ?? ??????????
?????? [7, c. 81]. ?????????? ?? ???????????? ?????????????? ??????? ????????? ?????????????
???? ???? ?а????? ??????? 1917 ?., ???? ?? ?????????? ?а???? ?а??? ????????????? ?????? ??? ??????????? ????????? ?????? ???? ? ???????????? ?????????? ?? ??????????????? ????? ?а??????? ?????. ??????, ???????? ?? ??????????? 5 ?????? 1917 ?. ???????????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????,
???? ???????? ????????????? ??????????, ?, ????? ????, ?????????? ?а ???????? ?? ????? ??????????
??????? ??????? ??????????, ? ????? ??????? ????????, ??????? ????????? ??????? ?????? ???????? ?а???????????? ??????????? ??????????? ???. ??????, ??? ????? ?.?. ?????? ? ????????????
??????????, л????????? ?????? ?????? ?????????????? ???? ?????? ?? ??? ?????????? ???????????
??????????????, ?? ??????? ?????????????? ???????, ???????????? ??? ?а??? ??????????????? ???????????, ?? ????????? ????????? ?? ??? ?????? ????? [8, c. 200].
? ???? ???????? ????? ???????????? ?????????? ????? ?? ???????? ?????? ????????????, ??????? ????? ??????????? ?? ?????? ?????????????? ???????? ? ????????????? ?а?????? ?????? ???????? ??????.
4 ?????? 1918 ?. ???????? ?????????????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????? ????????
?.?. ????????????? ? 966 ???? ????????? ? ?????? ???????????? ???????? (?????????????) ???????????????? ??????? [9, ?. 1?4], ???????? ???????? ???? ????????? л?????? ?????? ?? ????????? ?????? ? ?????? ? ?????? ???????? ???????????? ?? ????????? ?????????, ????????? ? ?????????? ???????????? ????╗. ???? ??????? ?? ????????? л???????????? ??????? ?а?????????????? ???????????
??????????? ?? ?????????? ????????╗ [10, c. 63]. ?а??? ?????? ?????????????? ????????? ?????,
???? ?????????? ???????, ?????? ? ?????????????? ??????, ?????????? ? ??????????????? ??????.
???????? 7 ??????? ? ???????????? ????????? л??????? ?????? ???????? ?а??????? ??????╗:
л1. ???????? ?????? ?????????? ???? ???????????? ????? ??????? ?????????. ??????????:
???????, ????????? ?а??????-??????????? ?????? ? ?? ??????? ??? ???? ??????????, ?????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????????? ???? ??? ?? ??????? ????????? ???????????.
2. ???????, ?? ????????????? ?а????, ??????????? ?? ????????? ?? ?????????? ????????
??????????? ?а??????????? ??????????? ??????????.
3. ??? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ?а??????? ??????? ? ??????????????? ???????? ??????,
?? ?? ???????? ?а???? ??????, ??????????? ?а?????? ??????? ?а??????????? ??????????, ?????????????? ??????????? ?а??????? ??????
14
??????? ? ?????????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
4. ??????, ??????????? ?а ??????? ??????, ?? ?????? ???????????? ?? ????????? ?????????
? ?? ??????????? ?а ????????? ????? ?а ????? ??????, ?а ????????? ?????? ?????????? ???????????
?? ??????.
5. ????? ?????????? ??????????? ?? ?? ???????????.
6. ?? ????????????????? ????? ???? ??????????, ????????? ? ????????????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?? ??????.
7. ?а?????? ???????????? ?? ????????, ?? ???????? ???????? ???. ??????????: ?? ???? ??????????? ?????????? ??????? ????? ?????????? ??????? ??????????? ????????.
8. ??? ?????? ???? ???????, ?а??????????? ?а?????? ????????????, ?? ?????? ????????? ??????? ?????? ? ???? ??????????? ?? ???????? ??????????, ?? ????????? ?а?????? ???????, ?????? ?????
? ??., ??????? ? ??????? ???????????? ???????? ???????????? ???????? ???????? ???????.
9. ??????? ????? ?????????? ??????? ???????????? ?????? ?????????? ????? ???????????
??????????? ?????????? ? ?????? ???????? ??????????.
10. ?????? ?????? ???????, ??? ??????????? ????? ??????? ?????????? ?????? ?????, ?????
??? ????? ??????, ??? ?????? ??? ?????? ???????? ??? ?????????? ????? ????╗ [9, ?. 22?25].
??????????? ???????? ??? ???????? ????????? ??????????? ???????????? ????? ?.?. ????????. ??????????? ????? ? ????????? ???????????? ????? ?.?. ?????????. ???? ??????? ???????????? ?а??????? ?? ???? ??????? 1-?? ??????????? ?????????? ???????.
????? ???????????? ???????? ????????????? ??????? ??????????, ??? ???????????? ???????
?а???? ????????, ?а?????? ??????????? ???????? ??????? ?????. ?????? ???? ??????????????? ?????????? ??????? ? ?????? ???????, ?????????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ? ??????????? ?????????, ? ????? ???????????????????? ? ????????????????? ?????????, ??????????? ???????????????
????? ??????? [9, ?. 45?50]. ???????????? ????????? ???????????? ??????? ??????? ????? ? ???????? ???????, ???????????? ??????????????? ?????????????? ?????? ? ????????. ???????????
???????? ???? ?????????????? ?а??????? ? ?????????? ??????? ????? ?? ??????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ???????????? ????????, ??????, ?????? ?? ????????????? ????????????? ?? ??????? [9, ?. 157].
? ?????? ? ??????? 1918 ?. ??????? ???????????? ?????? ??????? ?????????????? ????????
????????, ??????, ????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????? ???? ?а?????? ?????, ????????? ?а????
???????????? ??????? ????? ??????????. ???? ?а??????? 1917 ?. ??????????? ????? ??????, ?а???????
???????? ?????????? ? ??????? л?????????????? ?? ??????????? (?????? ??? ? ?.?., ?.?.) ?????????
???????? ????? ? ????????? ???????????? ????????╗ [11, c. 143], ?? ?а????? ?????????????? ????????? ????? ???????? ??????? ???? ????? ??????????????, ? ?????????? ???????????? ????? ???????
?? ?????? ???????? ?а?????????? ?????? ??????? ???????.
?????? ?а??? ????????? ? ??????????????? ???????? ??? ??????? ?????, ?а??? ????? ???????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????? (л????????╗) ? ???????? ??????. л21 ??????? 1918 ???? ?????????? ?????? ?? ??????????? ????????? ??????? ? ??????????????? ?????????? ????? ???????.
? ????? ??? 1918 ???? ??? ?????????? ???? ?????????????╗ [12, c. 468]. ???????? ?? ????????? ?????
?. ???????? 18 ????? 1918 ?. ??? ???????? ?? ????? ???????????? ?????? ???? [13, c. 184]. ?а?????
1918 ?. ???? ?????????????? ????? ? ??????????? ??????? ???????? ??????. 24 ????? ? 1-? ???????????????, 30 ????? ? 1-? ? 3-? ?????????-???????????????. ?????????????? ? ??????????? ?????
???? ?????????????? ??? ?а????? ??????? [14, c. 184]. ??? ????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????
?.?. ????????, л?????????? ???????, ???????????? ?????????????? ???????????? ??????????? ?????? ????? ????????????? ???? ??????? ? ?????? ????????? ???????????? ????? ??????????
?а1917?1918 ??.╗ [15, c. 126] ?????? ?? ??????? ???????? ??????? ?????, ?????? ?? ????? ????????????
??????????? ??????? ??????????? ???????????? ?? ???????? ??????? ?????, ??? ????????? ?????????? ??????? ? ??????? ?а???????? ???????? ??????????? ?????.
????????????????? ??????
1. ????? ?. ???????????? ??????????? ?????????. 1914?1920. ???????: ??????? ??????????, 1925.
284 ?.
2. ???????? ?.?. ????????? ?????? ? ??????? ?????????????? ? ?????? ?а?????? ??????? ?????:
???. ??-?. ???. ????. ???., 2010. 636 ?.
3. ???????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?., ?????????? ?.?. ??????? ??????. ?. 2. ?????? ???????? XIX ?. ? 1921 ?. ???????: ?????????, 1973. 224 ?.
15
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
4. ?????? ?.?. ???????????? ? ????????? ?а?????????? // ????? ??????? ?????????. ?. 9. ??????:
?????, 1923. ?. 91?194.
5. ???????? ?.?. ????????????? л???????????? ???????????╗ ? ??????????? ?а ????????????
? 1917 ?. // Geostrategiya, 2017, no. 1 (37). P. 18?22.
6. ????????, ?.?. ?????? ???????? ??????????? ?????? ? ?????? ???????? ??????????? ?а??????????
?а????? 1917??????? 1918 ??. // ????. 2017. ? 2 (122). ?. 143?152.
7. ???????? ?.?. ?а??????? ? ???????? ? ?????? ????????? ????????? ??????????????? ???????????? ?? ???????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ????? // ????? ???????. 2010. ? 19?20. ?. 77?85.
8. ?????? ?.?. ?????? ?а???????????????-???????????? ??????? ??????: ???????????? ???? ??????????? // ?????? ? ???????? ????????????? ????????. 2013. ? 9. ?. 199?201.
9. ?????????? ??????????????? ??????-???????????? ????? (?????). ?. 2100. ??. 2. ?. 32.
10. ?????????? M., ??????, ?. ?? ?????? ??????????????? ??????????????? ??????????. ?., 2007.
256 ?.
11. ???????, ?.?. л????????????? ??????╗ ? ?????????? ?????????: ??????, ?????? ? ??????????
?а?????? ?а??????? 1917 ?. ?? ???? 1918 ?. // ????. 2016. ? 9 (117). ?. 140?146.
12. ???????, ?.?. ??????????? ?а??????: ?????? ? ???????????? ??????????? ?????? ???????? XIX?
?????? XX ??. ???????????: ??? ?????? ??? ??? ? ???-?, 2014. 557 ?.
13. ?????????? ? ???????? ?а??????? ????????????? ??????? ????? ?а?????? ??????? ????? 1914?
1918 ??. ??????? ?????????? ? ??????????. ???????: ???. ???. ????, 2014. 222 ?.
14. ?????? ?.?. ??????? ??????? ????? ?? ??????? ?????? ??????? ?????: ???. ? ????. ???. ????.
???????????, 2015. 208 ?.
15. ???????? ?.?. ?а??????? ? ???????????? ???????? ?а?????????? ?? ?????????????? ????? ??????
??????? ????? // ??????? ?????. ???????. 2006. ???. 4. ?. 125?137.
16
??????? ? ?????????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
??? 94(479.24)
?.?. ?????
????????-??????????
?????-????????????? ??????????????? ???????????
???????????????? ???????????????
?.?. ?????????
???????
?????-????????????? ??????????????? ???????????
???????? ?????????? л??????╗
??????????????? ??????????????? ?????????? ?а1918 ?.
(?? ?????????? ??????????????? ???????)
? ?????? ?? ??????? ?????????? ? ?????????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????? ???????????????
??????????????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????? ????????? ?а???????? ????????????? ????? ?????????? ????????? ??????? ?а?????? ??????? ?????.
???????? ?????: ??????????????? ??????????????? ??????????; ????????? ??????? ?а?????? ??????? ?????; ?. ??????????; ??????-????; ?. ?????-????; ?.?. ?????????.
K.A. Gomon
Aspirant
Saint Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation
Y.S. Abdullaev
Student
Saint Petersburg State University
TURKISH FINANCIAL ?HELP?
OF THE AZERBAIJAN DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC IN 1918
(according to the materials of the Azerbaijani archives)
Article reveals the system of corruption in the Turkish government before the defeat of the Ottoman Empire
in the World War I on the example of an agreement to provide Turkey a financial assistance of the Azerbaijan
Democratic Republic.
Keywords: Azerbaijan Democratic Republic; the Ottoman Empire in the World War I; A. Topchubashov; Talaat Pasha; Ibrahim Hakki Pasha; M.A. Rasulzadeh.
????? ????? ?????????? ????????????? ???????????? 28 ??? 1918 ?. ? ???????? ??????????????? ??????????????? ?????????? (???), ????? ????? ???????????? ??????? ????? ??????????
?????? [1, c. 131]. ?????? ??????, ?????? ?????, ??????? ????????? ?? ????????? ??????? ? ??????
???????????, ?????? ?? ???????? ? ?????. ??? 11 ???? ???????????? ?????? ????????? ???, ??????????? ???? ????? ??????????? ?.?. ??????? ??? ???????? ???????????? ??????????????? ?????????,
?????????????? ?а???????, ?.?. ?????-????: л????????????? ???? ?????? ????????? ?????? ?а???????. ?????????? ???????????????? ????, ?? ??????? ???????????? ????????? ????? ????, ???????,
? ?? ???????? ??????? ??????????. ?????????? ?а????????? ? ???????? ? ??????? ????? ??? ?? ???
??? ?? ?а???? ?? ??????? ? ???? ??????? ?? ?????, ??-?? ?????????? ??? ??? ????????, ??????? ?????????? ???????. ??????? ???????????? ??????? ?? ??????????? ??????. ???????? ?????????? ????
?????? ????? ??????????????, ??????? ??????? ??????, ??? ??? ?а????? ????? ????. ???????????? ??
?????? ??????, ??????? ????? ????????? ??? ?а???? ?????, ????? ??? ??????????? ??? ?? ????? ???????? ? ??., ????????? ????? ?? 1 1/2 ?? 3 ???. ???. ???? ?? ??????????? ???????? ??????????????
????? ???????? ????????? ?????-?????? ???????, ?? ??????? ?????? ???? ???????? ????, ??? ????????????? ?????? ????????? ? ????????????? ???? ??????а ? ?????-????? ????????? ? ????-?????
?????????????.╗ [2, c. 25]. ????????????? ?????? ????? ???????????? ?? ??????????????? ??????,
????????? 4 ???? ????????? ?а??? ???????, ?а??????? ?????????????, ???:
17
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
л1. ????????? ???????????? ????????????? ??????????? ????? ????? ????? ?а???????????
????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?? ??????????????? ???? ??????????????? ?????????? ???????
????????? ??????? ???? (????????? ?????, ??????????, ??????? ????????? ? ?????????? ? ????.).
2. ????????????? ??????????????? ?????????? ??????????? ????????????? ?а ????????????
?????????????? ???????????? ?????????????, ?а?????? ??? ??????? ? ?а????? ????????????? ?а??????? ?????, ??? ???????????? ? ??????????, ??????????? ?а????????? ?????, ? ????? ??? ????, ???????? ? ?????? ???????? ????????????, ??? ?????????????, ??? ????????? ?? ?????????? ????.
3. ????????????? ??????????? ????????????? ????? ????? ???????????? ?а????? ??????? ?????
??? ?????? ?????? ??????????????? ??????????╗ [3, c. 16, 17].
24 ???? 1918 ?. ????????? ??? ??????? ?а ??????? ??????, ??????, ??? ??????? ?????????,
?????? ?а???? ?????????? ?? ???????, 19 ???? ?? ??????? ?а??????: л???? ????????, ??????????,
??????, ??????, ???????. ????? ??????? ?????? ??????╗. ???????????? ???????? ??????? ? ? ???????,
????????? ?? ???? ?????????? ????? ?????? ?????????????: л? ?????? ?? ??? ??????????? ?????????
? ????????? ?? ??????????? ????? ?????????? ?а????????????? ????? ?????-???. ????? ?? ???????
????, ?? ????? ?а???????????? ???????? ??????-???. ???????????? ?а?????-???? ? ???????? ? ???,
????? ????? ??????? ????????????? ?????????. ????????, ??????? ??? ???? ?? ????, ???????? ?а???,
??? ????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????? ?? ??????????? ???????????? ?????? ???????? ?? ?????
????? ???? ?? ?? ??????? ??????????? ??????? ?????????╗ [3, ?. 4, 5].
31 ???? ??? ??????? ????? ???????? ?а??????? ??????, ?а????????? ? л????????????? ???????? ??????? ??? ?? ??????????? ???????????? ????????? ???????╗. ???????????? ?????????????
????????? ??????? ?????: л????? ??????? ???? ??????а? ?????????? ???????? ??????; ?а???? ??????????? ????????? ?а????????? ???? ?????????? ???? ??????? ????? ??????? ? ?????????? ????, ? ??
?? ????? ??? ????? 2 ?????? ?? ????? ??? ????? ?????. ?????????? ???????????? ??????? ??? ????????????? ???? ???? ?? 1 ??? ???????? ???╗ [2, c. 33]. ?? ????????? ???? ????? ???????? ?а???????
???????? ??????? ??????????? ??? ??? ?. ?????-???????: л?????????? ?????????? ??? ?????, ????????? ??? ??????? ?? ??????????????? ? ???? ???? ????? ? ???, ? ??????? ??? ?????? ? ??? ????
???? ????????????? ??????? ? ???????????. ????? ????, ????? ??????? ????????? ??? ???????? ????
?? ???????????? ?????? ?????-????, ??????? ?????? ??????? ??? ?а???????? ???? ??????????? ???╗
[2, c. 35]. 2 ??????? ?? ?????? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ???????. ????????? ?????, ??? ?????????
?????? ??? ?????, ?? л????-??? [???????????] ?а?????-????? [???????] ?????????? ?а??????-?????,
??????? ? ?????? ??????? ???? ???????? ????????, ? ???????? ?? ???? ????????? ????????. ??? ????? ?? 2 ??? ??? ??????. ????? ???????? ?? 2 ??? ??? ??????????. ???????? ???????? ????? ?????????
л?????╗. ???? ????? ????? ?? 6 ??????? ? ???? ????????? (??????????)а? 10 ???. ????????? ?????????
?????????? ??????? ????????? ? ?????? ??? ????, ????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ???????? ??????-???,
???????????? ?а??????, ?????? ??? ??????????. ?? ????????? ?? ???? ?????? ????? ????????? ??????? ?
????? ???? ????????╗ [3, ?. 20]. ????? ????? ???????? ??????? ?????-????, ????? ?а??????? ?а??????
??? ? ?? ???? ????????.
?????? ???????? ????????????? ???????, ? 20 ??????? 1918 ?. ?а??????? ?а????????? ????????
???????? ?.?. ????????? ??? ????????? ????? ??????? ?? ???????? ? ????????? ???????????????
???????, ?????? ???? 1-? ? 2-? ?????????? ??????????????? ??? ?.?. ?????????? [4, ?. 2]. 2а???????? ?????-???? ???????? ??? ???? ????????? ? ?????? ????????????? ???????: л?????? ????????
?? ?????? ????????? ????????? ???????: ?? ??? ???????????????? ????????????? ?а ???????????
??????????? ???[?????] ????? ? ??????? ?????? ?? ????????? ???????. ??????? ????????? ?, ????? ? ????-???. ?? ????? ?????????? ???????? ??????-????. ?????????? ????????, ?????????? ??
?????????? ??????, ??, ??? ?????[??????????] ????????????? ?????? ????????? ?? ????? ???????????
???????, ??? ??????, ??????, ?????, ???????? ??????? ? ??. ?а??????? 1 ??? ??????????? ???. ?? ??????? ??????? ???? ??????? ???????, ???? ???? ??????? ?? ????????, ?????? ?? ????? ?????????????.
? ???, ???? ????????? 2 ??? ???????????? ??????? ????????????. ???? ??? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ????????, ?? ??? ???????? ???????? ??????? ????? ???????? ?а????. ????? ????? ????????,
??????? ??? ???? ???????, ?? ???????? ?а???? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ???[?????] ????? ???????????????? ????????????? ???? 500 ???. ??????? ??? ?????? ?????[??????????] ????????????? ????? ????????? 5%╗ [3, ?. 12]. ?????? ?? ?????? ?????, ?? ? ???????? ????????????? ??????????? ??? ?
?? ??????? ?? ?????? 15 ???????? ???? ?????????? ?????? ??????.
? ??? ???? ????????? ??????? ??? ???????? ????? ?????????? ??????? ??????????? ????????:
л?????????? ???? ????????? ?????????, ?? ??????? ?? ????????? ??? ???????????. ??? ???? ????
18
??????? ? ?????????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
?????? ????????, ???? ?? ??????? ????? ? ??????? ?? 2 ??? ??? ? ??????? ?? 500 ???. ??? ??????
?????????? ???????? ? ????????. ?? ???? 500 ???. ??? 225 ???. ??? ?????????? ??? ??????????
25 ???. ??? ???????? ??? ???????? ?????????-???? ???????????, ??????? ????? ????????????? ??
????????? л?????╗а? ??????? ? ?? ?????? ????????. ?????? 250 ???. ??? ????? ??????? ?????????,
??????? ?????? ????? ??????? ?? ???????? ??? ????? ???????? ?? 2 ??? ??? ? ??????? ???????.
????-??? ? ?????-??? ?????? ?? ???? ???????? ??? ?? ???. ??? ??????????????? ????????? л?????╗
?????????? 2 ????????? ??????????? ? ?а ????????? л?????╗, ?. ?. ??????????????? ?????, ??????
????????????? ?????. ????????? ???????? ????? 20 ????╗ [3, ?. 24?25].
???????, 16 ???????? 1918 ?. ?????????? ????? ??????????????? ?????? ? ??? ? ?????????
?????? ?? ???? ??????? ???????? ?????????????? ? ??????? ???? ?????????. ???????????? ?????????
??????? ???????? ? ?????????????? ??? ?. ???????????, ?.?. ?????-???? ? ?. ??????? ?а??????????????? ??????? ? ????? ??????-?????-???? ? ?а???????? [2, c. 65].
?? ????? ????????????? ??? ??? ? ?? ????????. 8 ??????? 1918 ?. ?а?????? ????????? ?????????????, ? ??????-???? ?а???????? ???????? ?????? ? ????? ???????? ?????? ?????-????. ??????????????? ??????????? ????? ??????? ?????? ?????? 21 ???????, ???????? ?????????? ???????????
????????. ?? 30 ??????? ?????? ????? ?? ?????, ???????? ?????????? ??? ?? ???????? ???????,
??? ??????? ?а????????? ????? ?????????????. ??????????????? ?????????? ??? ?? ?????? ????????
?????? ???????????? ???????? ? ????????? ?? ???? ?????. 25 ?????? 1918 ?. ?.?. ?????????? ?????????? ?а???????? ?а?????????????? ????????? ???????? ?????? ??????????-???? (?? ????????????? ?? ???????? ?????), ????? ????????? ???????? ???? ?? ?а500-???????? ???????? ??????? ??????
?????????????, ??????? ??? ?????? ?а???? л? ????? ???????? ????╗. ??????? ???????? ?? ???????????????, ? ??? ???????? ??? ????????? ??????????:
л????? (??????) ???-???: ?? ??????????? 500 ???. ??? ????????? ???? ????????? ???????????????? ????????????? ????????, ?.?. 250 ???. ???; ?? ???? ?????, ????????? ??? ????????, 25а???.а???
???? ???????? ????? ? ?????? ??? ???????? ???? ??????????????? ?????????????? ?? ???????,
? ????????? 225 ???. ??? ???? ????????? ? ?????????? ??????-?????-????? ?? ??? ???????????????? ????????????? ????? ?????, ?а?????? ??? ????а? ?? ?????. ?????????? ????? ?а225 ???. ???
??????-?????-????? ???? ?????????? ?а?????? (?????????) ????-????, ??? ???????, ???????, ????
??? ??? ?????? (???????) ? ????????? ??????? (??????). ????? ???? ?????????? ? ????? ?????????,а?
?? ?????. ?? ????, ??? ????? ?????????? 225 ???. ???. ??????-?????-???? ???????? ????? ?? ?а?а???
?? ????-???? ????? ?а450 ??? ???, ???????, ?? ??????? ?а???????????? ??????. ???? ?? ??????-?????-???? ??? ????????????? ??????? ??????, ??? ?????? ??? ?????? ? ?? ????? ????????а? ?? ????╗.
????? ????? ????? ????????? ? ??? ?????????? ????????? ????????? ????????:
л??????? ????????: ? ??? ???????? ??????????????? ????? ??????? ????????, ??? ?? ????????? ?????? ??????, 225 ???. ???, ???? ??????????? ?а???????????????. ??? ??? ?????????
????? ???-???: ??, ?? ?????? ?а?????????? ?? ?????????? ?? ???????? ???????? ?????. ????
? ???, ??? ?? ????-??? ????? ?? ???? ??????? ????????. ????? ?? ???????? ????????????, ??? ??? ??
???? ???????-?????-????, ???? ?????????? ?? ??? ???????????? 9-? ?????, ?а??????? ????????????
?????????? ????????? ?????? ????-???, ????? ?а???? ??? ?????? ? 225 ???. ??? ??????? ???????????????? ?????????????. ?? ???????????? 9-? ????? ??????? ?????, ??? ?????? ????-??? ?? ?? ????
????? ? ?? ?????, ??? ?? ? ??? ?? ?????? ?а????????. ? ?? ??? ??? ??? ?? ???? ??????? ????????,
??????? ????????: ??????, ?а ????? ????????? ?????? ??????????, ??????? ?? 225 ???. ???
???????????????? ??????????????
????? ???-???: ??, ??????????, ??? ??????????, ??? ?????? ????-???. ????? ????, ?? ???
?????? ?????? ?? ??????????????. ???? ?????? ?????? ???????? ?а???????? ????? ??????????.
??????? ????????: ????????? ???, ???????? ?? ????????????, ?????? ????. (???-??? ??????).
??? ??????, ????? ???? (????????? ?? ???)? ???? ?????, ??? ????? ????????, ??????? ??? ?? ????????,
??? ?? ?????????, ?????-???? ??, ???? ??????-?????-????!╗ [5, ?. 27?29].
???????? ?а ??????? ?????? ????? ????????? ?????? ?.?. ??????????? ?а ?????????? ???????????
?а???????? ?????? ??????-?????, ???????????? 16 ?????? 1918 ?., ?а???? ??????? ????????? ?????
???????? ?????????? ? ????? ???????? ??????: л??? ??????? ???????? ?????? ????, ?????? ????????
? ???. ?? ??????, ??? ??? ??????: ??? ???????? ????, ?????? ? ????? ?а?????? ?????. ??? ???????? ??????, ????? ?????????????? ??? ???? ?? ???? ????!.. ??? ????????, ????? ?а ????? 100 ?????????, ??? ?????? ?????-????, ?????????? ?? ???????????, ? ?????????? ??????, ????????? ????????? ???? ????? ??? ?????? ??????, ??????? ?? ??????, ??????, ?????? ???????????, ??????.
19
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
? ??? ?????????: ?????? ?????????? ?????? ??? ???? ????, ??? ?????? ??????????. ??? ???????? ??????? ?????? ?? ???????, ???? ?????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ?а???????╗ [5, ?. 18, 19].
??? ??, ?? ???? ????????? ??????-????? 100 ????????? ???, ?????????? ?? ???? ?????????
???????? ??????, ?а??? ????????? ????????? ?? ??????????? [6, c. 199], 500 ?????????? ?????, ????????? ????????????? ??????????????? ??????????????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ?а???? ??????????
???????????, ?? ??????? ???-?? ??????? ??????????????. ?? ?а ???????????? ??????????? ??????????, ??? ????????? ?? ?????? ?????? ???????? ????????, ??????? ????????????? ?????????, ???
?????? ?????? ?а???????, ???? ?? ????? ???????????.
????????????????? ??????:
1. ???????? ?.?. ?а??????? ? ???????????? ???????? ?а?????????? ?? ?????????????? ????? ??????
??????? ????? // ??????? ?????. ???????. 2006. ???. 4. ?. 125?137.
2. ??????????????? ??????????????? ?????????? (1918?1920). ??????? ???????? (????????? ? ?????????). ????: ??????? ???????? ?????????? ??? ???????? ????????? ??????????????? ??????????, 1998. 632 ?.
3. ??????????????? ????? ??????????????? ?????????? (????). ?. 894. ??. 10. ?. 31.
4. ????. ?. 970. ??. 1. ?. 138.
5. ????. ?. 894. ??. 10. ?. 151.
6. ???????? ?.?. ????????????? ????????? ????????? ??????? ?а?????? ?????? ??????? ?????
? ??????????? ?????? ? ?????????????? ?? ?????????? ???????? ????????? // ??????? ?????.
???????. 2007. ???. 4. ?. 191?201.
20
??????? ? ?????????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
??? 94 (47)
?. ?. ??????
?????? ???????????? ????, ??????
?????-????????????? ???????????
???????????????? ???????????????
? ??????? ? ????????-??????????? ?????????
??????? ??????? ???????? ?а1860?1910 ??.
(??????????????? ???????: ??????? ???????? ??? ????????????????)
? ?????? ????????????? ??????? ?????????? ????????? ????????? ?? ??????????? л?????????╗ ? л??????????╗ ????????. ????? ???????? ?а?????? ? ????????????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????? ????
??????? ?а?????????? ???????????-???????????? ?????.
???????? ?????: ???????????, ??????, ???????????????, ??????, ??????????.
L. Yu. Gusman
Doctor of Historical Sciences. Associate Professor
Saint Petersburg University of Aerospace Instrumentation
TO THE QUESTION OF THE NATIONAL-LIBERAL CONCEPT
OF RUSSIAN FOREIGN POLICY IN THE 1860S-1910S.
(GEOPOLITICAL DILEMMA: THE KINGDOM OF POLAND OR CONSTANTINOPLE?)
The article analyzes the views of Russian moderate liberals on the relationship between ?Polish? and ?eastern?
issues. The author comes to the conclusion that there is a long tradition of discussing these problems in Russian
social and political thought.
Keywords: Constitution, Poland, Constantinopol, Turkey, liberalism.
????? ???? ?а?????? ?????????
? ?????????? ??????? ???????
????? ??????????? ??????????,
??? ?а????? ?????? ?????????,а?
? ????????? ? ??? ???
?? ?а??????????, ?? ?а??????,
? ?а????? ? ?????????.
?. ? ??????. 1850 ?. [12. C. 117]
????????? ?????? ? ?????????? ????????? ?а ??? ???????? ??????? ???????????? ????????
??????????? ???????? ?????? ????? ?а ?????????? ??????????????? ????????????. ????? ??????????, ??? ??? ??? ????? ???????????????? ????? ?? ?????????????????? ??????????. ?????? ????????? ?????? ?? ???? ??????? ??????? ???????????? ?????????? ???????????? ?а ?????????????.
????? ??????? ???????? ????????? ???????? ?????? ?а ???????????? ?????????? ?????? ????????
?? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ??????????? ?????????? ?. ?. ?????????, ?. ?. ??????????? ?
?. ?. ????????. ??? ?????????? ?а ???????? XIX ???? ?????????? ????????? ????????? ???????????????? ?????????????? ??????, ?????????????? ??? л????????????? ???????????╗ ??????, ??? ?
????????? ?????????? ?. ?. ??????? ? ?. ?. ?????????????.
?????? ??????????, ???????? ?????????? ????????? ???????????????????-??????????, ????? ???????? ?а 1847 ?. ????? ?. ?. ????????? л?????? ? ???????╗. ????? ???????????? ? ?????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????????? ???????? ??????? ??????????????? ?????? ?? ??????????
???????. ???????? ???? ??? ??????????? ???????? ?а ???????? ??????????? ???? ???????? ?????
л? ?????????? ?????? ??????╗. ???????? ?????????? ?????????????? ?????: л?????? ??? ????????
???????? ??????? ??????????? ????? ?????? ???????????, ????????? ?а????. ??????????? ????????? ??? ?????????? ???? ?????????, ?а????? ??????? ?? ??????? ???????????; ???? ????? ??? ??????
21
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
??? ????????? ??????????? ?? ????????? ??????????? ??????, ????????????? ?? ?????? ?????? ?? ???????? ????????. ???? ?????????? ?? ??????????? ????????? ????? ?????, ??????? ?? ?????? ??
??????? ????????????? ?а???????, ???? ???????, ??? ?? ????????? ?а???????????? ????? I ?? ??????,
?а ???? ????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ????????????: ??????? ?????? ? ????????????? ??????????? ?????╗ [11, ?. 371]. ? ?????, ????? ???????? ?????????, ??? ?????? ?????? ??????? ??????
?????????? ??????, ???? ?а?????????? ????? ???????????? ??????????????? ?????????????. ????????
??????, ??? ????????? ??????? ????? ???????? ??????? ????????, ???? ??????? ???????? ?а ?????
?? ??????, ? ?????? ? ??????????? ????????: л????? ?? ????? ?? ??? ?????? ??????????? ??? ??????????? ?????????? ????????, ??????? ????????? ?? ?????????? ???? ?????????????? ??????╗
[11. ?. 373].
?????? ??????? ?. ?. ????????? ?? ????????? ?????? ?? ?????????????? ????? ???? ???????? ?а ?????????? ???????? ??????? ????????? ??????. ?? ????????, ?? ????????? ?????? ??????????????? ??????: ????? ??????????????? ?? ??????? ????????, ??????? ?? ?????? ????? ??
?????????? ?????????? ???????? ??????: л????? ?? ??????????? ?????? ??? ?? ???? ??????? ??????; ?????? ??? ???????? ?? ??????? ????? ???????????? ????????, ??????? ??????? ?? ????????
?????? ??????? ?????? ?????????, ?????????? ? ?????. ????? ???????????? ??? ???????????? ??????????? ??? ?? ????? ?????? ?? ??????! ??? ???? ?? ????????????? ??????????? ??????????
?????????????? ??????? ? ????? <?>; ????? ??? ????? ???????? ?? ??? ??? ??????? ???? ????????? ? ????? ?? ????????????? ???????????╗ [11, ?. 366]. ????, ????????????? ??????????? ?????? ?а????? ?? ????? ?? ???????, ??????? ??? ????????? ???????????? ? ???????? ???????????? ?????????
?????? ?а???????? ??????? ? ???????????? ??? ??????? ?????? ?????????? ?????????. ?????? ??
?????? ??? л???????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ????????? ?? ?? ??????, ? ?? ???????╗ [11, ?. 443],
???????? ?????? ??????????? ????????? ?а л??????? ????????? ??????╗, ??????, ??? ??????, ??????????? ?а????? ?а???????????? ?????????, ?????? ???????? ??????? ???? ????????? ??????????.
????????? ?????? ?а ???????? ?????, ????????????? ????? 9 ??? ????? ??????? ?????
?. ?. ?????????, ?? ???????? ????????? ??????? ??????????????????? ?а????????? ???????. ???
?????????? ?а???????????? ?????????? II ????????? ????, ??? ??????????????? ?ал?????? ? ???????╗,
?? ?а?? ?????????? ?? ?????????? ??????? ????????? ??? ????? ???????: ????????? ??? ?????????
?????????? ??????? I ?? ??, ??? ?? ????? ?? ?????????????? ??????? ????????? ?????????????, ?????
????????? ?а???????, ? ????????? ???????????? ?а??????? ?????????? ??????, ???????? ?? ?????????? ?????????? ??????? ?а?????? ????????.
???????? ????? ??????????-??????????????????? ????? л??????? ??????╗ ??? ????? ?. ?. ??????????. ?а1861 ?. ????????? ??? ????? л?????? ? ??????╗, ??????? ?? ???????? ????? л??????? ????????
??????????????????╗ ??????? ?????? ??????????? ?????. ????????? ?а?????? ???? ????????? ?а????
????????? ????????????? ????: л??? ?? ?????????????, ? ????, ??????? ??????? ?а??????, ? ???????
????? ?? ????????? ???????? ?а????╗ [8, ?. 2, ?. 251]. ??????? ?. ?. ?????????, ?. ?. ?????????? ???????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????? ?а??????? ?????? ?? ??????, ??????? ??????? ????????
л?????, ???????? ?? (?????? ? ?. ?.) ?????????? ???? ? ??????????? ???????? ???? ?? ????, ???
???????? ?????????? ??????, ???? ??? ??????? ??????????? ?????? ??????????? ??????????? [8, ?.
2, ?. 26]. ??? ????? ????? ??? ?????????????????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ???????????? ??? ??????? ??????????????? ???? ???????? ???????????? ?а??? л????????╗, ???????? ?а1867 ?.: л????
???? ???? <?> ? ?????? ?????, ?????, ???????? ?? ???????, ????????? ????????? ?? ??????. ??????? ?? ??? ??? ??????????, ????? ????????, ??? ??????? ?????? ???? ?? ?????????? ?? ?????? ???????.
??? ???????? ?? ??? ??????? ????? ??????, ????????? ?? ?????? ??????????? ????????? ? ???????
???????? ? ???????? ?? ??? ?? ??????? ????????????? ??????? ?? ????? ?????????? ????? ??????,
??????? ???????? ???? ???????????? ???????? ? ????? ??? ????? ????? ??????? ? ??????????╗ [5,
?. 8]. ??????, ??? ???? ????? ???? ?????. ?????????? ???? ????????? ???????????? ????????????
?????????? ?????????? ???????, ?????????? ????????? ???????????? ????????????, ??????????? ??
??????????? ????????????? ???????? ??????? ?а??????: л?? ???? ???????? ??????? ?? ?????? ???
?????? ?????????? ???????? ?? <?>, ?? ????? ?? ???? ???????? ??????? ?? ????? ???????????? ?????????, ????? ??????????, ???? ???? ???????, ????? ?а???? ????? ?? ??????? ??????. ???????????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????? ?? ????????? ?????? ?????????, ???????????, ?? ????????. <?> ??????????????? ?????????? ?????? ????????? ??????? ??????????? ? ???????, ? ?????????? ?????? ???? ???????? ????????? ??? ??????? ? ???????? ????? ???? ????? ????╗
[7, ?. 283].
22
??????? ? ?????????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
???????? ??????????????? ?????, ??????, ?????????? ?????? ?????????? ??? ????????????? ?????? ?а??????????????? ??????. ??????????? ??? ?????????? ??????? ?? ?????? ?????????? ??? ?????????? ????, ??? ????? ?????? ??????????? ??? ?????????? ?????? ?????: л? ?????????
?????, ????? ???????????? ????????, ?????????, ??? ?????????????? ?????????? ?а?????? ???????
??????? ????? ?????? ?????????: ?????? ?????? ???????????. ???? ????????? ?????? ?????? ??? ?
?? ????????? ?а???????, ? ?? ?????? ?????????? ?а?????????????? ???????????? ?????????? ???????? ???????, ??, ????????, ?? ????? ???????, ?а???????? ????????? ??????, ?? ????? ???????
???????? ?????? ?а ??? ??????????, ?? ???????? ? ????; ????? ???; ????????????? ? ???????????
??????. ???? ???? ? ?????, ??? ?????? ?????????, ??? ??? ??????? ???????? ??????????????, ?????
????? ??? ????? ??????, ??? ?? ???????? ? ????? ???????? ? ?а????? ???????? ??????? ??╗ [8, ?. 2,
?. 248]. ???????? ????????? ??????????? ????????? ??????????? ???????????? ?а ??????????? ????????? ?? ??????? I ?, ??? ???????, ???????? ??????????? ??? ?. ???????????: л????, ?????????
??? ?????? ?а1848 ????, ?????? ?????? ??? ????????? ?????????? ??????, ?????? ???????? ???? ??
????????????? ??????: ???? ?? ???? ?????????? ??? ???????? ??????????????? ?????, ?? ?????
?????? ???? ?? ???????? ??????? ????????? ??????????????? ???????????? ??????? ??? ?????????? ?????????. ?? ????????, ?? ??????? ??? ?? ????? ?????? ?????╗ [6, ?. 25]. ????? ???????, ????
?. ?. ????????? ?? ??????????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ????????? ? ?????????? ???????? ?а?????????? ???????????.
?????? ????????????? ????????????????????? ????????? ?. ?. ??????? ?а1862?1863 ??. ??????? ?а???????, ? ????? ?а????????, ?????? л????????? ?????╗. ?а??? ?? ?????????? ?? ???????????
???????, ??????????? ??????? ???????????? ????????. ?? ???? ??????????? ? ????????? ??????.
??????? ?? ?????? ??????? ???? ???????????? ?а?????????????? ??????????????? ??????, ??? л????,
??????? ????? ???????? ?а????╗ [2, ?. 66], ?? ? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ????? ??????? ????????? ??????. ???????? ?а???????? ????????? ????? ????? лDer naturaliche Zug Russlands geht nach
Suden und Osten╗ [3, ?. 480], ??????? ????????? л????????? ??????╗ ??????? ??????, ??????????
?. ?. ??????????: л? ?????????? ??? ????????????? ????? ??????? ??????????? ????????? ????
??????-?????????? ???????, ?????????? ? ?????????? ????????????, ?? ?????????? ?????????
?????, ???????????????? ?????? ???????????? <?> ?????? ?????-?????????????? ??? ????????
??????????? ???? ??????????? ????╗ [3, ?. 482]. ??????? ????????? ? ???????? ????????? ?. ?. ???????????, ??????? ??????? I ?а ???????? ??????????? ??????? ? ?а ???, ??? ????????? ???? ??????
?а 1840 ?. ?? ????? ??????????? ???? ?????????-??? [3, ?. 484]. ?а ?????????? ?? ?????? ???????
??????? ????? ??? ????? ???????????????? ??????? ?а ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ???????
?????????????: л????????????? ??????? ????? ??? ????????? ??????????? ? л??????????╗ ??????????? ?? ?????????, ?????????, ??? ??? ??? ???????? ?????????? ????????????????? ??????????, ??
????????? ??????? ??? ??????? ??? ?????? ? ??? ??????? ? ??????? ??? ??????╗ [3, ?. 492].
????, ??? ??????? ??????????????????? ???????? XIX ?. ??? ?????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?а????????? ?????????? ???????. ?????????? ?????????? ?а????????? ?????????????, ????????? ???? ????? ?? ???????????????, ?????? ?? ??????? ?????????, ? ??????????? ??????? ?а?????????? ?????????? ???????? ??? ????????????? ????????? ?, ??????????, ???????????????? ??? ???????? ??????? ?????? ?а??????? ??????????? ??????.
???????, ???, ???????? ?? ????????? ??????? ???????????? ?????????????????? л????? ??????? ??????╗, ?????? ???? ?????????????? ????? ????????????? ??????????? ???? ?а ??????????
???????????? ??????? ?????????? ? ????????????, ???? ?? ???????? ? ????? ?????????. ??????
? ??????????? ???????? ? ??????????????????? ??????? ??????? ????? ????? ?а????? XIX ?. ?????
???? ????? ?????? ?????????????? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ?, ?. ????????, ?а?????? ????????
?????????????? ?? ?????? ??? ???????????????, ?? ? ??? ?????????? л???????????? ????????╗, ?????????? ?? ???????????? ???????. ?а????? ?????????????? ????? л??????? ????╗ ????????? ?????????? ???????? л????????????╗ ?, ???????? ??? ???????? ??? ?????????, ???????: л??? ????????????
???? ????? ?а????????? ????? ????? ?? ???????????? ??????????, ? ?????? ?а???? ?? ????????? ????????; ?? ??????????? ?? ???????? ????? ???????????? ????? ? ????????? ?? ????? ??????? ???????????????; ????? ?а??? ??????????? ? ????? ??????, ??????? ????? ??????, ???? ???? ??????? ??? ??????
???????, ?????????? ????????? ???????????? ????????, ???????? ??????????? ????????? ? ?а?????????? ??????? ??? ?? ?????? ? ????????, ??????? ?? ?????? ??????? ???????????????, ????????? ???????? ?????? [9, ?. 238]. ????, ????????, ??? ? ??? ???????????????, ???????? ??????? ????????? ???????? ?????? ?а????????????? ????????? ???????. ??????, ?а???????????? ?????? л????????? ???23
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
????????╗ ????????? ? ????? ???????. ?? ????? ??? ?? ????????? ????? 1870?1880-? ??., ???????????
??????????-???????????????. ? ???? ???? ??????? ??????? ????????????? ?? ??????????? ???????,
?? ???????????? ??????-???????? ????? 1877?1878 ?. ???????? ?? ??????????? ?? ???-???????????
???????? ???????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????? ???? ?? ?????? ???????????? ??????????
??????????, ???????????? ????????. ? ?а1880-? ??. ?????? ? ????????, ?? ??????? ??????? ?????????
????? ??????? ??????????? ? ?????????? ??????, ??????????? ?? ????? ??????????? ???????????????
? ????????? ?а??????-???????. ??????????, ???????? ???????????????? ???? ?????? ????????????
????????? ?????????? ??????????. ???????? ????? ??????? ??????? ?? ?а????????? ???????? ?. ?.
????????? ? ?????? ?????????, ? ?а??????????? ??????????? ? ???????????? ???????? ???????, ???????? ?а???????? ???????.
??????? ????????, ??? ?а??????? ??????????? ?????? ????? ?????????? III, ???????? ?? ????????? ???????????, ??????????? ?????????? ?????? ???????????? ?? ???????????? ??? ????. ????? л??????????? ?????????╗ ??????? л??????? ?????╗ ?а1885 ?., ???????, ??????? ?. ?. ????????,
? ??????? ??????????????? ?????? ?. ?. ?????????, ?????????: л????????? л???????╗ ?? ????????????, ?????? ??? ??? ?????? ?????????? ?а?????? ????????? ?????????????? ??? ??? ??????????. ??????? ???????? ?????? ?а????, ?????????? ??????????? ????? л????????╗ ? ???? ????? ????????????
??? ????????????? ? ?а ?????? ??????. ???? ?????? ????????? ?????? ?а ?????? ??????, ?????? ??
????? ???????????? ?????? ?? ??????, ??? ??? ????? ?????????? ????? ???????????? ??????? ???????
???? ?? ???-???????. ?а???? ??????? ?????? ? ?????????? ???????? ?? ????????? ?а???????? ? ????????, ?????? ???? ????????? ?а??????? ???? ?а????? ????? ?????????????, ? ??? ????? ?а????????
?? ?????? ???? ? ?????? ? ?????, ???????? ? ???????????????╗ [4, ?. 117 ? 2-? ?????????) ????, ??????
??????, ????????? ????????? ?а???? ?а??????????? ????????????? ? ??????????? ?? ?а????????????
?????? ??????????? ????, ??-???????? ????????????? ??? ??????????? ?а????????? ??? ?????? ?????????? л?????????? ???????╗.
???????, ??? ???????? ????? ?????? ???????? ???????????? ????????? ?а ??????? ???????????? ?а???? ?????? ??????? ?????, ????? ??????? ?? ?????????????? ?????????? ????????? ???????
(????? ??? ???? ? ??? ??????? ?? ???????????? ?????? ????????? ??? ?????????????), ? ?????????
???????????????? ??? ?? ???????? ??????????? ??????. ?. ?. ???????, ???? ?? ????? ?? ???????
? ???, ??? ???? ????????? ????? ???????????????? ??????????, ??, ?????????? ???????? ?а???????
?. ?. ?????????, ????? ?а1915 ?., ?????, ???????, ??????? ???????? ???? ??? ???????????? ???????:
л?????? ?????? ???????? ???? ???????? ?а???????????????, ?? ???? ????????? ?а??????? ? ??????? ??????? ?а???????????? ?????. ???? ??????? ??? ?? ??????????, ??????? ?? ??? ??? ?????????
?а??????????????? <?>. ?а??????????? ?? ???????, ?? ????????? ?????????? ? ???????? ?????????. ????? ??? ?? ????? ??????? ??? ?? ????????????? ???????? ?? ??, ?а ?????. ? ???? ???????
??????????????? ?????? ???? ?? ?????????????? ???? ???????????? ??????. <?.> ???? ????????????? ????? ?????? ?????? ?а??????? ???????????????╗ [1, ?. 70]. ??? ??????? ???????? ???????????
?. ?. ???????. ??? ????????? ?? ???? ????????? ??????. ?а??? ?? 1915 ?., ????? ???????? ?а????????? ?. ?. ????????? ?????: л???? ????????? ?а??????? ?????? ? ???? ?? ??????? ???????????,
?????????? ?????? ???????? ?а ???????????????. ?а 1878 ????, ????? ??????????? ????????, ?????
????????, ??? ??? ???? ?а ??????????????? ????? ????? ??????? ? ???????? ? ??? ??? ?????????
??????? ???????????? ????? ?????? ?????? ???????????? ???????????? ???????? ?????? ? ??????????? ?а ???. ????? ???????, ????? ??????, ???????? ??, ??????????? ???? ?? ????? ? ?а ???????
??????? ?????????? ???? ?а?????? ??????, ??? ?????? ??????????????? ? ??????????? ??????, ??????????, ??????????, ?????????? ? ?????????, ???????????? ?????╗ [10, ?. 366]. ????? ?????? ????????? ????????? ?????????????????? ?????? ??????????? ??????????. ??????????? ????????? ?
?????????? ???????? ???? ????? ???????? ?а?????????? ??????????? ???????????? 1914?1917 ??.,
??? ???? ???? ???????? ???????? ? ??????????, ????????????? ?. ?. ??? ??????????? ???????: л????? ? ?????? ?????? ??????????? ?а????????? ?????? ???????????? ???????????? ???????, ?????????? ????????? ?? ?????????????? ? ?? ????????????????. ?????? ????? ?????????? ??????????
?????? ?, ?а ?????????, ??????????? ?? ??????? ?????? ??????? ???? ?????????????? ??????????
?а???????╗ [13, ?. 439].
?? ?????? ??????, ?????? ????????? ??????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ??????? ? ?? ??????? ??????????? ? ????????? л??????????? ????╗а? ??????????????? ? ???, ??? ???????
?. ?. ???????? ? ??????????? ????????? ?????? ?? ?????????? ???????, ??????? ??????? ?а??????????? ??????? 1917 ?., ?? ???????? ?????????, ? ????????? ?? ???????????? ???????? ??????????
24
??????? ? ?????????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
??????????? ????????? ? ????????? л???????????? ????????????╗, ???????????, ?????????????
?????????? ???? ??????? ??????? ??????????????? ??????? ?????? ? ???????, ??? ?? ?????????????
???????????? ? ?????????, ??? ? ?? ?????? ??????? ? ????????????.
????????????????? ??????.
1. ??????? ?.?. ????????, ?????? ? ??????????????? //???????? ?? ?????. ???????????? ??????
?????? ??????? ?????. ?.: 2004.
2. <??????? ?.?.> ????????? ???????? // ????????? ?????. 1862. ???. 2.
3. <??????? ?.?.> ??????? ???????? ?а?????????? ????? ??????, ? ?а???????? ?? ???????????? //
????????? ?????. 1862. ???. 7?8.
4. ?????????? ????????? // ??????? ?????. 1885. ? 11.
5. ?????????? ?.?. ????? ?????????? ????? II ? ??????????? ???? ?????????. ?., 1997.
6. ?????????? ?.?. ? ?????? ?????? ?а???????? // ??????????. 6 ??????? 1860. ? 3?4.
7. ?????????? ?.?. ?????? ?? ??????????. // ?????????? ?.?. ????????????? ??????. ???????? ?????????. 1860?1867. ?., 1934.
8. ?????????? ?.?. ?????? ? ??????, ??????????? ?????? ?????? ????????????. ?. 1, 2. ?????. 1861.
9. ???????? ?.?. ??????? ???? // ????????? ?а???? ?????. ??? 2. ?????? ? ????????????????. ??????????? ????????????. ?., 1989.
10. ????????? ?. ?. ???????????? ??????, ??????????????? ? ?????? ????? // ????? ?????. ?.,
1994.
11. ???????? ?.?. ?????? ? ???????. ?., 2001.
12. ?????? ?.?. л????? ???? ?а?????? ??????????╗ // ????????? ?а???? ?????. ?. 1. ?., 1980.
13. ??? ?. ?. ? ????????? // ?. ?. ??? Pro ? contra. ?., 2006.
25
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
??? 159.95
?. ?. ????????
???????? ??????????????? ????, ??????
?????-????????????? ???????????
???????????????? ???????????????
??????? ???????? ? ?????????
? ?????? ??????????????? ???????? ?????????? ?а????????? ? ??????? ??????????? ????????. ?? ????????? ????????????? ???????????? ?????????? ???????????? ????? ???????????? ?????????????? ???????? ? ???, ??? ??????? ?????????????? ???????????? ?? ??????? ????????? ???????? ?а??????????.
???????? ?????: ????????? ???????? ?а??????????.
Z. R. Dushabaev
Candidate of psychology, assistent professor
Saint Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation
SEXUAL DIFFERENCES AND INTELLIGENCE
The article discusses the problem of intelligence of boys and girls of preschool age. On the basis of an empirical study of the mental abilities of the children the validity of the judgment proves that the sex of preschool
children does not create gender differences in intellect.
Keywords: gender differences in intellect.
?????????? ?????? ??????????? ??????, ?а????? ???? ????????? ?????? ?а?????. ??? ????? ???????
??. ?. ??????? [2], ?????????? ????? ???? ? ?????????? ??????????? ??????????, ??? ?? ??????????
???????????? ?а?????. ?.?. ???????? [3] ????????, ??? ?а???????????? ?????????? ??????? ????????? ????????? ?а???????????????? ????????. ?а????? ??????????? ???????????? ?? ???????? ???????????????? ??????????? ???????????? ?а???????? ?? 5 ?? 7 ???. ?а????? ?а????????????? ??????????? ?? ?????? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ??????????? ???? ?????? ?? ?????????
????? ??????????????? ?????????. ?????? ???? ????????? ?а????? ? 35 ??????????????? ????
??????????? ?????? ?????-??????????. ?а?????? ? ??? ????????? ???? ???????????????? ?????. ???
?????????? ???????????? ???? ???? ???????? ?????? 41 ???????? (??????? ??????? ? 6 ??? 9 ???) ?
41??????? (??????? ??????? ? 6 ??? 8 ???).
? ????? ????? ???????????? ?? ????????????? ????????? ??? ??????? ?????????????? ????????????
????????: ??????????, ????????, ??????, ??????????? ? ????????, ????????? ?а???????? ?????????? ???????? ?а????? ????????? ???????? [4].
??? ????????? ?????????? ????? ?? ???????????? ???????????? ???? ??????? ?????????, ?а ??????? ??????? ?????? ???????. ?????? ???????: л??????? ?? ??????? ???????? ????????╗, (???????? ???????? ????????????? ????????, ?????? ?????????? ????????-???????????? ?????: л???
???? ???????, ? ??? ?????╗). ?????? ???????: л??????? ??????? ?? ???????? ?????????╗ ????????????? ???????? ??????????? ? ??????? ??????? ????. ?????? ???????: л????????????? ??????? ??????╗ ????? ? ? ?а (???????? ???????????? ????????? ????????????? ??????????). ??????????????
????? ???????????? ?а ??????? ?????????? ????????: л????? ??? ?????????? ??????????? ?? ?????
?????????????╗. ????? ??????? ?? ????????: л??????? ????? ??????????? ?????? ?? ???????╗. ?????? ???????: л????????? ?????╗ ??????? ? ??????????? ????????????. ??????? ?????????? ???????
???? ? ?????? ??? ????????????. ??? ???????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?? ????????????
??????? ???????: л??????? ???????????? ???????????╗. ??????? ???????: л???????? ???? ??????
????? ?? 5 ?????????????╗. ???? ??????? ??????? ? ??????????? ?а??????????????? ? ????????????
??????????? ?????????. ??????? ???????: ???????????? ????? ??? ????????-?????????? ?????? ??
?. 3. ???? [5]. ?????? ????? ????? ??????? ?? ?????? ????????а? ??????????? ????????. ????? ?????,
?????????? ??? ?????????? ?????????, ????????????, ? ??? ????? ???????? ?? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ?а?????. ?????????? ??? ??????????? ??????? ????? ?а65 ??????, ??????? ??????????? ??
100%. ????? ????, ????? ??????, ?? ?????????? ?а????????????? ?????????? (65 ??????), ???????
??? ????????? ?а?????????.
26
??????? ? ?????????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
? ?????? ???????????????? ???????????? ????????? ???????????? ????????. ?а????? ?а???? ?????? ????????? ?а???????????? ?????????? ?а????????? ? ???????. ?а????? ???????? ??????? ??????
??? ???????? ?? ??????? ????? ??????????? ??????. ?а????? ??????? ?? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ??? ?а?????? ????????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ??? ?????. ???????? ??????? ????? ????? ???????
?? ?????????????, ??????????? ? ????????????? ?????? ??????????. ???????? ?а??????? ?? ?????????? ???????? ?????????? 1,8 ?????, ? ??????? 1,6 ?????. ???????? ?а???? ????????? ?????????? ?????,
??? ???????, ?? ??????? ?? ??????????? ? ?????????? ????? 0,2 ????? (12.5%).
?????? ??????? ????? ? ? ?а????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ????????????? ? ??????????? ??????
??????????. ??????? ?????????? ?????? ????? ????? ?а??????? ??????????. ?а????? ?????????????
?????? ?????? ?? ???????? ?????? ?????????? ?а ????????? (20 ??????) ? ??????? (20 ??????). ???
?????? ????????? ????????, ??? ???????????? ??????????? ????? ?????????? ???????? ? ????????
????, ??-????????, ?????. ????????? ?а????? ??????????????? ???????? ????? ????? ????? ????????????? 24 ???????, ????????? ??? ????????? ????? ??????? ?????????? ????????.
??????? ??????????? ??????????? ?а?????????? ???????? ??????? л????????? ?????╗. ?а???????? ?????????? ????? ???????? ???? ?????????????? ?????????? ??????????????? ?? ???????
?????????? ?? 9 ?????? ??????????? ????. ??? ???????? ??????????????? ????????? ??????? ?????????? ???????? 10 ??????. ?а???? ?????????? ????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ?а??????? 5,3 ?????,
? ??????? 5,8 ?????, ??????? ?? ???????????, ? ?????? ????? 0,5 ????? ?? 10 ?????????. ?а???? ?????? ??????? ?????????? ?? 9,4% ?????, ??? ????????. ????? ???????, ?? ???? ????????????? ????
??????????? ?????????? (?. ?. ????????????? ?????????? ??????????) ?а????? (л?????? ???????????
??????╗) ????? ?????????? ????????, ?а?????? (л????????? ?????╗) ? ???????, ? ?а??????? (????????
?????????????? ?????? ??????) ???????? ? ??????? ?????????? ????????? ???????. ???????????
?????????????? ??????????, ????? ????????, ??? ??????????? ?а???????????? ?????????? (???
???????????? ????????? ??????????) ?а??????? ? ????????? ????????? ?? ?????????? ??????.
????? ?????????? ????????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????? ??????????????. ??? ??????????? ???????? ?а???????????? ?? ???????????? ??????????????? ???????: л????? ??? ??????????
??????????? ?? ????? ?????????????╗. ???? ?????????? ?? ???? ???? ??? ????? ?????????, ??? ????????? ??????????? ???????????? ??????? ?а???? ??????. ????????, ??? ????????, ???????? ??????????? ???????????? ????????????? ?????? ???? ????????????, ?а??? ????? ????????????????. ???????? ?????????????????? ??????? ???????? 3,7 ?????, ? ??????? 3,8 ????? ?? 5 ?????????. ??????? ??
??????????? ? ?????????? ????? 0,1 ?????, ?? ???? ??????? ?? 2,7% ???????????? ?????????. ?????? ??
????? ??????, ????? ????????, ??? ?а?????????? ???????? ?????????????? ????????? ?? ?????????? ?? ?????????????? ???????.
??????????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????? ???????????? ??????. ????? ?????? ?????
???????????? ??????, ??????? ??????? ?? ???????? ??????. ????????, ?????? ??????: л???? ???? ??????? ????, ? ???? ??????? ??????, ?? ??? ??????? ?????╗. ????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????
?а??????????? ??????? ??????, ??????????? ??? ?????????? ?? ???????? ??????????. ??? ???????????
???????????? ???????? ?????? ???????????? ?а??????????????? ?????? ??????????? ??????????????? ?? ?????????? ???????? ?????? ?????? ???????????? ?? ????? ????? ?????? ???????? ?? ?????????. ??????????????? ?????????? ?????????? ????????? ???????????????? ?? ?????? ????????. ??
??????? ???????? ?????????? ????? ???????? ???????????? ?????? ?а?????? ??????. ???????????
????????, ??? ????? ?????????? ?????? ?а????????? ???????? 5,8 ?????, ? ?а??????? 6,0 ?????? ?? 9
?????????. ??????? ?????????? 0,2 ?????, ?. ?. ??????? ????? ?? 3,4% ??????????, ??? ????????. ???
?????????????? ??? ??????? ?? ????????????. ?????? ?? ????? ??????, ????????, ????? ????????, ???
?а?????????? ???????? ??????????? ?а????????????? ????????????? ??????????? ?а?????????
? ??????? ?????????.
?????? ????????? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ??????????? ???????? ?а???????????. ?а?????
???????????? ???? ?????????? ??????? ?? ???????? ?????????. ?????????? ???????? ?а ???????????? ???? ???????????? ??????? ??????????? ???????????. ??????? ?а ??????????? ?? ??? ???????????????? ?????????? ?? ???????????? ?????. ???????????? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ???? ??????.
???? ???????????? ???????, ??? ???????? ????????? ???? ?а??????? ??????? ?а3,95 ?????, ?а???????
???????? ???????? ?????? ?а4,00 ?????, ?. ?. ?? 0,05 ????? ?????? ??? ?а?????????. ??????? ?? 1,3%
????? ?????????? ???????, ??? ????????. ??? ??????? ?а1.3% ?????????????? ??? ?? ????????????.
?? ????????? ?????????? ?????? ????? ????????, ??? ?а?????????? ???????? ?а????????? ? ??????? ??????????? ?а??????????? ????????? ?? ?????????? ??????.
27
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
????? ???? ?????????????? ?????????, ??????????????? ?а ???? ??????? ????????????????
?????, ????????? ???????? ????????. ????? ?? ?????????? ????????????? ???????? ?а???????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????? ?? ???????? ?????????, л??? ???? ???????, ? ??? ???????????
?????╗. ??? ??????????? ???????? ????????????? ???????: л??????? ?? ??????? ???????? ????????╗. ???? ???????? ???? ????????? ?а?????????? ???????, ???????? ??????????? ??????????? ?а???
?????. ?? ???????? ??????? ??????? ???? ??????. ?????????, ??? ?????????????????? ???????? ?а????????? ???? ??????? ?а1.95 ?????, ? ?а??????? ?а2.00 ?????. ??????? ???????? ?? 0.05 ????? ??????
??? ?????? ??? ?????? ?? 2.6% ?????. ???????????? ??????? ?а??????? ??????? ???????? ??? ?????????????? ?? ????????????. ??????????? ?????????? ????????? ????????, ??? ?а?????????? ????????
??????????? ?а????????????? ???????? ?а????????? ?? ?????????? ?? ??????? ?а???????.
?????????? ???????? ????? ?????????????? ????????????? ??????????? ????????, ?? ???? ???????? ???????. ??? ??????????? ?????? ???????? ??????????? ???????? ?? ???????????? ???????
л???????? ???? ?????? ????? ?? ???? ?????????????╗. ??? ????????????? ????? ????? ???????????
???? ???? ?????? ???????. ???????????? ?????? ??????????? ?????????? 5 ??????. ?? ??????? ???????? ?? ???????? ?а ????????? ? ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ?а 4,1 ?????. ?? ????????? ?????????? ?????? ????? ????????, ??? ?а ?????????? ???????? ?а ????????? ? ??????? ???????????
???????????? ??????? ??????? ?????????.
??? ????????? ??????????? ?а ????????-??????????? ???????? ?? ?????????? ????? ????????-?????????? ?????? ?? ?.?. ???? [5]. ????? ????? ????????????? ???. ?? ?????? ????????? ????????
?????? ???????? ???? ????. ???????? ??????? ?а??????? 1,7 ?????, ? ???????а1,6 ?????, ?. ?. ????????
???? ??????? ?????? ????? ??????? ?? 0,1 ????? ??? ?? 5,9%. ???????????? ??????? ?а???????????
?????? ????????-?????????? ?????? ?? ?? ??????? ????????????. ?? ????????? ?????????? ??????
????? ????????, ??? ?а?????????? ???????? ?а????????? ? ??????? ??????????? ?а????????-??????????? ???????? ????????? ?? ?????????? ??????.
????? ?????, ?????????? ??? ?????????? ?????????, ???????????? ? ??? ????? ?????????? ??????? ?????????? ?а ?????. ?????????, ??? ?? ????? ????? ?????? ???????? ???????? 48,4 ?????, ?
??????? 49,0 ??????. ??????? ?? ????? ?????? ???????? ?? 0,6 ????? ?????? ?????????. ??? ???????
?а?????????? ????????? ?????????? ????? 1,2%. ????????????? ??????? ?а1.2% ?????????????? ???
?? ????????????. ??? ??????????? ????, ?????????? ??? ??????????? ??????? ????? ?а65 ??????,
??????? ??????????? ?? 100%. ????? ?????? ?? ????????? ?а????????? ?а????????? ?а??????? ????????? 74%, ? ?а??????? 75%. ???? ????? ?? ?????? ?? ?????, ? ???????? ??????????? ??????????
???????????????? ???????, ?? ??????? ?а????????? ? ??????? ???????? ????? ???? ???????. ???????
?а???? ??????? ?????????????? ??? ?? ????????????. ??????????, ??? ?? ??????????? ??????????
???? ??????????? ??????? ???? ?? ?????????????? ???????????? ???????? ?????????? ?а??????????? ?? ??????? ?????????????? ??????????.
?????????, ??? ?.?. ?????? [1] ???????? ?????? 46 ?????????? ?? ??????? ? ????????? ????????? ?????????? ?????? ? ??????, ? ?????????? ?а?????? ? ???, ??? ?????????? ??????????? ????????? ???????? ? ???????? ???? ????????? ?? ?????????? ??????.
?? ????????? ????? ??????????????? ????????????, ????? ????????, ??? ?а ?????????? ???????? ?а????????? ? ?а??????? ???????????????? ??????????? ????????? ?? ?????????? ??????.
??????? ???????? ????????? ? ??????? ?а?????????? ???????? ?? ?????????? ?? ?????? ?? ??????????.
????????????????? ??????
1. ?????? ?.?. ????????? ??????????: ????. ???????. ???.: ?????, 2008, 182 ?.
2. ??????? ??. ?. ????????? ????????. ??????????????? ????????????. 2-? ???. / ??? ???. ?. ???????, ?. ????????. ???.: ?????, 2003. 255?.
3. ???????? ?.?. ?????????? ????? ????????????. ???.: ????? ???, 1999. 129 ?.
4. ???????? ?. ?. ??????????????? ???????????? ?????????? ? ?????????? ?а????????: ??????? ?????? / ?. ????????, ?. ??????, ?. ????????. Saarbr№cken: LAP LAMBERT academic publishing, 2015.
138 ?.
5. ??? ?.?. ?????? ???????, ???????? ??????????: ??? ????????? ? ????????? ?????????? ????????
????? 6?15 ???. ?., 1996. 15 ?.
28
??????? ? ?????????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
??? 327.5
?. ?. ?????
?????? ??????????????? ????, ?????????
?. ?. ????????
???????
?????-????????????? ???????????
???????????????? ???????????????
??????????????? ????? ? ??????????????? ???????
???????????? ????????? ?????? ? ???
?????-???????????? ??????????? ????????? ??? ???? ??????? ?? ???????? ??????????? ?????? ??? ??????? ????? ?????????? ???????. ??? ??????????, ??? ? ???????????? ??????????? ???????
????? ????? ?????? ??????????? ????????? ? ?????????? ??????? ?????????, ???????? ???????? ????????????? ??? ?????? ???? ??????????????, ???? ???. ??? ?????? ?? ?? ?? ?????, ??? ??????????
??????? ?????????? л?????????? ????????????╗ ?аXX ????, ???? ??????? ???????????? ?а??? ????.
?а ?????????? ?????? ??????? ????? ? ??????????????? ??? ???????? ????????????? ?????????????? ???????? ??? ????????? ?а???????? ????, ???????? ?? ???? ??????????????? ???????? ? ?????
?????????? ????????? ?????? ??????. ????????? ?????? ? ??????????? ?а??????? ???? ??????
???????? ??????, ??? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ????????????? ??????????????? ??????, ???????????? ?? ????????????? ?а???? ? ?????????? ????? ?????? ?????????????.
???????????? ?????-???????????? ??????????????? ????? ???????????? ?? ??????????????
????? ? ????, ????????????? ?????????????? ? ??? ?а ???????? ????????? ? ???????????????
[1, 2, 38?105], ??????? ????????????????? ???? ?????????? ???????????? ? ??????????????, ?????,
????????, ??? ?????? [3, 22?24]. ?????? ?????????? ????????????, ?. ?. ????????? ??????????, ??????????????? ????????? ?????????????? ?????? ? ??????, ????????? ? ?????????? ????? ?а??????
?? ????????????? ? ???????, ?? ?????????? ??? ???????, ??????? ?, ?а???????? ?????, ?? ???????? ???
???? ?????.
???????????? ??????? ????? ??????????? ????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????????????
????????? ??????, ????? ?? ???? ?????? ?? ?????????? ???? ?????? ? ????????????? ???? ?????,
??????????????? ?? ????? ????????. ?????? ?????????? ?????? ?? ??????????? ??????? ?????
??????????? ? ??????????? ? ????? ????????????? ? ???????? ?? ???????? ?????????? ?????? ??????????? ? ????????? ???????, ??????????? ?????? ???????, ??????????? ??? ?????????? ???????????
??????????? [4, 480?525]. ?????? ??????????? ??????? ???????????? ???????????, ???????????? ??
????????? ??????????? ????????????? ??????? ???????????, ?? ???????? ?? ?? ????????? ??????
?? ?????? ? ???????? ???????? ??????????? ??????? ???????, ?????, ??????, ??????, ??????? ????,
???????? ??????? ? ???????? ??????? [5, 186?187].
? ????? ??????? ??????????????? ?????, ??????? ???????????, ???? ?????????? ??????????? ? ?? ??????? ???? ????? ???????? ??????????. ?а??? ?? ???? ??? ?? ? ?????????? ??????????
???????? ???????????, ?? ? ????????? ?????? ??? ??????? ????????, ????????, ???? ?????? ???????
?? ????????? ?????? ??????????, ? ??????????? ???? ??? ?? ???????? ????, ??? ??? ???? [6, 140?142].
???????? ??????????? ????????? ?????? ??????????? ? ????????? ??????, ????????????
??? ??????? ??????? ? ??????? ? ?????????? ??????? ? ??????? ????? ???????????? ??????? ? ??????????, ?а???????????? ??????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????? ?????? ??????????? ????. ????????,
?.?.??????????? ????????? ?? ?????? ????????? ??????????? ??? ?????? ????? ?????????? ? ???????????? ???? ??????????? ???? ?????? ?а?????????, ??????? ??????? ????? ?? ??????. ???????????
?????? ???????-?????????? ?????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????????, ?????? ??????? ?? ?????????? ?????????????? ? ????????????? ?????? ?????? ???????? [7, 23?25].
?????? ?????? ?????? ??????????? ???? ?? ???????? ??????????? ????????? ?.?.???????? [8, 104].
?? ??????? ????????? ? ????????????, ??????????? ?? ??????????? ???????????? ?????? ?
???????-????????, ???????? ? ????????? ??????, ?????? ?? ??????????????? ??????? ?? ?????? ???????? ?????? ?а ??????? ????????????. ?а ?????? ???????, ?а ???????????? ??????? ??????????? ??
???? ? ????????? ??????? ?? ?????? ? ??? ????? ? ??????????? ?а???????. ????? ??????????????,
??? ???????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ?????????? ?????? ? ?????? ???? ????????? ?? ????????,
29
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
?? ?????? ???????????? ?, ?????? ?? ??????????????? ?????????, ????????????? ? ????????????? ??????????????? ??????????????. ????, ???????????? ??????? ??????????? ?????? ?? ???? ???????: ????
?? ???????, ? ???????????? ?????. ??? ??????? ??????? ????????? ??????? ????: л????? ?????????? ?????? ????? ????? ????? ???????╗, ??, ?а?? ?? ?????: л??? ????? ?а????? ????? ?а???╗.
??????????? ?????????? ??????????????? ????? ????? ????? ??? ?а???????????????, ??? ?
?а????????? ???????????, ?????????? ? ????????? ??? ???? ????????, ??? ? ??????????? ??????.
??????? ??? ? ?????, ??? ? ?????? ??????, ???????? ????????? ???? ????? ??????? ?а???????, ? ??????а? ???????? ? ???????????? ???????????? ??????? ?а????? ?????????. ???????????????
???????? ??? ? ?????? ???????????? ????? ?а ??????, ????????? ???????, ?? ??????? ???????,
?а???????, ?????????, ?? ????? ??????, ?????? ????? ?????. ??? ???????????? ? ????????????, ?? ???
??????????, ?? ???????? ???????????????? ???????????. ????? ???? ????????????, ??????????
??????? ??? ??????? ?????????, ?? ???????? ?????????? ??????????????? ??????????. ???????
????? ?????????????? ??????? ????? ??????? ? ??? ??????????? ???????????????? ?????????.
???? ???????????? ???????? ? ?????????????? ???? ??????? (??? ????????? ??????? ?? ?? ????? ? ????? ?а????????? ??????? ???????? ?????????), ?а?????????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ?а???????????? ??????? ??? ????????????? ?????????, ?? л??? ??????????????? ?????????? ?? ????????
?????????????? ???? ??? ????? ????????? ???????????, ?? ???? ?а?????? ??????? ??????????, ??????????????, ???????????? ???????????????? ???????????????? (?????????????? ??????????, ?????????
??????????, ????????? ? ???) ? ??????????????? ???????? ?????????? ?а??????????? ??????????????? ??????? ? ???????????? ?? ????????? ???????????? ??????? ? ???????? ???????? ?????????? ???
????????? ???? ??????????????? ???????╗ [9, 245?250].
????, ?????? ? ??????????? ?????????????? ??? ? ?????? ?а ?? ??????? ?? ?????????? ???
????????? ?????? ???????????????? ??????? ??? ? ?????????????? ???? ??????????????? ???????, ??
????? ???? ?а ??????????????? ??????????, ?а ?????????? ?? ?????????? ??????? ???????????? ? ????????? ?? ???? ?????? ??? ? ?а?????????? ?????? ?? ??????????? ???? ????????? ? ???????????
???? ??????? ??????? ???????. ???? ??????????????? ????????, ?а????? ?????? ?????? ???, ????????????
????? ???? ?а??????? ??????: ??, ??? ?????????? ???? ????????, ??????????? ?????? ??? ???????????
?а??????? ?????? ???????? ????????? ?? ??????? ???. ??????????????????? ?????? ?????????? ??? ???
?????????????? ????????? ????????: ?а??? ????????? ?????? ???? ??????? (????? ?? ? ???, ??? ???????: ???, ??????????????, ???????, ????????), ??????? ????? ????????? ????????? ???? ??????????????? ?????? ? ???????? ?????? ?????? ?????. ????? ????, ??? ????????? ??????????????? ????????, ???
??? ????????? ?? ??? ?????????? ??????? ?? ????????? ???????? ??????????????? ???????.
?????????? ??????????????? ???????? ???????????????? ??????????? ?? ??? ??????? ????.
?? ????????????? ???????????? ?? ??????????? ???????? ????????????? ???????????????? ?????????. ???????? ??? ????????????? ???????? ?????????? ?? ???? ????????????????? ???????? ?????? ??
?????? ?????????. ??? ?????? ??? ????? ???????, ??? ????, ???????, ?????????? ???? ? ???. ???
??? ? ?? ? ????.
????????? ?????? ? ??? ?? ?????? ????????? ?????????? ???? ? ???, ?????? ?а??????
???????????????? ????????? ????????? ??????: ??? ?? ???????????? ????? ?????? ?а???????? ????? ???????????? ?а???????? ??????, ???????-????????. ?????? ????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????
??????????? ?????????? ?? ????? ???????????????? ???? ? ?????????? ???????. ?? ???????????
?????????? ???????????, ??? ?? ?????, ?а???????? ????????????? ? ????????? ???????? ?? ?????? ???????? ??????????????? ??????? ???? ??? ?????? ?????????????, ??? ? ?????? ?????????. ?????? ?????? ????????? л??????? ???????╗ ? ????????? л????????????╗, ??????????, ??????? ????????? ??
??????????? ?????????? ??????? ????????.
??????????? ????????? ?????? ? ??? ?а???? ????????? ???? ??????????????? ???????????
???????? ????????????? ?а ?????????? ???????? ??????????????? ??????? ????????????, ???????????????? ??????? ?????????????? ?????? ???? ? ????, ????????????? ??????? ???????????? ???????????? ?????????. ?а???? ???????? ????????????? ????????, ????? ????????? ???? ?????????????
?????? ???????? ?????? ? ?????? ??????????? ??????????????. ???? ?????????, ??? ? ?? ???????
???????? ?????, ?????????? ?????? ??????-????????????? ?????????????? ? ?? ?????? ??????? ??
?????? ??????????????? ???? ??????????.
?????????? ?????????? ?????? ?.?. ???????? ??? ???? ????????, ??????????? ???????? ??
????????? ?????????-???????????? ?????????: ?????????-???????????????, ?????????????????? ?
?????????????????? [10, 122?129].
30
??????? ? ?????????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
? ?????????-??????????????? ??????? ??????? ????? ?а???? ??? ????????: ??, ??? ????? ??????????? ???? ? ??, ??? ??? ????? ???? ?????.
?????? ? ??? ????? ???? ????? ??????, ? ?????? л???????? ?????????╗ ?а??????????? ???????, ? ?а??????? ???????, ?? ?????? ???????а? ?? ?????.
???????????? ???? ??????????? ?????????? ??? ????, ??????? ?????? ????? ?а??????? ???????????? ???????. ?????? ??? ????? ?? ????? ?????? ???????????? ????а? л???????????? ?????╗.
???????? ???? ???? ??? ?????????????? л?????? ???????????╗ ? л?????????????╗, ???, ?????? ??????????? ??????, ?????? ????? ????????????? ???????? ? ?????????? ?????????? ??? ??????
????????. ?? ???? ??????????????? ? ??????? ?????? ??? ?? л???????????? ????????????????╗, ?а???????????? ?а??????? ??????? ? ??????? ????? ? ??????? ??? ????.
?????? ??? ? ??? ???? л????????? ??????╗ (лManifest Destiny╗). ????? ??????? ???? ?????????? ??????????? ??? ?а?????? 1845 ????, ????? ??????? ????????? ???? ?????????? ?? ???? ???????????? ? ????????? ?????? ?????? ? ??????????. ???? ???, ????????????, ??? ??? ??? ????? ???
??????????? ??? ?????????????????? ???????????, ???? ????? ??? ????????????? ?????????????? [11,
22?29]. ?????, ?аXX ???? ???? ?????????????? ?? ?????????????? ????????????? ???????????, ? ????? ??????????, ?? ??? ?????? ???? ??????????? ????.
?????? ??? ???????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????? ? ????? ???????? л???????????? ???╗.
???????? ???? ????, XX ?. ?????????? ???????? ????????? ???, ? ???? ??? ???? ????? ?? ?????????.
??? ??? ??? ???? ????????????? ?????????? ? ????????????? ???????????? ?а?????? ??????????? ????. ????? 28-?? ?????????? ????? ???????? ? ??????? ? ?????????? ??????? ???????????
?а ??? ??? ???? ??????? ????? ???????????? ??? [12, 56], ?а ??? ????? ??????????? ???????????
????????? ???????.
??? ? ??? ???????????, ???????????? ?????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????. ???????
?? ???????????? ?а????????? л??????????? ??????????╗. ?????????????? ????, ??? ?????????????
л???? ?а?????╗ ?????? ?? ?????, ????? ?????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????? ???. ? ?????????
?????????? ?а???? ??????? ?????? ??? ?а????????????? ????? ????????? ???????????? ????????????. ????????? ? ??????????? ?????????? ?? ????????? ??????, ?? ????????????? ??????? ????
???????????? ??? ???????????????, ??? ? ??????????????? ?????????????. ?? ?????????? ???????
??????? ?? ?????? ????, ?? ? ????????????? ?????????? ? ????????????? ??????????.
??????? ?????????? ?? ???????? ? ?? ????? ?????-???? ?????? ?? ????? ??????????. ??? ?????
???????? ?? ???????? ?????? ?а????????? ????? ???????????. ?аXIX ???? ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ?а???? л?????? ? ?????? ???╗. ?????????? ????????????? ???????????, ????, ??????????
?? ??????????, ??????? ??????? ??? ????????????, ????????, ????????????, ? ?????? ??? ???????????
? ???? ??? ????? ????????????? ????. ?а ??????? ?????? ??? ?????????? ??????? ?а ????????? ??????? ??????? ??????, ? ?????а? ?а?????????? ?????? ??????. ????????? ???????? ???? ???? ???????? ??????????: ?.?.???????, ?.?.?????????, ?.?.??????????, ?.?.?????????? ? ??. ???????????
XIX?XX ?. ???? л?????? ? ?????? ???╗ ????????? ?? ?????? ??????????-????????????, ?? ? ?????????? ????????. ?а?????????? ?????? ?????? ????? ??????? ????????????? ???, ??? ??? ?????? ??? ?
?????? ???????????? ???? ?????????, ??????? ??? ????? ????????????, ????????? ?????? ? ?????, ???
????? ??????? ????????????? ??????????? ????????.
?? ???????????? ????????????? ? ???????? ??????????? ????????? ?????? ?????? ? ??????
?????????? ???? ?????. ??? ??? ?????? ?????? ??????????????? ?а ?????????, ?а ???????? ? ???????. ??????? ??? ??????? ?? ??????? ?????? ???????, ?? ?????????? ???-???? ???????????? ?а???,
????? ?? ?????? ???? ???????? ?? ???. ?????? ???? ? ???????? ??? ??? ?? ?????? ???????????? ?
??????????. ??? ??????????? ?????? ???????? ? ???????? ??????? ? ???????????????, ????????????
?а????????????? ? ?????? ??? ?????? ??? ???, ????? ??????? ? ??????? ????????.
??? ??????, ????????, ???? ???????? ? ?? ?????? ????? ??????????, ??? ?????? ??????????????? ?а ?????????: ?????? ?а ??????? ????????? ??????? ? ??????? ????????, ?????? ??????? ?
??????????????, ?. ?. ??????? ??????. ?????? ???? ? ????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????? ?а ???,
????? ?????? ?а????, ??? ???? ?а???? ???? ??? ????????? ? ????????? ??????????? ?????????????
?????????????? ?????.
??-?? ????????????? ??????? ???? ????? ????????? ? ????????? ????????????? ? ?????????,
??????? ?????????????? ????? ???????? ????? ????? ???????? ?а???????? ??? ???????? ???????.
????????? ????????? ?а??????? ?????? ? ??? ?????? ?????? ?????? ? ???????? ?? ???????????? ??????. ??????????? ??????? ??????????? ??????????? ?? ?????????????? ????? ????????
???? ? ????? ?а??????? ???????????? ??????.
31
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
???????????? ???????????? ??????? ????????? ?? ?????????????? ?????????? ?????? ? ??????? ??????, ?? ??????? ??????? ? ????????????: ???????????? ???????? ?????????? ???????????
??????? ???? ?? ???????????? ????????? ?????? ??? ?????????? ?? ?????????????; ???????? ???????? ??????? ????????, ?? ????????????????? ? ???????? ?????????????? [13, 299?310]. ?а??????
?? ???????????? ?????? ?????????????????, ???????? ???????? ??????? ???????????????. ?????
?????? ?а??? ? ??? ???????????? ????? ? ?????????? ???????????? ???????, ?а?????? ? ??? ??????
???????????? ???????, ?. ?. ???????????? ???????????? ???????. ?а??? ??????????, ???????? ??
??????? ?????? ?????? ? ????? ???????? [14, 128?129], ??????? ??????? ??????????????? ????????????? ?????, ?а?????? ??????????????? ? ??????????????? ????????????? ????? ?? ?????? ??????? ??
???????? ?????????? ???????????? [15, 57?61].
?? ????? ?????????????? ??????? ????? ??????? ? ???а? ??????????? ??????? ????????
?? ??????????. ?а??? ??????? ????????а? ???? ????? ?????????? ???????????? ???????????, ???????
? ????????. ????????? ????? ????? ????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????? ?????????? ????????
??????? ????????. ??? ?? ??? ??????????? ?????????? ?????? ???????????? ???? ??? ? ??????????
? ?????????????.
? ?????? ??????? ???????? ? ???????????? ????? ??????????. ?????? ?? ?????????? ?? ????????? ? ?????????? [16, 110?111]. ??? ???? ??????? ???????? ??? ????? ????? ?? ??????? ?а??????????, ? ??????????????? ?????? ?????? ?? ?????????????????? ????? ??????????? ????.
? ????? ??? ?????? ??? ???????????? ??????? ?а?????? ?а???????: л???????????????? ???????? ?????? ?а???????????? ???????? ??????????╗. ?????? ?? ?????? ???????????? ??? ??????? ?
?????????? ???? ?????? ?????? ?а????????? ???????? ???.
?? ????????????? ?????? ??????????????? ???????? ????? ?? ? ??? ??????? ????????????
??? ?????? ?а????? ??????? (?? ??????? ??????) ?? ????????? ?????? ???????????????? ????????? ??
??????? ???????????? ??????? ?? ??????? ??????? ???????, ?а?????? ? (?? ??????? ???) ??? ?????? ?? ?????????? ??????? ???????????? ???????-????????, ?? ???? ????? ??????, ??????? ?????? ?? ?
????? ???????????? ???, ??????? ????? ?? ?? ???? ??????????????? ?? ???????? ????? ?????? ? ????
??????? ????????, ?????? ???????? ???????.
?????? ?? ?? ???????? ????? ????? ???????????, ????????????, ?? ????????? ??? ???? ???????? л?????????????????╗. ??????????? ???????? ?? ????????????? ????? ?? ????? ?????????????
??????, ???? ?а?????? ????????????? ???? ????????? ??? ?? ?? ????????????. ?? ?????? ??? ?????
?????????? ?а?????????????????? ???? ?? ?????????????, ??????? ??? ??????? ???, ?а????????????, ?а??????? ???? ?????? ???????????? ??????????? ?????????? ????? ????????.
?? ????????? ???????? ????? ??? ??????? ???? ????????????, ? ??????????? ?? ???? ?????????? ?????? ?????????? ???? ???????? ????????. ???? ?????? ???? ???????? ?? ????? ??????, ???
??????????????? ??? ????????????? ??????, ?? ??????? ????, ???? ????? ?????????????, ??? ?? ?????????????? ? ????. ?? ?а2000-? ?, ????????, ????? ?????????? 2007 ???? ???? ?????????? ??????,
?????? ????? ????????? ????? ??????????? ????????. ??? ??? ??? ????? ???????? ? ??????????
????????????? ????????? ? ??????????.
????, ??????????????? ???????? ??? ? ?????? ?????? ????????? ????? ?????????? ??????????????? ???????????????: ????????????? ???????????? ?????????, ??????????? ?????? ?? ????????????? ?????? ? ?? ????????? ???? ??????? ???????????? ???????. ?? ?? ????? ???????????
??????? ???????? ????? ?????? ??????????. ???????????, ????????? ? ??????? ?????, ?? ???????????? ???????? ? ?????????????? ?????????, ?? ????????, ?. ?. ??? ??????????????? ??????? ??
???????? ??? ?????? ????????????. ?а?? ?? ????? ?????????? ?????? ????????????, ???????? ????????
??????????????? ??????????????? ? ???????? ?????????????, ?????? ? ???????? ???????? ??????? ???????????????? ????????? ????? ??????? ? ???. ?????? ??????????? ???? ????????, ? ?? ???????
????????????? ??????????????? ?????. ?????? ?? ?????? ?????????? ?? ???????????, ??? ?? ??? ????
?? ?????? ?????????? ???? ???????.
????????????????? ??????
1. ?????? ?. ??????? ?????. ?.: ??? л???????????? ???╗; ???.: Terra Fantastica, 2002. C. 15?49.
2. ????? ?.T. ??????? ??????? ???? ?? ??????? 1660?1783 ??. ?.: ??? л???????????? ???╗; ???.:
Terra Fantastica, 2002. ?. 38?105.
3. ????????? ?. ?????????????? ??? ???????. ??????????? ? ??????????? / ??????????? ?а5 ?. ?. 2.
???????? ???????????. ??. 2. ??????????, ????????????, ???????????, ??????? ????? / ??? ???.
?.?. ??????. ???.: ????. ???. ????. ??-?, 2004. ?. 22?24.
32
??????? ? ?????????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
4. ????????? ???????. ???????? ??????????. ?.: ?????, 2000.C. 480?525.
5. ??????? ????. ????. ? ????? ?????. ?????? ?.?.??????. ?.: ??????????, 1992.
6. ???????-???-??????? ?.?. ? ?????????????? ??????????????? ???????? ????????????? ?а??????: ????? ?? ???????????? ????????? / ??????????? ?а5 ?. ?. 2. ???????? ???????????. ??. 2.
??????????, ????????????, ???????????, ??????? ????? / ??? ???. ?.?.??????. ???.: ????. ???.
????. ??-?, 2004. ?. 140?142.
7. ??????????? ?.?. ?????? ? ??????. ?.: ?? ???????? ???.
8. ???????? ?.?. ??????, ?????? ? ??????????. ????????? ?а???? ?????. ?., 1885.
9. ????? ?.?. ???????????: ??????? ??? ?????. ???.: ?????, 2016. ?. 245?250.
10. ?????? ?.?. ???????????. ????? IX. ????????????? ????????? ? ??????? ?? ??????????. https://
studfiles.net/preview/5899065/page:23/#37
11. Stephanson,аAnders.а Manifestа Destiny:аAmericanа Expansionismа andа theа Empireа ofа Right.а NewаYork:
HillаandаWang,а1995. P. 22?29.
12. ??????? ?.?.. ?????????????? ????? ? ???????????. ?.: ???????????? л?????????╗. 2006. C. 56.
13. ????? ?.?. ???????????? ??????????: ??????? ?????? ? ????????-???????????? ??????. ???.,
2010. ?. 299?310.
14. ????? ?.?. ??????????? ????????? ?????? ?????? ? ????????? ?????? // ?????????-???????????? ??????. 2008.а?а2. ?. 128?129.
15. ????? ?.?. ?????? ???????????? ??????? // ?????????-???????????? ??????. 2007.а?а4. ?. 57?69.
16. ????? ?.?. ? ??. ???????????. ??????? ?????. ????, ??????. ?????. ?????????, ?????. ? ???????.
???????, ????????. ????????? ? ???. ????????????. ???. ??????? ???? (5-? ???.). ???. ?. 110?111.
33
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
??? 329
?.?. ?????
?????? ??????????????? ????, ?????????
?????-????????????? ??????????????? ???????????
???????????????? ???????????????
?????????????? ???????????? ??????
? ??????????? ?????????? ? ??????????
??????????????? ?????? ? ??????????? ? ??????????? ?????? ?????? ???? ? ???????????? ????????.
?????????? ??? ?????? ?????????????? ???????????? ?????? ? ?????????? ????????????: 1.??????
?????????????, ????????????? ??????????, ???????, ?? ???????? ????????? ????????, ?????????? ??
???????, ? ???????????????? ????????, ????????? ???????? ? ????????? ??????, ???????? ???????
??? ?????? ? ??? ????????, 2.?????? ?????????? ??????????, ??????? ???????? ??????? ??????, ????????? ?? ??? ? ?????? ?? ????????????? ???? ? ??????????? ???????, ???????? ???? ????? ? ??????????????? ????????, 3.?????? ????????????? ?????????? ??????????, ??????? ????????? ? ??????
??????? ??? ????? ????? ? ?????? ?? ?????? ? ??? ????? ??????.
????????? ?????????? ? ?????? ????? ???????? ?? ????????? ???? ???????, ????????????????
?. ???????: 1) ?????????? ?????????????? ? ??????, 2) ????????????? ?????????? ????? ??????????????? ? ????????? ????????????, 3) ?????????? ?????? ??? ?????? ?????????????? ?????????.
??? ??????, ??????????? ?? ????????? ????????????? ? ???????????? ???????????? ????????? ????????? ? ? ?????????? ???????????? ???????.
???????? ?????: ???????????? ??????, ???????? ????????????, ?????????, ?????? ???????????????.
THE INTERACTION OF POLITICAL PARTIES
WITH PRESIDENTIAL AND PARLIAMENTARY INSTITUTIONS
Relationship of the parties with the President and the Parliament play an important role in the political process.
There are three models of the interaction of political parties with the Institute of Presidency: 1. model of
non-partisan, ?verparties President, who does not recognize the party differences, advocating not private and
national interests acts as an arbitrator in party disputes, took the position of outside parties and over parties,
2. model of the ?arty President, who is the leader of the party, relies on her in the fight for the Presidency
and leadership of the country, expanding its foothold in the State apparatus, 3. model of ?verparties, party
President, who acts primarily as the leader of the nation and only second as party leader.
The relationship of Parliament and parties are also being built based on three models formulated ?. Duverger:
1) domination parliamentarians in party, 2) the relative balance between parliamentarians and party leadership,
3) the dominance of the parties over their parliamentary factions.
These models are built on the basis of American and European political processes apply to Russian political
realities.
Keywords: political parties, the Parliament, the Presidency Institute model relationships.
???? ????????????? ???????????? ???????, ??? ???????????? ???????????? ??????????, ?а?????? ???????, ????? ???: ???????? ?????????????, ???????? ??????????, ???????? ?????????????, ???????? ???????? ??????, ???????? ??????????????? ??????????, ?? ???????? ????????, ??? ????? ???? ???????????? ?????????? ????? ??????? ????????? ????????, ?. ?. ???????? л??????????╗ ????????,
??????????, ?а?????? ??????????? ??????? [1, 57?58]. ?????? л??????????╗ ??????????? ????????:
???? ?????????? ? ??? ?????????????, ????????????? ? ?????????. ?????? ???????????? ?????????,
????? ??? ???????? ????? ?????? ? ??????????????? ?????????? ?? ???????? ??????? ?????????? ? ??
?????????????? ???????? ?? ???????? ????????? ?????????? ??????.
? ???? ??????? ?????????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????????? ???????????? ??????
?а?????? ??????? ???????????? ?????????? ???????????? ???????, ??? ????????????? ? ????????????? ?????????.
34
??????? ? ?????????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
1. ?????? ??????????????? ?????????? ? ???????????? ??????
C XVIII ????, ?а??? ??? ??? ???????? ???????? ??????????, ???????????? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ??????? ??????????????? ????????????? ?????? ?а ???????? ????????. ?????? ????
???????????? ??????????????? ????? ?????????????? ?????? ?а ????????????? ???????? ??????
?а???????????? ??????, ??????? ????? ??????? л?????????? ??? ????????╗ [2, 24?27]. ??? ??????
????????????? ?а???????? ???????????? ?а???????????? ???????? ???? ??????????? ?????????????
???????? ??????????? ? л??????-????????╗, ??????? (??????????) ??????? ????? ???????????: л??
?????????? ?? ?а?????? ??????? ?а???????????, ?? ??????? ?а???????? ???? ????? ?????? ??????╗, ?а????????? ?????? ????????? ??????????? ?а?????????????? ??????? ???????? ? ??????? ??? ????????? ?
??????????? ???????? ?а????????? ?????? [3, 226, 227].
?????? л????????????? ?????? ??? ??????????╗ ??? ?а1820?? ??. ???? ????????????????? ?????? л?????????? ??????????╗. ?а???????????? ?а??????????????? ??????????? ????? ?????? ??????????????? ?????????????? ?????? ? ???????????? ?????? ??????? ????????? ?? ???? л??????? ??????╗ ?????? ?????????, ? ?? ????? ?????? ??????? ????????? ?а????????? ?????? ?? ????????????? ??????.
????? ?????? ?????????, ?????????? ?????? ??????????, ??????? ?? ??????????? ???????????????
????????? ?? ?? ?????? ?а????????????? ????????. ??????????? ?????? ??????? ?а????????????-????????? ???????????????? ??????? ???? ??????? ????????? ??? ????? ??????? (1832?1836).
?????????? ??????? ?????????? ??????? ? ????????? ??????????? ????? ?а ??? ???????????? ????? ????????? ???????-????????? ?????????. ??? ?????????? ??????? ????????? (1860?
1867), ??????? ????????????? ???????????? ????????? ?а ?????? ??????? ??? л????? ? ?????????
?????╗, ? ?? ????? ??? ????? ??????????????? ??????, ??? ????????? ?????????????? ? ??????????????? ?а????????????? ???????? ?????? ?? ?????? ????, ?? ?? ?????? ????? ?? ????????????? ????????. ????? ???? ???????????? ?????? л?????????????, ??, ?а?? ?? ?????, ?????????? ??????????,
????????? ?????╗.
??????????? ?????????-????????????? ???????? ??? ?? ???? ?????????? ????????????????, ?? ??? ????????????? ?????????????? ?????? ?а????????? ??????? ?а???????? ???? ??????????
? ??? ???????? ? ?а ????????? ???????? ??????????????? ??????. ????????-???????????? ????????
??? ?а???? ?????? (1868?1896) ????? ?? ???? ????????? ?а??????????? ???????, ??? ??? ?????????
?????? ????????????????? ?? ?????????? ??????????? ?а?????????? ? ???????????? ?????????????.
????? ?????? ??????????????? ????? ??????? л??????╗ ????????? ?????????а? л???????╗ ????????? ?????????╗. ?????? ?? ????? ?????? ??????????????? ?????????? ?а 1990-? ???? ??????????
??????????????? ????, ??????? ???? ?а?? ?????????????? ?а??????????? ?.?.????????.
????????? ?????? (1890?1920-? ??.), ??????? ???????????????? ???????????? ??????? ???????? ??? ? ??????????? ?????, ??? ???????? ?????? ?? ????????????? ?????? ? ??????? ???? ?а???????? ???????????? ?????? ???????????? ?????????, ? ????? ????????????? ???????? ? ?????? ???????????? ???????? ?а????????, ????????? ????? ?????? ???????-????????? ?????????. ?? ?????
?????????????? ????????, ??????? ???????? ???????? ???? ??????????? ?а?????????? ?????????-????????????? ??????, ?а ?????? ???????? ??????????, ??????? ?????? ?????? ??????????? л????????╗ ? л?????╗, ??? ?????????? л??????╗. ?а?????? ? ??????? ?????? ???????? ???????? ????? ?а???????????? ?????? ???????????-???????????? ????????, ??????????? ???????????????? ??????.
?а???? ???????? ???????????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ???????-???????? ???????? ????????????
????? ?ал??????????????╗ ??????????, ?а??????? ? ???????????? ???? ????????? ??????????????.
?????????????? ?????? л??????? ???????????-??????????????, ? ????? ?????????? ??????????╗.
??????????? ?????? ??????????????? ?????????? ? ???????????? ?????? ??????????????
??? ????????? ?????????, ??????? ?а???????????????, ?????????? ??????????? (????? ???????????
? ?????????????? ??????, ??????? ???????????? ? ???????? ????????????????? ??????????? ???)
??????? ????????????????, ????? ??? ??????????? ??????????, ????????????? ?? ??????????? ????????, л????? ??????╗, ????????????? ????? ?, ???????, ????? ?????? [4, 307?309].
????? ????????????? ?? ???????????? ?????????? ? ? ?????????? ?????? ???, ?а?????? ???????, ?????? ?????, ? ????? ??? ????????? ?????? ???????????? ? ??????.
??? ????????????? ???????? ? ????????? ?????? ??????????????? ????????? ?????????????
? ???????????? ?????? ????? ?????? ?а???? ????????, ? ??????:
? ?????? ?????????????, ????????????? ??????????, ???????, ??? ??????-??????? ?? ???????? ????????? ????????, ?????????? ?? ???????, ? ???????????????? ????????, ????????? ????????
?а????????? ??????, ???????? ??????? ??? ?????? ? ??? ????????;
35
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
? ?????? ?????????? ??????????, ??????? ???????? ??????? ??????, ????????? ?? ??? ?а??????
?? ????????????? ????, ?, ???????? ???, ?????????????? ?а???????? ????????? ? ?????????? ?????????? ???????????????? ???????????, ???????? ???? ????? ?а??????????????? ????????;
? ?????? ????????????? ?????????? ??????????, ??????? ????????? ?а ?????? ??????? ???
????? ????? ? ?????? ?? ?????? ? ??? ????? ?????? [5, 312].
??? ??????, ??????????? ?? ????????? ??????? ???????????? ???????????? ??????????, ????????? ? ?а?????????? ???????????? ???????. ????????, ????????????? ? л??????????????╗ ?????????? ????????? ??????????? ???? ????? ???????????? ?, ?а?? ?? ?????, ?????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????? ????????? ????????????? ????????, ????????????? ?? ???????????-?????????????, ? ?? ????????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????? ?а??????????? ??????. ?а?? ?? ?????, ?а?????
????? ?????????, ?а1990-? ????, ??? ?? ????????, ???? ????? ????????? ??????: л??????╗ ?????????,
???????? ????????? ????????? ? л???????╗ ?????????, ??????? ????????????? ???????╗.
2. ?????? ??????????????? ?????? ? ?? ????????????? ???????
????? ?? ???????? ??????? ???????????? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????? ?а???????????????? ? ??????????????? ?????? ?????? ? ??????????? ???????????? ????????. ?????? ????????
???????? ??????????????? ?????? ?а??????? ???????????-??????????, ???????? ???????????????. ???????, ???? ???? ?? ?????? ?а??????????? ????????? ?????, ?????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ????? ??????. ?????? ???? ??????? ???????????????? ????????, ????????? ?? ?????-???? ??????.
?????? ??, ?а?????? ???????, ????????? ??? ????????????? ????? ???????? ? ?????? ?? ?????? ? ???
???? ????? ????????? ???????. ?????? ?? ?????? ?????? ?? ??????????, ? ????? ????????, ????????????? ??????. ?? ???? ??????????, ??????? ???????, ?? ???????? ????? ??????????? ??? ?????? ?
?????????? ??????? ?? ? ?а????? ????? ????????. ????????? ?????????????? ?????????, ??? ????????
???? ?????????-???????????? ????????: ???????????-???????????????? ? ??????????.
????? ??????? ???????, ??? ???????????? ??? ???? ???????? (??? ??? ??????) ??????????????? ?????? ? ?????????????? ?? ????????????? ???????:
1) ?????????? ?????????????? ?а??????;
2) ????????????? ?????????? ????? ??????????????? ? ????????? ????????????;
3) ?????????? ?????? ??? ?????? ?????????????? ????????? [6, c. 237].
??? ???? ?а ??????????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????????????
?а???????, ?а???????????????? ? ????????? ?????????? ????? ?????????????, ?а???????????? ?????? ?
?????????? ?????????? ??????????? ??? ?????????????? ????????? [7, 132?133].
? ??????? ?????? ??????????? ???????????? ?????? ?? ??????? ??????? ???????? (1905?
1917 ??.) ?????????????? ?????? ? ?????? ???????. ????? ??????, ??????? ???????????, ?? ????????? ????????????? ?????? ??????? ????? ????????? ????????????, ????????? ?? ?????? ??????.
? ???????? ?????????? ????????????? ??????? ??? ???????, ????? ????????, ????? ?????? ????????? ?а????? ????????? ?????????? ????????? ?????????, ???? ????????????? ??????? ???????????? ????? ????? ???????????????? ? ????????????????????, ???????? ???????????, ?????????, ???
???????, ?? ?????????? ???????. ?? ? ?? ???????? ????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????????, ???
??? ?????? ?? ??? л????????????? ?? ??? ?????: ???? ???????? л??╗, ?????? ? л??????╗, ? ?????? ??????????????╗ [6, c. 239]. ???????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????????? ??? ??????? ??????
??????????? ???????????????? ?????? ????? ?????????, ??????? ?а???? ??????? ???? ???????? ??????
?????????. ????? ???????? ?? 1911 ?. ????? ?а?????? ????????? ??? ???????, ????? ?????????? ????
?????: ??????? ????? ????????? ? ??????? ????? ???????-???????????. ????? ???? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ?? ????? ?????? ?????????, ?? ?? ?????????? ? л??????????╗ ?? ???????????? ?????? ??????????????? ????.
?????????? ?????????????? ??? ???????? ????????? ??????? ???????? ?? ????????? ???????????? ??????. ??? ???? ??????????? ?а????????? ???????, ????????? ?? ?????? ?? ?????? ? ?????????????????? ??????????, ?? ??????, ?а ??????? ???????????? ????????. ????? ???????? ?????? ??
???????????? ??????????, ?????????? ?? ????? ?? ?????????????????? ??????? ?? ?????? ??????????, ????????? ????????? ????????????? ?а ???????????? ??????????????, ??????????, ???? ??????
?????, ????? ??? ??????????? ????????? ?? ???????????? ??????.
? ?????? ?????????????? ?????????? ??? ?????????????? ? ?????????? ??????????? ????? ????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ? ????????????? ????????????? ??????? ?а?????????? ?? ????????.
???????? ???? ????? ???????????????, ??? ?? ????????, ?????????? ?а ???????????????? ??????
36
??????? ? ?????????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
??????? ??????, ? ???????? ???????????? ????????-?????????????? ????? ???????????????, ??? ??????? ???????, ????????? ???????????????? ? ???????????-??????????????? ??????, ??????? ??????? ?????????? ????????? [6, c. 240?242].
???????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????? ??? ????? ????????????? ???????? ????? ????????? ?а???????????? ???????. ??? ?????????? ????????, ??-??????, ?? ??????????????? ? ??????????????? ???????????? ??????, ??????? ?????????? ?? ??????????? ???????????? ???????????? ???????, ? ??????? ????? ?????? ?? ????????????? ??????????? ? ???????? ????????????? ???????????? ??????????? ???????? ?а??????????? ??????? ?а??????. ?????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????
?а ???????????? ???????????? ??????????, ?а ??? ????? ? ???????, ????????????? ???????, ???,
?а?????????? ??????. ?????????? ???????????? ??????? ????? ?????? ??? ??????????? ??? ?????????????????? ????? ????? ? ??? ??????????????? ????? ?????????. ????? ??????? ?а?????? ??? ??????
??????? ??????????? ???????????? ?????, ?а??????? ?? ????????? ????? ?????? ??????? ? ??????
??????????. ?а???????????? ???????????? ??????? ???? ?? ????? ??????, ??? ?????????? ?а??????,
??????????? ??? ?????????????. ????????? ??????????? ???????? ????????? ?? ?????? ??????????????? ? л?????????╗ ??????????? ?а?????, ?? ? ????? ??????? ???????????????? ????????. ??????? ?а?????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ?? ?????? ? ?????????? ?????? ??? ???????????????, ? ??????
? ?????????? ?????? ??? ???????????? ? ????????? [8, 82?84].
??? ???????? ????, ??? ?????? ?????? ???????????????, ?????????? ?????????????? ?????????????? ?а???????, ????????????? ??????????? ??????? ????????? ? ????????????? ?????? ?
?????????????? ?????? ??? ???????????????, ?????????????? ????????????? ????????????, ????????????????? ? ????????????? ???????? ????????? ???????,
? ?????????, ???????????????? ?????? ?????? ??????????????? ?????? ? ??????????????,
???????????? ????????? ????????, ?? ?????? ?а????. ??? ?????????? ? ??????? ??? ?ал??????╗, ??? ?
??????????????? ????.
????????????????? ??????
1. ????? ?.?. ?????? ???????????? ???????. ?????????-???????????? ??????. 2007. ? 4. ?. 57?69.
2. ???????????? ??????????: 41 ???????????? ??????? ?? ??????? ?????????? ?? ????? ????????.
??????- ??-????, 1997. ?. 24?27.
3. ??????????. ?????? ?? ???????? ? ?????? ???????. ?., 1976. ?. 226?227.
4. ????? ?.?. ???????????? ??????????: ??????? ?????? ? ????????-???????????? ??????. ???, 2010.
5. ????? ?.?. ?????? ?????? ? ????????? ??????: ???????. ?., 2016. ???. 61. ???????? ? ???????.
????????????? ????. (2-? ???., ????. ? ???.).
6. ??????? ?. ???????????? ??????. ?.: ????????????? ??????, 2000.
7. ????? ?.?. ??????????? ????????? ?????? ?????? ? ????????? ?????? // ?????????-???????????? ??????. 2008. ? 2. ?. 128?140.
8. ????? ?.?..??????? ? ????????? ???????????? ??????? // ?????????-???????????? ??????. 2009.
? 3. ?. 88?97.
37
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
??? 111
?.а?.а??????????
???????? ??????????? ????, ??????
?????-????????????? ??????????????? ???????????
???????????????? ???????????????
??????? ???????????? ? ??????? ?????????
? ????????? XIX ?. ????? ?????? ???????? ????????? ?????????? ?????????? ???? ?????????????? ???????????, ???????? ???????? ?????????? ??? ? ????????? ??????? ???????? ????????? ?
????????????? ?????????? ?? ???????? ? ??????????????? ????????. ?????? ?аXX ?. ?а????? ?а?????????? ?а??????? ????????? ?????? ???????? ???????, ????????? ?а???, ????????? ?? ????? ?????????? ? ?????????? ? ????????????? ?????????? ????????? ???????? ?? ??????? ?? ?????????. ?????
????, ??? ??????? ?а???????????? ???? ?а????????? ??????????. ?а????? ?а???? ?а????? XX ?. ??????
????????? ???????. ???????? ??????? ???????????, ?????????? ?? ????????? ?????? ?????????????
?????????? ?? ????????? ???????????? ??????????, ????????? ??????? ?? ???????? ?????????? ??
???????? ??????????? ??????????, ?? ??? ?? ????? ????????? ??????????? ????? ??????????????.
?????? ??????????? ?????????? ?? ?????????? ????????????, ???????? ???????? ????????? ?????????
?? ?????????? ?? ?????????? ?а????????.
???????? ?????: ????????? ???????; ????????? ?????; ????????? ?????????; ??????????; ????????.
CLASSICAL REALISM AND QUANTUM REALISM
Realism was popular among scientifically thinking philosophers of XIX century. According to realism the
world and all its objects are real and are independent of human and cognitive process. However on the XX
century because of revolutionary discoveries in quantum physics new questions appeared concerning whether
the characters of quantum objects before the moment of measurement is real and objective ore not. New experiments showed that classical realism can not be applies to the mocro-world. Because of this in the end of
the XX century the concept of quantum realism was formed. According to this concept the reality of quantum
objects cardinally differs from classical reality. Quantum objects do not possess concrete properties and have
only common characteristics before the moment of measurement. Quantum realism differs from quantum
antirealism according to which before the moment of measurement quantum states do not exist in principle.
Keywords: quantum realism; philosophy of science; quantum paradoxes; reality; micro-world.
???? ?? ????????????? ???????? ? ????????????? ?????????, ?? ??????????? ???????????
??????? ????????????? ?аXIX ?. ??????????? ??????? ? ???????????, ?????????? ?????????? ??????????? ???? ? ????????? ????????, ???????????? ?????????? ?? ???????? ? ??????????????? ????????. ?????? ??????????? ???? ????????? ????? ????????? ?????? ???????? ??????????? ? ????????????? ????????? ? ?????? ?????? ???????? XIX ?. ????????, ???????????????? ????????????
???????? ?а?????? ????? ??????? ?.а?.а???????, ???????, ???????? ?????? ???????????, ??????? ?????
??????? ?????????? ????????? ???????????? ? ????????? [1,а?.а3]. ?а?????? ???????? XX ?. ?? ?????
???????? ?????? ??????????, ???????? ???????? ???, ?????????????? ??????, ?????????? ?????????? ?? ?????????? ??? ????????, ???????? ???????? ? ?????? ?? ??????? ?? ????, ????? ??????? ??
??????????????. ?????????? ??????????? ????????? ?????? ?????????, ?????????? ? ???????, ???
??? ???????? ???? ???????????? ?????? ???? ?????? ??????????? ? ???????????? ??????. ??????????, ??????? ??????????? ??????? ????????, ????????? ??????? ??????????? ?? ?????????????? ?
????????????? ??????? ??? ???????????? ??????????. ???????? ??????????????? ??????? ??????????? ???????? ??.а???, ?.а??????, ?.а?.а??????? ? ??.
???? ??????? XIX ?. ?????????? ?? ????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????, ?? ????????????
??????????? ??????? ?? ??????? ?а?????????? ?????????????? ?????. ???????? ???????? ????????????????, ?????????????????? ?.а????????????, ??????? ????????? ?? ????? ???????? ????????????
??????? ???????????????-?????????? ? ?????????????-??????????? ????????????????. ????????
???????? ???????????????? ?.а ????, ??? ??????? ???????? ????????-???????????? ??????? ?????????? ????????? ??? ????????????????? (л??????????????╗) ??????? ????????, ???????? ????38
??????? ? ?????????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
???? ???????????????-????????? ? ?????????????-?????????? ??????????????. ???????? ????????
?.а??а?????? ?? ??????????????? ?????????????-????????? ????????, ????? ?????? ????????? ?????
???????? ??? ?????????? ??????, ??? ? ?????????? ????, ??????? ??????????? ?а??????????? ?? ??????? ???????; ????? ?? ??????, ??????????????? ???? ?????????? ????????, ???????????? ????? ??
????????? ???????, ? ?????? ????????? ???????? ???????? ???????? ? ?? ????? ???? ????????????
????????. ?.а????????? ????? ???????? ?????????, ????? ???????? ???? ???????? ?.а????: ???????
?????? ???????? ??????? ? ??? ????????? ??????????? ??????????? ??????? (??? ??????? ??????)
?а????????? ?????? ?а???????????? ?????. ???????, ??????? ???????????? ??????? ? ???, ??? ????????? ?????? ?? ????????? ??? ????????? ????????? ????? ?? ???? ?????????? ??????????. ??? ?????????????? ????? ????? ?????????? ????? ???????, ??? ???????????, ???????????, ????????????????. ?а???
????? ??? ???????? ?????????? ??? ?????? ? ??????????, ? ?????? ??????? ????????? ??????????????????? [2,а?.а623]. ????? ????, ????????? ??????? ?????? (????????, ?.а??????, ?.а?????) ??????????? ????????????? ? ???, ??? ?? ?? ????? ????????????? ?????? ????????????? ???? ??????????
?? ???????????, ? ????? ???????????? ? ???????? ????? ?????????? ????? ???????? ????? [??.: 3; 4].
? ????? ?а???? ?????? ?????? ? ???, ????????? ?? ????? ???????? ? ?????????? ???????? ?
?? ????????????? ?? ???????? ????????, ???? ??? ??? ??????????? ? ??????????? ????????????????
???????????? ????????? ???? ??????. ?????????? ????????? ??? ???????? ?????? ?? ?????? ??????.
???????? ??????? ?? ???, ????????-???????????? ??????? ?????????? ????????, ?????????????
?а???????????? ??????. ??? ?????????? ?????????? ? ?? ??????? ?? ??????????. ??????????? ????
?????? ?? ???????? ???????????????? ? ???????? ???? ???? ???????? ?????? ? ??????? ???????
???????? ???????. ???????? ???????? ????? ???????? ??????, ????????????? л??????? ??????????╗,
??????? л????????╗ ?? ??????????? ???????. ??? ???? ???????? ????????? ???????????? ??????? ?
??????????. ?????? ???????? ?а??????? ??? ??????? ??????? ??????????????, ????????, ?.а?????,
?.а?????????, ?.а????????, ?. ?. ??????, ?.а?.а?????????. ??????????????? ????? ??????, ????????
??????? ????????????????, ???????????, ????????????????, ??????????? ?? ??????? ??????? ???????? ????????? ???????????????? ????????? ??????, ? ????????? ??????? ?? ????? ???? ??????? ? ????????? ??? ?????? ????? ???????? ????????????, ??????????????, ????????, ?.а???, ?.а??????????,
?.а?????, ??.а??????, ?.а?.а???. ?????? ????????????? ??? ?а?????? ?а???????????? ????????? ? ???
?????????.
?? ?????????? ????? ???????? ????????, ??? ????? ?? ????? ????????? ?????? ???? ???????????? ???????. ?? ?????? ????????? ????????? ?????????????? ????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????????? ?????????????? ?????? ???????. ??????, ?.а?????? ???????? ???????? ?? ?????????? ????:
???????? ?? ??, ??? ??????, ?????????? ??????? ?????????? ? ????????, ???????? ????? ?? ????? ??????????? ?а??????????? ?????????, ??????? ?????? ?? ?????? ??????????? ?????? ????????????,
?а????????, ????????. ??? ??????? ?а???, ??? ??????????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ??? ?????????, ????? ??? ?? ??????????? ???????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?????? XX ???? ????? ?????
???????? ????? ??????????? ???????????, ?????????? ??? ???????? ?а????????????? [5,а?.а7?8].
???????? ?????? ???????? ?а 1963 ????, ????? ??.а ???? ????? ?????????????? ???????????,
??????? ????? ???? ???????????????? ??????????? ??? ????????????. ???? ??? ???????????, ??
????? ??????????? ?????????? ????????????? ????????. ???? ??????????? ??????????, ?? ??? ??????????, ??? ?????????????? ?????????, ?? ??????? ????, ?а ???????????? ???????? ??????????? ?а?????????? ???? [6]. ?????? ???????????? ???????????? ???? ????????? ?а?????? 1980-? ??.
?.а ??????? ? ??? ????????? [7], ????? ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????? ???????? ?????????????. ??? ??? ???????? ????????? ??????????? ?????. ????????? ?????????? ????????, ???, ???
???????, ???? ?? ????????? ???????? ????????: ?????????? ????????? ???????? (????????? ????? ???????????? ??????????? ?? ??????? ?????????); ????????????? (????????????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????? ?? ????? ??????? ?а ??????). ?????????? ????????? ?????? ?????????
?????????????? ???????????????? ?????????? ?.а ???????? [8] ? ????????? ?????????? ???????? ? ????? [9]. ????? ?????? ?????????? ? ???????? ??????????? ????????????? ????? ?????????
?а ????? ?а ?? ??????????? ???????????, ???????? ?а ???? ????? ????????????, ????????, ?а ??????
[10]. ????????????, ??????????? ?а?????? XXI ?. ????????, ??? ????????? ??????? ?? ???????? ??????????? ?????????? ? ????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?? ?????????? [11; 12], ? ?????, ??? ??
???????? ?? ?????????? ?? ???????????? ?????????? ?а ???????????? ?????? ??????????????. ???
????? ??????????? ?????????????: л?????????? ??????????? ?? ???????? ?????????? ???????? ???????, ??? ??????? ????? ?????????????, ??? ???????????. ??????? ???????????? ?????? ?????????
39
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
????????? ? ???????????? ????? ??????????, ???? ?? ?????????, ???? ???????????? ????????
? ?????????? ? ???? ??, ??????? ???????, ??? ?????????? ??????????, ????? ?? ?? ?? ?????????.
? ??????? ????? ????????? ????????????, ??? ????????????? ???? ??????? ???????? ?? ????????????? ????????╗ [13, ?. 53].
? ????? ?а?????????? ?????????? ????? ?? ??????? ????????, ??????????? ???????? ???????? ? ?????? ?? ?????? ? ???, ??? ?? ????? ???????? ? ????????? ???? ?? ??? ??????????, ???????? ????????? ?????????? ????????. ?????????? ??????? ??????????? ??????????, ??? ?????????? ??
????????? ?????? ????????????? ?????????? ?? ????????? ???????????? ??????????. ???????????
?????????????? ?????????? ?а????? ??????, ???????? ??????? л??? ???? ????????? ?????????? ???????
?????????? ????????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????, ??? ????????? ?? ????? ?????????????╗
[14,а?.а44]. ????????? ??????? ?а???????? ?? ???????? ?????????? ????????????????. ????? ???????,
??? ????, ?????????, ????????, ???????, ??????????, ???????? (???????? ??? ?????????????? ???????)
?? ?????????? ?? ?????????, ? ???????? ?? ??????????? ????????????? ?? ????? ???? ????????????? ?а???????? ???????, ????????? ??????????, ??????????, ?????????? ? ??. [15,а?.а105]. ????????
?????????? ????????, ????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ?? ?????????? ????????? ??? ????,
?????? ?? ????????????? ???????? ????????????? ??????. ????????, ?????????? ???????? ??????????? ?.а?.а????????????, ???????????? ???? ??????????, ?.а???????????, ?.а?.а????, ?????????????
??????? л??????????╗ ? ??????? ?а???????????? ??????? ?????: ?????????????? ? ???????????. [16;
17]. ???????? ?????? ????? ??????, ???????? ??????? ?????????? ????????? ????????????? ??????????? ????????? ??????? ??? ???????, л??? ??? ??????????? ????????? ?? ???????? ??? ?????????????? ?а??? ??????, ??? ??? ??????? ?а?????? ????????? ????????? ????????????? ??????????? ???
?? ?????????????. ??????? ?? ???????????? ?????????? ?а???????????????? ?????????? ?а?????????????? ?????? ????????????╗ [18,а?.а468]. ?????? ????????? ???????? ?????????????? ????????????? ????????? ????????, ???????? ??????? ????????? ???????? ??????? ?? ??????? ??????????? ???,
? ?????? ??????????, ?????????? ??? ?????? ?а?????????? ????????? [19].
? ?????, ?????????? ???????????? ????? XX ? ?????? XXI ??. ????????, ??? ?????? ????????????? ???????? ?? ???????? ?а????????? ??????, ?????? ?????? ????? ?? ???????? (???????????),
???????? ???????? ?? ?????????? ?а???????? ?? ?????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????, ???????? ???????? ?????? ?, ????????, ?????????????. ?а ????? ?а ???? ?????????? ???????? ?????????
?????????? ????????, ???????? ???????? ?????????? ? ?????????? ?? ??????????? ?????????? ?????
??????????????, ????????? ?? ?????????????? ????????? ?????? ?а?????? ?????????. ????????, ??
????????? ????? ????? ???????? ???????????, ???????????? ??? ???? ??????? (??????? ??????, ??????? ???????, ????????), ? ?а???? ??????????? ??? ?????????? ? ?????????????. ?????? ????????? ?????????????? (?????????, ???????, ???? ? ??.) ????????? ?????? ????? ??? ??????????, ???????????.
????????, ????? ?? ????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ??? ???????? ?? ???? ??????, ??? ????????????
??? ???????????, ???????? ????? ???????????????. ?????? ??????, ?????? +1 ??? -1, ????? ???????? ?????, ?, ???? ?????????? ???????? ?? ?????????? ????????? ???????? ??????????????, ?????
????????? ???????? ????? ???????? ???????????.
????? ???????, ????????? ??????? ????????? ????????? ????????????? ???????? ? ????????????? л????????╗, ????????? ????, ?????????????? ????? ???????, ??????? ????? ???? ?????????, ???????? ?????????????? ? ???????????????? ????????. ?а?? ?? ????? ????????? ???????, ?а??????? ??
?????????????, ???????? ??????? ??????????????, ??????????, ?????? ????????????? ?????????????
?? ???????? ?? ??????????? ? ??????????, ??? ??????? ?? ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????
?????, ????????????? ??????????????.
????????????????? ??????
1. ????????? ?.а?.а??????????? ??????? ?а??????? ?????????????? ?????? ???????? XIX ?. ???????. ???. ? ?-?? ???????. ????. ???., 2016. 34 ?.
2. ?????? ?.?. ????????????? ??????. ?.: ????????-????????, 2000. 744 ?.
3. WignerаE.аP. Remarks on the Mind-Body Question // GoodаL.аG. (Ed.) The Scientist Speculates, London,
Heinemann, 1961. Pp. 284?302.
4. ???? ? ???????. ????????? ????? ??????? ???? ? ?????????? ?????. ?.: ???? ????????, 2018. 438 ?.
5. AgazziаE. (Ed.) Realism and Quantum Physics. Rodopi, 1997. 250 p.
6. BellаJ.аS. On the Einstein Podolsky Rosen Paradox // Physics. ? G.аD.аSprouse // American Physical Society, 1964. Vol. 1, Iss. 3. Pp. 195?200.
40
??????? ? ?????????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
7. AspectаA., GrangierаP., RogerаG. Experimental Tests of Realistic Local Theories via Bell?s Theorem //
Physical Review Letters. 1981. Vol.а47. Pp. 460?463. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.47.460.
8. LeggettаA.аJ. Nonlocal Hidden-Variable Theories and Quantum Mechanics: An Incompatibility Theorem //
Foundation of Physics. 2003. Vol.а33. No.а10. Pp.1469?1493.
9. LeggettаA.аJ., GargаA. Quantum Mechanics Versus Macroscopic Realism: Is the Flux There When Nobody Looks? // Physical Review Letters. 1985. Vol.а54. No.а9. Pp. 857?860.
10. ?????????а??., ??????а?.а?. ????????? ?????. ??????????? ???????????? ????????? ?????????
????????. ????????????: ?????????, 2012. 412 ?.
11. GrЎblacherаS., PaterekаT., KaltenbaekаR. et al. An Experimental Test of Non-Local Realism // Nature.
2007. Vol.а446. Pp.а871?875.
12. RomeroаJ., LeachаJ., Jack B., et al. Violation of Leggett Inequalities in Orbital Angular Momentum Subspaces // New Journal of Physics. 2010, Vol.а12(12):123007.
13. ????????а?. ?. ?а??????? ??????????: ???????????? // ????????? ????? ? ???????. 2015. ?.а20.
?а1. ?.а36?81.
14. ?????????а?.а?., ???????а?.а?., ??????????а?.?. ? ?? ???????? ???????? ?а??????????? ????????? ????????. ????????? ????????? // ????????? ????? ? ???????. 2016. ?.а21. ?а2. ?.а34?64.
15. ?????????а?.а?. ????????????? ????????? ????????. ????????????????? ???????? ?????????????? ????????? // ??????????. 2017. ?а1(23). ?.а104?112.
16. ???????????а?.а?. ????????????? ????????? ????????: ?а??????? ????? ?????????. ?.: ??????,
2016. 190 ?.
17. ???????а?.а?. ????????? ????????? ? ???? ??????????????? ????????? // Philosophy & Cosmology.
2015. Vol.а15. pp. 9?24.
18. ???а ?.а ?. ?? ????????????? ????????? ???????? // ?????? ?????????? ????. 1957. ?.а 62. ?а 8.
?. 461?474.
19. ??????а?.а?. ?а??????? ?????????????? ????????????? ????????? ???????? // Vox. ??????????? ??????. 2016. ?а20. ?. 36?50.
41
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
??? 316.752.4
?. ?.а?????????
?????? ??????????? ????, ??????
?????-????????????? ??????????????? ???????????
???????????????? ???????????????
????????-??????????? ???????? л??????????? ???????╗
? ?????? ? ???????????? ????????? ??????????????? ???????? л?????????? ??????????╗. ?????? ??????? ?????????????? ? ???. XIX ?. ? ????? ?????? ????? ????????? ?????????? ??????? ??? ?????????????? ??????? ???????. ? ???????? ??????? ???????????? ????? ?????? ???????-??????????????
?.?. ?????????, ??????? ???????? ? ??????????? ????????????? ???????? ??????????? ??????.
???????? ?????: л?????????? ??????????╗, ?.?. ????????, ?????????? ????????????????, ??????????, ?????????? ?????.
S. N. Korobkova
Doctor of Philosophy, Associate Professor
Saint Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation.
HISTORICAL AND PHILOSOPHICAL CONTEXT OF лSLAVIC QUESTION╗
The article is devoted to the problem of лSlavic reciprocity╗. This question is relevant as in the past as in real.
The main aim is to have common bases Slavic peoples to withstand external threats. Some solution is proposed
by the Encyclopedic scholar M. Filippov. It mean we must to powerfull cultural exchange.
Keywords: лSlavic reciprocity╗, M. Filippov, cultural individuality, Slavism, Slavic congress.
??? ?????? ????????? ???????????? ??????????? ?а?????????????? ???? ???????????? ??????????? ???????????? ???????? ?а????. ????????????? ??????? ?а??????? ????, ??? ??? ?????,
????????? ?а?????????? ??????????? ??????????.
????? ?? ????? ???????? ???????? л?????????? ??????╗. ???????????? ??? ? ???????? XIX ?.,
?????? ???????? ?????? ?? ???????????? ?? ????? ??????????? ???????. ?а?????? ? ???????? ???? ??
?????? ?????? ?????????? (???????????????). ???? ??????????? ???????? ?????? ?а?????? (????? 1848 ?.,
?????) ? ???? ?????????? ??????? (????? 1867 ? ?а?????-?????????? ? ??????).
????????? ?????????? ??????? ? ??????????? ?а?????? ?? ??????? ?а?????? ?? ????????????
???????????????. ?????? ???? ????? ??????: ??????? ????? ? ????? ?????????????? ?????????? ????? ? ?а???? ???? ?????? ????????? ?а?????? ?а???????? ???????.
??????? л??????????? ????╗ ???????? ??????? ?????? л???????? ?????????????? ???????????
????????╗ (л?????????? ????????╗). ???? ?????? ? ???????? ????? ??????????? ?????????????????? ???????? ? ?? ?????????? 33 ??? ???????? ? ??????????? ???? ?????????? ??????????. ???????
?????? ?а ??????? л???????? ???????╗ ??????? ????? ??????-?????????????, ???????, ?????????,
???????????? ?????? ?.?.а????????. ???????????? ?а?????????????? ?а???????? ????????? ?а??????
??????, ?? ???????? ?а????? ?????????? ????????? ???????????? ?????????? ???????? [3].
???????? ?????? ??????????? ? ???????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????? ?а????? ???????? ?
?????????? ?????????? ??? ??????????? ????? ?а??????? ???????. ?????????? ?а??????? ?????????
?????????????? ??? ????????? ??????????? ?????? ? ???????????? ?????????? ????????.
???????? ????????? ????????? ?????????? ?????????? ??? ???????????? ? ???????????? ?????????? ???????? ??????????? ????????????? (? ?????????, ???????) ?????? (??????, ????????, ??????? ? ?.?.). ?????? ???????, ??? ???? ??????????? ??????? ????????????????? (???????????? ?????????????) ? ?????????-??????????? ???????? (??????????? ??????) ? ?????? ?? ?? ???????????.
?? ?????: л??? ?????????? л?????????? ??????????╗ ?? ????????????? ?????? ????? ???????? ?????????, ??????????? ???? ?????????? ????????, ??????? ?????????? ????? ????????? ????
?????????? ???????????. ?????? ????? ?а???? ???? ????????? ???????? ????, ?????????? ????? ??
??????? ????????? ?????????? ???????╗ [3, ?. 5]. ?а???????? ???????????? ???????????? ????????????
?????? ???????? л?????????? ???????╗ (?????????? ??????) ?? ???? ?????????? ???????. ?а?? ?? ?????,
42
??????? ? ?????????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
???????? ????????? ?а??????? ?????? ?? ?????????????? ???????????? ????? (??? ??? ????????????
?? ?????????? ?????? 1868 ?. [1]), ?????? ???????? ?????????? ?????? ???????????? ?? ????? ????????????????. ??? ?????????? л?????????????? ???╗ [3,а?. 6], ????? ???????????? ?????? ?????
???????????? ????????, ??????? ?????????, ???? ?????? ?????????????? ?????? ????????????????
??????? ????????. ????? ??????, ?? ????????? ????????? ?????????, ???????? ?? ????????? ??????????. л??????????????? ?????? ????? ???? ????????? ???? ????? ????, ??? ??? ?????????? ?????????? ???????? ???????????? ?????????? ????????????????╗ [3, ?. 6].
?????? ??????? ?????????, ??????? ??????, л??????? ????? ??????? ? ????? ??????????? ?? ??
????? ???????? ????????, ? ?? ????????? ??????╗ [3, ?. 5]. ??????? ? ??????? ???????????? ?????????
???????? ????? ? ???????????? ??????. ???????????? ?????? ?а???? ????????? ???????? ?????????????? ?????????? ??? ????????? ?????????????? ????? ???? ??? ????? ??????.
???????? ??????????? ????????, ??? ?? ?????? XIX ?. ????? ?????????? ????? ????? ?? ?????? ??????????, ?? ? ???????????? ??????. ??? ????? ?????? ???????? ?а??????????: л???? ???????
??????, ??? ???? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ?? ?а???????????????, ? ???? ?? ?а????, ? ?а???????, ?
??? ?????? ???? ?????? ???? ?? ? ?????? ?????? ?а??????? ? ?а????????, ?? ? ???????? ????????????
????? ????????? ????????, ???????????????????? ???????? ? ????????????, ?????? ??? ???? ?????????? ???????????. ???????? ????? ? ??????, ?? ??????? ???????? ???????? ?????????, ???????? ??????????????? ?????? ? ?????? ? ????? ?????? ?? ???????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ????????????
???? ? ?????????? ?а????? ?? ????, ??? ? ??????????╗ [3, ?. 6].
?????? ???????? ???????? ???????? ????????? ?а????????? л???????????? ???╗. ??? ???????? ?????? ????, ??? ?? ???????? ??? ?? ???????: ????? ???????? ?? ??????; ???????????? ???? ??????
?? ??????; ????? ???????? ????????????? ?? ??????. ? ???? ??? ???????? ?????? ?????: л? ???, ???
?????????? ????????, ??????? ??????????? ??????? ????????? ??? ??????? ??????: ??????, ?????????
?? ????, ???? ?????? ????? ??????????, ????????? ?а??????????, ????????????? ? ???????????? ????????? ???? ?????????? ???????????; ??????, ????????????, ??????? ??????? ?????? ???? ??????????
?? ?????, ??? ???????? ???????????????? ???????? ?????????, ??????????? ???????? ?????? ????????
????????, ?????? ?????????? ?а????????????? ????????????╗ [3, ?. 7].
?????? ?? ?????????-?????????? ????????? ????????????? ????? XIX ?. ?????????? ????????? ?, ?а?????? ????? ? ??????? ? ????????-????????? ? ????????, ????????? ??????? ?????? ????????
(??? ?????????-?????????? ???????). ?? ???????????? л???????? ????╗ ??????? ? ?????????????, ?
???????????? ???????, ? ????????? ?????????? ????? ? ???????.
?????? ????????? л? ?????????? ??????????╗ ??????? ????????. ?а ????? ???????, ???????
?????? ? ??????? (?????? ??? ??? ?? ?? ?? ???? ?????????????? ?? ?????? ?????? ?а ?????? ??
???????) ??????? ?? ???????????. ?????? ????????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ?????????. ??????? ???????????????? ??-??????, ?? ?????????? ?????? ?? ?????????; ? ??-??????, ?а?????????? ??????????
л????????????? ???????╗ ???????? ???????? ?? ?????????? ?????.
? ??????????, ???????? ???????? ??? ???????? ????????, ????? ?? ????????? ??????? (??.
?.?.а???????? л??? ? ?????????? ??????????╗ [2]). ?? ?????: л??? ?????????? ???????? ???????
?а ??????????????, ??????? ??????????? ?????????, ??? ???? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?
??????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????? ? ????????, ???????????, ????????? ? ??. ? ?? ???? ??
???????????? ???? ???????? ??????????????? ?????, ?а??????? ??? ?????????? ??????????, ??? ?? ???
?? ??? ????, ????? ????? ??????, ?? ??????? ??????????? ????? ???? ??????????? ???? ???????,
??? ??????? ?????????? ???? ????????????, ??????? ?????? ??????????????? ???????????? ? ??????????????? ??????. ?? ???? ??????? ?????????? ??????? ?а?????? ??????? ?? ?????? ? л?????????╗ ?????? ?а??? ??????, ??? ????. ???????, ????? ???? ????????, ???????????? ?а???????????? ????????.
?????????? ????? ?? ?? ?? ???? ??????????, ?? ??????? ????? ?? ????????? ??? ??????, ??? ? ???
????? ??????????. ?? ??????, ???????, ?????? ? л?????????????╗, ?? л??????????╗ ? ???? ????????
???????, ????????? ?а????? ????????????? ??????-????????. ????? ???? ?????????? ? ????? ?????
? ?????? ?, ????????, ???? ? ???????? ??????, ??? ?а??????????, ??? ? ?а???????????? ?????????,
???????? ????????? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ????? ??????????? ???????!╗ [2, ?. 161?162]. ?????????? ???????? ?????? ?????? ?????????????? ????????, ? ???? ????? ???????? ??????????????,
?а?????????, ?????????, ?????? ???? ??????? ???????? ????????.
?????? ??? ?????? ????????? ???????????? ????????????? ??????????? ?????????? л?? ??????????? ?????????? ???? ?????? ???? ???????? ?????????? ???????╗ ? ??????? ?????? [2, c. 162].
????? ????, ???? ?????? ?????????? ????? ????? ??????????? ???????????? (????????? ? ???????
43
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
??-?? ?????????, ???????? ? ???????? ?а???????, ????? ?????????? ???????? ?а????? ? ?.?.). л???????? ???????? ????? ? ????????, ???????? ???????? ??????? ? ?????????, ??? ??? ?????? ?????
?????????? ??????????? ????╗ [2, ?.162].
? ?????????, ???? ??????????????, ??? ?а?????, ???????? ??????? ????????????? ?? ??????
XIX ? XX ??., ?? ?????? ? ?а????????? ?????. ??-???????? ????? ???????? ?????? ?????. ????? ??
???? ?????????? ????? ???????? ????? ???? ?????????? ????????? ?а ?????? ?????? ????? ?????:
???? ?????? ??????? ???? ????? ?а????? ?????????????? ? ?????????? ??????????? ???????? ?????
?????? ? ??????. ??? ??????? ?????? ????? ????????????????? ????????. ??? ????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ?а????????????????? ???????????? ????.
??????? ?????? л???????? ?????╗ ?а???????? ??????????? ?? ?????????? ????????? ??????,
??? ?????????? ????? ???????????? ?????????? ????? ?????? ????? ????, ????? ??????, ??? ?????
????????? ?????? ??????. ?? ??????????? ??????? ????? ??? ?????? ??? л????? ???????????? ????????????╗. л?.?? ??????..., ? ????????? ????????????, ? ??? ?????? ????? ????? ??????? ????????? ??????? ?????? ???????, ??????? ???????? ????? ??? ??????... ????? ??? ?????????? ?а???????
??????? ? ???????? ?????????? ??????, ??? ?????? ??????. ???? ?а???? ??? ???? ????? ???? ? ???
???????? ???? ?????? ? ???? ????? ???? ????? ?????? ?? ?? ????, ? ?? ????????? ??????????╗ [???.
?? 2, ?.182].
????, ???????? ???????. ????? ??????
????????????????? ??????
1. ???????а?.?. ?????????? ????? 1867 ?. ?а?.-?????????? ? ?????? // ?????????? ???????? XIX?
XX ??.: ??????, ?????????, ?????????, ?????????, ?????????. ?., 1998.
2. ????????а?.?. ??? ? ?????????? ?????????? / ?????????? ????????. 1889. ?7. ?. 161?162.
3. ????????а ?.?. ?????????? ?????????? ?а ????????? ? ??????? / ?????????? ????????. 1889.
? 1/2. ?. 5 ? 7.
44
??????? ? ?????????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
??? 02.15.51
?. ?. ??????????
???????? ??????????? ????, ??????
?????-????????????? ??????????????? ???????????
???????????????? ???????????????
??????????? ?. ?. ?????? ? ?????
????? ?????? ??????????? ??????????? ?.?. ?????? ? ???????? ?????.
???????? ?????: ??????; ???????????; л????? ????╗; ???????????; ??????.
Elena Korolkova
Ph.D. in Philosophy, Associate Professor
The Saint Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation
FRANK?S MEDITATION ON LOVE
The focal point of the present article is the philosophical analysis of Frank?s meditation on the essence of love.
Keywords: love; all-embracing unity; ?living experience?; feeling; dialogue.
? ?????? ?????? ????? ????????????? ???? ????? ?а ?????????? ?????????????? ?????????
?.?. ?????? (1877?1950). ???? ????? ???????????? ????? ?? ???? ????????????? ? ????????????
????????, ?а??? ?? ??????????, ????? ????????? ??????? ??????????, ???????, ???????????, ?????????? ?????????, ????????????, ????? ? ????????. ?а?????????? ?. ?????? ??????? ????? ????????
?????? ????? ?????, ??????? ????? ???? ?????? ??????????????? ??????? ???????? ?а??? ??????
???????????. ?? ???? ????? ??????? ????????? ??? ?? ??????? ????????, ???????????? ????????
????????? ??? ??????. ?????? ?????, ?????? ?? ?????? ??????? ?а?????????? л?????? ?????╗ ? ????????????????? ??????? ??????????? ????????. ??????????, ??? ???????? ??????? л?????? ?????╗.
??????? ???????-?????????? ???? ?????????? ?????? ????????? л??????????╗ ? ??? ?????
????????????? ???????????? ??????? ?????????. ???? ?????? ?????? ???????? ?а???????? ????????? ?????????, ? ????? ???????? ?????? ?????? ? ????? ???????????????? ????????? ?? ???????????????? ???????????. ???, ?а?????? ?????? л????? ?????╗ ????? ????????? ????? ?????: л??
????? ?????, ????? ????; ? ???? ? ??????, ?а?????? ???????, ???? ?? ?а??????? ? ????, ? ?а????? ??????.
?? ???? ?????? ?????? ? ???????, ????????? ??????? ?????╗ [3,186]. ???????? ???????, ???????? ?? ??????? ???????????? ??????????????? ?????, ????????? ?а ?????? ??????, ???? ??????
??????, ??????? ????? ?? ??????? ??? ?? ??????????? ??????????? ???? ? ??????????? ????????????
????????????? ?а?????, ???????????? ?????? ? ???????. ??????? ?????????, ?????? ?????, ????????
??????????????, ???? ?????? ??? ????? ?а?????????? ???? ????? ??????????? ??????? ??????, ????????? ???????? ???????? л??????? ?????╗. ?а???? ?????? ?????????????????? ????????????? ????????
????????? ?????????? ????????? ??????? ?? ??????? ??????? ??????????.
???, ?. ???????? ?а?????? л??????????? ?????? ???????? ??????╗ ?????????? л????? ?????????╗, ?????? ?????, ??? ??????? ??????, ?????????? ??????? ?????? ??? ??????? ?????? ? ?????.
???????? ?????????, ???????? ??????? ?????????, ?????? ????????? ?а???? ?? ?????? ?????????????
??????, ?? ? ???????????? ???? ?а???????????? ?????????????, ????? ????? ???????? ??????????
????????? ???? ????????. ???????? ??????????, ??? ?????? ????? ????????, ??????? ?????? ?? ?????????, ???????? ????????????? ??????????? ????????, ??????? ? ???? [1,176]. ?а??????? ?????????
?????????? ??? ?????? ?????? ???????? ????????????? ??????? ???????? ?????????, ???????? ??
??? ????????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????. ?????????????????? ??????????? ?а????? ???? ?????
????????, ????????? ? ????????????, ?? ???????? ???? ????????? ?????? ? ??????? ?????, ??? ???
??? ????????? ??? ???? ?? ??????? ???????????? ????????, ???? ?? ??????? ?????????? ???????????
?????.
?. ?????, ???????? ?? ?????? ?. ?????????, ?а????? ?? ????? ????????? ???????? ????????????? ????????: ?а????? ???????, ?????????? ???????? ?????? ? ?????, ?а?????? ???????, ??????????? ??????????? ??????? ????????? ?а????? ???????? ?а???????? ????????. ?????? ?а???????
45
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
????????? ??????????? ?а???, ??? ???????? ?а???????? ????? ????? ?????? ??????? ??????, ??????????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ?????? ?а??????? ???????, ?? ??????? ???????. ????????????? ??
?а ??????? ??????????? ???? ????, ????? ?????, ???????? ?????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????
??????????? ????????. ??????? ????????? ?????????? ????????? ?а??????? ??????????? ??????? ?
?? ???????? ?а????????????? (лcogito ergo sum╗), ??? ?? ???????? ??????????????? ???????????
????? ? ?? ????????????? ?а????????. ????? ??????? ?? ?????????? ?????????: ??????? ???????
?????? ????????????, ????? ????? ?????????? ???? ?а???????? ????????? ? ?????????????. ??????
??? ???????, ???? ??? ????. ????????, ???????? ???????, ???????????, ??? ???? ???????? ??????
?????. ?????????? ???????? ????? ????????, ???????? ?? ???????????: л????? ???? ?? ???????????
???????? ? ?? ??? ??? ?????????? ??????????; ????????, ????????? ???? л?╗, ???? ???????? ???? ??
??? ????, ??? ??????????, ??? ???????, ??????????? ????? ??? ????????, ?? ??? ????? ? ???????? ????
?а ??? ?????????? ???????????????╗ [3, 477]. ????? ??????? ???-??, ???? ????????. ?а ???? ?????????
?????? ? ??? ?????????, ?а????????? ?? ?????????????? ??????? ????? ???????? ? ????????? ????????.
?????? ????? ??????? ??????????? ??????? ????????? ????? ??????? ?а???, ??? ??? ???????
??????????? ?????, ?? ???? л???????╗ ???? ??????????? ?????, ??????? ???????????? ?а???, ??? ???
??, ??????????, ????????? ?а???. ????? ?????, ? ??? ???????? ?а???? ??? ?????. ??????? ????????
???????? ? ?????, ????????????? ????????? ???????????, ???????????????? ?????????? ???????
???????? ??????? ???????????, ???????????? ?????????? ????? ???????? ?а????? ? ?????. ????????
???????? ??????????? ? ????????, ? ??????????? ???????? ???? ????? ????? ??????, ????? ?? ?????? ???????? ?а???? ??? ? ???? ?а???????? ??? ?????????? ??????????? ?????.
????? ?а?????? л??????? ??????╗ ?????: л? ???? ?????? ?????? ??? ????????? ??????????? ????, ?а????? ??????, ?? ????? ???????? ????? ? ????????, ?????????????? ? ?????, ??????? ??
????????? ?а????? ?????????? ?????. ???, ??????, ?????????? ????? ? ???? ????? ????? ??????; ?
?????? ???? ?????? ???? ???? ?????????? ??? ????? ?а??????????? ?????. ??????????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ?а??? ? ???????, ??? ?а??? ???????????? ????????????????? ????? ????????? ? ???????
? ???: ????? ???-???? ?а???? ?????? ? ?????? ?? ??? ????, ??? ???? ???, ??? ?????? ??? ???? ???
??????????? ??????╗ [4, 362].
? ????????? ????? ??????????? ????? ???????? ??? ????????: ?????????????? ? ????????????. ??? ???????????? ????????? ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ????? ??????????????. ?????????????? ?????? ??????????? ??????? ?? ???????????? ?????? ????????????? ??????, ??????????
??????? ????? ?????, ?? ????????????? ? ????????????. ?????????????? ??????? ???????????, ????????? ?а??????????? ???????? ?а??? ??????????, ????? ?????????? ??? ????? ?? ???????. ?????
???????? ? ??? ???? ????? ?????????????? ???????????? ????????? ?а?????? ??????????, ?а?????????? ?????????? ? ?а???????? ????????. ??????? ?? ?????????, ????????? ???????????, ????????? ?? ???????????? ???????? ?????????? ???????, ?????????????? ????????? ????????????? ?????.
???????????? ??????? ????? ???????? ????? ????????????, ? ????? ?????????? ? ?????????? ???
???????, ??? ? ?????????????? ?????. ????? ???????? ???? ????????? ????????? ??????, ???????
???? ???????? ?? ????? ? ?????.
????? ???????, ??? ?????? ? ???, ??? л?╗ ????? ??????? л?????? ?╗, ???????????????? ?а??????????????? ?????????, ?????????????? ??????????. ???????? ?????????, л???????? ???????? л?╗
?????? ?? ?????????? ?? ??????? ?ал??╗, ?? ????????? ?ал??╗╗ [2, 348]. ? л?╗ ????? ???????? ??????
?а????????? ?ал??╗, л?╗ ? л??╗ ?????????? ???? ??????????????? ???? ????? ???????. ??? ????????? ????? ?? ???????? ????????? ? ???????????? ?? ??????? ?????????? ?????, ????? ???? ????
????????, ??????? ??????????? ?? ?????????????? ???? ?а ??????. ?????? ? ???? ????? ?????????
????? л?╗ ? л??╗. ??? ???????? ???? ??????? ???? ????? ????? ????? ?????????? ??????? ????????????????? ???????????. ????????? ??????????? ?????????? ????? ????? ???????? ?????, ?а???????
??????????? ?? ??????????? ? ????????????????. ?????????? ???????? ?а????? ???? ????????? ?а??????????? ?? ??????????? ????? ????????? ?????????? ??? ?????????????? ????????????.
??? ???????? ???????? ???????? ???? ????????? л?╗ ? л??╗? ?????, ??????? ?? ???? ??????,
?????????? ?а??????? л??╗. л??╗а? ??? ?????? ??? ?????, ????????? ????? ???????? ????? ?? ????????? ?ал?╗. ????? л??╗ ????? ???????? ?а??????? ???????? ????????? ????, ??????????????
???????? ??????????. ??? ????? ??????? ?а ??????? л??╗? л??╗а ? ??? ??????, ???, ?????, ??????, ??????. ??? ??? ????? ???????? л?????? ????? ? ??????? ????╗, ? ????? ????????? ???????
????????. ?а ????? ?????? л????????????╗ ????? ???????? л??╗ ?????????? л????? ???????????╗
? ???????? ??? ?а???????? ???????????? ????? ??????. ??????? ?? ??????, ??? ???????? ???????? л?╗
46
??????? ? ?????????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
? л??╗, ????? ?????, ??? ??? ???? ?? ???????????, ???? ?? ??????? ???? ??????? ????? ?а?????????? ?? ?????????????? ???????? ???????? л??╗. ????? ????? ??????? ???????? ??? ?????????????
????, ??? ??????? ????? ?а????? ?????? ???????????.
????? ??????, ?а??? ??????? ???? ????????? ?????????? ????????? ??????? ????? ?????????? ????? ?? ??????????? ?а???????? ? ?????????? ???????? ????????. ?????????, ??? ?а?????????,
??????? ??????? ???????? ?????????????????, ??????? ?? ?????? ?? ?????? ????, ?? ?, ????????,
??????????? ? ????, ? ???????. ?????? ????? ??????? ?а???, ??? л?╗, ????????? л??╗ ?а????? ????????
???, ??? ????? ?????????? ???? ?????????????: л???? ?????????? ?????? ??? ???????, ?а??????, ? ?????? ?? ???? ???????, ? ?????????? ????, ???? ??????? ???? ???? ???????╗ [2, 373]. ????? ??????????
л??╗ ??????? ???????????? ??????? ?а ???????? ???? ???? ? ??, ??? ???? ?а ????????? ????????,
??????? ???????? ???? ????????. ?????? ????? ??????? ?? ???????? ????? ??????????? ? ??????????: л? ????? ???? ?а?? ? ?????? ??? ??????? ????, ??????????? ????????????? ?? ??? ??????????
??? ??. ?????? ? ??????????? ?????? ?а???? ????? ?????????? ??????????. ??? ????? ??????????
???????? ?а????? ?????, ???? ??? ???????????? ????? ???????????? ???????? ?????? ???????????
?????????╗ [2, 495]. ?а???? ????????? ????? ?????????? ?????? ?? ??? ??????? ???????? ?? ?????,
? ??? ??? ? ??????? ????????? ????, ??? ?????? ???????????????. ?а?????? ??????? ?а?????????
????? ??????? ????????? ??????? ?? ???????? ????????? ?. ?????, ??????? ?а?????? л??? ???????
??????????╗ ?????? ?????? ????? ????? л??????? ????????????╗.
????? ?а????? ?? ????? ?????? ??????????? ????? л??. ????? ? ????? ?????? ?а?????????╗
?????????? ???????????? ?????? ?а??????? ????? ? ???????, ?а??? ??????? ?? ????????. ???? ?????? ?а???????? ? ??????? ???????????? ?????, ?? л?????? ?а????????╗ ???????? ?????? ??????????? ?????. ?а????? ???? ?????????? ?????????? ?а?????????? ?? ???????: л?? ?????? ?а????????,
? ?????? ?а???????? ? ??? ???????╗. ????????????? ?????????, ??????????? ??? ???????? ?????,
????? ?а??? ?? ????????????, ? ????????: л?????? ?а????????╗ ???????? ????? ?????? ?а???? ?? ????????, ?????? ?????????? ?? ??? ?? ?? ????????? ??????, ?? ??????? ?? ????? ????? ??? ???, ?? ????????? ?????, л???????╗╗ [2, 33]. л?????? ?а????????╗ ???????? ???????? ??????? ?????????? ??????
?а ???????. ???? ?????? ?а ???????? ?????????? ???????? ?а ??? ???????????? ??????????????, ??
л?????? ?а????????╗ ??????? ?????? ??? ???????? ??????? ?????????????. ???? ?????? ?а????????
?????????? ???????? ?? ????? ??? ???????????? ?????, ????? ?? ????, ?? л?????? ?а????????╗ ???????
?????????? ?????????????? ? ????? ?????, ????? ?? ?????? ????. ???????????? ????? ???????? ???????? ? ?? ?????????? ????? ?а??????, ????? ?????????? ?????? ????, ?? ?????????????? ? ?????????
?????? ?? ???? ????. ???? ????????????? ? ????? ??????, ?? ?а???? ?????, ????????? ?????? ?а???????
?? ???????? ???????? ? ?????????? ??????. ??? ???????????? ?? ????????? ????? ??????? ?? ???????? ??????????????? ?????, ?? ?????????? ????? ?а?????? ??? ???????? ? ????????? ?????? ????.
?а???? ????????? ?????? ?????????? ?????? ????? ??? ????? ?????. ????? ?? ??????? ?????? ????????? ????????????, ?? ? ?? ???????? ??????????, ? ????????? ?????????? ??????????? ?. ????????? ?
??? ????????? ?????, ?????????? ?а?????? л????? ?????╗.
? ????????? ????? ??????????? ?????????-?????? ???????? ????????? ?а??????. ?????? ?????????? ?????????????? ??????? ?????? ??? ???????? ? ??????? ??? ??????? ?????. ?а??????? ??????? ?? ????? ?????????? ???? ?? ?????, ??????????? ???????? ????? ????????? ???? ?????. ?а???????? ????? л?╗ ?????????????? ?????? ???? ?ал??╗, ??????????? ???????? л?????????? ?? ??????
????╗ ????????? ???????. ?????????? ???? ??????? ? ?????????? ????? ?????? ?????? ?????????
???????? ???? ????? ???????, ?? ??????????? ????????????? ???? ????. ????????? ??????, ????????
?????????, ?? ?????, ?, ????????, ?????. ???? ???????? ????????? ?а????? ????????? ????? ????
????????. ?????????, ??? ?? ??????????? ???????? ?????? ? ???????? ??????????? ??????? ???????????? ????????? ?????, ??? ? ????????, ????? ? ???, ??? ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ????????, ?? ?????????? ?а???? ??????? ???????????? ? ?????????? ???????. ?????
??????? ???? ?????????? ???? ?а???????????? ???????? ?а???????????? ????????. ???????? ????????? ???????????, ????????? ??????? ????? ?????? ??????????, ??? ???????? ?а????????????? ????
??? ????? ?????? ????? ????? ? ???????? ????? ?????? ?а???. ?а???????????? ?????? ?? ?????
?????????, ??? ?????? ?а?????????? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ????? ?? ???? ?а????.
????? ????? ? ???? ?????? ??????????????, ????????? ??????? ??-??? ? ??-??????: ?а??????
??????, ????????????????? ??-??? ???????? ??????????? ?????? ?????? ????? ?а???????. ??????? ???????????? ? ?????? ??????? ?а????? ?а?????, ? ?????-?-?????? ??????? ?? ??????????? ? ???? ????
??? ??????????? ?????? ??????????????. ?? ? ?а??????????????? ?????? ?? ?????????? ??????? ?????
47
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
??????????, ? ?????? ????????????????? ?а???? ??????? ???? ?а?????? ????? ? ????????? ???? ?а??????????? ?????. ???? ????, ?????? ???????, ?????????? ??????? ??? ?????? ????? ???????????.
???????, ?? ?????? ????????, ???????? ?? ? ??????????? ?а ?????, ? ? ???????????: ?? ????????? ???? ??????? ? ? ????. ?????????, ????? ???? ?????? ??? ?а??????? ???????? ?????????
? ?????? ??????: л???? ??? ???????? ???? ????? ?????????? ??????????? ????? ????, л?????????╗ ????;
? ??? ????, ?? ????? ????? ???????? ???? ???????????? ?? ???? ? ??? ???? ????????? ??? ?????????? ???? ?а????? ?????. ??? ?? ???? ?????? л???????╗ ? ???? ?? ???? ?????? л???????╗ ? ???
???? ??????, ???? ?????????? ??????╗ [2,497]. ?? ??????? ????????? ????? ??????? ????? ? ???, ???
???? ????? ??????? ????, ??? ????????, ?? ??????? ??? ???????, ? ????????? ?? ?????????? ???? ???
??????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ????.
??????? ???????? ?а????? ????????? ????? ??? ????? ????? ??????????? ????????? ????????? ?????? ??????? ?? ?????. ?????? ?а??????? л???╗ ?????? ????? ????????, ?? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ??????????? ?? ?????? ??????? ?????????? ???? ? ?а???? ?????. ???????? ?????????
????????? ???? ??????? ?а???????? ??? ????????????? ?????????, ?а??????? ??????? ??????? ???
???????? ?? ??????? ?????. ?а??????? ??????? ??????????? ?? ????? ?????, ? ????????? ??? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ?а???????-????? ??????. ????? ???????, ??? ?????? ?а??????? ???? ?????
??????????????? ???????. ??????? ???????? ???????, ??? ????????? ?????? ???? ????? ??????????
????????????? ?????? ?а?????????????-?????????? ????????.
????????????????? ??????
1. ???????? ?.?. ????????? ?а2 ?. ?.2. ?.: ?????, 1990. 822 ?.
2. ????? ?.?. ?????????. ?.: ??????, 1990. 608 ?.
3. ????? ?.?. ???????? ?????? ????????. ?.: ??????????, 1992. 512 ?.
4. ????? ?.?. ??????? ??????. ???? ????????. ???.: ?????, 1995. 656 ?.
48
??????? ? ?????????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
??? 141.82 + 7.037
?. ?. ?????
?????-????????????? ???????????
???????????????? ???????????????
????? ??????????????? ???????????
? ?????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????? ??????????????? ?????????? ?а???????????????? ????????? ?????? ? ????????????? ?????, ??? ??????? ? ???????? ??? ????????? ? ??????? ???????? ?????????????????? ????????, ? ????? ????????????? ??????????????? ?????????? ??? ???????? ?а???????????????? ???? ????????. ????? ????????????? ????????????? ????????? ? ??? ??????????? ?а?????
?????? ??????????? ??????????.
???????? ???????: ??????????, ?????????????, ??????????????, ?????????????? ??????????,
????????????? ?????, ???????????????? ????????, ??????????? ??????, ?????????.
Kudrya L.V.
Saint Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation
IS IT THE END OF ARTISTIC ALIENATION?
The article expounds the philosophical articulation of artistic alienation given by Lucacs? unorthodox Marxism
and by Frankfurt School, it describes its concept and meaning for art and the high culture of pretechnological
society and also the transformation of artistic alienation in transition to technological society. The author takes
into account Modernist art and its outlook in terms of overcoming alienation.
Key words: alienation, reification, objectification, artistic alienation, Frankfurt School, unorthodox Marxism,
critical theory, modernism.
???????? ??????????????? ?????????? ?????? ??????? ?а????? ?????? ? ?????? ????????????? ??????????? ??????????, ?????? ???????? ???????????? ???????? ?????????????? ?а??? ?????????? ?? 1960-? ?. ??????, ?????? ????????? ?а????? ????????, ?????????? ??????????? ?????? ???????? ? ????????????? ???????? ?????????, ?????? ???????? ?а???????? ?? ??????? ????? ??????? ????
?? ?????? ?? ????????????? ???????? ?а?????????, ?? ? ?? ????? ? ?????? ??????????? ??????????
????????. ?а ????? ?а ???? ????? ???????? ????????? ?? ?????? ?????? ????????? ???????????????
?????????? ?а??????????? ?????????.
???????????? ?????????? ??? ???????????? ???????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ??????, ??????? ?ал??????? ?????? ? ????????? ?????????????????? ????????╗ ?а???? ??????? ????????-??????????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ?а?????? ? ?????? ?????? ??? ?????? ?????????, ????????? ?а???????
?? ??? ?а????? ?????????????????? ????????? ?????????. ???????????? ????? ?а??????????? ? ????????????? ?????????, ? ?????? ? ?а?????????? ???????????? ???????? ? ???????????-???????? ???????
????????????? ????????, ?????????? ?????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????. ??? ???? ????? ?????? ?? ?????? ????????? ??????? ?а?????? ? ??????, ?? ? ?а?? ????????????? ???????????????? ?
????? ? ????????, ??????? ??? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ?? ??????? ????????????? ? ??????????
?????????, ???? ?? ???????????? ??? ???????? ???????????? ???????? ???????????????? ???????
?????????? ?а?????? ?????????????? ????????? ??? ?? ??????, ? ?????? ? ????????? ? ??????????????. ??? ??????, ????????? ????? ??????? ????????? ??????????, ?????, ?? ??????????? ??????,
л??? ???????????? ????? ?????, ?а ??????? ???????? ??????????? ????????? ??????? ????????????? ????????????, ???????????? ??? ?????????????? ?????? ?? ???? ?????????????????? ?????????????? ????? ???????????? (Entau▀erung) ?а?????? ????.╗ [1, ?.587]. ??? ????? ??????? ?????????, ??
???? ????????????? ?? ??????? ?????? ??????????? ??????????, ?а?????????? ???? ????????? ???????
???????? ? ???????, ??????? ????????? ?а??????????? ???? ????. ?а?????? ?????? ?????? ???????????
??? ?????? ??????????? ???????, ?? ????????? ?а????????? ?????????? ?? ?? ????.
49
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
??????????, ????? ?? ??? ???????? ??? ???????? ????????????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????, ?а ??????? ??????????? ?????? ??????? ????????? ?????? ????????. ????? ???? ???? ? ???????????? ????????????????? ????? ??????????, ????????????? ?? ???????? ????? ????????????
?????????, ????? ?????????????? ???? ?а???????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ??????????? ?? ?????? ??
????????, ??????? ? ??????????? ?????, ?? ? ?? ?????? ????, ??????????? ??????? ???????? ? ???????
???????? (???????? ??? ??????????), ???????? ????????????? ??? ?????? ? ?????????????? ????. ??????????? ???????? ?? ?????????????? ?????? ?????? ?????????????, ?? ???????? ?????????, ?????
???????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????????????. ???? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ?????????? ??
??????, ?? ??????????? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ? ??????? ?????????????; ??????????????, ???
??? ????????????? ??????????? ???????? ?а???????? ?????????? ????? ? ???????????????? ????????????? ?? ???????? ????????????, ????? ?? ????????????? ????????? ????????? ? ???????????? ????????.
?а???????????? ????? ??????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ??????????? ????????????? ?а???????? ???????????? ????????????? ????????, ?????????????? ?а???????? ????? ??
?????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????, ?? ???????????? ?а???????? ????????????, ????? ??? ?а??????????? ??????? ???????????? ????????????? ?а???????? ??????. ???? ?а???? ????? ?????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????? ???? ?? ??????????? ???? ?а?????? ??????, ??????? ? ???????? ??????
???????????? ?? ???????.
?????????, ?????????? ??????? ?а???????? ???????, ??????? ????????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????? ???? ?????? ???? ????????? ????? ? ??????????????? ??? ????????? ???????? ????
??? ??????? ???????, ???????????? ???????? ???????? ?а ??????? ?? ?????? ???????? ?????????????? ? ???????????????. ?а?????? ?????? ?????????? ???????????????? ??? л??????? ???????-????????? ?????????, ????????? ?а ????? ????? ?????, ?а ????????????? ? ?????????? ?????????????
????????╗ [1, c. 586]. ?????? ????????? ?????????? ????? ?? ?????????????????? ??????????, ?? ???
???? ???????? ??????????? ????????? ??????????. ?а???? ????????, ??? ???????, ?????????? ?????
????????? ?а??????? ??????? ??? ??????? ????????? ?ал??????????? ?????????????╗. ??????? ??????????? ? ???????? ????????? ??? ?????????????? ???????????? ??????????????? ?? ?? ?????? ??????????, ??????? ????????? ? ?? ?????? ?????????, ????????? ?а???????.
?????????? ????????? ?????, ??? ?????? ? ??????? ????????????, ??????? ????? ??? ????????? ????? ???????? ???????????????? ??????? ?????????, ?а ??????? ?а ??? ?? ???????????? ????
?????????? ????? ??????? ??????? ? ?????. ?а????? ??????????? ?а????????? ???? ???????????? ??????????? ????? ????????????? ???????? ??????? ?а?????????, ?????? ?????????? ??? ????????????
????? ????????? ???????? ?а??????????? ???????????????? ? ???????? ??? ?????????? ????? ????????? ???????? ????. ????? ????????? ???????? ??? л?????? ?????????????? ? ????????????? ???????????????? ????????? ??????????? ????????????????╗, ???????????????? ?? ????????? ?а ??????????? ? ?????????????? ? ???????????? ?? ?????? ????????????, ?? ???????????? ?????????? ???????? [2, c. 39]. ??????? ????????? ?????? ????? ?????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ???
?????????????? ?????????????, ????????? ??? ??????? ????????? ?а ???????????, ?????? ????????
????????????????? ?????????. ?????? ????? ????????? ?????????? ????????? ????????? ? ?????????? ???????? ????????? ???????? ??????? ??????????????? ?????????????, ???????? ????? ?а????????
????????????. ??????? ????? ????????? ?а?????? ? ???????? ????????? ?????????????? ??? ???????
??????????????? ????????? [3, c. 26]. ????????????? ????????? ?? ????? ??????? ???????? ??? ?????????? ??????? ?????? ? ??? ??????; ?????????? ??????? ?а???????????? ???????????????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????????????? ?а????? ??? ????? ????????????, ??? ????????? ? ?????????? ??????
?????, ? ???????, ?????????? ?????????????? ??????????, ? ?а??? ???????.
? ????? ?? ????? ??????????? ??????? ? ?????????????? ??????? ???????? ?????????. ?а???????? ?????? ???????? ????????? ?? ???? ????????????? ??????????, ????? ?????????????? ?????
??????????? ?? ???????? ???????????, ????? ????????, ?? ????????? ??????, л?????????????????
???? ???????????, ?????????? ????? ?? ???????? ? ?????????? ??????????? ????????? ?? ????????????????╗ [3, c.89]. ??????? ?????? ? ???? ????????? ?а??????????? ??????? ?? ?????????? ????????? ????? ????????? ?????? ????????? ?????????????? ???????????? ??? ?????????, ?????????? ??????? ? ????????? ? ??? ???????????????? ???????? ??????????? ???????. ?а????? ?а???? ????????????
???? ?????????, ??? ? ???????????? ????????: л?? ????????????????? ???????????? ???????? ??????
??????????? ???????????? ????????????, ???????????? ?а????, ????? ????????? ???????????? ??????????? ???????? ????? ??????????? ?????????? ????????? ????╗, ? ?????????? ????? [3, c. 178].
50
??????? ? ?????????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
???????? ??????, ??????? ????????? ?? ?????? ??? ???? ????????? ?а??????????? ?? ?????????????? ?????? ???????-?????????? ????????? ? ?а????? ? ?????, ?а??????? ??????????? ??????, ??
???? ???????, ?????????? ???, ?а????? ??????? ? ?а??????? ? ?????????, ??? ??????????? ??????????????, ?а??????, ?? ? ??? ??????????????? ????????? ???????????? ? ???????????????????? ? ???????????????????????. ??????????????????????? ????????? ??????? ?????????? ??? л?????????? ?????????? ?? ???????? ?????????????????? ???????????? ????????????? ? ???????????╗
[3, c. 56], ?? ???? ??? ?????????? ?а??????????? ?????????? ?а????? ???? ????????????, ????????????
??? ???????? ????????????. ????? ???????? ??? ????????? ??????????????? ????????, ?? ???????????? ???????????? ??? ????, ??? ????????? ????????? ???????? ??????????? ????????, ?????? ?а???????
??????, ???????????? ?????????????? ???????????? ????? ????????? ?? ???? ??????? ????????????
??????? ???????? ????????. ?? ????, ??????? ???????????? ???????????? ?????????????? ?????????
?а????????? ????????????????????, ??????? ?а????? ?????? ???? ? ?????, ?? ????? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ? ????????? ??? ?????? ?????? ????? ????????????????. ?????????, ?а??????? ?? ?????,
??????????? ?а???? ??????? ????? ????????????? ??????????? ???????? ?????????????? ? ?????????????, ? ?? ????????????? ???????????? ?? ???????? ???? ???????? ??? ?????????. ????????? ??????
???????? ???????? ??? ?????? ?? ??????????? ?????????????? ??? ?????? ??????? ? ????????, ?
????????? ??????????????? ??, ???????? ??????? ?а??? ???????????. ????? ???????, ??????? ??????????? ? ???????? ?????????, ?? ??????, ???????????? ????? ????? ??????? ???????????? ?????????????
?????????? ? ??? ????????????????? ???????????, ?а????? ????????????????? ??????????? ??????????? ????????????????????? ?????????, ???????????? ?а???????????? ???????? ?а?????????.
??? ???????? ??????????????? ???????? ??????????????? ??????????, ?? ??? ????? ????????
??????????????? ???????: ??? ?????????? ?а???????? ??????????????? ??????? ?а???????? ????????????, ? ????? ?????????? ???????? ??????. ???????? ?? ????????? ????? ?? ??????? ???????????
??????????? ????, ????? ????????? ?? ??, ??? ???? ??????????? ??? ?а????????? ???? ??? ???????????? ????????????: ????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????????? ? ?????????????,
??-??????, ???????? ?? ?????? ???????? ????????????????? ??? ?????????? ????????????; ??-??????,
????????? ???????? ??????????? ?а???? ?? ????????? ?? ???? ????????. ??????? ???????? ? ????????? ???????? ???????????? ????????, ? ?????????????? ??????????? ????????????????. ??? ????????
?????: л? ???????????? ????? ?????? ???????? ??????????? ???????? ?????????? ? ??? ???????????:
?а ?????????? ????????? ??????????????, ?а ??? ??????????? ? ?????????????, ?????? ?а ???? ??????
???????????? ?????? ?????????? ? ???????? ?? ?????? ???????. ?????????????? ????? ?????? ??????? ????? ???????: ??????????? ??????????????? ??????????? ???╗ [3, c. 196]. ?????????????? ?????????? ???????? ? ???????, ? ??????; ?????????????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????????? ??????
???? ?????????? ? ????????????, ????????????? ??? ?а????? ? ???, ??? ???????? ???????? ??? ?????
?а?????, ?????????? ?а??????????. ???????? ??? ??????? ????? ???????? ????? ?????? ? ????????????
??????????????, ?? ????, ?? ??????, ??????????? л???????????? ????????????? ????, ????????????
? ?????????? ???? ? ??? ??????╗ [3, c. 223]. ????, ?????????? ??????????????? ?????????? ?? ???????? ????????????????? ??????????????, ??????? ????????? ?а ???????? ??????????????? ????????
???????????? ?????????????.
?????? ?а ???? ??????????? ??????????????? ?????????? ?????????????, ?? ????????? ????????, ??????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????????, ????????? ??????????? ???????????
?????????? ??????????????? ???? ??????????? ????????? ?????????????? ????? ??? ?????????, ???????????? ????????. ??????? ?????????????? ???????????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?а??????????? ????????????????, ??????? ? ???????? ?????????? ???????????????? ??????????? ??? ???????????? ????????????, ???? ?? ?????????? ??? ???????????? ??????????. ??? ???? ????????? ??????
??????????, ??? ???????????? ?????????? ???????????????? ?????????????? ???????????? ????????
???????: л??????? ?? ???? ?? ?????? ????? ????????? ??????, ?? ??????????? ??????????? ????? ?????????; ????????? ????? ????? ?????????????????? ? ????????????? ?????? ?????? ????????╗ [3,
c. 197]. ?а??????????????? ????????? ?? ??????? ?? ?????? ????????? ????????, ???????? ? ??????,
?? ????? ????????? ??????????????? ???????? ? ????????. ?????? ?????, ??? ????????? ???????????? ??????? ????????? ??????? ?????? ?? ??????????? ????????? ????????????????, ?????? ???????
?а????, ??? ????????? ??????????? ?а??? ????, ?а????? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ?????? ???????.
???? ???????????? ?а???????? ????? ???????????? ????????? ? ?????????? ???????? ?а??????????? ?????? ??? ??? ????????, ?? ?????? ??? ?????? ??????? ????? ???????????? ?????????. ??????
?? ?????????? ????? ?????????????? ????????????, ????????? ? ?????????????? ????????? ?а?????
51
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
?а??????????? ???????? ???? ???????? ?а???? ????, ??? ????????????? ???????, ???, ????????, ????,
????? ??? ?????, ? ?? ?????? ??? ? ??????????? ??????????? ???????? ? ?? ??????? ?????????? ??????????????? ?????? ????????????? ?????; ? ??? ??? ??? ????????????, ????????????????? ??????????????, ?? ????? ???? ?? ??????????? ????????? ???????? ???????????? ?а??? ????????, ?? ??????????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?а?????????????? ?????. ?а?????? ?????? ????????? ?а????? ?????
????????????? ????????, ????????????????? ???????? ??? ?????????????? ???????? ??????? ??????
??????? ???????????? ????????.
???????? ? ????????? ????????-?????? ???????? ?? ????, ?????????? ??????? ?????????,
????? ????????? ?????????????? ???????????? ?????????? ? ???????? ? ????????? ????????? ??????????????? ??????????. ??????, ???????? ? ??????? ???????? ?а?????????? ?????? ?? ???????????? ????????? ? ???? ????????? ???? ?????? ?а????????? ??? ????????. ?????? ? ????????? ??????
? ????????? ?????????, ???????? ????????????? ????? ????????? ???????????? ?? ???????????
? ???????????? ?????, ?????????? ?????? ?????????? ????? ???????? ?????????. ?а????????????
?а ?????? ??????? ????????? ??????????, ?????????? ???????, ?????? ???????? ????????????????? ???????? ???????????? ????????????: л?? ????????? ? ?????????????? ???????????? ????????,
?????? ?? ?????? ??????????? ??????????, ?? ? ???????? ??????????? ?????????, ??????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????? ???????????? ?? ???????? ?????????? ????? ? ????????????? ???? ?
?а???? ??????? ????????? ???????? ???????, ??????? ??????????, ????????? ???╗ [4, c. 9]. ?а?????
???????? ??????????????? ?????????? ?а?????? ?? ???????????? ?????????????, ????????? ????? ?????????? ????????????? ? ?????????????? ??? ??????? ??????????, ??????????? ????? ??????????????? ??????????, ???????? ????????????? ????? ???? ??????????? ?????????? ???????????????
?????????? ?? ????? ??????????? ???????????? ? ?????????? ????????? ? ??? ?????? ????? ?????????? ????????????? ???????.
?????????? ??????????? ??????????????? ?????????? ???? ??????? ?ал?????????? ????????╗,
?? ???????? ?????????: л? ????????????????? ??????? ??????, ????????????? ????????? ????????
?а???? ? ?а????? ?????? ?а????????????????? ????????, ?????????????? ?????????? ? ??? ????????????
????????????????? ???????????? ?????????????, ?? ???? ?????????? ?????? ???????? ???????, ???
?????????????? ??????????╗ [5, c. 91]. ?????????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?а???????? ?????????
??????? ????????, ????????????, ???????????? ? ???????????????? ???????? ??????? ????????????
????? л?????? ?????????╗, ????????????? ??? ??????????? ? ?а ???? ????????????? ?а ??? ???????? ????? ???????????? ????????? ? ??????????? ????????????????? ??????? ???????????. ??????
????? ????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?а???????????? ???????????, ?? ?????????? ??????????
???? ????????? ??? ????? ?????? ???, ?????????????? ????????? ?????????, ?а ??? ?????????????? ????????????? ????????? ?? ??????????? ???????. ?ал???????????? ??????╗ ??????? ????????????? ??????????????? ? ????????????????? ????? ????????? ??? ???????????? ?? ?????????????
???????????????? ? ?????????? ???? ??? ?????? ????? ????, ????????????? ??????: л????????????
????????? ? ???? ???????????????? ? ?а?????????? ????? ??????????? ?????????? ????????, ???????
???????? ????? ? ????? ????????? ????? ?????????? ??????????? ??????? ???????????? ?????????
????? ???????-???????????? ?????????? ???????????. ????? ????? ?а???????????? ????????? ??? ??????? ????? apparition, ?????????, ???????? ???????╗ [4, c. 119]. ???? ???????????????, ????????????
?? ????????????? ???? ????? ????????? ?????????? ?а?????????????, ?????????? ?а??????? ?а?????
????????????? ?????????? ???????, ????????? ??? ???????? ????? ??????????????? ?? ??????????
???????????????? ? ????????? ???? ??????. ????? ???????????? ??????????, ??????????????? ?????????? ??????????? ?а?????????? ?а???????? ?????????, ?? ???????????? ???? ???????? ?????? ????????? ? ?????????? ?а??? ???????? ???????? ?а?????-???? ?????????????? ????????????.
?????????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????????? ????????????, ??????? ?????????? ?а????? ?????????????? ???????????? ?а????????????? ?????? ???????????????? ????????????? ? ???,
?????? ????? ???? ?? ??? ? ??? ?????? ????. ???????????? ???????? ? ?????? ?????????????? ?
?????????? ?????? ??? ?? ???????????? ?а????????????????, ?? ??? ?? ????? ????????? ?????????,
?????????? ????? ????????? ???????? ????????? ?????????. ????? ???????, ?????????????? ?????????? ???????? ????? ???????????? ?????????. л?????? ?????????╗ ????????????????? ???? ?????????????? ????????? ??????????? ????????, ?а?????????????? ????? ???????? ?а???? ???????????
? ????????? ??????, ??????????? ?????????? ????????????? ??? ???????????? ????? ???????????
?????????-???????????? ???????? ? ??????????? ?????????????? ? ???????????? ????????????, ??????????? л?????? ?????????╗ ??????? ???????? ? ???????????? ????????? ????? ??????? ?а?????
52
??????? ? ?????????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
???????????? ???????? ? ???????????? ?????. ???????????? ??????????? ?а?? ??????? ????????????
?? ?????? ????????????????? ? ??????????????????, ?? ???????????? ? ???????????? ?????????? ????????, ?. ?. ???????, ??????????, ????????? ? ?????????. л?????? ?????????╗ ???????? ?????????????
????? ??????????? ??????????? ???, ??? ?? ?????????? ??????????? ??????? ??? ??????????????,
???????? ???????, л??????????? ???????????? ????????? ????? ??????? ? ??????????, ????????
? ???????, ???????? ? ??????????????, ????????? ? ????????, ?????? ? ????╗ [6, c. 82] ? ??? ?????
???????????????? ?? ??????????? ???????????????? ? ????????????? ???.
?????????? ??????? ???????? ?а???? ?????? ??????? ?а???, ??? ??? ???????? ?????? ????????????? ????????????????, ??????? ???????????? ???????????????? ?а?? ?????????? ?????????????,
??????????? ?? ???????? ?????, ?????? ???? ????? ???????? ??????????, ?? ??????? ????????? ???????: л????????, ???????????, ??????????, ??????? ?????????? ??? ?????????, ????, ????-???????,
??????, ?????╗ [5, c. 89]. ?а????????????????? ?????, ????? ??????? ???????? ??? ????????? ???? ????????? ?? ?????????, ???????? ????????? ????????? ?а???? ?????? ???????????? ? ????????, ??????
??????? ?????????? ???????????????? ???????, ?? ??????????? ???? ???????? ?????? ?????????
????????????? ???????, ??????? ????????? ?????????? ?????????? ??? ????????????. ?????? ????????? ????? ???????????????? ?а????????????????? ???????????? ????????? ???????????? ?а?????? ?????????. л? ????? ??????????????? ???????????? ?????????????? ?????????????? ????????
?а???? ?????????, ??????? ?????? ?????????? ???????????? ???? ??? ??? ????, ??? ????????? ????????
?? ????? ??????, ????????? ? ??????????. ?????????, ??????? ???? ?????? ???????, ??? ????? ????????? ?? ???????, ??????? ????????????? ?????. ????????? ??????????? ?а ????? ????????????? ?
?????????╗, ? ???????? ??????? [5, c. 93]. ????? ??????????? ??? ??????????? ?? ?????????? ???????????? ?а??????????????? ?????, ?а???? ??????? ???????????? ????????? ???????????????? ?????
??????????? ??????????????, ??????????? ???? ?? ?????? ??????? ????????????, ?? ? ?????????????
? ???????????? ????? ????????, ? ????? ????????? ??????? ???????? ? ???????????? ?????. ?????
???????, ?????????????? ?????????? ????????? ???????????? ? ??? ??????? ??????????? ???????????????? ??? ?????????? ???????? ??????????? ?? ????????????, ? ??? ???????? ??????????? ???????????? ???????????????? ???????.
?? ????????? ? ???, ??? ??? ?????????? ??????????? ???? ???????? ????????? ??????????? ???? ????????? ????????? ???????????????, ???? ?? ?????????? ?????????????. ?????????-???????????? ???????? ?????????? ???????????, ?????????????, ?а????? ??????? ???????? ? ?????????
?а ????????? ??????????????? ????????????? ?????????? ??????????. ??????, ?а ???????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ??????????????? ?????? ? ???????????? ???????????? л??????? ?????????╗ ??????? ???????? ?????????? ???? ????????, ???????? ?????? ?????????, ??? ??? ??????? ????
???????? ??????????? ?????? ????? ? ???????? ? ?????. ??????? ???????? ????????????, ??? ???
??????????? ????????? ?????????????????? ?????????? ????????????? ????? л?????? ?????????╗,
??? ???????? ????? ????????? ? ??????????? ???????????? ????????, ????????? ?? ?????? ? ????????
?? ?? ???????. ??????? ???????????? ????????? ????: л? ????????? ????? ???? ???????????? ?????
???? ??????????? ? ???????????? ???????, ?????????????? ?????????????? ???????????, ??? ????? ????????? ??? ???????? ?????????????? ???????????????? ????????. ?а???? ??????? ??? ????????
???????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ? ?????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????????? ??????????
?????. ????????????, ????????? ???????????, ???? ???????????? ?а??? ???????? ? ???????? ????????????? ?а??? ??? ???????????? ????? ?????????, ????????? ???? ?????????, ???? ????????????
????????????? ????????? ?????. ??? ?????????, ????? ???????, ???????????? ??????, ?? ???? ???????, ??????? ??? ??????????╗ [5, c. 96]. ?? ????, ??? ???????? ???????????? ????????????? ???????
???????? ? ?????????, ??????? ?? ????????? ???????????? ????? ?????? ?? ?????????? ???????? ????
?? ??????? ?а????????? ??????. ??????????????? ?а???????? ??????? ?????????? ? ???????? ???????
???????? ?????????? ??????????????, ????????? ? ??? ???????????? ?????????? ?а????????? ????????????? ???????????? ? ??????????? ?? ????? ??? ????????????? ???????????? ???????, ??????
??????? ?? ???? ??? ??????? ??????????? ????? ????????? ??????, ??????? ?????????????? ??????
??? ???????????? ? ?????????? ?????? ?? ????????????? ???????? ???????????.
??????, ????????? ?????????? ??????, ?????????? ??????????? ????????????? ??????, ?????? ???????? ???????? ?? ?????????? ?????????? ??????, ???????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ?а???,
????? ?????????? ?????????; ?????????? ???? ??????????????? ??????, ??? ? ???????????????? ????????? ?а?????, ?а???????? ?????????? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ? ????????? ?а?????????? ???????. ??????? ???????? ???????????? ?????????????? ?????? ?? ??????????? ????????? ?? ???????
53
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
??????????????? ?????? ????????? ???????: л????? ? ????? ???? ? ??????????? ???????????? ?????? ???????????? ??? ???????. ???? ??????? ?? ???????????????? ??????, ?? ??? ????? ????????
??????????? ??????????, ????????? ??????????? ???????????? ?????? ??? ????? ??????????????
??????, ????????? ?????? ??????????? ????????????? ??????, ??? ?????????????? ??????? ?? ?????,
?? ??????? ?????? ????????? ?а?????????? ??? ?а???????? ?????????? ???????? ???????????????????, ??? ???????? ???????????? ??????? ???????, ??? ???????????????? ?????????? ????????
?а????????╗ [7, ?. 42]. ???? ?????? ??????? ???????????? ??????????????????? ?????????????????
?а???????? ??????????, ?????????? ????????????? ??? ??????????, ?? ??????????? ??????????
????????? ?????????? ?????? ????????, ?????? ???????????? ??????????????, ?? ????????????? ?????????? ?а????????? ??????????? ????????? ??? ??????????? ???????????? ??????????. ?????????? ????????? ????????????? ????????????, ?????????????, ???????????? ?????????? ?????
????? ????????????? ????????? ???????????????? ???????? ?а???????? ????????? ?????????????
???????????? ????????, ? ??????, ??? ???????????? ?а???????? ?????????????? ???????? ????????????? ?а ?????? ?????? ??????????, ?а ?? ????? ??? ?????? ???? ?? ???????? ??, ????????? ???
?????? ??????? ????????.
??? ??????????????? ?????????? ??? ???????? ?????????: ????? ????????????? ????????????????? ?????????? ??? ??????????? ?????????? ? ?????????????. ???????? ??????, ??? ??????????? ??????????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????? ????? ??? ?????? ? ????????????? ? ??????????????: ?????????????-??????? ?????????? ?????????????? ?????????????? ??????? ? ???????????
(?? ??????? ?? ??????????? ???????????? ????????), ??????????? ?? ???????? ?а????????????? ? ??
???? ???????????? ????????????? ?а??????????. ???????????? ???? ? ?????????? ? ?????????? ????????? ? ?а???????? ???????????????? ???????? ????????? ???????????? ??????? ?????????? ?? ?????????????, ???????? ???????????????? ???????? ????????????, ??????? ???????? ??? ??????? ???????? ?а ????????????? ????????????????? ??????????. ??? ????? ?????????? ??????????????
??????? ????????? ?? ?????? ? ?????? ?????????????? ? ????????????? ? ?а??????????? ????????????? ?????????????; ?а???? ?????? ????? ????? ????????? ?????, ?? ?? ??????????? ??????????????? ??????????. ? ??? ? ????? ?????? ??????? ?? ??????????? ???? ????????? ??????????, ?????????????? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ????????????. ?????????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ?????????????? ?????????????? ????????, ??????????? ???????? ?а?????? ????? ???????? ?
???? ????? ?????. л??????????? ???????? ?????? ????? ?????????? ???????? ????, ?????? ??????,
??????? ????? ???????????? ???????????? ?а???, ??? ??? ??????????? ?а?????. ?? ??????????? ?????
?????????? ????????????? ????? ???????, ???????????, ?????????, ???????? ???????? ?????????,
????????? ??????????? ?а ???, ??????? ? ????. ?????????????, ?а ???? ??????? ? ??????????? ???
??????????? ? ?????????????, ?а?????? ?? ???????????? ?????????? ?а????????????, ?, ????????,
??????????????? ???????? ?????????? ?а????????????, ??????? ??????? ?а??? ??? ??????? ???????? ????, ???????, ????????? ??????????, ?????? ?? ?????? ????, ?????????? ?????????????????? ????????? ??????????? ?а?????????, ???????? ??????? ????????? ?????? ???-?? ????????╗, ?
?????????? ?????? [4, c. 29]. ??????????? ??????????????? ?????????? ?????????? ??? ?????????????? ???? ??????, ?????? ????????? ????????? ???????????? ?а ??????????????? ????????: ??
?????? ??????????. ??????????? ??? ???????, ????????? ??? ???????? ??? ?????????? ?а????????
?????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ???????????? ?????, ??????? ?????????? ????????? ?????????? ????????????.
??????? ????????, ???????? ?????? ??? ???? ?????????? ?а ????????????? ?????, ????????
???????????? ??????? ? ??????? ???????? ?????????????? ???????????? ? ?? ??????? ?? ???????????? ??????????, ????? ?? ?????? ?????? ?а?????? ? ???, ??? ????? ??????????? ???????? ????????????? ????????????? ???????????? ???????????? ? ???????? ? ?????????? ??????????????? ????????????. ???????????? ????????? ????????? ? ??????????? ??????????? ????? ??????????? ?????????????
??????????, ??? ??????????????, ?а?????????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????? ? ????- ? ?????????? ? ???????????? ?? ?????? ???????? ????? ????, ??????????? ??????? ??????????? ????????????
????? ? ??????, ?а?????? ?????????????? ????????, ?? ? ????????? ???????????? ??? ???????????
?????????. ???????????? ?????????? ??? ????????????? ??????? ????????????? ?а ???? ????, ???
?? ??????? ?? ??????? ?????? ????????? ? ??????????? ??????????. ?????????????? ?????? ? ??????? ???????????? ??????? ?а??? ??????, ??? ??? ??????? ???????????? ???????????? ??????????? ??
?????????? ?а?????????????? ??? ??????? ??????????? ????? ?????????????? ?? ?????? ????????
????????: л??????? ????????? ?а ??????, ???? ???????? ?а ??????????, ?. ?. ??? ?????? ?? ???????
54
??????? ? ?????????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
??????: ??? ?????????, ?????????╗ [8, c. 37]. ?? ?????????? ??? ??????, ??????? ???????? ???????
? ????? ?????, ????????? ??? ???????? ????????, ? ??????, ????????? ?????????, ?????????? ?????????? ?а???????????? ?????. ???, ????, ?? ????????? ????????????? ???????????? ? ??????????
??????, ???????????? ?а??????????? ??? ????, ?? ? ?а?????? ??? ? ??????, ??????? ?а???????? ???????????????, ????????? ?????????? ?а??????????? ??? ????????????? ??????????? ????????? ?а?????. ??????????????? ??????? ????????????? ????????? ???????? ?? ?????????? ??????????? ???????
?а??????? ???????????, ?????????????? ??????????????.
??? ???????????? ??????????? ??????????????? ???????? ?а????????? ??????????? ????????
? ????????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????? ??????????????? ???????? ???????????? ????????????. ??? ?????????? ???????, ??? ?????????, ?а??????? ?????????? ???????????????, ???????? ????,
????? ? ????, ?????? ????? ???????? ?????????? ????? ?а?????????? ? ?????????, ??? ????????, ?????,
???????, ???????; ??? ???????????? ??????????? ???????? ? ????, ??????? ??????????? ???????,
??? ????? ???????? ?? ?????? ??????????? ??? ????? ????????????? ?????, ?? ? ????????? ?????????? ??????????? ??????????????? ????????????. ?????? ??????????? ?????? ???????????????? ??????????, ???????????? ???????????? ?????????, ??? ???????????? ??????, ? ???????? ?а ??????
? ???????????? ???????????????? ??? ???????: л??????????? ??????????? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ???????????? ????????, ????? ?? ??????? ????? ???? ????????????, ??? ???????? ?? ???
?????? ???????????? ? ? ??? ????? ??????????? ?? ?????. ?????, ???????, ???????????, ??? ?????? ???
???????? ????? ? ?????????? ??????????: ?? ??????????? ?????????????, ???????, ?а ???? ???????
??????? ??????????? ?????: ?? ?????? ?? ???? ???? ??????????. ??? ?????????? ???????????? ??? ??,
??? ?????????? ?? ?а?????? ?? ?????, ??? ?????????? ? ?????????????? ?? ????????????? ? ????????? ??????????╗ [7, c. 32]. ??? ????? ?????????????? ??????????? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ?????????, ??? ?????????????? ?????????? ?? ????????, ???????? ????????????? ?????, ??????????????
???? ???? ????????????????, ?????????????? ????????????. ??????????????? ?? ?????? ??????????????? ?????? ?а????, ??? ?а????? ?????? ?????????????? ????????? ??? ? ??? ? ????????????????
? ????????????????? ????????, ? ?????? ???????? ????? ???????? ????? ????? ? ????.
????, ??????????????? ???????? ????????? ?а ?????????? ?????????, ??????????????? ? ????????????? ????????? ???????????, ???????, ?????????? ? ????????? ????? ?????????? ????????
????????? ???? ?а?????: ?????? ??? ?????????? ?????????? ?????? ? ????????? ?????????????? ????????????, ?????????? ???????? ?а????????????? ?????????, ? ?????????? ????????? ???? ?? ????
???????????? ?а??????? ????? ???????????????? ?????? ?????. ?а???????? ??????? ? л??????????╗
???????? ????????? ??? ??????? ???????? ?? ??????? ? ??????????, ?? ???????????? ????????????
?????? ? ???? ?? ???????????? ?????????????, ??????? ??????? ??????????? ? ??????????? ?????
?????? ?????, ? ?????????????? ??????? ????????????? ??????????, ???? ?а?????? ?????? ??????
??????? ???????? ? ?????. ?? ?????? ??????????????? ???????? ????????????? ?????? ?????????
??????????????? ? ?????????? ???????? ??? ?????????????????? ?а????? ?????????????, ?? ??????
????????????, ?????? ? ?????, ??? ?????????? ?а????????????? ?? ???????????? ?????, ??????????
? ??????? ?а?? ????????? ?????????? ??????? ??????????????, ? ????? ? ????? ? ?????? ?а??????????? ? ??????, ??????? ?а ??????, ????????, ?????????? ? ??????? ?а ????????. ??????, ?????
?????? ??????? ???????? ??, ??? ?а ?????????????? ?????????? ??? ???????? ?????? ????????? ?
????????? ????????????????, ?? ??? ?? ?????? ?????????????? ?? ?????? ???????? ? ????, ??? ???????????? ????? ????????? ??????????? ?????? ? ?????????? ?а ???????? ????, ??????? ??? ??????
????????. ????????, ???? ???????????? ?????????? ? ?????????? ????????????? ??? ?? ??????????? ? ??????????? ??????????? ??????? ?????? ?а????. ??????????? ? ???????????? ??????? ????????????? ???????????? ?а?????????????? ??????, ????? ?? ??????, ????????, ?????????? ??? ?????,
??? ?? ????? ???????? ?????????? ? ?????????? ?????????????? ?а?????????? ?????????? ????????.
?а???? ?????????????? ???????? ??????????? ??? ?а????????????? ?????? ???????????? ?????????,
??????? ?????? ??????????????? ?????????? ??? ?? ??????????, ????????? ?? ???????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?а??????????????? ???????? ??????, ????? ???????? ???????
?????????? ?а???? ?????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?? ?????????. л??? ????? ???????????? ?????????, ??-?? ??????? ??? ???????????? ?????????? ??? ?????????, ??? ??? ?????????? ?????????
???, ??? ?????????? ?а??? ??????????? ? ???????? ??? ????? ????????, ? ?? ??????? ?? ????? ????????, ??????????????? ???????? ??????. ???????????????? ??????????, ??????? ????????? ???
?????, ??????????? ????? ??????????, ???????? ??????? ?????? ?????????????? ??????? ????????? ??????????? ????????? ??, ??????????????? ?????? ??????╗, ? ?????????? ?????? [4, c. 213].
55
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
????????????? ????????? ??? ?? ????? ???????????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ??????????
????????????????, ??????? ?????????, ????????? ?????????? ????? ??????????????? ?????????
??? ??????. ?а???????, ??????? ? ???????, ???? ?????, ???????????? ??????????, ?????????? ????????
?????????, ??? ????????????? ?????????????, ????? ?????????????????. ????????????? ?????????
?????? ??????????? л? ???????? ????╗ ?????????? ??????????? ?? ?????, ?????? ??? ?????? ???????????????? ???????????.
????????? ?????? ???? ????????????? ???????? ????????? ??????????????? ?????????????
? ??????? ??????? ???????????????? ??????? ???????????? ???????????? ??????????????, ???????????????? ???-????????. ?а?????? ???????????? ?????? ??????????? ? ?????????? ?? ?????????????? ???????? ???????????????? ?????????????, ????????????? ?????????? ?? ???????, ?????????? ?????????????? ????????? ???????????? ?????????. ??????????????????????? ???????
??????? ?? ???????? ???????? ?????, ??????? ???????? ???????????????? ?а????????? ?????????
???????????. ?ал???????? ?????????╗ ????? ???????? ??????????? ??? ??????? ???????????? ????
???????? ????? ??????? ?????????, ????????????? ????????? ?????????? ???????????????? ??? ???????????? ???????, ??????????? ?? ????????? ???????? ?????. ????? ??????????? ?? ??????
??????? ?а??????????? ?????????????? ????, ??? ????????????, ???????? ????????? ?????????? ???
?????????, ????????? ?? ????????? ?а??????? ?? ??????????: ????? ???????? ?а??????? ?????? ???
??? ??????, ???? ? ?а?????. ????? ???????????? ????????? ? ?????????????, ????????????, ????????-?????????, ???????????? ? ???????????? ????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????, ??????????????
????????, ???????????? ????????? ??????? ????????, ????? ????? ?????????????? ? ???????????????? ?а ?????????????, ??? ???????????? ??????? ??????, ? ??????? ? ??????? ???????????.
л????????? ????????? ??? ???? ???????? ????????????, ??????????? ? ???????????? ?????????,
??????? ?? ?а???????? ???????, ???? ????????? ????????. ??? ? ?а???????? ???????????? ????????? ???????????? ??????? ?????????, ? ?а???????? ?????? ??????????? ?????????????? ???????, ?
?а???????? ?????????? ??????? ?????????, ????????????????? ???????????? ??? ???????????? ????????? ???????-????????, ????????? ???? ???????? ???????????? ???????????? ????????╗ [9, c. 26].
?? ????, ???? ???? ?? ???????? ???????????, ??????? ???????? ????? ??? ????? ??????, ???????,
????????????? ???????, ?а ????? ? ????? ????????????? ?????? ??????? ????????????? ?????.
?а?????? ?????? ????? ?????? ????????????? ???????? ?????????, ?а?????? ???????? ????? ???????? ????????????? ?dщtournement? ???????????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ?????????? ??? ??????
??????????????? ????????? л??????? ?????????╗. ?????????? ????? ??????????? ???????? ????????? ????????? ?а???????????? ? ???????????, ? ????????????? ???????????????? ?????, ???????
????? ?????????? ??? ?????????? л?????? ?????????╗ ????? ??????????????? ??????????? ????????. ?????????????? ????? ???????????? ? ?????? ??? ???????????? ??????? ????? ???????????
????????, ???? ?????? ??? ??????? ??? ?????????????? ??????????????? ???????? ???????????????? ???????: ??????, ?????? ? ??????.
?????????????? ???????? ????????????? ???????? ???? ????????????? ????????????? ?а???????? ???-???? 1968 ????, ????? ???????????? ????? ???????? ? ????? ??????????? ??? ???????????????????? ???????? ? ?????????, ??? ????????? ?? ???????? ?????? ? ??????? ?а????????????
???????? ?? ?????. ???????? ?? ???, ?????? ????????????? ??????? ? ??????????????, ???????????
?? ????????? ?? ?????????? ???????????? ?а??? ????????, ????? ?? ????????????? ?????????? ?????
???????????? ???????????. ????????????? ???????????? ???????????? ? ?????? ?а???????????? ????????? ???????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ? ????????. ?а???????? ???????
?????????????? ????? ????-??????? ?а????? ?????? ????????? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ???????
? ???? ??????????????, ??? ??????? ???????? ????? л??????? ?? ????╗. ??? ???? ?? ????? ????????
? ????? ????????? ????????????????? ???????? ???-?????? л?????╗, ????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ???????????. ?а??? ???????? ???? ?? ??????? ???????????? ?а?????????? ???? ????????? ?????
???-?????? л??????╗, ??????? ?????? ???????????? ????? ????? ?? ??????? ????????????? л???-??????╗ ?????? 2016 ?., л???? ???????? ????╗ ?????? 2017-?? ????? ?? ???????? ???????????? ?????? ?а ?????? ?????-?????????? ??? ????? 2017-??, ? ????? ????????? ????? ?????????. ???????
?а?????????? ?а??? 2018-?? ??????? ???????????? ???????????? л?????? ?????? ?????????? ?????╗,
????? ????????, ?????????? ??????? ?????????, ???????? ?? ???????? ????? ??????? ?? ???????????
????????????, ?????????? ?????????? ???????? ????? ?????????? ????? ?????, ????????? ?а???????.
?????????? ?? ????????????? ???? ????? ?а???????? ?????????? ????????????? ???????????? ?????
??? ?? ??????????????. ???, ????????? ????????? ????? ????? ??????????? ????? ???? ????????
56
??????? ? ?????????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
?????, ?? ???????????? ???????? ?а?????? ???????? ??? ?????? ???????? ??? ???????? ?????????,
?а?????????, л?????? ?????????╗ ?? ??? ??????????, ????????? ???????????? ?????????? ???????, ???
??????????????? ? ????? ??????????????? ?????????? ??? ??? ??????.
????????????????? ??????
1. ????? ?. ??????? ?????? ? ???????? ?????????????????? ???????? / ?. ?????, ???. ?а???.; ???.
???. ?.?. ????????, ?.?. ??????. ? ?.: ?????, 1987. ? 614, [2] ?.
2. ????? ?. ??????????? ?????????????. ?а 4 ?. ? 1. / ?. ?????, ???. ?а ???.; ???. ???. ? ???????.
?.?. ???????. ? ?.: ????????, 1985. ? 335 ?.
3. ????? ?. ??????????? ?????????????. ?а 4 ?. ? 2. / ?. ?????, ???. ?а ???.; ???. ???. ? ???????.
?.?. ???????. ? ?.: ????????, 1986. ? 467, [1] ?.
4. ?????? ?. ?. ???????????? ??????. / ?. ?. ??????, ???. ?а???. ? ?.: ??????????, 2001. ? 526,[1] ?.
? (????????? ?????????.)
5. ??????? ?. ?????????? ??????? / ?. ???????, ???. ?а????. ?.?. ?????. ? ?.: ??? ??????, 2009. ?
331 [5] c. ? (?????????. ??????????).
6. ??????? ?. ??????????? ?????? ????????. ????????? ?????? ?? ????????? ? ?????????? ??????? / ?. ???????, ???. ?а????. ?.?. ?????, ????. ?. ??????? ? ?. ?????. ? ?.: ??? ???????, 2011. ?
382 ?. ? (Philosophy).
7. ?????? ?. ?. ?????????: ?????????? ?????? / ?.?. ??????; ???. ?а???. ?.?. ??????, ?.?. ????????, ????.: ?.?. ?????, ?.?. ???????. ? 3-? ???. ? ?., ???., 2015. ? 448 ?.
8. ???????? ?. ???????????? ????????? ?а ????? ??? ??????????? ?????????????????: ?????????
???? / ?. ????????, ???????., ????., ???. ? ??????. ?. ?. ???????. ? ?.: ??????, 1996. ? 240 ?.
9. ????? ??. ???????? ????????? / ?. ?????, ???. ?а??. ?. ??????? ? ?. ????????; ???. ?. ????????,
???????. ?. ?????. ? ?.: ?????, 2000. ? 184 ?.
57
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
??? 111
?. ?. ????????
?????-????????????? ??????????????? ???????????
???????????????? ???????????????
???? ???? ?а???????????? ??????????? ??????? ????????
? ?????? ??????????????? ???????? ??????????? ???????????? ??????????? ??????? ?а ????????,
? ?????????, ????????? ?????? ??????? ?????????.
???????? ?????: ??????????? ???????, ???????????????, ??????????????
M. Malkova
Saint Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation,
THE UNIVERSITY?S ROLE IN SHAPING A STUDENT?S CITIZENSHIP
This article discusses the key features of citizenship among young people, in particular students of higher
educational institutions
Keywords: citizenship, self-determination, self-realization
??????????? ???????а ? ??? ?????????? ????? ?????????????? ????????, ?а ???????????????
????????? ??????? ?????? ??????????? ????????, ?????????, ??????, ?????????? ??????????, ?????????? ?а?? ??????????.
??????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ???? ?а?????????? ???????? ???????????????.
??????????-?????????????? ??????????????? ??????? ?а???????? ?????????? ???????, ???????? ??????? ?????????????? ?а ??????????? ?????????, ???????, ?????????. ??? ???????? ??????????? ? ?????????????? ????????? ?????????? ??????????? ??????????. ???? ?? ??????????? ?а??????
? ???????????? ????????? ????????, ? ???????????а???????? ????????? ?????????? ?? ????????????
????????? ?????????-?????????? ???????.
??????? ????????? ???????? ???????? ?????????? ? ?????????????? ?????? ???????, ?? ???????/????????? ???????? ?а???????????? ? ????????????? ????? ???????? ?? ?????? ??????? ??? ?????????, ??? ? ??????? ???????????.
???? ?????? ???????? ???????? ???????????????? ??????? ????????????? ????????, ?а ???
?????? ??????????? ???????? ???????????, ?????????? ?? ???????, ?????????? ????????????? ????
???????????? ?а???????????????? ????? ??????, ?а??????? ?????????? ??????? ??????????????? ?
??????????????? ?????????, ?а??????? ???????? ?????????????? ? ????????? ??????? ? ???????. ???????????? ???????? ???????????? ??????????????? ????? ??????? ?? ????? ?? ???? ???????? ????????????? ????????????: ?????? ???????????, ?????????????????, ??????? ??????????, ????????
????? ? ???????? ?? ????? ?????????, ?????????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ??????????, ??????????
?????? ????????? [2].
?????? ?????? ?????????????? ??????????, ?????? ???????????? ?????, ??????? ?а????????????? ??????????, ? ???? ????????? ???? ?????? ????? ?а?????????? ????????????. ?????????? ????
????????????? ?????? ?а??????? ????????????????? ????????, ??????????? ?? ?????????? ?????????,
???????????? ?? ?????????-???????????? ? ??????????? ???????. ??????????? ?????? ??????????
?????????????? ???????????, ?????????????? ?????????-?????????????? ? ????????????? ????????
??????????? ???????? ??????? ?а???????? ????????? ??????? ?а?????????? ????? ? ????????? ??????? ????? ?а??????-????????????? ?????????? ?а???????? ? ???????????.
? ????? ?а ?????????????? ??????????????? ???????? ????????? ? ?????? ?а ????????????
??????????? ??????? ????????.
???????????? ? ???????? ??????????????????? ???????? ?а??? ?????? ???????? ? ??????????
??????? ?а ?????? ? ??????? ?????????? ?а ????????, ????????? ????? ?????????? ?а ???????????
?????????????????, ??????? ???? ??? ???????????? ?????????? ?а???????????? ????? ????????.
58
??????? ? ?????????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
? ??????? ?? ?????? ????? ????????, ???????????? ???????????? ????? ????????? ??????????????? ??????.
?? ?????????? ?????? ?а17 ?? 25 ??? ?????????? ????????? ?????????? ? ???????????????
??????? ?а????? ????????: ?????????? ?????? ???????????, ????? ?????????, ????????? ????????????????? ???????????, ?????? ??????????????? ???????? ????????????, ?????????? ?а????, ????????
?????. ?? ???????????? ???????? ??????? ????? ????????????? ?????????? ????? ???????? ?????????? ???????????? ????? ?????? ???????. ????????? ?????, ?????????? ???????????? ??????? ????????????? ??? ?????? ????????????, ?????????????? ?? ????????? ???????????? ???????? ? ???????
?????????????, ????????? ???????????? ???????? [4].
??????????? ??????? ???????? ???? ?????????????, ?????? ?????, ???????????? ?????????????? ??? ????????? ??????? ? ???????? ??????????? ????????? ?а?????????? ????????????????,
??????? ?????????? ?а???????????????? ????????????, ?а?????????? ????????? ? ???????????? ????????, ?а??????? ?????????? ????? ????????????? ????????. ?????????? ?а???????? ????????????????
????????????, ??? ??????? ?? ??????????? ?????????????? ? ???????? ?а ???? ????????-?????????
??????. ? ??????? ?а??????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????? ??? ???????? ????????????????
???????, ????????? ??? ?????????? ????????? ?????? ?????????????, ???????????? ? ??????????????, ? ??????, ?????????? ???????? ?????.
??????? ??? ???????? ??????????? ??? ??????????????? ????????? ?? ???? ???????????? ???????????? ????? ?????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????????????, ??? ????????, ???????????,
????????. ????????? ?????????????????? ?????? ????????? ????? ????? ?????????? ?а??????? ???????????? ????????? ????????. ????????? ?????????? ?? ???????????? ?????????? ???????, ????? ??????? ???????????? ??????? ??????? ? ???????????. ???? ???? ? ???, ??? ???????? ????????? ?а???
??? ???? ???????????? ????????, ????????, ?????????? ??????? ???????? ???????? [4].
??????????? ??????? ??????????? ?????????? ??? ??????????, ????? ? ???? ?а???????????? ????????????. ??? ????????? ?????? ???? ????? ?????????????? ?а??? ???????????????? ????????????.
??? ????????, ??? ???? ?а?????? ????? ????????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????-???????? ????????, ? ?????????????? ???????????? ???????? ? ??????? ?а???????? ???????? ??????? ??????????, ??
?а???????????????? ??????? ???????????? ???????? ???????????? ? ?????????? ???????? [2].
???????? ??? ?????????????, ?????????? ??????, ??? ??????????? ?? ?????? ????????? ????????????? ?а ???????? ?????? ? ???????????? ?????, ??? ?????? ???????? ????????? ????????
?а?????????? ??? ??????????, ?????????? ? ?????????????? ?????, ???????????? ??????????? ???????? ?а???????????? ?а?????????? ????????, ?????????????? ???????????? ??????? ???????? ? ????????? ?? ?????? ? ?????????????? [2].
??????? ???????? ?????? ??????????????? ????????, ??? ??????????-?????????????? ????????,
????? ???? ?????????? ???????? ?????? ?а ????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????, ?????????????
?????????, ???????, ???????????-???????????? ?????. ??????????? ????????? ???????????? ??????????? ????????? ?? ????????? ????????????? ? ??????????, ??????????? ? ??????????? ????????,
???????? ???????????? ?????????? ????????????????? ?а???? ?? ?????????? ???????? ? ?????????
?????????-???????????? ?????????, ??? ?????????? ??????????? ???????????????? ?????????? ???????????? ????? ? ?????????? ????????? ?????????????????.
? ?????????????? ????? ???? ?? ???????? ??? ?????????? ????????? ?а ??????? ?????????,
?????????? ????????? ??? ???????, ??? ? ???????????? ????????, ???????? ??????? ?а??????????
???????????? ???????? ??????????? ? ?????????????? ??????????. ??????? ????????????? ?????????? ??????? ??? ????????? ??? ????, ????? ??????????? ? ???????? ??????? ???????? ???????????
??? ?????????? ? ???????? ?????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?????????????????? ?а??????????
?????? ???? ????????? ? ????????? ??????????? ??????????????? ????? ?а?????? ????? [3].
??????????-?????????????? ???????? ???????? ????????, ????????????? ?а ?????????? ??????????? ?а ????????????????? ???????????? ???????? ? ??????? ?????? ?? ???????????-???????????? ????? ??????, ????????????? ??????? ????????????? ? ???????????, ??? ???? ??????, ????? ????????????? ??? ???????????? ????????:
? ???????????????? ???????? ?а????? ??????????-?????????????? ??????? ???????????? ?????? ???? ?а????? ?????????????? ????? ???????? ?а???????? ???????? ? ?????????? ?а????;
? ????????????????? ?????????? ???????????, ???????? ?а??????? ??????? ???????????-?????????? ? ?????????-?????????? ???????, ??????????? ????????? ??? ?а???????????? ?а????????? ???????????????? ????????. ???????? ?????????-???????????? ? ?????????-?????????????? ?????????
59
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
???????? ???????? ?????????????? ????????????? ???????????? ?а????????? ??????????? ? ?????????????? ?????? ? ???????????? ?????????.
? ??????? ???????? ????????????? ?????? ?????, ??? ?????????????? ? ??????????? ???????,
??????? ??????? ???????????????? ???????????, ? ????? ??? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ????, ????????? ? ?????????. ???? ???????? ???????????????? ? ??????????????? ???????? ?а????
???????????? ????????? ??????? ? ???????????????, ??????? ???????????? ????? ??????????????
?????? ????? ? ?????????;
? ??????????? ? ??????????????? ???????????, ??????? ??????? ?? ????, ??? ??????? ???? ???????????? ????? ????????????, ??????????????? ????????, ?а???????? ???????????? ??????????? ? ??????????? ???????????????.
? ????????????? ???????, ????????? ??????? ???????????? ??????????? ? ??????????????
??????????.
????????????? ??????????? ????? ????????? ???????? ???????????? ????????? ????????????
?? ???????? ???????????? ?????? ????????? ???? ? ??????? ??????????, ?????, ?????????? ??? ????????? ????????? ? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ?????????, ??????????? ?а???.
????? ???????, ??????? ???? ?а???????????? ??????????? ??????? ????????? ????? ? ??????
???? ???????? ??????? ???????????, ? ?????? ????? [1]. ???????????? ?????????? ?а???? ?????? ????
?????????? ?? ????????? ?????????? ???????? ???????????, ?? ????????????????? ???? ? ????????
??????? ? ????????? ?????? ????? ?а????????; ? ????? ???????? ???????????????? ???????????? ????? ?????????? ???????, ??? ????????? ??????????? ???????? ???????? ? ????????? ??? ????????????
??????????.
????????????????? ??????
1. ???????? ?????????? ?? ???????????? ???????? ?? 01 ??????? 2016 // ????????????? ??????.
2016. 02?08 ???????
2. ???????? ?.?., ????????? ?.?. ???????????? ??? ?????? ??????????? ??????????? ??????? ????????? ???????????? // ??????????? ???????? ????? ? ???????????. 2016. ? 2.
3. ????????? ?.?. ?????????????? ??????? ??????????? ??????????? ??????? ????????? ???????????? // ??????????? ?????????? ??????????. 2016. ? 6?1. ?. 111?116.
4. ?????????, ?.?. ????????????? ?.?.. ???????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?. ?????????? л??????╗ ?а???????????????-??????????????? ???????????. ????????: ???, 2011. 119.
60
??????? ? ?????????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
??? 001.8 + 002.5, 002.6
?.?. ??????????
???????? ??????????? ????, ??????
?????-????????????? ??????????????? ???????????
???????????????? ???????????????
?????? ?????????? ????????? ???????? ????????
? ?????? ??????????????? ???????? ??? ???????? ???????? ?????? ?????????? ?????????, ???????
??????????????????? ?????????? ?????????, ?????????????? ?а??? ????????? ???????? ????? ???????? ???????? ????????? ?? ??????? ? ?????????? ?? ??????. ??????????? ???????? ????????? ?????????? ????????? ?????????? ????? ????????? ?а??????????????????? ??????, ??????? ? ???????
??????????? ?ал??????? ??????? ??????╗ ?????.
???????? ?????: ?????????? ? ?????????? ?????????, ????????????????? ?????, ????????? ???????? ? ?????, ???????????????? ? ???????????
I. A. Protopopov
Candidate of philosophy, assistant professor
Saint Petersburg State University
of Aerospace Instrumentation
PROJECT POSITIVE PHILOSOPHY OF THE LATE SCHELLING
The article considers the key project of positive philosophy of late Schelling, which he contrasts to negative
philosophy, which in its understanding represents the main line of development of Western philosophy from
Plato and Aristotle to Hegel. The justification of the basic principles of positive philosophy occurs through an
appeal to the transcendental ideal, the notion of which is advanced in Kant?s лCritique of Pure Reason╗.
Key words: Positive and negative philosophy, transcendental ideal, identity of thinking and being, reality and
possibility.
??????? ?????????? ?????? ????? ?????????? ?????????, ??????? ?? ????????????????? ??????????? ????????? ??? ??????????, ?? ???, ??? ??????? ?????? ??????????? ???? ??????????????
????????????? ? ??????????????? ????? ?а?????????? ??????? ???????????? ???????? ??????????
???????? ?? ?? ??????? ??????? ??????, ?????? ?? ???? ????? ????? ??????, ? ????????, ???????????? ?а????????? ??????????? ??????? ?????-???? ??????? ??? ????????????????. ?а???? ?????????,
??????? ??? ??????, ??? ????????? ??????????? ???????, ??????? ??? ???? ????????? ????????????
?????? ? ??????????? ?????????? ?????????, ????????? ??? ????? ?????? ??? ????????? ? ????????
?а????? ????????, ? ?? ???, ??? ??? ???? ?а????? ????? [4, ?. 97].
???????? ???????? ????? ??????????? ??????, ??????? ?????????, ??? ?а ??? ????????????
??????? ????? ???????? ????????? ???????? ? ?????, ??????? ??????? ??????? ?а ???? ??? ???????????, ?? ?а??????????????? ?????????????, ?? ???? ?а???????? ???????? ????? ?????? [4, ?.
94]. ?????, ????????? ?а?????? ????, ????????? ?а??????????? ??????? ??????? ? ?????????? ???????
????????? ?? ????? ? ???????? ????????????? ???????? ???????? ????? ?????? ?а ??? ?????. ??,
??? ????????? ???????? ??? ????????, ??? ?????? ??????, ????????? ?????? ????????????????, ?????????? ??? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ? ?????????????, ??????? ????????? ?????????? ???
????????, ??????????? ????????? ?? ??, ??? ???????? ?????? ???? ?????????? ?????????, ?а???????
?? ??????????, ????? ???? ?? ?а?????? ????? ?? ????, ?? ???? ?а??????????? ????????? ????? ?????.
??? ???? ?а ?????? ????????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ????????, ??????????? ??????? ?????????
?а???????????????? [4, ?. 213]
??? ???????? ?. ?. ???????, ?а????????? ???????? ??? ??????????? ?????????? ?????????
??????? ????????? ???????? ? ????? л???????? ????????????????? ?????? ?а???????, ?. ?. ?а???????? ??????? ????, ?????? ?????????????╗ [2, ?. 99]. ????? ???????, ??????????????? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ????? ????????? ? ?????????????? ???????? ??????????????, ??? ???
???????? ????????? ???? ????????, ? ?? ?????????????? ?????????????. ???????, ??? ????????????
???? ???????? ?а?????? ???? ?а????? ??????????? ???????, ??????? ?????? ??????????? л??????╗
61
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
???????????? ?????????? [2, ?. 99?101], ??? ?? ????? ??????? ??????? ????????, ?????? ????? ??
???????, ??? ?????????? ????? ?????? ?а??? ????? ????????? ????? ?????????? ?? ????????????????
????????????? ?????, ??????? ????????? ???????? ????? ?????????? ?? ??? ?????????????, ? ?????
???????? ??? ????? ?а??? ????? ?????? ?? ???????.
????????, ???????? ??????, ?????? ???? ?????? ?????????, ??????? ???????????? ????? ???????? ????? ?????????? ?????? ?а??? ????????, ???? ?????????, ????????? ??? ???????? ??????????
???????????? ??? ??????????????? ?????. ??????????? ?????? ??? ????????? ??????? ????? ?? ???????? ??? ???? ?????? ?????????????, ??? ?????? ???????, ??? ????????? ?????????? ?????????????
?а ????? ????????????, ??????? ???????? ??? ???????????? ? ?????????????? ?????????????? ?????
??????. ?а??? ????? ??????????? ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ?а??????? ?????????? ?????????, ???????? ????????, ?????????? ???????? ?? ?? ??????? ???? ??? ??? ???????? ??????
??????? ?????????? ? ?????????????? ????????, ?? ??? ??? ?? ????? ??????? ????? л??????????, ?????
??????????? ?? ?????? ???? ?????????????, ?а??????? ?? ???????? ?????????? ??????, ????? ??????
?????? ?????????????, ? ??????????, ????? ??, ?????? ?? ????, ????????? ?? ????????╗ [4, ?. 209].
?????????? ???????? ????????????? ????, ?????? ???? ?? ??? ???????, ??? ????? ??????????
???????? ?? ?????? ??? ?????, ??????? ?? ????? ??????? ?а ??? ???????????????? ?? ???????????
?????? ??? ???????????, ? ????? ??????????? ????? ?????????? ??????. ????? ???? ??? ??????? ??????, ?????? ?? ?????? ???????????, ????????, ?????? ????, ??? ??????? ???????, ?а??????? ?? ?????
????? ?????????? ??????, ?????????? ????????????. ???????? ??????? ?????? ???, ??? ???????????
??? ???? ????????????, ????????? ?а???, ??? ?????????? ?? ??? ????? ?????, ??? ????????????, ??? ?
?? ????????????. ?а???? ????????? ???????????? ?а????? ?????? ???????? ????????? ???? ???????????, ???????? ????? ??????-???? ??????, ??????? ???? ?? ???? ?? ???????? ????????????, ?? ?????
????? ???????????? ?????????, ?? ??????? ??????????? ????????????? ????? ??? ?????, ???????
????????? ?? ???? ????????.
???? ??? ? ???????? ?????????????, ????? ?? ????????, ????????? ?????? ??????? ??????????????? ??????????? ???????. ?а??????? ?? ?????, ?? ?????, ?? ???????? ????????? ?????? ????????,
?????????? ???????? ??? ?????????? ???????????? ? ??????????????. ??? ???? ?????? ?????????
?? ?????? ????????, ??? ????? ???? ?????? ????????? ????????? [4, ?. 209]. ???????, ??? ???????
???????, ???? ? ?????????? ???????? ?? ??????? ????, ????? ???????? ??? ?????????????, ??????
????????, ????????, ???????? ?? ??????? ?????????? ????????????? ???????? ??? ??????????????.
??? ???? ???? ???????? ???? л???╗, ????????, ????????, ?? ????? ?????????? ???? л?? ?? ????????
?а?????, ? ????????, ?? ????? ?а????????, ????? ????? ?????????? prius, ???????? ? posterius. ?? ????
??????? ?????????? ??? ???????????????, ??? ????, ????? ?? ???????? ??????????? ?????????? ?? ??????????? ???? ????? ?а?????, ??????? ?а??? ? ?????? ?????????? ???????, ??????, ?????? ????? ?????,
??????? ???? ?????? ?????????? ?????????╗ [4, ?. 210].
???????? ??????? ?а????????? ?? ??????????, ??????????????? ?? ???????????? ????????
??????, ?а??? ???????? ?а??????? ????????, ?а?????????? ?????????, ??????? ????? ?????????
?????????????, ??????? ?а ????? ???????????????? ????????? ?????????? ????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????, ??????? ????????? ?а??????????????? ? ???????? ??????????? ??????? ? ?????????????????? ?????? ??????? ??????. ???????? ???????? ???? ??????? ??????? ?а???, ??? ??? ????????
????????????? ????? ????? ???????????? ???? ??????, ??? ???????? ????? ????????? ?а????? ?????,
???????????? ?а?????? ????????????? ??????, ??????? ???? ???? ?? ???? ?? ???????????, ?? ????????????? ?????? ???????? ????????????????. ???????? ??????????? ?а???, ??? ???????? ????? ????
????? ?? ?????? ?а?????????, ?? ?а????????????? ???????? ????????????, ???????????? ?????????
?????????? ?????? ????? ? ?????, ?а???????????? ?а??????? ??? ????? ?????????? ????????????.
??? ?????????? ?????? ????? ????????? ??? ?? ?????? ?а???? ????? ??????????, ??? ??? ???????? ?а?????, ?? ?а?????? ??????? ??????????????? ??????, ??????? ?????? ??? ????????? ???????? ????? ??????? ????????? ? ??? ????? ???????????? ??? ???????? [4, ?. 240]. ?а????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????? ? ?????????????????? ?????? ??? ?????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ???????????? ??????? ?????? ???? ????? ? ?????????? ?????????????? ???????????? ????? ???? ?а?????
?????, ??????? ??????????? ?????????? ?? ???????????? ?????? ??????????????? ????????? ???????.
?? ??????? ???????????? ??, ??? ??????????? ????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ??????????????????? ?????? ?а????? ??????? ?????? ????????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????? ?????????? ?????? ?????????????? ??????? л??????????? ????????? ????????? ??? ?????????????? ????? ????╗, ??
??? ???? ???? ??????????? ?а???????? ?????????? ??? ???????????? ??????????????????? ?????????.
62
??????? ? ?????????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
???????? ?а??????? ?????? ? ???, ????????? ???? ???????? ??? ?????? ????????, ????????? ??
?а??? ?????? ?? ??????????, ??????? ???????, ??? ???? ?а??? ?????? ???? ?????????? ??????????????? ??????????? ??????? ??????????????? ?????????????? ????? ????????????? ????, ? ??????????
????????????? ????, ?????? ???????? ?? ????? ??? ??????????????, ??????? ??????? ?а??????? ?????????? ?? ????? ??? ???????????? ????????????? ? ??????????????. ?а ?????????????? ??????????????, ??? ??? ????????? ???? ?ал??????????? ????????? ????????? ??? ?????????????? ????? ????╗,
????????? ??????? ? ?????????????? ??? ?????????????? ?????????, ??????????????? ?????????????
?????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????????, ???????, ??? ?????? ?????, ????????? ?а???? ???????? ????????? ?????????? ??????????? ???? ???????? ?а????? ?????? ? ??????????????? ????? ????
???????????? ??? ?????? ???????????? ?????????? ????? [1, ?. 394?395].
??? ???? ???? ?а ????? ?????? ?????????? ????? ?? ?????????? ????????????? ??????????
?????? ??????? ???????????? ????, ??, ????????, ?????????? ?а ????????? ?????????? ????????????? ? ??????????????? ??????????? ????????. ???????? ??, ???????, ??????????????? ??????? ????? ?????? ?а????????? ?????? ????????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ??????, ?????? ???????? ? ????
????????? ???????? ????????? ??????????? ????????? ????? ??? ????????? ?а ??? ????????????
???????? ?????, ??????? ?? ??????? ?????????? ??????????. ?? ????? ????? ?? ??????????. ?а????
?????????, ??????? ?????????????? ???????? ??? ?????? ??????? ??????, ?????????? ????, ??? ??????? ???????, ?????? ????? ???????????? ??????????, ?????? ??, ??????? ??? ????? ?? ???? ?????????????? ??????????? ????????? ? ?а?????? ????? [4, ?. 226].
???????????, ????????????? ??????? ?? ????? ????????? ???, ?????????? ??????? ??? ????????????, ?.?. ??? ????????? ?? ??????? ?????????? ????????????? ?????, ????????? ??? ?????? ???
????? ????? ??????????????? ??? ????. ????? ???????, ??? ?а????? ?????? ??????? ??? ??????????
?а?????????? ????????? ?а????, ???? ?????? ??? ?? ???????, ??? ?? ?а?????????????? ????????? ???
???????????. ?????? ?? ?????????? ????????? ?а???? ??? ??????????? ??? ???? ????? ????? ??????,
??????? ????????? ?????????? ????????????? ??? ???????????? ??????? ?????. ???????? ?а???? ??????????? ????? ????? ??????, ?? ???? ????? ?????, ??????? ???????? ?а???? ????? ??????. ??? ???? ??
?? ??? ???? ?????, ???????? ????????, ?? ??? ??????????? ???? ????? ????? ?????? ???? ??????????
???? ????? ????????? ?а????? ???????????????? [4, ?. 231].
??? ?????????? ??????, ??? ?????, ????? ????????? ??? ?? ?????? ?а???? ????? ??????????
??????, ?? ?а?????? ??????? ??????????????? ??????, ??????? ?????? ??? ????????? ???????? ????? ??????? ????????? ? ??? ????? ???????????? ??? ????????. ??? ??????? ?. ?. ??????, ???????? ????? ????????? ????? ? ????????, ?????????? ?а?????????? ??????????????????? ??????,
?а?????? ?????? ??????? ?а???, ??? ??? ????? л????????? ????????? ?а?????????? ??????? ????????
??????? ???? ???????? ????????????? ? ???????????? ???? ????????? ??????????, ? ???? ?????? ?
????????? ??????????????? ?????????? ???????? ?а????, ??? ??? ????????? ????????? ?а????? ????????????? ?? ????????? ????????, ?????????? ??? ??????? ??????????╗ [3, ?. 292].
??????? ??, ????????, ??????????, ??? ??? ?????? ?? ????????? ???? ?????? ?????????????,
??????? ????????? ??? ????????? ???????????? ????? ??????????, ?? л??????????? ????? ?????????????? ??????????? ???? ???????????? ?????????????? ?????????????╗ [3, ?. 292]. ????? ???????,
л???????????? ???????????? ????????????? ????????????╗ ?а ???????? л???????????? ?????????????? ?????????????, ??? ???????? ??? ??????????? ?? ???????????????, ?? ??????????? ???? ??
?????. ???? ??????? ???????????? ????? ?????????? ???????? ?а????? ????????????? ? ?????????
??? ????????????? ?? ????????? ?а????? ????????????? ?? ??? ??????????, ? ??? ????????╗ [3, ?. 294].
?????? ??????????????? ????????? ??????? ?????????? ????? ??? ??????????????? ?а??????? ?? ????? ?????? ??? ??????????, ?а????? ??????????? ??????? ????? ?????????? ????????? ???????? ??? ?а?????? ?????????????, ??? ??????????? ?? ?????????? ?????????, ????????? ? ???, ???
?????? ??? ??????? ???????? ???? ?????? ??????????? ?????. ??????? ????? ?????? ????? ?а????
????? ???????????????? ?????? ??????, ??????? ????????? ?????????? ??????????? ????? ??????????
??????. ??????? ? ????? ???????????? ???????? ?а???????? ?а??????????????? ??????????? ?????
??????? ??????, ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ????? ????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????.
????????????????? ??????
1. 2.
3.
4.
???? ?. ??????????? ????????? ????????? ??? ?????????????? ????? ???? // ???. ?а8 ?. ?. 1. ?., 1994.
??????? ?. ?. ?????????? ???????? ? ??????? ?а????????? ????????. ?.: ???, 1973.
?????? ?. ?. ??????? ??????? ? ???? // ????????-??????????? ????????? 2002. ?., 2003.
??????? ?. ????????? ??????????. ?а2 ?. ?. 1. ???., 2000.
63
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
??? 94(47).084.8
?. ?. ?????????
?????? ???????????? ????, ?????????
?????-????????????? ???????????????
??????????? ???????????????? ???????????????
???????????? ??????? ? ????? ???? ?? ???????????
???????????? ?????????? ??????????
? ?????? ???????????? ???????? ??????????? ????????-?????? ???????????? ????? ???? ? ???????
?????????? ??? ?? ??????????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????????.
???????? ?????: ?????????, ?????????? ??????? ??????, ?????? ????, ???????, ??????????, ??????
?????, ?????????????? ?????, ????????????? ?????, ???????, ???????? ?????????, ???????????? ?????????, ????, ????????????, ???????????? ???????, ??? ??????.
V.P. Sidorenko
Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor
Saint Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation
ACTIVITIES OF NKVD TROOPS AND AFFAIRS? BODIES TO ENSURE
SAFETY OF BESIEGED LENINGRAD.
This article defines key directions of service and fighting troops activities of NKVD (?eople?s Commissariat
for Internal Affairs ) and internal affairs agencies to ensure safety of besieged Leningrad.
Keywords: Banditry, internal defense of the city ( Leningrad), NKVD troops, a division, special operations
operatives, The Road of Life, barrier lines, the Leningrad front, police, citizen militia, a regiment, compulsory
evacuation, criminality, nearby fronline of system control routine, the back of a front.
? ???? ??????? ????????????? ????? ?????? ? ?????? ???? ????1 ????????? ?????????
????????-?????? ??????. ???????????? ????? ?а?????? ?а?????? ??? ?????? ?а??????-???????? ??????? ??????. ?а??????? 1941 ?. ?? ????????????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ??????? ??????????. ?а?????
????? ???????????? ?????????? ???????? ???? ?? ??????? ?????????????? ??????2 ? ???????????
?????????????? ?а ???????? ?????????????? ?????? ???????? ???? ???? ? 001335 ???? ???????
?????????? ????? ???? ?. ?????????? (????????? ? ??????? ?.?. ????????, ??????? ???????? ? ???????? ???????? ?.?. ??????)3.
1
? ??????? ???? ? ???? ??????? ????????????? ????? ??????????: ??????????? ??????; ???????????
?????? (? ?????? 1942 ?. ? ??????????); ?????? ?? ?????? ???? ??????????? ??????? ?????; ?????? ?? ??????
???????? ?????, ????? ?????? ??????????? ??????????????, ????? ????????????????? л??╗-?????; ????????? ??????. ??? ???, ????? ???????????, ????????? ??????????? ??????????? ????????.
2
????????? ?????? ????? ?? ?????????? ?????????? ? ??????? ??????????????? ????????? ?????????? ? ????? ?????????? ?????: 2-? ??????? ?? ?????? ??????????????? ??????????; 41-? ??????? ?????????
?????; 225-? ????????? ????; 4-? ?????????-????????????????? ????; 13-? ????????? ??????? ? 152-? ???? ????? ???? ?? ?????? ???????????? ???????????; 13 ??????????? ????; 95, 104, 151, 166, 167 ? 168-? ?????????
????????? ?? ?????? ??????????? ??????????????; ????-???????????? ??????-???????????? ??????? ?????
???? ????? ?.?. ??????????.
3
? ?????? ?????????? ????? ???? ?????????? ??????? 1, 20 ? 21-?? ??????? (?? ???????? ?? ? ???????
?????), 4-? ?????????-?????????????????, 225-? ????????? ?????, 152-? ???? ? ????? ?????????? ?? ??????
????? ?????? ??????????? ??????????????, ??????-???????????? ??????? ????? ???? ??. ?.?. ??????????,
???????? ????? ???????? ?????????? ? ?????? ????????????? // ????????? ?.?., ????????? ?.?. ?????? ? ??????
???? ???? ? ????????????? ?????. ???., 2014. ?. 133?134.
64
??????? ? ?????????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
??????????? ?????? ???? ????????? ?????? (? 23 ??????? 1941 ?. ? ??????????????) ??? ???????? ???????-????????? ?.?. ????????1. ?а??? ??????????? ?????????? ???? ???????? 50735 ?????????????? ????? ???? [12, ?. 376?379]. ??? ?????????????? ????????? ???????? ????? ?а???? ??????
??????? ???? ?? ?????? ???? ????????? ?????? ?? ???????? ?? ????? ? ???-????????? ????????
?????? ???? ?????????????? ?????2.
?? ????????? ?а ?????? ???? ??????? 4 ??????????? ? 26 ??????. ?а ?????????? 286-? ????
???? ???????? ?????????? ?????? ?? 12 ????????? ? ??????? 9 ??????? ??????3. ??????? ???????
13-?? ????? ????? ???? ???? ???????? ????????? ?????? ?? ?????? ?????????, ???????????????,
?????, ?????. ??? ?????????? ??????????? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ? ???????????? ??????????
?????? ?????????????? 4-? ?????????-????????????????? ???? ????. ????? ?????? ????? 50 ??????
???????? ?????? ???????????? 6 ?????? ? 2 ????????? ????????? (? ?????????? ??? ???? ????????
?а1-? ??????? ????? ????). ?????? ?????????? ???? ??????????? ?????? ?????????? ??????????-?????????? ???????, ??????? ?а ?????????? ???? ????????? ?а ???????????? ?а ????????? ????????? ?
??????????? ??????????? ?????????? [1, ?. 153].
????? ???????????? ?????? ?????? ?????????????? ????? ???? ?????????? ?а???????? ?????
?????? ???? ?????????????? ??????. ?????? ?????? ?????????????? ????? ???? ????????? ?? ????????????? ????????? ??????? ??? ???????????? ?????????? ????? ?? ????????? ???????????????
3-?? ????? ?.?. ?????????4. ?? ???????? ???? ?? ???? ????? ??????? ?????????? 5 ?????????? ? 30 ??????????-?????????? ?????? (???). ????????????? ?а??? ???????????? 20 ??????? [9, ?. 99]. ???????
?????????????? ????? ????????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ????????????? ?а????? ??????????? ????????, ??????????, ??????? ? ???????????. ?????? ?а???????-?????? 1941 ?. ?? ?????? ??????????????
????? ? ??????????? ?а??? ??????????? ???? ????????? 15149 ???. [16, ?. 219?220].
? ??????? 1941 ?. ?????????????? ???????? ?????? ?????? ???? ??????? ???? ??????????? ??
???????? ????????? ?а??????????. ?? ?????? ???????????? 103, 104, 105-? ??????????? ????? ? 99-?
??????????? ?????.
???????? ?? ??, ??? ?а ?????????? ????? ???????? ????????? ?? ????????, ?????????? ??
?а?????? ???? ??????????? ??? ????????????? ?????????????. ??????? ????? ????????? 18 ????????
1941 ?. ?????? ????????????? л?? ???????? ?????? ?а ????????????? ? ?????????????? ?????????
????????? ?а?????╗. ?а????????????? ?????? ???? ?????? ?а????????? ????????? ? ??????????? ?????????? 13-?, 286-?, 288-? ????? ?????????? ????? ? ?????? ?????. ?? ?????? ???????? ?а1941 ?.
?а?????? ???? ????????? ? ??????????? 192 ?????? ? ??????????, 3490 ?????????? [7, ?. 170]. ?а?????????? ?а???? ??????????? ?????? ?? ?????? ???? ??????-????????? ?????? ?? ????????? ?а??????????
?а 1941 ?. ????????? 64 ???????? ??????, 1514 ??????????, 28 ????????????, 28 ?????????????????
?????? ??????, 15 ???????????, ? ????? 95972 ??????????????, ????????? ?? ????? ?????? [7, ?. 171].
???????????? ??????????, ??????????? ?а????????? ??????????, ??????? ????????????? ???????? ??????????????? ??????? ???????????, ??????? ???????? ????????? ?????? ???????? ??????????? ????????? ??????, ?????????????? ?а?????????? ?????? [14, ?. 242]. ?? ????????? ????????????? ???????? ?????? ?????????????? ?????? ?? 15 ?????? 1941 ?. ???? ???????????? ??????????
1
? ??????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????? ???? ????????? ?????? ???????-?????????? ?. ?. ????????? ? ???? 1941 ?. ???? ????????: 14 ??????????? ??????? ? 17082 ???.; ????????? ??????????? ???? ? 2153
???.; 2 ????????? ??????????????? ? 1322 ???.; ?????????????? ??????? ??????????? ????? ? 5915 ???.; ???????
?? ?????? ??????????????? ?????????? ? 11164 ???.; ??????? ?? ?????? ???????????? ??????????? ? 9590
???.; ??????? ????????? ????? ? 3509 ???.
2
?????? ?????????????? ????? ?????? ???? ????????? ?? ????? ????? ?????; ?????? ? ?? ????????
?????? (??????) ?????? (?.?. ?? ???????????? ????? ?? ???????????? ?????); ?????? ?????? ?????? ?? ?????????
??????. ?????? ?????? ????? ??????????? ?? ??????????? ??????, ?????? ????? ? ?? ????????????? ???????,
? ??????? ? ?? ?????????? ???? ?????????????? ??????.
3
???????????????? ???????? ??????? ????????? ????????????? ?????? ???????? ????? ? ???? ??????
?? ???????? ?? 50 ?? ?? ????????? ?????, ?????? ???? ?? ?????? ???? ?????? ?????н???? ???????? ??н????????,
?????? ? ?????? ? ???????????? ??????? ??????? ????? ????, ??????????????? ? ???? ??????, ? ????? ???????, ??????????, ?????????н????? ? ?????????? ??????.
4
?????? ?????????????? ????? ????????? ?? ???????????? ????? ?? ???????????? ?????, ? ????????????
?????? ? ???????: ??. ????????, ??. ??????, ???????????????? ??., ????????? ??,, ?????????? ?????, ????????
??. ? ?? ?????? ?????? ???????? ???? ?????.
65
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
?????????? ??????? ?????? (???). ???????????? ??? ???? ????????? ??? ???????? ?????, ????????? ?а???????? ??????????1.
??? ??????????? ?????????? ?а ?????-????? ???????????? ? ???????????????, ??? ???????? ?????? ????????? ????????? ?а????? 1942 ?. ?а????? ???????? ???? ????????? 8447 ??????????
?????, 932 ?????????????? ???????, 244 ??????? ??? ???, 8050 ??????? ??? ?????????? ?????????
?а???????,404 ?????????????? ?????, 188 ?????????? ??????. ????? ?????, ?а????? ?????? ???? ??????
14 355 ? ??????????????? ????, ????????? 38 900 ? ???????? ? 51 140 ? ??????? ????? ?????????
[1, ?. 140?141]. ??????? ?????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?а ?????? ??????????? ????????? ???
??????????????????. ?????????????? ?????????? ? ??? ??????? ??? ?? ???? ????????????? ?а????
?????? ??????, ?? ????????? ??????? ??????? ????????, ????????? ????????? ???????? ????? ?а??????.
?????? ?? ?????????????? ??????? ????? ????????????? ??????????. ?а 22 ???? 1941 ?.
?? 1 ?????? 1942 ?. ?????? ???????? ????? ???? ?? ?????? ???? ?????????????? ?????? ???? ????????? 269 ??????? ? ??????????? ?????, 16 ???????????? ? 22 ???????? ??????? ?? ?????? ????????? [13,
?. 91?104]. ????????? ??????????? ? ???????????????? ??????? ??????, ????????? ?????? ?? ????????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????? ?а????????? ?а????? ?????????????? ??????????. ????? ?а????
1941 ?. ?? ?????? 1944 ?. ?????? ???? ?? ????????????? ?????? ????????? 67 ?????????? ????????????, 75 ??????? ? ???????????, 56 ?????????? ? ???????????? ? 38 ???????? ???????? [1, ?. 143].
???????? ?????????? ????????? ??? ?????????????????? ??????? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ????????????? ?а?????, ?????? ?а????????? ? ???????????? ??????????, ?????????? ?????????
? ????????? ????????????. ?а???????????? ?а?????????? ???? ???? ?????? ???????????? ?????????
?? ???? ??? ?????????? ???????? ? ??????? ?????????-?????????????? ????? ????? (??????????????? ???????), ??????? ????????? ????????????? ????????? ?? ??????????. ????? ?????, ????????? ????????? ?? ?????? ?????????? ? ???? ??? ???????????. ?? ????????? ?????????? ?? 5 ???????
1941 ?. ????????????? ????????? ????????? 1514 ???. ?????? ????? ?? ?а?????? ???? ?? ??? ??????????? ??-?? ????? ????? ?????????.
?????????? ????????? ?????????? ? ?????????????? ???????? ?а ?????? ??????? ???????
1941?1942 ??., ??? ???????? ?? ?????? ? ??????, ??? ? ??? ???????????. ?а???????? ??????????? ??????
?? ????????? ?????? ?а?????? 1942 ?. ?????? 166 ???????????, ????? 1600 ???. ???? ???????? ???????????????. ?а??????? ?????? ??? 216 ???????????. ??????? ????????? ???? ????????? ??????, ??? ????
??????????? ??????? ?? ????? ??????? ?? ????? ?????? ???????????? ??? ?????????? ????????.
? ???????? ?????? ? ?????? ????????? ????? ???? ????????????: ???????? ?а????? ??????????
?????????? ??????? ? ?????????????????? ??????????; ??????????? ? ???????????; ???????? ????????????????? ????????; ????? ?? ???????; ?????????????? ????? ?? ????? ????? ? ??. [4, ?. 452?461].
?а?????? ??????? ?????? ???? ????????????? ????? ?????????? ? ??????????? [3, ?. 269]. ???? ?а??????? 1941 ?. ?? 15 ??????? 1942 ?. ?? ?????????? ?а????????? ??????????????? ???? ?????????? 886 ???.,
?? ?а??????? 1943 ?. ????? ???????????? ?? ??? ???????????? ????????? 1979 ???. ???????????? ? ??????????? ??????????, ?????? ?????, ????, ?????????? ??????????? ????? ?????????, ??????????
???????????? [3, ?. 270?271]. ?а??????? ? ??????? 1941 ?. ???? ???????????????? 133 ?????? ???????
??????????????? ?????????????. ???????? ??????? ?????????? ????? ???? ???????????? ???? ???????? ?а1942 ?. ? 735 ???????. ?а?????????? ?????????? ????????, ?а1943 ?. ? 165 ???????, ?а1944 ?. ? 61.
?????????????? ???? ???????????? ???? ????? 100% [10, ?. 200].
???? ?а?????? ????????? ???? ????????????, ????????? ?а???????? ?????????, ???????????
?? ???????? ?????????? ? ?а??????????? ????? ?а????????, ?? ?а??????????? ???? ??????? ???? ?????????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????. ????????? ?? ?????? ???????????? ?????? ????????????
? ???????? ?? ????????????, ?? ? ????????? ??????????????? ???????? ?а???? ?????????????. ????
?? ??????? ?? ?????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ???? ?????????? ?? ???? ?? 2 ?? 3 ???, ?? ?а??????? ??????? ? ?а??????? ?? 8 ???, ? ?а?????? 1941 ?. ?? ????? 1942 ?., ?а???????? ???????????????
?а?????? ???? ????????? [5]. ?? ???? ??????? ??????? ?а??????????????? ???? ????????? ?? ???????
????????? ???? ????????? ?? 5?10 ??? ?а1942 ?? 2?3 ??? ?а1943 ?. [6]. ?? ?????? ??? ??????????? ???,
??? ????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ?????????? ????????? ????????? ?????????? ??????????.
1
? ?????? ??? ????? ??? ???????? ?????, ????????? ? ???????? ??????????: ?????? ????, ???????
???????????, 24 ????????? ???????, ?????????????? ?? ???????? ?????? ???????? ??????????? ????? ? ????????? ????????, 79 ??????? ?????????? (102 ???. ???.), ????????? ? 5 ?????????? ??????, ? ????? 12 ???????????
??????????, ??????? ???????? ?????????? ????? ?? 27 ??????? 1941 ?. ???? ??????? ? ?????????? ???????.
66
??????? ? ?????????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
????? 1941?1942 ?. ?? ????? ????? ???? ???? ????????? ????????? ?????? ?? ?????? ????????????????? ??????, ??????????? ?а ?????????? ????? ?? л?????? ?????╗. ?а ????????? ?????? ?? ???? ?????? ?а????? ???? ?????????? ????? 361 ???. ? ??????, ?? ??? 271 ???. ? ?????????????? ? ?????? [7, ?. 97]. ?????? ?? ???????????? ? ?????? ???? ?????? ????????? ?????????????
13-?? ??????????????? ????? ? 23-? ??????? ????? ????. ???, ?????? ???? ????????????? ??????
13-?? ??????????????? ????? ?а??????? ???? ??????? ???? ?????????? 674 ? ????????? ?????? ? ???????? ?? ?????? ????? 30 ???. ???????, ??????? ??????? ????? [2, ?. 157]. ?????? ?????????????? ??
???????????? ????? ? ??????? ?? ???? ?????? ????? ?????????????? ?а???????? ??????????? 23-?
??????? ????? ???? [7, ?. 98].
????????? ????????? ??? ?????????? ??????? ???? ?????? ?а???????????. ????????? ????
???????????? ????????? ????? ?????? ?а??????????? (???). ?а?????? ?????? 1941?1942 ??. ?????????? ??????? ?????? ????????????? ??? ?????????? ????? ?а????????? ? ?????????? ???????, ??????? ??????? ????????, ?????? ?а?????????? ??????? ? ??. ?а???????? ? ??????? 1941 ?. ?? ?????????
???? ???????? 159 ???. ?????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?а?????? ???? ????????????? ?а1942 ?. ?
645 ???????, ?а ?? ????? ??? ?????????????? ???? ???????????? ???? ????? ?????? ?? ??? ???????
(77%). ??????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????, ??????????? ??????????????? ? ??????? ???????
??????????????? ????????????? ???????? ?а??????. ???? ?? ?????? ????????? 1942 ?. ?? ?????????
???? ???????? 542 ???., ?? ?а?????? ????????? 1943 ?. ? 194 ???. ?а1944 ?. ???? ????????? 11 ????????????, ??????? ???? ???????? [11, ?. 39]. ???????????? ????? ???????????? ?????????? ????????????? ???????. ?а1943 ?. ??????? ??????? ? ???? ??? ????????????.
????? ???????????????? ????? ???????????? ???? ?????. ??? ???????? ???? ????????? ???
????? ??????? ??????? ??????. ?а????? ?????????? ????? ???? ???????????? ????????? ?????????
???????????? ?? 3 ????? ? 30 ???? 1942 ?. ?? ???????????? ? ?????????????? ???? ????????? ??????????? ?? ????? ??????????? ????? ??????? ? ??????????? ??? ?????????, ???????????? ??????, ??????????? ?????? ????????? ? ???????????? ???????? ?? ??????? ??? ???????????. ???????? ?? ??????????????? ???????? ????, ?а1944 ?. ??????????? ?? ???? (6830 ???? ??? ?????????????? 68,1%).
???? ????? ????? ???????????? ??? ?????? ???????????? ?????????????? ?а???? ????????, ???????
???????????? ????? ? ?????????? ?а??????? ?а???????????. ?а????? ???????????? ????? ???? ???????????? ?а??????? л????????????? ??????╗, л?????╗ ????????????? ????????? ? ?????????? ?а??????
???? ????????? ??? ?а10 ????? ??????? ??????? ???????????? ????????? ?? ??????? [15].
? ??????? ?????????? ????? ?? ?? ?? 9 ??????? 1943 ?. ??????????? ??????????? ???????????? ??????, ???????? ????????????? ????????????? ?? ?????. ?а????????????? ???? ???? ?????????
???? ???? ???????????, ????????????? ?а??????? ???????????????? ?????????? [8, ?. 88]. ?а??????
1943 ?. ??????? ????????? ??????? ????? ?????????? ? ???????? ????????????? ???????????. ?а1943
?. ?? ????????? ?а1942 ????? ???? ???????? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ???????????? (? 34861 ??
10573 ??.), ??? ???? ?????????????? ??????????? ?? 82,6% [10, ?. 203].
????? ?? ???? ??????? ?????????? ?а ????????? ??????????????? ?? ????? ????? ????
?????????? 14545 ???. [1, ?. 193]. (??. ????.).
???????????? ????? ???????????? ?а????????????*
???????
?????
?????????
???????
?????
??????
???????
?????
767 ??
23,3 ???.
???.
?? ?????
4 ??? ???
?? ?????
73420 ???
124,968 ??
3284 ??.
???????????
????????
6428 ????48046 ???.
???
?????????
???????
700
????
* ????? ?????, ?а???????????? ???? ?????? 767 ?? ??????? ?а????????, 3584 ??. ?????????? ?????, 16081 ???
????? ? ??.
???????? ?? ??????? ????? ?????????? ?а??????????-????????? ? ???????????? ??????, ????????????? ??????? ??????? ?а1943 ?. ??????????????? ????????????? ?????????? ?а?????????????
??????.
? ?????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????????? ? ?????????? ???? ???????????? ?а?????????? ??????????? ?????. ?????????????? ???????? ?????? ????????? ?а1941?1943 ??. ??????? ????
???? ?????????? ?????? ?? ???????????? ????????? ?? ?????????? ?????? ? ?????????? 96 ??? ??????,
?????? ? ????????????????. ????? ????? ??? ????????? ?????? ?? ????????? ???????????? ??????67
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
??? ?? 25-?? ???????????? ??????, ? ????? ?????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ???, ?????????? ?? ????? ??? л?????????-???????╗. ?? ??????? 1941 ?. ?а?????????? ????? ??????? ?? ?????????
????????? 1514 ???., ?? ??? ??????????????????? ???????? ? ?????????? ???????? ? 762 ???., ?? ?????????? ???????????? ? 603 ???., ??? ??????????? ? 65 ???., ??????????? ? 84 ???. [10, ?. 197].
?????? ????????-?????? ???????????? ?????????? ????? ? ??????? ?а????????? ??????????
???????, ??? ??? ??????????? ?? ????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ? ???? ???????????? ?а??????????????? ??????? ?????? ???????, ????????? ????????? ?????? ?? ?????? ?????????? ????
? ??????????? ????????????? ??????? ?а????????? ??????????. ????? ????????, ??? ?????? ????
? ?????? ?????????? ??? ???????? ????? ?? ??????? ??? ?а??????? ?????????? ??????? ??????.
?? ?????????? ?????????? ??????? ????????????? ?а?????? ?????, ???????? ? ????????, ??????????? ?????? ????????, ?????? ??? ???? ?? 4 ?????? 1944 ?. ????????????? ??????? ???? ?????????? ??????? ??????????? ?????????.
? ?????? ?????? ???????? ????????? ??????? ???, ??? ??????? ??????? ? ????????????? ????? ??????. ?а ????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ? ????? ????????? ?????????? ???, ??????????? ?
?????????????? ?????????? ????????????? ????? ?? ???????-?????????? ??????????, ?а?????-?????????? ? ????????????? ??????? ????????? ????? 20 ?????????? ? ?????????, ??????????? ?????
10 ???????????? ?????, ?? ??????? ??????? 8 ????1.
????????????????? ??????
1. ????????? ?.?., ????????? ?.?. ?????? ? ?????? ???? ???? ?а????????????? ?????. ???.: ???
л????????╗, 2014. 264 ?.
2. ?????????? ?????? ?а??????? ????????????? ?????. 1941?1945 ??. ????????? ? ?????????. ?.:
???-?? л??. ???.╗, 1975. 728 ?.
3. ?????? ?.?. ?????? ??????. ???????? ???????? ????????? ?а????????? ?????? ?а????? 20?40-? ??.
???.: ????, 1997. 462 ?.
4. ????????? ?а?????. ??????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ?а???? ??????? ????????????? ????? 1941?1945 ??. ???.: ???? ??????, 1995. 640 ?.
5. ????????????? ??????. 1941. 1 ???????, 30 ????????, 22 ???????, 12 ??????, 13 ???????.
6. ????????????? ??????. 1942. 3????????; 1943. 5 ? 12 ?????, 15 ???.
7. ???????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?., ?????? ?.?., ????????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?. ?????????? ??????
?а??????? ????????????? ????? (1941?1945 ??.). ??????-???????????? ????. ?.: ???????, 2011. 496 ?.
8. ????? ???????? ?????????? ??????????????? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ??? ?????? ??
?????-?????????? ? ????????????? ??????? (??? ?? ???? ??? ? ??). ?. 28. ??. 1. ?. 2. ?. 88.
9. ???????? ?.?. ?????? ? ?????? ???? ?? ??????-?????? ???? ?а???? ??????? ?????????????
?????. ??????????. ???.: ??? л?-????╗, 2016. 216 ?.
10. ???????? ?.?., ????????? ?.?. ???????????? ?????????? ????? ? ??????? ?а ?????? ???????
?????????? // ????????? ??????: ?????? ?????????. ????????? ????????????? ??????-???????????? ??????????? 14?17 ??? 2014 ?. ???.: ???????, 2014. 339 ?.
11. ?????? ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ??? ??? ??????? ??????????.1941?1944 / ??? ???.
?.?. ?????????. ???.: ???? ???. ? ??, 1995. 188 ?.
12. ?????????? ??????????????? ??????? ????? (????). ?. 38652. ??. 1. ?. 8. ?. 376?379.
13. ????. ?. 38652. ??. 1. ?. 5. ?. 91?104.
14. ????????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?. ?????????? ?????? ?? ??????????? ???????????? ??????????
?????????? // ????????? ????? ? ?????. ?а70-????? ????????????? ?????. ? ???.: ??? л??????????╗, 2014. 304 ?.
15. ?????. 1941. 29 ????, 3 ????, 9 ???????; ????????????? ??????. 1942. 9 ??????; 1943. 7 ??????,
28 ??????, 3 ????????.
16. ????? ?.?. ???????????? ???????????????? ? ?????????????? ???????? ??????: ??????? ? ?????????????. ??????????. ???.: ????, 2000. 408 ?.
1
?????????? ??????: ?????, ???????, ????. ?., 2008. ?. 303?309; ??? ???? ?? ?????? ?????????. ???
???. ???. ?.?. ???????. ???., 2011. ?. 118?125; ???????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?., ?????? ?.?., ????????? ?.?.,
??????? ?.?. ?????????? ?????? ? ??????? ????????????? ????? (1941-1945 ??.). ??????-???????????? ????.
?., 2011. ?. 399?425; ??????? ????? ???? ? ??????? ?????????? (? 70-????? ??????? ???????????? ??????????
???????? ?????? ?????????? ?? ??????? ???????-??????????? ????????). ???., 2014. ?. 76?85 ? ??.
68
??????? ? ?????????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
??? 327
?. ?. ??????
?????? ???????????? ????, ?????????
?????-????????????? ???????????????
??????????? ???????????????? ???????????????
??????????? ??????????????: ?????????? ????????
????????????? ????????? ????????????? ?????????????? ? ??? ????????????? ?а????????????????
???????????. ??????????????? ???????? ?????? ???????? ????????????? ?????: ???????????? ?????????????? ? ?????????????? ???????????, ???????? ?????? ???????? ???????? ?? ?????? ? ???
????????? ???????????, ???????? ?????????? ?????????????. ???????????? ????????? ??????? ????
?????? ?а???????????? ??????? ????.
???????? ?????: ???????????????? ???????????, ????????????? ???????, ?????? ????, ???????
????????, ????? ????????????, л??????? ????????╗
N. M. Sirota
Doctor of Political Sciences, Professor
Saint Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation
MODERN WORLD ORDER:
TRAJECTORIES OF EVOLUTION
The specifics of the existing world order and its transformation into a polycentric world order are analyzing.
The main trends in the evolution of the international environment are considered: the formation of a hierarchical and asymmetric world order, the shift of the center of world development to the East and its possible
prospects, the intensification of global conflict. The author?s vision of the role of Russia in the configuration of
the centers of power is presented.
Keywords: polycentric world order, international system, centers of power, world hierarchy, new bipolarity,
?the Thucydidas trap?
??????????? ??? ????????? ?а?????? ????????????? ?????????, ??????????? ??????? ?? ?????? ??????. ?? ???????? ??????, ??? ?а ??????? ????????? ??? ????????????? ?????????? ?????????
л????????????-?????╗. ?а??????? ????????? ??????? ? ????????? ??? ???? ?????? ????????? ??????????? ??? ????????. ???????????? ?????????, ??????? ? ????????? ?? ?????? ?????????? ????
??????????? ???????????, ?? ? ????? ??????? ???????? ????????????? ??????? ?а ????????????
???????. ???????????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ????????? ?а?????????????????, ???? ??
?а ???????????? ??????????. ??????????????? ???????????????? ??????????? ???????? ??????????
??? ?????? ?????? ???????????? ??????????????? ? ???????????? ?????????????????? ?????????.
???????? ????????? ????????????? ????? ???????? ???????? ???????, ?????????? ? ??????????????. ???, ?? ??? ??????, ??????? ????????????? ??? ???????????? ??????????????, ?????????? ??????????? ????????????? ??????? ?а??????? ???????? ? ????????? ???????????????? ??? ?а??????????? ???????????, ??? ? ?????????? ???????????????. ???????? ????????????? ?????????????
?а???? ??????? л??????? ???????╗ ?????????????? ????????????, ?????????????? ?? ????????????? ??????? ???????????? ????????????? ?????1.
1
? ?????? ???????????? ?????? ?????? ? ???????? ???????? ??????? ? ?????? ??????? ??????? ??
??????????? ? ????????????????? ???????? ????????????-???????????? ?????, ??????? ??????? ????? ?????????? ??? ???????????? ?????????, ???? ? ??????????, ???????????? ????????? ??????? ??????? ????????
(?????? ????? ??????????), ?????????????? ?? ???????? ??????????? ? ?????????? ????????????? ? ?????????? ????? ?????????, ??????????? ???????????? ???????????? ????????????? ???????? (?????? ?.?. ????? ??????? ???????: ????????? ? ??????????? ???????????. ?????????? ??????????? ???????. Saarbrucken,
Deutschland: Palmarium Academic Publishing, 2016. P.17).
69
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
???????????? ?????????????? ????????????? ??? ????????????????, ?а ????????? ????????,
?а??????? ?? ???????????? ?? ?????? ?????????? ?????????? л???????? ?????╗ (?????????? ?????)
?1? ?., ?????????? ??? ???? ??????? ????, ??????? ?????????, ?? ?????? ??????? ????????????? ???????????? ??????????. ?а ?? ????? ??????: 1) л????╗ ?? ????? ???????? ??????????? ???????
(???, ??, ?????); 2) ?????????? ??????? ????????????? ? ???????????????? ??????╗ (?????, ??????, ?????? ? ????????), ?? ????????? ?????????? ???????????? ???? ?????????????? ?ал????╗ ?
????????????? ?а???1; 3) ???????????? ?????? (??????, ?????????? ??????, ???, ??????? ? ??.).
????????? ??????????? ????? ?????????????????? ?? ?????? ?????????.
?? ???????????? ????? ????? ?а?????? ?????? ?????????? 10?15 ??????????, ?????????????
?? ???? ??????. ?а????????? ???? ?? ???? ??????????? ?????????? ?? ???? ??????????, ??????? ?а?????? ???????? ??????????? ????????????? ?????????? ?????? ?? ?? ??????.
?????????? ??? ????? ???????? ??????????? ?? ????????????? ????? ?????????? ????, ???????
?а???? ????? ????????????, ???????????? ?????? ??????????? ?????????? ? ??????????????, ???? ??
????? ???? ??????? ?а ????? л??????? ????╗. ??????????? ????????????? ???????????? ?а ????????????? ???????????? ??????? ???????????? ? ?а????????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????? ?? ????????????-???????????? ???????, ??????? ??????????????? ???????????? ????? ????????????????
??????? ? ???????????????? ???????? ??????????????? ????? ?? ???????? ?????? ?? ???????????
????.
????????? ?а???????????????? ???????????? ???? ??????????? ?а?????????? ?????????? ????
? ??????? ????? ?????, ????????????? ????????? ??????-??????????? ? ?????????? ???????????.
?????????? ? ????????????? ?????? ?????? ???????а? ???????. ????????????????????? ????????, ????????????????? ??????????, ?????????????? ???????????? ? ????????????? ???????????????????
???????????, л??????????╗ ??? ? ?.?. ??? ??????? ?а ????? ???????????? ???????? ?????? ?????
?а????????? ????????. ????????????-???????????? ???????????? ?????????? ??? ????? ????????????,
??????????????? ?? ???????, ??????????? ??????????. ?а????????????? ???????????????? ????
??????????? ????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ????? ?? ?? ??????????? ??????? ??????????? ?????? ????????????? ??????????.
?? ??? ??????, ??????????? ???????? ?????????????? ?????????????? ??????? ?а?????? л???
2035╗ ????????-??????? ????????? ????????????? ??? ??????? ?????????????? ???????????: ??????
???????, ???????????? ?а ??????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ?? ???????????????? ?????????????
? ???????????? ?????????? ???????? (??????? ?а ??? ???????? ???, ?????? ? ??), ? ???????????,
?? ???????? ?а ??? ?????? ? ????????????? ?? ????????? ???????? ?????????, ? ?????????????, ?
??????????? ?????????? (1, ?. 280, 327?328). ??? ?????????? ???????????? ????????? ??? ???????? ?а???????????? ??????? ?????? ?????????? ?????????????????? ?? ?????????? ??????????????
??????????. ?? ?????? ??????? ???????????????? ????????????. ?а ???????? 30-? ??. ?????? ?????
?????? ???????? ????? ?? ?????? ??????-???????????????? ???????? ????? ????? ??????????? ????????????? [1, ?. 283].
???????, ??????????????? ?????????? ???????? ??? ?.?.????????, ???????? ???????? ??????
???????? ?а ??????? ????????????? ????????? ??I ?., ??????????? ?а ?????????? ???????????.
??? ??? ?????? ?????? ?? ????????????????, ?????????? ????????? ???????????? ? ????????? ??????????, ?? ?????? ????????? ??????? ????, ?? ? ???????????? ?? ????????????????? ?????? [2,
?. 186?187].
????? ?? ??????????? ????????????? ????????????? ????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ?? ???????? ?? ??????. ??? ????????? ?а????????? ?????????? ????????-?????????????? ???????, ????????? ??????? ????????????? ???????? ?????, ????? ? ?????? ??????????, ???????? ??????? ???????????? ?а??????????? ???, ???????????? ???????? ?? ??????? ?????. ?????? ?а??? ???????????????? ????????????? ?? ?????? ??????? ???????????? ?????????? ???????????? ?? ?????????????
????????? ? ????????? ??????????? ????? ???????.
???????? ?? ??????????? ??? ?а???? ???????????? ????????, ???????? ???????????? ?????? ????? ?????????? ?? ?????. ?? ???????????? ???????? ??????? ????????? ?? ??????????????1
???? ?????? ? ????? ? ??????? ??? ?????????? ?????????????? 6 ? 5%. ??????, ???? ??????????
??????? ? ???????????? ??????, ?? ?????? ?????????-?????????????? ? ???????????????? ?????? ?? ????????????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ???? ????? ??????????????? ?????? ??? (??????? 2 % )? ????????? ?????????
???? ? ??????? ??????????? (??????? 1%), ? ????? ?????????-????????? ????????? ????????? ? ??????? ????????.
70
??????? ? ?????????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
?????????? ? ?????????-???????????? ???????. ?а????? ?а????????? ?????????? ??????, ??? ? ??????, ????????? ??????????? ?????? ????????? ???????????? ????????, ??????????? ??????? ????.
??????? ????????? ????? ??????????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ????? ?а ?????? ?????????
???? ? ??????????? ?????? ????????????????? ?????????? ?а????????? ???????????, ??????, ???????? ????????? ?а????????? ????????????. ????? ????? ????? ??????? ?? ??????????? ?????? ????????????, ?? ????? ?? ?? ?????? ???????????????? ???????? ? ???????? ?????. ??? ??????? ?? ???????????? ???????? ??????? ????? ?????????? ????? ?????????? ??????? ? ?????????-?????????????
????????????, ?????????????? ?????? ?? ?????? ??????????????????, ?а?? ????? ??? ??? ????????? ??????????????? ???? ??????? ???????? ? ????????????????. ???????? ?????????? ?????? ????????????? ?????????????? ?? ????? ???, ????????? ????? ?? ????????? ?????? ??????????? ????????? ?а????????????? ??????????? ?? ???? ??????????? ???????? ??????????????? (1, ?. 283?285).
? ????? л????? ? ???╗ ????? ??????????????? ????????? ???????????? ?????????????. ???????????????? ???????? ???????? ?????????-????????? ????????? ?а??????? ???? ? ???????? ??
??????????? ????????, ?? ???????? ??????????? ??? ????? ??????????. ????????? ????? ??????????
???????? ???????????? ???????????? ? ?????????????? ??????????? ?????????.
?????? ?а??? ?? ?????? ?????? ???????? ????????????? ?????????? ?. ???????? ? ???????? ??????????????? ??????????? ????????? ????? ??? ? ??????. ?? ??????? ?? ??? ?????????? л???????
????????╗, ????????? ?? ????? ???????????????? ????????, ???????????? ??????? ??????????????
????? ?????????????? ??????? ? ????????? ???????. ?? ?????? ???????, ?а?????? ?а??? ? ?????? ???? ???? ??????????? ??????????????? ????????????????, ???????????? ??????????? ? ???????????? ?????????????? [3].
??????? ????? ?????????? ????????????? ?а?????????? ????? ???????? ????????????? ?????????????? ?а??????????????? ???????????? ????? ???, ??????? ?а?????????: л?? ????? ???????????? ???????? ???? ???? ????? ?????????????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ?????? ???????? ?????????, ????????? ? ????????????? ?а???????? ?????????????, ???????????? ? ????????-??????????? ?????????╗[1, ?. 11].
? ???????? ??????????? ??????????? ????????????? ????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????????????, ?????????? ???????????????????? ???????? ????????? ???????, ??????? ??????????????? ???????????? ?????? ? ?????????? ??? ?? ?????????? ???????? ??????????? ???????????. ????? ?? ????????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ????? ????? ????????? ???????????? ????????????
????? ? ???? ?? ??????????, ?? ???????????. ??????????? ??? ?????????? ?????????????? ???????????????? ????????? ???????????? ?????? ??.??????? ?а????? ??????? ???? [4].
????????? ??? ???????????? ???? ?????????? ??????????? ??? ??????????? ?а ?????????
???????????? ????????????????????? ????????? (??????? ?а ???????????? ??????? ??????? ??????????????). ?? ????? ?????????? ???????????, ????????? ?? ?????? ??????????? ???? ? ??????,
?????? ???. ????? ????? ?????????? ???????? ??????????? ? ?а?????? ?????????.
?? ??????????? ?? 2035 ?. ?????????????? ??????????????? ?? ????? ??? ???????????????
?????????????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????????, ?а???? ???????? ??? ????? ??????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ??????????????, ? ????? ????????? ???????????? ???????????? ???
????????? ??????? ??????????? ??????????? ????????????? ????????. ?а?????????? ????? ?????????
????????????? ????? ?????????? ?а????? ?а???????? ???????????? ??? ?а??????, ??? ? ?а????? ???
??????, ????????? ??????????????????? ????????? ???????? ? ??????????? ???????? ??????, ?????? ?а ????? ?????, ????????????? ?? ???? ????????? ?????? ? ?????????. ?а ??????? ?????????
??????? ??????? ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ??????????????, ????????? ?а???????? ????? ??????????? ???????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????, ???????????? ???????? ?а??????????????,
?????????? ? ?????????? ?????, ??????? ????????? ???????? ?? ??????? ??????????? ???????????
????????? ????? ????? ? ???????? ???? [1, ?. 13?14].
? ????? ?????? ???????????? ????????????? ?????? ???????? ??????????? ??????? ????????
?? ?????? ? ???? ?????????? ? ?????????????? ?????? ????????????? [1, c. 36]. ??????????? ????????? ??????????? ??????? ????? ???????? ?????? ????????????? ? ??????????? ?????? ?????
??????????????? ????????, ?а????? ???????, ? ????????? ????????????? ????????????? ? ?а??????.
?а???? ????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????????? ???? ?а???????????? ????????????
?????????????? ????????? [ 1, ?. 79].
???????? ?? ??????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????? ????????????? ?????????????? ?
?????????? ???????????????? ? ???????? ??????????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ??????? ??? ???????????? ???????? ???????. ?????? ?????????? ???????????? ??? ???????????? ?а????? ?а????71
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
?????????? ??????? ??????? ?????. ?? ?а????? ??? ??? ????? ?????????? ? ???????????, ?????????
??????? ???????????? ????????????? ?????????????? ??????? ???????????? ??????????? ????? ???
???????????????? ??????????? ??? ????????????. ????????? ????????? ??????????? ??????????????
????????????????? ???????????? ????????, ???????????? ????????? ???????????, ?????????????
????????????? ????????? ????? ????? ? ???????????????. ?а??????????? ???????? ???????? ????????????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????????? ??????? ???????????? ????? ??????? ? ??? ?????????? ???? ???????????? ?? ???? ????????? ??????? ?а?????????? ????? ????.
??????? ??????????? ?????? ??????????? ????? ??????????, ??????????? ?????????? ? ?????????. ??????? ?????? ?????????? ????????????? ???????-?????????????? ? ??????? ????????????
??? ?. ???????????, ???????????, ??? ??????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ?????????? ? ??? ????????????? ????? ?????? ??????? ?а???????? ??I ?. [5. ?.733].
? ????????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????? ?а???????? ????? ????? ???????????? ?????????? ?? ?????????, ??????-??????????? ????? ? ????????? ????? ???????, ??????????????????
??? ???? ?а?????. ???? ??????? ?? ?????????-???????? ????????? ?а?????????????, л????? ?????????╗ (?smart economy), ?????? ???????? ????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????? ????. ??? ?????????????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ????? ?????????? ???????????? ? ????????????????? ???????
???????????????? ?????????, ??????? ?????????? ?? ???????? ?????????? ? ?????????? ???????????
???????, ????????? ?????? ?? ???????, ????????????? ??? ? ?????? ??????, ??? ??????? ?? ??????
??????? ??????????? ? ??????? ???????????. ??????? ?????? ?а???????????? ??????? ????? ???????? ?? ????????? ??????????? ????? ?а???? ? ??????????? ????? ???????????, ?? ?????? ??????????
???????????? ?????????????? л?????╗ ??????? ????????.
??????? ?а ?????????? ??????, ??? ?????????? ???????????? ??????????? ??? ???????????
??????? ??????. ?????????????? ???????-?????????????? ? ??????-???????????? ?????????????? ??
?????? ????, ?????? ????? ?? ?????, ????? ? ???????, ?????? ???? ???????? ???????? ??????
???????????? ??????, ?????? ?? ?а ????????? ????????????? ?? ?????????????? ????????. ??????
??? ? ?????? ????? ???????????? ?????? ?????????? ? ????????? ??????????, ??????????? ???
?????????????? ????????? ? ????????? ?????????????????? ?????. ????????? ???????????????????
????????????? ?????????????? ?а???????, ?а?????? ??????? ?а??????????? ??????, ???????? ?????
??? ?????? ?????? ?? ?????????? ???????.
?????? ?? ????????????? ????????? ??????, ?????????? ?а???????????? ?????????? ??????, ??
?????? ??????? ?а???????????, ?????. ??? ?а???? ????? ????? ?????, ??????? ? ??? ?????? ?????????
?????, ????????? ????????? ??????, ????? ?????????? ???????? ?? ???? ????????? ?????? ????????
??? ?????????? ??????????????? ????????, ?????????????? ??????? ????????, ??????????? ???
????????? ??????? ??????????? ?????????.
?????????, ???????? ????????? ?????? ?а????, ??????????? ?а?????????? ??????????? ??????
?????????-?????????????? ????????, ????????? ??? ????? ???????????? ???????????. ?????????? ?
?????????? ???????????? ???????, ????????? ????? ?а???????? ????? ???????? ?а??????????????.
??????????? ???????????? ???????????????? ?????, ????? ?? ????????? ?????? ???????? ????????????? ??????????? ?а????????? ?????????? ?????????????, ???????? ?а???????????? ????????
????????? ? ??????????????-???????????? ???????. ???????? ???? ????????? ??????? ?????????
????????? ??????????????-???????????? ??????, ?? ???????? ???????????? ? ?????????? ????. ????????????? ???????????????? ????? ????????? ?????????????? ?а??????? ????????????? ???????, ????????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ?? ?????????? ???????? ?а??????, ?? ?????????? ?????????????
?????????? ????????.
?? ?????? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ????????????? ???????? ??.??????????? ? ???????????????? ??????????????? ?????????? ?????? ? ???????? ????????? ??????? ?? ????????????? ??????
?а??????? ? ???? ?????? ?а?????????? ????????. ?? ??? ??????, л? ?????? ????????????? ??????????
??????????????? (???????? ?а?????????? ? ??????) ?????? ??, ????? ?????? ????? ??????????? ????????? ???????????? ????. ????????? ??? ???????? ?? ????????????? ??????. ?а?? ?? ????? ??????????? ???????? ?????????? ???????????? ????? ????? ?????? ??? ???????????? ???? ?а??????,
???????????? ?? ???????, ??? ???? ??????????? ??????????????? ?????????? ?????, ?????? ???????. ?????????? ????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ???????????? л????????????╗ ??? ???????????
????? ? ???? ????????????? ??????? ?а??????╗ [6, p. 141].
???????? ?? ?????????? ???????????? ????? ??????? ? ?? ??????????? ????????????? ???????
???????????????????. ?а?????????? ????? ????????? ??????????? ??? ?????????? ???? ??????????
72
??????? ? ?????????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
??????? ????????????? ? ?????????????? ???????????? ?? ????????? ?? ????????????. ???????? ???????????? ???????? ? ?????????? ?а??????????? ?????????? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ????????????????????? ?????????? ?а?????????? ????????? ? ??????????? ??? ?а?????? ????? ???? ??????? ??????? ?????? ?а??? ? ???.
? ?????????? ?????????????? ????????????? ? ????????????????? ????? ????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ???? ???????????? ???? ? ??? ? ?????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????? ?????????????? ?????????????????? ??????????????, ??????? ????????? ?? ???????????? ??????????? ??????????? ? ????? ??? ??????????? ??????????? ??????? ?а????. ?????????? ???? ????????? ???????
???????? ? ??????????? ???????? ??????? ????. ?а????????? ?? ????? ????????????? ?а??????????
?????? ? ?????? ?????? ?а ???????? ?????????? ????????? ?????, ???????? ??? ???????? ???????
????????? ????? ????.
??? ?????????? ??????? ????????? ????? ?? ????????????????? ????????? ?а??????????? ??????????? ???? ?????????? л??????? ??????????╗ ??????? ?????? ?а?????????????? ???????????? ?
????? ?????? ?а????? ????? ?? ????????? ???????а? ?а???. ?????? ???????????, ??? ??????? ??????
???????????? ?????? ?????? ???????????? ??? ???????????????, ??? ?? ???????????? ???????? ???????????? ????? ????????? ????????????? ?а????? ?????????? ?????? ????. ????? ???????? ??????????? ?а???????? ????????? ????????? ? ?????????????? ??????????? ????? ?????? ?????????? ???????????????? ?????? ?? ???????? ????? ??????????????? ??????????.
????????? ???????????? ??? ?? ???? ??????????? ???????????, ??????????????? ?????????
???????????? ????? ???????? ?????????????? ??????????? ??????, ?????? ??????? ????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ?? ??????????? ? ???????????? ?а?????????-?????????????? ? ???????????-???????????? ??????????. ??????????? ????????? ????????? ??????????? ??? ??? ??????????? ? ???????????????? ?а?????????? ?а???????????? (??? ? ?????). ??? ????? ????????????? ??? ??????????, ?????? ?? ??????? ?а??? ? ?????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ??????????? ?? ?????????
?а??????? ??????? ???????? ?????. ?а??????????? ??????? ????????? ????? ?????????????? ???????, ??? ?????????????? ????????? ????????????? ??????? ?а????? ??????? ????, ???????????? ?
????????? ?????????????? ?????????????, ??????????? ? ?????????? ???????????????? ??????????.
?????? ??????? ?а ??????????????? ?????????????? ????????? ??????? ????????? ?????????: 1) ??????????? ???????? ??????????? ?? ????????? ??????????????? ? ???????? ???? ??
????? ????????? ? ?????? ????? ????????????? ???????????????? ??????????? ?????? ??? ????????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ?????? ???? ?а????????????? ? ????????????? ????????????;
2) ???????????? ?????????? ????????????? ?а????????????? ?????????? ??????????????? ? ??? ?????????????? ? ???????????, ????????? ?????????? ???????? ???? ??? ?????????? ? ???????? ????
???????; 3) ??? ??????????? ????????? ??????????, ??? ???????????? ?????? ??????? ? ?????????
???????? ??????????? ????????????? ?????????; 4) ????????? ???????? ?????????? ???????? ????????? ?????? ?????????? ?????????????, ????????? ??? ???????? ??????????????? ???????? ?
????????????? ????????????-???????? ??????????; 5) ????????????? ?а??????????? ????????????? ????????? ??????? ????? ??????? л?????????????╗, ???????????? ??????????????? ? ?????????????????? ?????????, ??????? ??? ?????????? ????? ??????? ?? ????? ???? ?????? ??????????????,
??? ?????????????????????; 6) ?????????? ???????????? ?а???????, ??????????? ????????? ?а????????????? ???????????, ??????????? ???????? ??? ?????? ???? ???????????????? ?????????? ? ????????????? ????????? ?? ??????? ?а???????? ?????? ?? ???????? ??????????? ????????????????? ????.
????????????????? ??????
1. ??? 2035. ?????????? ??????? / ??? ???. ????????? ?.?.???????. ?.: ???????, 2017. 352 ?.
2. ???????? ?.?. ??????????: 30 ??? ?????? // ????????????? ?????. 2013. ?10. ?. 186?191.
3. Allison G. China vs America. Managing the Next Clash of Civilizations //Foreign Affais. September/
October 2017. https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/united-states/2017-08-15/china-vs-america (Accessed:
12.11.2017).
4. Rosenau J.N.аTurbulence in World Politics: A Theory of Change and Continuity. Princeton: Princeton
University Press, 1990. 480 p.
5. ?????????? ?. ?????????? /?.??????????. ?.: л???????╗, 1997. 903 ?.
6. Brzezinski Z. Strategic Vision: America and the Crisis of Global Powet. N.Y., Basic Book, 2012. 213 p.
73
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
??? 159.9.072.432
?. ?. ??????????
???????? ???????????? ????, ??????
?????-????????????? ??????????????? ???????????
???????????????? ???????????????
?. ?. ???????
???????? ?????????????? ????, ??????
?????-????????????? ??????????????? ???????????
???????????????? ???????????????
??????????? ?????? ? ???????????? ??????
??? ????????? ?????????? ?????? ???????????? ????????
? ?????? ??????????????? ???????? ?????????????? ??????????? ? ???????????? ?????? ??? ??????
???? ???????????? ????????. ??????????? ?????? ???????????? ?? ?????? ???????????? ?? ?????????? ??????????? ? ???????????? ?????????????? ????. ?????????? ??????????, ??? ????? ???????????? ???????? ? ?? ?????? ???????????? ?а?????? ??????? ?? ??????????, ?????????-???????????? ?
?????????, ?.?. ???????????? ????????, ?а??? ????? ?? ?????? ????? ????????. ?????? ????? ???????
??????? ???????????? ?????? ????????? ???????? ?а?????? ???????????? ???????? ??? ?? ???????????? ? ?? ???? ?а??????? ? ?? ???????? ?а?????????? ????????, ?а???????? ?????????????? ? ?????????,
???????? ? ????????????-????????????, ? ??????????? ??????.
???????? ?????: ???????????? ????????, ???????????? ???????????? ??????, ??????????? ???????,
????????? ????????, ???? ?а???????.
A.A. Sterlikova
Candidate of Historical Science, Associate Professor
Saint Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation
P.M. Eismont
Candidate of Philology, Associate Professor
Saint Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation
OBJECTIVE KNOWLEDGE AND SUBJECTIVE EVALUATION AS PARTS
OF A HISTORICAL FIGURE IMAGE
The paper deals with the problem of objective and subjective knowledge interaction in assessing the role of a
historical figure. The analysis is based on the data of an experiment with students of technical and humanitarian
specialties of the SUAI. The results show that the image of a historical figure and their assessment is based
primarily on cultural, cultural-historical and evaluative knowledge, i.e. subjective factors, including personal experience of individuals. However, a higher level of historical knowledge allows us to distinguish both
components in the image of historical figureа? their role in history and their value in cultural heritage, in folk
mythology and in art, allowing for both emotional-subjective and objective assessments.
Keywords: Historical figure, knowledge of history, cognitive system, subjective evaluation.
????? ?? ???????? ????????, ??????????? ???????? ??? ????????, ???????????? ??? ???????? ? ????????????? ?? ?????????? ????, ???????? ?? ??? ????????? ? ??????, ???????? ???????????? ?????? ? ??????? ? ? ?????, ????????? ???????????? ???? ?а??????? ?????? ? ????. ???????? ???????????? ???????????? ?????? ? ????????????? ???????? ???? ???? ??????????????, ??????
?? ???????? ??? ????????? ??????????? ??????? ???????? ?? ?????????? ?? ??????????, ?? ???????????, ?? ???????????.
??? ???????? ?????? ?а ???????????? ?????? ???????????? ???????? ???????????? ??????
?????????????? ????????????? ?????? ? ???????????? ??????, ?????????? ?? ???????????? ?????????, ???????? ? ???????????? ?????????, ? ????? ??????? ????? ???????? ???????? ??? ????????
???????????, ??????????? ???????? ????? 90 ????????? ??????? ????? ?????-?????????????? ???????????????? ???????????? ???????????????? ???????????????. ?а???? ???????????? ?????????? ????
74
??????? ? ?????????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
?????????? ????????? ??????, ?????????? ??????? ??????? ???? ? ??????? ?? ???????????? (??????????? ???????????? ?????????? ?? ????? ?? 1 ?? 10 ?а??????????? ?? ?? ???? ?а??????? ??? ??
?? ???????????? ?????????) ? ??? ???? ????????????? ????????: ???? ?????? ???????? ?????????
??????????, ? ?? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ?а???????????? ????????????
????????? (????? ? ??). ??? ??????? ???? ?????????? 10 ?????????? ?????????? ? ?????, ????????
???? ????????, ??????? ??????, ????????? ???????, ???? ???????, ????? ???????, ???? I, ????????? II, ????????? II, ??????? II. ????? ?????? ???? ?????????? ?????????? ?? ????? ?а???????
???????????, ? ????? ?? ????????????? ?а????????? ? ??????????? ????????????????? ???????? (?????
???????????? ? л???? ?????????╗, ?????????????? ?????? л????????? ???????╗, л???? ??????????
?????? ?????????╗, л??????╗, л????????╗, ????????? ???????? ? ????????? II, ???????????? ? ??????????? ???????????? ? л????? ???????╗ ?.?. ??????? ? ?.?. ???????????, л????????? ???????╗
?.?. ??????????, л???? ??????╗ ?.?. ???????? ? ??.).
? ???? ?????????? ????????? ???????? ???? ?а ???????? ?? 18 ?? 20 ???, ??????????? ??
??????????? (63% ?? ?????? ????? ??????????) ? ???????????? (37% ?? ?????? ????? ??????????) ??????????????. ??????? ?????????? 51% ??????????, 49%а? ???????. ??? ?????? ?????????? ?????????, ??? ???????? ???????????? ??????????????, ??????? ??????? ??? ??????????? ?а???
?????? ??????????????? ??????? ?? ???????, ???????????????? ?????? ??????????? ??????, ???
????????, ??????????? ?? ??????????? ??????????????. ??? ???????? ????????????? ???????????
????????????, ??????? ?????? ????????????? ??????? ???? ???? ????? ????????? ????????? ???????
????????? ??????? ??????????? ? ???????????? ?????????? ?? ???????????? ?????? ????????????
????????. ????????? ???????? ?????????? ?? ????.
??? ?????????? ?????????? ? ??????? ???? ????????? ?? ?????? ???????? ??????: ???????????? (??????? ???????????? ??????), ?????????-???????????? (??????? ?????? ? ???????????? ???????? ? ?????????), ????? ?????????? ? ????????? ????????.
??????????? ?????????? ? ????????, ??????? ???????????? ???????????? ?а ?????, ?????
??????? ?а????????????.
???, ????? ?????????? ?а?????? ?????? ??????????? ?????: ?????????? ???????????/??????
?????????/?????????? ????/??????????????/?????? ?????/ ????????????? ? 60 % ??????? ?а?????????
??????????? ?????????????? (????? ? ??) ? 70% ?а????????? ???????????? ?????????????? (????? ?
??). ??????? ????????, ??? ?????? 4 % ???? ?????????? ???????, ??? ????? ??????????, ???????????
????????. ????? ?????????? ?????? ?а?????? ? ??????: 28% (??) ? 19% (??), ??????? ????? ?????
??????? ?а????????????? ??????????. ?????????? ?????????? ?а?????? ?? ??????????? ????? ?? 8.5%
?а?????? ??????.
??????????, ?????????? ?????? ??????? ??????, ????????? ??????? ?а??? ???????????????
?????????????: ?????? ???? ???????, ??????? ??????: 21% (??) ? 12% (??), ??? ???? ?? ?????? ??????
??????????, ?????????? ???????? ??????????? ?? ????, ? 38 % (? ?? ? ???? ?????). ?????? ?????????
????? ?????????? ????????????? ?????а? 18 % (??), ?????? ?а?? ????? ?????????? ?? ????????????.
?а??????????? ??????? ??????? ????? ?????????? ?????????? ????????????? ?????????: ??????? ????? ? ????? ?? ??????? ?????: 43% (??) ? 63% (??), ????? ????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????/??????????: 31% (??) ? 54% (??).
? ?????? ????? IV ???????? ??????? ????? ?????????? ?а?? ?????????? ? ??????/?????????
57% (?????? 17% ?а??) ? ??????? ? 27% ?а?? (0 ?а??). ???????????? ?????????? ? ????????? ????? ???????? ???? ??????????? ??????, ??? ?????????-????????????, ???????? ????? ??????????????
??????????? ???????????. ??? ????, ????????, ??????? ?а???????????? (??????, ??????, ?????????
?????) ????? 9% ?а????? ?????, ?????? ???? 3,5% (??) ? 12% (??), ????? ???????? ?? 3,5 % ?а?????
??????? ???????.
?? ?????? ???????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????????, ?????? ??? ????????? ?????? ????????????? ? ??????????????. ??? ???????????? ????? ???????? ?????????? ????? ?
12% (??) ? 36% (??), ??????????? ?????????? ????????? 5% (??) ? 3% (??), ?? ????????? 3% (??),
????????/????? 12% (??) (?????? 2% ????? ??), ??? ????? ????????? 9% ??. ????????, ??? ???????
?а???, ??? ?? ???? ?????????????? ?? ? ?????? ???????? ?а???????????? ?????? ????? ????????????
??????, ?????? ??????? ?а?????????? ??????????? (???? ???????? ???????, ????? ?.?. ???????).
???????????? ?? ???????????? ?а?????? ?????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????? ?а?? ??? ?? ???????????? ???????? ????????????? ? ??????? ?а??? ??????? ???????????? ??????.
75
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
?????????? ??????? ????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????? ????? ?? ????? I ? ????????? II.
???, ?а???????????? ??????????? ?а????? ?а?????? I ??????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ? 10% (??) ? 27%
(??), ??????? ? 9% (??) ? 21% (??), ???? ? 21% (??) ? 24% (??), ???????? ????? ? 2% (??) ? 21%
(??), ??????? ? 4% ?а????? ?????.
? ????? ?а?????????? II ?????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????? ??. ???????????? ??????????/?????????? ? ??????? ? ?? 18%, ?????????? ??????? ? 8 %, ????????????? ?????????? ? 8%.
????? ?а??????? ??????? ????????? ??? ??????: 7% (??) ? 8% (??). ??????? ????????, ??? ??????????
???? ???????????? ????? 1 ?? ? 2 ??. ????? ????? 1 ??????? (??) ?????? ???????? ????.
??? ?????????? II ????? ?????????? ????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????? ??????????? ????? ? 16% (??) ? 57% (??) ? ???????/?????????? ? ?? 14% ?а?????? ??????, ????? ????? ????????
?????????/????? ? 5% (??) ? 8% (??).
???????????? ??????????, ????????? ?? ??????? II, ?????????: ????????? 17.5% ???????
????????? ????? ?????, ?????? ??????? ????? ? 7,5% ?а????? ???????, ???????? ? 14,5% ?а????? ???????, ????? ???????? ? 19% (??) ? 21% (??).
?????????-???????????? ?????????? ???????????? ?а???????, ?????????? ????? ??, ??? ???????? ??????, ???? ???????, ???? I ? ????????? II.
??? ?????? 57 % (??) ? 33% (??) ???????????? ?????????? ????? ? ?????? 9 % ?? ? ??????,
??? ????? ??????? ?а?????????? ???????????. ????? ?????????? ?????????? ?а?? ????????? ??????? ??????? ?а????????? ????????????: 44% (??) ? 72% (??). ?????? 9% ?? ??????? ????????????
?????????? ????????????. ?а ?????? ?????????? ?а ?? ???????? ??????? ????? ????? ???????????
??????????, ????????? ?а????????, (?? 7,5 % ?а?????? ??????).
????? ?????????? ?????????-???????????? ??????????? ?а?? ????? ???????? ?а?? ?????????:
???? ???? 23% (????? 12% ?а??). ????? ???????? ???????????? ??????????: ?????????? (21% ?а?????
???????), ??????? ????????? 12% (?) ? 9% (??), ????? ???????/????????????? 5% (??) ? 12% (??);
2,5% ?? ? 8% ?? ????????, ??? ?? ??? ????? ?????????? (?????? ??????? ????????? ????? 18% ??),
? ?? 2,5% ?????????? ?а?????? ??????, ??? ?а???? ???? ??????? ???????.
??? ?? ????? I ????? ???????????????? ????????? ?????????? ?????-????????? 49% (??) ?
33% (??), ??????????? ????? ??????, ????????, ????? (?? 3% ?а?????? ??????). ????? ?????????-???????????? ?????????? ??????? ????? ? ?? ????????? II: ????????? ?????????? ? 5% (??) ? 12%
(??), ?????????? ? 8% (??), ???????????/??????????? ? 3,5% (??) ? 24% (??), ????????? ? 3,5% (??)
? 18% (??). ????????? ????????, ??? ????? ?? ?? ?? ?????? ?? ???????? ????????????? ????????? II.
?а?? ?????, ??? 5% ?? ???????????? ?????????? ?????/???????, ??? ???? 3,5% ?? ??? ????????, ???
??? ????? ???????, ??? ?????? ?????????.
???????? ?????????? II ? ??????? II ??????? ????? ????????? ?????????? ? ?????????-???????????? ??????????: ????????? ??? ??????????? ?????????? л???? ?? ?????╗ ? 2% (??) ? 8% (??). ?
????????? ??????? II ??????????????? ???????? ??????????? ? 2% (??) ? 15% (??), ??????? ????????
? 2% (??) ? 9% (??), ???????? ? (????? 1 ??)
? ??????? ?? ????? ????????? ????????, ?????????? ?????????? ??????????? ??????????
?????. ????? ???????? ?????????: ?????????? ? ?????????, ????????? ?а????? ?а?? ?????????? ???????? (?? 7% ???????????? ?а?????? ??????), ?а?? ?????? ???????? ????????? ???????????? ?.?.
??????? 3.5% (??) ? 8 % (??), ????? ????????? 9% ??. ??? ???????? ????????? ?????????? ? ??????
?????? ????????? 6% (??) ? 3% (??). ????? л??????╗ ???????? ???? ???? ??????? (??) ?? 90, ???
?????????? ?а??????????.
?????????? ?????????? ???????? ??????? ?????????????? ?а?????????????? ????? I. ???, ?????? ?? ???????????? ????????? ?????????? л???????? ???? ?а ??????╗ ? ?? 27,5% ?а ????? ???????,
???????????/???????? ? 3,5% (??) ? 18% (??). ??? ????????? II ???????? ??????? ????????? ?????????? ??????????: ??????? ?? 7,5% ?а?????? ??????; ??????? ??????????? ?? 2,5% ???? ??????????
?а?????? ??????; ????, ??????, ??????? 3,5% (??) ? 12% (??), ?????? 3,5% ??. ?а????? ?а?? ?????????? II ??????????? ????????? ?????????? л????? ? ???╗ ?а?? (8%).
??? ?????????? ?????? ?????????? ?????? ???? ??????????? 10 ?? ?? ????? ?? 1 ?? 10 ??:
?) ?? ???? ?а???????, ?) ?? ???????????? ????????? (????.).
? ????? ?????????? ?????? ????????????? ?????????????? ???????????. ?????????? ??
?????????????, ?????????? ???????? ?а?????? ?????? ? ?? ???? ?а???????, ? ?? ???????????? ????????? ????? I ? ????????? II. ???? I ????? ?????? ? ?????????? ????? ?????????? (198), ??????
??????????? ????? ??? ?????????? (л???? ?а ??????╗, ???????? ???????) ? ?????????-????????????
76
??????? ? ?????????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
(?????-?????????, ???????????). ????? ?а?????? ? ?? ???? ?а???????, ? ?? ???????????? ?????????
?а ??????????? ?? ??????????? ?????????????? ????? ????????? ???????, ?????? ?? ????? ??????
?а?????? ??????? ?????????-???????????? ? ?????????? ?????????? (??????? ???????, ?????, ????).
????????, ????????? ?а????? ??????? ?????? ???? ?? ????? ????????? ???, ??? ????? ??????????
?а ?????-?????????? (??????, ?????????? ?????? I; ??????, ?????? ???????????? ???????? ????????
????????? ???????) ?а????????????, ????????????? ?а??????? ?????? ????????? II. ?????? ?????????-???????????? ? ?????????? ?????????? ?? ????? ??????? ???????????? ? ??? ?????? (?????, ??????), ???????? ??????? (??????????, ??????? ??????), ????? ???????? (???? ????, ????????? ????,
???? ??????????). ????? ????, ???????? ???????????? ?????????????? ???????????? ?????? ???????
???????????? ???????? ?????????? ????????, ??????? ????? ?????????? ?????? ?? ????? ???? ???????? ????????, ?????????? ?? ????? ????????????, ?????? ?? ?????????? ?????????.
??
?????
????????
???? ????????
??????? ??????
????????? ???????
???? ???????
????? ???????
???? I
????????? II
????????? II
??????? II
???????????? ?? ?? ???? ?а??????? ? ?? ???????????? ?????????
(? ??????? ??????? ??????? ??????).
???? ?? ???? ?а???????
???? ?? ???????????? ?????????
??
??
??
??
8 (4.5)
9 (3.7)
8 (4.6)
8 (4.6)
9 (4.1)
7 (4.6)
6 (5.6)
7 (5.1)
5 (5.3)
2 (6.7)
6 (5.2)
10 (3.2)
1 (8.7)
3 (6.6)
4 (5.6)
7 (4.7)
8 (4.1)
6 (5.2)
4 (5.6)
10 (2.5)
1 (9.4)
2 (7.2)
3 (6.8)
5 (5.6)
7 (5.5)
2 (6.7)
10 (4)
9 (4.1)
1 (7)
3 (6.5)
4 (6.4)
5 (5.9)
5 (6.4)
6 (6.1)
10 (2)
9 (3.3)
2 (6.8)
3 (6.5)
4 (6.5)
1 (7)
?????? ???????? ??????????? ?а???????????? ????? ?????????? ???????????? ? ??????????? ?????????????? ????? ???? ?????? ??????? ?? ???????????? ??????. ????, ??????, ???????????
?? ???????? ??????????? ?а??????? ??????, ???????????, ???????????? ?? ?????? ??????????????,
???? ?а??????? ????????? ???? ????????, ???????? ??????? ? ????? ????????, ??? ??????????????
? ????? ???????? ?????? ??????????: ???????? ??????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ??? ?????????? ??????????? ?????? ????????? ? ?????????-???????????? ??????????, ??? ???????? ???????????? ??????????????.
??? ????? ??????????? ?????????????? ?????? ?? ??? ?а????? ?????? ?? ???? ?а???????, ??? ?
?а????? ?????? ?? ???????????? ??????? ???? ?????? ???????????? ??????????? ????????. ??? ??????? ????? ????????? ?? ????????????? ? ?????????????. ??? ? ?????????, ?????? ????? ????????????? ???????? ???????? ?? ??, ??????? ???? ??????????? ??????? (???? I ? ????????? ???????),
? ????? ??????? ?????? ? ????????.
???????, ??????????????? ????? I, ?а??????????? ??????????? ??? ????????????? ??? ???????????, ??? ?????????? ????????????? ?????????????1: ??????/ ?????/???????????? ? 17% (??) ?
30% (??), ??????? ? 7% (??) ? 15% (??), ??????/??????????? ? 15% (??) ? 7% (??). ?? ???????, ???
???? I ???????/??????? (9%) ? ???????????????? (7%), ? ?? ? ??????????????/?????????? (12%)
? ??????????/???????? (9%). ?????????? ?????? ???????? ???????????? ????? 9 % (??) ? ?????
???? ??. ??????? ????????, ??? ???????? ??????????? ? ???????????? ?????????????? ????????????
?????? ??????? ?? ????????? ?а?????????? ????????. ???????????? ?????? ?а?? ? ?????, ??????
26% (? ?? 15%), ?? ?? ???????????? ???????, ?????? ????????? ?а??????????????? ?????????? ?????:
???????, ??????, ????????????, ???????? ? 75% ???????, ?а?? ?????, ??? ?а?? ???????? ?????????????? ????????????? ?????????. ????? ?????????? ?????? ?а????? ? ??????а?????????? ? ??????
(?? 12% ?а?????? ??????), ? ?а????? ?а?? ???????? ??????? ? ??????, ?????: 68% (??) ? 28% (??).
1
?????????? ????? ??????? ?? ???? ???????? ? ?????? ??.
77
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
???????? ?? ????? ????????????? ???????? ????????? ???? ??????? ? ????? ??????? (???
?????????? ?? ?? ???????????? ?? ????????? ?????? ?? ???????????? ?????????) ? ??????? II. ?????
???????????????? ?????? ????? ???????? ????????/???? ? 81% (??) ? 31% (??) ? ??????? ? 3% (??)
? 9% (??) ?? ?а?? ?? ????? ??????? ???????/???????/??????? ????????? 10% ?? ? 12% ??, ? ???????????? ?? 3% ???? ?????????? ?а?????? ??????.
?????????? ??????? ?а ?????? ???????? ????????? 12% (??) ? 64% (??), ?? ??? ??????????????, ????????? 25 (??) ? 15% (??) ? ??????/????/??????/???????? 3.5% (??) ? 36% (??). ???????
????????, ??? ?? ???????????? ??????? ?????? ?????????? ????????.
??????? II ???????? 3-? ????? ????? ????? ???????? ? ?????? ???????? ?? ?????????? ??????????? ? ????????. ??????/??????? ??????/????????? ?????????/??????????? ? ????? ??????????????
???????? 3.5% ?? ? 36% ??, ?? ???????????? ??????? ??????/?? ?????????/???????????????? ? 10%.
????? ???????? ?а?? ??????? II ?????????? ?????????????: ??????/??????/?????????????/ ???????????????? 23% (??) ? 49% (??), ? ????? ??????????/???????????????/ ???????????????? 9% (??).
?????? ??????? II ??? ?????????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????????? ?? ?????? ??????? ?? ????? ???????????? ?????????. ????????, ??? ??????????? ???, ??? ??????? ??????, ?????,
????????? ????????, ??????, ???????????, ???? ???? ???? ? ????????? ???????? ??????, ?? ?????
????????? ????????????, ???? ????????? ?а ???????? ????????. ??? ????? ???????? ????? ??????
???????????? ??????? ??????? II, ??????, ????? ???????? ??????? ?????????? ?????? л????????╗,
?а??????? ???? ??????????? ?а???? ???????? ?????????.
?????????, ??????? ??????????? ?? 2?3 ?????? ??? ???????????? ???????, ???????????????
?????????? ?????????: ??????, ?????, ???????, ????????, ???????????. ????? ?? ?????????? ??????????? ? ???????? ????? ??????/?????? ????????? ? 20% (??) ? 33 (??). 10% ?? ????????, ???
????????? II ? ??????, ???????? ?????????, 8% ?? ???????, ??? ??? ????????. ?????????? ????????????? (????????, ?????????) ????????? ????? 5% ?? ???? ?????. ?а?? ?????????? II ?а?? ???? ??????
????????? ????????, ??? ?а??: ???????????? 18%, ???????????/???????????/?????????? 18%, ??????????? 12%, ?????/?????????????? 15%, ?????? 9%.
??????? ????????, ??? ???????????? ???????????? ????? ????????, ?????????? ?????????
??????????, ??????? ????? ????????????????, ??? ???????????: ???????, ???????????, ??????, ?.?.
?????, ??????? ?????? ??????????????? ?????? ????????, ??????????? ?????????.
??????????? ?????? ??????????, ??? ????? ?? ? ?? ?????? ???????????? ?а?????? ??????? ??
??????????, ?????????-???????????? ? ?????????, ?.?. ???????????? ????????, ?а??? ????? ?? ??????
????? ????????. ?????? ????? ??????? ??????? ???????????? ?????? ????????? ???????? ?а?????? ??
??? ?? ????????????: ???? ?а??????? ? ?? ???????? ?а?????????? ????????, ?а???????? ?????????????? ? ?????????, ???????? ? ????????????-????????????, ? ??????????? ??????.
78
??????? ? ?????????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
??? 1 (11.113)
?. ?. ?????
??????? ?????????
?????-????????????? ???????????????
??????????? ???????????????? ???????????????
T. Shchukin
researcher
Saint Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation
???????????? ????? ????? ??????? ????????????
? ??????? ?????????? ? ??????? ????: ??????? ? ?????????1
? ?????? ??????????? ?????? ? ??????????? ????? ??????? ???????????? ? ??????? ??????????
? ??????? ???? ?а??????????? ???????????? ?????????
???????? ?????: ??????? ???????????, ?????? ?????????, ????? ????????, ???????-??????,
???????? ?????????, ?????? ??????, ?????? ?????, ????????, ?????????.
BYZANTINE ROOTS OF THE DISCUSSION BETWEEN IGNATIUS BRYANCHANINOV
AND THEOPHAN THE RECLUSE ON THE NATURE
OF THE SOUL: HISTORY AND TYPOLOGY
This article focuses on topic of the discussion between Ignatius Bryanchaninov and Theophan the Recluse on
the nature of the soul and its interrelation with relevant byzantine tradition.
Keywords: Ignatius Bryanchaninov, Theophan the Recluse, John of Damascus, Macarius-Symeon, Dionysius
the Areopagite, Niketas Stethatos, Michael Psellos, Stoicism, Platonism.
????? ????????? ????? ???????? ????????????? ? ???????? ??????????? ? ??????? ???????????? ???? ? ?????????? ??????? ?а????????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????? [10]2. ?????, ?? ???
??????, ?? ???????? ????????????????? ????????? ????????????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????? ????????? ????? ??????????. ? ??????? ? ?????? ?????????? ???? ?? ??? ????????? ?????????.
????? ????, ????????? ???? ????? ???? ??? ?? ?????????????? ???????, ?????? ?? ?????????? ?????????????? ???????????? ?????????? ????? ?а??? ?????????????? ????????. ?????????????, ??? ??????????????? ???????????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ???????????? ?????????? ? ???????? ?? ???.
?? ??? ??????, ?????????????? ???????? ????????????? ??? ????????, ?? ??????? ?????????
??? ??????: ???????? ?? ??? ???????????????? ???????????? ???????????, ??????? ?????, ??????????? ??? ???????????? ????????? ??????? ??? ???????, ??? ?????????? ?а????????????????. ????
??????????, ?? ? ?а??????????? ??????, ??? ????? ??????? ???????????? ???????????????, ??? ???
????????? ????????????????? ????????? ?????? ????? ?? ??? ???????? ??? ??????????? ?? ?????????????????? ? ???? ???????????, ?? ?? ???????? ?? ???? ??????? ? ??????? ???????????????? ?????????? ?а???????????? ???????? ???????? ?????????? ?? ??? ??????, ??, ????????, ??? ?? ????????
???? ?????, ??? ????????? ??????? ?????? ?? ?????? ?????????????? ?а????? ????????? ????????????
????????? ????????, ?? ? ????????? ?? ?????????? ???????????? ???????.
????, ? ????? л??????? ????????╗ ???? ????? ???? ???????? ?????? ? ?????????????? ? ???????????????? ???????????? ????????????, ?? ???? ???? ? ?????????? IV ?., ? ?????? ?а????? ???????, ? ?????????? ???????-???????, ??????? ?а????? ?? ????? ??????? ?????????? ?? ??????????
??????? ? ???????????? ???? (Hom. IV, 9), ???????, ??? ?????????? ? ??? ????????????? ????????
???????? ????????, ?????????????? ??? ????????. ??? ??? ?а????? ???????, ????????? ????? ?????????? ??????? ???????????? ???? ????? ?????????? ????? ?????? ?а?????? ????? ????, ? ??????? ??? ????? ? ?а???????. ?а?????? ?? ???????, ?????????? ???????? ? ???? ???????? ?????? ??? ??????? ?????1
???????????? ????????? ??? ????????? ??????????? ???????? ?????, ?????? ? 18-18-00134, л???????? ???????????? ????????? ? ??????? ? ?????????????????? ????????? XX?XXI ??.╗.
2
? ?????? ?.?. ?????????? ????? ???????????? ? ? ??????????? ?????????????.
79
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
????? ???? (?? ???? ???????????? ?? ????????? ??????). ?????????????, ?????? ???????-??????? ???????: ???? ?????????? ? ??? ?? ???????? ???????? ?????, ?? ????? ? ???????? ???????? ?? ???????????
?????? ??????????? ?? ???? ?????????? ???? ? ???????? ????, ???????? ????? ????????? ????????
?? ?????????. ??????? ???????-???????, ??????????, ?????????? ?? ?????????? ???????? ????????
?????????? ? ?? ?????? ? ?????? ??????? ????. ?а?????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ??????????? ???????? ??, ??????? ??????? ?? ?? ??????? ???????????? ?????????, ? ?? ?????? ???????? ? ????? (?????.
??. 134) [13, 66] (??? ?????? ???????? ?а?????????? (De cael. 270 b 14?25)). ???????? ????????? ??????????, ????????? ?? ????? ??????, ??? ??? ?????? ??????????? ?? ??????? (???????-?????? ????
??? ?????? ?? ?????????? ????????? ??????????????? [8]), ??????????, ????????, ??? ?????? ?????????, ??????? ???????? ?а??????????? ?????? ??????????? ? ?????????????? ?????? ????, ? ???????,
???? ? ??????? ??????? ???????????? ??????????????? (????.: Dial. 67). ??????????? ????? ??????
?аXI ???? ????????????? ????? ?????? ?????? (De an. I, 4). ? ??? ???? ? ??? ?????? ?????????, ??
???????? ?а?????? ??????? ?? ?????????, л???????????????╗ ?????????? ???????, ??? ? ??????? ??????????? ???, ?? ????? ?????? ??? ???????. ????? ?????????????????? ?а?? ?????????? (??? ???????
??? ?????????????????? ?????? ???? ??????? ????) ????? ? ?????? ??????? ????????? (De an. II, 9)
??????????? ?а??????????????????? л????????????? ??????????╗ ???????, ??? ? ??????? ?а???????
??????????? ????????????? ????.
?????? ??????-??????????????? ????????? ?????????? ?а?????? ???????????? ???????? ???????????? ?????????????, ??????? ???????? ???? ?? ?????? ?а????? ??????????? ??????, ??? ?????????
[9], ?????? ????????, ????????, ????????????? ???????-??????, ?? ?, ????????, ?а????? ???????? ???
????????????? ??????, ?а???????, ??????????, ?? ??????? ???? ???? ?????? ??? ? ?????? ????. ??????
??? ????????????? ???????? ?????????? ???????????????? ???? ?а?????? ???????????? (? ????? ?????? ?????????? ???? ????????????? ???? ???????? ??? ????????). ?????????, ??? ?????? ??????,
??????? ??? ???????? ????????? ? ??????????????? ????????????? ??????, ????????? ????? ??????,
???????? ?? ????. ?????????????, ???? ?????? ?????? ?? ?????? ???????? ?? 1-? ???????????? ?????
??????? ?????? ?????????, ?а??????? ????????? ????? ??????? ? ???, ??? ?????? ???????? ?????????
л?? ????????? ?а?????╗ (Eth. 1, 5, 25?84). ?????? ???????? ??????????? ??????? ?? ???????-???????
[2; 7] ? ?а?????? ?????? ?? ????? ?????????? ?????? ????? ???????????????: ???????-?????? ? ?????? ????? ???????? ? ?????? ??????.
????????????? ????? (?? ??????? ????, ?а??????????? ???? ???????) ?? ???????? ???????????? ?????????????????? ????????? ? ???? ??????????? ?????? ???????? ???????????????? ?????????
?????????????????? ??????? ?а?????????? ????????????? ???????? ? ?ал???????????????╗ ????????????? ???????? ??????????. ?? ?????? ?????? ?? ????? ?а???????????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????? ??????? ? ????????????????? ?????????, ????? ???????, ??? ?аXI ?. ?? ????? ???????? ???????
???????????? ???? ???????? ????????? ??????????: ??????-??????????????? ? ?????????????. ?????? ???? ???????????? ??????? ????????, ?????? ?????????? ??????????????? ???????? ???????.
???????????? ????? ???? ??? ?а?????? ????????? ?? ???? ?????? [1, 111; 4; 5; 14]. ??-??????, ?а??????? ?? ?????? ??????? (? ??????? ?????? ?????????) ?????? ????? ????????? ?? ?????????????
??? ???????? (? ???????????? ???? ? ???????? ??? ??????) ?????? ?а???????? ?а???????? (De omn. doct.
48). ??-??????, ? ?????? ??????????? ???? ?????????????? ?????????? ????????????, ?????? ?????
???????? ????? ?????? ???????????? ? ???????? ?????????? ? ?????? ? ???, ??? ????? ???????
?????? ?????? ?????????? (De omn. doct. 24). ?? ????? ??????, ??? ?? ???????? ??????? ???????????,
???? ??? ???? ?????????? ?????. ?????? ?????????. ???? ????? ? ??????? ???????, ??? ????? ????????? ?а??????????, л????????????╗ ???? ?а????? (?????? ??????). ???? ?? ???, ????? ???? ? ?????????????? ????????. ??? ????? ?????? ???????? ?а????????? ?????? ?? ???????? ??????? ?????? л?
???????? ??????╗. ????????????? ?????? ?????????, ????????, ??????? ??????? ? ?? ????????????
??????? ??????. ?? ??????? ????, ??? ???? ?????????? ???????? ???????????? ????? ?а??? ??????,
??? ??? ?????????, ????????, ?????? ?????????? [6].
????? ???????, ?? ?????, ??? ???? ??????? ???????????? ? ??????? ?????????? ?? ????????
?????-?? ???????? ?а????? ?????? ???????????? ????????. ?? ???????? ??????????? ? ??????? ????
???????: ? ??? ? ?????? ??????? ?а???????????? ????????: ??????-??????????????? ? ?????????????
??????????????. ??? ???? ?? ????? ????????????? ???????????? ???????????????, ????????? ??
???? ??????????? ?? ???????-??????? ????????? ??????? ???????????, ? ?????? ????????? ? ?? ??????????? ?? ???????? ??????????. ???????????? ????? ????? ??? ???? ??????? ???? ?????? ?????
????????. ? ??? ? ?????? ????????? ?? ?????????? XI ????, ?? ?????? ????????? ??????????? ?а?????
80
??????? ? ?????????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
???????? ???????? ????????? ??? ????? ????? ?????? ????? [11, 66]. ??, ??? ???? ??????? ? ??????? ?
????? ??????? ???????????? ???????, ???????????? ??? ?????????????? ???????? ?а????????? ??????
??????? ? ??????? ??????, ??????????? ?? ????? ?? ?? ????? ?????????????? ?????????.
????????????????? ??????
1. Angold M. The Byzantine Empire, 1025?1204. A political history. London; New York: Longman, 1997.
2. Golitzin A.G. Hierarchy versus anarchy? Dionysius Areopagite, Simeon the New Theologian, Nicetas
Stethatos, and their common roots in ascetical tradition // St Vladimir?s Orthodox Theological Seminary 38/2 (1994), p. 131?179.
3. Homiliae spirituales 50 (collectio H), ed. H. DЎrries, E. Klostermann and M. Kr№ger, Die 50 geistlichen
Homilien des Makarios. Berlin: De Gruyter, 1964 (Patristische Texte und Studien 4).
4. Lauritzen F. Psello discepolo di Stetato // Byzantinische Zeitschrift. ? 101 (2008). S. 715?725.
5. Lauritzen F. Ortodossia neoplatonica di Psello // Rivista di studi bizantini e neoellenici. Vol. 47 (2011).
P. 285?293.
6. Louriщ B. Michel Psellos contre Maxime le Confesseur: l?origine de ?l?hщrщsie des physщthщsites? // Scrinium. Revue de patrologie, d?hagiographie critique et d?histoire ecclщsiastique. Vol. 4 (2008). P. 201?227.
7. Perczel I. Saint Symeon the NT and the Theology of the Divine Substance / I. Perczel // Acta Antiqua
Academiae Sci. Hung. 41 (2001), p. 125?146.
8. Stoffels J. Makarius der Aegypter auf den Pfaden der Stoa // Theolog. Quartalschr. 92 (1910). S. 88?105;
243?265.
9. ??????? ?.?. ???????????? ?????? ? ?????????? ???? ?????? ? ?? ????????? ?а??????? ?????????? // ???????????????? ??????? / ??? ???. ?.?. ????????, ?.?. ???????? ? ?.?. ?????????. ? M.:
???????, 2006. ?. 98?108.
10. ????????? ?.?. ?а????? ???. ??????? (????????????) ? ???. ??????? ?????????? ? ??????? ????:
???????? ????????????? ????????????? ????? ??? ???????? ???????????????? ??????? ? ???????? / ???????? ???????????? ?? ???? ?????? ???????: ??????? ?????? ?? ?????????? ?????????????
???????????? ?а?????? / [???.-????. ?. ?. ?????????]. ?.: ???-?? ?????, 2018. ?. 118?162.
11. ??????? (??????), ??????????. ??????????? ?????? ????? ???????? ? ???????????? ????????.
?.: ???????????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????? ???????????? ??????: ????, 2013.
12. ???????? ?. ?. ????????????? ??????????? ???? ? ?? ???????????????? ????? ?а????????? ?а?????????????? ?????????? // ???????????? ???????. ? 18?19 (2015). ?. 43?67.
13. ????????? ?????? ???????. ??? 1: ????? ? ??? ???????. ?.: ???, 1998.
14. ????? ?. ?. ????????? ????????? ? ?????? ??????????? ???????? ?аXI ???? / ?????? ? ??????.
????? ????????????? ??????? ???????????. ?????-?????????, 29?31 ??? 2008 ????. ???.: ???.
????, 2008. ?. 183?189.
81
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
??? 81?367.7
?. ?. ???????
???????? ?????????????? ????, ??????
?????-????????????? ???????????????
??????????? ???????????????? ???????????????
????? ???????? ????????????? ????????? ???????1
? ?????? ??????????????? ??????? ???????? ????????????? ????????? ??????? ?????????????? ??????
?а???????? ?? 2 ??? 7 ??????? ?? 7 ??? 6 ???????. ?????? ???????????? ?? ?????? ????? ?????????????,
??????????? ?? ???????? ???????????? ????????. ?а???? ??????? ???????????, ??? ???? ?а?????? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ??????????? ??? ????????? ????????????? ?????????, ? ??????????? ?????????????? ?????? ???????, ???, ??-????????, ???? ???????? ???????????? ?????? ?а??????????? ????
?????? ????? ????, ??? ????? ??????? ??? ????????????? ?????????. ????? ???????, ???????? ?????, ???
???????? ????????? ???????????? ???????? ?????????????? ?????? ?? ?????????????.
???????? ?????: ??????, ????????????? ?????????, ?????????? ?????????, ??????? ????, ??????, ???????, ??????.
P. M. Eismont
Candidate of Philology, Associate Professor
Saint Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation
STEPS OF VERB SEMANTICS ACQUISITION
The article deals with the process of verb semantics acquisition by Russian native children aged 2;7 years old
to 7;6 years old. The analysis is based on the data of a series of experiments conducted according to the method
of elicited storytelling. Along with the analysis, it was established that children from an early age use almost
all possible semantic structures, and the statistical analysis showed that, apparently, children use a verb in their
own speech only after its semantic structure has been learned. Thus, the author comes to the conclusion that the
acquisition of semantics precedes the acquisition of syntax and of the rules of its representation.
Keywords: language acquisition, semantics, syntax, verb, child language, agens, semantic roles.
? ??????? ?? ???????? ???????? ??? ??????????, ???????? ???????? ????????? ? ?????????? ??????
??? ??? ???????? ???????????? ?????????. ??? ??????????? ??? ?????????? ???? ????????, ??? ? ??
?????? ????????????. ?????? ???????? ??????? ????????????, ? ??? ????????????? ????????? ??????
????????????? ??? ??? ???? ?????????????? ????????. ?а?? ?? ????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ???????? ????? ???????? ?а????????? ?а???? ????????, ??????????? ?а??????????? ?????
????????????? ???????.
??? ?????????????? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ?а ?????????? ??????????????? ????????
semantic vs. syntactic bootstrapping, ??? ????? ????????? ?? ??????? ???? ??? ????????????? ??? ?????????????? ?????????, ?????? ???????????? ???????? ?????????????? ??????? ???. ??????????
semantic bootstrapping ???????, ??? ???? ????????? ????? ?????, ????????? ?? ????? ??? ?????? ????????????? ???????? ????? ????????? ???????. ?а?????? ???????, ?????????? syntactic bootstrapping
??????????, ??? ???? ????????? ?????? ?????????????? ???????? ?а????? ?????? ? ??? ????? ????????? ???????? ?? ???????? [7, 4]. ??? ??? ???????? ????? ???? ????????????? ? ????????????, ??????
????????? ?????? ??????????, ??? ??? semantic, ??? ? syntactic bootstrapping ????????? ??????????
[3]. ?????? ?? ???? ??????? ??????? ????????????? ??? ???????????? ?а????? ?????????????????
? ????????? ?????????????, ?а?????? ??????? ?? ????????? ???????? ?????, ?????? ???????? ????? ??
??????????? ??? ?????????? ???? ????????.
?????????? ??? ???????????? ????? ??????, ????????? ?а??????? л???????╗ [2]. ??? ?????? ????
???????? ?а ???? ?????????? ????? ????????????? ?а ?????????????? ?????? ?а ???????? 2;7?7;6 ???.
1
?????? ? 16-04-50114 л???????? ?????????-?????????????? ????????? ???????? ???????╗ ????????
??? ????????? ??????????? ????? ??????????????? ????????????.
82
??????? ? ?????????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
????? ???? ???????? 213 ?????-???????????, ????????? ??????????? ?а?. ?????-????????? ? ?????????? ??????? ?????????? ??????????????? ??????????. ??? ???? ???? ????????? ?? 5 ??????????
?????. ??? ????? ????? ??????? ?????? (2;7?3;6) ??????????? ??? ??????????? ?а????? ????: ??? ????????? ???????????????? ????????? ???????????? ???????? ??? ?????? ???????-??????, ???????
???? ?????? ???? ???????. ???? ?????? ?????????? ?????? (3;7?4;6) ???????????? ??????? ?? ??????
?а?????????? (???? ??????? ?????? ?. ??????? л??? ???????╗). ???? ???? ??????? ?????????? ?????
(4;7?7;6) ???????????? ??????? ?? ??????????? л??? ????? ???????╗ (??????????????, 1967). ???
?????? ??????????? ?????????, ??? ??????????????? ??????????. ?????? ??????? ??????????? ????????????? ? ????????, ?????????? ???????????? ?????????????? ????? ? ??????????????.
????? ????? ??????? ? 5763 ????????????, ????????? ?? 25689 ?????????, ?? ??????? 6521 ?
?????????? ??????????.
??????????? ?????????? ??????? ?? ???????? ? ????, ?????????????? ?????
?? ????? ????????? ? ????????????, ?? ??????? ????? ???????????? (MLU)
(? ?????????? ?????????)
?????
????????? (Me)
?????
???????????? (Me)
MLU
(Me)
21 16
20
13
1,5
4 ???? 2 ??????
30 20
84.5
27
3,12
3
5 ???
25 24
108
23
4,61
4
6 ???
20 22
174,5
34
5,10
5
6 ??? 9 ???????
16 19
190
34
5,39
??????
??????? ???????
?
1
3 ???? 1 ?????
2
?
??? ?????????? ??????? ?????? ?????????? ?????? ???? ??????? ?а????? ?????? ?????????????
????????????? ? ?????????????? ?????????. ??? ????? ??? ??????? ???? ????????? ?? 14 ????????????? ????? (??????? ????, ??????? ????????, ??????? ???????????? ??????????, ??????? ???????????
?????????????? ? ?.?.), ??? ?????? ?????? ???? ?????????? ??????????????? ????????????? ???????????, ? ????? ???????????????? ???????? ?? ?????????. ????????, ??????? ???? ??????? ?????????? ???? ????????????? ????? ? ?????, ??????? ? ???? ?????????, ??????? ????? ???? ????????
?????????? ?????????. ?а?????????, ????????????? ???? ???? ????????? ????? ???? ????????????
?а ???? ?????? ????, ????????? ????, ????????? ??????????? ???????????? ??? ???????????????
?а?????????? ??????. ?? ?? ????????????? ???? ???? ???????????? ?а???????? ???????????? ????????????, ??????, ???????? ?? ??, ??? ???????????? ??? ????? ???? ??????????? ???? ?? ??????????, ???
? ???? ??? ???????? ????, ??????? ?????? ??????????, ??? ??????????? ?????? ??????? ?? ???? ???????
?а?????? ????????????? ?????? ???? (??. ????????? ?????? ?а[6]).
?? ?????????? ????????????? ??????? 6 ??????? ???????????? ?????????????? ????????? (????????, ??????? ??????, ??????? ??????????????? ????????), 4 ?????? ? ?????????????? ?????????
(????????, ??????? ??????????? ???????, ??????? ????), ? ??? 4 ?????? ? ?????????????? ?????????
(????????, ??????? ?????????, ??????? ???????????????? ????????).
??? ????, ????? ????????, ?а????? ??????? ?????????? ?а???? ????? ????????? ?????????????
?????????, ???? ???????? ??????? ?????????. ????? ???????? 8:
? ?????? ?????;
? ????? ? ???????1;
? ?????? ??????? (? ??????????????? ??? ?????????????? ???????);
? ?????, ??????? ? ?????-???? ?????? ???????????? ????????????? ????;
? ????? ? ?????-???? ?????? ???????????? ????????????? ????;
? ?????? ??????? ? ?????-???? ?????? ????????????? ????;
? ?????? ?????-???? ?????? ????????????? ????;
? ??????? ????????????? ???? ?? ????????.
1
????? ??? ????? ???? ?????? ????????.
83
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
??????????? ???? ????????????? ?????, ????? ?????? ? ????????, ?а????? ?????????? ??????
????????????? ???? (????? ? ?) ???????? ?? ?????????? ????????. ???????????? ????????? ???????? ???????? (? ????????? ??????) ?????? ????????, ??? ?????????, ??????? ?а??????????? ???????
?????????? ????????????? ???? ????????, ???????? ????????? ??????? ? ?? ??????????? ????? ??
?????? ? ???????????? ??? ?????????? ????? ?????? ???? ?? ?????? ?????? ???????? ???? (╓zчali?kan,
Goldin-Meadow 2005, Eisenbeiss et al. 2009). ????? ????, ?????????? ???? ?????? ? ???????? ?????????????? ??? ??????? ??? ????????? ???????????? ???????? ????????. ??? ?????????? ?? ???, ???
??????????? ???????? ?а??????? ????? ???????? ??????????????, ? ????????????? ???????, ?? ????
???????????, ????????? ?? ??? ?а?????????? ?????????? ????????? ??????????? ???????? (??????????
1987).
? ????????????? ????????? ?а?????? ?????????? ??????? ????????????? ???? 8 ??????? ???????? ????????? (Ag ? ?????, Obj ? ???????, NIH ? ??? ????????? ???????).
????????????? ??????? ????????????? ???????? ?а???? ?????????? ???????
(? % ?? ?????? ????? ????????????? ???????? ?а?????? ?????????? ??????)
??? ????? ?? ?????????, ???????? ?? ??, ??? ?а????????? ???????????? ????????????? ????????
?а???? ????????????? ?? ???? ????????? ???????? ?а?????????? ? ?????, ?а?? ?? ????? ??????????
??????? ????????????? ???????? Ag, Ag-X ? Ag-Obj. ?????????? ??? ?а?????????? ?????????? ????????? ?а???? ????? ???????? ???????? ???????? ???????? ? NIH ? Obj.
???? ???????????? ???????? ?? ???????? ????????????? ????????? (p>0,05 ?? ???? ??????????????? ???????), ??? ?? ????? ????? ???????? ????????? ????????? ?а?????????????????? ????????? ?а??????? ???? ?????? ????????????? ????????.
? ????? ??????? ???????? ???? ???????? ???? ?????? ???? ????????, ??????? ????? ?????????? ? ?????????? ?????????? ????????, ???? ???????? ?????? ?????? ?? ?????????? ? ?????????????
???????? (?.?. ?????) ??? ??????, ??? ??????? ???????? ??????????? (?.?. ???????)1. ????? ?????? ????????? (? ?????? ??????????? ????????????? ? ? ??????, ? ????????) ??????????? ???? ????????? ??
??????????? ?а??????? ?????????? ??????.
?? ?????? ?????????? ?????? (? 3;7 ?? 4;6) ??????????? ????????? ?а???????? ???? ????, ????
??????????? ??????????? ????????????, ?????? ????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????????? ?а?????????? ??????? ????????????? ????? (?). ??? ???? ????? ????????, ??? ????? ???????????? ?а?????????? ??????? ????????????? ????? (?) ????????? ????? ???????????? ?а?????????? ?????????.
????????, ??? ??????? ?а???????????? ?а???? ?????????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ???? ????????
???? ? ?? ????????.
1
? ????? ??????? ?????????? ?????? (? 2;7 ?? 3;6) ????? ???????? ????????? ????????????, ?? ?????????? ?????????? ??????????, ? ?????????? ?????? ??????, ??? ??????? ??????????? ???????? (?.?. ???????). ???
??????? ?? ????? ? ?????? ??????, ?????? ??? ???????????? ??????????? ???????????? ??????? ? ?????????
?????? ???????????? ?????? ??? ???????? ????.
84
??????? ? ?????????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
?????? ????? ????? ???????? (????? 4;6) ???? ???????? ???????????? ??? ????????? ????????????? ????????? ?а???????????? ?????? ??????????. ?????????? ?????????? ?????? ?????????, ?????????? ??? ??? ????????? ???????????.
????? ???????, ????? ???????, ??? ?????? ???????? ??????? ?????????????? ?????? ?а??????????? ???? ?????? ????? ????, ??? ??????? ?????? ??? ????????????? ????????? (?????? ??????? ??
??????? ?????????? ?????-???? ?????????????? ?????????? ?а?????????? ???????????), ? ??????????
?????????????????? ????????? ?а??????? ???? ?????????? ????????????? ????????, ??-????????, ??????? ?а????? ???????? ?????????????? ???????? ? ??????????????? ??????????????? ???????? ?????.
????????????????? ??????
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
?????????? ?.?. ?а??????? ????? ??????????? / ??????? ???????????. 1987. ?3 ?. 20?32.
??????? ?.?. л???????╗: ?????? ?????? ??????? ??????? // ????? ????????????? ???????????
л????????? ????????????2017╗. ???.: ?????, 2017. ?. 373?377.
Abend O., Kwiatkowski T., Smith N., Goldwater S., & Steedman M. Bootstrapping language acquisition.аCognition, 164, 116?143. (2017).
Bowerman M. Linguistic Typology and First Language Acquisition. In:аThe Oxford Handbook of Linguistic Typology. Oxford University Press, (2010).
Eisenbeiss S., Narasimhan B., Voeikova. M.D. The acquisition of case. The Oxford Handbook of Case.
Malchukov A., Spencer A. (eds.) Oxford: Oxford University Press. 2009. Pp. 369?383.
Eismont P. Semantics and syntax tagging in Russian child corpus / Eismont P., Mitrenina O., Pereltsvaig
A. (eds) Language, Music, and Computing. LMAC 2017. Communications in Computer and Information
Science, vol 943. Springer, 2019 (? ??????).
HЎhle B. Bootstrapping mechanisms in first language acquisition.аLinguistics, 47(2), pp. 359?382. (2009).
╓zчali?kan, ?., S. Goldin-Meadow Do parents lead their children by the hand? / Journal of Child Language. 2005. Vol. 32. P. 481?505.
85
??????? ? ??????????? ????????????
??? 629.78
?. ?. ?????????
?????????
?. ?. ?????????
?????? ?????????????? ????, ?????????
?. ?. ?????
?????? ????????????? ????, ??????
?????-????????????? ??????????????? ???????????
???????????????? ???????????????
??????????????? ????????? ???????? ???????? ??????
??? ???????????? ??????????? ???????????????? ??????????
? ?????? ?????? ???????????????? ??????? ??????????????????? ???????????? ? ???????????????,
??? ???????????? ???????????????? ???????????? ???????? ??????????? ??????? ????????. ??????????? ??????????? ????? ??????????????????? ????????????? ? ??????????????? ??????? ? ????????? ??????? ?а?????????? ??????? ???????????????.
???????? ?????: ???????????????, ??????????????????? ????????????, ??????? ??????????, ???????????????? ??????????.
M. S. Burlutskaya
assistant
N. B. Kunturova
Doctor of Pedagogical Sciences, Associate Professor
K. V. Losev
Doctor of Economic Sciences, Associate Professor
Saint Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation
SELF-EDUCATION OF STUDENTS OF THE MILITARY TRAINING CENTER
AS A PART OF CONTINUOUS PROFESSIONAL TRAINING
This article analyzes the concepts of self-educational activity and self-education as a component of professional activity of the future specialist of power structures. The interrelationship between self-educational activity
and independent work, and various approaches to interpretation of concept self-education is also considered.
Key words: self-education, self-educational activity, future specialist, professional training.
? ??????????? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ?????????? ?а???????? ?????????? ???????
???????????? ?а ??????-??????? ???????. ?????????? ?а ???????? ?????????? ?????? ? ????????????????? ????? ???????? ????? ?? ???????????? ??????????? ???????????? ??????????????????? ???????????? ??????? ??????? ????????????. ??????????????????? ???????????? ???????? ??????????????, ??????????????? ?? л????????? ??????????? ?????? ? ????╗.
??????? ???????? ?а??????? ??????? ???????????? ?а???????? ??????????????????? ???????????? ?????? ??? ?а?????? ????????????????? ????????, ????????????, ??? ? ????????? ?????? л?╗.
?? ?????? ?.а?.а????????, ?а???? ???????? ????????????? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ??????????? ????????, ? ????? ????? ?????????? ????, ???????????? ?????? ?? ??????? ? ???????????????? ???????????????а[1].
86
??????? ? ??????????? ????????????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
??????? ??????? ???????????, ?а??????? ?? ?????? ?????????? ?????, ??????????????? ?????
??????? ??????? ?????????????? ?????????, ??????????? ?? ?????????? ??????, ????????????????
? ?????????? ?????????.
??? ???????????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????? ? ???????? ?????? ????????? ???????????, ??? 76а% ?????????? ????????? ??????-???????? ?????? ????????? ?а?????????????????, 67а%
?а??????????????, 66,1а% ?а??????????? ????????????????? ?????, 57,4а% ????????? ?а???????? ??????? ???????????????а[5].
????????, ??? ???????????? ??????????????? ?а????? ??????? ?????? ???????? ????? ??????,
????? ??????, ????? ???????? ????????, ?????????????? ????????? ?????????? ?????? ??????????????????? ???????????? ??????? ??????? ???????????? ????? ?????? ? ????????, ?????????, ????????? ?????????? ????????????????, ??????? ?? ????????; ?????? ? ??????, ???????? ????????а[4].
??????????????????? ???????????? ????? ????????????? ??? ???????????? ???????, ???????
????? ???????? ????????????? ????? ?????????????, ???????????? ???????, ????, ??????, ?????????.
?а ?? ????? ??????????????? ??????? ???????????, ?????????????, ??????????? ?? ??????. ??? ?????????????? ??????, ????????? ????? ????????????? ???????? ? ???????? ??? ????????? ?а???????
??????????????? ??????????. ????? ???????? ????? ??????????:
- ???????????, ??????????? ??????? ????????;
- ????????????, ???????????? ???????????? ? ?????????;
- ???????????????, ????????????? ?а???????? ??????? ???????? ?а????????????.
????????? ?????? ??????????????????? ???????????? ???? ??????????? ????????????? ?? ???
?????????????? ???????????, ?????????? ????? ? ???? ?????? ???????? ?а???????, ?????????? ????????? ????? ???????????????? ??????? ???????, ???????? ????????????.
??????????????????? ???????????? ?????????? ?? ????????? ?????????, ???? ???????????????? ???????????? ?? ??????? ? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????????? ????????????? ??
????????????. ????????? ?????? ??????? ???????????? ??????????????????? ???????????? ???????
???????????? ??????? ????????, ??? ????????????? ??????? ??? ?????????? ????????.
??????????? ???????????????? ??????????????????? ???????????? ???????????? ???????
?????????, ????????? ? ?????????, ?????? ?????????? ????? ??????????????? ????????????, ????? ?? ???????????? ????????? ? ????????????? ???????????? ???????, ??????? ???????????. ??????
?а ??? ?а ???????? ???????? ??????????????????? ???????????? ???????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????? ????????? ?? ?????????????, ??? ?? ?????? ?? ??????? ????????? ?????? ????????, ???????,
?а???? ???????, ???????????? ?а????????? ?????????? ? ?????????????? ?? ???????????.
????????? ??????????????? ???????? ???????????? ???????????????? ????????????, ??
?а???? ????????????? ???????????? ??????????, ?а?????? ???????а? ?????? ????????????? ?????????? ??????? ? ?????????? ?а??????????????????? ???????????? ??????????? ? ????? ??????.
???????????? ??????????????????? ???????????? ??????? ????????????? ???????????????
???????, ??????? ???????????? ????? ?????? ? ???? ???????? ?а????????, ? ??????????? ??????????
? ????????, ?? ????????? ???? ?????????? ?а?? ????????, ? ???????????? ??????????? ???????? ????????а[6, 7].
??????????????????? ???????????? ??????? ???????????? ?а??????-??????? ?????? ????? ???
????????, ???????? ? ???????? ?????? ???????? ???????????? ????????????. ?а?? ?? ????? ??? ?????????? ???????? ????????????? ????????????, ??????? ??????? ?а?????????????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ???????????? ????? ???????????????? ????????????.
??????????? ????? ??????????????????? ????????????? ? ????? ????????? ????????????
???????????? ????? ?????????? ????????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????????, ?????????? ? ??????. ????????, ??????????, ?????????????? ???????????? ???????????? ??????????? ?а??????????????? ?????? ???????????????? ??????????????????? ????????????, ?? ????????? ?????????? ? ??????????, ?а??????? ??????? ??????????????? ???????????? (? ?? ???????????? ???????????????????),
???????? ?????? ?????????????? ???????.
???????? ??????????????????? ???????????? ??????? ??????? ???????????? ?а??????-??????? ??????, ?????????? ????????? ??? ????? ????? ???????????? ????????????, ??? ? ???????????
? ????????? ???????????????? ??????????????????? ????????????. ?????????? ???????? ?а????? ?
???????? ?а?????, ????????? ????????-????????????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ?? ???????? ???????????? ???????? ???? ???????????? ???????, ??? ??????? ?а ???????????????? ????????????????
?а??? ??????? ??????????????? ? ??????????????. ???, ??? ?????? ?????????????? ?? ??????: л???
87
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
????????? ? ????? ??????????? ?а???????? ???????? ?а??????-??????? ????? ?? ?????? ??????╗ ????
???????? ????????? ??????????: л? ????, ?а??????? ?? ????????, ???????????? ????????╗а? 49,3а%,
л? ??????? ??????? ??????????????? ??????╗а? 39,0а%, л? ????????????? ??????????????? ?????
?а ?????? ?? ?????╗а ? 20,2 %, л? ?????? ??? ???? ??????? ???????????? ??????????╗а ? 12,4а %а [5].
????? ????????, ??? ?????????, ????????? ?? ?? ?????? ???????? ????????? ????????, ???? ?????
???????? ????????????? ?а???????????????? ????????, ???????? ? ?????????? ?????? ????? ????????????, ? ????? ???????? ?????????? ???????????? ???? ????? ??? ??????????????? ??????. ???????
?????? ?????????? ? ????????? ??????? ??????????? ? ?????????????? ??????????????????? ???????????? ??????? ???????????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ?????????? ?? ??????????? ?????.
?????? ??????????????? ?????? ? ??????????????? ???????? ??????????, ??? ??? ??????? ? ????? ????????? ????? ????? ???? ????????????. ????????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ?? ??????? ???????.
?????????????, ?а??????????? ????? ??????? ?????????????? ??????????? ???????? ???????????? ????????, ?? ?? ????? ??????????????? ?????? ????????? ??????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ?????????? ?????, ???????????? ?????? ?????,а? ??????????????, ? ? ???? ??????????????????? ????????????а? ?а???????????? ?а????????? ????? ????????.
?????????????? ??????? ????? ???????????????? ? ??????????????? ????????????? ??????????? ?а???, ??? ?а???? ??????????????????? ???????????? ???????? ????????? ????????? ?????
???????????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ???????????? ?????, ??????? ? ??????????
??????? ????? ??????????????????? ????????????, ? ?а???? ??????????????? ?????? ???? ????? ????????? ?????? ????????????.
????? ???????, ??????????????? ?????? ??? ???????????????? ????????? ?а??? ???, ??? ??????, ??????????? ?а ?? ??????????????????? ????????????, ? ??? ?????? ???? ??????????????? ??????
????????? ???? ?????? ????? ????????????, ?????????? ???????? ??????? ?? ??????????????? ?а??????????????? ??????. ????? ????? ??????????????? ????? ???????? ??????? ?????????? ????????
?а???????????????? ??????????????????? ????????????а[3].
??????? ??????????? ?а??????? ??????? ??????а? ????? ????? ??????? ???????????, ???????
????? ???? ????????????? ?????????????? ???????? ?а?????? ?? ?????????? ???????? ????????.
??? ??????? ????????? ???????????? ??????? ???????????? ?????????? ????????????? ?а?????????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ????? ????????????: ??????, ??????????????, ???????-????????????????, ???????????????-??????????????. ????????????? ???? ?????????? ???????????? ??????????????? ?????????? ????????????????? ???????, ??? ??????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ??????????,
??????? ???????????????? ???????? ?а ?????????? ????? ?????????????? ???????????? ?????? ??
?????? ?????????? ?????????????, ????????? ????? ? ?????????? ????????????. ??????? ?а???????
??????? ?????? ???????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????? ????????? ??? ?????? ???? ???????????? ?а?????? ???????? ?????а? ??????? ??????, ????????? ?????????? ??????????? ??????? ??????,
???????????????? ? ?????????????? ????????, ??????? ?????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????????
?а???????? ???????? ???????? ??????.
???????? ????? ?????? ?? ????? ?????????? ?? ?????????????? ????????? ???????? ?а????
???????? ?а?????? ??????, ??????? ??????????????????? ???????????? ???????? ??????????? ???????
?? ?????? ????.
??????????????????? ???????????? ???????????? ???????????? ?а????????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ?????????????? ????????, ???????????? ?а?????? ????? ????????? ????????????? ?????
?????? ? ???????, ??????????? ???????? ?а????????????? ?????????, ??? ???????? ?????? ?????? ???
???????? ???????????.
??? ??????? ????? ???????, ??????????? ???????? ???????????????, ?????????????? ?????
?????? ?а??????? л???????????????╗, ????????????????? ?а?????????? ?????????????? ????????????: л???????????????а? ???????????????? ?????????????? ????????????, ??????????? ????? ?????????; ???????????? ??????????????? ?????? ?а?????-???? ??????? ?????; ???????, ????????, ???????????? ????? ? ?.?.╗.
??? ???? ????? ???????? ??? ?????? ??????? ?а?????????? ?????????????? ???????????????:
- ??? ????????????????, ??????????? ??????????????? ?????? ????????????? ?а????? ????????? ?????????????? ?????????????? ????????????;
- ??? ??????????? ???????? ????????????, ?????????????????? ??????? ???????? ????????????;
- ??? ????, ????? ? ???????? ?????????????? ????????????а[2].
88
??????? ? ??????????? ????????????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
??????????? ?? ????????? ???????? ??? ??????? ???????? ???????????????, ?????????????
??? ??? ????? ?????????????? ????????????, ??????? ??????????????? ???????????, ??????????????????, ??????????????? ? ??????????????? ?? ???????? ??? ? ???????????? ????????, ????????????
???????? ??????????? ????? ?? ?????? ????????? ??????? ???????????? ??????? ???????? ?а??????????????? ??????.
????????????????? ??????
1. ??????? ?.?. ????????? ??????????????? ????? : ?а2-? ?. ?.1. ?: ??????????, 1980. 232 ?.
2. ??????? ?.?., ????????? ?.?. ????????????????? ??????????????????? ???????????? ?????????????-??????? ???? ??????? ???????? ?? ????????? ?????? ??????????? ???????????????? ???????????? ???????????? ??????????? ?а????? ?????????? //а??????????? ? ??????????? ???????? ??????????? ?а??????? ?????????? ?????????? ????? ??? ??????а??????? ??????? ??????
VII ????????????? ??????-???????????? ???????????: ?а2 ??????. ??? ???.???. ?. ?. ???????.
2016. ?. 134?139.
3. ????????? ?.?. ?а ??????? ??????????? ??????????????????? ???????????? ??????? ???????
????????????//?????????? ???????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ?????????? ??????? ????????.
2013.а?а4. ?. 30?39.
4. ????????? ?.?. ??????????????????? ???????????? ?????????: ????.???????// ?.?. ?????????,
?.?. ????????? ? ??. ? ???????????, 2012. ? 150 ?.
5. ???????? ?.?., ????????? ?.?., ????????? ?.?. ???? ??????????? ???????????????? ???????????? ??? ???????????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ??????-??????????????? ??????????? ???????
??????????? // ??????????? ???????? ????? ? ??????????? ?а??????? ???????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????.а ??. ??????? ?????? ??????-??????????????? ??????? ?????-??????????????
???????? ????????? ????? ???????????? ???????. ?????-?????????, 2016. ?. 151?155.
6. ????????? ?.?. ??????????????? ? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ???????? ??????????? /
?.?. ?????????, ?.?. ??????? // ??????????. 2003. ? 2. ?. 42?50.
7. ??????? ?.?. ?????????? ???????????????: ??????????????? ?????? / ?.?. ??????? // ???????????? ????? ? ?????????????. 1999. ? 5. ?. 140?151.
89
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
??? 334.752
?. ?. ?????
?????-????????????? ???????????????
??????????? ???????????????? ???????????????
л???????? ???????? ???????:
????, ???????????? ? ??????????╗
? ?????? ?????? ???????????? ???????? ???? ???????, ?????? ?? ??????????? ? ???????????.
???????? ?????: ???????, ????????????
K. P. Galay
Saint Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation
MAIN ADVERTISING MEANS:
TYPES, ADAVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES
This article presents the main means of advertising, their advantages and disadvantages.
Key words: advertising, advantages.
??????????? ??? ?????????? ??????????? ??? ???????. ??? ?????????? ?????, ????? ??????
????? ?а????????, ????? ???????????, ???????? ???????? ?????, ? ??? ???? ??????? ????????? ?????
???????. ?????? ???? ?????? ??????????, ??? ??? ????? ???? ???????? ???????? ?? ???????, ? ??????, ??? ????????? ???? ??????? ???????а? ?????????? ????????.
???????? ??????? ??????? ?а????, ??? ??? ???????????? ?а?????????? ????????, ??????? ????????????? ??????????? ?а??????????? ??????? ? ?????.
??????? ??? ???? ???????? ??????? ?????????? ?? ????????????? ????????. ???????? ??????? ????? ???? ???, ??? ???????????? ?? ?????. ????? ??? ???? ?????????? ?а????? ??????? ??????.
?????????? ???????? ???? ???????.
???????? ???????
???? ?? ????? ????? ????????????? ? ???????????????? ?????. ??????????? ??? ???????? ?????. ??? ???????, ????????, ?????????? ??????? ?? ???????. ?????? ??? ??????? ????? ???
??????????? ? ???????????: 1. ????????? ????? ?????????? ? ??????; 2. ????????????? ???????;
3. ??????? ???? ?? ???????????. ??????? ???????? ?????? ?????, ????? ??????? ????????? ?? ????? ???
??????? ?а????.
??????? ?а???
? ????????? ??????????????? ??????? ?а ??? ??????? ?????, ???????????, ???????? ? ??????-???????. ????? ???????, ??? ??? ???????? ????? ???????????? ??? ???????????? ?? ???????.
??? ?????????? ???: ??????????? ?????? ?а????? ???????? ??????????? ??????? ???????? ???????.
?? ????????? ?????????, ??????????? ????????? ??????? ???????????? ??????, ???????? ???????
?? ???????? ???? ????????????. ????? ?? ?? ????? ??????, ??????? ???????? ???????? ?????????
???????? ???????????? ????? ?????????? ??????? ?? ??? ?????? ???????????. ??????? ????????
???????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ?????. ??? ???? ?????????? ????????????? ??????? ?
??? ??????????? ?????????????? ???????????, ????????? ??????????? ??????? ????????? ?????????.
????????-???????
????? ??????? ??????????? ?а??????? ? ??? ??????? ?а?????????. ??? ????? ?????????? ?????? ????????? ??? ?????????? ??????? ?????????. ??????? ??????? ?? ???????????? ??????? ?а???,
??? ?а???? ?????? ?? ??????????, ???? ?????????? ??? ?? ???????? ????????.
???????? ???????
???????? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ???????? ????????? ???????????? ?????????? ??
???????????. ?????????? ????? ?????????? ????? ????????? ???????????, ?????????? ?? ??????????
??????. ?????????? ?? ??? ???? ???????? ????????????? ??????? ??? ??????????. ??????????? ?????
???????? ?????? ???????? ????????, ?????? ???????????.
90
??????? ? ??????????? ????????????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
???????????? ???????
??? ???? ??? ???????, ??????? ?? ????? ???????? ????????, ??? ??????? ?? ??????????. ???????? ????????? ???????????? ????????, ????????? ?????????????? ?????????. ???????????? ??????? ????? ??????? ?а???????? ???????? ???????, ?? ?? ??????? ??????? ??????????? ?а???????????,
??? ????????? ???????? ??????? ?????????. ??????? ?????????? ????? ??????? ?а???, ??? ??????????? ????? ?????? ?? ???????? ??????? ?????????? ??-?? ?????????? ????????? ??????? ??????????
?????????. ???????? ???????? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ?а??????? ?????, ?????? ????????? ???
????????????.
??????? ?а?????? ??????
??????? ?а?????? ?????? ? ??????, ?????????, ???????????, ??????????????, ??????? ???????????????? ?а?????? ??????. ???????? ?????????? ?????????????? ??????? ?????????, ????? ?? ??????? ?? ?????????? ???????. ???? ??? ???????? ???????? ?????????, ??? ??? ????? ???????? ??????????? ??? ??????????? ???????????? ????? ??????????? ?а???????????? ????????????. ???????
?????? ????????? ?????????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ?а????????, ????? ????????? ????? ??????, ???
???? ??????????? ???? ?? ????????????, ??? ?????? ?????? ?? ???? ??? ???????.
?????? ???????? ??????? (???)
?????? ???????? ???????а? ??? ????????? ?????????, ?????????????? ?а???? ???????, ?????? ??? ?????????. ?????? ??? ??????? ?????????? ???????? 5% ????????????.а ??????????? ???
??????? ?а ???, ??? ??? ?? ????? ??????????? ?а ?????? ??????????, ?????? ?? ???????????, ?????
?????? ????? ?????????. ???????? ?????????? ????? ???? ??????? ?а???, ??? ??????????? ??????? ??
л???????? ????????╗, ? ????????? ???? ??????????, ??? ???????? ??????????? ?а?? ?????? ?????.
???????? ???????
???????? ??????? ????????? ???? ???, ?? ????? ????????? ??????????? ?????: ?? ?????, ?а????????? ???????, ?? ????????? ?????????. ??? ??????? ? ??????????? ??????????? ??? ???????.
???????? ??????? ???????????? ????? ??????, ??????? ???????? ??? ???????????? ???????, ??????????? ????? ?????, ?? ??? ???? ??????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????? ??? ?????. ?????? ?? ??????
???????? ?? ??????? ??????, ??????????? ???????? ????? ???????. ???????? ??????? ?????????? ??
????????, ?? ????????? ?а??????, ??? ??? ????? ???????? ??????????????, ? ????? ?? ?????????? ?????????????.
?????????? ???????
?????????? ??????? ???????????? ????? ???????, ?а?????????? ?? ??? ????????? ???????????. ?????? ????????? ???????????????? ?????????. ???????? ????????????? ?а??????????? ?? ???????
?????????, ?а??????? ?????? ? ????????. ??? ???????? ?????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????? ???
?????????, ??? ????? ?????? ? ????? ? ????????. ?а??????? ?? ???????????? ???????, ?а????????? ????????? ????? ????????????, ? ????? ?а??????????? ???????? ?????? ? ????????. ?????????? ???????
?????????? ???????? ?? ????? ???????? ??? ?????? ????? ????? ???????? ???????.
????????? ???????????
????????? ??????????? ???????????? ?а ????? ??????????? ? ?? ?????????? ?? ???????.
???????????? ????? ??????????, ??????????. ??????? ??????а? ??????????? ???????? ?а????????. ??????????? ???????? ?????? ? ????????, ??????? ??? ???????? ??????????????.
???????, ??? ?? ??? ???? ???????, ?? ????????????? ????????? ????????. ????????????? ???
?????? ????????, ????? ?? ????? ???????? ??? ?????????? ??? ????а? ?????????? ??????, ???? ??????? ? ??? ????????? ????????.
????? ???????, ????? ???????, ??? ?а?????? ????? ??? ?????? ??????????? ????? ???????,
? ?????????? ?????????? ????? ???? ???????. ?????? ?? ??? ????? ? ???????? ???????????? ?????
?а????? ????????.
????????????????? ??????
1. ???? ???????. ?????? ?а???????? ????????? ????????????. [??????????? ??????]а//а?????????
???????. URL:аhttps://adindustry.ru/doc/1123
2. ?????? ?. ?????? ???????. ?., 2008. ?. 37.
3. ????????? ?.?. ?????? ??????? ? PR. ???.: ????-????, 2009.
4. ??????? ??????? [??????????? ??????] // URL: http://teasernet.com/formats/
91
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
??? 659.182/.187
?. ?. ???????
?????-????????????? ??????????????? ???????????
???????????????? ???????????????
??????? ?аINSTAGRAM ??? ?????????????? ????? ????????
? ?????? ?????? ????? ??????????? ??????? ?????? ????????? ???????? ?аInstagram, ???? ?????????,
???????? ?????? ??????????? ??????? ?аInstagram.
???????? ?????: ?????, ???????, Instagram, ???????, ???????????.
M. B. Kapelyush
Saint Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation
ADVERTISEMENT IN INSTAGRAM AS AN ADDITIONAL COMPANY IMAGE
This article will discuss the concept of advertising campaign image in Instagram, types of accounts, the main
methods of advertising promotion in Instagram.
Keywords: image, account, Instagram, advertising, promotion.
??????? Instagramа? ??? ?????????? ????, ??????? ???? ????? ??????????? ???????? ?????? ?????????, ????????? ? ?????????????. ??????? ?? ??????????? ???? ?????????? ??????? ?аInstagram
???????? ?????????? ????????????. ??????? ?а Instagram ?????? ???? ????????, ????????, ?????????????, ?????, ??????????, ????? ?? ??????? ????????????. ????? ?????? ??? ??????????? ???????
?аInstagram ???????? ???????????? ?????????????? ????????????? ????? ????????. ???? ?????????
??? ????? ?????????, ??? ??????? ????? ???????? ? ??? ?????? ????????? ????????????? ?? ?????, ??
?????? ????????? ?????? ?а?????????? ???? ? ?????? ?а???????? ? ?????????? ?????????? ?а?????????? ?????.
????? ?????????, ????? ?????????????? ????? ????? ??????? ?аInstagram ??? ????????.
????? ????????? ???????? ?а Instagram ???????? ???????????? ???????????? ????????,
??????????????? ?? ???????????? ???????????? ??????? ?????? ????????????. ???????????? ????? ??????????? ?а???????? ?????????????? ?? ?????? ?? ???? ???????? ???????????? ???????????
??????????? ?????? ????????, ?? ? ?а??????? ????????? ?????????, ??????? ????????? ??? ???????????? ?????? ??? ?????????? ???????????? ????????, ????? ?????????? ????? ????????????????
???????? ?? ?????-???? ??????????????? ?????? ??? ?????????? ????????.
????? ????????? ???????? ?аInstagram ??????????? ?? ???????????? ?????? ????????????
?а??????? ??????? ? ?????? ?а???????????????, ????????????, ??????????, ????????????, ??????????.
???????? ?????? ??????????? ?????, ????????? ???????? ??????????? ????? ???????? ????????? ?????? ????????????, ????? ???????? ?? ????? ? ?????? ????????? ??????? ?а????????? SMM.
??????? ??????? ?аInstagram ????????? ?????? ????????? ??????:
???????????? ?????? ? ??????;
??????????? ??? ???????????? ????? ????????;
????????????? ?????????? ?а?????????????? ????????;
?????????? ?а?????????????? ???????????? ?а?????? 24/7;
????????????? ?????? ?? ????????????? ?????;
?????????????? ?а ??????? ?????????? ?а ?????????? ?????, ? ??????: ???????, ????????
?аTwitter, Facebook, ?????????, Flickr ? Tumblr, Foursquare.
??? ?????????? ??????? ?а Instagram ????? ???????????? ?а ?????? ???? ????????? ?? ??????????.
???? ?????????: [1]
1. ?????? ????????.
2. ???????.
3. ??????? (???????????? ??????????).
4. ????????-???????? ? ???????? ???????.
92
??????? ? ??????????? ????????????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
5. ?????? ???????? (???? ? ?????????, ????????????? ????, ????????????).
6. ???????? ???????.
7. ????????? ???????.
8. ????.
9. ????????-????????.
10. ?????-????????.
????? ?? ?????????? ??? ?????? ???????? ????? ?????????? ??????????????? ?а?????????? ???????, ??????? ?а??????? ???? ????? ???? ?????????.
?????? ??????????? ??????? ?аInstagram.
1.?????????? ?а?????? ? ??? ???????? ????????? ???????????. ????? л?????????????╗ ??????????. ??? ?????? ??????? ????????? ????? ??????? ? ???????????, ?? ??? ????, ????????? ????
????????????? ????????, ???? ??????????? ????????????? ???????? ??????????.
2.??????? ?а????????????? ??????. ?????? ??? ??????? ??????????? ?а?????? ???????? ?а??????????? ?? 400 ??????????? ??? ??????? ?а????????? ?? ?????? л?????? ???????????╗, ????? ?а??????? ????????? ?а??? ???????? ??? ??????????? ??????????????.
3.?Giveaway ? ??????????? ?а???????????? ??????? ??????? ?а?????????? ??????? ??????????, ??? ?????? ?????? ???????????? ????? ?? ??????? ?а?????. ?? ????? ????? ?????????? ???????
? ??????????????? ???????. ???? Giveaway ? ??? ????? ?????????? ?а???? ?????????, ?????????? ?а???????, ? ?а????????????? ? ???????.
4.??????????? ???????? ??? ?????????????? ?а?????????.
5.?????????? ???? ?а???????????? ????????????? ????????????? ?????????? ????????: ????????? ???????, ???? ???????????, ?????-???, ????? ????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ?? ????
6.??????????? ?????-??????? ? ?????? ?????????????????? ?? ????? ??????. ?????? ?????? ????? ????????????, ????? ???? ???? ? ??? ?????????.
7.??????????? ??????? ?аstories, ??????? ?????????? ??? ???????? ??????. ???? ???????? ?????????? ???? ??? ???????, ?? ??? ????????????? ????? stories ??????, ?? ??????? ???????? ????????????. ?? ??????????? ???? ??????????? ?????? ??? ???????: ???? ?????????? ??? ???? ????? ??
?????? 15 ?.
?????? ??????? ???????? ???? ??? ???????, ?? ????? ????????? ? ?? ????????????? ???????
?аInstagram.
??? ??????????? ?? ???????????? ????? ? ????? ????????? ????????, ????? ?????????? ????????? ?? ?????????????. ??? ????? ??????? ?а????????? ???????? Facebook, ?а??????? ??????????
?????????? ???????, ???????? ? ??????. ?а Instagram Insights ????? ????????? ???????? ????????,
?????????? ????????????, ?????????? ??????????, ????? ????????? ?? ?????? ?? ???????. ??????
??????? ???????? ?????? ??? ??????-????????. ????? ?а?????? ????????????? ????? ????????????
????????? ???????, ????????, AppTraction, JagaJam, Livedune ??? UnionMetrics, ??????? ?????????
???????????????? ?????, ????????? ?????????? ??????????? ? ?????? ?????????????.
?? ??????????? ???? ??????????? ???????? ?а?????? ????? ???????? ????????? ????????? ??? ?????????????. ???? ?а?????? ? ?????? ????? ??????? ???????????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ?а?????????? ?????, ??????? ??????? ?аInstagram ??????? ?????????????? ????? ???????? ? ????????????
?????????? ??????? ????????.
????????????????? ??????
1. ??????????? ?а?????????. ????????? ??????????? ? ?????????, URL: http://tilda.education/articlesinstargam-promotion
93
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
??? 659.121.8
?. ?. ?????
?????? ????????????? ????, ??????
?????-????????????? ??????????????? ???????????
???????????????? ???????????????
????????????? ??????? ????????? ???? ?а????????? ????????
? ?????? ?????? ???????????? ??????????? ???????? ???????????? ?а????????? ?????????.
???????? ?????: ???????, ????????? ?????, ????????????? ?????, ???????????????.
K. V. Losev
Doctor of Economic Sciences, Associate Professor
Saint Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation
THE USE OF OBJECTS OF COPYRIGHT IN ADVERTISING THE PRODUCT
This article presents the features of legal activity in the advertising industry.
Keywords: advertising, copyright, property rights, responsibility.
??????? ?????? ???????? ?? ???????????. ?????? ????????????? ????? ??????? ????? ???????,
??????? ?а?????????? ??????? ?? ?а?????????? ??????. ?а?????? ??????? ??? ???????? ?????????? ???????? ??????????? ????????????? ???????? ???????????????? ????????????? ??????? ???. ??????????
???????, ??? ?? ????????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ????????????? ??????????? ??????????.
? ???????????? ?а??????? ?? л? ???????╗ ????????????? ?а??????? ???????? ??????????????
???? (???????????????? ?????????????) ??????????? ?а???????, ??????????????? ?????????????????
?????????? ????????? (?. 5 ??. 5). ????? ?? ???? ??????? ? ?????? ???????? ?? ????????????????
????? ????? ????????? ???????????????? ????????????? ???? ??, ??????? ???? ?????? ???????????? ??? ???????????? ??????? (???????????? ?????, ?????????? ? ?????????).
??????????????, ???????????? ?а????? ?а????????? ? ?????????? ????????????, ????????????
????????????????? ?? л?? ????????? ????? ? ??????? ??????╗. ?а?????????????? ?????? ????????????? ????????? ??? ???????: ?????? ????????? ???? ?? ??????? ? ????????????? ?а??????? ???????????? ??????? ???. ?а??. 4 ?????? ?? л? ???????╗ ??????????, ??? ??????? ????? ??????????? ??????? ??? ?? ??????? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ????? ? ??????? ????. ?а?????? ?????? ?????????
? ??????? ????? ???????? ?????? ??? ???????????? ?а ????????????????? ?? л?? ????????? ?????
? ??????? ??????╗. ?а????? ?? ??????? ??????? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ??????
? ???????????? ?а???????????? ????????????????? ????????? ????? ???????????????? ?? ???????????? ?????, ?????????? ? ?????????, ?????????? ??????????? ?????????? ????????????, ? ??
??????????? ?а ??????????? ?? ?????????????? ? ??????????? ????????????, ? ????? ?? ??????? ???
?????????. ? ?????????? ???????????? ??? ?????????? ???????????? ??????? ??????????? ???????
??????????, ??????? ?????????? ?а?????????????? ????????????. ?????????? ????? ?а???????, ??? ? ??
?????? ????????????, ????????? ?????? ?? ?????????? ????, ??????, ???????, ?????????, ????? (?.
4 ??. 6 ?????? л?? ????????? ?????╗), ? ????? ???? ?????????????? ????????????, ??????? ????? ???
????? ????????? ??? ???????????? ??????????.
???????а? ??? ??????????. ??? ????? ???? ???????????? ?а????? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????, ????? ???????????? ?а?????? л?? ????????? ?????╗, ??? ????????? ??:
- ???????????? ???????????? (???????????? ????????? ?????????, ?????????????? ?????????? ??? ??????????? ????, ??????, ?????????, ?????????? ????????? ??? ?????);
- ??????????? ????????????;
- ??????????????? ???????????? (????????, ??????? ?? ???????????);
- ???????????? ????????, ??????????, ???????, ??????? ? ??????;
- ???????????? ???????????????? ????????? (????????, ?????????? ???????);
- ?????????? (????????, ?????????? ?????? ?а???????? ????????);
- ?????? ????????????.
94
??????? ? ??????????? ????????????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
??? ???? ???????? ?????????? ????? ?? ????????? ?????????, ??????? ?????????????? ????????. ?????????????, ?а ?????? ???? ????????? ????????? ?? ???????? ?а ???????????? ?????, ?
???? ???????? ? ???????????? ??????, ?? ??? ?? ?????????? ????????? ??????.
????????? ????? ??????? ?а???????????? ?????????????? ???? ??????? ???????????????? ????????? ? ????????????? ????. ??? ???????????????? ??? ?? ????, ??? ? ?? ???????????? ?а????? ?
???????????????? ??????? л?? ????????? ?????╗.
?????? ??????????????? ????? ??????????? ??????. ??? ???????????? ? ??????????? ?а????? ????????? ???????, ????? ?? ???, ?????????????, ?????? ???????????? ?? ??????????????, ?????????? ??????? ????? ????? ? ??????????? ??????.
????????????? ????? ??????????? ?а?????????????? ????? ?? ????????????? ????????????
?а????? ????? ? ????? ????????.
???????????????? ????? ????????? ?????, ??? ??????????, ?????? ????????????? ?? ?????????
?????? ??? ????????. ??? ??????? ???????????????? ?а????????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????
?????????????. ?? ??? ????, ????? ?? ??????? ?????????????? ??????? ? ??? ????????????????,
??????????, ????? ????? ??? ??? ?????????? ?а???????????????? ?????????? ????????????? ????
?а??? (?????????????????????) ??? ???????? ????????? ???????.
?????? ????????????? ?? ????? ???????? ?а???????? ????? ??????. ?????????? ????? ????????????? ????????? ?? ???????? ? ????????? ?а ????????? ????????, ??? ???????????? ????? ?????????????? ????????. ????? ????????? ????????? ?????? ?? ?????? ??????????????? ????. ?а??????
????????? ??????????? ????????? ???? ?? ??????? ????????????? ????? ????? ????????? ?? ?????????? ????????? ????, ?????????????? ?????????, ??????????????? ?? ????????? ?????, ???????????
????????? ??????, ?????????? ???????, ??????? ????????? ??????, ??????? ??????????? ?а?????
?? 10 ?? 50 ???. ???? ?????? ?????????? ???????, ? ????? ???????? ?????? ???, ???????????????
??. 12 ???????????? ??????? ??.
????? ???????????? ????????? ???? ?? ??????? ????? ????????????? ?????????? ???????????? ?а??????? ??????? ??? ??? ??????? ????????? ????????? ??. 6 ?????? л? ???????╗ (???????????????? ???????).
??????? ?а??????? ??? ???????? ??????? ?? ????????????, ???????????? ????????? ???????????? ?????, ?????????? ? ?????????. ????? ???????????? ????? ???????????? ?а???????, ????? ????????? ????????? ??????? ?а?????????? ?????????????? ????????????? ????.
????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????, ?? ????? ?? ???? ???????? ????????? ???? ?? ????????????. ???? ???????? ????????????? ????????? ???? ????? ??????? ?????
?????? ? ??? ????????? ??? ????? ??? ??????.
??? ??? ????????????? ?????????? ?а ????? ??????? ????????????, ?? ?? ?????? ????? ??????????????? ?а?????? ????????? ????????? ???? ?а??????? ???????, ??? ????????????????????, ??????? ??????? ?????????????? ?? ????????? ???????. ?????????????, ??? ?????? ?? ???????? ?????????? ????????????, ????????????? ????????????? ?????????? ??????????? ???? ??????????????? ??
????????????????????, ??????? ?а???? ?????? ???? ?? ?????? ?????????? ??????????? ????????????
??? ?????????? ??????.
????? ??????? ????? ? ???, ??? ?а????? ??????? ???????????? ????? ???????? ????? ?а????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????. ???????? ?????????, ??? ????????? ?????????????? ???? ?а??????
??????? ????? ?а?????? ????? ??? ?????? ? ??????, ??? ??????? ?????????, ???????????? ?а????????
????????, ?????????? ? ??????????????? ???????, ??? ????? ???????????????.
????????????????? ??????
1. ???????? ?.?. ???????? ????????????? ????????? ????????????. ?.: ??????????????? ?????, 2017.
368 ?.
2. ????????? ?.?. ?????? ???????. ???????? ?????? ??????? ?а??????. ?.: ??????????, 2018. 284 ?.
3. ?????? ???????? ???? л??????????? ????╗. URL: http://www.consultant.ru/ (???? ?????????:
18.05.2018).
95
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
??? 334.752
?. ?. ??????
???????? ????????????? ????, ??????
?????-????????????? ??????????????? ???????????
???????????????? ???????????????
??????????? ??????????????? ??????????????? ?а??????
? ?????? ?????? ???????????? ??????????? ????????????, ????????? ???????????? ??????? ? ????????
??????????????? ??????????????? ?а??????.
???????? ?????: ???????????, ???????????????.
O. S. Loseva
Candidate of Economic Sciences, Associate Professor
Saint Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation
FEATURES OF FRANCHISE RELATIONS IN RUSSIA
This article presents the features of franchising, provides historical background and development of franchising relations in Russia.
Key words: franchising, relationship.
??????????? ? ?????? ??????????? ???????, ?????????????? ???????? ??????? ???? ???????????, ??????? ????? ???????? ?????. ?? ????? ???????????????, ??? ??????????, ??? ??????? ????????????? ??? ???????? ??????, ??? ??????, ?????????? ???????? ??????, ???? ???????????? ?????
?? ??????????????? ?? ???????????? ?????????? ????? ????????? ??? ?????? ?????????????????
?а????? ?? ????????? ?? ??? ???????? (??????) ??? ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????????????? ???????? ? ????????? ????????????. ? ???????? ??????? ?????? ?????, ???????????, ?????
??????? ?а??????? ?а?????? ????????? ???? ????????????? ????????? ????? ?????????????? ???????
? ???????????????? ?????????????.
??????? ???????? ???????????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ?а ??????? ????????????? ???????,
????? ?????? лfranchise╗ ???????? ?????? ??????????, ???????? ???????? ????? ?????????.
? ?????? ???????? ???????????? ???????? ?а1902 ?., ????? ????????? ???????? л??????╗ ??????? ????????? ????? ?? ???????????? ??????? ??????? ?а??????.
? 1907 ???? Ford Motor Company ?????? ?а?????? ????????? ????? ?? ??????? ???????????.
????????? ?а ?????? ????????????? ???????? ??????????????? ??????????????? ? ??????
?а1972 ???? ?а???? ?? ??????????? ???????? ?а?????? Pepsi-Cola ??? ????????? ??????????? ??????????? ??????????????? ??????? ??? ???? ??????.
? ?????? ??????????? ????????? ?а?????? 90-? ??. ??????? ????????? ??????????? ?????????.
?а1990 ???? ???????? Mc Donald^s ??????? ?????? ?????????? ????????, ?а1993 ?. ???????? Baskin
Robbins ??????? ???? ?????? ?а?????? ????????.
????? ???????, ??? ?а???? ?????? ?а?????? ??????? ????? ????????? ??? ???????????? ?а?????
?а?????? ?????? ???????? ?????????. ?????????? ??????????????? ? ???????? ??????????? ??????? ?а????? ????????? ???????? ? ?а???? ???????? ???????.
???? ?????? ?? ???????? ? ??? ????, ??? ???????? ? ??????????????? ???????????? ?? ?????????? ?????? ?????????? ????????????, ??-?? ?????????????? ????????? ? ?????? ???????? ??????? ??
?????. ?????? ??????? ?????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????? ?????????? ??????????????? ???????????????.
?? ????????? ?а????????? ????????, ????????? ???????? ?????? ????? ???????? ???????????? ?а??????, ? ?????? ????? ??? ??????? ?а??????????????? ??????????????? ????, ?а??????????? л???????╗ ????????, ?а????????????? ??????????? ????????????, ?а???????????????? ????????,
?а ??????????? ?????? ?а ??????? ????????????, ?а ??????????? ????????? ????????. ? ?а ?????????
????? ?????????? ???? ???????? ????? ???????????? ?а?????????? ???????????? ????????????? ????????, ????????? ? ????? ? ????????? ???????, ???????? ??????? ????? ?? ????????? ?а???????? ? ????.
96
??????? ? ??????????? ????????????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
??????? ????, ??????? ????????, ??? ???????? ???????????? ?а?????? ??????? ?а????????????? ??????? ??????????????? ???????? ?? ????????????? ????? ??????? ? ?????. ???????? ???? ??
???????????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????????? ????? ? ????????????? ??????? ????????? ???????????.
????????????????? ??????
1. ???????, ?. ???????????? ???????. ??????????? ? ?????? ?????? ???????? ????? / ?. ???????,
?. ??????. ???.: ?????, 2013. 192 ?.
2. ??????, ?.?. ??????????? ?а???????? / ?.?. ??????, ?.?. ?????. ?.: ?????: ?????-?, 2017. 104 ?.
3. ????????, ?. ??????????????? ???????. ??????? ??????????? ?а????????? ???????? / ?. ????????, ?. ??????????, ?. ???????????. ???.: ?????, 2013. 336 ?.
97
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
??? 159.99
?. ?. ???????????
???????? ????????????? ????, ??????
?????-????????????? ??????????????? ???????????
???????????????? ???????????????
??????????? ??????????? ?????????? ????? ?а?????????? ????????
? ?????? ????????????? ??????????? ???????????????? ????????? ????????, ????????? ?а??????????
????? ????????-?????????? ? ?????????????.
???????? ?????: ?????????? ?????, ????????????, ??????????????? ?????????, ??????.
M. M. Pekarnikova
Saint Petersburg State University
of Aerospace Instrumentation,
associate professor, Ph.D
SPECIAL ASPECT OF CONSUMER BEHAVIOR IN TOURISM
The article analyzes the features of consumer behavior of tourists associated with the emergence of new Internet technologies and globalization.
Keywords: consumer behavior, tourism, social media.
??????? ?? ??????? ????????? ?????????? ??????????? ????? ?????????????? ??????? ????????? ??????, ???????? ?? ?????????-???????????? ?????????? ?а???? ?????. ???, ?а2000-? ?????????? ????????????? ?????????? ???????? ???? 674 ??? ?а???, ? ?а2016 ?.а? 1125 ???, ??? ?? 46 ???
??????, ??? ?а2015 ?. (???? ???????? 3,9%) [2]. ????????? ???? ??? ?????? ?????? ???????, ??? ??????
??????? ??????? ????????. ?????? ??? ???? ?? ??????. ???????? ???????? ?????? ???????? ??????
????? ?????? ??????? ?????, ???????? ?а???? ??? ????? ??????? ???? ????????. ?.?????? ????????,
??? ????, ???????? ???????? ????????????, ??????? ?а?????????????? ????? ???????????? ?а?????????? ????????????? ? ????? ?????????. ?.??????? ?а????? л????????╗ ????????, ??? ??? ??????????????????? ???????? л????????? ???????, ??????????? ? ?????????? ???????? ????? ??????????
????? ?????? ???????. ??????? ??????, ?? ????????? л???????????╗ ????? ? ??????????? ?? ??? ??????? ????, ??? ?? ?????????? ??????????? ??????? ? ????? ??-??? ?????.?? ??????????? ?????
???? ??????????, ? ???? ??? ????? ???????????? ???????, ?????????? ? ???????? ?? ????????╗ [4].
??? ???????????? ???????? ?????????, ????????????? ????????? ? ?????????? ?? ???. ?????????, ??? ?а ?????? ???????????????? ????????? ???????? ????? ????? ?? ????? ????????????????
?????????, ??? ? ??? ????? ?????? ???????. ???? ? ?????????? ??? ???????? ???????. ?а????? ???????, ???? ????? ???????, ???? ????? ?????????????? ?, ??????????????, ??? ?????? ???????????????
??????. ?а?????? ???????, ?????????? ???????? ?????????? ????????, ??????? ???????????? ???????
??????. ?? ???????? ??????? ? ??????????? ????????? ??????? ??? ??????? ?????????? ? ????????? ???????, ?? ?????? ??? ? ????????? ?????? ??????? ? ?????????? ????????. ???????, ????????
?? ??????????????? ????????? ?а??????? ??????? ????? ?а????????? ??? ????? ?????? ???????.
??????, ?????????? ??? ???????. ????????, ??????? ?? ??????????? ?? ????? ??????????????
? ????????????? ???????, ?. ?. ??????? ?????? ?????? ?? ??, ??? ????? ?? ?????? ???????????????. ???
???? ??????? ???????, ??? ???????, ????????? ??????? ??????? ?? ?????????? ?а?????????? ?????
????????, ???????? ??? ??????? ?а???????? ???????????? ??????????? ???????????. ??? ????? ???????????? ?????????? ????? ???????? ??, ??? ??? ??????????? ?????? ??????? ?а????? ????????????
???????????, ??????? ???????? ? ?????? ???????????. ??? ???? ???? ?????? ?а????? ?????? ??????????
?????? ???????, ???????? ?????????????? ??????? ?? ????? ?????????? ? ?????? ??????? ????? ???????????.
????-?????????? ? ????-?????????? ?????? ??? ??????????? ?????????? ????????? ?????? ??????????? ??????. ???, ??????? ?а??????? ??????????? ???????, ??????? ????? ?а???????????? ??????????? ????????, ? ?? ? ??????, ?????????? ??????. ????? ??????????? ??????? ?? ??????? ?????
98
??????? ? ??????????? ????????????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
??????? ?????????? ?????, ????- ? ?????- ???????? ???????? ????????? ????????. ??????????????? ??? ???????, ??????? ?? ???????? ? ?? ??????? ?? ????.
??????????? ???? ???????????? ??????????? ??? ???????????? ????????, ??? ??? ??????? ??
??????? ????????? ???????? ? ?????????? ?????? ????????, ?а??????? ??????????. ???????????????
?а????? ?????????? ? ?????????? ?????????? ????? ????????? ?а????, ??? ??????? ??????? ?????????.
?????????? ??????? ?????? ????????. ??? ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ??????????? ???? ? ????????, ??? ??? ?? ?????????? ?????????? ?? ??????????? ? ???????? ???????????? ?????????????
????? ???????? ?? ??????? ?????????????. ??????? ????? ??????????????? ????? ?????????????, ???????????????????? ? ???????????? ??????? ??? ????.
? ?????????????? ??????????????? ????????, ???????????? ????????, ??????????? ?????????? ?? ?????????????? ???????????, ??????????? ???????????????? ??????????, ???????????
????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ?а ??????????? ????????????? (????????????, ????????? ? ?.?.),
?????????? ?а???? ????? ????????. ??? ?а???????????? ?????? ??????? ?????????? ????? ???????,
??? ??? ???????? ?? ???????? ?? ??????????, ? ??????????????? ???????????? ????? ???????? ??????????????? ????? ????????? ??????. ??? ??? ?????? ???????? ???????????????? ????????? ???????,
??????? ??? ???????? ?????????????? ????????? ???? ?????????? ? ?????????? ???????, ???????????
?? ??? ??????????, ??????? ??? ????????????? ?????????????? ????? ???????????? ??? ??????????, ? ????? ??-???? ?????????? ????????????????.
??? ??-????-??????????? ???????????????? ???????? ?????? ???, ?? ??????? ?????? ?
??????????, ???????????????? ?а?????????? ???????????????, ???????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ??????????. ??? ?? ????? ?????????? ?????? ??????????? ??????? ????? ?????????
?? ??? ??????. ?????? ??????а? ??????????? ??????????, ??? ???????? ???? ???????? ??????????,
????????? ?а??????????? (????????? ???, ?????? ????? ??? ??????????, ????????????, ??? ????? ????????? ?? ????????? ?????????????????????? ? ?.?.). ?????? ??? ????? ? ?????????? ???????, ???
??? ????? ????????????? ?????? ?????????? ?????? ?????????? ?????? ?????????? ??????. ??????
?????? ? ?????????? ??????????, ?а ?? ?????? ????? ??????? ???????????? ?а ???????? ?а ????????
???? ??????????. ?????? ??????а? ??????????????? ??????????, ??? ??? ?????????? ???????? ???????
?а????? ??????????, ??? ????????? ??????? ?? ?????????? ?а?? ??????????, ???? ??????????? ????????? ????????? ???? ??????????? ?а??????? ???? ? ??? ????? ???????? ???????? ?? ????.
??????? ????????, ??? ??????????? ????????-?????????? ??????????? ???????? ??????????
?????????. ?а???????????????? ????????? ??????????? ???????? ?????? ?????????? ?? ?????????
?????????? ? ?????????? ?, ??????????????, ????????? ????? ?????????? ??????? ? ?????????? ??????????? ????????.
????????????????? ??????
1. Ukpabi, Danison C,; Onyenucheya, Ukamaka D.; and Rarjaluoto, Heikki, лDo online travel communites
matter? A literature rewiew (2017)╗. BLED 2017 Proceeding.9.
2. UNTWO Tourism Highlights, 2011 Edition. ????? ???????: http://tourlib.net/wto/WTO_highlights_2017.pdf
3. ????? ?.? ????????? ????????????. ???.: ?????, 2000.
4. ?????? ?. ????????. ???., 1997. ?.64
99
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
??? 159.9
?. ?. ???????????
???????? ????????????? ????, ??????
?????-????????????? ??????????????? ???????????
???????????????? ???????????????
????????????? ????????? ??? ?????? ?????????? ?а????????
? ?????? ??????????????? ????????????? ????????? ??? ????????? ??????, ?????????????? ??????? ? ????????????????? ????? ????????.
???????? ?????: ????????????? ?????????, ?????? ?????????????? ??????????, ??????? ?????????? ????????.
M. M. Pekarnikova
Saint Petersburg State University
of Aerospace Instrumentation,
associate professor, Ph.D
EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE AS THE FACTOR OF STUDYING PROCESS
The article considers emotional intelligence as the most important factor contributing to the personal and professional growth of an individual.
Keywords: emotional intelligence, models of emotional intelligence, factors of learning success.
?????????? ??????????? ???????? ??? ?????? ? ????????????? ?????????, ??? ???? ???????? ??????? ??? ??????? ??? ??? ???? ?????, ???????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ? ???????? ??????????? ??????????. ??????, ??? ?????? ??? ??????, ???????? ??????? ?????????????? ?а?????????? ?????. ?? ?????????? ??????????? ??????? ????????????? ????? ???????? ???????????????????
????????????????. ????????? ?????????????? ??? ??????? ??????, ?????????? ?а?????? ??? ?а??????? ????????, ??? ? ?????????? ?????. ?????? ?????? ?????????? ?????????? ????? ???????????
?а??????????? ?????? ?? ????????? ? ????? ??????????? ?а????? ?????????? ?? ????. ?а???????
???????????, ??? ?? ?????? ?? ?????, ???? ????????, ??? ??????????? ????????? ???????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ?? ?????? ??????? ????????????? ?????????, ?? ? ????? ?????????? ????????????,
???? ?? ??????? ??? ????????????????. ?? ?????? ???? ?????? ???????? ????????? ??????????????
?????????? ??? ???????, ????????????? ????? ?а?????.
????????????? ????????? ? ??? ??????????? ???????????? ????? ? ??????????? ??????
??? ?????? ???????, ????????? ?????????????? ???????? ? ??????????? ?????????? ?а????? ????????? ?????????????? ????????????? ? ????????????? ???????????.
? ??????? ?????? ?????? л????????????? ?????????╗ ??? ?????? ?а1990 ???? ?????????????
??????????? ??????? ???????? ? ?????? ???????, ??????? ? ??????????? ?????? ?????? ?????????????? ??????????. ??? ????????????? ??????????? ?????? ???????? л??????????? ???????????
??????????? ? ????? ??????? ? ??????, ????????? ?? ? ???????????? ??? ?????????? ??? ???????????
???????? ? ????????╗ [2]. ?????? ???????? ?????? ?????? ????????????, ?????????? ?а?????? ???????.
?????? ?????? ? ?????????? ??????а? ??????????? ???????????? ???? ?????? ? ?????? ??????
????? (? ???????? ????????????????? ???????, ?а???????????? ????????????? ? ???????); ??????????? ????? ???????? ?????? ? ????????????? ???????????; ??????????? ???????? ???????? ?????
????????? ? ??????????? ??????????? ??????.
?????? ??????а? ?????? ??? ??????????? ????????а? ??????????? ???????? ?????? ??? ?????????? ???????????? ????????; ???????????? ?????? ??? ??????? ??????????? ? ???????? ???????;
???????????? ????????? ??????????, ????? ????????? ????????? ????? ??????; ????????? ??????
?а???????? ???????? ????-???? ??????.
?????? ??????а? ????????? ??????а? ??????????? ????????, ??? ???? ?????? ????? ???? ??????? ?а??????; ??????????, ??? ??????? ?????? ?????? ? ??? ????? ?? ???? ???????????.
100
??????? ? ??????????? ????????????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
????????? ??????а? ?????????? ????????а? ??????????? ???? ???????? ?а????????????? ??????????? ??? ?????????????, ??? ? ?????????????; ??????????? ??????? ????????? ????????????
??????; ???????? ???????????? ????????????? ?????????, ?????????? ?? ? ???????? ?? ???; ??????????? ????????? ?????? ????????; ??????????? ???????? ?????? ??????????? ?а?? ????????.
?? ?????? ?????? ?.??????? ? ??.?????? ???? ??????????? ?????????, ?????? ??????????
?????? ?.????????. ?а?????????? ??????????? ???????? ??????????? ??????????? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ??????????????, ????? ??? ?????????, ????????????? ? ?????????? ?????? [3]. ?а????????? ????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ???????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ? ????????????
(?????? ??????????? ??????, ?????????? ??????????, ??????????? ?а????); ???????????? (?????? ?????????????? ???? ?????????????? ??????, ????????, ?????????? ???????? (?????? ??????????????
?а???????? ?????? ?????, ????????? ?? ??????? ? ???????? ?????????? ??????????? ????????? ?а??
?????????); ?????????? ????????????????? (?????? ????? ?? ?????, ????????????, ??????? ????????
?????????) ? 18 ????????? ?а???? ???????.
?????? ?????????? ??????? ???????? ????????? ?.???-???, ?а??????? ????????????? ????????? ???????????? ??? ??? ???????????? ????????????? ? ?????????? ???????????, ????????????
? ??????, ?????????????? ???????? ?????????????? ?а??????????? ??????, ? ????? ???????????
????????? ?а ?????????? ?????????? ?????????? [3]. ?????? ?????? ???-??? ???? ????? ???????
????????? ??????? л????????????? ?????????╗. ?? ?????????? ??? ??? ??? ????????????? ???????????, ?????? ? ??????????????, ?????? ???????? ??????????? ??????? ??????????? ?а??????????
?????????? ??????????. ???-?? ??????? ???? ???? ??????????????, ??????? ????? ????????????
?а????? ???????????? ?????????????? ??????????: ???????? ????, ?????? ?????????????? ???????,
??????????? ?а?????????, ?????????? ??????????? ??????????, ????????????? ??????????.
? ????????????? ?????????? ???????? ????, ?????????????? ??????????? ??????? л????????????? ?????????╗, ???????????? ?а??????? ?.?. ??????????, ?.?. ???????????, ?.?. ?????????.
?.?. ????????? ?????? ?а?????? ? ????????????? ???????????? ????????? ???????, ?????????????? ????? ???????? ??????????? ? ???????????????? ?????????, ?????? ??? ???? ?? ????? ??????????? ?? ??????????? ????? ???????? ???????. ??????????? ???????????? ?????????????? ??????????
??????? ?а??????? ?.?. ?????????, ?.?. ???????, ?.?. ??????, ?.?. ?????????, ?.?. ???????? ? ??.
?.?. ???????? ??????????, ??? ??????? ???????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?а????????? ???????? ???????????? ?а??????????????? ???????????? ????????????????. ????? ???? ????? ????????,
??? ?????????????? ???????????????? ????????????? ????????? ???????????? ?????????????? ????????????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ?????????????, ???????, ?а???? ???????, ???? ???????????
????????????? ???????? ? ?????? ??????????????? ?а??????? ?????? [1].
???, ????????, ?.?.????? ?????????? ???? ?????? ?????????????? ??????????, ??????? ??
???????? ??? ??????????? ?а????????? ????? ? ????? ?????? ? ?????????? ???. ??????????? ?а????????? ?????? ????????, ??? ??????? ????? ?????????? ??????? ?????? ?а???? ??? ?а??????? ????????;
????? ???????????????? ? ??????? ??; ???????? ???????, ????????? ?????????? ??????, ? ?????
???????????, ?а ??????? ??? ????????. ??????????? ?а ?????????? ???????? ???????????? ????????
????????????? ?????? ? ?? ??????? ??????????, ? ????? ??????????? ??????????? ??????? ?а???? ??
??? ???? ??????. ????????? ????????? ? ?????????? ????? ???? ?????????? ??? ?? ???? ??????,
??? ? ?? ?????? ??????????, ????? ???????? ??? ?????????? ?????????????? ??????????: ???????????????? ? ?????????????. ?а?????? ??????? ??????? ????????????? ????????? ????????? ?а????
??????????? ??????????? ? ?????????? ??????????????. ?? ?????? ?????? ?????? ????? ??????????
???????? ?????????????? ??????????, ?????????? ??? ????? ? ??? ????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ? ?????????????????. ????? ?.?. ??????? ???????????? ????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ??? ????? ??????????? ??????????? ? ????????????, ??? ??????????? ?а????????? ?????? ? ?????????? ??? ????? ??????? ?а????? ??????????????? ???????? ?? ?????????????
?????, ?.?. ?а????????? ?а??????????? ???? ????? (? ??? ????? ? ?а?????? ????????????), ???????????
?а???????????????? ??????? ?????????, ?а??????????, ?????????????? ????????????? ????????????. ????????????? ????????? ?? ?????? ?.?. ? ??? ??????????????? ???????????, ?????????????
?а???? ????? ???????? ??? ???????? ???? ????????, ??????? ????????????? ??? ??????? ? ????????????? ?????????????? ??????????? [4].
?????? ????????????? ????????? ????????????? ??????? ????????? ?????????? ????????????? ????????? ??? ???????????? ????????????-??????????? ???????????? ?а?????????-??????????????? ????????? ????????. ??? ??????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?????????????,
101
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
? ?? ?????? ????????????????? ???????????? ???????????? ?????????????? ??????????????. ?????? ?? ??????? ???????? ?????????????? ?????????? ??? ??????? ??????. ???, ??? ?????? ????????,
??? ???????? ??????? ?????????????? ?????????? ??????????? ??????????, ??? ??? ??? ????????????
?????????? ???????????, ????????? ?а?????????????? ????????????? ????????, ?????? ??? ?????????????????, ??????????? ? ?.?. ?? ????????? ???????, ??? ????????????? ????????? ????? ? ?????
?????????, ??? ????????????? ?????? ? ?????? ????? ????????????? ?а ???????? ???????????? ????????. ???????? ??????????? ??????? ?????? ?????????????? ??????????, ????????? ???????????
??????? ? ???????, ? ????? ????????? ????????????? ????????? ?????? ????? ???????? ????????
??????????????, ??? ????? ?????????, ??? ? ????? ???????? ? ????????. ???????? ??????????? ????????????? ???????????? ?.?. ????????, л???????????? ?????????╗ ????????? ????? ????????? ?а??????????, ????? ??????????? ?????? ??????, ?????? ???????????? ?а ????? ????????, ????????????
????????? ?????????-???????????????? ??????? ????????. ????????????? ????????? ????????????
????????????? ?а????????? ?а?????????, ????????????, ????????????? ?????????? ? ?.?.
????????????????? ??????
1.
2.
3.
4.
102
???????? ?.?. ??????? ? ????????? ?????????????? ?????????? // ?????????-???????????????
???????? ????????????: 6-? ????????. ??????-?????. ???????????, 26?27 ?????? 2004 ?., ?. ????????: ?а2 ?. ?. 1. ????????, 2004.
??????????? ?.?. ??????????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ???????????????? //
??????????? ??????????: ??.??. ??.: ????, 2006. ?. 16?20.
??????? ?. ????????????? ?????????: ????????? ????????? ?????? ?? ?????? ??????????????
??????????. ?.: ??????? ?????? ????, 2005. 302 c.
????? ?.?. ??????????? ????????????? ?? ????????????? ?????????? // ?????????? ?????????:
??????, ?????????, ????????????. ?.: ?? ???, 2004. ?. 29?39.
??????????? ????
??? 81?003.28
?. ?. ??????????
?????- ????????????? ??????????????? ???????????
???????????????? ???????????????
????????????-???????????????? ??????
???????????? ????? лGALLERIA╗ ?а??????? ?????? л???????╗
? ?????? ?????? ???????????? ?????????? ????????????, ???????????? ???????? ??????????????? ????? л???????╗, ??? ????????????? ? ???????? ?а??????? ???????? ?????, ? ????? ?????????
?а??????????? ?????? лgalleria╗, ???????? ???????? ? ????????, ????? ???????? ? ?????????? ?????????? ?????? ??????. ??????????? ????????? ????????? ????????? ??????????? ? ??????? ???????.
????????? ??????? ???????????? ????? ???? ????????? ??? ?????????? ???????????? ? ????????????? ??????? ?? ????????????? ? ????? ???? ???????????? ?а?????? ? ???????? ????????.
???????? ?????: ?????????????, ???????, ?????????, ??????????, ?????????? ?????????? ?????.
D.O. Arsenteva
Saint Petersburg State University
of Aerospace Instrumentation
THE COMPARATIVE ANALISYS OF ITALIAN WORD ?GALLERIA?
WITH RUSSIAN WORD л???????╗
This research is devoted to study of lexical borrowing лgallery╗ from the Italian language and the development of system of the Russian language. The comparative analysis, identified similarities and differences,
new values and cultural information of these tokens. The sources of ulcer material served as Russian and
Italian dictionaries. The materials of research can be used to develop practical and theoretical training in the
course of culturology and can be used in the theory and practice of translation.
Keywords: borrowing, semantics, Italianism, cultural information word.
??? ??? ????????????? ?????? ?????? ???? ?а ???????????? ?????????/???????? ??????????? ???????? ? ???????????? ??????, ?? ???????? ???????????? ?а????? ?????? ????? ????? л???????-galleria╗, ? ????????? ? ?? ???????? ? ???????????????? ?а??????? ? ??????????? ??????.
???????????? ??? ????? ?????????? ??????????? ? ????????, ? ?????????? ?? ????? ??????????
???????? ?????????? ???????. ?? ?????? ?.?. ???????, ??? ????????????? ??????-???? ????? ??????
??????????? ???????? ??????? ????????????? ?????? ????? ?а????а? ??? ?????????? ???????? ?а???????? ? ????????????? ??????????? ?????, ?????????? ???????? ?????????.
??????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ?а????????? ????? ???????? ??????????? ??????. ????
?????? ??????????? ?а???????????? ??????????????? ????? л???????╗ ?а????????????? ? ??????????????
???????? ? ?а????????????? ??? ?а??????????? лgalleria╗. ??? ?????????? ???? ???? ?????????? ??????
????????? ??????:а? ???????? ??? ??? ??????????? ??????? (????? ? ??); ?????????? ???????? ?????
?? ????????????;а? ??????? ???????? ? ???????? ?а???????????? ?????? ?? ?а??????? ? ???????????
??????. ??????????? ????????? ????????? ????????? ????????? ???????: ?.?. ????????? л???????
103
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
??????????? ????╗, ?.?. ?????? л???????? ??????? ?????????? ????╗, ??????????? ??????? Treccani,
Garzanti, Sabatini Coletti, Zingarelli ? ????????? ??????? ?.?. ????????? л????????-??????? ???????╗,
F. Bonomi лVocabolario Etimologico della Lingua Italiana╗.
???????????? ???????? ???????????? ??????? ?а???, ??? ????????? ????? ???? ???????????? ???
??????????? ????? ?????? ?? ????????????? ? ???????????? ? ????? ???? ??????? ??? ?????? ? ???????? ????????.
????? ?????? ????????????? ?????????? ????, ????? ??? ??????????? ?а ????????????, ????????????? ????????????? ??????? ? ??., ?.?. ?????? ???????? ????? ?????????-???????????????:
л?????????? ???? ??????????? ????????? ??? ??? ?????? ??????????? ????? ??? ????? ???????????,
л???????╗, л??????? ?????????╗╗ [7].
?????? ??? ?а??????????? ??????? ????? ?????????????? ????? л???????╗. ???? ??????? ?а????????? ?????? ?а????????? ????? л???????╗, ?? ????????, ??? ?????? ??? ???????? ? ??? л???????, ??????? ???????-??????????????? ?????, ? ?? ?????? ?а????? ??????????, ?? ? ?а?????? ??????? ??????╗.
?? ? ????? лgalleria╗ ?? ?????? ????? ????? ???????? ???????? ?? ????? ????: Galleria Lappeenranta,
Galleria Minsk, Galleria supermarket Dallas ? ?.?.
? ????????? ????? ?а??????????? ??????????? ???????????, ????????? ?????????? ??????????
?????. ??? ?.?. ????????? [6] ? ?.?. ?????????? [1] ??????? ???? ?????? ?? ????????? ????????????
?????. ????? ?? ?????????????? ??????? ?? ????? ???????? ? ???, ??? ??????? л??????? ?galleria╗
???????? ????????, ?????????? ?а???? ?????????? ??????????.
?????????????, ??????????? ????????????? ? ????? л???????╗ ? ?????????? ?а ???, ?????????,
?????????? ???????? ? ????????????????? ?????????????? ? ???????????? ??????? ?????, ?? ???
?? ????? ?? ??????. ?а????? ??????: л?????-????????????? ???????: ??????????? ?????? ?? ???????
????╗ ?.?.?????? [8] ???????????? ? ????????? ?а?????? ???????? ????? ? ???????, ???????? ??????.
?а?????????? ?????????????? ??????? ?? ?????? ?а?????? ????????? ????????? ???????????? ? ?????
????????????, ??? ?????? ??????? ???????? ?а?????? ??????? ?а????? ??????? ? ???????? ???????
?а ??? ?????????????? ???????????? (?????? ?????????? ???????? ? ???????? ????????? ????? ??
???????????? ???????).
???????, ??? л???????? ????╗ ??? л???????? ????╗ ?????????? ???????????? ?? ???? ???????
??????? ??????. ????? ????????????, ??? ???????? ????? ????? ????? ???????????? ?а??????? ????,
?????? ??????? ??????? ?? ???????? ???????? л???????? ????╗, ????? ??? ??????? ???????????? ?????
???????? ??????? ?а????? ?? ???????? ??????? лgalleria╗: л??????? ?????? ????? ????????, ?????
?а??????, ??????????????? ??? ??????? ?????????╗ ???????? ?????? Galleria Vittorio Emmanuele II
di Milano???????? ???????? ????????? II ?а?????? ?????, ??????? ?а???? ???????, ???????? ?????
?? ??????????? ???? ?????????? ? ???????? ??? ???????? ?? ?????????, ??? ??? ?????? ??? ???????????????? ?????? ??????????? ??????. ????????-??????? Treccani ???????? ????????: л???????
??????, (????? ????????????), ????? ???????? ???????? ??? ??????, ?????????? ????? ??????????
???????????? ??????, ?????? ?????????? ??????????, ???? ? ?.?., ? ??????????????? ??? ????????
??????? ??????? ????????? ?????, ?????????? ?????? ????????? ?? ???????? ???????????? ???????;
????????: л ???????????? ??а???????; ?????????? ?а???????!╗
????? ???????? ???????? ?? ??, ??? ???????- ??????????????? л???????-galleria╗ ?а ????????
л???????? ????????╗ ?????????? ??????? ????????????, ??????? ?а ????????? ?????, ?а ??????? ??
?????? ???????? ?????? ??????.
?? 27 ??????? ? 5 ??????????? ???????? ???? ???? ???????? ???? ??????? ????????. ??? ??? ?????? л???????╗ ????????? ?а?????? ?????? ????????????, ?? ????? ?? ?????????????? ?.?. ?????????
[10], ?? ????? ???????? ???? ???????? ???? ????????????, ???? ????? ????????:
1. ??????? ???????????: ?) ??????? ? ????? ?????????, ??????, ???????, ?а??????? ???? ?? ?????????? ???? ???????? ???????, ?????? ??? ???????????; ?) ?????????? ??? ?? ???????? ????? ????.
2. ??????? ?????????: ?) ??????? ???? ?????? ?а ???????? ???????, ?? ?? л???????╗, ????????
??????????; ?) ?????????, ??????????????? ??? ???????? ???????????? ?????????, ? ????? ???????? ?????????????? ??????, ??????????????? ?а????????? ??????, ????????: ????????????? ???????,
GalleriaUffizi.
3. ??????? ????????, ??????? ? ??????????? ????????????: ?) ??????? ????????? ??? ?а???????
???????????, ??? ?????? ???????, ? ????? ????????????? ?????????? ?а???? ?????????? ??? ??????
???????? ?????? ?? ??????? ?а??? ??????, ?????; ?) ??????? ??? ????????? ????, ?????? ??????? ???
??????????, ???????????????? ?????, ???????????? ???????.
104
??????????? ????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
4. ??????? ??????? ????????????: ?) ??????? ? ?????? ????? ??????????? ????? ?/??? ?????? ????? ??????????? ????? [14]; ?) ?а ??????????? ??????? Treccani: ????????????????? ??????? ?????
???????? ?????????? ? ??????.
5. ?????????? ????????: ?) ???????? ???????????? ?????????; ?)??????? ???, ????????, ????????: л??????? ???????????? ??????????╗.
???? ???? ???????? ???? ????? ????????, ?????? ??????????? ??????? ???? ??? ????????? ????????, ?а????????? ??????? Treccani ?????????? ?????? ???????? ????? лgalleria╗:
1. ?????? ??? ?????, ?????????? ??? ?????????, ??????????? ???????, ??????????? ?? ???? ??
???????????? ???????? ?????, ?????????? ?????????? л??????╗ ??? л???????╗.
2. ? ????????: ??????? ??????????? ??? ?????????????.
3. ?????????? ???, ??? ????????? ?????????????? ?а????? ??????? ? ?а??????, ????????????????? ???????? ?????????, ????????? ?? ??????? ??? ? ?????????????? ?а??????? ???????? ???????????????? ??????, ??????? ???????.
4. ???????, ????????? ????, ????????? ?????????????? ??? ?????????.
????????, ?????? ?? ?????????? ????????? л????????? ???????╗ ?а??????????? ??????? ?????
????????? ??????? л??????? ?а ????????╗, ?.?. ??? ?????????? ??? ????????, ????????? ?а ???? ???
????????? ?????.
????, ??????? ?????, ?? ?????????? ???? ????? ???????? ??? ???? л???????-galleria╗, ? ????? ???
????? ????????: л???????? ?????╗ ? л??? ?????????? ?а????????╗ ? 4 ????????.
????? ?а???????? ?????? ??? ??????????? ????? лgalleria╗, ??? ???????? ????, ???????-?????????,
??????? ?????????? ??? ?? ????? ? Galleria melonella [2], ??????? ?? ??????? ?а??????? ?????????
???????.
????????????????? ??????
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
?????????? ?.?. ? ?????????? ?????????? ?????. ??????? ? ????? ???????. ?????, 2015, ?????? 16. ?. 23?27.
??????? ????????? ???????????? ? ???????. 2012.
????????? ?.?. ???????? ???????? ???????. 50000 ??., ?., 1976. 1096 ?.
??????? ?.?. ??????? ??????????? ???? ???????????? ???????? ?????. ?.: ???????, 2014. 800 ?.
???????? ?.?. ????? ??????? ???????? ?????.???????-???????????????. ?.: ???.??. 2000. ? 2 ?.
1209 ?.
????????? ?.?., ?????????? ?.?. ???????????? ??????? ?? ???????????????????. ???., 2008.
?????? ?.?. ??????? ????? ???? ? ?????. ?., 2004. 888 ?.
?????? ?.?. ?????-????????????? ???????: ??????????? ?????? ?? ??????? ???? // ???????
?????-?????????????? ????????????. ???., 2014. 16 ?.
?????????? ?.?. ??????? ?????? ?????-??????????. ?., 2000.
???????? ?.?. ??????????? ????????????? ?а??????? ?????: ?????????????? ? ?????????????
??????? // ??????? ????. ?., 2011?2013.
?????????? ?.?. ?????? ?? ???????????? ???????????? ?????. ?.: ???, 2007. 192 ?.
?????? ?.?. ??????????????? ??????? ???????? ?????. ?.: ????????, 1964?1973.
?????? ?.?. ????????-??????????????? ??????? ???????????? ???????????? ?????.
????????? ?.?. ?????????? 25000 ????, ???????? ?а???????????? ?а??????? ?????, ?а?????????? ?? ??????, 1865 (???????? ??????).
Zingarelli. Vocabolario della lingua italiana. Zanichelli editore. Bologna 1998.
Treccani. Dizionario etimologico della lingua italiana.
Sabatini Coletti. Dizionario.it
Dizionari.Repubblica.it
Onlinedics.ru
Enc.biblioclub.ru
Sapere.it
105
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
??? 81?42
?. ?. ???????
?????-????????????? ??????????????? ???????????
???????????????? ???????????????
?. ?. ????????
?????-????????????? ??????????????? ???????????
???????????????? ???????????????
?????????????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????????
? ??????? ?? ????????
? ?????? ?????? ???????? ???????????, ????????? ?а?????????? ????????????, ?????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ????????? ??????????? ???????????, ??????????????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ??????????? ?а??????????? ????? ?? ???????.
???????? ?????: ?????????? ???????????, ?????????, ?????????? ????, ???????.
O. V. Vlasova
Saint Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation
A. S. Zakharova
Saint Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation
SYNTAX PECULIARITIES OF SPEECHES
AND STRATEGIES OF SPEECHES TRANSLATION
The article gives main definitions in relation to the speeches, highlights the peculiarities of syntactical structure
of speeches, and reveals primary strategies of speeches translation.
Keywords: speeches, public speaking, syntax, translation.
??? ???? ?????????? ???????????? ??????????? ?? ???????, ???????????, ?????????, ????????, ?? ??????????? ? ?? ?????, ?????? ?а????????????, ????? ??????, ????? ?????? ? ??? ??? ?????????? ?????????.
??????? ???????, ??? ?????????? ??????????? ? ??? ???????. ?? ???? ???????????, ?? ????? ??????????? ? ??????. ????????? ??????? ? ??? ????, ??????????, ?????? ?????, ?а?????? ????, ? ?? ?????????????? ?? ????????? ??????? ???????????. ?????????? ?? ??????????? ????????????? ????????
??????? ??????????, ????????? ?? ?????? ??????????? ?????? ?а??????????? ?? ???????, ?????? ?? ??
??????????????.
?? ????, ?????????? ??????????? ? ??? ?????? ?????. ? ??? ?????? ?????, ??? ????? ???? ?????????:
??????????. ?????? ?????????? ????????, ? ??????? ????? ????????, ?????? ?? ?????????.
??????????????. ???????? ?????. ?????? ????????? ???????? ??????? ?а??????-???? ?????????????, ??????? ??? ???? ?????????? ????????, ??????????, ??????, ?????. ?а???? ????? ??????????? ?????? ????????? ????? ????????? ???????????, ?????? ??????? ?а??????? ???????? ????????,
??? ????? ?????????, ??? ???????????? ?? ????? ??????? ???.
??????????. ?а???? ????? ?????? ???????? ????? ?????? ???????????, ??????? ????????? ???????? ?????? ? ????? ????? ????, ???????? ?? ???????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????? ??????
???????????, ????????? ??????? ?а?????????? ????????? ??? ?????????? ??? ????, ? ??????? ?? ???????.
????????? ?а?????????? ???????????? ?????????: ?? ???????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????? ? ?????? ???????. ?????? ?????? ??????? ???? ??????????? ??????? ? ????? ??? ?????? ?????
??????? ?????????? ?????, ?????? ??, ??????, ????? ?????????? ?, ???????? ?а?????-???? ???????????,
?????? ?? ??????, ?.?., ?? ???? ????, ??? ??????????? ????? ????????? ?а???????????? ?а?????? ?????.
??????????? ?????? ??????????, ????????? ???????? ???????? ??????????, ?? ??????????????
???????? ???????? ???????? ??? ????? ???????? ????????? ??????????. ??? ???? ????? ???????,
??? ?????????? ??????????? ?????? ???????????? ??????? ? ???????? ?а???? ???????? ??? ??????, ???
106
??????????? ????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
? ?????????? ????. ?????? ???????, ???????? ?? ?? ??? ?????????? ???? ? ?????????????? ? ??????????????, ? ?а??? ????? ?? ??????????? ??????? ?????????, ??? ?????????? ??????????, ?? ???????????????? ?????? ??????????? ????? ??????????? ?????????? ? ????????.
????? ?????? ???????, ??? ?????????? ??????????? ? ??? ?????? ????, ??????? ??? ???????????
?????? ?????????????? ?????? ?????????, ??? ???????????? ??????? ??????? ?? ?????????. ??????,
????? ??????????? ?????? ????????? ?? ??????? ?????????????? ????, ?. ?. ?? ?????????? ?????.а
??????? ?.?. ?????, ???а????????? ????????? ??????????? ? ??? ?????? ????, ?? ? ????????????? ??? ????? ?а???????? ?????? ??????? [2]. ?????? ? ??????????? ??????????? ???????? ???????????:а
??????? ????????? ??????????? ????, ?.?. ???? ????????? ?а?????????????а?????? ???????? ??
?????? ???????, ?? ? ??????????;
????????? ?????? ?????, ?????????? ??????????? ????? ???????? ?????????????, ????? ?????????а??????? ? ???? ?????????? ?????? ??? ??????????, ????????????? ????? ????, ???????????
? ?????? ??????;
??????? ?????? ?????, ??????, ??????, ??? ??????????. ?????????? ??????????? ???????
?????? ??? ??????????а????, ?????? ??? ???????? ????? ?????????? ????? ??? ?? ????? ?? ???? ???
??? ?????? ????????? ?а?????? ??????. ?а?????? ?? ???? ????? ??????????? ??? ? ????????? ??????
??????????? ???????????;
????????? ???? ? ??? ?????? ?????????????? ?????? ????, ?????? ??? ?? ????????? ???????
?????? ?а??????????. ????? ?а?????? ???? ??????????? ????? ????????, ???????? ?? ?? ?????? ??????????.а
??? ????????????? ?????????? ??? ?????????? ??????????? ?? ??????? ?????.а????? ?? ???????? ?а?????????? ??????
??? ?????? ?????????, ??? ?????????? ??????? ?????????? ???? ?а?????????? ?????.а??? ?????
????????? ?а?????????? ?.?. [1]:а
л?????? ?????????????? ????????????????? ????? ?а?????????? ???????????? ????? ????????
?????????? ?????. ??? ???? ?? ??, ??? ? ? ????, ? ?????? ??????? ?а???????????? ??????????? ?????????, ??????? ??????????????? ????????? ?а?????????? ?????? ? ?????? ???? ???????? ?а????????╗.а
????? ????????? ?а??????????? ??????????? ?????????, ??????????????? ?а???????????????
??????? ??????????? ?????:а л?????????? ????????? ? ??? ????????? ??????? ?? ????????? ??????????? ???????????╗а[3].а
?? ?????????????? ????? ??????? ?????, ??? ? ??????????, ? ??????? ?????????? ????? ?????
??????? ?а????????????????? ?????. ????? ???????? ???? ? ????????? ???????? ? ??????????? ??????????? ????? ?????????.
л???????, ?а??????? ????????? ??????? ??????? ?а??????????, ???????? ?а????? ??????? ?????????????? ???????, ???????, ???????? ??? ?????????? ????. ??????а?????,а?????? ???????? ????????? ?а?????? ???? ???????, ???????????? ?? ??????????? ???????? ?а?????????? ????? ????. ???????, ????? ????????? ??????????? ?????а?????? ???????? ?а???? ????????????? ?????????????????
?????╗а[1].
????, ??????????? ?????????? ???? ??????????????? ????? ?????? ???????????, ? ?????? ?
???????????? ?? ?????????. ??????????? ?? ????, ????????? ?.?. ??????? ????????? ???????????:а
???????
?????? ?????????????? ????? ?????????? ???, ??? ??????? ?????????? ??? ????? ???????
?????????????? ?? ?????????, ????? ????????? ??????? ???? ????? ?? ???, ????????? ??????? ??? ????? ??????.а?????????а?????? ??????? ????? ??????? ??????????а???? ???????а?? ???? ????????????
????? ?а????????????? ????????, ??????? ??????????? ?????????? ?а?????:а
л?the world has witnessed a tale ofаtwo countries,аtwo countriesаwith vastly different understandings
of what it means to uphold an international agreement╗.а
???????:а??? ????????, ??? ??????? ??ал???????? ? ???? ????????????╗. ???? ????????????
??а??????????? ??????а?????????? ????, ??? ???????? ?????????? ?????????????? ??????????.а
???????????:а?????? ?а???? ??????? ????? ??? ????, ????? ????????? ??????? ???????? ??
??????? ????????????, ??????? ?а?????? ????? ??????????? ????? ????????а? ????????????-???????????????? ??????? ??????. ??? ???????? ?????? ?????? ????????, ?????? ?? ?????, ??? ?а?????????? ????? ?????? ??????????? л????????-?????????╗ ?????? ???????????.а?а???????а??а???????? ??
????????? ???????????????? ???????????.
107
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
лOneаweekаlaterаitаisаclearаthatаonlyаoneаside,аoneаcountryаisаkeepingаitsаword╗.а
???????:а ??????а ??????а ?????а ????,а ???а ??????а ????а ??а ??????,а ????а ??????,а ??????а????а?????.а
???????????: ?а?????? ??????? ??? ?? ????? ???? ??????а? ?????????а???????? ?????????
?? ?????????? ????????, ? ?????? ?????? ???? ???????а????????? ???????, ? ???? ?????? ???? ??????.
?а???????? ???? ?????? ???????????.а
???????????? ???????????
??????????, ?????????? ?а ???????????? ????????????, ???????? ????? ?????????????? ??
????. ???????????? ????? ???????????? ????? ???????? ?????? ?????????? ???????????? ?а ?????.а????? ?? ?????а????????а?????? ?? ???? ????????? ????? ?а????????????? ????????:а
лTheаworldаknowsаthatаpeacefulаprotestersаdon?tаcomeаarmedаwithаgrenadeаlaunchersаandаautomaticаweapons,аtheаlatestаissueаfromаtheаRussianаarsenal,аhiding the insignias on their brand new matching military uniforms, and speaking in dialectsаthatаeveryаlocalаknowsаcomesаfromаthousandsаofаmilesаaway╗.а
???????:а????????, ??? ?????? ???????????? ?? ???????? ??????????? ?????????????
? ?????????????? ???????, ??????? ?? ????????? ??????????? ????????,а????? ????? ???????? ??
????????? ????? ? ??????а?? ?????????, ?? ??????? ??????? ??а?????? ?????????? ??????, ???
????? ????? ??????? ??????.а
???????????:а? ???????? ????????? ???????????? ???????????, ? ?????????????, ?а????????
?????? ?????? ?????а? ?????? ????????? ?????????? ????????????.
??????????
?? ?????? ???????, ?? ?? ??????, ??? ????????? ????? ??????????????? ???????, ?а??????? ???????? ??????????? ?а??????? ??????????.
лAnd the world, sadly, has rightly judged that Russia has put its faith inаdistraction, deception, and
destabilization╗.а
???????:а? ?????????, ??????? ?????????? ?? ???????? ? ?а???, ??? ?????? ????????? ????
?? ??????????? ???????, ????? ? ??????????????.а
???????????: ?а ?????? ??????? ?????????? ???????????? ???? ??? ???????? ????????
лdistraction╗а? лdeception╗, ???????а??????,а?? ?? ????????????, ?????? ????????? ??? ?????? ??
???????????.а? ?????? ??????? ?? ????? ?????????????? ?????????????, ? ?????? ????????????:
л? ?????????╗ ?????? ?а?????? ???????????.
?????????????? ???????????. ???????????? ??????
????? ?? ????????????? ????????, ??????????? ????? ??????????? ?.?:а
лBut where does chaos come from? What is the source of slump? What is the driving force of war and
aggression?аWhatаisаtheаsourceаofаpovertyаandаmisery?╗.а
???????????: ??????????????? ????????????? ????? ????????? ???????? ????????? ?а?????? ?????????????, ?????? ?????????? ??????.
????? ?? ????? ??????? ?????, ???, ??????? ??????????? ?????????? ????, ????????? ?.?.
??????????? ????????????? ?? ?????????????? ??????. ?а???? ??а????? ???????????? ?? ??? ??????????? ?????????? ?????????? ????????????. ??????????? ?? ??????????? ?? ???????????? ???????????? ?????, ???? ??? ?? ???????? ????????? ???????????:а
???????????????? ???????????а
лFrom day one,аthe Government of Ukraineаstarted making good on its commitments ? from day one.
From day one, Prime Minister Yatsenyuk has kept his word╗а
???????:а ? ??????? ??? ????????????? ??????? ?????? ????????? ???? ????????????? ?
?а??????? ?? ???. ?а??????? ?? ??? ???????-???????а??????а?????? ???? ?????.а
???????????:а ??????????? ????????????????? ??????????? ???? ???????????? ???????
??? ??????????? ????????? ?????? ????? ????????????, ? ???, ?а???? ???????, ??????????????а????????а??????? ?????????, ?а??????? л??????????????╗.
лIt is not vague.? It is not subjective.? It is not optional╗.а
???????:а???а????.а??? ???????????. ??? ???????????.
???????????:а????? ????????, ??? ???????а???????????????? ??????????? ?? ????????? ??????? ?а???????????? ?????????, ??????????? ?? ?а?????? ????????????.а??????????а??????????
?? ??? ????? ?????? ??????????? ????????? ???????? ??????????????, ??? ?????????????? ? ????????????? ???????????.а??? ?? ? ????? ??????? ?? ??????.
108
??????????? ????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
??????? ???????????а
лAnd the world,аsadly, has rightly judged that Russia has put its faith in distraction,аdeception, and
destabilization?.а
???????:а? ?????????, ??????? ?????????? ?? ???????? ? ?а???, ??? ?????? ????????? ????
?? ??????????? ???????, ????? ? ??????????????.а
???????????:а ??? ????????, ???????? ?????? ??????? ??????????? ??????????? ?а ???????? ????????????? ?????? ??????, ?а????????? ????????????? ?????? ?????????? ?? ??????????.
?а?????? ??????? ??????? ???????????, ? ??????, ??????? ?????, ???????????? ?????? лsadly╗.а? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ??????????? ? ??????????: л? ?????????╗. ??? ???????????? ?????????
????????????? ?????? ?????????? ?????????? ?а?????а?????? ??а?????????????????.
лIn fact, the propaganda bullhorn that is the state-sponsored Russia Today program, has been deployed to promote ? actually, Russia Today network ? has deployed to promote President Putin?s fantasy about
what is playing out on the ground╗.а
???????:а? ????????????????, ??? ?????? ??????????????? ?????? л?????? ???????╗, ?????
??????????, ????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????? ?? ???? ????, ??? ?????????? ?? ??????.
???????????:а?????????? ??????? ??????????? лInаfact╗ ??????????? ??? л? ????????????????╗ ? ?а ????? ?????????а ?????????????? ????????? ?????, ? ??????? ???????? ????, ??? ?????
??????????? ???????????????? ???????.
??????:
1) ?????? ?????????????? ????????????????? ????? ? ??????? ??? ???? ?????? ???????, ?????????? ???? ???????? ?а???? ??????????? ????????????????? ?????? ? ?????? ????;
2) ???????? ??????? ???????? ???????????, ??????? ?????????????? ??????? ????????? ?????
??????? ? ??????????? ?? ????????.
???????? ??????? ?????????? ?????, ?????????? ??????????????? ??????? ????????, ??? ??????? ???????? ??????????????, ??????????? ???????? ???????? ???????? ?? ????????? ??????? ?
??????????????, ???????-?????????????? ? ??????????????. ??????? ?????? ??????????? ??? ????????
????? ??????? ??????????? ?? ?а ???????? ????????? ???? ? ????????? ????, ? ?а ???????? ???????,
??????? ????????? ?а??????.а
????????????????? ??????
1. ????????? ?.?. ?????? ?? ??????????. ?.: ???????????? ?????????? ?? ??????????? ??????,
1958. 459 ?
2. ??????? ?.?. ????????? ????????? ????. ?.: ??????, 1978.а126 ?.
3. Onlineа Etymology?Dictionaryа [?????? ???????] URL: http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=
oratory&allowed_in_frame=0 (???? ?????????: 22.04.2015).
109
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
??? 811.11
?. ?. ???????
???????? ?????????????? ????, ??????
?????-????????????? ??????????????? ???????????
???????????????? ???????????????
???????????? ????????? ??????????????: ??????????? ??????
?????? ????????? ???????????? ???????????? ???????, ??????? ?????????? ????????? ???????????? ?а???????? ?????????. ?? ????????? ????????????? ???????? ??????????????? ????????? ?????????????? ? ??????????? ??????? ?а?? ?????? ??????????? ??????. ????????????? ???????? ?????????, ???????????????? ????????? ??????????????.
???????? ?????: ???????, ????????? ??????????????, ??????????? ??????, ???????, ????????????.
K. V. Gudkova
Candidate of Philology, Associate Professor
Saint Petersburg State University
DISCOURSE STRATEGIC MANEUVERING: COGNITIVE ASPECT
The paper deals with maneuvering strategies that the communicators employ in persuasive discourse. Strategic
maneuvering is analysed in English language discourse and cognitive models on which the maneuvering is
based are investigated. The analysis of language expressions representing strategic maneuvering is conducted.
Key words: discourse, strategic maneuvering, cognitive models, concept, argumentation.
??????????? ?????? ????????? ??-?????? ????????? ?? ???????????? ?????? ???????????????
???????????? ? ????. ???? ??????????????? ?? ??? ????????? ???????, ? ?а????????, ?а????? ?а??????????????? ?????????, ???????????? ?? ????????? ???????? ???????????????? ? ????????? ??? ??
???????? ? ???????????? ??????? ?????, ??? ? ?? ?? ???????????????? ? ??????????.
? ??????? ????????????? ? ???????????????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????? ????????????????. ??????? ?????????????, ????????????? ?????? ?? ?????????? ????, ?????????? ?????????
??????????????? ????? ?????????? ?а???? ????????? ? ?????????, ????????? ???????????? ???????? ?а??????????????????? ??????.
?????? ???????? ?а????? ?????? ???????????? ??????? ? ????????????? ???????????? ????????
?а ????? ?????? ??????????? ???????, ????? ??? ???????, ????? ??????????? ??????. ??????, ?????????????? ????? ????????? ????????? ????????, ??????????????? ??? ?????????????? ?????????,
??????, ??????, ???????? ?а???????, ???????? ??????????????? ?????????. ????? ?????? ????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????? ?????????????? ?????????, ??????? ???????????? ?а????????????
???????? ??????? ? ??????????? ????????? ????? ??? ??????? ?а???????????????? ???????? [1:12].
? ???????? ?????????????? ???????????? ? ???????????? ????? ?а???????? ???????? ??????????? ????????, ??????? ????????? ? ?????? ?а??? ???? ?????? ? ????. ?а????? ?? ??? ????????
л??????????╗ ?а?? ??? ???? ???????? ????, ?????????????? ????? ??? ?????????????? ?????????, ?.?.
?????????????, ? ??? ???????? ?а?????? ??????????, ? ?? ????????? ??? ?а???????? ????????????.
?.?.???????? ?????? ??????? ??????????????? ???????????? ????????????, ?????????????
???????????? ???????????? ? ??????????? ????. ??? ?????????????? ??????????? ?????????????
?????????? ????? ?????????????? ??????? ????, ?????????????? ????????????? ?????? ? ????????????? ? ???????? ????????????????. ???????????? ?а????????, ??????? ????????? ?????? ?а?????????
??????, ???????????? ?????-???? ????????? (??????????, ?????????, ??????? ??????????? ? ?.?.),
? ??????, ?а?????? ??????? ????? ???????????? ????????? (????, ????????, ???????, ??????? ? ?.?.).
?????? ??????? ???? ?????????? ?????????, ?????? ??????? ???????????-??????-??????????? ????????????. ???????? ??????, ?????? л??????? ?????????╗, ?????? ??????????????? ????????????
???????????? (???), ???????? ??? ? ????????????? ???????????? ?????????????? (???) ??? ????????, ?а??????? ?? ??????, ? ??????????? ????? (??) ???? ???????????-??????-??????????? ??????????,
?????? ???????? ?? ???????? [4].
110
??????????? ????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
?.?. ??????? ????????, ??? ??????? ???????????? ????? ??????????????? ??? ????????????
????????? ?а???????????? ?????????? ?????????, ?.?. ?????????? ????????, ??????????? ???????????? ?а???? ??????????, ?????????? ? ???????? ???????? [6:48].
???????, ??????, ????????, ??? ??????????? ?????? ?????? ???????????? ??? ????? ?????????,
????????, ?????????????. ??? ????????? ??????????????? ?а???????? ???????? ??????????????. ???
????? ?.?. ???????, ??? л?? ????? ???? ???-??, ???????????? ??????????? ? ???????? ?? ????????,
???? ? ??? ????????? ?? ??????? ?? ?????╗ [5:160].
???????????? ?????????, ??????? ???????????? ??????????? ???????????? ????????????
????? ??????? ????????, ??????????? ??????????? ???????. ?????? ???????? ???????????? ?????
????????? ????????? ??? ??????????????? ?????????.
???????????? ????????? ? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ???????? ?????????? ? ??????????
???????? ??????? [3]. ??? ?? ????? ????? ????????????? ??????????? ??????? ???????????? ????????? ???????????? ????? ???????? ??????, ??? ????????? ????????????? ??? ????? ? ????? ?????????.
? ??????????? ?????? ???? ??????????? ??????????? ????????? ?а???? ???????.
????????? ???????? ???????????? ?????? ???????????? ?????????????????. ?? ????? ?????????????? ???????, ??? ??? ??????? ??????? ???? ??????????? ?????? ?а???-???? ???????? ???? ?????,
?????? ??????? ????????? (????? ??????, ???? ???????????? ????????????? ?????? ????????????) ????? ?????????????, ??????? ?? ?????????????? ??????? ? ?????????? ????? ???????? ?????????. ??
???-?? ???????????? ??? ???? ? ??? ??????, ???????? ?а????, ????? ??? ???????? ? ????????? ????
????? ??????. ????????, ??? ???????? ????? ???? ?????????? ???? ?? ?????? ??? ????????? ??????????? ?а??? ??? ???? ????? ??????, ?? ? ??? ??????????????? ????????? (? ?????????????? ??????????)
?????? ?????, ???????????? ? ?????? ??????????????? ????????? ?? ?????? ????? ????????????.
??????? ????? ??????? ?? ???????? ??? ????, ??? ????????? ??? ???????????, ?? ???? ?????? ?????????, ?????? ?? ????? ??????????? ????????? ? ?????????, ?????????? ? ??????? ????????
?а??????????? ??????? ???????? ? ???????????? ?а??? ?а???????????? ?????????? ??????????? ??????????: ???????, ????????? ? ?.?. ?а???? ????????? ????????? ????????????? ?? ?????????, ????????? ???? ???????????? ????? ???????? ??????????. ?????? ???????? ?????? ? ????????? ?????????
????? ???? ?? ???????????? ?????? ????????? ?а ????????? ?????? ???????????????? ??????????
????????? ?????????? ?, ????? ???????, ?????????? л?????????╗ ??? ?????????, ????? ?????????????
??????????? ??????? ?????????????? ????????? ?????????, ???? ??????? ????????????.
????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ???????? ????????? ??????????????, ??????? ????????????
??????????? ????????????. ????????? ??????????? ????? ???????????? ???????????? ?, ?а??????????? ???????????????, ?????????? ??????????? ?????, ?? ?????????????? ?????????? ????????????????
???????? ???????, ??????? ?????????? ?????????, ????????? ??? ???????? ????????? ???????? ?????? ???? л??????╗ ?а?????????? (???????????) ?????????? ????????????? ??????????.
???????????? ????? ?а??????? ???????????? ??????? ???????? ?а?????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????????????? ???????. ?а??????????? ????? ?????? ???????? ????? ???????????? ???????????? ??????????? ??????????. ???????? ???? ?????????? ?а????????????? ???????????? ??????????? ? ??????? ??????, ??????? ????? ?? ????? ?????????? ? ???????????? ?? ?????????.
???????? ???????? ???????? ???? ????????? ????? ????? ?????? ? ????. ???????? ???? ????
?????? ???????? ?а???? ????????? ???????????? ???????? ? ????????? ????????? ??????? ????????? ?
?????????????. ?????, ??? ??????????? ???????? ? ??? ?????? ????????? ??????????????, ????????????????? ??????, ??????? ???????? ?????, ?? ??????? ????, ??? ????? ?????????? ?????????? [2: 87?111].
???????? ?? ????????? ?? ????? ???????, ?а?????? ????? ?? ??????????? ?а?????? ????????
????????????, ??????? ?а????? ????? ????????? ????????? ?а???????? ???????? ?????? ??? ????????? ????? ??????. ? ?а???? ????, ??? ???????? ???????????? ????? ????????? ?????????, ? ????
?????????, ????? ????????? ???????? ??????????? ??? ????????? ?????????, ???????? ????????????? ????, ??? ?????? ??????????. ?а????? ?????? ???????????? ??????? ??? ????????, ??? ?а?????? ???????? ??????? ????? ??????? (?????), ??????? ??????? ??????????? ?????????. ?? ????? ???????? ??
??????????????? ????????? ? ?? ????????? ?????????. ?? ????? ?????????? ? ????? ?а?????? ????????? ??????????????. ?????? ??? ?????????? ? ????????? ??? ????????????? ?????????????. ?????????
??????????? ?а???????????? ???????, ????????????, ????????????, ????????? ???????? ?????????,
????????? ????? ????????? ????? ???????????? ??????????? ???????????? ??-???????. ??????????
??????????? ??????? ?а??????? ???????? ??????????, ?????? ??????? ? ??????? ?? ?????????. ??, ???
??? ?????? ???????? ???????, ?????? ? ?????????, ??? ??????? ??????, ????? ? ???????????.
111
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
????? ????????????????? ???????? ????????? ??????????????, ????????? ?а???????? ?????????. ??????? ????? ?? ???????????? ??????? ? ?????? ??????? Santa Clarita Diet. ????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ???????? ???? ? ????????, ??????? ??????? ?????, ????????? ???? ???????? ??????????
????????, ??????? ??????????? ?а???, ??? ??????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ???????????? ?????. ????
????????? ???????? ?а????????, ????? ?? ?????????? ?????????????, ????? ?? ??? ?? ????? ??????????. ????? ???????, ?? ????? ???? ?а??????????????? ?????????, ????????? ????????? ?????????
??????? ????, ??? ??? ?? ????? ???????? ????????? ?а?????????????. ?а????? ??????? ????????????
??? ?????????? ????????? ??????????????. ???????? ?????? ?????? ?????????. ???? ????? ??????
??????, ??????? ??????? ???????????? ?????? ?????? (?? ????? ???). ????? ???? ?? ????????????, ???
?? ????, ??, ????????? ?? ?? ????? ?? ??????, ?? ??? ????????? ????????? ? ?????????? ??????. ???
??????? ?а????? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ???? ???????, ? ????? (Ann) ???????? ?а??? ?а???????
??????. ???????? ?????? ????? ????????????? ???????.
Sheriff: Thank you. Anytime a sheriff?s deputy doesn?t show up for work, we just wanna make sure
everything?s all right.
Couple: Oh? of course.
Sheriff: So either of you see Dan this morning?
Husband: No. Wish I had. Great guy.
Wife: Wonderful guy. I can?t get enough of him.
Sheriff: Interesting. He has been my partner for 5 years and I?ve found that most people just think he?s
unbelievably repellent.
Husband: We don?t want to speak ill about? missing
Wife: We love everyone, all of God?s children.
Sheriff: Amen to that.
?????????????? ?????????? ?а ??????? ????, ??????? ?? ???????????? ??????, ?????? ?? ???
??????????, ??????? ????????????, ???????? ??????????????? ???? ????????????? ????????????, ????????? ????????????? ????????? ??????? (????????? ????????????? ??????????????): No. Wish I had. Great
guy. ??????????? ??? ??????, ??? ?????? ????: Wonderful guy. I can?t get enough of him. ?????? ????????
????????? ?? ??, ????? ??????? ??????????? ? ??????? ???????????????? ?а?????????. ????? ????????????? ?????????????? ???????? ??????, ??????? ????? ???? ??? ????????????? ??????????? ????????
(unbelievably repellent), ? ??? ??? ? ???????? ????? ??????. ???????? ????? ?????????? ?????????????.
? ???????? ?????????? ????? ?????????? ?????? ?????????, ????? ?? ??????? ???????? ???????, ??? ? ??????? ??????? ???? ???????, ???? ??????, ? ?????? ???? ?????? ?????????? ?а???????????
???????, ?? ??? ???????? ???? ???????. ?????, ??????????? ?а???????????? ????????, ?? ?????, ???
??? ????? ????, ?? ????? ????? ?? ?????? ? ??????? ? ??? ??????? ????? ???? ??????????????. ???
??????????? ???????? ?????? ? ???????? ????? ??? ??????????????? ???????. ????????? ?????? ????
??????????? ?а????????? ?а??????? ???????: We don?t want to speak ill about?, ??????? ?????????????,
?? ????????? missing. ????????? ?????? ????????? ????. ????????? ?????? ?? ????????? ?????????
????????????????????? ???????: ??? ?????, ??? ????? ???????? ???????? ????????? ? ??? ??????????
?а????? ?????: We love everyone, all of God?s children. ?????? ??????, ? ????? ????????? ??? ????.
????? ???????, ???????????? ???? ????????? ????? ????????? ??-??????? ??????????? л?????????╗ ?????? ? ???? ?? ????????, ????????? ??????????????? ??????. ? ??? ?????? ????????? ????????????? ?????? ??? ????????????? ??????????????, ??????? ??????????? ?а????????? ??????????.
?????? ???????? ?????????, ??????? ??????????? ?????????, ???? ??????????? ????????????????
????????? ??????????????.
????????????????? ??????
1.
2.
3.
4.
???????? ?.?. ???? ????????? ?а???????-???????????????? ????????? ?????. ???????, 1996. 104 c.
???????? ?.?. ??????????? ?????????. ???????? ?а??????????? ???????????. ??????, 2014. 235 ?.
?????? ?.?. ??????????????? ????????? ? ??????? ??????? ????. ?.: ????????? ????, 2003.а 284 ?.
??????? ?.?. ???????? ????????? ????????: ?????-?????????//??????????? ?????????. ????????? ?????? ????????????? ?????-???????? ?? ??????????? ???????????. 11?14 ????. 2000 ?. ?.аI.
??????, 2000. ?. 53?55.
5. ??????? ?.?. ?????? ?????? ????????. ?., 2003. 280 ?.
6. ??????? ?.?. ?? ?????? ?а???????: ???????????????? ???????? ???????????? ??????? ?а????????
? ????????. ?.: Academia, 2000. 128?.
112
??????????? ????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
??? 81-25
?. ?. ????????
???????? ?????????????? ????, ??????
?????-????????????? ??????????????? ???????????
???????????????? ???????????????
??????? ????????? ????????? ?????????? ????
?а?????????????? ?????? ? ??????????
????? ?????? ???????? ???????? ???????????? ???????????????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????????? ????????? ? ????????????? ????????????. ?????????? ???????? ??????? ?а? ?????? ????? ? ??
????? ????????????. ??? ??????? ?? ????????, ???????????, ?????????, ???????? ? ?????, ? ?????
???????? ????????? ? ????????. ?а?????????????? ???????????? ?????? ?? ???????? ?????????
????????????? ?????????? ???? ? ?????????? ????????????? ????????.
???????? ?????: ????????, ????????, ???????????? ????, ?????????????
I. B. Gusarova
Candidate of Philology, Associate Professor
Saint Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation
WAYS OF DIALECTLY COLORED WORDS EXPRESSION IN FICTION AND FILM TEXT
The purpose of the article is to describe the features of the functioning of English modern English dialects and
the use of dialectisms. English dialects are linked in with oral speech and have no written language. They are
divided into northern, central, eastern, western and southern, as well as dialects of Scotland and Ireland. In the
work of art, the authors do not attempt to fully reproduce dialectal speech and use prosodic means.
Key words: dialects, phonetics, literary language, classification
??????????? ?????????? ???? ? ??????? ????????????? ???????????? ????????? ???? ?????????????. ??? ? ???????????? ????, ? ??????????????? ????????, ?????????? ???????? ? ????????????, ???????????, ??? ???? ???????????? ???? ? ??????????????? ???????? ? ?????? ??????????????????? ? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ???????. ???? ??????????? ?а????????, ? ????????????
????? ????? ?? ????? ???????????? ?? ?????? ???? ?????, ??????????????? ???????? ?? ????????
?????? ?????????????? ????????????? ???????? ?а???????? ?????.
??????????????? ????????, ?а ??????? ?? ?????????? ? ????????????????, ???????? ?????
??????? ???????? ???????????, ????????? ??? ?а???????? ?????????? ?????, ????? ??????????, ?а????????????? ?????????. ???? ????? ??????? (??. Dialektos- ?????) ???? ????????????? ?а??????????
????? ?аXVI ???? ? ????? ???????? ? ?????? ???? ??? ??????????? ???? ?????а? ???? ?????? ????? [1].
?а?????????? ???? ????? ?????? ??????????????? ?? ????????????, ? ?? ??????????? ?? ??????????.
??? ???????? ????????????? ?????????? ????????? ???????????? ???????????? ?????????, ????????? ???????? ???????? ??? ?????? ?????????? ?а??????? ??????????????? ?????????? ????, ?? ?
???? ??????? ??????????????? ????????? ?????????? ??????? ?????????. ??? ?????????? ??? ??????? ????????????????? ????????, ???????? ??????? ???????? ????????????? ?. ?????? [2]. ?? ?????
???????? ?? ????????, ???????????, ?????????, ???????? ? ?????, ? ????? ???????? ????????? ?
????????.
?????????????? ??????????? ??????????? ????? ???????? ??????? ??????, ??? ??????????????,
??????? ?????, ?????????????, ??????????? ?????????? ???????? ??????? ?а???????? ?а?????? ?????
[4]. ????????? ??????? ?? ????? ????????????, ?? ??? ???????? ??? ??? ???? ???????????? ?????????
?????????, ?? ??? ???? ??????????? ?????????? ?????????? ????????????? ?????. ?????? ?а?????????????? ???????????? ???????? ?? ???????? ????????? ????????????? ?????????? ????.
??? ?????????????? ???, ??? ?????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????????, ???????? ????????????, ?????? ??? ???????????, ? ????????, ???? ?????????? ?????????? ?а??????????, ?????? ???????? ??, ??? ????? ??????? ?????; ?а?? ????? ??? ???????? ???????? ?а?????????? ??????? ????????
?????????? [3].
113
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
??? ???? ???????? ???????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????? ?????????? ????????? ?????
?????????, ????? ?????????????? ????????? ?????????? ???????????? ???? ??????????. ?а???????
????? ???????????? ????????????? ????? ???????? ?????????? ?? ????????????, ??????????????,
??????????? ? ?????????????? ???????. ????????? ??? ??? ?????? ??????????? ?а?????, ??????????,
?.?. ?? ?????? ???????, ?? ?? ????? ????????????? ??? ??? ??????????? [5].
??? ???????? ?????????? ??? ?????????? ??????????? ???????? ??????? ?а??????? ????????. ?????????? ????????? ???????????? ??????? ?????????? ????????? ??????????? ?????????? ???
????????????? ???????? [6]. ??? ?????????? ???? ?????? ?????????? ???????????? ??? ??????, ??????? ??????????? ?а???????????? ????????: ?????? ????????, ?????? ?????????? ??????, ???? ????????
??????. ?а????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ???????? ???? ?????? ?????????? ????????????? ????? ?а???????????? ????????????. ?????? ???????? ???????? ???????????????? ? ???????????? ??????????.
???, ?а???????? ???????? ?а???? ???? ?? ????? (u:), ?а?? ????? ??? ?аReceived Pronunciation (?), ???
?????????? ???????????? ????????? ??????? funny-fooney.
? ??????????, ??? ? ?а???????????? ????????????, ??????????? ???????????? ?а?????????????? ?????, ??? ?????????????? ?????????????? ????????? (????????????? ????, ??????????????,
????? ?????) ?????????????? ???????? ???????? ?????????????? ??????????.
????????????????? ??????
1. Alexander D. (2001). Orreight mi ol. Sheffield: ALD. ISBN 1-901587-18-5. A book about the traditional
Sheffielddialect.
2. Ellis, Alexander John. On The Pronunciation Of English In The Sixteenth, Fourteenth, And Thirteenth
Centuries (?? ?????????? ???????????? ?аXVI, XIV ? XIII ?.). London: C. F. Hodgson & son, 1867.
(???????????. Montana: Kessinger Publishing, 2009.
3. Jones M. J. (2002). The origin of Definite Article Reduction in northern English dialects: evidence from
dialectallomorphy. English Language and Linguistics 6.2: 325?345.
4. Wakelin M. F. (1977). English Dialects: An Introduction, Revised Edition, London: The Athlone Press.
5. Watt D. and Tillotson J. (2001). A spectrographic analysis of vowel fronting in Bradford English. English World-Wide 22:2, pp 269?302. Available at [http://www.abdn.ac.uk/langling/resources/Watt-Tillotson2001.pdf].
6. Wells J. C. (1982). Accents of English 2: The British Isles. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
7. Books written in Yorkshire Dialect (Yorkshire ditties (Series 1) by John Hartley ? [http://www.gutenberg.
org/etext/17472 (link)].
114
??????????? ????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
??? 811.81.
?. ?. ????????
???????? ?????????????? ????, ??????
?????-????????????? ??????????????? ???????????
???????????????? ???????????????
?????????????? ????????? ???????? ??????????? ??????
???????? ?????? ?а???????? ?????????????
? ?????? ??????????????? ???????? ????????, ??????????? ?а???????? ?????????????? ???????????
??????. ?а ?????????, ??????????????? ?????? ??????????????? ????????? ?? ?????? ???????? ??????????? ??????, ??????? ????? ????? ???? ???????????? ?а ???????? ?????????????. ?а ????? ?а ????
??????????? ?????????? ????????? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ????????????? ?????????????? ???????, ? ????? ??????? ????????????????? ??????? ???????.
???????? ?????: ?????????????? ??????????? ??????, ?????????????? ?????????????; ???????? ??????????? ???????; ?????? ???????; ??????? ??????
E. Yu. DUBININA
Candidate of Philological Sciences, Associate professor
Saint Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation
AUTOMATIC EXTRACTION OF KEY LEXICAL UNITS OF THE SCIENTIFIC TEXTS
AT THE PROCESS OF SUMMARIZATION
The article deals with the basic problems arising in the automatic text processing. In particular, the problem of
automatic extraction from the text of key lexical units which then can be used in summarization is considered.
Therefore the development of principles for the extraction of key collocations based on the use of quantitative
methods, as well as methods for comparative analysis of texts is described.
Keywords: automatic text processing; automatic summarization; key lexical units; scientific article
?????? ???? ?а??????????? ??????????? ?????? ????????????, ?????????? ?? ???????? ??????? ????????? ????????. ?а?????????, ???????? ? ?????? ????? ???????? ???? ??????????? ????????
???????? ????????????? ??????????? ???????, ??????? ????? ???? ???????????? ????? ?а????????
??????????????? ????????????? ??????, ?а?????????????-????????? ? ????????-???????? ????????, ?
????? ?а???????? ??????????????? ????????????? [4, 6, 7].
?? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ??????? ?????????? ????????????, ????????? ?а??????????????
?????????? ???????? ??????????? ??????. ???, ????????, ?а?????? [2] ??????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ??????? ??? ????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ? ??????????. ???????????? ?????????, ??? ????????, ???????????, ????? ????????????? ????????? ????. ?а?????? ?????? ??? ??????????? ?????????? ??????? ????? (??? ???????, ???????????????) ? ?????? ????, ????????? ?? ???, ???
????????????? ????? ???. ????? ?????, ?а???????? ??????? ????? ????? ??????????? ??????, ????????
??? ?????????. ??????????????, ????????? ????? ??????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ???????????,
? ????? ? ??????? ???????????. ?а?????? ?.?. ???????? ?? ?????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ?????
???? ???????? ??????? ????? ? ???????? ????????? ???????????????, ??? ??????? ????? ????? ????????????? ?????????????? ??????? ? ??????? ????????? ???? ?????????? ?????? ? ????? ?????????.
?а?????????? ???? ???????? ???????? ?????????? ??????????????, ??????? ????????? ??????????????.
? ??????? [3, 5] ?? ?????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ??????????, ?????????????? ????? ? ??????
???? (??????? ??????? ????????? ? ??????-????) ????????????? ?????? ? ????? ????????? ??? ???????????????? deal. ??????????, ??? ???????? ?????????? ?????? ??????????? ???????? great / good,
? ?????? ? of. ?????? ????????????? ????????? ??????? ?? ?????? ????????? ???????? ??????????????? ??? ??????????? ??????, ?а ??????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ?????????????. ?а ???????????
???????? ?????????????? ??????????? ?????? ??? ????????? ???????? ????????????? ???????????
?????? ?????? ?????????????? ???????????? ????????? ??????: ???????????, ??????????????,
115
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
?????????????, ?????? ?????????????? ???????, ?????? ?????????? ??????? [1]. ???????? ?? ???????
???????? ?????????? ???????, ???????? ????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????? ????????? ??? ??
??????.
? ?????? ???????????? ??? ???????? ????????? ????????? ????????????? (????????) ??????????? ?????? ??? ??????????? ?????? ??????? ???????????? ???????, ????????? ?? ??????? ???????
?????? ? ????????? ????????? ?? ?????????? ??????? c???????????. ?? ???? ??????? ???? ????????
???????? ??????????? ???????. ???? ???????, ??? ???????? ?????????????? ???????? ?? ??????????? ???????, ??????? ????????? ?а??????? ?????????. ??? ?? ???????????? ????????? ???? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????, ??????? ???????? ?? ?????????? ??????.
??????? ?? ???? ??????? ????????? ????????? ?а???????????? ?а??????? ???????????? ????????
л????-????╗ ????????? ??????????????? ???????. ?а????? ??????? ?????????, ??? ????????, ?????????
?????, ?. ?. ????????, ?????, ???????, ??????????????? ? ????????? ???????, ??????????? ? ???????????? ???????, ? ????? ??????????? ???????. ?а???????? ???????????? ?????? ??????? л????-????╗
?а?????????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ???? ?????????? ??? ????????? ???????: ??????? ????????? ??????? ? ??????????? ???????. ?????? ????????? ??????? ???????, ??? ???????? ??????? ??????? ????? ????????? ??????????? ???????: the (??????? ? 55918), of (??????? ? 24369), and (??????? ? 16522),
in (??????? ? 13645), to (??????? ? 12657) (????. 1).
???????
55918
24369
16522
13645
12657
12048
10748
8139
4956
4682
4659
4603
4375
4373
3954
3830
3757
3449
2733
2472
????????? ??????? ????????? ??????? (????????)
??????????? ???????
???????
the
2095
of
2036
and
1941
in
1912
to
1440
a
1358
is
1308
for
1302
with
1230
that
1181
be
1164
are
1087
as
1026
on
994
by
974
this
947
at
873
was
845
from
834
it
811
??????? 1
??????????? ???????
an
were
which
can
not
has
have
these
between
or
been
also
than
each
when
all
such
will
we
more
? ??????? ??????????? ??????? ??????? ??????????? ??????? ?а ??????? ????? ?????????,
????????: achieving, aid, benefits, circumstances, consequence, developing, goal, improvement, interest,
majority, presentation ? ?.?. (????. 2).
????? ?? ?????? ??????? ????????? ????????? ????? ???????? ??????????????? ??????? ????
?????????? ??????? ????, ?? ??????? ?????????? ????????????? ??????????. ????? ??? ????????????? ?????????? ??????????????? ???????????? ?? ????????????? ?а??????? ??????. ?а?????????, ????
?????????? ??????? ????????????? ???? ????????????? ?????????? ?а????????? ????????? ? ???????
??????. ????? ?????????????? ?? ????? ???????.
116
??????????? ????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
???????
??????? 2
????????? ??????? ??????????? ??????? (????????)
??????????? ???????
???????
??????????? ???????
1346
used
256
increased
1188
using
254
performed
449
during
251
available
447
new
244
points
445
problem
183
located
441
considered
182
previous
434
presented
182
related
433
found
182
smaller
425
use
180
known
423
well
176
according
395
proposed
176
included
384
point
174
conclusions
381
developed
173
greater
267
long
173
short
263
development
172
objective
262
difference
170
generally
260
problems
170
observed
259
associated
169
provided
258
generated
168
assumed
257
conducted
134
provides
????? ?????????? ???????? ??????????? ??????? ??????????????? ???????????? ?? ????????????? ?? ??????????? ???????? ??????. ??????????, ???, ?а????????, ??????????? ??????? ?? ????????? ???????????? ?а ????????, ? ????? ?? ??????? ? ?????????????? ?????? ??????. ????? ????,
?????????? ?????? ??????? ?????????? ????????????? ??????????. ??????????? ?????? ????????
??????????, ??? ?а??????????? ????????? ???????????? ????????????????? ??????????, ????????:
large high-speed aluminium catamarans. ?а ????? ??????? ??? ??????????? ?? ???????????: ?а ??? ????????????, ??? ???????, ??????????, ????????? ?? ???? ??? ???? ???????????, ????????: actuator
dynamics, stern wedges, global loads derivation. ?????????? ?????????? ???? ??????? ?а ???????. ??
?????? ??????? ?????? ???? ??????? ?????? ? ???, ??? ??? ????????? ????????????? ??????????
?????????? ????????? ????????? ????????: ???????? ?????????????? ???????? ??????????? ???????, ????????????? ???????????? ?а????????, ??????? ? ?????????????? ?????? ??????; ?? ???? ???????? ??????????? ?????? ???????? ?????????????? ???????? ????- ? ???????????????? ??????????, ????????? ????????????????? ?????????? ???????????, ?а????????, ?????? ?а??????? ?????????
?????????. ?????? ?? ???? ?????????, ????? ???? ??????????? ?????? ??????????????? ?????????
???????? ????????????? ?????????? ??????.
????, ??? ?????????? ????????? ??????????????? ????????? ???????? ??????????? ??????
?????? ???? ?????? ??????, ?????????? ?а ?????????? ????????????? ?????????????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ? ??????? ????????????????? ???????. ?? ?????? ???? ????????? ????? ????
??????????? ?????? ??????????????? ????????? ???????? ????????????? ?????????? ??????, ???????
????? ???????????? ?а???????? ??????????????? ?????????????.
????????????????? ??????
1. ????????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?. ?????????????? ????????? ??? ??????????????? ?????????? ???????? // ?????????????? ?????? ? ????????????????: ????? ?????????????? ??????????. 2010.
? 11(2). ?. 108?116.
117
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
2. ??????? ?.?. ???????????? ???????-?????????????? ???????????? ?а ??????? ????? ?а ???????
?????????????? ??????? (?? ???? ???????? ???????): ???????. ???. ? ????. ???. ????: ???., 2011.а
26а?.
3. Biber D., Conrad S., Reppen R. Corpus Linguistics: Investigating Language Structure and Use: Cambridge University Press, 2004. P. 300.
4. Nilesh R. Automatic Text Summarization with Cohesion Features / International Journal of Computer
Science and Information Technologies, 2017. Vol. 8, no. 2. Pp. 194?198.
5. Bond F., Lexical and Grammatical Studies, Variation. URL: http://compling.hss.ntu.edu.sg/courses/
hg3051/ Date of access : 04.09.2018.
6. Hahn U., Mani I., The Challenges of Automatic Summarization // Computer. 2000. Vol. 33, ? 11.
P. 29?36.
7. Zervanou K., A Corpus Based Approach to Text Summarisation. URL: http://ilk.uvt.nl/~kzervanou/pub.
html. Date of access : 04.09.2018.
118
??????????? ????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
??? 8; 811.111
?. ?. ????????
???????? ?????????????? ????, ??????
?????-????????????? ???????????????
??????????? ???????????????? ???????????????
????????????? ????????-????????
?а???????? ???????????? ???????????? ???????
?????? ?????? ????????? ????????????? ????????-???????? ?а???????? ???????? ?????????? ????????. ????? ???????? ??????? ????????? ????????? ?а??????? ???? ???????? ??? ???????? ?????????.
?а??? ??????????????? ??????????? ???????????? ???????, ??????? ????????????? ???????????? ???
?? ???????? ?? ??????????, ??? ? ?а ???????? ??????????????? ????????? ??? ???????????????? ????????. ?????????? ????????? ?????? ????????? ???????? ???????? ???????? ?? ??????? ? ??????
??????.
???????? ?????: ????????, ????????, ????????-??????, ???????????? ??????, ?????????, ???????????.
S. M. Zenkevich
Candidate of Philology, Associate Professor
Saint Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation
USING INTERNET RESOURCES IN THE PROCESS OF DEVELOPING PHONETIC SKILLS
This article is devoted to the usage of Internet resources in the process of teaching English phonetics. The
author names the causes of popularity of these resources among students. In this article the author considers
some authentic phonetic resources that can be successfully used both in class and at home as a supplementary
assignment or regular homework. The detailed analysis of educative phonetic resources contains the description of their strong and weak points.
Key words: phonetics, Internet resources, teaching, phonetic skills.
????? ?????????? ????????? ???????? ??? ????? ??????? ??????? ?а??????????????? ????????, ? ???????? ???????? ???????????? ????? ?? ???????? ???????????. ???????? ???????????? ?????
?????? ?????????? ?а ??????-????????????? ????????????? ?????. ??????, ?а ??????? ????????????
?????????? ?????? ? ???????? ??? ?????????? ??? ????????????? (???????????? ??????????? ???????? ?????). ?а????????? ????? ?????? ????????? ?а??????? ????????????? ????????????? ???????
????????.
??-??????, ???????? ????????? ????????-?????????? ????? ??????? ???????, ?????? ?????, ??????????? ???????? ???????? ?? ?????, ??? ??????? ?а??????????? ????????, ????????? ? ??????????.
??-??????, ????????? ?????????? ??????????? ????????????? ??????????????? ??????? ????????? ?????? ?а???????? ?????????? ??????? ?? ????????? ????????-??????.
?-???????, ????????-??????? ????????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????
?а??????? ??? ???????? ?????. ? ????????? ?? ??????? ? ???????????? ???????????? ???????, ??
???????????? ????????????? ? ?????????????? ?????? ??????????????. ??????? ????? ?? ?????????? ??????? ?? ?????????????? (? ??????? ?? ?????????? ?????? ?? ?????? ???????? ????????).
?-?????????, ???????????? ???????, ???????????? ???????? ?????????, ???????? ???????????? ? ???????? ??????????? ????????? ???????????????? ?????.
?-?????, ????????????? ????????-???????? ????? ????????? ?а ???????? ????????? ???????
??? ??????????? ??????????? ????????? ??? ?????????? ??????????????? ???????, ??? ??? ?????????? ???????? ??? ????????, ????????????? ????? ??????? ? ????????? ?????????????? ??????? ??????????? ????????.
?????? ???????????? ???????? ?????? ?а???, ??????? ????? ???????????? ??? ?????????? ???????? ????????????? ?????.
119
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
?? ????? BBC Learning English ?? ??????? ???????????? ???? ??? ?????? Intermediate лThe
Sounds of English. Pronunciation Tips╗ [14]. ???? ???????? ?а???? 45 ????? ??????. ?????? ????????????
?? ???? ????????????? ???? ?????? ????? ? ?????? ????????. ?а????????? ?????? ??????????????? ???????????? ??????? ? ????????? ??????.
?????? ??????? ????? ???????? ??, ??? ?????????????? ??????? ?????????? ??????? ???????????? ?а??????? ? ?????. ???????????? ??????, ? ????? ? ?????, ?????????? ??? ??????, ????????????? ?? ??? ???? ?а??????????? ??????????, ??? ???????????? ?????????? ??????? ??? ??????????.
????? ?????????? ???????????? ????????? ????? ?? ????????.
? ??????? ??????? ??????? ????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????? ??????????? ???????? ????? (?? ?? ????, ?? ?? ???????). ?а????? ????? ??????, ??? ???????? ???????? ????????????
??????? ???? ?? ??? ???????-?????????, ??????????? ?????? ??????? ??????????????? ??????????,
??? ?????????????-???????????????, ? ????? ????????? ?? ????????? ????? ?а??????? ???????. ?а??
?? ????? ?????? ???????? ??????????????? ????? ????????? ?????????? ??????? ?а ????????????
?????????, ????????, /n/а? /?/.
????????? ?????? ???????? ????????????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ??? ???????? ??????-????????????? ????????????? ?????, ?? ? ????? ????? ????????. ?????? ?????????? лBritish English
Pronunciation╗, ????? ? ?????? ? ???????? ??????????? ???????? ??????????? ????? R. I. Chalmers, ??????? ?????????? ?????? ???????? 32 ????? ?а????????? [2] ??? ????????????? ????? [3].
? ????? ????? ????? ????????????? ??? ?????????? ???????, ??? ? ????????????? ?????????????? ????. ????? ?а?????? ?????? R. Chalmers ????? ????? ???????????????? ??????? ??????????
????????, ??? ?????????????/???????????????, ??????????? ??????? ? ????????? ???????. ????????????? ?????? ??????? ????? ???????? ??????????? ???????????? ???????????? ??????? ?а ??????? ???????????? ??????? ????? ???????????? ?????????. ????, ??? ??????? ????????? ??????????
???????? J. D. O?Connor, ????????, ??????? ?? ????? ???????? ???????????? ?????????????? ?????????, ???????????? ?а?????????? ?????, ?? ????? ?????? ????????????? ?? ?а???? [11].
? ????? ?????? J. D. O?Connor ??????????? ??????????? ???????? ????????????? ??????? ?а???????? ????????? ??????????? ??????. ?? ??? ??????, ????? ???????? ????????? ??????? ??????????? ? ????????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ???????. ??? ????? лTime spent on listening is
never wasted╗ (л?????, ??????????? ?? ???????????, ??????? ?? ????????? ?????╗) [11, ?. 6], ?? ??????
??????, ?????? ???? ??????? ??????? ?????????????, ??????? ??????, ????? ??? ???????? ????????
???????? ?????? ???????? ????? ????????? ???????????? ?????.
?????????? ????????, ??? ????????? лBritish English Pronunciation╗ ???????? ????????? ?????? ?а????? ?????? ????????????? ????????????? ?????????? ? ?????????????? ? ???????????? ??????????????? ??????????? ?????, ??? ??? ????? ? ????? ???????????? ?? ?????? ?а?????? ?????? ???
????????????? ????????, ?? ? ?а????? ????????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????.
????????? ??????, ??????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????, ??? лTim?s Pronunciation
Workshop╗, ??????????? ?? ????? BBC Learning English [15].
???? ???????????? ?? ???? ????????????? ???? ???????????? ???????????? ????????, ??????? ??????????? 30 ????????. ??? ????? ???????? ???????? ?????????????? ? ???????????? ???????,
?а????? ?а??? ?а?????? ????????? ??????????????? ???????????? ????????, ????????????? ?а??????? ????. ?а?????? ???????? ??????????? ????? ???????, ??? ???????????, ????????, ?????? ? ?.?.
? ?????? ?????? ????????? ????? ????????????? ?а??????????? ???? ????????? ?? ???????????? ??????? ? ????? ?????????? ?????????? ??? ?????????????? ????????? ????? ?? ?????? ???????. ?????????? ???????? ???????? ??, ??? ?????????? ?? ????? ???? ????????? ????? ?????????????
?а??????????? ??????, ??? ????????? ?????????? ????? ????????? ?а???, ??? ????????? ???????????? ??????? ??????? ????? ????? ?а?????? ???????????? ?????????. ????? ????? ??????????? ?????
????????????? ?а???????????? ????????? ??????????? ?????, ??????? ??????????? ????????????, ?
?????????? ????? ???????????? ????????? ??, ??? ??? ??????.
????? ?????? ??? ????????? ???? ??, ??? ????? ?? ?????? ??????, ?? ? ?????????? ?? ??????
?а?????????? ????. ????? ?????? ???????? ??? ????????? ????? ????????? ??????? ??????? ???????????? ?????? ?????????.
????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????????? ?????????????? ??? ???? ?? ????????? ????
????????????? ????????, ??????? ??? ????? ??????????? ?????.
???????? ?? ???????????? ????????, ?а ???????? ???????????? ??????? ??????????? ???
????????? ?????????? ???????, ?? ?????? ?????????? ????? ????????? ????????????, ??? ? ??????120
??????????? ????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
??? ???????? ????????? ???? ?????? ?а?????? ???? ??? ?а????? ???????????, ??????? ??? ????? ???
????????? ????? ?? ????? лTim?s Pronunciation Workshop╗.
???????? ???????? ????? ?? ???????????? ???????????? ?????????, ??????? ?????????? ????
??????? ?????????, ????????? ???????? ????, ??? ?????????? ??????? ?а?????? ????, ?????????? ???????? ?а???? ?а????????????. ???, ?а????? 12 Tim ????????????? ???????????? ????? and ?а???????????
????, ?? ??????? ?????? ????????, ?а?????????? ?????? ????? /?nd/ ???????????? ?а/?n/ ??? /n/. ??????
??????????????? and ?а???????????: I love fish and /?n/ chips. ????? ?? ??????? ???????? ???? 16-?,
?а??????? ??????????????? ?????? ????? ?????????? ??????? canа? /k?n/; ???? 20-?, ??? ????????????
?????? ????? ???????????????? ??????? been /bIn/ ?а????????? ?а?????? ????? ???????????????? bin.
????? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ?? ???, ??? ?????? ????? ?????????? ?а?????????? ???? ?????????. ???? 22-? ?????????? ?????????, ????? ???? ???????????? ???????? from; ???? 26-? ???
???????? ???????????? ??????????? ????? have (? ????????? ?? ??????? ???????? ???????????:
I should?ve /??d?v/ told you about the party sooner).
?????? ???????? ?а???? ?? ??????????????? ??????? ??????? ?????, ??????? ???????? ????????? ?а?????? ?????????, ??? ???????????: ???? 1-? (??????????? /t/ ? /p/), ???? 8-? (? ??????????
/n/ + /p/, /b/, /m/, /w/ ???? /n/ ???????????? ?а/m/), ???? 10-? (????????? /nd/ + /p/, /b/, /m/, /w/ ???????????? ??? /m/), ???? 11-? (????????? /v/ ?а????????? ??????? have to), ???? 15-? (??????????? /d/ ? /g/),
???? 21-? (???????????? ????????? /s/ ? /j/ ??? /?/), ???? 24-? (??????????? /d/ ? /j/), ???? 28-? (??????????? /t/ ? /k/).
????? 4-? ? 9-? ???????? ??? ?а??????? (????????? /t/, /d/ ????? ????? ??????????), ???? 27-?
(?????? /h/).
? ?????? ????? ????? ???? ?????, ?а??????? ???????????? ?????????? ? ?????????????? ??????: /r/ (???? 2-?), /w/ (???? 7-?) ? /j/ (???? 19-?) ? ??????????? /r/ (???? 5-?). ????????? ??????????????? ?а????? 3 (/s/) ? 23 (/t/).
???? ????????, ??? ???????? ????? ???????????? ?????????, ????????????? ?а???????????
????, ????????? ????????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ??????????? ???????? ??????????? ????? ?? ??????????? ?????.
????????????? ???????? ???? ??????????????? ?????? ???????? ??, ??? ??? ?????????? ?????? ?? ???????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????, ????????? ???? ??????????? ?????????? ?? ??????
????????????? ????????? ??????, ?? ? ?????????? ?а??????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?????????? ????.
??????????? ????? ?????????? ? ??? ?????, ????????, лJolly Phonics. The 42 Letter Sounds╗
[8], ?а??????? ???????? ??????????? ???????? ??????????? ????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ????????? ??????? ? ????????? ??????, ?? ? ?? ?????????, ????? ??? /ks/ ??? ????? x ??? /kw/, ?????????? ????????? ???? qu. ??? ???? ??????????? ????? ? ??????? ? ?????? ?????, ??????? ??????, ?. ?. ?????????
???????? ??????.
? ???????????? ????? ??????, ?????? ?а?????? ????? ????????????? ?а????????? ???????:
??????? ?????????? ?а ??????????, ?? ???????? ??????, ?????????? ????, ??????? ???????, ?????
??????????? ?????????? ? ?.?. ?????? ????? ??? ????????? ???? ??????: ????? ?????????????? ?а???
???????, ?а????? ??? ????? ??????? ?? ??????, ???????? ????? ??????? ?????, ??????? ??????? ?? 42 ????????????? ???????? ??????? (?? ????? ?? ?????? ????)[7]. ?? ????? ???????????? ?????? ?? ?????
???? ???????, ??????????? ??????????? ????? ?а ???????????? ?????. ??????? ???????? ??????????
???????????? ???????????? ??? ?????, ??????? ???????? ?? ?????? ? ???????????? ????????.
?????? ???????????? ???????? ?а ???? ?????????????? ???? ????????, ?????????????
?????????? ?????? ???????? ???????. ??????????? ??????????? ?????-?????????? ???????? ???????
???????? ?????-?????????????? ?????? ????????? ??????? ? ????????? ?? ????????????. ??? ? ????? ???????, ??? Macmillan English Dictionary Online, ?а??????? ????? ??????? ?????????? ??? ???????????? ??????? ????????? ?????? ?, ??????????????, ???????????? [10]. ??? Longman Dictionary of
Contemporary English Online, ??????? ????? ?????????? ??? ???????????????? ???????? [9].
? ??????? Cambridge Dictionary Online ????? ???????????? ??? ???????? ????????????: ?????????? ? ???????????? [1]. ?? ?? ????? ????? ? ?аOxford Advanced Learner?s Dictionary [12].
????????????? ???????? ?а ???????????? ????????, ??????????, ???????? ?????, ?????????
??????????? ????, ??????? ????????? ????? ???????, ??????? ?????? ???????????? ?????? ? ?????????????? ???????????????? ???? ???????????????? ??????, ?? ???????? ?а?????? ?????????????.
121
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
?????? ??????????? ???????? ????? ????? ???????????? ????? ???????? ?????????? ??? ??? ??????????? ??????? ?а?????? ??? ????????, ?а??????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ??? ??????????.
? ?? ?? ????? ?????? ??????, ????? ??????? ?? ???????? ???? ????? ?? ???????????? ???
??????. ?а?????????, ????? ??? ?????????? ???????? ???????????? ???? ???????????. ????? ?? ?????? ???????? ????? ???????????? ???????, ??? Free Online Talking Dictionary of English Pronunciation
Howjsay.com. [6] ??? Free Online Audio Pronunciation Multilingual Dictionary Howtopronounce.com. [5].
??? ??????? ?????????? ????? ?а???????????? ??????? ????????? ?????, ?????? ?????? ?????????
????????? ?а????????? ????? ?????????? ???????.
????????????? ?а?????? ?????? ????????-??????? ???????? ???? ????? ?????? ???? ????????? ?????? ??????????, ??????? ????? ?а??????? ?????????????? ?а??????????????? ???????? ??? ???
???????????? ?????????????, ??? ? ??? ??????????????? ??? ????????????? ????????. ????????????? ???????? ???????? ??? ????, ??? ??? ????????????????? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ???????????????, ??????? ?? ?а???? ???? ?? ???????? ????????? ???, ??? ?? ??????????. ????????, ?а?? ????
????????????? ????? ???????? ?????????? ?а?????????? ???????????? ????? ????????. ?????????
?? ????????????? ???????? ???????? ?????????????? ??????? ??? ???????? ???????????? ?????, ???
??? ????????? ??????????? ?? ?????? ??????? ?????????, ?? ? ?а????????? ???????????? ????????
????, ??? ???????? ??????? ???????? ????????????.
? ????? ?а??????? ?????????????? ?????? ????????????? ???????????? ????????? ????????
????????????? ????????? ????????????? ???????? ?а???????? ????? ???????????? ? ?????????, ??????????? ?? ?????? ????????????. ?а?????? ???????? ??????????????? ?????????? ????????????
????????-???????.
???????????? ???????????? ?????????? ???????? ????????? ?????????? ??????????????, ???????? ?? ???????? ??? ????????? ????? ?? ???????????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ?? ?????? ?????????? ?????????????, ????????? ?а??????? ?????? ??????????? ?????? ?????????? ???????? л?????????? ????╗ ?? ???????. ???????? ?? ??, ??? ???????? ???????? ????????? ?а????????? ?????? ?а??????????????, ??????????? ???????????, ???????, ??????? ? ????????????, ????????????? ????????
???????? ???????????? ??????????? ?а?????? ???? ??????????. ??? ????, ??? ???????????? ??????
?????? ????? ????????? ?? ????????? ?????, ?????????????? ? ???, ??? ?а ????????????? ???????
?????????? ?????? ???????? ??????????? ??????, CEFR, ?????????????? ??????????? ???????????
????????? ? ???? ???????? ?а??????? ???????????? ?????? ?а??????, ??????? ????????? ?????????
????????????, ?????????????? ?????? ? ?.?. ???? ?а2016 ?. [13, ?. 42]. ???????? ???????? ??????????
??????? ?????????-?????????? (? ????? ??????? ????????? ? ????? ?????? ??????) ?? ??????????
?????????? ??? ????????? ?????????? ? ??????????????? ???????? ?????? ???????????, ?а???????
??????? ????? ??????? ???????????? ??????????? ???????????? [4, ?. 136].
????????? ????????????, ????????????, ?, ????? ???????, ???????? ??? ????????????, ???????????? ??????-???????? ??????? ?????? ?? ????? ??????????? ?а ?????????????? ? ???????????,
??????? ?????? ?а??????? ?????????? ? ????????????? ???????? ????? ?? ???????? ????????.
????????????????? ??????
1. Cambridge Dictionary Online: [??????????? ??????]. URL: http://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/
english-russian/pronounce. (???? ?????????: 12.08.2018).
2. Chalmers R. British English Pronunciation: [??????????? ??????]. URL: https://www.youtube.com/wa
tch?v=ZKku9ZIi9bw&list=PL67CF2C29C5D476A3&index=2 (???? ?????????: 12.08.2018).
3. Chalmers R. Sounds British: Master the 44 Sounds of British English (Kindle Edition). A British
Publication. August 26, 2015.
4. Common European Framework of References for Languages: Learning, Teaching, Assessment.
Companion Volume with New Descriptors. Language Policy Programme, Education Policy Division,
Education Department. Council of Europe. 2018 URL: https://rm.coe.int/cefr-companion-volume-withnew-descriptors%202018/1680787989 (???? ?????????: 18.08.2018).
5. Free Online Audio Pronunciation Multilingual Dictionary Howtopronounce.com: [??????????? ??????]. URL: https://www.howtopronounce.com. (???? ?????????: 14.08.2018).
6. Free Online Talking Dictionaries of English Pronunciation: [??????????? ??????]. URL: http://howjsay.
com/pronunciation-of-cumbria (???? ?????????: 14.08.2018).
7. Jolly Phonics Complete A Z: [??????????? ??????]. URL: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=
HeSR9gR0z_U (???? ?????????: 14.08.2018).
122
??????????? ????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
8. Jolly Phonics. The 42 Letter Sounds: [??????????? ??????]. URL: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=
-ksblMiliA8 (???? ?????????: 14.08.2018).
9. Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English Online: [??????????? ??????]. URL: http://www.
ldoceonline.com/ (???? ?????????: 12.08.2018).
10. Macmillan English Dictionary Online: [??????????? ??????]. URL: http://www.macmillandictionaries.
com/dictionary-online/ (???? ?????????: 12.08.2018).
11. O?Connor J. D., Fletcher C. Sounds English. Pearson Education Limited, 2003. 125 p.
12. Oxford Advanced Learner?s Dictionary: [??????????? ??????]. URL: http://www.
oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/definition/english/phonetician (???? ?????????: 10.08.2018).
13. Piccardo E. Common European Framework of References for Languages: Learning, Teaching, Assessment.
Phonological Scale Revision. Process Report. Language Policy Programme, Education Policy Division,
Education Department. Council of Europe.2016 URL: https://rm.coe.int/phonological-scale-revisionprocess-report-cefr/168073fff9 (???? ?????????: 18.08.2018).
14. The Sounds of English. Pronunciation Tips: [??????????? ??????]. URL: http://www.bbc.co.uk/
learningenglish/russian/features/pronunciation (???? ?????????: 10.08.2018).
15. Tim?s Pronunciation Workshop: [??????????? ??????]. URL: http://www.bbc.co.uk/learningenglish/
english/course/towards-advanced/unit-1/session-5 (???? ?????????: 12.08.2018).
123
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
??? 81?25
?.а?.а???????
?????-????????????? ??????????????? ???????????
???????????????? ???????????????
?? ???????????, ??????????, ?????????? ? ????????
? ?????? ??????????? ???????? ?а ????????? ? ??????????? ???????????, ??????????, ??????????
? ???????? ?а????????????? ? ???????????? ???????????????.
???????? ?????: ????????????? ?????????????, ???????????, ??????????, ??????????, ????????.
O.аV.аZlobina
Saint Petersburg University of Aerospace Instrumentation
ON EXPLICITATION, IMPLICITATION, ADDITION AND OMISSION
The article discusses differences in defining explicitation, implicitation, addition and omission in Russian and
English descriptions of translation techniques.
Keywords: translation technique, explicitation, implicitation, addition, omission
? ??????????? ??????????????? ?????? ?а?????????? ???????? ?а????????? ??????????????? ?а????????, ?????????? ????????? ???????? ??? ????????? ????? ????????????? ?????????????
(??), ??? ? ?? ?????????????.
???? ?? ?????? ????????????? ????????????? ??????? ?????????? J.-P. Vinay ? J. Darbelnet,
?а???? ?? ?????? ??????????? л???????????╗ ? л????????╗ [11].
??? л????????????╗ ??? ?????????? ????? ????????????? ?????, ??? ??????? ??????????
?а???????? ???????? ?????? ?????? ?? ??????? ??????????? ????????? ????????? ?????????? ???????? ???????, ??? ???????????? ??????????/????????? [11]. ????? ???????? ??????????? ???????
?а ????, ??? ??? л????????????╗ ?????????? ?????? ??????? ???? ???????, ??????????? ??? ?а ?????????? ????????????, ??? ? ?а??????????????? ? ??????????????? ??????? ????? [1].
???, ?ал???????? ???????????╗ ?. ????-?????? ?????? ????? ??????? ??????????? ????? ???????: л??? ????????????? ?????????, ???????? ???????? ???????? ??? ?????????????? ????? ?????
???????╗ [6].
???? ??????? (?????????????а? ?а1998 ?., ????? ?а???????? 2008 ?.) ?. ?????? [9], ?????? ????????
?. ????-??????, ???????? 4 ???? ??????????? ?а???????? (??????? ?????????? ?? ??????):
1.?????????????, ??? ????????????, ????????? ???????-??????????????? ????????????? ???????? ????: ????., English to beа?аSpanish ser/estar;
2.???????????????, ??? ????????????, ???????????? ?????????? ?а?????????????? ???????????? ???????? ????: ????., English our peopleа?аGerman unsere Mitarbeiter;
3.???????????????, ???????????? ?????????/???????? ???????? ????: ????., German die
Alsterа?аEnglish the lake Alster;
4.??????????? ?????????????, ?.?. ???????? ???????? ???????? ??? ???????? (??????? ???).
??? ???????? ??????? ??? ???????????? ?????????? ????? ??????? ????? ???????, ???????
????? ??????? ????????? ?а??????? ?????????? ? ?????????? ? ?а???? ?????? ???????????? ?а??????
??????? ???????????? ?????? ???????? ????.
? ????????????? ??????????????? ????? ??????? ??????? ?а????????? ????? ??????????????
????????????? (????????, ????????? ???? ????? ?а ?. ?. ??????????? [2:190-231], л???????????????╗ ?а?.а?.а????????? [3] ? ?.?.), ????? ??? л???????????╗ ??????????? ??? ??????? ???????????????
???????????, ?????????, ?????? ?????, ?а???????????????? ????????. ???, ????????, ?.а?.а??????????
???? ????????? ???????????: л??????????? ??? ???????????? ???????а? ??? ???????-??????????????
?????????????, ??? ??????? ??????????? ??????? ?? ?????????? ???????????????, ??????????????
124
??????????? ????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
?? ????????, ?.?. ?????? ????? ??? ????? ?????? ?????????? ??? ??????????? ????? ???????? ?? ??.
?а ??????? ??????????? ????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ????????????????? ????? ?а ?????????:
conservationistа? ????????? ?????? ?????????? ????? (?)[4].
?.а?.а???????? ?а????? ????????????? ??????????? ????????????? ?????????? ?????? ??????
л???????????? ???????╗ [3].
? ?????????????? ?. ?. ??????????? [2] ? ?.а?.а??????? [5] л???????????╗ ??? л????????????
???????╗ ?? ??????????? ?а???????? ?????????? ???? ??.
?????? л??????????╗ ?а???????? ???????, ????????????? л???????????╗, ?а???????????? ??????????????? ???????? ??????????? ??????? [7]: ??? ??????????? ?????????? ?????, ??? ???????
??????????, ?????? ????? ??? ?????????, ?????? ????????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????????. ????????, ?????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????????? ? ??????? ???????є? ????????????????? ??????????? ? ??????, ?а ??????? ???????????? ???????????? ???????????? ????? ??????? ?????????
?????? ?а????? XX ? ?????? XXI ??.
? ????????????? ??????????????? ??????? л??????????╗ ??????????? ?? ???????????, ????????????? ?????????????? ???????, ????????? ?а??????????? ?????????? ???????????? (????????????), ???? ????????? ?а????? ?????????????? ????????????? (л????????╗, л??????? ???????╗, л?????????????? ?????????????? ??????╗ ?а?.а?.а????????? [3]), ???? ?? ???????????.
л????????╗ ? л??????????╗ ??????????? ????????? ?а ???????????????, ?????? ?????, ???????????? ??????. ?????, ?? ???? ?????????????? ????? ????????, ??????????? ??? ?а ??????
J.-P. Vinay ? J. Darbelner [11]. ????????????? ??? л?????????╗ ?????????? ??????, ?????, ?? ??? ???
???? ???????, ?????????? ????????? ???? ??? ????????? ?????? ?а ??????. л????????╗ ????? ????
??? ????????????????, ????????? ????????????? ??????????????? ??? ?????????? ??????????? ?
????? ?????????? ??? ?а????????? ??????, ??? ? ?а???????????? ? ???? ????? ?????????? ?????? [7].
л?????????╗ ????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ???????? ???????????? ??????? ???????? ??
??? ???? ???????, ????????? ?а?????? ???????????? ????? ?/??? ????????? ????????????? [10].
??????? ??????? ??????????????? л????????╗ ???????? ??? ????????????? ?????????????
????? ?а????????? ???????? ???????????????? ???????? (???) [8], ?????????, ?????? ?????, ?а??????????? ?????????????: ???????? ???????? ?????? ??? ??????????? ?????? ??? ???????? ????????? (? ????????? ?????? ???????? ???????? ??????????????, ????????????? ? ???? ????? ???????????? ??????????????). ?а???????????? ???????? ?????????? ??????, ??????????? ?????????????
? ????????? ???????? ?а??? [8,10].
л??????????╗, ??? ??????? ???????????? л????????╗ ? ????????? ?а?????????? ?а????? ????????????? ?а???????????? ?????? ?????????, ????? ???????? ??????????? ?????, ??? л????????╗
[10]. ??????, ?????????? ? л???????????╗ ???????????? ?? ?????? ?????????????, ?????? ????? ?????? ?? ???????? ??????? ???????? ????? л???????????╗ ? л????????????╗.
? ????????????? ???????? ??? л???????????╗ ????????????? ????????????? ?а ???????? ?????????????? ????, ?? ??????? ???????????? ?а ?????????; ??? л?????????╗а ? ?????????? ?????
?????? ?а?????? ?? ??????????? ?????, ?.?. ?????????? ???????? ??? ????????? ??????. ?а???? ???????? л??????????╗ ? л????????╗ ??????????? ??????????? ?? ???? ?????????????? (?.а?.а??????????
[4], ?. ?. ?????????? [2], ?.а?.а???????? [3] ? ?.?.).
?????????? ????????????? ??????? ?ал???????????╗, л??????????╗, л??????????╗ ? л????????╗, ????? ??????? ????????? ?????????:
1. л??????????? ???????????╗, л??????????? ??????????╗, л??????????╗ ? л????????╗ ????????? ?а??????????? ?????????????? (????????????? ?????????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ? ????);
2. ??? л??????????? ????????????╗ ??????? ???????? ?????? ???????????? ??? ???????? ?????????? ??????????, ????????? ?а??????, ???????? ???????? ???? ??? ???????? ?????????? ?а??????/
?????????????, ????????: in 1998 ? ?а1998 ????, Washington ? ???? ?????????, Ontario ? ????? ???????, the Pacific ? ????? ?????, ????????????? ?????? ? ?.?.;
3. ??? л??????????? ???????????╗ ??????? ???????? ?????? ?????????????? ??? ????????
?????????? ??????????, ????????? ?а??????, ???????? ???????? ???? ??? ???????? ?????????? ?а??????/?????????????: the town of Vyatka ? ?????, ??????? ???????? ? the Webster;
4. л???????????? ???????╗ ???????????? ????? ?????? ??????? ??????????????? ?а??, ??????????? ???????? ??????? ? ???????????? ?? ????????? ?а???????????????? ???????, ????????:
homer ? ???????, ?????? ???????? ????, ?а????????; ???????? ???????;
125
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
5. л??????????╗а? ????????????? ?а?????? ?? ?? ??????????????, ????????????? ?а?????????
??????????? ??????, ?????????, ?????? ?????, ?????? ?? ?, ??? ???????, ????????????: in the contract
? ?а?????? ????????, translation ? ??????? ????????.
6) л????????╗а ? ?? ?????????????j л??????????╗, ?.?. ??????? ??? ???????? ???????????
??????, ????????????? ?????? ? ?? ????????????????? ?????????????.
????????????????? ??????
1. ??????????? ?.?.а??????????? ??? ?????? ??????????? ???????????? ? ????????????? ?????????? ?а????????. ???., 2009. http://www.academia.edu/11149107
2. ??????????а?.?. ???? ? ??????? (??????? ????? ? ??????? ?????? ????????). ?.: ????????. ?????????, 1975.
3. ????????а?.?. ???????????? ?????? ????????. http://www.academia.edu/5492328
4. ??????????а ?.?. ?????? ???????? (??????????????? ???????)╗. https://classes.ru/grammar/
43.Teoriya_perevoda_Lingvicticheskiye_aspekty
5. ??????а?.а?. ?????? ???????? ? ????????????? ????????. ?., 1974.
6. Blum-Kulka,аSh. 1986. Shifts of cohesion and coherence in tanslation. In J.аHouse & Sh.аBlum-Kulka
(eds.), Interlingual and intercultural communication, 17?35. T№bingen: Gunter Narr.
7. BecherаV. Explicitation and implicitation in translation Hamburg, 2011. http://ediss.sub.uni-hamburg.de/
volltexte/2011/5321/pdf/Dissertation.pdf
8. IacovoniаA. Transaltion by omission. https://iacovoni.wordpress.com/2009/02/01
9. Klaudy,аK. 2008. Explicitation. In Mona Baker & Gabriela Saldanha (eds.), Routledge Encyclopedia of
Translation Studies, 104?108. London & New York: Routledge, 2nd edn.
10. Sharma,а V. The Relevance of Addition, Omission and Deletion (AOD) in Translation. https://www.
researchgate.net/publication/283794009
11. Vinay,аJ.-P., Darbelnet,аJ. Comparative stylistics of French and English: A methodology for translation.
Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 1995. https://www.erudit.org/en/journals/meta/1996-v41n3-meta178/003010ar/
126
??????????? ????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
??? 629.735.33
?. ?. ???????
?????-????????????? ??????????????? ???????????
???????????????? ???????????????
??????????? ?????? ??? ???????? ??????????? ?????
? ?????? ????????????, ??? ?????????? ???????????? ??????? ?а????? ??????????? ????? ????????????
???????????? ??????????? ???????????. ????? ??????????????? ?????? ?????????? ???????????????? ??????? ?а???????? ???????????? ???????????? ????? ? ?????????? ??? ??????????? ??????????.
???????? ?????: ??????????? ??????, ??????????? ?????, ??????????, ?????? ???????, ???????? ??????????????? ???????????????? ???????????? ?????.
O. P. Karpova
Assistant Professor
Saint Petersburg State University
of Aerospace Instrumentation
LEXICAL APPROACH TO A FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHING
It is stated in the article that the use of the lexical approach techniques in an English course contributes to the
development of lexical competence. The article also describes application methods of linguistic corpus in foreign language teaching methodology.
Key words: lexical approach, lexical chunks, collocations, text corpus, professionally oriented foreign language teaching.
??????????????? ?o????????? ???????? ??o???????? ?????? ?????????? ??????????? ?o????????? ??? ???????????? ????? ??????????????? ?o?????????, ?????????? ?а???? ?????? ?e????????? ?????? ? ?????? ?? ??o??????? ?а??????????? ?? ?e????? ??????.
? ??????????? ???????? ?o?????? ????????? ????????? ?? ?????? o???????? ?????, ?? ? ?????????? ?????????, ?????? ? ?o????????. ?а???????? ???????? ??????????o ????? ??? ?????????????
? ????????o??????? ????? ????? ????????? ????o ???????? ? ??????????? ????o??? ????????, ???????? ?????? ??o????????? ??????????? ??????, ???o???????? ?oo???????????? ?????, ???o??????????? ???????? ? ?????????? ?а???? [1].
???????? ???????????? ???????, ????????????? ??????? ???????, ????? ???????? ?а??????? л??????????? ??????????╗ (lexicalized grammar), ??? ???????????? ???????? ? ??????????? ????????? ????????????? ?а???? ????????? ????, ?????????? л?????????? ????? ???????╗. [2] ???????????
????o? ???o???????? ?? ???????????, ??? ?????? ??????? ???????? o??????? ???o???????? ??o???
?????. ????????? ???????? ???????? ????????, ????????? ?? ?????o?? ?????????? ???????, ???? ?o??????, ??? ??????????o ???????????? ????????? ????? ?o?????? ?а???? ???? ???????, ?? o???????????
????? ???o?????? ?????????????? (chunks). Lexical chunks? (??????????? ?????)а? ??? ???? ??? ??????
??o?, ??????? ????o ??????????? ?а??????????? ???o?????? (????o?????, ???????? ???????, ??????,
??????? ??????????, ??o???? ??????????????) [3].
??????????? ????o? ????????? ??????? ???????? ?????, ?o???????? ? ??????? ????????????o?? ??????? ?? ???????o? ????? [4]. ????? ???????, ???? ?o???? ????????? ?????????????? ?????
?а????? ?????o?? ??????? ? ?а???o??? ???????? ???????. ?????????????? ??????? ??????????? ?????????? ??? ????o?????, ?o??????? ???? ??? ??????. ??????????? ?o??? ??????? ?? ???????? ????o?????
???????????? ????? ????? ??????? o?????????? ???????????? ?????????. ?????? ?? ???o ????? ? ??????? ?а????, ? ??????o??????? ??? ?????, ?. ?. ??, ??? ??? ?o???? ????????????? ?а????. ?а??????? ??????????? ??o??? ???????? ???????? ?o?????????? ??????????? ??????????????? ??? ?????o??????? [4].
???? ?????????? ????????????????, ?? ??? ????????? ???? ????????. ?а ????? ?????? ?????? ???? ???? л???????????????????? ???????, ? ?? ????????????????? ??????????? [3]. ???????????
? ?????????????? ??????? ??????????????? ???? ?а?????, ??? ????????? ?а????????? ??????? ????? ?
??????? ???????, ? ???????? ?????? ???????????, ??? ??? ??????????? ?????????, ??? ? ??? ??????127
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
????. ??? ??????? ?????????? ??????? ? ???????? ???? ???????: л??? ?????????? ????? ???????
????? ????, ?? ??? ??????? ?? ??????? ?????? ??????╗.
? ???????? ????o??????? ????????o?????? ???????????????? ???????????? ????? ?а???? ?????
?????? ???????? ??o????? ?????? ?????o???? ????????? ? ????????? ????????o????????? ????????.
????????? ?а???? ???????o? ????????? ?????????? ????????? ???????????. ??????????? ?????????
????????? ?????????? ?? ??????? ???????, ???????????? ?????????? ???????????? ???????, ???????? ???????? ????? ? ??????????? ???????????? ???????. ??? ???? ????? ???????? ???????? ?????,
???????????? ????????? ????????????, ???????? Mono Conc Pro, ??????? ????????? ?????? ???????????? ??????????? ?????? ?а?????????. K??????? ????? ???????? ???????? ??????????, ? ??????
??? ?o?????? ??????????, ?o??????????? ?? ????? ????????? ??o????????????? ??????????o???.
?а????????? ?????? ????????? ????????? ?????????: ???????? ???????????, ???????????? ????????,
???????? ????????????????? ? ?????????????????? [5].
л???????????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ? ?????????? ????, ?? ? ?????????
????????? ????????????? ?????????? ????????????, ??????? ?а???????? ???????? ????? ???????????
?????????? ???????????? ??????????????╗ [6]. ???????? ?????? ???????????? ??????? ?????? ????
?а???????? ???????????? ????? ????? ??????????? ???????? ? ?????????????? ??????????. ??? ??????? ???? ???????? ?????????? ???????? ??????? ?а??????? ???????? ???????? ??????????. ??????
??????? ???????????? ????? ?а????????? ??? ??????????? ????????????? ??? ??????????, ???????????
?, ?????????????, ??????????????? ?а?????????? ????, ?????????, ??? ???????? ????????????? ?????
?????, ??? ???? ??????? ??????????? ? ????????????? ???????? ???????????? ?????. ?????????? ???????????? ??????? ??????????????? ????????, ??????? ???????????? ???????????? ?????.
?? ?????? ??????? ??????????? ??????? ? ?а?????? ????????????? ???????????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ?????????? ??? ????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????????.
? ????????????? ????? ??????? ?а????????? ???????????, ???????, ?????? ?
I quit my job and started looking for jobs in the UK.
? ????????? ???? ?а?????????, ?????????? ???????, ?а??????? ?? ?????? ?????? ???????????
?????? ????? ?????????? ????????? ??????????? ?
verb
promote
noun
adjective
retirement
successful
? ????? ?????????? ?а????????? ? ??????????? ????? ????????? ?а?????????????? ???????? ???????;
? ?????????? ???? ?а?????????? ????? ?????????????, ?????????? ?????????
earn overtime
work a restaurant
run for a living
I?d love to work ?? for a few years, especially in South America.
? ??????????? ?????????? ?а??????? ????????????? ????????? ?
It usually takes time to develop good relationship with colleagues.
? ??????????? ???????? ??? ??????? ?а?????????????? ????????? ??????????;
? ????????????????? ??????? ??????? ?а?????? ? ????????? ??????.
?????????? ???????? ???????????????? ?? ?????? ???????????, ?? ? ?????????????? ??????, ?
????? ????????? ???????? ? ????????? ???????? ???????? ??? ??????????? ???????? ????????????.
????????????????? ??????
1. Common European Framework of Reference for Languages. Strasbourg, 2011. ??????????? ??????.
URL: https://rm.coe.int/16802fc1bf
2. Lewis M. The lexical approach: The state of ELT and the way forward. Hove, England : Language Teaching Publications, 1993
3. ???????????? ??????????? ??????? / ??? ???. ?.?. ???????, ?.?. ??????????. ???????: ???
л???????????╗, 2002. ?. 40.
4. ?????? ?. ?. ???????? ????????? ???????????: ????????? ?а???????? ???????? ??????????? ?????. ???????????? ?????????. 2017. ? 2. ?. 45?51
5. ?????? ?.?., ??????????? ?.?. ?????????? ????????? ??????????? ?а???????????? ??????????????? ???????????????? ????? // ??????? ?????, 2015. ?. 443.
6. Lewis M. Second Language Vocabulary Acquisition // Cambridge University Press, 1997. P. 89.
128
??????????? ????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
??? 808.5
?. ?. ????????
???????? ?????????????? ????, ??????
?????-????????????? ??????????????? ???????????
???????????????? ???????????????
?. ?. ????????
???????? ?????????????? ????, ??????
?????-????????????? ??????????????? ???????????
???????????????? ???????????????
? ??????? ?? ????????????? ??????? ?? ????????? ????? ????????
???????? ????? ??????????? ?????????
?????? ????????? ?????????? ???????? ? ???????????? ????????????? ?????? ?а??????????? ?????????. ?а?????? ???????????? ???????? ? ??????? ?????????. ??????? ???????? ??????? ????? ????????????? ???????????, ? ????? ?????? ??? ??????????? ? ?????????? ????????????? ???????.
???????? ?????: ????????????? ??????, ????????????? ???????????, ???? ????????????, ???????????? ???????, ???????? ? ???????? ??????????.
A. O. Kostylev
Candidate of Philology, Associate professor
Saint Petersburg State University
of Aerospace Instrumentation
M.P. Voronina
Candodate of Pedagogy, Associate professor
Saint Petersburg State University
of Aerospace Instrumentation
TO THE ISSUE OF INTONATION SKILLS AT THE INITIAL STAGE
OF TRAINING TO THE RUSSIAN LANGUAGE OF FOREIGN STUDENTS
The article is devoted to the actual problemа ? the formation of intonational skills among foreign students. The principle and functions of intonation are concerned in the article. Much attention is paid to
the types of intonation structures, as well as work on the formulation and correction of intonation skills.
Key words: intonational skills, intonational constructions, types of statements, formation of skills, sound and
auditory exercises.
????? ?? ???????? ????? ????????? ?????-????????????????? ???????? ??????? ???? ???????? ???????? ? ???????? ??????????? ???? ?? ?????? ?????????????? ?????????? ???????????? ? ??
??????????? (???????). ?а????? ?а???? ?????????????? ??????????? ?????? ??????????? ?????????????
? ??????????????? ?????? ?????????.
????????? ? ??? ????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ????????? ????, ??????, ?????????????, ???????????? ??????, ???????? ??? ????????? ????????? ? ????????????? ???????? ????????????. ????????? ???????? ????????? ????????????? ??????????? ?? ?????????, ???????? ?????????
? ?????????? ?????????, ?? ????????? ?а???????? ?????? ??? ???? ?а?????. ????? ??? ????????? ?
?????????????? ???????: ????????? ????? ?????, ?? ????????????? ??? ???????????????; ?????????,
?а?????? ???? ????????? ???????????, ???????? ?? ??? ??????, ??????????? ??? ?????????????. ????????? ???????????? ?????????, ?????????? ??????????????? ?????? ???? ?? ????????? ?а?????????? ?а???????? ??????, ?????? ? ??????????. ????????? ????????????? ??????????? ????????????
???????????? ?????? ????????? ???????? ??????????? ????????????.
???????? ???? ??????????????? ?а??? ?????????? ?????, ????????-?????????? ?????, ???????? ?? ????????? ????? ????????, ?????????? ???????? ????????????? ? ??????????? ?????????
???????? ?????. ????????? ?????? ?а??????? ???????? ??????? ????? ?????? ?а????? ?????????? ?а???
????????? ????????? ? ?????????? ???????. ?????? ???? ???????? ???????? ???? ?????? ?? ????129
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
???? ????????????? ??????????, ?? ?????????? ? ????????? ????????? ?????????????, ??? ??????????
????????, ?? ??? ??????????. ????? ?? ???????? ?????? ??? ????????????? ?????????? ???????????? ???????? ??????????? ????? ????????????? ???????????.
????????? ????????? ???????? ?а????????? ??????? ????????, ?а??????? ??????????????? ???
??????????? ???????? ?????, ???????? ????? ????????????????, ??? ???????? ?а????????????? ???????????? ??????? ?а???????? ????????????? ????????? ?а?? ?????????????? ???? ?а??????, ? ?????
?а???????????? ? ??????????????? ?????????? ?????, ???????????? ??? ????????????? ????????.
?? ????????? ????? ?????? ?? ???????????? ????????????? ?????? ???????????? ??????????
?а????????? ?????? ????????????? ??????????? (??) ? ?? ?????????????. ????????? ?????????????? ?????????????а? ????????? ?????? ???????? ????????. ?а??????????? ?? ????????? ????????
???? ?а??????? ????? ?????????? ???? ????? ??. ??? ????????????? ??????????? ?????? ????????? ????????? ?????????? ?????? ???????? ???????????. ?? ????????? ????? ??????????? ???????? ?а ????? ?????? ????????????? ???????????, ???????? ????? ????????????? ?а ??????? ?????:
??-1 ? ????????? ?????????????????? ???????????; ??-2 ? ????????? ??????????????? ??????????? ?а?????????????? ??????; ??-3 ? ????????? ??????????????? ??????????? ??? ???????????????
?????; ??-4 ? ??? ????????? ????????? ??????????????? ??????????? ?а?????? ?; ??-5 ? ?????????
???????????????? ??????????? ?а????????????? ??????? ?????, ???.
? ?????? ???? ?????????? ????? ?????? ???? ?? ??????. ????????? ?? ??????????? ?? ????? ??????? ? ???????????? ?????? ???????????? ? ???????????????? ???????????? ???? ??. ?а?????? ???? ?????????? ??????????? ????????? ????????? ????????????? ????????? ??. ?????????????
????????? ?????? ?????? ???????, ??????? ?????? ??, ?????? ???????? ???????????? ???????????
????????? ???????????? ??. ????????????? ???????? ????? ???????????? ??????????????? ?а?????????????? ????????? ? ??????????? ???????? ????????????.
???????? ??????????, ??? ?????????? ?????? ??????????? ?????????? ??-1 ? ??-2. ??????
????????? ???????? ????????????? ?????????? ??????? ?а????????? ????? ????????????. ???, ?????? ??????? ??????????? ???????? ?????????????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????, ??????????? ?а?????????????? ????????????, ??? ?????? ??????? ??? ????????? ??-2 ?????????? ??-3 ?а?????? ?????????? ????.
?????? ??? ??????????? ? ?????????? ????????????? ??????? ?????????? ????????????
???????????? ????????? ??????:
1)????????????? ?а?????????????? ???????? ??????? ????????? ?а???????????? ?????????????? ??????? ????????;
2)??????????? ???????????? ??????????, ?????????? ???????? ????????? ?????????;
3)????????? ????????????????? ???????? ???????????? ?а ?????? ????? ?а ????-????????????
?????????;
4)??????????? ??????????????? ??????? ?????????????? ?????????? ???????????? ?а????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ???????????.
???????????? ? ????????? ????????????????????? ??????? ?? ????????? ????? ???????? ?????????? ?? ???????-?????????????? ????????? ???????? ???????, ? ????? ???: л???????╗, л?????╗,
л???????? ?? ????????╗. ??? ??????????? ???????????????? ??????? ?????? ???????????? ?????
??????????????? ?????, ???: ???????, ??????????????, ??????.
?? ???? ?????? ?????? ?? ???????????? ????????????? ?????? ???????????? ???????????? ????????????? ????????, ?????????? ?? ???????? ????? ????, ??????????? ????????????, ????????????????? ????????????????????? ??????? ?а???????? ??????????? ??????, ????????????, ????????, ????????
? ?????????, ????????? ????????? ?а?????? ?? ???????????????? ???????. ????? ?? ???????, ?????????????? ???????? ?????????????, ???????? ????????????? ?????????? ? ???????? ???????????, ??????????? ??????? ????????. ?????? ????? ?а???????? ???????? ???????? ???????????, ??? ?????????? ??
?????????? ? ??????????? ???? ??? ????? ?????, ??????????? ??????, ????????????? ???????????.
??? ????????? ???????? ???????????? ????????????? ?????? ?? ????????? ????? ????????
???????? ????? ??????????? ????????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????? ???????? ????????, ??????
????????? ???? ?а???????????? ????????????????????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ??????????, ?????????????? ????? ??????????? ??????????????? ????????, ????????????? ?а??????? ?????????? ???????? ? ???????????? ?????????? ?а ?????? ?????????????????? ??????????? ???????
?????? ? ??????? ?а??? ??? ???? ???? ??????? ????????????.
130
??????????? ????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
??? 811.161.1
?. ?. ????????
???????? ?????????????? ????, ??????
?????-????????????? ?????????????? ???????????
???????????????? ???????????????
?. ?. ???????
??????????
?????-????????????? ??????????????? ???????????
???????????????? ???????????????
??????????? ???????????? LSP ?????? ?? ??????????? ?????
??????? ????????????? ???? ? ??? ???????????? ????? ???????? ?????? ?????. ?а???? ??? ???? ?????? ???????, ??? ?????????????а? ??? ???????? ???????? ?????, ? ?????? ????????, ??? ??? ????? ???????? ?а??? ??????. ?????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ???????????? ?????????????? ???????
?а??????? ? ???????? ??????, ? ????? ????????????? ??????? ??????????? ?? ??? ?????. ????????????
?????????? ???????????? ?????????? ??? ????, ??? ??? ?????????? ????? ???? ???????????? ??? ?????????? ???????????? ???????? ?????????, ? ????????? ?????? ? ?????? ????? ???? ????????? ???
???????? ???????????? ?????????????, ??? ?а?????? ???????????? ???????, ??? ? ?? ????? ???????
??????.
???????? ?????: ???? ??? ??????????? ?????, ??????????, ?????????????, ??????? ????, ????????
????, ????????? ??????.а
A.O. Kostylev
Candidate of Philology, Associate Professor
I.A. Polyakov
Master student
Saint Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation
FEATURES OF LSP CREATION IN MUSIC FIELD AT THE CURRENT STAGE
The process of borrowing words from another language is an integral part of the development of any language.
Today, some scientists believe that borrowing is the source of language development, while others believe that
it can lead to its death. This article covers the issues of culture of using borrowed vocabulary in Russian and
German languages and also determines the degree of influence on these languages. The practical significance
of the study is determined by the fact that its results can be used in further consideration of language contacts,
and the materials and conclusions of the work can be applied in the study of English borrowings both in the
framework of student studies or at a higher level.
Key words: language for specific purposes (LSP), anglicisms, borrowings, Russian language, German language, vocabulary.
??????? ????????????? ???? ? ??? ???????????? ????? ???????? ?????? ?????. ??????????? ????????????? ????????? ????????? ???? ????? ?, ??? ???????, ?? ??????? ???????? ????? ??? ????????????, ?????? ??? ??? ????????????? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ????? ???????? ??????????, ??????????? ????????????? ????? ?????, ???????? ??????? ???????? ???????.
???? ????? ????????? ?????????? ??????????? ????????, ?????????????? ?? ?а????? ??????,
??? ?? ????? ??????????? ????????????? ??????? ???????? ?? ?????? ????, ??????? ?????? ????????
??????????? ???? ????? ? ???????????? ???, ?? ???? ?????????? ????????????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????, ????? ? ???? ??????? ?? ???????? ? ???? ??????? ?? ????????????.
??? ???????? ??????????? ?????? (?????????? ???? ? ??????? ???? ??????????) ??? ???? ???????????? ?????? LSP. ?а??????? ????? ??????????? ??????? LSP ? Languages for Special/Specific Purposes
(???? Specific Languages) ????????????? ??????? л???? ??? ??????????? ?????╗. ?а ???????? ?????
?????? ?????? LSP ???????????? ??? ???????? ??????? ?а?????? ?? ??????????? ???? ????????????
??? ?????? ????????.
131
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
?????? ??????? ????? ?????? ?? ????? ???????? ??????????????? ????? ? ?????????????? ??????,
?а??????? ???? ???????????????? ?? ?????????? ?а?????? ?? ??????? ? ???? ???????????? [4, ?. 568].
???????? LSP ??????????????? ??? ?????????, ??? ? ??????????? ???????. ??? ???????, LSP
??????????????? ?а?????? ???????????? ??? ??????????? ??????????????, ? ????? ??????????????
??????????. ?????????? ?????????????????????? ?????, ??????????? LSP, ??? ??? ???????????? ?????? (?????? ??.а???????, ?.а????????, ?.а??????????, ?.а????????, ?.?.а?????????, ?.?.а??????????? ? ??.).
???????? ???????? ???????, ????????? ? ??????? LSP ???????? ?? ?????? ???????? ????????
????????. ????????????? ???????????? ?????? ?а????? ?????? ??????????? ????? ???? ????????????
?????????, ??????? ??? ???????????, ???? ??????? ?а?????? ????????? ????? ? ?????? ????????????,
?????????????? ????? ??????? ? ???????? ????????????????, ??????? ??????? ?????? ???? ?????????? ?а?????.
?? ??????????? ???? ??????? ?а???????? LSP ?????? ?а????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????????, ?а ?????????? ??????? ????????????? ???? ???????????? ? ?????? ????????, ??? ??????????
????????????? ???????????? ????? ??????? ?? ??????? ?????????????????? ???????.
???????? ?? ??, ??? LSP ??????????? ???????? ???????????? ?????? ?????, ??? ?? ??????? ??
????? ????????????????? ?????, ? ??????????????? ??? ??? ?????????????? ????????????? ??? ??????????. ?????? ?а?????? ??? ????? ????? (Language for General Purposes ?аLGP), ????? ??????????
???????? ?????????? ????????, ???????, ???????? ? ?????? ???????????? ????????? ??????????????
?????????, LSP ???????? ????? ??????? ????????????? ?????.
?????????????? ??????????? LSP ? LGP ??????????? ?? ????????? ????????? LSP, ???????
??????????? ?? ???? ??? ?????????? ?????? ?????. ??????? ?????????? ?а ??????? ???????? LSP
??.а???? ??????? ? л?????????????╗ ??????? ??? ??????????? ????? ??????????????? ???????????????? ????????? ?а?????? ???????, ???????????? ????? ???? ????? ? ??????????????? ?? ?????????? ??? ??????????? ?? ??????????? ?? ?????????? ???? [7].
????? ????, ???????????? LSP ?????????? ???????????, ????????????? ????? ??????????? ?????? ?а?????? LSP ??????? ?а?????????????? ?????????? ????????? ??????? [2, ?. 25].
?? ??????????? ?????? ??????????? ????? ??????????????? ???????? ??????????? ????????????????? ?????????. ?????? LSP ?????????? ?????? ??????????? ???????, ????????????? ?????? ?а???????? ???????????????? ????? ? ?????????? ??? ?????????? ?????????????????.
?????? ????????????? ?????????? ??????? ??????????? ?????? ??????????. ??-?? ??????????? ?????????????? LSP ? LGP ??????? ????? ??????????? ? ????????????? ???????? ???????????
?????????. ?? ???????? ??? ?????????? ?а ?????? ???????? ??????????? ???? ?а ??????????????????? ???? ??? ?? ???????????????? ??????????????????? ??????????? ??????. The Encyclopedia of
Language and Linguistics ???????? ????????? ????????? ?????????? ??????? LSP: ????? ????????????????? ?????, ????????????????? ? ????? ?а ????????????????????? ?????????? ?????????? ???
?????????? ?????????????, ?????????????? ???????, ????????????? ???????, ??????????? ??? ???????????, ???????????????? ?????, ????????? ????? ? ??. [8, p. 2011].
????? ???????, ?а???????? ???????? ????????????? LSP ??????????? ?????????????? ????????
????????? ????????:
1) ?????????????? ?а????????????????? ?????;
2) ???????????;
3) ????????????????????? ????????????????????? ????? ??? ????? ?????;
4) ??????? ??????????? ???????, ??????????????? ?????????????????????? ?????????? ???????;
5) ??????????? ????? ??????????? ??????? ?а??????????? ???????;
6) ?????????? ???????? ???????????????? ? ??????????????????.
???????? ??????????? ???????, ?а ????????? ??????????? ????????, ?????????????? ????? ??
??????? ????? ??????????? ???????????. ?????? ????????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?? ??????
???????? XX ???? ??????-??????????? ??????????, ???????????????? ??????? ?????????? ??????
??????????? ?????????? ????????????, ? ????????? ?а???? ??????????????? ??????????? ?а????????
???????? ??????????? ?? ???????? ???????????? ???????????????? ????? ?а?????????? ???????? ???????????? ? ?????? ????????, ???????? ????????? ??? ??????? ?а ??????? ????? ???????? ??????
л????? ??? ??????????? ?????╗.
???????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????? ?? ????? ??????????? ????????????. ????? ???????????? ?????????? ????? ???????????????? ????????? ?? ????????????? ??????, ? ????? ???????????
132
??????????? ????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
?????????? ?? ??????????? ??????, ???????? ?? ??????????. ?????? ???????, ??? ??????? ??????????
???????????? ???????? ???????? ????????? ?????? ? ???????? ????????, ? ????? ???????????? ??????????????.
? ???? ??? ???? ?????? ???????, ??? ?????????????а ? ??? ???????? ???????? ?????, ? ??????
????????, ??? ??? ???? ?а??? ??????. ?а????? ?а???? ?????????????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????
??????????? ??????????? ????? ?? ??????, ?а????????? ??????? ? ???????? ?????.
???????????? ??????? ??????????? ???????????? ????????? ?а????? ?а????????? ???????????
???????? ??????, ??????? ???????? ???? ??????????? ????????? ????????? ?????????? ?????????
?а??????? ????????, ? ????? ?? ?????? ???????????? ????????. ??????????? ??????????? ???????????? ???????? ????? ??????????? ??????. ????? ?????????? ?????? ?? ???????? ???????? ??????
???? ????? ?? ???????? ??????, ????????? ???? ?а??????????? ???? ???????? ????? ?????? ???????
????? ??????????? ???? ?????? ???????.
???????????? ??????????? ???????????? ???????????? ???????? ????? ?? ??????? ????????? ?????????????????. ??? ???? ???????????? ????? ????????????? ?? ????????????, ???????????? ? ????????? ??????.
? ???????? XX ?. ???????? ??????? ?? ??????????? ????????????????? ??????? ???????? ?????
????? ????????? ?????????? ????. ???? ??????? ????? ????? ? ?а????????? ?????. ???????????? ????????????? ????? ?????????? ?а????? ?????? ???????????? ??????????? ?????.
??? ??????????? ??????? ??????? ???????????? ????????????? ?? ??????? ? ???????? ????? ?????????? ????? ?????? ?????????? ???? ?а????? ??????, ??? ?? ?????? ?????? ??????? ??????????.
???????? ?? ?????? ???????????????? ??????? ????????? ???????? ????? ???????? ???? ??????????
????????? (??. 200 ???. ????) [5] ? ??????? ??????????? ???????? ????? ?.?. ??????? (????? 12 600 ??????) [3], ????? ??????? ?????, ??? ????????? ?????????? ????????????? ?а??????? ???? ????????????
???????? ?, ?????????????, ??????? ??????????? ?? ??? ???? ????? ??????? ??????????????.
????????? ?????? ????????? ??????? ??????? ?????, ??????? ???????? ????? 350 ???. ??????????? ??????, ? ????? ????????? ?а????????????? ????????? ???????? ?. ?????????, ??????? ?????????? ??????? ????? 10 ???. ?????????? ????????????? ?а???????? ????? [6, ?. 134], ????? ??????????,
??? ??????????? ??????????? ????? ?? ??????????? ?????? ????????? ????? ???????? ?????????, ? ??????, ? ??????? ??????????? ?? ???? ????????????????? ???????? ????? ??????? ??????????????.
?а???? ???????????? ???? ?????????? ???????, ?а??????? ????????? ??????? ???? ???????? ???????????? ????????????? ?а??????? ? ???????? ?????? ?а????? ?????? ?а?????????? ??????? ??????????? ?????? ?? ??????? ?????. ??? ?????????? ?????????????? ??????? ???? ???????? 115 ?????????? ? ???????????, ??????? ????? ?а??????????? ????? ?а????? ??????.
?? 115 ????????? ?????????????? ??????? ?????? ???????????? ????? ???????? ??????????? ?????,
??? ??????? ? ????????????? ??????????? ???????? ?????-????????? ??????? ? ????????? ?а?????.
?????? ???????????? ????????? ??????? ?????, ??? ????? ???????? ??????????? ???????, ???????
???????????? ??????, ?????? ? ???????????, ?, ??? ?????????, ???????? ??????????????? ? ????????????? ??????????? ???????? ?????????????? ????? ?????????????? ????????? ???????? ?? ???????????? ???????????? ??????? ????? ??????. ?, ???????? ?? ??? ????, ??? ?????????????? ?????? ???????? ????? ???? ?????????? ???????? ?а??????? ?????? ?а????? ???????????, ?а???? ??? ????????
???? ????? ? ???????????????? ????????? ??????????? ??????? ????? ?????????, ??? ????? ????????
LSP ?а??????????? ?????.
? ???????? ????????????? ?? ??????? ????? ????? ???????? ???? ?????????, ??? ???????????. ????????????? ???????? ?????? ?????????? ?а????? ?????? ????????? ???????? ? ????????????? ???????, ??????? ?? ?????????? ????????????? ????? ???????? ?????????. ?????????? ????????? ????
????????? ?????????????? ????: ????????????, ??????????????, ??????????? ? ?????????????.
?? ??????? ???? ???????? ????????? ??????????? LSP ?а????? ??????, ?? ????????????? ??????????? ??????, ????????????, ??? ???????????? ??????? ??????????? ?а??????? ?????, ??????? ????????? ???? л?????╗:
?????-??? (????. bubble gum /?b?b(?)l??m/ ??????????? ???????) ? ????? ?????, ?????????? ????-??? ????????, ?? ????? ?????????????? ?????.
???? (????. dis. ????. ?? disrespect /d?sr??sp?kt/ ??????????) ? ???, ????????????? ??????????
?а??????????? ???????????.
???????? (????. distortion /d??st???(?)n/ ?????????) ? ??????????? ??????, ???????????? ?? ????????? ???????? ??? ????????? ?????.
133
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
??????? (????. new school /nju?_sku?l/ ????? ?????) ? ??????????? ??????????? ????????? ??????????? ?????? XXI ?., ????????????????? ?????, ????????? ????????? ? ???????? ????????
?????????????? ????????.
?????? (????. random /?rand?m/ ?????????) ? ???????? ???????????? ????????? ??? ???????????? ???????????? ???????????, ???????? ?а?????????? ???????????, ????????? ????????.
? ???????????? ??????? ??????????? ?????????? ?а??????? ????? ?а??????????? ??????? ??????????? ?а???????????? ?а????????? ???????????? (????????а? ????. distortion (/d??st???(?)n/)).
??????? ?????????????? ?????????, ?????????? ????????????? ????? ??????????? ????????
?????????? ???????? ?????. ????? ????? ???????? ????????? ????????? ? ???????? ???????????
?????????. ?а??????????????? ????? ??????, ?а?????? ??????? ????? ???????????? ?????????? ???????, ????? ?????, ????????? ?? ??????????? ?????, ???????????? ?а??????? ????? ?а???????? ?????
??????????? ????? ???? (?????? ? ??. ???.; ????. random ? ??. ????.). ????? ????????? ?????? ??????? ???? ?????????? ???? ?а???? (???????а? ????. new school) ???, ????????, ?????????? ?????? ?????
(????а? ????. dis. ????. ?? disrespect) ??? ???????? ?а??????????? ?????? ???????? ?????.
????? ????? ?????????? ????????????? ???????? ????????????? ???????????. ??????????? ????????????? ???????? ?????? ?? ???????? ????????. ?? ?????? ???????????, ????????????? ???????????? ????????????????, ?а????? ????????? ???????????? ????? ???????????? (?????-??? ? ???.:
??????????? ???????; ???.: ????? ??????).
?????? ?????????? ??? ?????? ???????????????? ??????: ???????? ?????? ?? ??? ?????????????
????? ????? ??????, ? ???????? ???????а? ????. ???????????? ????????, ??? ? ???????, ? ???????? ????? ?????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ??????? ??????????? ?а????????? ???????? ?а??????????? ???????????? ?а????????? ?????? ???????????? ????????????, ? ????? ?а????????? ?????????
????????????? ?а?????.
??????? ????????????? ?????????? ??????? ? ??? ?? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ???
?? ?????????. ??????? ???????? ?? ?????? ????????????, ?????, ??? ??????? ? ???????? ????? ?? ???
????? ????????????? ???? ?????????? ?????? ??????????????? ??????????? ???????????, ??? ??????????????, ??? ????????? ???????????? ?????????? ???????????? ????????????? ?а????? ??????,
??? ? ???????? ????????????? ?????????. ??? ??????, ??? ?????????? ?? ???????? ?????. ??? ????????? ?? ???????, ???????? LSP ??? ?а???????????, ??? ? ?а?????? ?????? ???????????? ????????????,
??? ???? ??????????? ?????? ? ?????? ?а ??? ????????????? ????????? ????? ???????? ? ???????.
??????? ???? ???????? ?????????????? ????????? ?? ???????? ????????? ?а???????? ???????, ? ???
??????? ????????????? ???? ?? ?????-???? ???????? ?а????????? ???????? ?????????.
????????????????? ??????
1. ???????? ?.?. ?????-??????? ???????? ????????. ?., 1978.
2. ?????? ?. ?. ??????????????. ???????, ??????, ?????????. ?.: ???????????? ???, 2007. 256 ?.
3. ?????? ?.?. ??????? ?????????? ????????????? ???????? ?????. ???????????: ?????????????
??????? ????????????, 2010.
4. ?????? ?. ?. ??????????????? ????????????????? ???????. ?.: ????????? ????????????, 1990.
685 ?.
5. ??????????? л??????????????? ????????????? ?????? ????????╗ ????????? ???????? ?????
??. ?.?. ??????????? ???. URL: http://orfo.ruslang.ru/ (???? ?????????: 22.03.18).
6. Kettemann B. Eurospeak: Der Einfluss des Englischen auf europфische Sprachen zur Jahrtausendwende.
Frankfurt am Main u.a.: Lang 2002.
7. 35. Trim J.L.M. Linguistic Considerations in Planning Courses and in the Preparation of Teaching Materials//Languages for Special Purposes/CILT, 1969.
8. The Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics. Editor-in-Chief R.E. Asher. Pergamon Press, 1994.
P. 5644.
134
??????????? ????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
??? 81-139
?. ?. ???????
?????-????????????? ??????????????? ???????????
???????????????? ???????????????
?. ?. ????????
???????? ?????????????? ????, ??????
?????-????????????? ??????????????? ???????????
???????????????? ???????????????
?. ?. ?????
?????-????????????? ??????????????? ???????????
???????????????? ???????????????
???? ???????????????? ???????
??? ???????? ?????????? ???????????? ????? ?а?????????? ????
??? ???????????? ???????????? ?????????????? ??????? ???????? ?? ?????? ????????? ? ?????????? ?????????? ??????-??????????? ? ??????-?????????? ??????????. ?а ?????????, ??????????
??? ?????????? ??????????????? ????????, ???????????? ?????? ???????. ?а ???????? ????????????, ?????????? ?????????? ??? ????????, ????? ??????? ????????????? ??????????? ????????, ????
?????????? ?????????, ????????????? ??????? ?????, ?????????????? ?????????? ???????? ????????? ? ??.
???????? ?????: ?????????????? ???????, ??????????????? ??????, ?????????? ???????, ?????????? ???????, ??????? ?????, ?????????? ?????????, ?????-?????????? ???????????.
S. A. Kudrina
Saint Petersburg State University
of Aerospace Instrumentation
V. O. Perminov
Candidate of Philology, Associate Professor
Saint Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation
E. V. Yudina
Saint Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation
THE ROLE OF PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTOR IN TEACHING GRAMMARа
Without certain grammar skills students are not able to translate research literature correctly and effectively.
Unfortunately there is a number of negative psychological factors impeding this process. The methods of
teaching helping to overcome this problem can include the use of logical apparatus, taking into account personal interest, sense of humor, stimulating creative potential, etc.
Keywords: grammar phenomenon, psychological factor, logical apparatus, personal interest, sense of humor,
creative potential, psycho-physical.
????? ?? ????????? ?????, ??????? ????? ?????????????? ??????????? ????, ???????? ???????? ????????? ??????????, ??? ???????????? ???????????? ??????? ???????? ?? ?????? ????????? ?
?????????? ?????????? ??????-??????????? ? ??????-?????????? ??????????. ?а????? ??????? ?????????? ??????? ?????????:а
1. ????????????? ??????????????? ??????? ? ??????????? ??? ?а?????????? ???????.а
2. ???????????? ????????? ????? ???????????? ????????????? ????????.а
3. ????????????? ?????????????? ???????? ?а??????????? ?????????? ?????????а
4. ????????? ??????????? ??????????? (???????? ?а?????????? ???????????).а
5. ??????????? ????????? ?????? ??????? ?????????????? ????????.а
??????? ?????????????????? ????????, ??????????? ??????? ??????????? ?? ???????????
????? ?????????????? ????? ?а?????, ??? ?а???????? ????? ???????? ?а??????????? ? ?????????????
????????.а
135
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
???????? ????????? ????????? ?а ?????????? ????? ?????????? ???????. ??????? ?????????
??????????????? ???????? ?????????????? ?? ???????????? ? ???????? ?????????? ????????????,
??? ??????? ????????? ?????????????? ???????????????? ??????? ?? ???? ?а?????????? ????????????
??????.а
? ?????????? ??????????????? ???????? ????? ??????? ?????????:а
1. ?????? ??????? ???????????????? ????????? ? ??? ????????? ??????? ?????????? ? ???????.а
2. ?????? ???????????? ????? ?а???? ?????????????? ???????????? ?????????.а
3. ?????????? ??????? ????????, ?????????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ????????????,
????????????? ?????????? ??????????? ?а???????? ????????.а
?????? ???????? ???????? ???? ?????????????. ?? ?????? ???? ?? ?????? ?????????? ? ??????? ?? ????????, ?? ? ?????????, ??????? ??????????????, ?????????????, ??????? ?????????? ?????????, ??????? ???????????????? ?????????, ?????????????????? ?? ??? ?????? ? ?? ??????? ???????? ?а???????????, ???????? ?? ?????????????? ???????????.а
????? ??????, ???? ?? ???????? ????????, ???????? ???????????? ???????? ?? ????? ?????? ???????, ?а?????????? ???? ?а???????? ????????? ??????? ???????, ????????, ????????????? ? ??????????????. ?????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ???????????? ????????? ?? ??????? ?????????????.
?????? ?? ?????? ??????? ????????????? ????? ????? ????? ??????, ? ??????? ??????????? ????.а
????? ?????????????? ?????? ????????????, ??????? ????????? ?а???????????????? ???????, ???????? ?? ???????? ????????? ??????????:
1. ????????? ?а?????????????? ??????????? ????????, ??? ???????? ????????? ??? ?????????
??????????? ?????????????? (???????, ????????? ? ?.?.)а
2. ??????????? ?????????? ???????? (?????? ??????????????? ????????? ?? ?????????? ????????, ??????? ? ?????? ??? ?????? ?????????).
3. ???????????? ??????? ????? ?а???????? ???????????? ??????? ??а????????.
4. ????????????? ?????????? ???????? ????????? ? ??????? ??????????? ?? ?????-???? ????.
5. ??????????? ?????-?????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????? ?????????, ??????? ?????????? ? ????????????? ?????????, ???????, ???????? ????? ???????????? ? ????????????? ????????.а
???????? ?? ????? ???????????? ?? ????? ?????? ???????, ??? ???????, ?????????????? ???
??? ???? ?????????????? ???????? ??? ??????????. ?????? ??????? ????????? ???????? ????????
?? ???????????? ????????????, ???????????, ????????-????????, ?????????? ?а????? ????????.а
???????? ??? ????, ??? ?а???????? ???????? ???????????? ????? ????????? ?????? ?????????, ????????????? ??????? ????????? ???????????? ???????? ? ????. ??????? ????????????? ????????? ?а??????? ????? ???????????? ????????? ?? ??????????????? ????????? ????????? ? ?????????????? ??????????? ???? ??????? ????????.а
? ?а ?????????? ???????? ?? ???????? ????????? ???????? ??? ??????????? ???????????
????.а
???????, ???????????? ????:
1. Why does a woman say she has been shopping if she hasn?t bought a thing?а
? Why does a man say he has been fishing if he hasn?t cought anything? (Perfect Continuous).а
2. We are famous for snails in our restaurant, Sir.а
? I?ve noticed. I am being served by one now. (Passive Voice).а
3. At Customs
Officer noticed a suspicious man and wanted him to open his suitcase.а
? What?s in that bottle?а
? Holy water from the City of Jerusalem.
? This isn?t the water! It?s whisky!
? Praise the Lord! Another miracle! (Complex Object).
??????? ?? ??????-?????????? ??????????.а
1. Galaxies are racing away from us, and the further away they are the faster they are moving, so the
entire Universe is expanding. (Degrees of comparison).
2. In 1908 the Tungus meteorite struck Central Siberia. Had it come 5 hours later the Earth would have
turned enough in its orbit to allow a direct hit on S-Petersburg. (Subjunctive Mood).
??????? ?? ?????????????? ??????????:
1. My mistress? eyes are nothing like the Sun,а
Coral is far more red than her lips red. (W. Shakespeare, Sonnet 130). (Degrees of Comparison).а
136
??????????? ????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
2. Professor Forster was such a small man that a special spacesuit had to be made for him. (Arthur C. Clarke,
Jupiter 5). (Equivalents of Modal Verbs).а
???????, ?????????????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????.а
1. The bus was sardined with people.а
2. She was sandwiched between two other applicants (Passive Voice).
????????????????? ??????
1. ????????? ?.?., ??? ?.?. ?????? ???????? ??????????? ??????. ??????????????? ? ???????? ?.:
????????????? ????? л????????╗, 2006. 336 ?.
2. ????? ?.?. ???????? ??????????? ??????: ?????? ? ????????. ?.: ?????????, 2007. 480 ?.
3. ????? ?. ??????? ??????? ????? ?? ???????? ???????????? ?????. ??????? ????????? ?????????? // ??????? ??????. 2017. ?7. ?. 511?517. URL: https://moluch.ru/archive/141/39646/ (???? ?????????: 29.06.2018).
4. ?????? ?.?. ??????????????? ?????????? ? ??????? ?а??????? ????? // ???????????? ?? ?????
?????? ??????????. ?.: ?????, 1968. ?. 5?57.
137
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
??? 372.881.111.1
?. ?. ??????
???????? ???????????? ????, ??????
?????-????????????? ??????????????? ???????????
???????????????? ???????????????
????????????? ??????? ???????? ? ????????? ?а?????????? ?????:
??????? ????????????? ? ???????? ????????????
?????? ????????????? ??????? ??????? ?а?????????? ????? ???? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ? ?????????, ??????? ???????? ?а?????????? ?а???????? ?????????????? ? ????????????? ????????????. ??????????, ??? ?????? ??????? ???????? ?а?????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?? ???????????
?????????? ?? ????? ???????????? ??????????? ?????. ?а ?????? ???????? ??????????? ??????????
??????????? ????????-??????????????? ???????????? ??? ??????? ????????????? ????????. ?????
????, ???????????? ?????? ?а??????? ??????? ??????? ??????????????? ? ????????????????? ???
??????????? ????????, ?????????? ??????????? ???? ???????.
???????? ?????: ???????? ?????????????? ????????????, ??????????????? ???????, ????????????????? ???????, ????????? ??????? ?? ??????????
R. B. Libina
Associate Professor, Candidate of Historical Science
Saint Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation
TWO MODEL SYSTEM OF INTERROGATION AND NEGATION IN ENGLISH: THE ORIGIN
AND TEACHING PROBLEMS
The article deals with the presence in English of the two model system of interrogation and negation, noted to
complicate teaching of negative and interrogative constructions. The phenomenon is reported to derive from
the Celtic and Germanic interaction during the formation of English. The article shows the ways how to apply
the results of historical and linguistic research for the didactical aims. Besides, the terms dependent and independent are suggested for the verbs forming the constructions of the both models.
Keywords: teaching interrogation, dependent verbs, independent verbs, Celtic influence on English
?????????? ???????? ? ????????? ?а??????? ???????? ??????????? ?а????? ??????? ?????????????? ???, ?а??????? ?????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????. ?????? ??????? ????????? ???, ???
? ????? ??????????? ??????? ??????, ??????? ???????????? ????????? ???????, ???????? ??????????? ?? ?а ????????? ????????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ??? ????????? ????????????? ???????????.
??????????????, ??? ???????? ???? ?????????? ???????? ???????????? ?????????????? ??????? ??????????? ?????, ??????? ?а?????? ?????? ????? ???????????? ??? ????????????? ??????? ???????? ?
?????????. ????????????? ????? ????????, ?????????????? ??? ??????????? ??????, ??????????? [2;
3; 6, 272?274] ?, ??? ?? ?????, ???????? ????????-??????????????? ????????. ???? ?????? ? ????????
??????????? ????????????? ??????????????? ???????????? ??? ??????? ????????????? ????????.
????????????? ??????? ???????? ? ?????????а? ??? ??? ?????? ????? ?????????? ??????? ????
?????????, ?????? ????? ????? ??????? ?? ???????-??????????. ??? ??????????? ???????? ??????????
???????? ? ????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ???????, ??????????? ?а ?????????? ??????????? ???????? do-support. ?????????????? ??????? ???????? ?? ????, ????? ? ???? ???????????? ???
?????? ????? ????????? ??????????? ???????????????? ???????, ?а?? ????? ??? ???????? ?????????
???????? ??????????. ??? ??????????????? ????? ???????? ????????? ???? ??????: ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ???? ???????? ?а?????? ???????????, ? ????????? ? ?????????????? ??????? not.
???????? ?? ???? ???????????? ? ????????? ????????? ?????? ????????? ?а????? ?????. ?????? ????? ????????? ????? ??? ?????????? ?????????? ????????, ??????????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ???????
do-support. ?????? ?а???????? ???????, ?????????? ?????? ?????? ? be, must, can, may, ???????????
?а??????? ????? ?????????. ?????? ? ???????? ?????????: ?????????? ???? ???????, ??????? ??????
????????? ??????????????? ?????????????? ??????; ????????? ????, ???????? ?????? ?????.
138
??????????? ????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
??????? ????????, ??? ????? ????????, ?????????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ?????????? ??????,
???????????? ?? ??????. ?? XV ????, ??? ? ?а?????? ?????????? ??????, ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????? ??????, ????????? ????????? ?????????????? ???????. ????? ?? ??????? ?а??????????
????? ????????? ???? ?????????????-????????????? ?????, ???????????? ??????????? ??? do-support?
???????????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????????/??????? ?????? ??????? ????????? ?????????????
????????? do-support ?аXIV ?. ? ????? ?????????? ???????? ?????? ?? ??????????? ?а?????????????
??????? ?аXVII ????.
????????????? ????????? ????????, ??????????? ????????????? do-support. ???, ????????,
?а?????? XX ?. ???? ????????? ?????????????, ??? ???? ?? do-support ????? ?????. ?а????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????????? ???? ???? ???????? ?? ?????? ????????????. ???????????? ?????????, ????????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ??? ?????? ????????????? ????. ??????????? ??????? do,
does, did ??????????? ??????? ????????? ??????????? ????. ??????????? ??????????? ??????????????, ??????, ????????? ??? ?????????????, ??????? ??????????? ???? ??????? ????? ????? ??? ????????????? ?????????????? ?????????? [7, 162?163].
?????????? ??????????????? ?а ??????????? ????? ???????? ????????, ????????? ????????????? do-support cа???????? ?? ?????????? ?????? ????????? ??????. ???????? ?????????? ?а??????
???? ?????? ?????? ?? ??????????????, ??? ??????? do-support, ????????????? ??? ?????????? ??????, ?????? ????????? ?????? [4, 53]. ? ??? ???? ?????????????? ?а??? ?? ???????????? ? ???????,
?а??????? ???????????? ?????????? ????. ??? ????????, ?????????? ??????? ???????? ?а??????? ?????????? ??????, ? ?? ??????????? ?? ???? ??????? ????????? ?????????? ?????????, ????????????
?? ?????????? ???????? ?а?????? ?????????????. ???????? ???????? ?а???????? ?????????????????,
???????????? ? ????? ???????? ??????????, ????????? ????? ????? ? ?а???? ???????? ??????????????
?а???????? ???????? ? ?????????? ????????? ??????. ?? ????????? ?а???????????? ?????????? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????? ?????????? ?? ????? ??????? ?????. ??? ???? ?а????????? ??????? ??????????? ?????, ?? ??????????? ??????????, ?????? ???? ???? ?????????? ?????????????.
?????????????? ????? ??????? ??????: ??? ????? ?????????, ??? ???????????????? ?? ???? ?????????? ????????? ?????????? ???? ??????????? ????? ?????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????? ??????? ????? ??????? ???????? ? ????????? ????????????? do-support. ????????? ??????? ????????????,
??????? ???????, ?а??????????. ????????????? ?????????????? ?а????? ?????????????? ?????????
?а????, ??? ???????? ????????? ?????? ????????? ? ???????????? ?????????? ???????, ????? ???????????? ?? ??????? ????????? ?????????? [5, 272?274]. ????? ???????, ????????????? ??????? ????????
? ????????? ????? ??????????????? ??? ????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ?????????? ?? ????? ???????????? ??????????? ?????.
??????????????, ??? ????????-??????????????? ???????????? ??????? do-support ????? ???? ???????????? ?а?????????? ? ??????? ??????? ???????? ?????????????-????????????? ????????????.
? ?????? ??????? ????? ????????-??????????????? ?????????? ?? ???????? do-support ????????? ????????????? ????????????????? ????????????????, ??????? ????????? ??? ???????? ????????? ?????? ?????. ???????? ?? ?????????????? ?а ??????? ???????, ??????????????? ???????
?????????? ??????????, ????????????? ??????? ???????? ? ????????? ?? ???????? ?????????????
???????????. ????????? ????????????? ?????? ? ????????????? do-support, ??????????? ??? ???????
?а???? ???????????? ???????? ? ?????????, ??????? ?????????? ?????. ??? ???? ???? ??????????????? ?а?????????? ????? ???? ????????? ??????????? ?а????? ????????? ???????? ?? ???????????? ?????-???? ????????. ??????? ?????????, ?? ?? ???????????. ??????????? ?????? ?????????? ?
?а ???????????, ??????????????? ??? ????????. ????????? ??????? ?????? ?а ?????????? ?????????
?а?????? Simple Tense, ?? ?????????? ???????? ?? ????????????????????? ???? ??????? ???????? ?
????????? ?а?????? ????? ????????????? ?????. ?????? ??????? ??????????? ??????, ?????, ????????, ?а ???????, ?????? ??????? ?а ???????? be, ????????? ??????????????? ?????? do. ??? ??????? ????????? ????? ?????????? ??????????? ????????, ?????????? ??????????? ???? ???????, ???
??????????????? ? ?????????????????. ??????????????, ??? ???????? ??????????????? ????????
????????? ?? ?????????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ????? ???????????? ?????????? ????????, ?? ? ?????
???????????? ???????????????.
????? ????, ????????? ??????? ?????????? ??????? ???????? ????????? ????????: ??????
?????????? ??????????? ????????? ?????????? ???? ????????? ?????????? ?????? ??? ?????????
?????. ??? ????? ????? ???? ????????? ????????? ?а?????????????? ???? ??????????? ??????????
?? ???????????? ?а????? ?????????????-????????????? ?????? ?? ??????.
139
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
?????? ?????? ? ?????????? ?? ???? ????? ???? ????????? ????????? ????????????? ? ????????????? ????????????? ???????. ????????, ????? ??????? ????? ????????? ?а?????????? ?????,
????????, ???: л?????? ?а?????????? ????? ????????? ??? ??????? ??????? ?а????????? ?а????????
???? ????, ?????????? ??-????????. ?а??????? ???? ?? ?????????? ??????? ?а?????????? ??????????? ????? ??????? ???????? (?????), ?????????? ?? ???????????????. ??? ?? ?????? ?????????? ??
????????, ?? ? ???????? ??? ?????? ???????????. Do, does ? did ?а????? ?????????-?????? ?? ????. ???
??????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ? ???, ??? ?????? ????????? ?аbe. ??????? ????
???? ???-?? ???????? ?а?????? ????????????. ??? ??????? ?????????? ?????, ? ??????????? ???????????? ?????, ?????????. ?а???? ?????????? ??????? ???????? ??? ?????? ??????????? ????-??????????. ?а?????????? л???????????╗ ???? ?????? ????????? ??? ??????? ??????: be ? ??? ?????????
???????? ????? ?? ??????? ?????????? ??????, ? ????????? ??????? ? ?? ????????? ????????╗. ????????? ???????????? ???????????? ???????? ???????????? ????????? ????????????? ??????????????
???????? ? ????? ?????????????? ???????????.
? ?????? ???????? XX ?. ? ????????????? ????????-???????????????? ??????? ?а ?????????? ??????? ????? ?а???????? ??????? ????????? ??????? ????????, ????? ???????? л??????? ?????
???????╗ ? л??????? ???????╗, ???? ????????. ?? ??????? л?????????? ??? ??????? ?????? ?????╗
л???????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????? ?а???????? ? ?????????? ??????? ????????? ?????╗
[1, 398]. ??? ???????? ??????? ??? ????????????? ????????? ???????? ???????? ? ????????? ???????
?????????? ????? ????? ??????? ????????????.
????????????????? ??????
1. ???????? ?. ????????? ??????????. ?., 1958.
2. Denisonа D. The origins of periphrasticа do // Papers from the 4th International Conference on English
Historical Linguistics.аAmsterdam, 1985. ??.а45?60.
3. HudsonаR. A. The rise of auxiliaryаdo: verb-non-raising or category-strengthening? //аTransactions of the
Philological Society,а1995. ??. 41?72.
4. KiparskyаP. Indo-European origins of Germanic syntax //Clause structure and language change. N.-Y.,
1995. ??. 140?69.
5. McWhorter J.аOur Magnificent Bastard Tongue: The Untold History of English, 2009.
6. Millward C.M., Hayes M. A biography of the English language. N.-Y., 1989.
7. Tieken-Boon van OstadeаI. Negativeаdoаin eighteenth-century English: the power of prestige. One hundred years of English studies in Dutch universities.аAmsterdam, 1987. ??.а157?71.
140
??????????? ????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
??? 81?06.053.56
?.?. ?????
???????? ?????????????? ????, ?????????
?????-????????????? ??????????????? ???????????
???????????????? ???????????????
?????????????? ???????
?а??????? ?????????? ?????????-???????????
??????????????? ?????? ? ????? ? ???????? ??????????????? ???????? ?а??????? ?????????? ?????????-???????????, ? ???????????????? ??????????? ?а??????????? ??????????????? ??????, ? ????????
????????????????? ?????? ?а??? ???????????????? ??????????.
???????? ?????: ?????????????? ???????, ??????? ?????????????? ??????????, ???????? ???????
??????????????? ????????????, ????????-??????????.
R. A. Orlov
Candidate of Philology, Professor
Saint Petersburg state university of aerospace instrumentation
LITERARY TRANSLATION
IN THE SYSTEM OF A LINGUIST-TRANSLATOR TRAINING
The article deals with the place and importance of literary translation in the system of training of a linguist-translator, the qualification requirements for a translator of a literary text, the importance of interdisciplinary connections in his/her professional training.
Keywords: literary translation, world literature, figurative system of a work of art, linguist-translator.
?????????????? ??????? ? ?????? ??????? ?????????????? ??????????, ??????? ???????????
?????????? ???????????, ???????????? ?а???? ?????????? ?а???????? ? ??????????????? ????????
????????? ????????????. ????? ????? ??? ???????????? ??????, ???????? ?? ??????????? ??????????,
?? ????? ???????? ??????????? ???????? ??????? ??? ???????????, ??? ? ???????? ???????, ???
???? ????? ???????????? ??????, ?? ????? ???????? ?????????????? ??????? ???????????? ???????
??? ????, ???????????? ??? ?????? ?????.
?????? ??? ?????????????? ?????????? ????? ??????????????? ???????? ?а??????? ??????????
?????????-???????????, ?????????? ?а??????????? ??????????? ????????????? ???????????? ?а?????????? ???????? ????????? ?????????? ? ???????????? ????? ???????? ??????.
? ?????? ??????? ???????????, ??? ????????, ????? л??????╗ ???????? ???????????, ?????????????? ????? ??? ??????? ? ????, ???????? ?????? ???? ??????? ??????? ???????????? ?а????????
???????? ???? ??? ????? ???? ???????? ????????????. ?????????? ????? л?????? ???????????╗ ? ???
???????? ???????????. ????? ?? ???????????????? ???????? ? ?????, ?а????? ????? ??????, ??????
???? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ??????????????? ???????????? ? ???????????????? ???????
??? ?????????-????????????
?????? ?????, ??? ????? ????? ?????, ?????????? ??????????? ?а?????? ???????????? ????????????: ???????? ??????????????? ?????? ?а??????? ??????? ?????????, ??????? ??????????
????????.
?????? ?????????????? ????????, ?????????? ?а ?????????? ? ?????????????? ??????????
?????????? ? ?а???????????? ???????????, ???????????? ?а???????? ?????????? ??? ??????? ?????
?????? ???????????? ??????? ? ??????? ??????????? ???????.
??-??????, ??? ????????? ????????????? ???????????????? ????????, ??????????? ?а?????
????????????? ????????????. ??? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ?а ?????? ???????????? ?????? ?а ??????????? ?? ??? ?????????????? ??????????????, ????????, ?????????????? ? ???????-?????????????? ????????????, ?????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ? ??????? ?а???????? ????????? ??????????? ????
??????????? ?????? ?????? ? ????????? ??????? ? ??????? ??? ?????????? ????????????, ???????,
141
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
??????????? ????????? ?? ???????? ????????????? ?????? ??? ????????? ????? ??????????? ? ??????? ????????.
???????????? ???????????, ???????? ?а??????? ??????????????? ????????, ???????? ????? ??
?????????? ?????????, ??? ? ?????????? ?????? ????????????? ????????????. ?а???? ????? ?????????
???????? ????????????? ?????????? ?а?????? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????-???????????
???? ??????????????? ???????? ? ???? ??????? ?????????????? ??????????. ??? ????? ????????
??????????? ??????????????? ??????????? ???????????? ?а????? ???????????????? ???????????? ????????????? ?????? ?а??????? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ? ???????? ????????????? ?? ????????????
? ???????????? ???????. ????????? ?????????? ??????????? ????????? ? ??????? ?????????? ????
???????? ????? ???????????? ? ?????????? ?????? ? ?????? ?????????????? ?????.
??????? ???????, ?????????? ???? ?????? ?? ??????? ??????? ?????????????? ??????????
????????? ???????????????? ????? ???????? ?????????-??????????? ?? ???????? ???????? ??????? ?????????? ? ??????? ?а???? ?????????? ????????????? ? ???????? ? ??????????? ???????? ???????????? ? ???????????????? ????????? ?а?????????? ? ?????????. ??????? ?а???? ???????? ?????
???????? ???????????? ??????????, ???? ???? ?????? ???? ???????? ??????????? ????? ??????????
????????????? ? ??????? ? ??????????? ???????? ? ??????????, ?а??? ????? ? ?? ??????????? ????? ??
????????. ?????????? ??????????????? ???????????? ???????? ?а???????????? ?????? ? ??? ???????,
? ??? ????????.
???????????? ? ???????????? ???????? ?? ??????????? ????????? ???? ?а?????? ?? ???????,
?? ??? ?? ??????, ????? ??? ?????, ????????????? ??????? ??? ??????? ?а??????? ????????????, ??????? ?? ????? ?? ?????? ??????? ??? ?????????? ????????? ?а??????? ??????? ??????????. ???????,
?а???? ??????, ? ??????????, ? ?????????, ?????????? ????? ????????? ???????? ???????????? ???
?????, ?????-???????????? ????? ????????, ?????? ????????? ??? ??????????? ??????, ????? ??? ????????? л?????????╗. ??????? ? ???????? ??-??????? ???????? ???? ? ?? ?? ???????????? ??????? ??
????????? ?????? ?????. ??????, ?????? ?? ????? ??????????? ??????? ? ???????, ???????? ?????? ??
???? л?????????╗, ?? ?????? ????????, ?????? ??? ???????????????? ?????????? ???? ????????????
??????? ???????? ??? ??? ?? ???????, ??????? ???? ?????? ????????????? ???????????? ? ??? ???????????? ? ?????????? ?????????????, ?????????? ?? ??? ????????? ?????, ??????????? ?????????? ?
???????? ??????????? ?а?????????????? ??????????.
??????? ??????, ?????????? ?????? ?????????? ?а ?????????? л???????????╗ ????????, ?????? ??????????? ?????, ?????????? ??????? ???????? ??????????????? ????????????, ??????? ????
????????????? ? ??????????, ???????????? ? ????????? ?????? ??????. ?а?????????????? ?????? ?????????? ????????? ?????? ???????????? ????? ? ????????? ????? ???????, ??? ?????????? ??????????
????? ?????, ??? ????? ?? ????? ???? ???????????? ??? ???????????. ??????? ??????? ?????????????? ??????????, ?? ???????? ?????,а? ??????? ???????????? ???????.
?????????? ? ???????? ????????????? ??? ?????????, ???????????? ?? ????? ????????????
??? ??????? ????????????? ?????????????, ? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ????????? ????????????? ????, ???????? ????? ??????????? ???????????? ?????? ? ??????????. ?а??? ????? ????
????????? ? ???????? ?????????? ???????? ???????????? ????????????, ? ????? ? ?? ?? ???, ???????
????? ??? ??????? ?????????? ?? ?????????? ?????.
??????????, ??? ??????? ????????? ??????????????? ????????????, ?????? ???????, ??? ?а???????????? ???????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????????? ??? ???????????????? ????????????
????????? ?а???? ?? ?????????????? ??????, ??????? ???????, ??????????? ?????????? ????????????? ???? ???????????? ?а?????????????? ??????????, ????????? ???????. ???????? ??????? ?????????? ??? ???, ??????????? ??? ?????? ?а????? ????????????. ?? ?????????? ??? ?а????? ????????,
???????? ?а ?????????????? ???????, ???????????? ?а ????????? ???????? ???????, ????? ???????
?????, ??????????? ???? ?? ???? ??????, ??????. ?????????? ?????????? ??? ?????????????? ??????
?????? ?а????? ???????? ??????????? ?????, ?а??? ????? ? ????????? ????????, ???????????? ?????
??? ??????????????? ???????.
???????? ???????? ?а ???????????? ?? ??????????, ????????, ? ?????? ?а ??? ? ??????????,
???????? ?????? ?? л???????╗. ??, ??? ???????????? ????????? ? ?????????? ???????? ??????? ??????????? ?????????? ????? ?????? ?? ???????????? ? ??????????? ????????????????, ????????
????? ? ?????????????? ??????????, ? ?????????????? ???????. ?????????? ????????? ? ??????????
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ????????????, ?.?. ????????, ?.?. ?????? ??? ?. ????????, ??. ??????, ?. ?????????, ?.?. ??????? ? ?????? ?????????.
142
??????????? ????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
????? ?? ?????????? ??? ?? ????????? ???????????? ???????????????? ?????? ????? ?? ???????? ?????? ???? ?а??????????? ???????? ?. ????????, ?????????? ????? ?????????? ??? ???? ?????:
л?????? ?????? ????? ???????? ?????;
????? ? ??? ? ??? ??????? ??? ?????!
???????? ????? ? ????? ??????
???????? ?? ????; ????? ?а???????? ?
??????? ??? ????????? ???????╗
(?. ???????. ?????? ???, ???????? 4-?, ??????? 6-?).
?????????? ?????????????? ??????????, ???????? ?а ???? ???????? ????????, ?????? ??????
???????? ?? ?????? ?????, ??????? ?? ??????????? ????????? ??????????, ? ??? ??? ?????????? ???????, ??? ?????????????? ????, ?а ????????? ?????? ??????????????? ?а ??????, ??????????? ?а ???
?????, ???????????? ??? ?? ??? ?????????? ?????????? ?? ???????? ??? ???????????? ??????, ????????
?????? ??????????? ??????? ??? ??????????. ??? ??? ???? ??????????? ???????? ? ???????????? ?????????? ??? ? ?????????????, ????????????, ????????????????? ?????????????? ???????, ?????????? ?????????????? ???????????????? ? ????????????? ????????, ?????????????? ?????????? ? ???????????? ?а????????????????
????????????? ?? ??????? ? ?а????????????. ??????? ?? ???? ?????? ? ??????????, ???????? ?????????????? ????????????, ???????? ?а?????? ????????? ??????.
?????????????? ?????????? ???????? ????????? ???????????? ? ???????? ??????? ?????????, ?????????????? ????????, ???, ?а???? ???????, ???????? ???????????????? ????????? ?????
?????????? ????????????, ?а ??? ????? ? ?????????????, ??? ?????? ???????????? ??????? ???????
?а??????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ???????? ???????? ????????????? ????????.
?????? ? ??????? ?????????? ??? ???????, ?а??????? ????? ???? ????????? ???????????? ?????? ???????? ? ????????, ?? ????????? ?а л???????╗ ?????? ?????????????, ??? ??? ???? ???????,
?????????????? ???????, ? ??? ???????? ?а?????? ??????? ? ??????, ? ???????????.
????????? ????????, ?????????????? ??????? ???? ??????????, ??????????? ??? ?????-????????????? ??????, ????????????? ?а?????? ???????? ????????????????, ?????? ???????????? ?????????? ???????????? л?????? ????????╗, ?а??????? ??????? ???? ????????? ??????????? ??????????. ?
?????????? ?? ????? ?? ????????? ?????, ?????? ?? ??????? ??????????????? ??????. ??? ?????, ??? ???
????????????? л????????╗ ????????? ???????????????? ?????????? ??? ?а??????? ???????????????
???????????, ??? ??? ?????????? ?а??????????????? ????????, ? ?? ???, ??? ??? ?????? ?а?????????
???? ?????? ??????. ???????? ?????????????? ???????????? ?????????? ?а???????????? ??????? ? ?а????????????, ? ??? ?????????? ?????????? ??? ??????????? ?????????????? ????? ?а??????????? ?? ???????
? ??????, ??? ??? ????? ?а???? ????????. ????? ????, ?????? ?????????????? ????????????, ??? ??? ????
???????, ???????? ???? ?????? ??????????? ?? ?????? ? ?????, ??????? ????????? ?а???? ??? ??????.
л???? ????? ??????, ??? ?? ???╗,а? ??????? ?. ?????.
?.?. ???????????, ????????, ??? ???????? ?а?????? ? ??????, ?????????? ?????????? ????????????? ????????? ?а?????????? ???????? ?????? ???????? 19 ????, ???????? ???????????, ????????,
?а????? ?????? л????╗ ??????????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ?а??? ?????????? ???????????. ? ??? ???
???????? ?а???????? ?? ????????-??????, ???????? ?а????? ?????????????? ????????? ???????????.
л??? ?????╗ ?????????? ????????????? ?а??????? 17 ???? ??? ??????? ?? ??????????? ??????
????????? ??????, ? ?а?????? ???????? 19 ???? ?а?????? ???? ????? ??????? ???????????? ????????????????? ????????????? ??????????????, ? ?.?. ??????????? ?????? ??? л????? ????????? ??????╗,
?а??????? ?????? л??????????? ? ??????? ????? ???????? ? ????????????╗ (??. ??????? ???????? ?а??.:
??????????? ?.?. ?????? ???????? ?????????????? ????????????, ?., 1929, ?.12, ?.254?256). ??????? ? ????????? ?а?? ???? ????? ???????? ? л?????????????? ????????╗, ????????????? ? ?а?????
???????? ????????, ? ?а?????? ????????????? ???????.
??????? ????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????? ??????, ??? ?????? ???????????
????????? ????? ??????? ?а??? ????? ?????????? ??? ???? ??????????, ?????? ???????????? ??????
? ??????. ?????? ??? ?????????????? ?????????? ??????? ???????????????? ??????????????? ??????????? ??????????????? ?????? ?? ???????? ?????? ?????.
143
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
??? 37.018.761
?. ?. ??????
?????-????????????? ??????????????? ???????????
???????????????? ???????????????
?????????????? ????????????? ?а??????????? ????????
?????? ????????? ?????????? ?? ??????????? ???? ???????? ?????????????? ?????????????. ??? ??
?????? ?????????? ??????? ?????? ??? ??????, ?? ? ?????? ?????????? ????? ? ????????. ?????? ???????? ?а?????? ????????? ?????????????? ????????. ?????? ???????? ????? ?????????? ??????? ??????????? ????? ???????????? ??? ????????? ?????????? ?а?????????????? ????????????. ??????
?????, ??? ??????, ?????????????, ?????? ? ???????????? ????????????? ?? ?а ???????????? ?????.
?а??????? ?????? ????? ????????????? ???????? ????? ?????????????? ???????? ????????.
???????? ?????: ?????????????? ?????????????, ???????????, ???????????, ?????????????? ????????, ?????????????? ????????.
O. A. Rozova
Saint Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation
FUNCTIONAL ILLITERACY IN MODERN SOCIETY
As the title implies the article describes the growing phenomenon of functional illiteracy. It is not just a lack
of basic reading and writing skills, it is also the potential for social exclusion and weak social ties. The rapidly
growing amount of information requires constant growth of qualification for free orientation in the information
space, however, and first of all, for efficient information search, interpretation, and evaluation, and for effective
use of the same information in everyday life. The article deals with the problematic aspects of the information-oriented society. Much attention is given to a new information culture.
Keywords: functional illiteracy, literacy, education, information culture, information-oriented society.
? ?????????? ????????
???? ?? ???????? ??????? ?а????? ?????? ??????? ? ?????????? ????? ????????, ??????? ???????????? ??????. ???????? ???, ???, ??????????? ???? ????????.
?а90-? ???? XX ?. ????????? ??????? л?????????????? ?????????????╗. ??????? ??? ???????, ????????????, ?? ?????????? ????????????? ????????????? ? ?????????????. ?? ???? ???????
???????? ????????, ????? ????? ?????????, ??? ?????????? ??? ???????? ?? ???????????? ???? ?? ????
???????? ?????? ???????????????? ? ?????????? ???????????. ??????? ????????? ????????????? ???
?????????????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ??????, ?????? ? ????????? ??????? ??? ????????. ??? ?????? ???? ???????????? ????. ?? ?????? ?? ????? ???????? ? ??????????? ??? ? ???-?? ???????????
? ???????????.
??????????, ??????? ???? ?????????????? ? ?????????? ?????????? ???, ?? ??????? ???? ????????, ?а????????????? ??????????? ????? ? ?????????? ??????? ???????????? ????????? ??????.
???? ???? ? ????? ??????? л???????????? ????????╗, ??????? ???????? ?а???? ??????????? ??????????
????? ??????????????? ?а????? ?????????????? ????????????, ????? ????????????? ?????? ???????
????????????, ????????? ???????????? ???? ???? ? ???????????. ???? ?а???????????? ????, ???????
???????? ????????? ???????? ? ???. ?а ???????? ???????? ?а ??????????????? ???????? ???? ?????????????? ???????? ??? ???????????? ?????????? ??????????? ????? ?????? ???????????. ?? ????
????? ?????? ?????????????? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????, ?????????? ???????????????? ?????????????? ? ??? ???? ????????????? ?а??????????? ????? ???????????? ???????.
?? ??? ???????? ????? л?????????????? ?????????????╗ ? ?? ??????????? ?? ???? ?????????? ????????. ?????????? ??????????? ???????? ? ??????????? ???????? ?????????? ????????????? ???????????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ????? ??????????? ???????????.
144
??????????? ????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
???????? ?????????????? ????????????? ? ???, ?а???????? ?????, ???????? ?????????????
????, ????????????? ??????????? ? ????????. ????????????? ?????? ???????? ? ??? ???????? ??????????????? ? ???, ??? ???????????? ????????? ?а???????? ???????? ?а????? ?????? ?????????-?????????????? ????????, ?а?????? ???? ????????.
?????????????? ???????? ??? ????? ?????? ????????
????????? ???????? ?????????????? ???????? ???????? ???????????? ?????? ????? ?? ????????? ??? ?????? ?? ?????????? ????? ???????? ????????. (????????а? ?? ?????????? cultura, ??? ???????? ????????????, ??????????, ???????????, ????????, ?????????). ????? ????????, ?а??? ????? ?
??????????????, ???? ??????? ???????????? ????????????. ??а? ?? ??????, ?????????? ? ????????????.
?а ????? ???????, ????????? ?????????????? ???????? ??????? ???????????? ?????? ????????, ?
?а??????а? ?????? ??? ???????? ??????? ???????????? ???????? ?????? ?а??????????? ????????????
?????????????? ????????. ??? ?????? л?????????????? ????????╗ ????? ???????????? ?а???????????????, ?????????????????? ? ?????????? ????? ??????.
???????? ?????? ????? ??????, ?? ??????????????? ??? ???????? ?????? ????????????, ???????????? ????????? ?? ??? ?????????? ?????????????? ?????????. ?а???????? ?????????? ?????
?????????? ????? ???????????? ?а ??????? л?????????????? ???????????╗. ?а ?????? ??????????????????? ??????? ??????, ??????????? ??? ?????? ?а???????????, ????????? ?а????? ????? ????????
???????????? ????????. ?????????? ?????? ??????????? ?????????????? ????????, ??? ?????? ? ??????, ??????????? ??? ???????????? ????????? ???????? ?а????? ???????.
????, л?????????????? ????????╗- ??? ?????????, ???????? ? ?????? ????????, ?????????????? ???????????????? ??????????????? ???????????? ?а????????????? ????? ?????????????? ??????????. л???????????? ???????? ?а???, ????? ???????????? ????????????? ??????????? ?????????????
??????╗ (??????? ?.?. ?????????????? ???????. ?.: ?????????, 2001. ?. 336). ???????????, ???????,
?? ?????????? ??????????? ??????? ?????? ????????, ?а???????? ??????????????? ??????? ??????????? ????????????? ???????????, ? ??????? ???????? ???????????? ?а???????? ??????? ?????
????????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ?? ??? ???????????????? ????????????, ?? ? ?? ???????????? ?????.
?????????????? ???????? ???????? ????????? ????? ??? ????????, ??????????? ??? ???????????? ?????????? ?????????? ????????? ????? ???????????? ???????. ?а??? ??????????? ?????????? ?? ????????????. ??? ???????? ???????????? ?????? ?????????? ? ????????? ???????? ??????
??????????. ???? ??????????? ???????? ???????????? ??????????, ???????? ? ???????????? ??????,
??? ????? ???????? ????????? ??????????? ???????? ?а????? ??? ???? ?????. ?а??????????? ????????
???????? ?а?????? ???????? ????? ?? ??????? ????????, ???????????? ?????????? ?????? ????????,
?????????? ?????? ?????????????? ????????, ??????? ???????? ?а???? ?а???????? ????????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ???????????. ?а????????? ????? ??? ?? ?????? ??????, ???????????? ?????????? ???????????????? ? ?????????????????? ????????????, ?? ???? ?? ???????? ???????? ?????????? ???????????? ????????. ??????? ?а???????? ?????? ? ??????? ?? ?????? ?а??????????? ?????????? ??????????? ??? ??????????? ????? ? ????????????, ??? ????????? ?а???????????? ????????.
??????? ?а????? ???????? ????? ?????????? ??? ???????????? ?а??????? ???? ????? ????????, ?????????? ????? ?????? ??????????? ????????.
?????????????? ??????????? ? ????????????? ? ?????????????? ????????
?????????? ??????????????? ???????? ?а ????????? ??????????? ????? ?????????????? ????? ??? ?????? ?????. ?а??? ?????????? ?????????? ?????? ??????? ?? ???? ?????? ????????????
????????????, ???? ?????????? ???????????? ? ???????????? ??? ??????????????. ??????? ????????
????? ????? ????- ?? ?????? ? ??????????????. ??????????? ???????? ????? ????????????, ??? ???
??????????? ?????, ? ?????????????? ?????????? ?????????? ????????? ?????????? ??????? ?????
????????, ??? ?????-???? ??????. ????????????? ???????????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ?????????? ? ?????????? ????? ?????????? ?????. ????????????????????? ???????? ??????????, ?? ???????
?а??????? ????? ?????????? ????? ??? ??????? ??????? ?? ?????? ??????????? ??????????, ?? ??????
? ???????????? ?а??????????? ????????? ???????????? ? ???????????? ???????????????. ???????????????? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????????? ????????. ???????????, ??????????????,
?????? ???????????????, ?????? ?????? ??????????? ????????, л??????????????? ?а ????????╗ ?
???????? ?????????, ??????? ??????? ???????? ??????. ?????????? ???? ??????????? ???????????
? ?????????? ??? ??????? ?а????????? ??????????????? ????????.
145
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
????, ?? ????? ????????? л??????? ???????????╗ ????????????? ???????????? ??? ???????????? ???????????: ???????? ??????, ??????, ?????????????? ??????????? ? ?????????. ????????????? ??? ?а?????? ????????? ?????????? ? ???????? ???????????, ?а?????? ???????, ?а??????. ?????????????? ??????????? ??????? ?а??????? ?????? ???????????, ?? ?????? ???? ????????????????.
???, ?????? ?????, ??????????? ???????? ? ???????????? ??????????, ???, ?а???? ???????, ????????
??????? ???????? ?? ?????????? ???? ?????.
?? ???? ????????, ??? ??????????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ????????? ?а?????????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ?а ?? ??????. ??????? ?????? ???????? ???????? ???????????? ????????,
????? ????????, ???????????, ?????????????, ???????????? ?? ?а????? ????? ??? ??????? ????????
????????? ???????. ??????????? ????????????? ? ????????, ?????? ?????? ??????????????? ?а?????????? ???????????? ? ?.?. ??????? ?а???????? ?????? ? ????????? ? ??????? ?????? ?а???????????
???? ????????? ???????? ?? ?а ???????, ?????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ????????. ???
???????? ?а???? ??? ???????: ?????? ?? ??????? ?????? ?а??????????? ??? ??????????? ? ??????????? ??????? ??????, ??????, ??????? ??? ??????????? ???????????? ?????? ?? ?????????? ??????????? ???????. ?????? ?????? ?????? ?а????????????? ??????? ??? ???????????? ?????????????????
????? ??????? ????????, ??????????? ?????? ???? ?а??????? ?????. ????????? ? ????? ??????????? ??
?????????????? ???????????? ?????????????? ? ??????????? ??????????.
????? ??????? ?????????????
??????? ????????? ?????? ???????? ???????? ???????????? ???? ?????????????? ?????????? ?? ???? ??????. ????? ??????????? ???????????????, ??????? ? ????? ??????????? ??????
????????. ???? ??????? ?а????????????? ???????? ?????????????? ??????????? ?а?????????? ?????????. ?????????? ???? ???????? ?????????????. ?????????? ????? ?????, ?????? ?????? ??????????? ??????????, ???????????? ???????????? ?????????????? ?а ???????? ????? ?а ???????????
????????. ?????????????? ???????????? ????? ????? л??????????? ??-??????╗. ??????? л?????????????? ?????????????╗ ??????? ?????? ?а ???????????? ???????? ???????, ??????????? ?????
????????? ?а ????? ?????? ????????????? ????????, ??? ??? ?а ??? ????????? ?????????? ? ?????
?????????? ????? ??????????? ???????. ????? ????????? ?????? ??? ????????? ????? ??????? ?????????????? ??? ? ????????? ?????????? ????????. ?а????? ???????? ???? ???????????? ??? ?????????? ???????? ??????????? ???????. ?.?. ??????? ????????, ??? л...?????????????????? ? ??????
???????????? ?? ????????? ???? ????? ???????? ???? ??????, ?????????? ?????????, ????????????
?? ?????????? ??????? ?а???????????? ?а????????? ??????????????? ????????╗ ( ??????? ?.?. ?????????????? ???????. ?.: ?????????, 2001. ?. 328).
??????? ??????? ????????????? ??????????? ? ????????? ?? ??????????????? ??????? ?а??????????. ????????, ??? ?? ?????? ??????? ?????? ?а???????? ??? ???????????????? ?????????? ????????. ?????????? ??????? ?? ?????????????, ??????? ???????? ???????? ?? ??, ??? ????????????
????? ?а??????? ????? ??????? л?????????????? ???????????╗ ? л?????????????? ?????????????╗
??????????? ????? ?????????? ?а???????? л?????????? ?????????╗. ??? ??? ???????? ??????? ?????????????? ???????? ?а?????????? ?????, ?????????????? ?????????????? ? ??????????? ???????????? ???????? ????? ??????. ??????? ?????????????? ??????????? ???????? ????? ?????????????
??? ???????????? ?????????? ?????????? ??? ?????????? ?????????.
????, ????????, ??? ?? ????, ???? ????? ???????????? ????????????? ??????, ?? ?????? ????????? ?а?????????????? ????????, ?????????????? ???????? ??????????? ????? ???????. ????????????? ????????? ?????????? ???????? ? ??????????? ????? ?????? ??????????? ???????? ??????
??????? ?? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ? ?? ??? ?????????? ?? ????????? ?а?????? ?????????????
????????, ? ????????? ???????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ?????????????? ???????????.
????????????????? ??????
1. ?????? ?.?. ?????????????? ??????: ??????? ??????? ??? ?????/ ?.:??? ??, 2000. 352 ?
2. ???????? ?.?. ?????? ??? ?????????? ????????. URL: https://elibrary.ru/download/elibrary_
16257406_23834206.pdf (???? ?????????: 6.08.2018).
3. ???????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?., ???????????? ?.?. ?????????????? ????????????? ?а???????? ???????? ?а??????????????? ????????. ??????: ???????, 2009. 244 ?.
4. ???????????? ?.?. ???????? ?????? ??????????? ?????????? ??? ?????????-?????????????? ????????/
????????-?????? ?????/???-???.???.??-? ???????? ? ????????, 2004. URL: http://www.e-culture.ru/
Articles/2006/Galaktionova.pdf (???? ?????????: 10.07.2018).
146
??????????? ????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
5. ???????? ?.?. ??????????? ???????? ? ???????? ?????????????? ????????????? // ????????
???????????? ???????????: ?????????????? ?????. 1997. ? 9. ?. 3?7.
6. ??? ?. ??????????? ?? ?????????????? ??????????? ??? ??????????? ?? ?????????? ???? ?????;
???. ?а ????. ?. ?????????. ?.: ??? ??? ???????. URL: http://www.ifap.ru (???? ?????????:
15.08.2018).
7. ?????? ?.?. ????????? ??????????? ??????? ? ?????????? XXI ???? // ???.??????????. 1991. ? 6.
?. 3?13; ????????? ?., ?????? ?.?. ?а???? ???????????// ????? ?????. 1991. ? 17. ?. 32?33.
8. ??????? ?.?. ?????????????? ???????. ?.: ?????????, 2001. 398 ?.
9. ???????? ?.?. ?????????????? ????????????? ? ???????? ???????? ?????. URL: http://ecsocman.
hse.ru/data/618/861/1216/018chudinova.pdf (???? ?????????: 15.06.2018).
10. ???????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?., ???????????? ?.?. ????????? ???????? ???????? ??????.
URL: https://www.ekimovka-x.ru/files/sociolog/chudinova_nedetskiye_problem.pdf (???? ?????????:
23.07.2018).
147
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
??? 372.881.1
?. ?. ??????
?????-????????????? ??????????????? ???????????
???????????????? ???????????????
??????????? ?????????? ???????? ??????????? ??????
?????? ?????? ????????????? ?????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????? ???????????? ????? ??? ??????? ?а ????? ?????? ?????????????? ????????? ??????????? ???????????. ????? ?а ?????? ???????
????????????? ?????????? ?????? ???????? ??????????? ?????? ?а ??????? ????????? ?????????
??? ?????? ??????????? ?????????? ????????.
???????? ?????: ????????? ???????? ??????????? ??????, ??????????? ?????????? ????????, ????????????? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ??????????? ??????.
D. V. Iureva
Saint Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation
ORGANIZATION OF MOBILE TRAINING FOR FOREIGN LANGUAGES
This article considers the issue of organizing mobile learning a foreign language as a process in terms of
interaction of various structural components. Also, the article describes the developed generalized model of
studying foreign languages with
??
the help of mobile devices as the basis for organizing mobile learning.
Key words: mobile training in foreign languages, organization of mobile learning, theoretical foundations of
mobile learning in foreign languages.
???????? ????? ??????????? ??????????????? ??????????????? ?????????? ????????????????? ? ?????? ???????????, ???????????????? ?????????? ????????? ????? ? ???? ??????????????? ?
????????????? ???????????? ??????????? ???? ???????????? ??????????????? ????????? ????? ?
????. ?????? ????????? ??????? ?а?????????? ????????? ?а????????????? ?????? ????????, ????????????? ????????????? ???????? ?????????? ?? ???? ?????? ??????????? ???????? ???????? ? ??
?????? ????????? ?? ??? ????????, ????????????? ? ?????????? ????????????? ??????? ????????,
??????????? ? ????????????? ??????????????? ?????? ???????????, ???????? ?????????????-???????????????? ??????????? ???? ?????????? ???????????????? ???????? [1].
??????????? ?? ???, ??? ????????????? ????????? ??? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ???
???????? ??????????? ??????, ??????? ????? ???????? ???????? ?а???? ??????-????????, ? ???????
????????? ????????, ????? ???????????? ????? ???????? ???????????? ???-????, ??????????? ?????- ? ??????????????, ????????? ???-????????? ??? ?? ????????? ??????????? ?а??????? ??????????
???????????? ?????. ?? ??? ???? ????????? ??? ????????, ????????? ?а???????????? ?????? ????????,
????? ???????? ???? ???????? ???????? ?????? ?? ?????????? ??? ??? ???? ??????? ?????????????
?????????? ??????????, ?? ?????????? ???????? ????????? (???????? ?????????? ??? ?????? ????????), ?а???????????? ????????? ?????????? ???????? ?а???????????? (????????????? ??? ?а??????/
????????? ? ?а???????????? ??????????). ??? ?????? ?? ??? ??? ??????? ?????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????? ?а???? ??????, ?????????????? ???????????? ???????????, ??????
?а?? ??????????????, ??? ????? ??????????? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ? ??????????? ?????? ????? ?????? ?????? ???????.
????? ????????????????????? ??????????? ????????? ??????? ?а???????? ?????? ??????????? ???????? ?????????? ???????? ?????? FRAME (The Framework for the Rational Analysis of Mobile
Education) [2], ????????????? ??????????? ?????? ?????????????? ??????????? ???????????? ???????? M. Koole). ?????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ????? ?????????????? ?????????? ???????????, ?????
??????????, ? ?????, ?? ??? ??????, ????????????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ??????, ??????? ?а???? ??????????????? ? ??????????????? ???????, ??? ????????????? ???????? ?????148
??????????? ????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
??? ??????? ???? ????????.
? ?????? FRAME ???? ?????????? ???????? ??????????????? ?а?????????????? ?????????.
???????? ??????????? ? ????????????? ?????????? ? ??????? ??????????. ?????????????? ?а??????????? ???????????? ????????????. ?????? ????? ????????? ?????? ???? ?????????????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????? ? ????????. ???????? ?????? ??????, ?а????????? ?????? ?????????
???????? ???????????? ?? ?????????????? ???? ???????? ? ????????????, ????????????????? ? ???????????.
??? ??????????? ???????? ??????????????? ??????????, ??????????? ? ?????????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ??????????, ?а??? ????? ??????????? ?????/?????? ??????????, ????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ??????, ??????? ??????????, ????????????? ?а ??????? ???????????? ? ???
?????. ?????????? ?????? ??????????? ????????????? ???????? ????????? ?????????????????? ??
?????????? ???????, ? ?? ?? ????? ??????????.
???????????????? ?????? ???????? ?????????????? ??????????? ???????????, ??????, ????????? ??????? ??????, ?????? ? ?????????. ??? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ????????? ????????????? ??????????? ???????????? ?????????? ?а?????????? ???????? ??? ?????????? ??????????
???????? ??????.
?????????? ?????? ????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????????? ? ??????????. ?????????, ????? ???????? ????? ??????????? ????? ?????????, ?????? ???? ??????????????, ???????????, ??????? ? ?????????, ??? ???????????? ????????? ????????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ? ?????????? [3].
???????? ???????????? ? ?????????? ????????????? ???????? ?а???????????? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ? ??????????? ?? ?????????????????? ?????? FRAME ?????????? ?????????????
????????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ?.?. ????????? ?????? ?????? ??? ????? ??????????
(???????? ??????????? ? ??????????-??????????????? ???????????) ? ?????????? ?????????? ??????, ?????????? ????? ??????? ???? ????????????????? ???????????, ??????????? ?а??????????
??????????? (???????).
??????????? ?????????? ???????? ?? ?????????? ?.?.
?????? ??????????? ????????? ???????? ???????? ?????????, ?????????????? ????? ????
??? ??????? ????????????? ????????, ?????????? ?? ?????????, ???????????? ?а??????????, ????????????, ??????????, ???????????????? ? ?????? ?????? ????????. ????? ????, ?????????? ????????
???????? ???????? ? ??????? ?? ????????, ????????? ? ????? ??????? (??????????, ????????????).
?а????? ?а???? ???? ?????? ??????????? ?а?????? ?????????? ???????? ??? ??????????? ?????????
149
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
???????????? ????????? [4].
?????? ??????????? ????????? ????????? ??????????-??????????????? ???????, ?????????? ??? ???????? ??????: ???????? ??????????????? ?????????? ???????? ? ??????????? ???????
?а ????. ??????? ???? ????? ??????????? ????? ????????????? ?????????????? ???????, ??????????
????????? ????? ? ??????????? ??????? ?а??????? ?????????? ????????, ?????? ???????? ?????????,
???????? ?????????? ??????????/??????? ?а???????????? ??????? ???????, ?????????? ?????? ??????????/???????? ?????/?????????????? ???????? ? ?. ?. [4].
?????? ?????? ??? ?????? ??????????? ???????? ?????????? ???????? ????????? ????????
??????????? ?????? ?а ??????? ????????? ????????? ??? ??????????? ??????????????? ???????,
???????????? ?а????????? ?????????? ??????????????? ?????????, ??? ??? ?????????? ??????? ?
???????? ????????? ??????? ???? ?? ?????. ?а???????? ????????? ???????? ????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ????????????, ???????????? ??????????, ??????? ???????? ? ?????, ??????? ?
??????????-??????????????? ????????????.
????? ???????, ????????? ???????? ???????? ????? ?? ???????? ??????? ????????????? ?????
???????????? ????????, ?????? ???????? ???????? ???????? ??? ???????????? ???????????, ?а????????? ??? ????????? ????????? ? ???????? ????????? ?????????? ?а??????? ????????? ??????????,
??????????? ?? ????????????????, ????????????? ? ????????????. ????? ????, ???????? ???????????
????????? ???????? ? ?????????? ??????????? ??????? ?а??????? ?????????? ???????? ?????? ??
??? ?????????? ??????? ????????? ?????????? ? ?????? ?????????? ????????, ?????????? ????????
?? ???????????? ??????? ?а?????? ?????? ????????. ??? ??? ?????? ????? ???? ??????? ?????? ????? ?????????? ????????????? ????? ? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ??? ?????? ??? ???????????, ???
????????? ?? ??????? ????????? ???????? ???????, ??????? ? ??????????? ????????? ??? ????????
??????????? ??????.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
150
????????????????? ??????
?????? ?.?. ???????? ?????????? ?а???????? ??????????? ??????: ?????? ? ????????. ?.: ??????, 2017. 240 ?.
Koole, M. A Model for Framing Mobile Learning / M. Koole // M. Ally (Ed.), Mobile Learning: Transforming the Delivery of Education and Training. Edmonton, Alberta: AU Press, 2009. Vol. 1. ?p. 25?47.
URL: https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/modeli-mobilnogo-obucheniya-inostrannomu-yazyku
????????? ?. ?. ?????? ?????????? ???????? ???????????? ????? // ??????????? ?????????????? ???????. 2017. ? 1. ?. 104?108.
????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?. ???????? ???????????? ????? ????????? ??????????? ???? ?? ??????
????????? ?????????? // ??????????? ???????????? ?а??????? ???????????? ??????????? ?????? ?а?????????? ????. 2016. ? 5.?.141?148.
?????????? ???????? ? ?????
??? 796
?. ?. ????????
????????
?. ?. ??????
?????? ?????????????? ????, ??????
?????-????????????? ??????????????? ???????????
???????????????? ???????????????
???? ?????????? ????????? ?а?????????
?????? ????????? ???????????? ? ??????? ???????? ????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????????
?а ?????? ?????????? ????????? ??? ??????????? ??????? ????????? ????????????? ???? ????????
?????????? ??????????, ?????????? ?? ??????????????? ??????? ???????? ????????? ????????.
???????? ?????: ????????, ????????????? ???????, ????????, ?????????????, ?????, ?????????? ?????????, ????????????, ??????????????? ??????? ??????????.
Y.V. Antipina
PhD Student
Saint Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation
V. M. Bashkin
The doctor of pedagogical sciences, the senior lecturer
Saint Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation
THE ROLE OF AGE GROUPS IN TRIATHLON
The article is devoted to the study and analysis of the dynamics of growth of sports qualification of triathletes,
taking into account age categories, in order to determine the period of missed opportunities in the development
of sports training, based on the physiological laws of the human body.
Keywords: triathlon, training process, load, intensity, volume, age category, endurance, accentuatedstrength
training.
?????????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????????? ?? ????????????? ???????? ?????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?? ??????????? ? ???????????? ???????????? ??????????.
??????, ?????????????? ?????????? ??????? ?? ?????? ????? ????, ?? ?????? 2017 ???? ?а????????????? ??????? ????? ?????? ????????? ?????: ????? ?????? ? 29, 43, 70, 77, 113, 136-?; ????? ?????? ? 49, 51, 71-?. ??????? ?? ?????????? ????????? ????? ?? ????????? ?а???????? ?????????? ?а?????? ?????? ?а4 ????, ?а?????? ? ?а10 ???.
??????????? ?????? ??????????? ???????????????? ???????????? ??????????????? ? ??????????
??????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????????, ?? ?????????? ???????? ? ?????????? ???????????? ??????. ??????????? ?а???????? ???????? ??????????-????????????? ???????? ????-?????????????? ????????? ?????????? ????? Polar, Garmin, Suunto, ? ????? ????????????? ????????? ???????????, ???????????? ? ????????????? ??????? ??????????? ?????????? ?? ??????????? ???? ???????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ????? ?????? ?а???? ?????????? ????????????? (???. 1). ??? ????????????? ????????
?????????????? ?? ??????????? ????? ????????????? ????? ?????????, ??? ???????? ?? ???????? ????,
???? ?? ?????????? ? ??? ?? ????????? ?а????????????? ????????, ??????? ???????? ??????? ? ??????????? ?????? ?? ??????????? ?????, ? ????? ??????????????? ???????? ???????? ????????? ????????.
151
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
???. 1
? ????? ??????????? ??????? ????????? ???????????? ? ???? ???????????? ?????????? ?????????? ???? ???????????????? ????????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?? ????????????? ????????????
??????. ???????????? ??????????? ?????? ?? ?????????? ????????? ???????????: ????? ? ???????
15?17 ???, ?????? 18?19 ???, ?????? 20?23 ???, ????? 23?29 ???. ??????? ????????????? ???????
???????? ??????????? ???????, ?? ??????? ????????? ????? ??????????????? ???????? ??????????
????????????????. ??????????????? ?????????? ???????, ??????? ?? ?????? ?????? ????????????
????????? ?а??????? ??????, ??????? ?????? ? ??????? ?????? ?????????????? ??????. ?? ??????? ?????????? ???????????? ?? ?????? 2015?2017 ??., ?????????? ?а???? ????? ????? ?????????? ? ??????????, ?????????? ??????, ????????????? ???????? ????? ??????????? ?????????? ? ????????????????
???????????????? ????????????.
???????????? ??????? ???????????? ???? ?????????? ?????????? ?а???????? 15?17 ???, ???????? ???????? ?а?????????? ????????? 18?19 ???. ?а?????????? ??????? ?? 19 ?? 24 ??? ??????????
???????????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????? ??????????? ?, ??? ?????????, ??????????????
????????? ????????? ??????????? ?????????? (???. 2).
?????? ????????? ??????????? ??????????? ????????? ????? ?????? ?а ??????????? ?? ?
???? ???????? ???????????? ?? ?????? ?????????? ??? ? ????? ???????????. ?????????, ???????
?????? ???, ????????????? ?а??????????? ???????????????? ????????????, ?? ???? ??????? ????????
???????????? ?????? [1].
???. 2
152
?????????? ???????? ? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
???????? ?????????????????? ??????????, ???????? ?а?????? ? ????????????? ??????????? ???????? ?????????? ??????????. ??????????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ?????????????? ????????, ??????????? ?а???? ???????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????, ??? ?????????? ????????? 16?19 ???.
?а??????????? ?? ??????????? ???? ????????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????? ????????????? ???????????? ?а??????????????? ????????? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ??????????, ?????? ???
????????? ? ??????????? ???????, ??? ???????????? ??????????? ?? ?????????? ??????? ??????????.
??????????? ????????????? ???????????????? ??????? ?а ?????? ??????????? ???????? ??
?????????? ??????????, ? ?????? ?????? ??????????????? ???????? ???????? ???????????? ??????????????? ? ?????????????? ??????? ????????? [2] ?????????????? ??????????? ????????? ?????????? ????? ??? ???????? ??????? ??????????. ????????????????? ? ???????? ????????? ?????????
??????? ? ??????, ?????????????? ???????????? ??????? ??????? ? ???????????? ???????? ???????? ?? ???????? ?????????????? ???????????? ????????? ?????????, ?????????? ?а???? ?????????
??????? ??????, ???????? ??????????? ? ???????? ?????, ????????? ??????, ??????-?????????????
???????? [3].
? ?????? ?????????? ????????, ???????????? ?а?????? 16?19 ???, ????????????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????? ????, ?????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????????? ? ??????????????? ????????????, ??????? ?????????????? ????????????? ???????? ????? ????????? ??????????????? ??????? ??????????.
??????????? ??????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????????? ?а?????? ?????????? ?? ???????
??????: ????????? ?????????? (9?11???), ????????? ????????????? (12?13 ???), ??????????? ????????????? (14?15 ???) ? ?????????? ????????????????? (16?18 ???) [4]. ????? ??????? ?????????? ??????? ????????????????? ?????????? ????????????? ?а????????? ? ??????? ????????????? ????????
??????? ????????, ???????? ????????, ??????????? ?????????? ?а????? ?а??????????????? ?????????
????????. ?????? ???????? ?? ??????????? ??????????? ?а?????????????? ???????????? ?? ?????? ?
????????????? ???????? ?а??????????? ????????????, ??? ???????? ?а??????? ??????? ??????????? ?
????? ?? ??????. ????????????? ??????????????? ???????? ??????? ????????? ????????? ??????????
???????? ?а????????????? ???? ?а???????? 10?13 ???, ????? ?а12?16 ???, ????? ? ????????????? ??????? ?а????????? ????????.
???????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ?а???????? 16 ??? ??????????? ???????????? ???????? ??????? 80% ???????? [4], ???????????? ???????? ???????????? ?а????????? ???????????????? ?а?????? 24?28 ???. ?? ??????????? ???? ????? ???? ????????? ???? ???????? ??????? ???????: ?? ????
?? ?а21 ???, ?? ??????????? ?????? ? ?????? ???????????? ??????? ???????? ???????????? ??????????? ?????? ?а???????? 24 ???. ?????? ???? ???????? ?????????????? ???????????????? ??????????
???????? ?а????????????? ???????? ?? ???????????? ?а????????? ????????.
?????????? ?????????????? ??????????????? ??????? ?????????????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????-????????? ??????? ? ???????????? ????, ?????????? ???????
????????? ? ?????????? ?????????? ????, ??????????? ??????? ???????? ??????. ?.?. ????????? ???????, ??? л??? ???? ???????? ?????????? ???????, ??? ???????? ???? ????????, ??? ????? ????????????? ?????????? ????????????? ????????╗. ?????????? ???????? ?????? ??? ?????????? ???????
????? ???? ?????????? ????????????? ?а???????? ??????? ????????.
????????????? ??????? ??? ??????????? ?????????? ????????, ??????????? ?? ??????????? ?????????? ?????? ???????? ? ?????????? ?????? ?а ??????????? ??????????????? ???????
??????????, ???? ??????????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ???????-??????????? ????????, ??? ????????? ?? ????????????? ???????? ?????????. ?????????? ??????? ??????? ?? ???????? ???????
????????, ????????????? ? ???? ?а?????? ??????????????? ???????????? ?????????? ????????? ?????????? ???????????, ????????????? ???????? ????-?????????????? ????????? ?????????? ?????
?а ??????? ?????????????? ????????? ?? ?????????????? ???????? ? ???????? ?????????, ????????
??????????? ??????? ?а ???? ??????? ?????? ?????????? ???????????????? ???????? ?а ???????????
???????????, ??????????????????? ? ????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????? ? ??????? ???????????
?а?????????.
????????????????? ??????
1.
???????? ?.?., ?????? ?.?., ?????? ?.?. ???????????? ???????? ??????????? ???????????????? ???????????? ? ????? ??????????? ?????????? ?а????????? // ?????? ??????? ????????????
????? ?.?. ????????, 3(157). 2018. ?. 22?25.
153
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
2. ??????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?.???????????? ??????? ????????. ?.:а????????, 1986. ?.а29?30.
3. ?????????? ???????? / ??? ???. ?.а?.а????????. ?.: ??????????? ? ?????, 1987.а304а?.
4. ???????????? ???????????? ?? ?????????? ??????????? ??????? ? ?????? ??????????? ?????
?????? (?????? ????????, ?????????, ????????), ?????????? ?? ?????????????? ?????????????? ???????? ??????????? ? ??????????? ?????????? ???????? ?????? ? ?? ????????????.
URL: http://sportfiction.ru/articles/metodicheskie-rekomendatsii-po-podgotovke-sportivnogo-rezerva-vletnikh-tsiklicheskikh-vidakh-sporta-legkaya-atletika-velosport-plavanie-osnovannoy-na-nesootvetstviibiologicheskogo-vozrasta-sportsmenov-i-vypolnyaemykh-fizicheskikh-nagruzok/
154
?????????? ???????? ? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
??? 796
?. ?. ????????
????????
?????-????????????? ??????????????? ???????????
???????????????? ???????????????
??????? ???????????????? ???????
?? ??????????? ?????? ?а?????????
?????? ????????? ???????????? ??????? ???????????????? ??????? ?? ??????????? ???????????
?????? ????? ? ????????? ?а????? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ? ??? ?????????????????? ?????????????? ???????? ?????????????.
???????? ?????: ????????????, ????????, ????????, ???? ?? ??????????, ???, ????????, ???????????,
????, ?????, ?????, ?????????????, ????????????, ????????, ?????? ??????????, ??????????????? ??????? ??????????.
Y. V. Antipina
PhD Student
Saint Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation
THE INFLUENCE OF COMPETITIVE CONDITIONS
ON THE PASSAGE OF THE STAGES OF THE TRIATHLON
The article is devoted to the study of the influence of competitive conditions on the passage of the athlete stages
of the race in triathlon, with the aim of identifying aspects of training and improvement of the training process
triathletes.
Keywords: competition, triathlon, swimming, cycling, running, speed, temperature, water, wave, wind resistance, aerodynamics, power, preparation, accentuated strength training.
????? ?? ???????????? ????????????? ???? ????????? ?? ????????? ?а ??????? ??????
???????????? ??????????? ???????? ?????????????? ???????????????? ???????, ??????????? ?а ?????????? ?????????? ????? ?а????????? ?????????????? ?????? ? ????????????? ???????????. ????????? ?? ?????? ???????? ???? ? ?? ?? ?????????, ?? ?а????????? ????????: ??? ???????? ? ???????
??? ???????, ???????? ??? ?????? ????, ??????? ??? ?????; ?? ???????????? ? ??????? ?????? ?????
?????????????? ???????????? ???????, ??????; ????????? ?? ???????? ???????? ???????? ? ??????
?????????? ?? ????? ?? ?????????? ????. ????? ?? ????????????? ??????????? ????????? ???????
??????????? ????????? ?а???? ??????? ???? ?а?????? (?????????).
????????????? ?? ??????????? ???? ??????? ? ????????? ???? ???????????? ?а??????????
??????????????? ?????????, ??????-????????????? ???????????? ? ???????????? ????????????? ????? ????????? (ITU). ?а?????? ?????????? ????????? ????? ????????????, ????????????? ??а??????? ?а??????? 1920?1930-? ??., ??????? ?????????? лLa Course des Debrouillards╗ (???????? ?а???????????? ? л????? ??????????╗). ????????? ????? ???????????? ????? ????? ???? ??????????????? ?????????????? ??? ????????? ??????, ??????????? ???????????????? ?????, 12 ?? ???? ?? ?????????? ?
??????????? ?????? ?????? ?????. ?а?? ???? ????????? ? ?????????????????? ?????? ????? ??????????
?а??????????? ?? ????? ?????????? [3].
???????????? ?? 18 ??????? 1978 ?. ???????????? ?? ????????? ?? ???????????. ????????? ?
?????????????? ?????? ???????????? ??????? ?????????? ????? ????????, ??????? ????? ?а???????? ?? ???????? ???????, ??? ?? ??????????? ?????????? ? ??????, ???????????? ??? ?????. ?????????
?? ?????? ????? ?????????? 2,4 ???? ?? ????, 112 ???? ?? ?????????? ? ????? 26,2 ????. ??????????
15 ???????, ???????????? 12. ?????? ???????????? ????? ????? ? ???????? ????????. ????????????
?? ????????? ?????? ????????? ?а????????? ??????? ????. ?а????????? ????? ??? ???????? ??????
????????????????? ????? ?а???? 1984 ?. ?? ??????? ????????? ?а???????, ?а??????? ???? ?а?????????? 2000 ? ????????, 200 ?? ?? ?????????? ? ??????????? ???????.
155
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
? ???????? 1995 ?. ???????? ????????????? ??????????? ???????? ???????? ??? ???????
??????? ?а????????? ??????????? ??? ?? ????????? ??????????: ???????? 1,5 ?? + ????????? 40 ??
+ ??? 10 ??. ?????? ??????????? ????????? ???? ?? ????????? ?? ??????? ????????? ????????? 1 ??????? 1995 ???? ?а????? (???????). ?а??? ??????? ??????? 20 ???????????: 10 ?????? ? 10 ??????.а
?????? ??????????? ???????????? ?? ????????? ?????? ?а2000 ???? ?а??????. ?????? ???????????? ??????????? ???????????? ?????????? ?? ???????????? (0,75 ?? + 20 ?? + 10 ??), ???????????? (2?4 ?? + 50?180 ?? + 15?42 ??) ??????????. ?? ??????????? ????????????? ??? ?????? ITU
???????????? ?????? ????????????? ???????????, ???????????? ???? ???????????? ?? ?????????
????? ????? ???????? ????? ????????? ?? ?????? ?????????? [8].
? ???? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ???????????? 2016 ? 2017 ??. ??????????, ??? ????? ??
???????? ????????? ???????? ???????? ??????????? ???????. ?а????????? ????? ??????????? ??????????? ??? ??????????? ??????? 15?20 ░? ?????????? ?а?????????? ????????? (40?45 %) ? ?????????
(20?25 %). ??? ?????????? ??? ?????? ?? ??????????? ????????? ??? ??????????? ??????? 15 ░?
?????????? ?а??????? 1 ??? 57 ?????. ??? ??????????? ?? 5 ░? ???? ????? ??????????? ?????????
?а??????? ??????????? ?? 3 ??? 30 ?. ??????? ?? ??????? ??????????? ????????? ??????, ?????????
?? 750 ? ? ????????, 20 000 ? ? ???? ?? ?????????? ? 5000 ? ????, ?????????? ?? 8 ???.
???????? ? ????????? ????? ????? ??????????? ?????????? ??? ????????? ?????? ??????? ???
??????? ?????. ?????? ????? ????????? 1,6?3,3 ?/?, ?? ????? ??????? ??????? ????? 2 ?????, ???????? ???????? ?????????????? ????? ???????? ????? ???????????? ??????? ?? 0,3 ?, ?а????? ????????
??????????, ????????? ?? ???????? ???? ?а????? ?????????? ???????? ?????, ?????????? ???????????? ?????????????? ?????? ??? ??????????? ???????? ?? ???????????? ?????????. ??? ???????
?????? ??? ??????? ??????????? ?????? ??????????? ?????????? ????????? ????????? ????????, ??
?????? ??????? ???????? [11]. ?а????? ??????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????? ??? ???????????? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ?????? ??????????? ??????????, ??? ??? ?????????? ??????????
????????? ??????? ?????????? ???????????? ????.
??? ????? ???????? ????? ????????? ??? ?????????? ???????? ?????????????, ??? ???????
?????? ?????? ????????????? ?? ????????????? ????? ????? ?????. ???? ??????? ????????????? ???????? ?????????????? ???????? ????????. ??? ???? ?????, ??? ?????? ??????? ??????????? ?? ??????
?а???. ?????? ?????????????? ???????????? ????????????? ????, ??????? ?????? ???????????????
???????? ???????? [2]. ??????? ???? ??????? ?????? ?? 2,5?3% ??-?? ??????? ?а??? ???????? ?????????? ?????, ?? ????????? ?а??????? ????? 1025 ??/?3, ? ????????? ????? ?????????? ?????????? ????
?????????? [5].
???????????? ?? ???????????? ????? ????? ??????????? ?а???????? ???????, ??????? ??? ?????? ?а?????? ?????????? ????? ?а????????, ???????????? ?????? ????????. ?а????? ????????? ?????
???????????? ?????? ??????? ?????????? ??? ??????????? ?????????????.
????? ??????????? ???? ?а????????? ???????????? ????? ?????? ?????????, ????????? ?????????? ????????? ?а???? ????????? ??????? ???????????, ??? ?? ???????. ???????????????? ???? ?а25 ???, ?
???????????? ?а4 ???? ??????, ??? ??????? [9]. ?а????? ????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ???????
???????????? ????????? ????????? ? ???????, ??? ????????? ???????? ??????????? ????????? ?а?????????? ??????????? ????. ??????????????, ?????????? ?а?????????? ??????????? ????????????? ?????,
????????? ??????????? ?? ?????????? ???? ?????????. ?? ?????????? ????????????? ????? ??????? ??
?????? ?? ???????? ??????? ??????????, ?? ? ?? ??????? ????????, ? ????? ????????? ????????? ?????.
?????????? ??????????????? ???????????? ? ???????????? ?????????? ??????????? ????? ?????????????? ??????? ?????? ????? ???????? ??????????, ??? ????????? ???????????? ?а?????? ?????, ??
?????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ?????? ???????? ?????????????? ???????? ?? ????? ??? ?????????? ???????, ? ????? ????????? ???????? ?а?????????? ???? ?? ??? ??????????. ???????????? ???
?????? ??????????? ????????????? ????????? ?а??????? ??????? ???????? ????, ?????? ??????? ???
???????? ? ?????? ?????? ????? ??????, ?? ??? ?? ??????? ???? ?????????? ???? ?а??????, ??? ????????? ?????? ??????????. ??????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ??????? ?????????????
??? ?????????, ?а ???????????? ??????? ????????????? ????????? ??????? ????????????? ???????, ??
?????????? ????????????? ?????????? ? ?????????? ??????????? ????????? ???????.
??????? ????? ?? ????????? ????? ??????? ?? ????? ?????????? ??????? ??????????? ????
????????? ?? 10 ???, ???, ?а ???? ???????, ???????? ????? 25% ?? ?????????? ??????????. ?? ????????? ?а ??????? ??????, ??????? ???????????????? ???????? ?????????????, ???? ????????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ????. ??? ???????? 5 ?/? (18 ??/?) ?? ??????????? ????????????? ??????? ????????????? ????? 50% ???? ??????????? ????????, ??? ???????? 30 ??/? ? 80%,
156
?????????? ???????? ? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
? ??? 10 ?/? (36 ??/?) ? ??? 85% ????????, ??????? ?????????? ????????????. ?????????? ???????????????? ???????????, ??????????? ?????????? ?????????, ? ????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ????????? ????????????? ???????? ?? 20?30% [4].
??? ??????? ???? ???? (???????????????? ??????????), ???? ?? л?????????╗ ?????????? (?
???????? ??????????? ???????????????? ????????????? ? ?????? ???????) ??????? ????????????? ?????? ?????????????? ???????? ???????? ???????????? ??? ????????? ?????????? ??????????? [1].
???? ???????? ????????????? ??????????????? ???????? ????????, ? ???????? ? ???????????? ????
?? ????????. ?????????????, ????????????? ?? ??????????? ????????????? ??????? ???????? ??????
??????????????? ???????? ?а??????? ???????. ??????? ???? ????????? ????????? ???????? ???????
????????????? ?????????? ??????. ???? ??? ???????? 32 ??/? ???????????? ???????? ????????? ??????, ?? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ???????? ???? 40 ??/?. ???????? ???????????? ?????????????
?????? ?? ???????? ??????, ??? ??? ???????. ???? ??? ??? ?? ???????? 32 ??/? ??????????? ????????????? ?????????? ?????, ?? ??? ??? ?? ???????, ???????????? ???????? ???? ???????? ???? ?? 39 ??/?.
?????????? ??? ???, ??? ????????????? ??????? ???????? ??????????. ??? ??????? ??? ??????????,
?????????? ???????? ? ?????????? ??????????? ??????????? ??????? ????? ???? ?? ??????????
?????????? ???????? ?? 40 ??/? [6].
??? ??????????? ????????? ?? ?????? ???????? ? ???????? ?? ????????????? ????????? ?????????? ???????? ????? ???????????????? ?????????????. ???????????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ??
??????? ??? ?????????? ???????? ?? 15 ??/?, ?? ???? ???????? ????????? ??????? ????????? ??????
?а????? ?????????? ? ????????????? ??????? ????? [7].
???? ?? ???????????? ? ?????????? ??????? ??????????? ???????????? ??????? ??????????
????? ????? ????????????? ???????? ??????????? ??????? ??????????, ?????????? ?????????? ?
???????????? ??????? ?? ?????????? ??? ?????????? ????????????????? ????????????? [10], ?? ??
??????? ????? ??? ????? ??? ??????? ????????????. ???? ???????? ????????????? ??????? ????????? ?а?????? ??????????? ????. ??? ????????????? ??????????????? ???????? ???????? ? ??????????,
?а???????, ??? ???????? ???? 8 ?/? 20?. ??? ???????? ???????????? ?????????? 9 ?/? ???? ????????????? ?а4 ???? ??????, ??? ??? ???????? 4,5 ?/?, ? ? 9 ??? ??????, ??? ??? ???????? 3 ?/?. ??? ???????
????? ?????? ???????? ????????? ?а????.
?? ??????? ????? ????? ????? ?????????????? ???????????? ????? ?????? ? ????????? ???????? ????????, ??? ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ????????????? ??????? ????????
?а??????? ?? ??????? ??????????? ??????.
?????????? ??????? ???????????????? ??????? ?? ??????????? ?????? ?????, ????? ???????? ????????? ????????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????????????: ????????, ???????? ???? ?
??????? ????????????. ?????????? ?????????? ???????????? ?? ???? ???????????? ? ???? ? ????????. ????? ??????? ?а???? ?????????????? ??????? ??? ?????? ???????????? ?????????? ????????
???? ?????????? ?а ???????????? ??????? ??????????, ? ????? ???? ??????????? ???? ?? ?????????
????????. ??? ?????????? ??????????? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ?????? ??? ????? ??????????
????? ?????????? ??????????????? ??????? ??????????, ?????????????? ????? ???????? ?????????? ?а????????????. ?а???? ????? ??????? ??????????? ????????? ???? ?????????? ?? ???? ???????????? ????????? ????????, ??????????????? ??????????? ?????????. ????????????? ??????????
???????? ????????? ???????? ?а?????????? ??????? ??????-??????????? ???????, ??????????????
?????????? ???????? ????, ?????????? ????? ?????-???????? ????? ? ??????? ?????????????
???????????, ??? ????? ???????? ??????????? ??????????. ? ???? ?????? ??? ????????????? ????????????? ??????? ???????? ??????????, ???????????? ?? ???????? ????, ??????? ????????????
?а???????????? ?? ???????? ????????????, ?? ?????? ????, ????????? ???????? ??? ?????? ?? ?????
??????? ??????. ?а?????? ?????????? ?????? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ??????? ?а????? ????????? ?? ????????? ???????, ??????????? ?? ???????? ?????????? ???????. ?????????? ??????????????
??????? ? ??????????? ??????????? ??????? ??????????? ?????? ?? ???????????????? ??????????????
????????, ?????????? ?? ?????????????? ????????????? ??????????. ?????????? ?а???? ??????????
????????? ?а????????????? ????????????? ???????? ???????? ????? ?????????? ?? ????? ???????
??????????? ?????????????????.
????????????????? ??????
1. ????? ??????? ?., ???? ?????? ?., ???????? ?????? ??. ???????????? ?????????, ???????? ?????????? ????? ????????а// ?а???? ?????. 1984. ? 02 (14). ?. 74?83.
157
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
2. ?????? ?., ????? ?. ?????? ??????????. ??? ??????? ?????, ??????? ? ?????; ???. ? ????. ?. ????????? ? ?. ???????????]; ??? ???. ??????? ????????. 3-? ???. ?.: ????, ??????? ??????, 2013.
208 c.
3. ???????? ?. ?. ? ??. ????????: ?????? ? ???????? ??????????. ??????????: ???, 2015. 241 ?.
4. ??????? ?.?. ????????????? ?????. ?.: ???????????? ??????????, 1997. 344 ?.
5. ?????? ?. ?. ?????? ? ???????? ????????. ??????-??-????: ????? ??????????? ???????????,
2011. 451 ?.
6. ????? ?.?., ????????????? ?.?., ?????? ?.?. ???????????????? ?????????????? ????? ?????????, ??????????? ???? ?? ?????? // Young Scientist. 2015. ? 6 (21). ?. 133?135.
7. ??????? ?.?. ??????????? ???????????? ?? ??????????: ??????? ... ????. ???. ????: 01.02.08. ?.,
1992. 22 ?.
8. ??????? ?????????. URL: http://ftr.org.ru/istoriya
9. ???????????? ???????????? ?? ????????????? ?????? ?????????????????? ???????????? ???????????-???????, ???????? ?? ??????????????? ????????? ???????? ??? ??? ? ?? ????????????. URL: http://sportfiction.ru/articles/metodicheskie-rekomendatsii-po-ispolzovaniyu-otsenkiantropometricheskikh-osobennostey-sportsmenov-plovtsov-vliyayushchikh-na-biomekhanicheskie-parametry-plavaniya/
10. TU/e study: Froome?s precarious posture not an aerodynamic gain. URL: https://www.tue.nl/en/university/
departments/mathematics-and-computer-science/the-department/news-and-press/news/20-07-2016-tuestudy-froomes-precarious-posture-not-an-aerodynamic-gain/
11. Araujo L, Pereira S, Gatti R et al. Analysis of the lateral push-off in the freestyle flip turn // J Sports Sci.
2010. ? 11 (28). ?. 75?81.
158
?????????? ???????? ? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
???
?. ?. ????????
????????
?????-????????????? ??????????????? ???????????
???????????????? ???????????????
???????? ????????? ? ?????????? ????????????????
????????????? ???????????? ????????????
?????? ????????? ?????? ??????? ?? ????????????? ??????? ????????????? ??????????? ?????????
????????? ???????? ????????? ? ?????????? ???????????????? ?????????????.
???????? ?????: ????????, ????????????? ???????, ??????? ??????????, ??????????????, ???????
?????????? ?????, ????????, ?????????????, ?????, ??????, ?????, ????????????, ??????, ??????? ?????????? ?????, ?????????, Polar, Suunto, Garmin.
Y. V. Antipina
PhD Student
Saint Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation
CONTROL SHAPE AND PHYSICAL PREPARATION
OF TRIATHLETES WITH MODERN DEVICES
The article is devoted to the evaluation of the impact of the use of modern mobile devaces of monitoring the
state and physical fitness of triathletes on the training process.
Keywords: triathlon, training process, process control, recovery, heart rate, load, intensity, volume, analysis,
report, testing, lactate, heart rate monitor, lactometer, Polar, Suunto, Garmin.
????? ?????????????? ???????? ?а?????? ???????? ?????????? ?????? ?а??????????? ????????????? ?? ??????? ?????? ?????????? ?а????????????? ????????????, ??????????? ???????????????
?????????? ?????????? ??????. ?а ????????? ??????? ????????? ??????????? ?????????? ????????
??????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????, ?????????? ?????, ???????????? ??????????? ?????????,
???????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????????. ??????????? ????????? ????????????? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ????????????????? ?????????, ????????????? ?а?????????? ??????????? ????????????? ????????????, ??? ??? ???????? ?????????????. ??????????? ????????????, ???????????? ????????? ??????? ? ??????, ????????? ??????? ????????????? ????????, ????????? ????????? ?????????????? ???????, ????????????? ???? ??? ??????? ???? ????????? ???????????? ???????? ????????.
??? ?????? ??????????? ??????? ???????????? ?а ??????? ???????? ?а ???? ?????????? ?????????
??????????? ????????? ???????????? ????????? ?????????????? ????????????? ???????. ??????????
? ??????? ? ????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?? ???????? ?????????? ??? ?????? ??
????????????????? ???????? ???? ???????? ??????? ???????? ????????? ? ???? ?????????????? ?????????? ????????????? ???????? ????????? ????????.
?? ??????????? ???? ??? ???????? ? ??????????? ???????? ???????? ?????????? ????? ? ????????????? ?? ??????? ??????? ????????? ???? ??????????????. ???????? ??????????? ? ????????
????? ???????? ?????????????? ???????? ?????? Polar, Suunto ? Garmin. ?а???????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ???????? ???????????? ????? ????????? ??????, ?????????? ?????????????? ????????? ??????? ????????? ?????????? ????????? ????????????? ???????, ? ????????? ??????, ???????????? ??????? ??????????????? ? ??????????????? ??????????. ??????????? ???????? ??????????
?????????? ?? ???????????? ????? ?? ???? ??? ?а???????????? ??????????, ????????????? ?? ????????.
??? ??????????? ????????? ?а???? ????????, ?????? ??????????? ?? ??????? ????????????? ? ?????????? ???????? ?а?????? ??????????, ? ??? ?? ??? ???????? ??????????????, ???? ?????????????? ???
?????? ???, ??? ??? ??????? ?????????? ??????. ?????? ???????????? ????? ??????????????? ? ?????????? ????????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ????????? ?????????? ?? ????, ??????? ?а???? ???????
??????????? gps-????????? ? ????????? ???????? ????????????. ??? ?? ???? ??? ??????????? ???
???????? ???? ??? ?????? ????????????? ????? ??????? ???????, ?? ??????? ??????????? ??????????159
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
?? ???????????? ??????? ?????. ??????????? ????????? ????? ?????????? ??????????????? ????????? ? ????? ??????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????, ???????? ? ??????.
?????? ????????????? ???????????? ???? ???????? ???????????? ?а????????? ??????? ??????, ?????????? ?а ???? ??????????. ????????? ????? Garmin, ???????? ?? ????? ??????? ????????? ?? ????? ?????? ???????, ???????????? ?????? ????????? ??????????? ? ???????? ?????? ??
?????????? (???. 1), ??? ?????????????? ?? ?????????? ??? ?????? ?а??????? ??????? ??????????.
????????? ???????????? ???????? ?????? ?? ??????????: ????(???/??), ???(??/???), Training effects
???????? ???????? 1?5( ?????? ??????? ??????????? ????????? ?????????????? ? ???????????? ?????
?????? ?????? ???, ?????? ?? ???????? ???????????? ????? ????????????? ???????? ?????????? ???
??????????), ??????? ????? (?/???), ????? ???? (?), ???????????? ??????????? (%), ???????????? ????????? (??), ????????????? ???????? ?а?????? (??), ????? ?????? (?), ????????? ????????????? ???????? ??? ?? ????? ?а???? ??????????. ?а???? ?????????? ????????????? ???????? ???????? ? ?????
?? ???????? ??? ???? ? ????????, ?? 100 ?????? ??? ????????, ??? ?? ???????? ???????? ???????????
?????????? ?а???????? ?????????? ?????? ??? ????????????? ??????????????????? ?????????. ?????? ??? ?????? ????????????? ???????? ? ???????? ????????? ????? ??????????? ??? ?????? ?????????? ????? ?????????? ?? ?а??????.
???. 1. ????????? ?????????? Garmin
????? Suunto ? Polar ???????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?а?????????
??????? ?????????? ??? ?? ?????????? ??? ? ?? ???????????. ????? ??????????? ?????? ? ??????????? ?????? ????????? ??????? ????? ?????? ??????? ?????????????? ???????? ? ????????? ??????????. ???????????? ????????? ???????????? ?? ????? ? ????? ????? ?????????? ?????????? ???? ??????? ?????????? ? ??????? ????????????? ???????. ????????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ?????????????
?????????? ???????? ??????? ????????????? ?????????????? ???????. ??? ???????????? ?а ???????
????????? ???????? ????? ????????? ?????????? ???? ?? ?????? ??????????? ? ???????? ?а ?????
????? ????????? ??????????? ?? ??????????? ?????? [3, 4].
????????????? ????????? Suunto ? Polar ????????? ??????????? ???????? ?? ????????????
?????? ????????: ???????? ? ?????? ????????????? ? ???????????????? ????????? ?? ??????????? ?
?а????? ?? ?????????/????????/??????? ????????. ??? ?? ??????? ??????????? ???????? ?? ?????????????. ?а????????? Suunto ???????????? ?????? ?????????? ????????? ???????? ??????? ????????????? ?????????? PTE (???????? 1?5). ???????? ????????????? ???????? ???????????? ?а???? ?????? ? ??? ??????? ????????????? ????????????. ???????? ?????? ? ?? ????????????? ?а?????????
????? (???. 2) ???? ??????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????? ???????? ????????? ????????? ?????????,
??????? ???????? ?????????? ??? ???????? ????????????? ?а???? ??????????.
??????????????? ??? ?????? ???????? ???????? ??? ??? ??????????? ? ?????? ?????????????? ?? ????? ???, ???????????? ?? ?????? ??????????? ??? ?? ????? ???, ?????????? ?????????
???????? ?а ????, ???????? ???????????? ???????? ????????? ??????. ??????? ???? ?????? ?????
??????????????? ????????? ??????????????? ????????????? ???????? ? ?????? ?а????? ?????????
????????? ??????????????????? ??? ?а????? ?????? ????? [2]. ?????? ?????????? ?? ??????? ???160
?????????? ???????? ? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
??????????? ????????? ????? ?????????????? ????????????? ???????? ??? ?????? ???????? ????????
?????????, ??????? ??????? ???????? ?а??????????? ? ???????????????? ???????????? ????????????????? ????????.
???. 2. ????????????? ????????? Polar flow
????????????? ???????? ??? ???????? ??? ????? ?????????? ?а??????? ?????????? ??????????? ??????????? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ??? ????????-?????? ????????? ????????? ?а?????? ??????. ????????? ???????????? ????????? ?????????? ????????? ??? ?????????? ????? ???????? ???????? ? ???? ?????? ?а??????? ??????????.
?????????? ?????? ?? ???????????????? ? ???????????????? ?????????????? ?????????, ????????? ?а????????????? ??????? ? ??????????? ?а???? ??????????, ???????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????, ??????? ? ??????????? ????????? ????????? [1]. ??? ????????? ??????????? ???????????
??????? ?????????? ? ??? ?а????????? ????? ?????????? ????????? ??????????? ??????? ?а?????
?????????? ??????????????? ????? ????? ????????. ????????? ???????????? ?????? ?????? ??????????? ???????? ???????????? ? ????????? ??????, ? ????? ??????? ?????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????????. ????????? ?????? ?????????? ????????? ??? ???????????? ??????????, ????????????????
?? ??????????? ?????????????? ???????? ? ?????????? ?????? ?????????????????, ???????? ?а?????????? ????? ????????? ?? ?????????. ??????????????????? ????????? ?????????? ??????????? ??????
??? ??????? ???? ??????????, ???????????? ??????????????? ?а????????????? ????????, ??? ??????? ?а??????????? ? ????????? ????????????? ?????, ?????????? ??? ?????? ???????????? ????????
??????????? ???????? ????? ??? ??????? ????????? ????????? ? ??????????? ????????? ??????????.
?????? ?????????? ?????????? ??? ?????????????? ? ???????????????? ????????????????? ???????? ?а????? ????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ??? ????? ????????????? ??????????????????? ?
????? ??????????.
????????????? ???????, ?????????? ?а???? ????????????? ? ?????????????? ?????-, ????-,
??????????, ???????? ????????? ??????????. ?а???????? ?????????? ?????????? ????????????????
? ??????????????? ???????????? ????????? ???????, ??????? ????? ????????????? ??????? ?? ?????????? ???????????????? ??????. ???????, ??????????????? ?????? ?? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ????? ???? ???????? ???????????? ???????????? ???????? ????????? ?????????. ?????? ?а???????? ?????????? ???????????????? ???????????? ?? ????? ??????????? ??????????????? ?????? ??
?????????? ??????????. ??? ?????? ??????? ?а ???, ??? ?? ????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?а ?????? ??????????? ????????? ????????? ?????????????? ? ???????? ????????, ?????? ? ?????????????.
??????????, ?????????? ??? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ????? ? ???????? ??????????? ???????,
161
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
??????????????? ???????? ?????????????? ? ??????????? ???????????????? ?а?????????? ??????????
????????? ????????????? ????????, ???????? ?????????? ?????????? ??? ?????????????????????? ????????????? ???????????? ?а???????????? ??????????????. ??????, ????????? ???????????
?? ????????? ????????? ??????????, ?????????????? ????????, ???????? ???????? ? ????????????
?????? ????????????? ?а??????? ?????????? ???????????. ?????? ?????? ?? ?????????? ????????????
? ???????? ???, ?????? ??????????? ????????? ????? ???????? ?а?????? ???????? ????????? ????????? ????????? ???? ???????? ????????????? ???????????? ?а?????? ?????????????? ???????????
????????? ?а?????? ?????????? ?????????.
????????????????? ??????
1. ???????? ?.?., ?????????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?. ????????????????? ???????? ???????? ?? ?????
л???????????╗ ?? ?????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????????? ????????????? ?????????? //
????. ? ?????. ?????. ?????. 1999. ? 10. ?. 10?14.
2. ??????? ?.?. ?????????? ????????????????? ??????? ?а ??????. ?.: ????????????????, 2000.
202 ?.
3. URL: http://www.movescount.com/ru/ (???? ?????????: 18.09.2018),
4. URL: https://flow.polar.com/ (???? ?????????: 18.09.2018),
162
?????????? ???????? ? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
??? 796.012
?. ?. ??????
?????? ?????????????? ????, ??????
?????-????????????? ??????????????? ???????????
???????????????? ???????????????
??????????? ??????????????? ?????????
??? ????? ?????????? ????????????? ????????? ???????????
???????? ???????????? ??????????? ??? ?????????? ??????? ?а?????????????? ????????. ?????????? ???????? ?????? ???????????. ??????????? ???????? ?????????????? ????????-???????????????
????????????? ??????????? ?? ????????? ?????? ??????????. ???????? ?????????? ??????, ?а????????
????????????? ?????? ??????????????? ??????? ? ????????.
???????? ?????: ???????????, ?????????????? ????????, ????????? ??????????????.
V. M. Bashkin
The doctor of pedagogical sciences, the senior lecturer
The Saint Petersburg state university of space instrument making
DIAGNOSTICS OF A FUNCTIONAL CONDITION AS A METHOD
OF MANAGEMENT OF TRAINING PROCESS OF SPORTSMEN
Research of diagnostics as system approach to training process is shown. The primary goals of diagnostics are
certain. Criteria of individual modelling-diagnostic characteristics of sportsmen at various stages of preparation are investigated. Development of a method, in unity of the pedagogical analysis uniting problem and the
control is shown.
Keywords: Diagnostics, the pedagogical control, modelling characteristics.
????????
??? ??????????? ?????????? ????????? ?????? ? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ????????
??? ?????? ? ???????? ?????? ??????????? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ???????? ????????????????? ?????????? ??????????? ? ?????????? ?????????? ???? ?????????. ??????????? ?????????????
????????????? ????????, ?????????????? ?а???????? ????????????? ???? ? ???????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ?????????? ? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ??????????? ?????????????? ????????????? ?????????? ???????? ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ????????? ??????????? ????????????????? ?? ???? ??????????? ????????? ?????????? [1].
?????????? ??????????? ????????????
??????? ??????????? ?? ????????????? ??? ??????-???????????? ????????????, ??????? ?????????????? ?????????? ??? ?????????? ?????????? ??????? ????????, ????????? ??? ???? ? ????????. ??? ???????????? ???, ??? ??????????????? ?????? ??????????????? ?? ??? ????????? ???????????
???????????? ???????????? ??????? ? ??????? ????????? ? ?????? ???????????????? ?????? ???????,
? ??? ????????????????, ??????????? ?????????????? ????????????, ??????????????? ??????? ?????????????? ? ?????? ???????????? [2].
?????? ???????? ??? ???????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ????? ???????? ?????????
??? ??????? ??????? ? ???????????, ??????? ?????? ?? ??????????? ???????. ??????, ??????? ???????? ???????????? ????? ????????????? ????????? ? ?????? ??????? ???????????? ??? ?????? ???????? ?????????????? ????????? ? ??????? ????????????????, ????????? ? ????????? ????????????
??????????? [3].
???????? ??? ???????? ???? ?????, ?а????????? ???????????? ??????? ???????????:
?????? ???а? ??????????? ???????????????? ?????????? ?а????????? ?????? ??????? (?????? ??????????????? ????????, ?????? ????????? ? ?????? ???????????????? ?????????? ?а????????
???????? ???????????? ???).
163
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
?????? ??? ? ?????????? ?????? ???????????????? ?????????? ?а????????? ??????? ???????
?а??????? ??? ????????? ????????????? ?????????????? ????????? ????????????????, ????????????
?? ????????? ?а ??????? ???????? ???????? ???????????? ??? ? ???????? ????????-????????????
?????, ?????????? ?а????????? ?????? ? ????????? ???????????????? ?а??????????? ?? ?????????
????????????? ???????????.
?????? ???а? ??????????? ???????? ????????? ????????????????, ? ??????? ????? ??????????
????????? ?а????????? ??????????? ?????? ???????. ??? ????????? ???????? ????????? ?????????
???????????????? ?????????? ?? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ? ????????? ???????? ????????????????.
? ???? ??????????? ?????????????? ???????? ???????????? ??????? ????????? ???????????
?????? ???????????????? ??????? ???????? ?????????????? ?????????. ????????? ?????????? ?????????а ? ??????? ????????????????? ???????, ?? ????? ?? ????????? ????? ??????????? ???????? ????????? ?????????? ????? ???????????, ????????? ???????? ????????????? ???????????????
??????????, ??????? ????????? ??? ?????????? ????? ????????? ???????? ?? ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ??? ???????????? ??????. ????? ????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ??????
?? ??????????? ????????????? ??????????? ?а???????? ???????? ? ???????? ???????? ??????? ????????? ???????????? ?? ?????????. ???????? ????????? ?????? ???????????????? ?а???????? ??????
??????? ??????? ??? ?? ?????????????? ?????????, ??? ? ?? ????????? ????????????? ???????????,
????????????? ?? ????? ?????????????? ??????? [4].
???????????? ????????, ??? ?а????????? ??????? ?????????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????????? ??????????? ?????? ?????????? ? ????????? ???????????? ??????????? ?а??????? ????????????????. ?????????? ????? ??? ???????????? ?????? ????????? ???????????????? ?а?????? ?????????? ?????? ??????? ?????????? ??????????????? ?? ????????????? ??? ??????? ??????? ????????
????????-??????????????? ?????????????, ??????? ????????? ?а???????? ????????? ???????? ??????
????????????????. ??? ????? ????????? ???????????????? ????? ???????????, ??????????????? ???????? ??????? ????????????????. ??????????? ?????????? ??? ???????????????? ????? ???????????? ????? ???????????, ??????? ???? ??? ?????????? ?????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????
?? ?????????? ??????????? ??????????? ????????? ????????????????. ??? ???? ????? ????? ????
???????????? ??????: ??????????????? ??????? ?????? ?????????? ?? ???????? ??????????? ??????????????? ? ??????????? ???????? [5].
?????????? ???????? ???????????? ????????-???????????????? ????????? ?????????? ????????????????, ??? ??? ????????? ???????????? ??? ?а ????????? ???????? ??????, ?? ??????? ??????????????? ??? ????????. ??????? ????? ??????? ???????? ?а ???? ??????, ??????????? ???????????? ???????? ???????? ?????????????? ???????. ??? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ???????
?а??????? ????? ?????????????? ?????, ??? ????????? ?????????? ?????? ??????????? ??????????
? ????????? ??????????, ?????? ??? ????????????????, ????????? ?????? ??????????? ? ??????? ??
??????????????.
???????? ???????????????? ???????? ????????????: ????????? ??????????? ??????????
?????????? ??? ?????????? ?????????????? ??????? ? ????????? ????????????????; ??????????? ????????? ? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ?? ?????????????? ?????????. ??? ????????????
??????? ?????????????? ?????: ?????????????? ????????? ? ??????? ???????????????? ?? ??????????
??????? ?а???????; ?????????? ?????????? ???????????? ???????????? ?? ???????.
?????? ?????????? ???????, ??? ???? ?а??????? ??????????? ????????????? ? ????????? ??????? ???????? ?? ????????????????, ?? ?????????? ????? ?? ????????? ????????????. ??? ???????????? ???? ???????? ? ???, ??? ???? ??? ?????????? ????????????? ????????? ???????? ??????
?? ??????????, ??????????? ????????? ? ??????? ???????????? ???????????????? ???? ?а ??????
?????? ??????? ? ?? ????????? ?? ???????? ?????????????? ? ??????? ???????, ?? ?????????? ??????????? ?? ????? ???????????.
???? ?????????? ?????, ???????????? ?????? ??????????????? ??????? ? ????????, ????????????? ? ??????????????? ??? ??????? ????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????????, ??????? ????????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????? ? ???????????? ???????? ?????????-??????????????
???????????. ??? ????? ??????????? ???????? ??????????????? ???????, ?а ???????? ???????? ??????????????: ??????????? ?????? ? ????????? ????????????????; ????????? ????????- ???????????? ????????? ?а ?????????? л???????????????????????╗ ? ???????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ??? ??????????? ???????? ?????????? ???????????? ????????????? ???????????.
164
?????????? ???????? ? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
?? ????????? ???????? ????? ????? ?????????-?????????????? ??????????? ?а????????? ???????????????:
I) ??????????? ????????????????а? ?????????, ?а??????? ????????? ????????? ?а????????? ?????? ??????? (?????? ????????);
2) ??????????? ????????????????, ?а??????? ????????? ????????? ?а????????? ?????? ??????? ?а??????? (?????? ???????????);
3) ??????????? ???? ????????? ? ?????? ????????????????, ?а??????? ????? (??? ??????) ?????????? ????????? ?а????????? ?????? ??????? ?а??????? (?????? ????????).
????????????? ??????? ???????????? ????????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ? ????????? ???????????????? ??????????? ?? ??????? ????????????, ???????? ????????????? ???????????, ? ??????:
???????????? ????????-??????????????? ??????????, ??????? ?????????????? ??????????????? ??????, ???????????? ? ?????????????? ????????????? ?????????????? ??? ?????????? ?а???????????? ????????? ?????????????? ???????????? ??????????????? ?????? ? ???????????????? ??????????,
???????? ??? ????????????? ? ??????????. ??? ???? ????????? ????????????? ?????????-?????????????? ??????????? ??? ????? ???????????? ??????????? ?а??????????? ??????????????????? ???????????? ???????? ?? ????????????????? ???????????.
??????
?а???????? ??????? ?????????-?????????????? ??????????? ??????????? ? ????? ???? ????????????: ?????? ???????? ??????????? ???????????????? ?? ??????? ? ????????????? ??????, ?????? ??????? ???????????? ???????? ??????????? ???????????????? ????????? ?????????, ??????????? ?????????????? ?а??????, ??????????? ?? ?????? ??????????? ????????????????, ??????????
?а ???????? ???????????. ???????????? ????????, ??? ????????????? ?а ???????? ?????? ???????????
??????? ??????????? ???????????????? ?? ??????? ????????? ????????????? ??????????????? ?????
?а????????? ?? ???? 85%.
??????????? ???????? ??????????? ????????? ?????????????? ???????? ????? ?????????????? ?а????????? ????????????: л????????????╗ ????????? ??????????? ????????????????; ??????????????? ??????????? ?? ??????? ?????????? ????????????????; ??????????? ??????????? ?? ??????? ?
????????? ??????????. ???????????? ????????, ??? л????????????╗ ????????? ??????????? ????????
?а????? ??????? ????????????????, ??????????? ?????????? ????????????, ?? ?????? ?????????????
??????????? ?? ?????????? ????????? ?????????? ???????????. ??????????????? ??????????? ?? ??????? ?????????? ?а????? ???????? ????? ??????? ???????????????? ? ???????????? ????? ?????????? ??????????, ?????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????????? ?????????. ???????????? ????????,
??? ???????? ????????????? ????????????? ????????? ?? ?????: ???????????????? ?????? ? ??????????????? ???????? ?? ????????? ??????????, ???????????????? ??????а ? ??????????????? ??????????? ?? ??????? ??????????. ????? ???????? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ????????????????
? ???????????? ????????? ?????????? ??????????????? ????? ???????????? ???????????? ?а????????
????????????.
?????????-?????????????? ??????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?а ????????? ??????? ?????????? ??????????? ??? ?????, ?????????? ??????? ????????, ????????????? ? ???????????????.
?????????????? ????????? ???????????? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ???????????
?????? ????? ?а?????? ???????? ???????? ???????????? ??????????? ??????????.
????????????????? ??????
1. ?????? ?.?. ????????? ?????? ?а?????? ? ????????? ?????????????? ???????? ?? ?????? ??????????????? ????????? ????????? ??????????. ???.: ????, 2009. 108 ?.
2 ?????? ?. ?. ??????? ?????????????? ????????? ????????? ??????????? ?а????????????? ????????? ?а?????????-??????? ????? ?????? ????????: ???????. ????. ?-?? ???. ????. ????: ????.
2011. 38 ?.
3. ????????? ?. ?., ??????? ?. ?. ??????????? ???????????? ???????? ?? ????????????? ????????? ????????? ?????????? // ?????? ? ???????? ?????????? ????????. 2004. ? 5. ?. 32?34.
4. ?????? ?. ?. ?????????? ????? ??????? // ????? ?????????. ?.: ???????, 2004. 864 ?.
5. ?????? ?. ?. ??????? ??????? ?????? ?????????????? ???????. ?.: ?????, 1980. 196 ?.
165
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
??? 796
?. ?. ??????????
???????? ?????????????? ????, ??????
?????-????????????? ???????????????
??????????? ???????????????? ???????????????
?. ?. ??????
??????????
???????????? ??????????????? ???????????
?????????? ????????, ?????? ? ???????? ??. ?.?. ????????
?. ?. ????????
???????? ?????????????? ????, ??????
???????????? ??????????????? ???????????
?????????? ????????, ?????? ? ???????? ??. ?.?. ????????
?????-????????????? ????????????
????????????????? ??????????? ????
?. ?. ????????
???????? ?????????????? ????, ??????
?????-????????????? ???????????????
??????????? ???????????????? ???????????????
????????????????? ????? ??????????
??? ????????????? ?????? ??????????????
?????????? ????????? ?????
???????? ???????????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????????? ????????????? ????????? ???
?????????? ?а????????????????? ??????. ???????????? ???????? ????????? ????????? ?????? ??
??????? ????????????? ?????????????????? ?????? ?а??????? ???????? ?а????????????? ????? ? ??????????, ??????? ???????? ?а ?????? ?????? ?а ??????????? ??????? ??????????, ? ??? ?? ??????
?????????? ? ?????????? ???????? ? ???????????. ???????????? ????????????? ????????? ?????????????????? ?????? ?а????????????? ??????? ??????????? ??? ????????? ????????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ?? ???????? ???????.
???????? ?????: ????????????????? ?????, ???????? ????, ?????????????, ????????, ????????
???????.
Vinogradov I. G.
Ph. D., associate Professor of the Department of physical
culture and sports. Saint PetersburgstateUniversityofaerospaceinstrumentation
Aikina A. V.
graduate student of the caf. Tim Athleticism,
national state University of physical culture, sport
and health named. P. F. Lesgaft, Saint Petersburg
Dalsky D. D.
Ph. D., associate Professor Tim Athleticism ?NSU them.
P. F. Lesgaft, Saint Petersburg?; associate Professor,
Department of physical culture and sports
of Saint Petersburg National research University ITMO
Evgeniev A. A.
Ph. D., associate Professor in the Department
of physical culture and sports. Saint Petersburg state
University of aerospace instrumentation
STATIC-DYNAMIC TRAINING REGIME
AS A UNIVERSAL METHOD FURTHER STIMULATION OF MUSCLE GROWTH
Revealed the fundamental principles of drawing up individual training programs for athletes in a static-dynamic mode. The main provisions of the studied theories on the use of statodynamic regime in strength training
in Russian science and literature, methods of training in this mode in modern scientific literature, as well as the
166
?????????? ???????? ? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
opinions of Russian and foreign coaches and athletes. The effectiveness of the inclusion of statodynamic mode in the
training process of the bodybuilder to increase the variability of the training effect on muscle fibers was confirmed.
Keywords: static-dynamic regime of muscle growth, variability, load, muscle fibers.
?????????? ????? ??? ????? ??????, ??? ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????? ?????????
????. ?????? ???????? ?????? ???????? ??????????? ????? ?????????? ????????? ????? ????? ?????? ?????. ??? ???????????? (?. ?. ??????, ?. ?. ??????????) ???????, ??? ????, ??? ? ???? ????,
????? ??????????????? ??????????? ???????? ??????, ??? ???????, ?????????. ?????????? ?????
???????? ???? ? ?????? ???? ?????????? ????????? ??? ?????????? ?а?????????? ????????? ??????? ?????? ????.????? ???????, ???????? ???????? ???? ?а??????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????????? ????????????, ???? ?а?????????? ?? ?????????? ????????? ??????. ?????????? ????????? ??????????? ????????? ?????? ?????????? ???????????? ? ????????? ????????? ???????, ?????????????, ???? ????????? ?????????? ?а?????????? ?????????, ???????? ????????????? ? ???????????????
??????? ??? ???? ?????????????? ? ???????????? ?????????? ??????????.
????????, ??? ?????? ???? ???????????? ????? ????????? ???????? (???. 1).
???. 1. ?????? ???????? ??????
?????? ?? ????, ??? ???????????? ???????? ?? ???????? ????? ? ???????????? ?????????????? ?????? ???????? ????????????? ??? ?????????? ????????? ?????, ????????? ?????? ??????????
??????, ????? ?? ????? ???????????? ??? ?????????????? ?????????? ????? ? ?????????? ????????
???????????, ???????? ????????????? ??????.
??????? ????? ???????? ? ???, ??? ??? ????????? ?? ???????? ???????? ???????? ??, ?????
?????? ??????? ??? ????????? ??????????, ? ????? ?????????? ???????? ???????????? ?а???. ?????
???????? ???????? ? ?? ????????????????? [5, 6]. л???????? ?????????????, ??????? ?? ?????? ?а???????????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ????????????? ? ??????????????? ???????, ??????? ?а???? ??????? ??????????? ???????? ????. ?а?? ?????, ??? ????????????? ?????????? ???????? ?а??????????? ??? ??????????? ????????? ?????? ??????????? ???????????? ???????? ???? ???????? ?, ??????????????, ??????? ????????????? ??????????╗, ???????????? ?? ???????? ??????????? [4].?????
?? ????????????? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ?????, ??????????? ?????????? ?????????????
?????????????? ???????????, ???????? ?????????????. ???? ????? ???????? ?????????? ???????????
?а?????????? ?????????? ?а???????? ????????? ?а??????????? ??? ??????? ?????????, ??? ??????????? ???????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ?а?????????? [9].
????????, ??? ???????? ??????? ?а????????? ???????? ???????????? ????? ?????? (???.2).
????????????? ????????????? ?????????????????? ?????? ??????????? ???????????? ??????????????? ?? ????????????? ???????? ???????, ???, ?а??????? ?? ????????? ??????, ??? ?????????? ????????? ???????? ????????? ?????? ????????? ????????????, ??????????? ???????????
????????? ?а ???????? ??????, ?????????? ????????????????? ???????, ??? ??????????, ???????? л?????╗, ?????? ?а?????????? ?????????, ? ??????? ??? ???????? ?? ???????????? ???????????.л????????? ??????????? ????????? ????? ??????????? ???????? ???????? ???????. ????? ???? ???? ????, ??? ???????? ?? ????????? ? ?а????????????? ???????? ????????, ??? ????? ???????????,
??? ?? ?????????? ??? ???????????? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ??????????. ?????? ?????, ?????
???????????? ?а????? ???????????? ??????? ?????????? ????? ? ????????, ??????? ??????? ?? ??????, ???????? ???????? ????╗[9]. ???? ??????????, ??? ???????????? ???????? ?????????? ??????????, ?????????? ?? ?????????? ?????????? ???? ?а??????????? ????????? ????????? ????????
?а????????? ?????, ?а????????? 40?50 ?, ???????? ?а?????????? ?????. ??????????? ?????? ?а????
167
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
???????? ?????? ???????? ???????????? ??????. ??? ????? ?????????? ????????????? 20?30 ??????????. ??? ???????? ????????????? ?????????? ???????? ?а?????? ??????????? ????????? ?????????? ????? ????????????? ???????? ?? ????????? ?????? (5?10). ??? ???????? ????????? ???????
?????????????????? ????????, ? ?????? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ???????. ??????????????
????????????? ???????? ??? ????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ????? ???????? ?????? ??????????????? ?? ???? ?????????? ?? ???????? ?????????? ?????????? ? ??????????????? ?????. ?????
????, ????????????????? ????? ?????????? ?????????? ????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ???????, ???????????? ??? ??? ???????? ? ????????? ???????????, ??? ?а???? ??????? ????? ???????????
??????????? ?? ?????? ?????? ????????-?????????? ???????, ??????? ????????????.
???. 2. ???? ???????? ???????
????? ???????, ???????????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????????? ?????????????
????????? ??? ?????????? ?а????????????????? ?????? ??????????? ?а?????????:
- ???????????? ???????? ?????????, ??????????? ??????? ????? ??? ?????????;
- ????? ??? ????????? ?????????? 30?45 ?;
- ???????? л?????╗ ???????? ???????????? ????????;
- ??????????? ???????? ? ??????????? ??? ???????;
- ????? ???????????, ?.?. ?????????? ??????????? ????????????? ?????????.
?????????? ???????? ???????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????????? ?а????????????? ?????????? ?а?????? ?????????????.????? ??????? ???????????? ????????????? ????????? ?????????????????? ?????? ?а????????????? ??????? ??????????? ??? ????????? ????????????? ??????????????
??????????? ?? ???????? ??????? ? ?????????????? ?????????? ????????? ????? ????????????.
????????????????? ??????
1. ????????? ?. ?. ?????????? ?????????????????? ?????? ??????? ?????????? ?а????????????????
??????? ??? ????????? ????????????? ???? ?а??????? ?? ??????? ????????? ?а???????? 17?19 ???:
????????? ???????????????? ?????? ?????????. ???.: ???????????? ??????????????? ??????????? ?????????? ????????, ?????? ? ???????? ????? ?.?.????????, 2017. 98 ?.
2. ????????? ?.?., ?????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?. ????????????? ????????????????? ??????????
?а?????????? ??????? ???????????? ???? ???????? // ?????? ??????? ???????????? ??. ?.?.
????????. 2016. ? 4а(134). ?. 51?55.
3. ??????? ?.?. ??????????????????? ???????????? ?????????? ????????? 1?4-?? ?????? ???????????? ???? ?а????????????????? ?????? // ??: ??????????, ???????????, ??????????. ?.: ?????????????????? ????? л?????? ? ???????? ?????????? ???????? ? ??????, 2008. ?. 72?75.
4. ??????? ?????? ?????????? ?а??????????? ??? ??????????? ???? // Iron Health. ERL: http://.ironhealth.ru/articles/nauchnye-metody-trenirovok-s-otyagoshheniem-dlya-gipertrofii-myshc.html
5. ?????????? ?? ?????: ????? ?????? // ???????? ???. 2014. ? 4. ?. 155?168.
6. ???????? ?. ?.??????????? ???? ??????????? л????????а? ???????????? ???? ?????????? ????╗
?а?????? ??????? ??????а// ?????? ? ???????? ?????????? ????????.а2011. ? 5. ?. 56?59.
7. ???????? ?. ?. ??????????? ???? ??????????? л????????а? ?????????? ??????? ????╗ ?а??????-????????????? ? ??????-??????????????? ??????? ?????? ???? // ??????? ??????????? ???????????????? ????????????. ???. 3: ?????????? ? ??????????. 2001. ? 2. ?. 240?248.
8. ????? ?.?., ?????? ?.?. ???????? ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ????????? ? ????????????
?????????? ??????????? ??? ?????????? ???????? ?а????????????????? ?????? // ??? ?????? :
?????????????? ??????-????????????? ??????. 2016. ? 4. ?. 46?50.
9. ?????? ?. ??????? ?? ???????????? ????????. URL: http://youiron.ru/statodinamika
168
?????????? ???????? ? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
??? 428
?. ? ?????????
???????? ?????????????? ????, ??????
?????-????????????? ??????????????? ???????????
???????????????? ???????????????
?????????? ?????? ?????????????????
????????? ?????????? ??????????????
? ?????? ?????????? ?????? ? ???????? ?????????? ????????????????? ????????? ????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ?а??????? ????????.
???????? ?????: ?????????????? ?????????, ?????????????????, ???????????? ??????????, ????????, ?????????? ????????
I. M. Evdokimov
candidate of pedagogical Sciences, professor of department
Saint Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation
EVALUATION OF PHYSICAL WORKING CAPACITY
OF STUDENTS OF ENGINEERING SPECIALTIES
The article presents the data on the dynamics of the physical working capacity of the organism of engineering
students in the academic semester.
Keywords: functional state, working capacity, integral indicator, students, physical culture
????????????? ?????????? ??????? ???????? ??? ????????????? ?????????? ????????, ??????? ?а?????? ??????? ?? ?????????????? ??????????? ????????????????? ?????????. ?????????????
?????? ?????? ??????????? ??????? ???????? ??? ?????????? ???????? ???????, ????? ???????????
????? ? ???? ????????????????? ????????? ??? ????? ???????????? ???????? ?? ???????????? ????????????. ?а ?????? ????? ?????????? ??????????? ?а ???????????, ??????? ? ???????????? ??????
??????????????? ????????? ? ????????????????? ?????????, ??? ??????????? ????? ?????????????
?????????? ????????? ?????????? ????????. ??? ?????????????? ?????? ??????????????? ?????????
? ????????????????? ???? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????-??????????????? ???????? л????╗,
??????????? ?????????????? ????????? ??????? ? ???????? ??????????? ?????? ???????? ??????????????? ????????? ????????? (???????).
???? ????????????: ??????? ?????????? ????????????????? ????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ?а???????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????.
??????????? ? ???????? ????????????
? ???????????? ????????? ??????? 124 ???????? ???????? ?????? ???????? ?????????????:
??????? ?????????? ? ???????????; ??????????? ??????; ?????????? ?а??????????? ????????; ????????????????? ? ??????????????; ??????????? ??????????????????? ???????; ??????????? ? ?????????????.
??? ?????? ?????????-???????????????? ????????? л????╗ ????????????? ????????? ??????????: ??????? ????????? ?????????? (???) ?????; ???????????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ????????????? ???????; ??????????? ??????? ???????? ????????? (????); ????-????; ??????????? ???????????? ? ???????? ??????? ?? ?????? (????? ?????). ?? ????????? ?????????? ??????????? ??????????
???????????? ?????????? ?????????????????. ?????? ?????????? ??????????? ?а?????? ???????? ????????, ???????? ? ?????.
?????????? ???????????? ? ?? ??????
? ??????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????????? ????????????????? ????????? ?а??????? ????????. ??? ????????? ???????????? ?? ???????, ??? ?а?????? ?????????? ??? ????? ?а?????? ????????
?а ??????? ?????????? 70,3 ??/???, ????????????? ??????? ?????????? ??? ??????????? ?а ????????
???????? ? ?а??? ?????, ??? ????? ????????????????? ? ????????? ????????? ?а?????????? ?????????.
169
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
?????????? ?????????? ????????????????? ????????? ?а??????? ????????; n = 124
??????????? ??????????/
1
2
3
? ? ???? ????????????
09.09.18
23.10.18
05.12.18
???, ??/???
70,3+13
67,4+12,1*
65,5+10,7*(**)
?????, ??
261,1+20,3
250,2+11,2*
246,4+16,2*(**)
????, ??
46,8+3,9
43,1+2,3*
40,9+2,5*(**)
???????????? ?
10,4+6,3
11,6+5,5
13,4+4,4*(**)
???, ?.?.
70,6+18,2
76,9+12,3*
74,6+14,4**
????? ????? ?
20,8+15,2
23,78+10,6*
24,25+12,7**
???????????? ??????????, ?.?.
28,5+6,7
32,7+7,5*
31,1+3,6**
??????????: *а? ? ? 0,05а? ????????????? ???????? ?а?????? ?? ????????? ?а?????????? ?????????????; **а? ? ? 0,05а? ????????????? ???????? ?а?????? ?? ????????? ?а?????? ?????????????.
? ????????????? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ????????????? ??????? ?а ??????? ?????????? 260,1 ??. ????????????? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ??????? ??????????? ?а???????? ?
????? ????????. ????????? ???????? ??????? ????????????? ??????? ?? ?????????? ???? ???????, ??
???? ????? ??????? ??????????, ? ??????? ????????????????? ?а?????????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ???.
??? ?? ???????????? ?????????? ????? ?? ??????????? ??????????? ??????? ???????? ????????? (????). ? ??????? ?? ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????? ?а ??????????? ????????????
??????????? ?????????? ? ?????????? 46,75 ??. ????????????? ??????? ?????????? ???????????
?а???????? ? ????? ????????. ????? ??????? ????? ? ??????? ?????????????? ????????? ??? ????
??????? ?????????, ????????? ?а??????????? ?????????? ??????????? ? ?? ????????, ? ? ???????
?????? ??????????? ?????????? ????????? ???????
?????? ????????? ?????????? ??????? ????-????? ????????? ?? ?????????? ??????? ???????
????????????????? ?а?????????. ?а??????? ??? ?????????? 70,62 ?.?.. ????????????? ??????? ????????? ?????????? ??????????? ?а???????? ????????, ?а??? ????? ?? ????? ????????? ???? ?????????
???????? ???????? ??????????.
??????????? ?а???? ?????????? ??????????? ?а????????? ???????????? ?????? ??????, ?а??????? ?? ??????? 10,4 ?.. ?? ????? ????????? ????????????? ???????? ???????? ????? ??????????
?а????? ????????, ??? ??????????????? ?? ????????? ???????????? ??????-????????? ???????? ?а???????? ?а?????????.
??????????? ?????????? ??????????? ? ??? ??????? ??????????? ????? ?а????????? ???????
(????? ?????), ??????? ?????????? ?????????? 20,8 ?., ?а ???????? ? ????? ???????? ?????????? ????????????? ??????????. ????? ????? ????? ????????? ?а20 ? 30 ?. ????????? ??? ?????? ??????????
??????. ????????, ??? ?????? ???????? ????????????? ?????? ???????????? ?а????????.
????????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ????????????? ???????? ?????????? ??????????
??, ??????????????? ?? ???????? ????????? ?а?????????? ??????.
??????? ???????? ????????????? ?????????? ????????????? ?????????? ?а28,5 ?.?. ?? 32,7 ?.?
?а???????? ???????? ? 31,1 ?.? ?а??? ?????. ??? ???????????????: ??-??????, ? ???????????? ???????????, ??-??????, ? ???????? ????????????? ????????? ????????? ?а????????, ??? ???????? ??????
???????????? ???????????? ??????????????? ????????? ??? ?а????? ?? ?????????? ????????.
????? ???????, ??????? ????????, ??? ??????????? ?????????-??????????????? ????????
л????╗ ???????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????? ? ?????????????? ????????? ????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ? ?????????? ???????????? ???????? ? ???????????, ? ????? ?????????????
?????? ??????????? ????? ???????? ???????? ????????, ????????? ? ??? ??????????. ???????? ???????? ? ?????? ??????????????? ?????????, ???? ??????????? ????????????? ?????? ????????, ??? ??????????? ???????????? ??????-?????????????? ? ??????????????? ??????????? ???????? ????????
? ????????? ????????????? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ?? ??????????? ???????.
????????????????? ??????
1. ?????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?., ????????????? ?.?. ?????????????? ?????????
?а?????? // ?????. ? 6, 2013. ?. 69?75.
170
?????????? ???????? ? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
2. ?????? ?.?., ?????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?. ??????????????? ??????????? ???????????? ??????
??????????????? ????????? ? ????????????????? ??????????? ????????????? // ???????? ??????????? ? ?????????? ????????. ?., 2015. ? 5 (127). ?. 19?25.
3. ???????, ?.?., ?????? ?.?. ?????????? ??????????????? ????????? ????????????? ?а????????
?????????? ?????????? // ????. ???. ??-? ??. ?.?. ????????. 2014. ? 5. ?. 165?170.
4. ???????, ?.?., ?????? ?.?. ?????????? ??????????????? ????????? ????????????? ?а????????
?????????? ?????????? (????? II) // ????. ???. ??-? ??. ?.?. ????????. 2014. ? 6. ?. 177?182.
5. ????????????, ?.?., ????????? ?.?. ??????????? ??????????????? ?????????. ???.: ???????????? ???. ??-? ???. ????????, ?????? ? ???????? ??. ?.?. ????????, ?????-?????????, 2012. 93 ?.
6. ????????, ?.?. ?????????? ????????????????? ??????????? ? ????? ???????? ?? ?????????
(????? 1) // ?????? ??????? ???????????? ????? ?.?. ????????. 2014. ? 3 (109). ?. 148?158.
171
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
??? 796.05
?. ?. ???????-????????
???????? ?????????????? ????, ??????
?????-????????????? ???????????????
??????????? ???????????????? ???????????????
?.?. ??????
???????? ?????????????? ????, ??????
?????-????????????? ???????????????
??????????? ???????????????? ???????????????
?. ?. ??????-???????
???????? ?????????????? ????, ??????
??????-???????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????? ????????
????????? ????????? ? ??????????????? ??????
??????????? ???????????? ??????? ?????????? ????????
?а??????? ???????????? ?????????? ???????? ????????
? ?????? ?????????? ?????? ????????? ????? ?????????? ??????????? ?а???? ?а?????????????? ??????????????? ??????, ???????????? ?? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????, ?????????????? ???????????? ?????????? ????????? ? ???????, ????????? ?????????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ?а ?????????????? ???????????? ??????? ?? ???????? ?????????. ????????? ????? ???????? ???????????
??????, ???????????????? ???????? ??????????? ??????????? ?? ?????????? ????????, ????????????
?????????????????, ????????, ??????????? ?????? ???????????? ????????? ?а???????????? ?????????? ??????.
???????? ?????: ??????????? ??????????????? ??????????????? ???????? ??????? ???????????,
???????????? ?????, ??????????????? ???????? ????????, ?????????? ?????, ???????? ???????????
??????????, ????????? ??????????? ??????????.
DIRECTIONS OF ACTIVITY OF FACULTY OF PHYSICAL TRAINING
IN THE FIELD OF FORMATION OF HARMONIOUSLY DEVELOPED PERSON
L. B.Yefimov-Komarova
PhD of Pedagogical Sciences, Associate Professor
V. M. Bashkin
PhD of Pedagogical Sciences, Associate Professor
Y. V. Efimov-Komarov
PhD of Pedagogical Sciences, Associate Professor
Northwest institute of management of the Russian academy
of national economy and public service
In clause the analysis of possible ways of realization of formation in HIGH SCHOOL with use of the educational model directed on increase of quantity of students, regularly engaged physical training and sports,
increases of success of development of curriculums with use of the complex decision on development of
disciplines is spent. Criterion of it is the complex estimation, ???????????????? health saving up ???????????, on physical training, safety of ability to live, ecology, maintenance of personal safety together with the
organization of sports work.
Keywords: federal state educational standard of higher education, student sport, continuity of training programs, sports asset, health saving disciplines, sports technical training.
??? ???????????? ??????? ????? ??????? ????????? ???????? ?а??????????? ???????? ???????????? ??????? ????? ??? ?а???????????????, ??? ? ?а???????????????-???????? ???? ????????????, ?????????? ????????????? ???????????? ?????? ????????, ??????????????? ????????? ????????? ?
??????????? ???????? ???????? ????? ?????. ????? ???????????? ???????????, ?а??? ?????, ??????????
172
?????????? ???????? ? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
??????????? ? ???????????? ????????????-??????????????? ??????, ?????????? ? ???????????????
????????????, ?? ???? ???????. л???????? ????????? ??? ????????? ?а????????, ???????? ?????????
???????????? ????????, ????????????????? ???? ?????????????? ?????? ????????? ? ?????? ?а????
???????? ?????????? ???????, ? ?????? ?а???????????? ????╗ [1].
л?? 2015/16 ??????? ???, ?? ?????? ??????????? ?????? ??????????????? ?????????? ?а?????????? ????????? ???????????? ???????????? 2891 ???????????????? ??????????????? ???????????
? 896 ??????????????? ??????????? ??????? ???????????, ?а??????? ????????? 2180,2 ???. ? 4766,5
???. ?????????╗ [2].
??? ???????????????, ?а???????????? ??????????? ??????? ????? ????????????????? ???????????????? ???????? ?? ?????????? ???????? ? ?????? ???????????, ???????????? ?? ??????????????????, ? ??? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????, ?????????????? ???????????? ???????, ??????????
????? ??? ??????????:
????????????? ?????????? ????????? (?. 2 ??. 41);
????????????? ????? л? ?????????? ???????? ? ?????? ?а?????????? ?????????╗ ?? 04.12.2007
?а329-?? (? ??????????? ? ????????????);
??????????????? ????????????? ?????????? ????????? ?? 18 ?????? 2011 ?. ?а945 л? ???????
????????????????? ??????????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?а??????????? ??????????????? ??????????????? ??????????? ????????????????? ???????????╗;
????????????? ????? ?? 29 ??????? 2012 ?. ?а273-?? л?? ??????????? ?а?????????? ?????????╗ (? ??????????? ? ????????????);
??????????????? ????????????? ?????????? ????????? ?? 31.05.2012 ?а536 (???. ?? 07.06.2014)
л??????? ???????????? ?????? ?????????? ?????????╗;
??????????????? ????????????? ?????????? ????????? ?? 03.06.2013 ?а466 (???. ?? 13.02.2016)
л?? ??????????? ????????? ? ???????????? ??????????? ? ????? ?????????? ?????????╗;
???????? ???????????? ??????????? ? ????? ?????????? ????????? ?? 13.09.2013 ?а1065 л??
??????????? ??????? ????????????? ???????????? ???????? ? ???????????? ?????????? ??????╗.
????????????????? ????????? ?????????? ????????? л???????? ?????????? ???????? ? ??????╗, ???????????? ?????????????? ????????????? ?????????? ????????? ?? 15 ?????? 2014 ?. ?а302;
????????????????? ????????? л???????? ???????????╗ ?? 2013?2020 ??., ???????????? ??????????????? ????????????? ?????????? ????????? ?? 15 ?????? 2014а?. ?а295;
??л????????? ???????? ?????????? ???????? ? ?????? ?а?????????? ????????? ?? ?????? ??
2020 ?.╗, ???????????? ????????????? ????????????? ?????????? ????????? ?? 7 ??????? 2009 ?.
? 1101-?;
??л?????? ??????????????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ?? ?????? ?? 2025 ?.╗,
???????????? ????????????? ????????????? ?????????? ????????? ? 2403-? ?? 29 ?????? 2014 ?.;
?????????????? ???????????? ?? ???????? ????????????? ??????, ???????????? ????????????? ??????????? ? ????? ?????????? ????????? ? ????????????? ?????? ?????????? ????????? ??
29 ???? 2016 ?.
??? ??????????? ???????, ???????????? ????? ?????????? ????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ???????????? ????????????? ??????-????????????? ??????? ?????????? ????????? ? ???????
???????. ??? ????? ?????????? ????????????????? ?????????? ???????????:
??????????????? ?????????????? ?? ??????????? ???????????????? ???????? ??? ????????
????????? ? ??? ?а????????????? ????????????? ???????? ?а??????????????? ???????????? ??????? ???????????, ?а??? ????? ???????????? ???????????????? ????????, ????????????? ??????? ??????????? ?????? ?? 08.04.2014 ?. ? ??-44/05??.
???????? ????????? ??????????? ?????? ?? 09.08.2010 ?. ?613? л?? ??????????? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ?????? ??? ?????????? ????????????? ? ?????????? ???????????╗ ??. 2, 12, 13, 14, 15.
???????? ??????????? ?????? ?? 09.11.2015 ?. ? 1309 л?? ??????????? ??????? ???????????
??????? ??????????? ??? ????????? ???????? ? ??????????????? ????? ?а????? ???????????, ? ?????
???????? ?? ??? ???? ??????????? ??????╗.
???????? 1567-76 л?????????? ??????? ?????????? ? ?????????? ???? ??????? ?? ??????????
???????? ? ??????╗.
????????????? ????? ?? 4 ??????? 2007 ?. ? 329-?? л? ?????????? ???????? ? ?????? ?а?????????? ?????????╗.
????????????? ????? ?323 л?? ??????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ?а?????????? ?????????╗
??.2 ??.4,8,12 ?.1,4; ??.30 ?.3 ? ????????? ?а??????? ?? 06.12.2011 ?. ?412 ??.34.3 ?.2,4; ??. 34.5.
173
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
????? ???????? ??????????? ?а?????????? ???????? ? ????????????? ?????? ??????? ? ?????????? ????? ??????????? ?????? ??????????????? ???????? ? ?????? ???????????? ?????? ????? ???????????????? ?????????????, ??????????????? ????? ???????????? ?а??????? ??????? ???????????.
?? ???????? ??? ???????? ??????????? ???????????? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ??????????????? ???????????. ??? ??????????? ???????? ???????? ?? ???????????, ???????????? ??
???????? ??????????, ????????? ???????? ???????? ?? ?????????? ????????????? ? ??????????????
????????????-?????????????????? ??????? (???) ?а??????? ????????????? ??????????? ?????? ???????????? ????????????? ??????? ?????????? ????????.
?? ??????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????? ?? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ??? ??????????, ???????????? ?? ?????????? ???????? ??? ????, ????? ?? ???? ????????? ???????????? ? ???????? ???????????? ??????? ????????? ?? ?????????? ????????, ???????????? ?????????????????,
????????, ??????????? ?????? ???????????? ? ??. ????????? ??????????-????????? ????????? ??????????????? ???????, ????????? ?????????? ???????????? ???????? ???????????. ??? ????? ?????????? ???????? ???????????? ??????? ?а??????? ????????????-?????????????????? ??????? ?????? ???
?????????? ?????????????? ???????? ???????????????? ??????? ?? ????? ??????????????? ???????????, ? ????? ?? ?????????? ? ???????????????? ?????????????, ?????????? ??????????? ? ?????????? ???????? ????????. ????? ????? ????????????? ?????????????? ???????? ???????? ???????
????????????. л??? ????????? ???????? ???????????? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ?????
??????? ?? ???????? ????????????:
1. ?????? ????????????? ????? ?????????? ???????? ? ??????????? ????????? ?????? ?????
(??????????: ?????????? ???????? ???????? ????? ? ???????????? ????????????????? ?? 72 ??.????).
2. ??????????? ??????-??????????????? ?????? ?? ?????????? ???????? (??????????? ??????? ?????????) ??????? ?????? ?? ??????????, ???????? ?????????? ?а????????? ????????, 3?4 ??????
???????? ?? ??????????? ?????????? ?а?????? ????????? ? ???????????????? ??? ??????? ??????????? ???????????? ? ?????????-????????? ?? ?????????????? ?????????? (?????????? ?? ?????????? ???????? ??????????? ????? -328 ??. ?????).
3. ??????-????????????? ?????? ?? ?????????? ???????? (???????? ??????? ?????????) ??????? ?????? ?? ?????????? 1 ? 2-? ????? ???????? (?????????? ?? ?????????? ???????? ???????????
????? ?? ?????? ?????????? ??? ? ??????? ? 328 ??. ?????).
4. ?????????? ??????-????????????? ?????? (?????????? ??????? ?????????) ??????? ?????? ?? ?????????? ????????????, ??????? ??????? ??????, ? ????? ???????? ?????????? ???????????-????????? 3-?? ?????, ???????????? ?????? ?????? ?? ?????? ?? ???????????? ?????????? ????????? ???????? ????????? ?? 1?2-? ??????. ??????? ?а ?????????? ??????? ??? ????? ??????????
(?????????? ?? ?????????? ???????? ??????????? ????? ? 328 ??. ?????).
5. ?????? ?????????? ?????????? ?? ???? ??????? ??????? ??? ?????? ????????? ??????????
(?????????? ?????????? ?????????? ? 400 ??. ?????).
6. ?????? ??????????? ?????????? ?? ???? ??????? ??????? ??? ?????? ????????? ??????????
(?????????? л?????? ???????????? ??? ????????? ???? ???? ????????╗, ? ????? ??????????? ?? ?????????? ???????????????? ?????????????? ??? ????????? ???????????? ? 72 ??. ????).
7. ?????? ??????????????? ??????????? ?? ???? ?????????? ??????????????? ??????????? ???
????????? ????? ????? ????????. ??????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????? ? ???????????? ??
????????? ???????? ????? ?????? ?а??????? ??????????? ?? ???????? ?????????????? ??????????????? ????????? ? 72 ??. ???? ?? ?????????, ??????????????? ???? ??????????????? ????????????,
???????? ?????????-?????????? ???????????? ?? ???? ?????????? л?????????-??????????????? ?????????? ?????????-?????????? ????????????╗.
??????, ???????????? ???? ???????????, ????? ?а????? ?????? ????????? ???????????? ?????
?????? ?а??????? ????????? ??????????? ????? ????????? ?? ?????????? ???????? ? ??????. ????????
????????????? ?????? ?????? ????????? ?а???? ??????????? ??????? ?? ???? ??????-?????????????
??????? ?? ??? ???? ?????? ?а??????? ?? 1-? ? 2-? ?????? ????????. ?????? ?????? ????????????? ?????????????? ?? ?????????? ??????? ?????? ? ?????. ????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????, ???????????? ???????. ?? ??????? ????? ????? ?????????? ???????? ????? ?????? ???? ??????
?? ???????????? ?а?????????? ????? ??? ??????? ?а?????????? ??????? ?????????. ?а????? ?а???,
??? ???????????? ?????????? ??? ?????? ? ?????? ??????????? ?а ?????????? ??????????????, ??????? ????????????? ????? ?????????-??????????? ???????????????? (???), ??? ?? ???? ????????????
???????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????? ?? ???? ?????????????? ?????????? (???).??????????174
?????????? ???????? ? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
??? ?????????? ?????????? л?????????? ???????╗ ???????? ????? ????????? ?а???? ?????? ?а???????
?а?????? ????????. ?а???? ????????? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ??????, ??? ??? ??????? ?????
????????????? ????????, ? ???? ?????? ? ????????-???????????? ??????????????.
?? ?????????? л?????????? ????????╗ ??????????? ????? ????????? ????? ??? ??????, ?? ?????? ???????. ????? ?????????? ??????? ????? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ?а????? ?а??????? ??????????? ??????????? ??????? ?а?????????. ?????????? ??????????, ??? ?? 2016/17 ??????? ??? ?а??????
?? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ??????? 211 ???????. ??????? ??????????? ??????? ??????? ??????
?? ?????? ???????????? ??????????. ?? ?????????? ?а???? ????????? ??????? ?????????? ????????
???????????? ????? ?? ??? ?а1?4 ?????????. ????? ?????? ??? ?????? ???????? ??????? ???????????
???????? ????, ?? ??? ?????????? ??????? ?? ??? ???????? ???????????? ????? ?? ????????? ?????????? (????????: ??? ??????????? ???????? ??????????? ???????? ???????????? ?????????? ???????
????? ????????? ?? ?????????? ?а???? ?? 1,2,3 ??, ????? ?????? ???????? ??? ?????????????, ??? ???????????, ?????? ????? ?? 3,5, 10 ??.). ?а?????? ????????? ???????? ?а??????????????? ????????
???? ?????? ???????? ????? ?????????-??????????? ?????????? (???) ?? ?????????? ??????????
????????, ?а5?6 ???????? ? ????? ?? ??? ?а????????? ????????? ???? ??????. ????? ???????, ????????
????????? ?а?????? ???????? ?? ????? ????? ??????, ?????? ??????? ?????????? ????????? ?? ???????????? ???????: ?? 1 ?? 5 ?????? ?? ??????????. ????? ????? ??????? ????????, ?а?????? ???????,
?????????? ???????? ?? ??????????? ?? ????? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ? ???????????????? ??????? ?а????????????, ?а??? ????? ? ????????? ?? ?????, ????? ??????.
? ????????? ????? ??????????? ????????? ?????????? ?а ?????????????, ?????????????
?а ?????????? ????????? ??????? ???????? ?????????????? ?????????? ???????? ? ????????????
?а ??????????? ????????? ?????????? ?????????, ???????????? ?? ?????????????? ?? ??????-????????????? ??????? (?? 10?12 ?а ?????? ???? ??????? ?????????, ?? 20 ?а ?????? ???? ?? ????????
?????????); ?а??????? ????????? ???????? ????????????-?????????????????? ??????? ?? ???????????? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ???????? ?а 900 ????????????? ????? ??? ????? ????????????
?????????????. ?а?????????? ?????????? ???? ?? ?а???????? ??????????? ?????? ???? ?????????
?а ??????????????? ??? ?????????? л??????????? ?????????╗. ?????? ?????? ????????????? ?????? ????????????? ?а???? ?????????? ????????? ??? ?????????????? ?? ???? ??????????? ?????????,
?.?. ????????????? ?????????? ??? ????? ???????????? ???????? ??????. ?????? ?????? ????????????
????????????? ?????????? ?а???????? ??????-???????????? ? ??????? ?????? (?????????? ?????????????? ??????-????????????? ?????????, ?????????? ? ?????? ?? ??? ???????? ??????? ???????????).
?? ????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ?????????????. ???? ??? ????????????? ?????????? ????? ??????
????? ?а???-?? ???????????????, ?? ??? ???????????? ?????????? ?? ???????? ???????????.
??????? ?? ???????? ?????? ??????????? ???????????? ?????? ?????????? ????????, ???а ?
?????????????? ?????????????? ??????? ?а?????????????? ??????????? ?????? ???????????? ????????????? ??????? ?????????? ????????. ?? ???????, ??? ?????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ?? ???????????? ?????????????? ? ???? ???????? ?? ????????? ?????? ??????. ?????? ????????????? ?????? ????????????? ?????????? ???????? ????????? ????????? ???????????? ?????????, ?а???????
????????:
????????? ??????????, ???????????????? ?????????? ????????????? (??????? ?????????? ??????, ??????? ????????? ?????????, ?????????? ?????? ? ?????????, ? ????? ?????? л??????????? ???????? ?????????? ????????╗);
???????????? ?????????? ?????? ????????????? (?????? ??????? ?а????????????? ????, ??????
????? ???? ???, ?????? ??????? ?а??????????? ? ?????????? ???????????? ? ??????????????-????????????? ???????????, ?????????? ?????????? ?а???????????? ?? ?????????????? ??????? ???? ???,
??????? ?а ?????????? ??????? ?????? ????, ??????? ????????? ?? ???????????? ?? ??????????????
????? ?а????????????? ?? ??????? ??????? ????);
???????????? ?????? ?? ??????-????????????? ??????????? ???????? ???????? (?????????? ?
??????????? ???, ???????????? ?????????? ?? ??????????? ???????? ????????);
???????????? ??????? ?????? ????????????? (?????? ?а???, ????????? ??????? ??????, ??????? ?а??????? ????????????);
?????????? ?? ?????? ??????? ???????? (??????? ????????? ?????? ????? (???), ??????????
??????? ????????, ?????????? ????????? ?? ?????? ?? ?????????? ??????);
????????? ???? ?а????.
175
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
?????? ?? ???? ???????????, ????? ??????? ????? ? ???, ??? ???????????? ?????? ??????????
???????? ?? ??????????? ????? ????? ??????????? ???????? ? ????? ???????? ?а???? ?????????? ??
?????? ????????? (???????) ?? ?????????? ???????? ? ??????, ?? ? ?????????: л???????????? ?????????????????╗, л?????? ????????????╗, л????????╗ ? ???? ??????, ???????????? ?? ???????????
????????? ? ??????????? ?????? ?????. ??????? ??????????? ????? ?? ?????????? ???????? ?? ??????
??????-????????????? ????????? ??? ????????? ??????? ?????? ?? ????? ??????а ? ?????????????
??????? ?? ?????????? ???? ??????. ??? ????? ?????????? л??????????? ??????????????? ????????
??????????? ?????????? ?а???????????? ???????????, ?? ???????????? ?? ?????????, ?????????? ???????????? ????? ?????????????? ??????????? ??? ????????? ?? ????? 4 ? ???????????? ??????? ?а??????, ?а???????????? ?а??????????? ??????????????? ??????????????? ??????????, ????????? ???????????? ?????????? ?а ?????? ?? ????? 8 ?╗ [3]. ??????????????????? ?????? ?а ??????? ???????
?? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????????? ?а??????? ??????? ???????????. ???
?????????? ???????? ???????? ???????????????? ?????????, ???????????? ?а???. ??? ????????????
?????????? ??????????????? ???????? ?а?????????????? ???????? ???????????? ?????? ??????????
????????, ?????????? ????? ???????? ? ???????????????? ?????????? ??? ?а?????????????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????, ??????? ?????? ?а?????? ?????????????? ?а???????????? ? ???????? ?????????????? ? ??? ??????? ??????.
????????????????? ??????
1. ??????-??????? ?.?., ???????-???????? ?.?., ????????? ?.?. ???????? ????????????? ???????????? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ?а??????????? ???????? // ????????? ??????-???????????? ??????????? ????? ??????????????? ?????? ??????, ??????????? 65-????? ?????? ?а??????? ????????????? ????? 1941?1945 ??. ?????,а???., 2010. ?. 28?30.
2. ???????????? ???????????? ?? ???????? ????????????? ??????. ?????????? ????????????? ??????????? ? ????? ?? ?????????????? ?????? ?? 29 ???? 2016?.
3. ????????? ???????? ?????????? ???????? ? ?????? ?а?????????? ????????? ?? ?????? ?? 2020 ?.,
?????????? ????????????? ????????????? ?????????? ????????? ?? 7 ??????? 2009 ?. ?а1101-?.
176
?????????? ???????? ? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
??? 796
?. ?. ???????
?. ?. ????????
?. ?. ???????
?. ?. ?????????
?????-????????????? ???????????
???????????????? ???????????????
?????????? ????????????? ???????????????? ????????
?? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ?? ??????????
??????????? ??????????? ?????? ??????????? ???????????? ?????
?а?????? ?????? ??????????????? ??????? ????????? ????????????? ???????????????? ???????? ??
???????? ?? ?????????? ???????? ?? ?????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????? ??????????? ???????????? ?????. ?????????? ?????? ????? ?а???????? ??????-????????????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ???????? ????????????? ??????????.
???????? ?????: ????????, ??????????, ?????????? ???????.
INCREASE OF EFFICIENCY OF EDUCATIONAL PROCESS
ON PHYSICAL CULTURE WITH STUDENTS
OF SPECIAL MEDICAL GROUPS THROUGH FOCUSED CONVERSATION
S. N. Karpova
A. A. Zhuravlev
T. A. Bashkina
A. A. Borisenok
Saint Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation
This article deals with improving the efficiency of educational process on physical training with students of
special medical group through thematic conversations. The conduct of these interviews in the process of training sessions showed improvement in the quality disciplines.
Keywords: students, psychology, verbal communication.
?????? ????????????? [4,6,] ????????????? ?????????????? ??????? ??? ????????????????,
?а??????? ???????? ????????????? ? ????????. ??????? ??? ??? ???????? ????? ?? ????????? ???????? ?????????????, ???????? ? ?????????? ?????????????? ????????? ?а?????????. ?????? 20% ??????????, ??????? ??????? ??????????? ???????, ??????????? ?? ?? ??????? ???????? ????????????.
????????? 80% ????????????? ?? ??????? ?????????????? ???????. ??????????, ?????? ???????
????????????? ? ?????????? ????????????? ??????????????? ????????. ? ?а?????? ??????? ??? ?????
??????????? ???????? ????????????? ????? ??????????????? ???????.
??? ??? ?????? ??????? ?? ?????????? ???????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????????, ??????
?????? ?? ?????????? ??????????? ??????? ?? ?????????? [7]. ??? ????? ??? ????????? ??? ??????
?а????????????? ?а??????????? ??????????? ??????, ????????? ????????? ????????????? ??????????????? ??????? ?????????? ??????????, ?????????? ???????? ?? ????????????? ?? ??????????,
? ????? ??????????????? ????????? ??? ?? ??????? ?????????????, ??? ? ?? ??????? ????????? ????????????. ????????????? ????? ??? ???? ???? ????????????????, ????????? ??????????? ?
???????????? ?? ?????? ??????? ?а?????????? ???????????? ??????. ????????? ????????? ?????
???????? ?а?????? ??????, ????????? ? ????????????? ?????????, ?а??????? ????? ????? ??????? ??
???????? ??? ???????? ???????????? ????????, ??? ? ???????? ??????? ??????? ?????????. ?а????
????? ??? ?????? ???????? ????????? ??????? ???????? ???????????? ???????????? ???????, ???????
????????????? ????????? ?? ?????? ???????.
?????? ?????? ???? ????????? ?????? ??? ?????? ?????:
??????????? ????????????? ?????? ?а????????????? ???????? ?а?????? ?????? ???????;
???????????? ??????????? ???????? ???????? ????????;
177
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
?????????? ????????????? ???????;
?????????? ????? ??????????????? ??????? ????????;
??????????? ??? ??? ???? ???????? ?а?????? ??????????? ????????;
?????????? ????????????? ???????????? ????????????? ? ?.?.
?????????????? ???? ????? ?????????? ?????? ?????????????? ??????? ????????? ?? ??????????? ??????????, ? ????? ???????? ??????? ?? ??????????????? ?????????, ????? ??? ??????????,
???????? ? ?.?.
? ???????? ??????? ?? ?????????? ?? ??????? ???????? ????? ???????????? ????????? ????????:
1.???????????? ???????????????? ??? ????????? ???? ??????????? ??? ???????? ??????????? ????????????.
2.??????? ???????? ????????.
3.??????? ?????????? ????????.
4.????????? ??????????? ???????????? ???????-????????????????? ????????? ??????????,
???????????????? ??????????? ????????.
5.???????????? ?????????? ????????? ?????????? ?????.
6.??????? ????????? ?????? ?????.
7.??????????. ???????????? ???? ???????????.
8.??????? ???????? ? ??????? ?????????? ??????? ? ???????????.
9.????????? ?????????? ???????????????? ?????????? ?а?????? ???????? ??????? ? ?????????
?????.
10.?????????????? ? ????????????? ??????? ???????????.
11.???????????????? ?????????? ?????????.
12.???????????? ?????? ????? ?????? ??? ?????????????? ??????? ?а?????? ????????? ???????????.
13.?????? ? ????????????.
????? ????????, ??? ????????????? ?????? ???????? ????? ???????? ??????????? ??????????
?????? ???? ?? ????????? ??????, ????????????? ?? ?? ?????? ???????? ? ?????????????? ????? ????? ?а??????????? ?? ???????????? ?????.
????????, ??? ?????????????? ???? ??????? ?? ????????????? ?????????????? ?????? ?
?????????? ?а???????????????, ??? ??????? ????????????? ???????????????? ???????? ??? ??? ????????, ??? ? ??? ?????????????.
????????????????? ??????
1. ???????? ?. ?. ?????????? ????????: ????????-???????????? ??????? ?????????. ?.: ????, 1999/
2. ???????? ?.?., ??????????? ?.?. ??????????? ?????????? ??????????????? ????????????????
????????? // ????????? ????????????? ??????- ???????????? ??????????? л?????????? ???????? ? ????? ?а??????? ??????????? ??????: ????????? ? ??????????? ????????╗: ??. ??????. ???.,
2017. 148 ?.
3. ?????????? ?. ?. ???????? ?????????? ????????. ?.: ???????. ???. ????? ??????, 1998.
4. ?????? ?. ?. ?????????????? ??????????. ?.: ?????, 2004.
5. ????? ?. ?. ??????????????? ??????????. ?.: ???????????, 1980.
6. ???-????? ?. ?. ?????????? ???????. ?.: ??????????????, 1995.
7. ??????????? ?. ?. ?????????? ?????????? ??????????????? ?а????? ???????. ???, 2010/
8. ????????? ?. ?. ??????????? ???????? ???????? ?? ??????????? ?????????? ?а ???????????
??????? ?????????. ??????, 1995.
178
?????????? ???????? ? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
??? 796.02
?. ?. ????????
???????? ?????????????? ????, ??????
?????-????????????? ???????????????
??????????? ???????????????? ???????????????
?. ?. ???????
?????-???????????? ???????????????
??????????? ???????????????? ???????????????
??????? ??????????? ?? ???????? ?????????? ?????????,
???????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?????
? ?????? ????????? ????????? ???????? ?????????????? ??????????? ???????????.
???????? ?????: ?????????? ??????????, ??????????, ????????????.
L. F. Lebedeva
PhD of Pedagogical Sciences, Associate Professor
Saint Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation
N. Yu. Slutskaya
Senior Lecturer
Saint Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation
CAUSES OF INJURIES IN PHYSICAL EDUCATION,
MEANS TO PREVENT SPORTS INJURIES
The article presents possible options for the prevention of sports injuries.
Keywords: exercise,injuries, prevention.
??????? ??????????? ???????????? ?????? ?а?????????????? ?????????????? ????????????? ??????? ?????????????? ?????????? ????????????? ? ????????. ?а????? ?????????? ???????
?? ??????? ????????, ??? ??? ??? ???????? ???????? ? ???????????? ?????? ?? ??????? ?????????
????????????? ??????? ??????????? ??????????: ??????????????? ?????????????? [3].
?????? ?а ???????????? ?? ????????????-?????????? ???????? ?????? ???????????, ??????
?????, ?а ??????????? ??????????????? ??? ??????. ???????? ???????????????, ??? ?????????????
??????? ????????????, ? ????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????? ? ?????????? ??????????? ????????
????????? ?????? ?а???????? ??????????? ??????????? ?, ??? ?????, ??????????? ???????? ??????????????? ?????? ????????????? ???????.
??? ???????? ?????????? ???????????????? ??? ?????????? ????? ?????? ?????????????
? ???????? ? ???????? ????????????? ???????????? ????? ? ????????? ????????? ????????????? ?
??????????? ??????????? ?????? [1].
??? ???????? ??????? ?????, ?????????? ?а???????? ??????? ??????????? ????????????,
????? ????????? ?? ??? ?????? : ??????? ???????? ? ??????????? ?????????.
? ?????? ??????? ????????, ?????????????? ??????????? ????????? ?????????:
1. ???????? ?а??????????? ? ???????? ?????????? ???????:
??????????????? ???????????? ?????????? ? ?????????? ???? ???????;
???????? ?а ??????? ???????? ? ????????????? ??? ???????????? ???????????? ???????????????????;
???????? ?а ??????? ?а ?????????? ????????????? ??????????, ?? ????????? ???????????
??????????????? ??????????;
??????????????? ???????? ????? ??????????? ?????????? ? ???????????? ?????? ????????????? ????????? ????????;
??????????????? ???? ?????????????? ???????????? ????????????;
??????????????????? ????????????? ???????? ?? ??????????? ???????.
179
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
2. ?????????? ?а???????????-??????????? ? ?????????-????????????? ??????????? ???????:
?????????????????????? ?????????-????????????? ????????? ???? ???????;
??????????????? ????????????, ?????????? ????????, ????????? ???????????????????? ????????? ??????, ????? ??? ?? ?????????????? ???????? ??????? ? ??????????? ???????????;
????????????????? ?????????, ??????????, ???????????? ????????????? ????? ?а??????????
????;
????????????????? ????????????????? ??????? ??? ???????? ?? ???????? ????????? (???????
??? ?????? ??????????? ???????, ?????, ??????????? ??????);
?????????????????????? ????????? ???????? ???? ?а?????????? ?????;
?????????????????????? ????????? ???????? ??????? ???????, ???????? ??? ???????, ???????
? ??.
3. ???????, ????????? ?а ??????????? ?????????????????????? ?? ???????? ???????????
????????????:
???????????? ?????????? ??? ?????????? ???????, ???????;
????????? ?????????????? ????????? ?????????? ??? ??????? ? ???????????? ?????????
??????????;
???????????? ?????????? ??? ????????? ??? ?а?????????? ?????? ?????????;
???????????? ?????????? ?? ????????????? ??? ??????????? ????????, ??????????? ??????????? ??????????;
????????????? ????????? ??????? ????????, ????????????;
????????? ??????? ?????????? ?а????????, ??????????? ??????????;
???????????? ??? ?????????? ???????, ??????? ?а????? ??????????? ???????? ??? ????????.
? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????:
??????????????? ??????? ??????????????? ????????? ?????????, ????????? ?????????? ????????? ?а????????;
??????????????? ??????? ??????????????? ????????? ?????????, ????????? ??????? ???????????? ????????????;
??????????? ???????? ??????? ?????????, ????????? ?????????? ? ??????????????;
???????? ????? ????????????, ??????? ?????????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ?? ???;
????????? ?????????????, ?????? ??? ?????????? ??????????.
??????? ???????????? ?а?????????? ???? ? ?? ?????????? ????????
????? ?? ???????? ??????????? ??????? ?????????????? ??????????? ? ?????????? ????????
?? ????? ??????? ??????????? ???????????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ??????????????? ??????????
?????? ??????? ???????????? ? ??????????? ????????? ?? ????? ????? ??????? ?а?????????? ???? ? ??
?????????? ????????. ??????? ????? ???????, ??? ?? ?????????? ?? ?????? ?????? ??????? ???????????, ?? ? ???????? ??????????? ???????? ????????????? ??????? ????? ??????????? ??????????.
??????? ??????? ????????????
???????? ??????? ??????? ???????????? ??????? ?а ???????????? ?а ????????? ???? ? ????
?????????? ?????, ??????????? ???????????? ?????????? ????????, ?а????????? ??????????? ???????????? ? ?????????, ? ????? ?а???????????? ??????????? ???????, ??? ????????? ???? ?????????
??????????? ??????????????????? ????????? ????????????. ?а???????????? ?а????? ????????????
???? ?????????? ????? ?????? ???? ????????, ??? ????? ? ?????????. ??? ?????? ???? ?? ??????
??????? ? ???????, ?? ? ?????? ????????????, ??? ????????? ?????? ? ??????????? ??????????? ??
??????? ??????. ?а?????? ??????? ???? ?????? ???? ??????????? ??????. ?????? ??????????? ?????
????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ????? [2].
????? ?????????? ????? ?? ?????? ?? ????? 1,8 ?. ?? ?????? ????? ????????, ? ???? ??? ???
?? ???????, ?? ?????? ???? ??????? ????????? ???????????.
??? ?????????? ?????????? ?? ?????????????? ???????? ???? ??? ???? ?????? ???? ??????? ??????????????? ??????, ?????????? ?а??????? ?????????, ??? ????? ????? ????.. ??? ???????????? ? ????????? ?????? ???? ????????? ? ????????? ?а?????????? ? ?????????? ?а?????????-????????????? ????????? ?????????.
??????????? ?????????? ???????? ?????? ????? ?????? ???????????, ????????? ?? ??????????? ?????????. ???????? ???????? ?????? ??????????????? ???????????? ???????????
180
?????????? ???????? ? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
?? ??? ??????????. ???? ???????? ?????? ?????????? ?? ?????????? ?? ????? 10 ?????? ?? ???????
???????? ? ?????? ??????.
???????? ?????? ????????? ?????????, ?????????? ?????????? ??? ????????? ??????. ?? ?????, ??? ?? 2 ????? ?????? ???????? ?? ?????? ???? ???????, ???????, ???????? ? ?????? ?????????,
??????? ????????? ???????? ?????. ??????? ??????? ?????? ????? ??????????? ???????? ??? ??????, ??????, ????????? ????????. ?? ?????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ???????????? ?? ????? 15 ??????.
????????? ??? ?????? ???? ????????? ??????????? ?????? (?????????? ??????????
?а????????) ?? ??????? ?? ????? 40 ??. ???? ????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????????? ????????,
?? ?? ????? ?? ????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????? ???? ??????? ???????? ???????????.
??????? ??? ??????? ?????? ????????????? ?а?????? ??????????????? ????? ?? ????????????
?????????? ?? ?????????? ???????, ???????????? ????, ??????? ???????? ? ?.?. ??? ??????????
?????????? ?? ????? ??????? ???????? ????? ?? ?????? ??????????. ?????????? ????????? ????????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????? ??? ?????????? ?????????? ?а????????, ??????, ??????, ??????? ???????? ??????????.
????? ?а???????? ??????????? ???????????? ?? ?????? ??????? ?? ?? ?????????? ???????????, ??? ????????? ???? ????????? ???????????????? ?????????? ?????? ??????????? ?????????.
???????? ??????? ?? ??? ? ?????? ??? ???? ????? ??????? ????????:
??????????????? ? ???????????? ?????????? ???? ???????, ????????????? ?????? ??????????
???????????? ? ??????????? ?????????;
??????????????? ?? ???????? ??? ?а????, ??? ? ?? ????????? ??????????? ????? ?? ?????????
??????? (????? ?? ??????? ??????? ?????? ???????? ???? ?? ????? ???????????);
????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?а ???????? ???????, ?????????????? ?????? ??????????
?????????? ??? ?????????? ???????, ???????, ??????????? ????? ?? ????, ???????? ????? ??????????
?????????? ??????? ?????????????;
????? ?????????? ?????????? ?а?????? ?? ?????? ???? ?????, ???? ????????????? ? ???????????;
?????????????? ?????????? ??????????? ????????, ??????????? ?????? ??????????? ??????-???????????? ??????? ? ???????? ?а????? ?а?????????? ??????????? ?????? ?? ????????;
?????????????? ?????????? ?????? ? ????? ????????????? ???????? ??????? (????????????????? ????, ?????????? ??? ????????? ????, ?????? ???? ? ?.?.), ???????????? ??????????? ??????????, ? ????? ?????????? ???????? ?? ?? ???????????;
????????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ??? ????????? ??? ?? ??????????? ????????;
????? ?????????? ?????????? ?а????????? ??? ?????????? ????? ?? ???????? ???????, ??
????????? ?????? ???????.
?????? ???????????? ????????? :
????? ????????????? ??????????? ??????????.
??????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?а?????? ??????????? ???????? ??? ???????????? ??????????;
???? ????????? ???????????? ? ????????? ????? ?? ???????????? ?? ???????? ??????? ???
???? ?? ???????? ?????????;
????????? ??????? ?а???????? ?????? ??? ??????? ????????????.
??????? ??????????? ????????? ?а???????????? ???????? ? ???????? ???????
???????? ???????????? ? ????????????? ?????????? ?????????? ???? ?????? ??? ?????????????? ????? ? ?????????? ??????? ????????? ?а???????? ??????? ?????????. ??? ?????????? ?????
??????? ?а???????? ???????? ???????????? ?????? ????? ? ????????? ????????? ???????:
??? ???????? ??????????? ?????? ??????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????;
??????????????? ??????????? ??????? ?а ??????? ???????? ?????? ???????? ?а ??????????
??????;
???? ???????? ??????? ?????????????? ??????? ??????????, ???? ?а???? ? ????? ?? ??? ??????????? ?????? ?? ??????? ???????, ???????;
???????????? ?а???? ????? ?????? ??? ????????? ???????, ???????, ?????????, ???????? ??????? ???????;
181
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
???? ??????? ?????????? ????????? ??? ????????? ???????????;
??? ?????? ????????? ??????? ??????? ?? ???????? ?????????????, ????? ??????? ?? ??????, ???
???????? ?????? ?? ??????? ?????????? ?? ????, ??????????? ?????? ???;
????????? ?а?? ???????? ??????? ???????????? ?????? ?? ?????? ? ??????? ?????, ??? ???????????? ?????????? ??????? ????????? ?а??????? ??????? ?????;
???? ????? ??????? ???? ?????????????? ?????? ??????? ????? ???????, ???????? ?????????
??????? ?????? ?????;
???????? ?????????? ????????, ???? ?? ??????????, ??????? ??????, ????????????? ????????
? ?.?.;
???? ???????? ????????? ??????????? ?????????.
??????? ?а???????? ?????? ??????????? ??? ??????????? ???? ?? ???? 25░?. ??? ???? ???
??????? ?????? ??????????????? ???? ???????????? ?????????-????????????? ???????????.
??????? ????????? ????? ???? ???????????? ? ?а???????? ???????. ?а???????? ????? ???????
?????? ??????????? ??? ??? ????????????? ???????. ?????? ??????? ?а ???????? ??????? ???????
?????????? ?????????????? ?????? ? ??????????.
?????? ?????, ??? ??????? ?а??????? ? ??????????? ???? ???????. ?? ???? ???????, ????? ???
?????????? ????????????? ??????, ?????????? ????????? ????????? ?????? ??? ????? ?? ????, ????????? ??????? ? ?????????? ??????? ???????????? ??? ????????, ?????? ???????? ??????? ????, ????????? ?а?????????? ?? ??? ????, ??????? ?????? ? ?.?.
????? ??? ??????? ??????? ????????? ???, ????? ??? ????????????? ???? ?????? ??????????????? ???, ???????? ?????? ? ?????? ?????????? ??????????? ???? ?а????. ????????????? ???????????
??????? ? ?????????? ??????? ?????? ???????????????? ??????????. ????????? ????? ?????? ?????
??????????? ??????????, ??????? ???????? ???????? ??? ??, ???????????, ? ?.?. ??????????? ???? ???
??????? ? ?????????????? ???????? ?а ???????? ???????? ?????? ???? ?? ????? 18░?. ?а ????????
????? ??????? ?а???????? ??????? ????????? ????????????? ?????????? ????????? ??????????????
?????? ??????????? ?????????:
???????? ??????? ?а ???? ??????????, ?????????????, ????? ????? ??????? ??????????? ???
?????????? ??????, ? ????? ????? ????? ?????? ????;
??????????????? ??????????? ??????, ??????? ?а???? ???? ???????, ????????? ?? ??????????;
????????????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ? ?????? ??????????, ???????????, ???????? ????
?????;
???????????? ?а???? ????? ?????? ??? ????????? ????????, ??????? ???????.
?????????? ?????? ? ???????? ??????? ????????? ?????? ?????????? ????????????????? ?
???????????? ?????????? ???????????, ? ????? ??????? ???????????????????? ????????? ?а????????
????????????. ??? ?????????? ??????????? ??????? ???????????? ? ?????????? ????????????????
??? ??? ???????? ???????????? ? ??????? ????? ??????? ????? ????? ?? ????????.
????????????????? ??????
1. ?????????? ?.?. ??????????? ??? ?????. ?.: ???????????, 1993. 128 ?.
2. ???????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?. ??????? ???????????? ?? ?????? ?????????? ????????. ?., 2001. 96 ?.
3. ??????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?. ?????? ??????????? ?????????? ? ??????. ?.: ???. ????? л????????╗, 2000. 480 ?.
182
?????????? ???????? ? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
??? 976.03
?. ?. ??????????*
?. ?. ????????**
?. ?. ???????????**
*?????-????????????? ??????????????? ???????????
???????????????? ???????????????
**??????-???????? ???????? ?????????? ?
?????? ?????????? ???????? ????????? ?????????
? ??????????????? ??????
????????????? ??????? ???????? ??? ?????????????????
??????????????? ???????????? ?????????
?????? ????????????? ???????? ? ??????? ?? ??????? ?? ???????? ??????????????? ????????????
?а????????? ?а???????? ???????????? ??????? ?? ?????????? ????????. ??????????? ??????? ????????????? ?????????? ??????? ???????? ??? ????????????????? ??????????????? ???????????? ?????????.
???????? ?????: ??????????????? ???????????, ??????????? ??????, ????????, ????????????, ????.
T. I. Melnikova*
L. V. Morozova**
O. P. Vinogradova**
*Saint Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation
**The North-Western Institute of Management ?
a branch of the Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy
and Public Administration
THE USE OF AEROBICS ROOM FOR IMPROVEMENT
OF COORDINATION ABILITIES OF STUDENTS
The authors characterize aerobics and the degree of its influence on the development of coordination abilities
of students in the process of practical training in physical culture. The experiment showed the effectiveness of
the use of aerobics to improve the coordination abilities of students.
Keywords: coordination abilities, sensitive period, aerobics, grace, rhythm.
????????????? ?а??????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????? ???????????, ??? ??????????? ???????? ?а????????????? ?????????? ??? ??? ???? ?????????? ??????? ?а????????? ??????????? ?????????, ???? ??? ??????? ?????????? ??????? ???????????? ??????????.
? ???????????? ???? ???????? ????? ?????????? ???????? ????? ?????, ?? ?а ???????? ???
??????? ???????? ???????? ???????????? ? ??????? ????????????, ?? ?????????? ????????? ?????????? ????????. ??????, ????? ?? ??????? ????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????? ????????? ????????
???????? ? ????????????????? ??????????????? ????????????. ?? ?? ?????????? ??????? ????? ???????????? ???????? ????????.
??????????????? ??????????? ? ??? ???????????? ??????? ????????, ????????????? ?а???????? ??????? ???????????? ????? ?????? ????????? ? ??????????????? ?????????? ??????????
????????????? ??????????, ? ????? ?? ????????? [2, ?. 149]
? ????? ???????? ??????????????? ???????????? ???????: ??????????? ?а ????????????????? ????????? ?????????? ????????, ?а?????????????? ?а????????????, ??????????, ?????????????? ? ?????????????? ????????, ?????????? ??????? ?а???????? ?????, ?????????? ????????
???????????? ???????, ?а???????????, ????????????? ???????????? ????, ?????????????? ?а???????????? ???????? ? ????????? ?????????? ?????? [2, ?. 155].
???????? ??????????????? ???????????? ??????? ?? ?????????? ? ???????-???????????????
???????????? ?????????: ??????? ??????? ???????, ???? ????????????, ???????? ??????-?????????
????????, ?????????????? ??????????? ????????? ? ?.?. ?а??????? ??????????? ?????? ?? ???????? ?
8?11 ???. ?а?????????, ??-?? ??????????????????? ????????? ?а?????????, ???????? ?? ????????????183
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
????, ?? ???????????? ?????? ?? 16?18 ???, ????? ??????????????? ???? ?????????. ???????? ?? ???, ????
?а????? ?????? ???????? ????????? ???????????????? ?????????? ????? ???????? ??? ???????????.
??????????? ???????? ???????????? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ???????????? ???????
????????. ?а??????-???????? ????????? ?????????? ?? ???????????? ???????? ?? ?????????? ???????? ?а?????? ?? ??????????? ?? ?????????? ?????? ??? ????????? ????????? ????????? ???????,
?а?????????, ????????.
???????? ? ??? ????????????? ???????, ??????????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ???????????:
????????????, ????????????, ????- ? ??????-????????. ??????-????????????? ??????? ?? ????????
????? ??????? ??????? ????? ???????, ??? ??? ???????? ????????????? ???, ????????? ? ????????????? ???????? ???????? ?а????? [1, ?. 111]. ??????? ????????? ???????????? ???????? ???????????, ???????? ????, ???????????? ? ???????????? ??????? ?????. ??????? ????, ??????????? ?????
?????? ? ???????????? ???????? ???????? ?????????? ? ??????? ??????.
?? ????? ??????? ????????? ??? ???????? ??????????????? ???????????? ?????????? л???????╗
???????????? ????????. ????????: ??? ?????????? ????????? ?????????? ????????? ?????????????
???????? ?????????, ????????? ???????? ?а?????????? ???????????, ?????? ???? ? ???? ??????????.
??? ???????? ? ???????????, ??????????? ??????, ????? ????????, ??? ???? ? ?? ???? ?????????.
?????????? ?????????? ???????? ??????????, ??????????????? ???????? ? ????????? ????? ? ???????????? ???????????? ??? ???????? ??????????????? ????????????. ?????????????????
??????????? ???????? ???????????? ??? ???????????????? ??????????. ?а???????? ????????????????
???????????? ????? ??????? ?????????? ?????, ??? ??? ?????? ?а??? ????????? ????????? ?????????? ? ???????? ????????, ??? ???????? ?????????????? ????????????, ???????????, ?????????
?????????????. ???????? ??? ? ??? ????? ????: ??????????????, ????????????, ?????????????????.
??? ???????? ??????????? ?а??????? ?????????? ??? ??? ? ??? ??????? ?????? ?????????? ?????????.
????? ????, ?????????? ???????????? ????????, ?а??????? ???????????? ??????????? ????, ????, ???
????????, ? ????? ?????????? ???????? ??????, ??????????? ???????? ???? ?????? ???? ???????.
???????????? ????????? ? ???????????? ???????, ?????????????? ???????? ? ??????????? ???????????? ???????????? ?????? ? ???????, ???????? ??????. ??????? ?????? ???????????
?????????? ???????? ? ???????? ????????, ??????? ?????? ???????????? ?????????. ????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????? ?? ???????? ? ?????????? ???????????????? ????????????. ??????
?????? ???? ??????????? ???????? ? ????????? ????????????? ???????.
???????? ?????? ??? ???????? ?????????????? ??????????? ?? ?????????? ???? ??????? ?????
?????? ??????????? ?а2017/18 ??????? ????. ?а?????? ???????? ?а??????? ?? ??????? 2017 ?. ?? ??????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????? (????????????????? ??????) ??????????? ??????? ?? ???????????? ????????, ? ?? ??????????? ?????????? ???????????????? ? ?????????????? ?????????? (??????????? ??????) ? ?? ??????? ?????????. ?? ?????? ???????? ?а??????? ?? ?????? 2018 ?. ?????????
????? ??????????? ?????????? ????-?????????. ?а??????? ?????????? ?????? ????????? ????? ???????? ?????? ?? ????-????????? ?? 64 ????? ?а???? ? ?а?????? ???????, ??????? ???????????? ???????.
??? ?????? ??????????? ?????? ??????????? ????????? ????????: ?????????? ?????????????????? ????????, ?????????? ??????????? ?????????? ???? ?????????, ????????????? ???????? ???,
??? ? ????????, ????????? ?а?????? (???????? ???????? ???????? ?? ??????? ???? ?а?????), ?????
??????????? ??????????????? ? ???????????? ????????. ?????? ????????? ?? 5-???????? ?????.
??????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ?а??????? ???? ?а????????????????? ?????? ???????? 57 %,
? ?а??????????? ????? ? 39 %. ??????????? ?????? ?????????? ?????????????? ?а????????? ????????????????? ?????? ?а???????? ???????? ????? ???????? ? ??????? ?????????? ?? ????-?????????.
????? ????????????????? ?????? ????????, ??? ??????? ?а??????????? ????????? ??????????? ???????? ????????? ????? ??????????? ??????????? ?? ???????? ??????????????? ????????????
?????????, ??? ??????? ?а?????????????? ??????????? ??????????????? ? ??????? ??????????.
????? ???????, ?????????? ???????????? ???? ??????? ???????? ??? ????????????????? ??????????????? ???????????? ?????????.
????????????????? ??????
1. ???????? ?.?. ??????-?????????? ?а??????????? ???????? ???????? ?? ?????????? л?????????? ????????╗ ?а???? / ??????????? ??????????: ????????, ?????????, ??????????? / ??? ??. ???.
?.?. ????????. ???.: ???-?? ???? ?? ?.?. ???????, 2014. ?. 110?115.
2. ?????? ? ???????? ?????????? ???????? / ??? ???. ????. ?. ?. ?????????. 2-? ???., ????.
?.: ????????? ?????, 2004. 464 ?.
184
?????????? ???????? ? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
??? 796.03
?. ?. ??????
???????? ?????????????? ????, ??????
?????-????????????? ??????????????? ???????????
???????????????? ???????????????
?. ?. ???????
?????-????????????? ??????????????? ???????????
???????????????? ???????????????
?????? ??????????? ?????????????? ??????????, ???????????
?? ??????? ?????????? ????????
???????????? ?????? ?????????????? ??????????, ???????????? ?? ???? ? ????????? ?????????? ????
?? ?????????? ?? ?а??????? ???????? ?? ?????????? ???????? ?а????? ????????? ???????? ????????? ?а??????? ????????, ? ?????????????, ? ???????? ???????? ???????? ?а?????.
???????? ?????: ?????????????? ??????????, ?????????????? ???????, ????????????? ???????? ????????, ?????????? ????????, ???????.
I.B. Pilina
PhD of Pedagogical Sciences, Associate Professor
T.A. Bashkina
Saint Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation
THE ANALYSIS OF MODERN PEDAGOGICAL TECHNOLOGIES
THOSE PEDAGOGIES USE ON PHYSICAL EDUCATION
There is the analysis of some pedagogical technologies, the disclosure their points and some ways of their uses
in the study process of Physical Education (PE) in this article. The purpose of this is the increasing student
interest to study and the quality of educational process in total.
Keywords: pedagogical technologies, pedagogical process, didactic principles of teaching, physical education, physical education, interest.
? ????????? ????? ?а????? ?????? ?а?????? ????? ???????????? ???????????? ??????????? ???????? ????????? ?????????? ????????. ??? ??????? ??????????? ?? ???????? ??????-???????????????
???????? ? ?????? ???????????? ?????????? ????? ????? ???????????? ?а???????? ????????. ??? ??????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ????? ????? ????а? ?????????????? ??????? ????????, ???????? ?????????? ? ?????? ???????? ?? ???? ????????? ????????????? ?а??????? ???????? ??????????? ???????
???????????? ??: ????????? ????????????????? ? ?????????? ???????????, ???????????? ? ??? ????????????? ?????? ?а????? ????????? ?????? ????????????????? ????????; ???????? ????????????? ? ?????????? ??????????????? ????? ????????; ???????? ? ????????? ????? ???? ? ??????? ????????.
???????????? ????? ?????????? ????????, ?????????? ???????? (?.?. ????????? [2], ?.?. ???????? [6], ?.?. ???????? [7], ?.?. ???????? [8] ? ??.) ????????? ?? ??????????? ?????????????? ????, ????
?????? ?????????? ???? ?, ????? ???????, ?? ???????????? ???? ????????? ?????????????? ?????? ????????. ??? ???? ???? ?????? ????????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ??? ???????? ????????????????
?????????? ????? ???????? [2], ?????? ?? ??????????? ????????????? ?????????? ???????? ??? л?????? ?????????? ?????????? ????????, ???????????????? ???????? ???????????, ???????????????
????? ??????? ????, ??????? ? ??????? ????????, ?????????????? ???????? ??????????? ??????????
???????????? ?????╗ [7], ?????? ??? ??????????? ???????? ???????? л????????? ???????????? ????????????????? ???????? (?????????????, ??????????????????, ??????????????? ? ??.), ?????????????
???????????????? ?????? ? ??????????? ???????? ? ??????????, ??????? ???????? ??????????? ????????? ????????? ?????? ?? ????????????? ????? ???? ????????? ? ???????????? ????????????╗ [6].
?? ???? ?????????? ?? ?????, ??? ??????? л?????????? ????????╗ ??? ? ??????? ?? ????????
??????????? ?????????.
???? ????? л??????????╗ ????????? ?? ??. лtecne╗а ? ?????????, ???????, ????? + лlogos╗а ?
???????, ?????? ? ?а ????? ???????? ???????????? ?????? ? ???????? ? ????????? ?????????????185
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
??? ?????????. ??????? ???????????? ?????? ??? ???????, ????? ???????? ? ?????????? ????????
????????.
??? ??????????? ?????????????? ??????????, ??? ?? ??? ? ?????????, ?????????? ????????????? ????????????? ???????? ????????: ?????????, ???????????????, ???????????, ????????? ????????, ???????? ????????, ???? ?????????????? ???????????? ????????? ? ??. ??? ?а??? ?? ????? ??????? ????? ?????????? ? ??????????????? ?????????????
?? ?????? ?.?. ??????? [1], ??????? ?а?????????: ?????????а? ??? ?????? ??????????? ?а?????, ? ?????????????? ??????????а? ??????????, ?????? ????????????, ??????????? ??????? ?????????????? ???????? ??? ?????????? ??????????, ??????? ??????????? ???? ????????, ?????????? ?
???????? ?????????? ?а?????????. ???????? ?? ?????? ????? ????, ????????, ?????????? ???????????????????????? ???????????, ? ??????????????? ?????? ????????????, ?????????? ???? ?? ??????
????????, ?????? ??????????, ???????? ??????????? ??????? ? ???????? ?????????? ???????? ???????????, ?????????????? ???????????? ???????????????????????? ???????????.
? ?????, ??? ???????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ????? ?????? ?а?????????? ???????? ??????? ???????? (??????????? ??????? ???????? ?а??????? ????????), ????? ???:
?????????????????, ?????????, ??????????, ???????????? ????????, ??????? ???? ? ????????? ?????? ?.?. ??????????, ????? ?????????? ????????????, ?????????? ???????? ? ???????? ?? ?????????????? ?????????????? ??????? ?.?. ???????? ? ??.
? ????. 1 ???????????? ????????, ????????? ???? ? ??????? ????????? ? ???????????? ???????? ???????, ??????? ???? ???????? ???????????? ???????? ?а?????? ????? ????? ?????????????? ?????????? ???????? ? ??????????.
?????
????????????? ???????? ????????
????????? ???? ? ???????
?????????????? ????????
?????????????? ????????
??????? 1
?.?. ????????? ????????? ????????, ??????- л??????,а? ?????? ?.?. ?????????,а? ?????? ?? ???????, ???????????, ?????- ??????? ?? ???????, ? ?????????? ??????? ??? ?????????????????, ?????????
??????, ???????? ???????? ?? ????????? ???????????? ??????, ? ??????? ??????, ??????? ????? ??????
?????????? ?а ??????╗. ??????????? ????????? ??????? ??????: ?? ?????? ??? ??????????, ?? ? л???
??????????? ???? ??????? ? ?????? ???????? ?а??????? ? ?????? ?????????? ????? ? ???????╗
?.?. ?????????? ??????????????????, ??????- ???????? ???? ?? ?????????? ????????? ?а ?????
?????, ?????????, ????????- ???????. л??? ????????? ?а ???????? ? ??????? ??????? ?а????????
????????????????╗
?.?. ????????
????????????? ?а ????????,
?????????, ??????????????
? ??????????, ?????????;
?а?????????? ??????? ??????????? ? ??????????????
????????
?.?. ???????
???????????????? ???????? ?. ?. ??????? ????? ?????????? ???????? ?????? ????? ????????????, ?????????????????????.
?????????? ?????????? ????????, ?? ??? ??????,
?????? ????????? ????? ??????????? ????????
?а ????? ?? ?????? ?????????????? ????????????
????????
186
?.?. ???????? ???????? ?а ????, ????? ???? ???????????? л????????????? ?????╗. ???????? ? ?????
???????? ?????? ???? ????????? ???, ????? ??????? ?????????? ?а??????????????, ?а???????????????? ?????????? ?????????????????? ? ?????????.
???????? ????? ??? ?????????? ???????? ???????
?????????????: л????????? ?а??????? ?????? ???????, ?? ?????? ? ????? ??? ???? ? ?????? ??????? ??
????. ????? ???? ??????????? ?????????, ?? ?? ?????? ??????╗
?????????? ???????? ? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
?????
?.?. ???????
?.?. ????????
????????? ???? ? ???????
?????????????? ????????
???????????,
????????- ??????????? ???????? ???? ??????????? ????, ?????????, ?????????, ?????????, ?????????? ??????????? ?????. л??????? ??????
????????????????
???????????? ??????????? ????????╗. л??????????, ????????? ?????????? ???????? ?? ?????? ??????????? ?а ??????????? ?? ???????????? ???????
?????? ?????? ????????????, ????????? л??????????╗╗. л???????, ??? ????, ????????? ?а ?????????????, ??????????? ??????, ?????? ??????? ????? ????? ?????????? ??? ?????????????╗
?????????????? ????????
???????????, ?????????????, л??????????? ?а???????? ???? ???????????? ??????????? ????????????? ?????????╗. ?а???????? ?????? ??
????????????????.
????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?.?.
?????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????????????:
л??????? ?????????????????? ?????????? ???????
?????? ?????? ?? ???????? ?????? ???????????╗. ??
?????????????? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ? ????????????? ????????? ????????: л???????????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ???? ?????? ?????? ???╗
?. ?. ????????? ??????????????, ?????????? ????а ? ?????? ?????? ???????? ???????? ?????????. ??? ?????????? ??? ??????????? ? ?????????
????????. л???? ????????????? ??????-?? ??????????? ??????????? ???????, ??????? ?????????
?а????????? ????????????. ?а???? ??????????? ???????????????? ???? ? ???????????, ?????????????
?????????? ?????? ? ????????? ? ????????╗
?.?. ???????
??????????? ???????? ???- ???????? ????? ??????????? ? ??????????? ???????????, ?????????????, ??- ????? ?.?. ??????? ??????????? л????????? ???????????????????? ???????? ???????????, ??????? ??? ???????????╗. ?????? ??
?????, ????????????? ????? ?????????? ?а ???????????: л?? ?? ??????? ????? ??????????, ?????????? ??????????, ?????????? ???????????? ?? ????
???????? ???????, ????? ????????? ????????????,
???????????? ? ?????; ??? ?????????? ?????? ?????????? ? ??????????????? ???????????, ???????????; ?????????? ??????????? ????? ???????
?????????? ????????, ? ?? ?? ??????????╗.
?????????? ???????????? ??? ???????????, ??? ?
??????????? ???????? ?????? л????????? ????? ????????, ?????????? ??????? ??????????, ?????? ??????? ???????? ?????????, ? ?? ??????????? ? ??????
????????? ?? ?а?????? ????????╗
?.?. ??????????? ?????????????, ??????????????????, ????????? ????????????????, ???????????
???????? ????????
?.?. ??????????? ??????? ????????????? ????????
??????????? ??????? ??????????? ??????????. л???
?????? ???????-??????????????? ???????????? ?????????? ???????? ????? ???????? ????╗. л?? ??????
?????????? ???????? ?? ???? ?????????. ???? ????????????? ???????? ?????? ???? ???, ????????
??????????? ???????, ?.?. ?????? ??????????? ?а????
?? ?????, ?? ?????????? ?????????? ?? ????????????╗. ??????????????? ???????? ??????????? ????????, л????? ???????? ????????╗
187
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
? ????. 2 ???????????? ???????? ????, ??????? ? ?????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ??????????.
??????? 2
?????????? ???????? ?а?????????????? ????????
?????????????
??????????
?????????????
???????
? ?????????????
????????
????????
?????????????? ??????????
??????? ??????????
?????????? ???????????? ?? ?????- ???????????? ?а ??????? ???????????, ??? ????????,
????????
???????? ???????? ?????- ??????????? ??? ???????? ????????? ?????, ???????????????? ? ??????????
????????, ??????????? ??- ???? ??????? ?????? ? ??????????????? ????????????, ????????. ?а ?????????? ????????????
????????????? ????? ?????? ???????? ?? ????????, ??? ??? ?????????? ?????????????? ??????????.
?а ??????????????? ???????- ? ?????? ???? ???????? ????????. ?а ??????????? ????? ????????? ???????????????? ?
??????? ??, ??? ??? ?????? ??- ???????????????? ?????????
?????? ??????????? ?а ??????- ???????? ?а ??????? ???????
??, ?????????? ???? ????????? ? ?????????а ? ????????????????? ??????? ?? ??????? ??? ?????, ??????????? ?а??л????????╗ ??? ?? ????????, ??????, ??????? ??????????
??? ? ?? ????????
???????? ???????? ?а ??????????????
???????????? ???????????? ?? ?????- ???????????? ????? ?а ????- ???? ????????????? ????????
????????
?????????????,
??????- ???????? ???????? ????????? ??????????? ?а ??????? ?????, ?????????, ??????- ????????????? ? ?????????? ???? ???? ??????????, ?а????????. ?????? ?????????- ???????????. ???????? ????- ???????? ?????????? ??????
???? ???????? ??????? ?? ?????????? ????? ?а??????- ?? ??????? ?????????
?.?. ?????????
??? ?? ?????? ?????? ???????? ? ????????? ?????????
?а?????? ????????. ?????????
??????????? ?а??????????? ????????? ???????? ?????????
?????????- ???????????? ?? ???????- ????????????? ???????? ??- ???????? ?? ?????? ??????????????? ???- ?????? ???????? ???????- ?????? ???????????????? ??- ???, ???????????, ????????????????. ????? ???????, ??????, ??????????? ???????- ?? ?????????????? ?????????
?????
??????? ?? ?????? ?.?. ??- ???????? ?????? ?????????. ?? ?????, ????????? ?а ?????????? ?? ???????? ???????- ???????????? ?????? ??????????
?? ???????????? ??????????? ????????. ???????????????
????????, ?? ???????????? ????????, ??????? ????????,
??????????? ?? ???????? ????- ? ????? ? ??? ????????.
??????? ????????, ??????????? ????? ???????????????
?а???????????
?????????
???????????? ?? ???????- ??? ?????? ?????????? ?????- ? ????????? ???????? ???
????????
?????? ???????? ??????- ???, ????????????? ?? ????- ??????? ?????????????????,
??-???????????? ??????, ?? ????????? ???????? ????????, ??????????????????
??????????? ????????????? ???????? ?а ??????, ?????????
??????????. ?а ????????? ??- ??????????? ?????. ?а ????????? ??? ??????????, ??? ??????? ?????? ????? ?????????????????, ??? ????????- ???? ???? ????????, ?????? ?
??? ?????????? ??????? ??- ?????? ????????. ?а ???????
????. ????????? ??????????? ?? ???? ???????? ?а ??????
?а ??????? ??????????????? ??? ??????????, ??? ????????????????? ??????? ???????? ????: ???????, ??????, ????????? ????????? ?, ???????????,
?????????, ????????????? ?
???????? ??????? ?????????.
????????? ????????? ???????? ??????????? ??? ???????????? ???????
188
?????????? ???????? ? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
??????????
????????
?????????????
????????
?????????????
? ?????????????
??????? ??????????
???????
?????????????? ??????????
???????
????
???????????? ????????????? ??????? ??????????,
??????????????, ?????????
/??????????
?????????????
???????
?а ?????????? ??????? ???:
??????? ?????????, ????????????? ???????????? ???????? ????????; ??????????
?????????? ?а ???????????????? ????????????; ??????????? ?????????? ????????;
???????? ?????? ?????????
???? ?????? ?? ????????;
??????????? ????????????
?????? ? ?????? ?????????.
????????????? ???????: ??????? ???????????? ??? ???????? ? ???????? ????????????
????????? ?а??????
???? ??????? ???а? ?????????????? ????????, ????????
????????????????? ????????
???????????, ??????????? ????????? ?а ???????????? ????????????. ?а ??????? ???? ??
???????? ?????????????? ??????????? ?а??????? ???????????? ?????? ? ??????
?????? ?.?.
??????????
???????????? ????????????? ??????? ??????????????????, ?????????????,
???????????
????????? ???????? ????????
????????? ???????????? ??????????? ???????? ?????????, ?а ?????????? ??????????? ????????, ?????? ??
?????? ?????? ???????? ? ????????? ????????????. ????????????? ????????, ?? ???
?????? ???
?????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????? ???????? ?
??????? ???????????? ?????
???????? ????????????? ??????? ????????? ? ?????????? ? ???????? ?????????,
????????? ?а ????????????
?а ???????? ????? ???????,
???????? ? ???????
??????????? ????????????? ????????? ??????? ?а 2015 ?. (17 ???????) ?? ??????? ??????????
?а?????????????? ???????? ?????????????? ????????? ? ????? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ?????????: (????. 3, 4, ??? ? ? ??????? ????????; ▒m ? ?????? ???????? ????????; ? sа? ??????????? ??????????).
???????? ??? ???????? ????????? ???????????? ?????? ????????????? ????????? ?????????????? (2,16), ??????????? (3,74) ??? ???????????? ??????? ?????????? ????????? (4,05). ????????
??????????????????, ????????? ? ???????????????, ?? ?????? ?????????? ?????????, ?? ????????
??? ?????????? ??????????? ?а???????? ????????, ??????? ?????????? ??? ???????????? ?а????????? ?????? ? ???????, ??????? ???????? ???? ????????? (4,53; 5,16 ? 5,00, ??????????????). ?, ???
?????????, ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ????????? ???????????????? ???????? ???????? (5,42),
??????????? ?а???????? (5,84), ????????? ???????? ?????? (6,32) ? ?????????? ???????? ???????????
?а???????? ????????? (7,63).
??????? 3
?????????? ?????????? ??????? ???????? ????????????? ????????? ????????
?????????????
??????????
??????? ??????????
????????
?
s
?
X
▒m
X
▒m
??????????????
1
2,16
1,02
2,12
1
2,95
1,11
??????????
3
4,05
1,31
2,72
6
5,32
1,42
?????????
5
5,00
1,71
3,56
7
5,68
1,61
?????????
9
6,32
1,03
2,14
9
6,79
1,13
????????????????
7
5,42
1,22
2,52
8
5,95
1,34
???????????
2
3,74
0,86
1,79
3
4,37
1,35
???????????
8
5,84
1,18
2,46
5
5,00
1,31
???????????????
6
5,16
1,06
2,19
4
4,58
1,24
??????????????????
4
4,53
1,18
2,46
2
3,79
1,07
???????????
10
7,62
1,09
2,27
10
7,63
1,20
s
2,30
2,94
3,33
2,35
2,78
2,79
2,73
2,57
2,23
2,50
189
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
??????? 4
?????????? ?????????? ??????? ????? ?????????????? ?????????? ????????
?????????????
??????????
??????? ??????????
????????
?
s
?
s
X
▒m
X
▒m
?????????????????
??????????
?????????
????????????
??????? ????
?????? ??????????
???????????? ?????????? ????????
1
2
4
3
6
2,32
2,84
4,00
3,89
4,37
0,79
0,88
0,68
0,77
0,82
1,63
1,83
1,41
1,59
1,71
1
2
3
4
6
2,58
3,21
3,89
3,95
4,58
0,84
0,93
0,78
0,84
0,81
1,74
1,93
1,63
1,75
1,68
5
4,26
1,01
2,10
5
4,32
0,91
1,89
?? ??????? ?????????? ?а???????? ????????????? ???????? ???? ???????????? ?????????
???????: ?????????? ??????? ????????????? ?а????????? ??????? ?а???????? ?????????????? (2,95).
?????? ???????? ????? ???????? ??????? ??????????? (3,79). ?????? ????? ?????? ??????????? (4,37).
???????????????, ???????????, ?????????? ? ????????? ???????? ????????????? ????????? ?а???????
?? ?????????? ?????????? (4,58; 5,00; 5,32 ? 5,68). ??????? ????????????????, ????????? ? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????????? ????, ??? ?????? ???????? ???????? (5,95; 6,79 ? 7,63). ??
??????????? ??????? ????? ??????? ???????? ????????: ?????? ???????????????? ???????? ????????
? ??? ????????? ???????? ??? ???? ????? ?а????????? ????????? ???? ?????? ??? ???????? ????????
?????????? ??? ????????????? ?????????? ???????????: ????????????????а? ??? ?????? ??????????
??????-?????????????? ???????????? ?????????, ? ?????????а? ??? ???????? ???????? ?????????.
?????????? ?????? ??????? ????????? ???????, ??? ???????? ???? ????????? ?????????????????, ??????????, ????????? ? ???????????? ????????. ??????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????????: 2,32; 2,84; 3,89 ? 4,00 ?? ????? ????????? ?????? (????. 4).
????? ?????????? ??????? ?????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????? ????????, ???????????? ?????????? ?.?. ???????????, ? ??????? ???? (??????? ???????? 4,26 ? 4,37). ??????????
?????????? ??????? ???, ??-????????, ???????? ?? ?????????? ?? ??????????? ? ??????????, ? ????
?????? ??? ??????? ??????????? ????????????? ? ??????????? ???????? ??????? ????????????.
??????? ????????????? ?а???????? ????????? ????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ?? ???????? ????????? ?? ?? ??????????, ? ????? ?? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ?????? ??????????????? ????????????. ????? ???????, ?? ?????? ????? ?а?????????? ????????? ????????????????? ???????? (2,58); ??
?????? ? ?????????? (3,21); ?????? ????? ???????? ????????? (3,89), ????????? ? ???????????? (3,95);
??????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ????? ????? (4,32) ? ??????? ?????
?????? (4,58).
??? ?????????? ???????? ? ?????????????? ???????????? (?????? ???????? ? ??????????),
??????? ?а???????? ???????? (????????? ???????) ?а????? ??????? ????????? ????????? (??? ????
?? ?? ????? ?? ????????, ???????, ?????? ??????), ??????????? ????????? ??????? ? ????????????
?????????? ????????? ?? ????????. ?? ?????? ?????????? ?????????, ?а ???????? ??? ??????????
??-?? ?????????????, ???????????? ?????????? ??????-???????????? ???????. ?????? ????? ???????
??????? ????????? ?????????? ????? ???????. ???????? ?????? ????????? ???????, ? ??? ????? ?
????? ?????????????? ????????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????? ?? л?????????╗, ? ????????????
?????????? ?? ??????? ????????????? ?????????????? ??????????, ?а??? ????? ??????? ??? ? ????????? ???????????, ??????????, ????????????? ???????? ? ?????? ??????????. ????? ????, ??????????
?? ?а?????????????????? ???????? ????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?ал???????????? ????╗ ????????????? ??????, ?????????? ?????? ?? ??????? ????????? ? ????? ????????? ??????? ??????????
??????????? ?????????? ?????????.
????????????????? ??????
1. ?????? ?.?. ?????????? ? ???????????? ??????????. ?????? ?/?: ??????, 2000. ?. 69?70.
2. ????????? ?.?. ????????? ?????????????? ??????????. ?: ??????????. 1989. 192 ?.
190
?????????? ???????? ? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
3. ????????????, ?.?., ????????? ?.?. ??????????: ???????? ?а??????????????? ??????? ? ????????
??????????. ?.; ?????? ?/?: ???????, 1999. 564 ?.
4. ?????? ?.?. ? ????????? ?????????????? ?????????? // ?????? ??????????? ?а??????. 1994. ? 1.
?. 165?172.
5. ?????????? ?.?. ?????????? ? ?????????????? ?????????? ??????????????? ?????. ?????:
??????, 1995. 331 ?.
6. ???????? ?.?., ?????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?. ??????????? ?????????? ???????? ?а????: ????????,
???????? ??????????????, ????????? ???????? // ?????? ??????????? ?а ??????. 1994. ? 2.
?. 45?50.
7. ???????? ?.?. ?????????? ???????? ? ?? ???? ?а ??????? ??????? ??????????? // ??????
??????????? ?а??????. 1994. ?2. ?. 29?37.
8. ???????? ?.?. ?????????? ???????? ? ?? ????? ?а?????????????? ?????? // ??????????? ??????
?????. 1977. ?1. ?. 21?35.
191
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
??? 796
?. ?. ??????
???????? ?????????????? ????, ??????
?. ?. ??????
???????? ?????????????? ????, ?????????
?. ?. ??????????
???????? ?????????????? ????, ?????????
?????-????????????? ???????????????
??????????? ???????????????? ???????????????
?????????? ????????? ????????????
????????? ?????? ????? ?????????
?а?????? ??????????? ???????? ??????????? ????????? ???????????? ????????? ?????? ????? ?? ???????????????? ?????? ????? ?????????????? ? ????????????? ????????? ?а??????? ????????? ??????
?????.
???????? ?????:?????????;????????; ???????? ????? ?????; ????????????; ????????????.
I. B. Pilina
the senior lecturer
V. V. Ryabchuk
the professor
?.?. Kolesnikov.
the professor
The Saint Petersburg state university of space instrument making
REALIZATION OF STRATEGY OF FORMATION
OF A HEALTHY WAY OF LIFE OF THE POPULATION
The summary: in clause the basic directions of strategy of formation of a healthy way of life on an interdepartmental basis by informing and motivation of the population to conducting a healthy way of life are considered.
Key ?????: health; a healthy way of life; activity; preventive maintenance.
????????
???????? ????????? ??? ???? ?? ??????????? ??????? ????????, ??????????, ??????????? ????? ????????. ?????? ???????? ???????, ??????? ??????? ?????????????, ??????????, ???????????????
?????????????, ??????? ?????????? ? ?????????? ??????????????????, ???????? ??????? ????, ???????????? ???????????????? ? ??????? ?????????, ?????????? ?????? ?а??????????? ?????????? ???? [4].
???????? ??????????? ????????? ???????????? ????????? ?????? ????? ? ??? ?????????????
????????? ?а ??????? ????????? ?????? ?????, ?а ???????????? ???, ???????????????, ??????????
??????????, ???????????? ???????????, ??????????, ? ????? ??????????? ??????? ??? ????????? ?????? ????? ? ?????????? ?????, ??????????? ????????? ??????? ? ?????????? ??????????; ?????????
??? ?а??????? ?????? ??????????? ?а??????? ???????????????, ???????????????? ????????, ??????
??????? ????????; ????????? ???????????? ?а????? ?????????????? ???????? ?????????? ?а???? ????????????? ?????????? ? ????????? ???????? ????? ?а???????????, ??????????.
???? ??????: ?????? ??????????-???????? ???? ?????????? ????????? ???????????? ????????? ?????? ????? ?????????.
???????? ?? ?????????? ?????? ????????? ????????? ?????? ????? (???) ?? 2025 ?., ???????
???????? ?? 25% ????????? ?????????? ??????? ?? ?????????????? ???????????. ?а ??? ?????????
????????-?????????? ???????????, ??????????????? ?????????????? ???????????, ??????????? ??????????? ??????? ??????? ? ???????? ??????.
???????? ?? ????????? ?а??????? ??????? ?а???????? ?а???????? ??????????, ?????? ??? ???????, ???????????? ???????? ? ?????????? ????????????? ???????, ??????????????? ????????? ? ????????????? ??????? ? ????????: ?????????? ?????????? ???????? ? ????????????? ????????????????.
192
?????????? ???????? ? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
????? ????? ? ??????? ??????? ???????? ????? ??????? ?а??????? ???????????, ??????????
???????? ???????????? ? ?????? ??????????. ????????, ?а??????? ?а????????? ? ??????? ????????????, ?? ????????? ?а ???????????? ??????? ? ?????? ???????????, ???? ??????????? ???????,
?????????? ??????????? ????, ????????????? ??????????? ??????? ? ??????, ???????? ????????? ?
??????? ? ???? ? ?????? ??????? ?????????? ??????????.
????????? ???????? ???????????? ?а????? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ??????? 12 ???????????? ?????? ?????????? ????????? ?? 21 ?????? 2011 ?. ? 323-?? л?? ??????? ?????? ????????? ??????? ?а?????????? ?????????╗ [1] ? ?????????????? ?????:
1) ?????????? ? ?????????? ???????? ???????????? ????????? ?????? ?????, ?а??? ????? ???????? ???????? ??????????? ???????? ? ??????, ?????????????? ? ?????? ?а????????????? ???????????? ????????????? ???????, ? ???????????? ???????;
2) ????????????? ?????????-???????????????????? (????????????????) ???????????;
3) ????????????? ??????????? ?? ?????????????? ? ??????? ????????? ???????????, ?а???
????? ?????????????? ????????? ???????? ??????????? ? ?????? ?а????;
4) ?????????? ???????????????? ? ???? ??????????? ????????, ???????????????, ????????????? ?????????? ?а???????????? ?а????????????????? ?????????? ?????????;
5) ????????????? ??????????? ?? ?????????? ????? ? ???????? ??????? ?а???????? ?? ???????? ? ???????? ???????????? ?а???????????? ?а????????????????? ?????????? ?????????.
????????? ????????? ?????????? ?????????? ? ???????? ??????????? ??????????????? ???????? ? ??????????-????????? ????????????? ?а????? ????????????? ????????, ??????????? ?? ??????
??????????? ?????? ? ???????? ???????????? ? ???????? ?????????????? ??????????? ????? ??????? ?????????????? ???????? ?????? ??????, ???????? ?????????, ???????????????, ?????????????
? ???????????? ??????????? ?а ????? ???????? ?а ?????? ??????? ????????????????? ????????????
??? ?????????? ????????????????? ???????? ? ???????? ?????, ?????????? ?????????? ??????????
???????, ???????? ?????? ???????????? ? ??????????.
?????? ???????????????? ???????????? ??? ?????? ???????????????? ????? ????????, ?????
? ???????????? ???????? ???????????? ????? ???????? ??????? ????????, ????? ? ???????????? ????????, ?????????????? ??????????? ?????????? ? ???????? ?????, ?????????? ??????????????
????????? ? ??????? ?????????? ? ????????????? ? ???????? ??????? ????????? ?????? ?????, ? ????????????? ????????????, ??????? ????????? ? ??????? ?????????????? ??????????? ? ????????
????? ?? ????????, ? ????? ???????? ??? ????? ??????????? ??????? ? ??????????? ??????????? ????
???????, ?????????????? ? ??????????? ????? ??? ???? ????? ?????????.
???????? ????????? ????????? ????????? ???????????? ? ??????????? ???????? ???????????????? ?????????????? ? ???????????? ?????????? ??? ?? ???????????? ? ???????? ?????????????? ???????????:
??????? ????? ?????????? ????? ????????, ???? ???? ??? ????????????;
???????????? ???? ???????, ???????? ??????????? ? ???????????? ???????????;
??????????????? ????????? ? ??????????, ?????????? ?? ??????????? ?????? ?? ?? ?????????????;
?????????? ????? ?????????? ? ???????????? ?????? ???????????? ? ???????? ?????????????? ??????????? ?? ????????????? ? ?????????????? ??????;
???????????? ????????, ?????????????? ??? ????????????? ?????????? ?????????, ??????????? ??????? ? ?????????? ????? ????????;
???????????? ???? ???????? ? ???????? ??????????????;
????????????????? ???????? ?? ???????????? ? ????????????? ??????, ????????????? ?????????????? ? ????????????;
??????????????????? ???????????? ?а?????????? ???????? ?????.
???????????? ????????? ?????? ????? ????????? ?а??????????? ????????
???????? ?? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ?а ?????????? ????????? ?? ????????? 10 ???
????? ??? ?? 17%, ??????? ?? ????, ??? ?а??????? ?????????, ???????? ?а???? ?? 2004 ?., ?? 119% ?
?? 28% ? ???????? ????? 2004 ?. ?а2014 ???? ????? ?а????? ?????????? ????????- ?????????? ??????????? ???????? 50,1%, ?????????????? ? 15,5%, ??????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ? 1,8%
? ????????? ??????? ? 1,1%. ??? ???????????? ????????? ??????????????? ?????? ????????? ???????
?а ????????? ??????????, ??????? ????????- ?????????? ??????????? ?а ?????? ?а ???????? ????????
?а2?3 ????, ? ?а?????? ?а3?5 ??? ????, ??? ?а??? ??? ????????? ???????.
193
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
???????????? ?????????? ?а?????????? ????????? ???????? ??, ??? ?????????? ????? ?????????? ??? ????????????? ????? ??????????? ??????????? ????? ?????? ?а???????? ?? 50?60 ???,
??? ?????? ?а??????? 30% ?? ????? ?? ?????????? ?????. ?а????? ??????? ?????????? ????? ??????
??????, ??? ?а??????, ?а1,8 ????. ?????? ??????? ?а???????????? ??????? ???????????? ????? ???????
???????? ????????? ??????????? ????????, ??????????? ?????? ? ??????????? ????????????? ????????
????? ??????. ??????? ???? ???????? ????????, ???????? ???????? ? ?????? ?? ????????-??????????
??????????? ?а????????? 10 ??? ????? 40,6% ???????? ?????? (??????, ?? ??????? ???????????
?????????????), ????? ??? ????? ?? ???? ????? ?????? 7,1% ???????? ?????? (??????, ?? ???????
??????????? ?????????????), ??? ????? ?а6 ??? ??????.
? ????? ????????? ???????? ? ??????? ??????? ??????? ????????????? ????????-??????????
??????????? ?????????? ?а?????? ? 53,3%, ?а?????? ? 37,7%.
???????? ??????????? ???????????? ????-??, ???????????? ?а 2012?2013 ??. ?а 12 ?????????
?????????? ?????????, ????????????? ?? ???????????????, ????????????? ? ???????-?????????????? ???????????????, ?а??????? ?? ???? ????????, ?????????? ?а????????????, ??????????????????
??????? ????????? 23,6%, ?а ??? ????? ????? ?????? ? 39,0%, ????? ?????? ? 13,6%; ???????????
??????????? ???? ? 49,0%, ????? ?????? ? 53,2%, ????? ?????? ? 46,3%; ?????????????? ???????????
??????? ? ?????? ? 41,4%, ????? ?????? ? 49,9%, ????? ?????? ? 35,7%; ?????? ?????????? ?????????? ? 39,8%, ????? ?????? ? 37,0%, ????? ?????? ? 42,0%; ???????? ? 29,7%, ????? ?????? ? 26,9%,
????? ?????? ? 30,8%; ??????????? ????????????? ???????? ? 33,0%, ????? ?????? ? 39,8%, ?????
?????? ? 28,3%; ??????????? ?????? ?????? ??????????? ? 58,4%, ????? ?????? ? 58,0%, ????? ?????? ? 58,9%; ??????????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ? 4,6%, ????? ?????? ? 5,4%, ????? ?????? ? 4,1%.
??????? ?а????????? ????????????? ???????? ????? ????? ??????? ?а??????? ???????????, ?????????? ???????? ????????????, ?????? ??????????. ?а??????? ?а????????? ? ??????? ???????????? ?а????????? ?а??????????, ???????? ?????? ???????????, ?????????? ???? ??????????? ???????,
?????????? ??????????? ????, ????????????? ??????????? ??????? ? ??????, ???????? ????????? ?
??????? ? ???? ?????? ??????? ?????????? ??????????. ??? ?????????? ?а???????? ????????? ????
?????????????? ?????????? ??????????? ???? ? ???? ???????? ????????? ? ?????? ?????????? ??????????. ?? ?????? ?а2003 ???? ?? 2013 ??? ?????????????????? ??????? ?а?????? ????????? ?а53,3
?? 39,0%, ? ?а ??????, ????????, ???????? ?а 8,6 ?? 13,6%. ?????????????????? ???????? ?а ??????
????? ??????????? ?а11,8% ?? 26,9%, ? ?а?????? ?а??????? ??????? ? ?а28,4 ?? 30,8%. ?а???? ?????? ?????????????? ?а??????? ?????????????????? ??????????? ????????????? ???????? ?а??????
??????????? ????????? ?а36,7 ?? 28,3%, ????? ??? ?а??????, ????????, ???????? ?а33,7 ?? 39,8%, ???
????? ??????? ?а?????? ?а??? ????????. ?? ?????? ?а2008-?? ?. ?? 2014-? ??. ???????? ????????????
???????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ??????????? ????????? ?а ?????????
?? ?????????? ????????, ?а 2008 ?. ?? ????????? 16,2 ? ?? ???? ????????? ?а ???, ?а 2013 ?. ? 11,9 ?,
?а2014 ?. ? 11,6 ?. ??? ???? ?? ????????? ??? ???? ?? ???????? ????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????.
??? ?????? ?????? ???????? ????? ?а?????????? ?? ????????-?????????? ??????????? ?а?????? ?а?????? ?? 1-? ????? ????????? ?????????? ??????? ?????????????? ????????????? ????????,
?? 2-? ????? ? ??????? ? ?? 3-? ????? ? ?????????????? ???????????? ????????. ?а?????? ?????? ?
?????? ??????? ???????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ? ????????????? ???????????? ????????, ?????? ? ?????????? ??????? ??????????? ? ?????. ??????????? ?а ????????? ????
???????? ?????????? ?а?????? ?????????? ?? ???? ?????????? ??????? ??????, ?????????? ?????
????????? ??????????? ?????????????????? ????????? ??????? ???????????? ??????????? ? ????????? ????????????? ???????? ????????????? ???????? ?а???? ???????. ??? ???? ???????????????
? ??????? ???????????? ?????????? ?а?????? ?????????? 67,5%, ?а?????? ? 78,9%; ????? ?????? ???
??????? ????????? ????????? ????????? ????????? ??? ???????? ???????? 39,5%, ????? ?????? ?
60,9%; ????? ??????????? ????????? ????????? ????????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ?????????????
???????? 41,4% ?????? ? 53,5% ??????. ?а???????? ????? ??????????? ???????? ???????????? ?????????? ?а????????? ?????????? 14,4% ????? ?????? ? 30,9% ????? ??????.
??? ?????????? ? ?????????? ????????? ???????????? ????????? ?????? ????? ?????????,
???????????? ? ???????? ?????????????? ??????????? ?? ?????? ?? 2025 ?. ???????????? ??????????? ??????????-???????? ????. ?а???????????? ?а???????????? ?????????? ????????? (?????? 41) ?????? ????????? ????? ????? ?? ?????? ???????? ? ??????????? ??????, ???????? ??????????????
??????????? ????????? ?????? ? ?????????? ???????? ?????????, ??????????? ???? ?? ????????
194
?????????? ???????? ? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
???????????????, ?????????????, ??????? ?????? ???????????????, ?????????? ????????????, ?????????????? ?????????? ???????? ????????, ???????? ?????????? ???????? ? ??????, ?????????????? ? ?????????-??????????????????? ????????????.
? ???????? ????????? ????????? ??????????? ??????????? ????? ?? 21.11.2011 ? 323-??
л?? ??????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ?а?????????? ?????????╗ ?????????, ???:
???????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ?а???? ??????? ??? ?????????????, ??????????????, ?????????, ???????????, ????????, ????????????, ?а ??? ????? ?????????-????????????????????? (?????????????????), ?????????, ?????????????? ???????? ??????????????? ?????? ?????????? ?????????, ???????? ???????? ??????????????, ?????????????, ?? ???????????? ?????? ? ????? ??????,
?????????? ?а????? ???????????? ???????????, ?????????? ? ?????????? ??????????? ? ????????????
???????? ??????? ????????, ??????????? ??? ??????????? ???????? ?????, ?????????????? ??? ??????????? ?????? (??. 2);
?????????????? ? ???????? ???????????, ???????????? ?? ?????????? ? ?????????? ????????
? ?????????? ?а???? ???????????? ????????? ?????? ?????, ?????????????? ????????????? ? (???)
??????????????? ???????????, ?? ?????? ?????????, ????????? ?????? ? ??????? ?? ????????????? ?
????????, ? ????? ???????????? ?? ?????????? ???????? ??????? ?? ???????? ???????? ???????? ?????
??? ???????? (??. 2);
?????????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ?? ?????????????, ?????????
? ?????????????? ??????? ???????? ??????????????? ??????, ???????? ???????? ??????????????, ??????????????, ???????????? ?????????????, ???????????????? ????????????? ? ????????????-??????????? ?????????????, ????????????? ????????????? ????? ?????????? ? ?????????? ???????
????????, ????????????? ? ?????????? ???, ???????????? ?? ?????????????? ?????????????, ??????????????? ? ?????? ????????? ????? ???????????, ? ????? ?? ???????? ????? ?? ????????, ?????????????? ? ?????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ?? ???????? ???????? ?????????? ? ??????? ?????, ???????????? ????????? ?????? ????? (??. 30);
?????????????? ????????? ?????? ????? ?а ???????, ??????? ?а ???????? ????????, ?????????????? ????? ?????????? ???????????, ???????????? ?? ?????????????? ??????? ? ???????? ?????
??? ?? ????????, ???????????? ????????? ?а??????? ????????? ?????? ????? ? ???????? ??????? ???
?????, ??????? ??????? ?????????? ????????? ? ??????? (??. 30);
?????? ??????????????? ???????? ?? ?а ??????? ????????? ??????? ????????? ?? ?????? ??
2020 ?. ? ???? ??????????? ?? ?? ??????????, ???????????????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????????, ?????????????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????????, ?????????? ??????? ????????? ? ?????????????????? ?????; ????????????????? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ????????????
?? ?????????? ?????????? ????????? ? ???????????? ??-?? ?????? ??????? ????????? ? ?????????????????? ?????; ?????????? ? ????????? ?????? ???? ??????????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?
??????????????, ????????? ?а?????????? ???????, ?а??? ????? ?а???????, ???????????????? ???????,
?????????, ????????? ??????? ???????????, ? ????? ? ??????? ????????????? ?????; ?????????? ?
????????? ???????? ???????????????? ??????????? ??????? ? ???????? ????????? ?? ?????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????????? ??????????????? ???????, ?а??? ????? ????? ????? (???? ???????
????????, ?????????? ? ???????? ???????, ?????????? ?????????), ??????? ??????? ????????????
? ???????? ???????????????? ???????????-????????? ?????????; ???????? ?????????? ????????? ??????? ?????????, ?а??? ????? ?а?????????????? ??????? ???????? ??????????, ? ?????? ????.
?????????????-???????????????? ????????? ?? ???????????? ????????? ?????? ?????,
?????? ?а???????????? ???????? ? ??????, ?????????????? ? ?????? ?а????????????? ????????????
????????????? ??????? ? ???????????? ??????? ?? ?????? ?? 2020 ?.; ????????? ??????????????? ????????????????? ???????? ?? ?? 2020 ?.; ????????? ??????????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????
?? ?????? ?? 2025 ????; ???????????? ????????? ???????? ?а????????? ????? ?? 2012?2017 ??.; ???????????? ? 1 л???????????? ??????????? ? ???????????? ????????? ?????? ?????. ???????? ?????????
??????-?????????? ??????╗ ??????????????? ????????? ?????????? ????????? л???????? ???????????????╗; ??????????????? ????????? ?????????? ????????? л???????? ?????????? ???????? ? ??????╗ ? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ???????? ? ?????? ?а?????????? ????????? ?? ?????? ?? 2020
?.; ??????????????? ????????? ?????????? ????????? л?????? ?????????? ?????╗ ?? 2012?2020 ??.
? ?????? ???????? ???????????? ???????? л???????? ??????, ?????? ? ???????╗. ???? ?а2010 ?.
?а ???? ??????? 7 ???????, ?? ??????? ?? ??? 30 ?а ????? ???????????? ????????? 12 ??? ???????.
??? ??????? ????? ??????? ??????, ?????????????? ??????, ?????????????, ???????????? ????????
195
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
? ??????????? ???????? ?????????????? ????????????? ???????????? ?????? ????????????????
?????, ???????? ?????????? ? ??????? ??????? ???????? ????????, ??????????? ??? ??????? ????????? ?????? ?????. ??????????????? ???? ??? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ??????????? ???????? ?
??????????? ???????? ???????????, ???????? ?? ???????? ????????.
?????? ? ???????? ??????аTakZdorovo.ru (????????????? ?а?????????? ?????) ? ???????? ?????? ?????, ?????? ?? ??????? ????????, ?????????? ???????, ????????.а??????? л??????? ?????╗
?? ???????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ? ???????? ???????? ????????? ?????? ?????. ??????????
??????-???????????, ?????????? ?????????? ??????, ?????????? ?????????, ?????????? ??????????
? ?.?. (??? 644 ?????????? ????). ???????? ?а?????-?????????? ???????? ????????????? ????????
л???????? ????? ?????╗.
??????? ?????? ???????????, ???????? ????????? ????? ???????????, ?а??? ????? ? ?? ?????????? ????????, ????????: л???????? ?????????? ???????????????? ??????????? ??????????? ????????????? ??????? ??????????? ?????????? ? ?????????? ????????, ?????????? ?а?????????? ????????
?????? ?????????? ???????????????? ??? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????? ? ????????????????
????????????╗ [2]. ?? ???????? ?? ?????????? ???????? ???????????? ?????????????? ??????????,
???????, ???????? ? ????????? ??????????. ??? ????????? ??????? ????????? ?????? ????? ??????????, ? ????? ??? ???????? ? ???????????? ????? ??????????????? ??????? ? ?????????? ?? ???????
? ??? ????????? ?????????????, ????????????? ??????? ?а?????????? ???????????? ??????? ??????,
??? ???, ????? ? ??????????? ???????? ?????????? ???????? ? ??????????? ????????????????? ???????????? ???????? [3].
??????????
1. ??? ?????????? ? ?????????? ????????? ???????????? ????????? ?????? ????? ?????????,
???????????? ??????????? ??????????-???????? ????.
2. ?????????? ?????? ????????? ????????? ?????? ????? (???) ?? 2025 ?.
3. ?? ?????? ???????????? ??? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ???.
4. ?????? ???????? ????? ????????????? ?????????? ?????????? ??? ??????? ?а?????).
????????????????? ??????
1. ??????????? ????? ?????????? ????????? л?? ??????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ?а??????????
?????????╗ ?? 21 ?????? 2011 ?. ? 323, ??. 12.
2. ?????? ?.?., ?????????? ?.?., ?????? ?.?. ????????? ????????? ?а??????? ????????? ?а???? ???????????????-?????????? ?????????? ??????????: ??????? ????? ??????-????????? ?????????
??????????. 2013. ?. 4. ?2 (9). ?. 294?296.
3. ?????? ?.?., ??????????? ?.?. ???????? ??? ? ?????? ????????????-???????? ?????? ?а?????????????? ??? ?????? ?????? ?? ?????????? ????????: ??. ?????????? ????????????? ??????-???????????? ??????????? л?????????? ???????? ? ????? ?а??????? ??????????? ??????: ????????? ?
??????????? ????????. ???., 2016. ?. 82?87.
4. ?????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?. ???????? ????? ????? ??? ?????? ????? ??????????? ??????????????????? ????: ????? ??????-????????? ????????? ??????????. ???., 2106. ?. 7. ? 2(24).
?. 99?104.
196
?????????? ???????? ? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
??? 796
?.?. ?????????
???????? ?????????????? ????, ??????
?.?. ?????????
?. ?. ?????????
?????-????????????? ???????????????
??????????? ???????????????? ???????????????
??????????? ????????-???????????? ???????
?? ?????????? ?????????? ????????
?? ?????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ????
????? ?????????? ????????-???????????? ??????? ?? ?????????? л?????????? ????????╗ ???????? ???????? ????????? ??????? ???????????? ? ?????????? ??????????????? ??????? ???????????
???????????? ? ?????? ?????? ?????? ??????????? ?????????. ??????????? ?????????? ????????
?????????? ?????? ??????? ????????????? ?????? ????????? ?а ??????? ?????????? ?а ????? ?????????? ????????? ???, ??? ???????????? ??????????? ?? ?????????? ??????????? ??????????. ??? ???
????????? ??? ???????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????????? ? ??????????
???????? ???? ???????? ?????????? ???????, ???? ????????-???????????? ??????? ?? ?????????????
?????????? ???? ??? ???????? ???? ????? ???????, ????? ??????? ????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?а????? ???????????? ?????????? ???, ??????????? ??? ???? ??????? ???????? ? ??????? ?????????? ?????? ??????????? ? ??????????????? ?????????.
???????? ?????: ???????? ?????????????? ?????????? ????, ??????-????????????? ??????? ?? ?????????? ????????, ????????-???????????? ???????, ????????????, ????????? ???.
A. S. Sidorenko
PhD of Pedagogical Sciences, Associate Professor
A. N. Antsiferov
V.S. Sidorenko
Saint Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation
ORGANIZATION OF METHODICAL-PRACTICAL TRAININGS
ON PHYSICAL CULTURE WITH STUDENTS OF ECONOMICAL DEPARTMENT OF SUAI
The main target of methodical and practical trainings on discipline ?Physical culture? is training of students to
bases of planning and carrying out independent exercises and an assessment of level of the physical condition.
The conducted observations over students activities showed a low level of theoretical knowledge of students
in the field of preparation for the TRP complex, which negatively affects the results of control tests. As TRP
standards offer complex physical training of students and cover the development of all the basic physical qualities, the course of methodical and practical training at the faculty of Economics of GUAP was built by us to
teach students to prepare themselves for the submission of mandatory TRP standards, end to control the level
of their physical and functional state.
Keywords: educational process of physical culture, students of the faculty of Economics GUAP, methodical-practical lessons, self-control, TRP
???????? ??????? ?????? ????, ???????? 3-?? ????? ???????? ???????? ?? ???? ??????????
???????????: л?????????? ?????????? ????????╗ ? л?????????? ????????╗. ?????? ?? ??? ????????
?а???? ???????????? ??????-????????????? ??????? ????????? ?? ?????????? ???????? ?а?????? ????????? ??? ?????????? ?????????????, ? ?????? ??????? ?? ???? ??????: ??????????? ????? ?а??????
34 ? ? ????? ????????-???????????? ??????? ? 22 ?, ??????? ???????????? ??????????????? ???????????? ??????? ????????? ??? ???????????? ?????????????. ?????? ????????-???????????? ???????
???????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ????????, ??? ??? ?????????? ?? ???????????? ??????????? ????????? ??? ?? ??????? ????????, ??? ? ??? ?????????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????????, ??? ??????????????? ?????????? ????????? ????????? ?? ?????? ??????. ???????????? ?? ?? ????? ????????
197
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
???? ??????????? ? ???????????????? ?????????? ?а?????? ???????, ? ????? ?? ???????????? ?????
?а??????????? ?? ????? ? ????? ??????? ? ?????????????????? ?? ??????????.
????????, ??? ??????????? ??????????? ????????? ??? ????? ?????????? ???, ???????????
???????????? ??? ??????????? ?? ??????? ???????, ????? ?????????????? ??????????? ?? ???????????, ?а?????????? ???? ???????????????? ????????-??????????, ??????????? ? ?????? ??????? ?????????
? ??? ????????? ???????????? ????? ?? ????? ?????????? ?а????? ??????????????? ?????????, ???
??????????? ?? ?????????? ??????????? ? ???????? ?а???????.
????? ????????? ????????? ?а????????? ? ?а???????? ?????????? ???????? ???????????? ????????, ????? ??? ???, ??????, ??????? ?????????? ?а??????????? ?????. ?????? ??????????? ?????????? ????????? ????? ???????????? ??????????? ?? ??????????? ?????????, ???? ??? ??????? ??????
?????????? ????????????????.
???????????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????? ?а???? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ?? ?????????? ??????????????, ????? ???? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ??????????? ?а???? ????????????
??????????, ?????? ?????????? ??????????? ??????, ? ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ????????? ??? ??????? ???????????. ????? ???????, ?????????? ?????? ???????? ? ????? ???????? ??? ????? ??????? ?????? ???????? ???????????? ???????? ???? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ????????? ?
???????? ??????????? ?? ?а????? ???????? ?????????? ???, ?????????? ????????????? ?????????
???????? ? ???????????? ??? ??????? ? ?????????? ??????????? ??????????, ??? ? ??????? ?????????? ???????????? ????????.
??? ????? ?????? ??????? ?????????? л?????????? ????????╗ ???????? ???????? ?????????
???????????? ?? ??????? ?????????? ?????? ???????? ? ??????? ?????????????? ???????????? ?????????.
? ?????? ????????????????? ??????? ???? ??? ?????????? ???? ?????????? ???????????-???????????? ??????? ?? ?????????? 3-?? ????? ?????????????? ?????????? ????, ??????? ??????? ?а???? 10 ??????? (???????), ?а?????? ?? ??????? ???? ???????? ??? ?????:
1. ???????????????? ????? ???????. ?? ?????? ??????? ????????? ??????????? ????? ??????
?????????? ??????????? ??????????: ????????????? ? ?а?????, ?? ?????????????? ????????, ?а?????????????? ??????, ?а??????????????? ???????.
2. ???????? ????? ???????. ?????? ??????? ???????????? ?????????? ?а ?????????? ?????? ??
?????????? ??? ? ???????? ?а???? ??????????? ???????????????? ??????????, ???????? ? ????????????????? ??????? ?? ??????????, ???????, ???????????? ?? ???????? ????????????? ?????????? ???????.
3. ????????????. ?а????? ?????? ? (???) ?а????? ??????? ?????????? ????? ??? ??????????
?????????????????? ????????? ? ?????????? ?????????????? ????, ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ? ?????????????? ???????????????? ????????????. ???????? ??????? ?????????????? ????????
??? ? ???????????? ????????, ???????????? ??????? ??????????? ????????? ????????-?????????? ?
??????????? ??????.
???? ?????????? ????????-???????????? ???????
?? ?????????? 3 ????? ?????????????? ?????????? ???? ?? ?????????? л?????????? ????????╗
?
???????? ??????
???????
1
1. ?????????? ???????????????? ????? ??????? ?? ?.?.????.
2.??????????? ????????????????? ??????? ? ????????? ??????????, ???????????? ?? ???????? ???????? ? ???????????.
3. ??????????? ??? ?а????? ? ????? ?????????? ????????
2
1. ?????????? ???????????????? ????? ??????? ?а????? ?? ?.?.????.
2. ??????????? ????????????????? ??????? ? ????????? ??????????, ???????????? ?? ???????? ??????? ????????????.
3. ?????????? ????????????????? ?????????: ?????-??????? ??????????, ????????? ??????? ??????
3
1. ?????????? ???????????????? ????? ??????? ?? ?.?. ???? ?а??????????????? ???????.
2. ?????????? ?а????? ?????????? ????????? ??? ?а???? ?? ???????? ?????????. ??????????? ??????? ????????????? ????. ???????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ? ?????????? ???????.
3. ??????????? ???? ? ???????? ????????????. ??????? ????? ? ?????
198
?????????? ???????? ? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
?
???????? ??????
???????
4
1. ?????????? ???????????????? ????? ??????? ?а????? ?? ?.?. ???? ?а??????????????? ???????.
2. ?????????? ?а????? ?????????? ????????? ??? ?а????????? ????. ?????????? ?????????? ??? ???????? ???????? ? ???????????. ???????? ??????? ????????? ?а????????.
3. ?????? ??????????? ? ????????? ????? ????. ??????? ????? ????. ??????? ????? ? ?????
5
1. ?????????? ???????????????? ????? ??????? ?? ?.?. ???? ?? ?????????????? ????????.
2. ?????????? ?а????? ?????????? ????????? ??? ?а??????? ?а????? ?а????? ? ?а???????.
?????????? ??????????. ??????? ???????, ???????????? ? ???????????. ?????? ?а????? ?
?а?????????? ???????.
3. ??????????? ????????? ??????????? ???????. ????? ?????? ? ?????
6
1. ?????????? ???????????????? ????? ??????? ?а????? ?? ?.?. ???? ?? ?????????????? ????????.
2. ?????????? ?а????? ?????????? ????????? ??? ?а??????? ??????. ??????????? ?????????? ??? ???????? ????????.
3. ?????????? ??????????????? ????? ? ????? ?? ???????????? ????????
7
1. ?????????? ???????????????? ????? ??????? ?а????? ?? ?.?. ???? ?? ?????????????? ???????? ?а??????????????? ???????.
2. ?????????? ?а????? ?????????? ????????? ??? ?а??????? ???? ? ???????. ???????????
?????????? ?????????? ????????. ??????? ?????? ???? ?а????? ? ?а?????????? ???????.
3. ??????????? ????????? ????????-?????????? ???????. ???? ?????
8
1. ?????????? ???????????????? ????? ??????? ????????????? ? ?а????? ?а??????????????
?????????????? ??????.
2. ?????????? ?а????? ?????????? ????????? ??? ?а???????????? ?? ??????? ? ?????? ???????????. ???????? ??????? ????????????. ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ?? ????????.
3. ??????????? ???? ????? ??????? ????????????. ?????? ???????? ???????
9
1. ?????????? ???????????????? ????? ??????? ????????????? ? ?а????? ?а??????????????
?????????????? ???????.
2. ?????????? ?а????? ??????? ?????????? ????????? ???: ???????? ??? ?а????? ????, ?????? ????????. ??????? ?????????? ?а?????.
3. ??????? ????????? ????????????? ????????. ??????????? ???????????? ?????????-?????
10
1. ?????????? ???????????????? ????? ??????? ????????????? ? ?а????? ?а??????????????
????????.
2. ?????????? ?а????? ?????????? ????????? ??? ?а????? ???? (?????). ???????? ???????
???????? ??????. ????????? ??????? ?????????? ??? ???????. ?????????? ?? ?????????.
3. ??????????? ?????? ?????????? ????. ????? ??????????????
? ???????????? ?????????? ??????? ?? ????????????? ???????? ????? ??????? ?????????:
1. ???????? ???????? ??????????? ??????? ??????? ????? ??????????????? ??????????
(????? 200), ??????????? ?? ??????? ??????????? ?? ???????????? ?? ??????? ??????-????????????? ???????? ?? ?????????? ????????. ?????? ?????????? ??????????? ?а????????????? ????????
??????????? ?????? ?????????? ?????????????, ?? ?? ????? ????????? ? ??????????? ????????? ???????? ??? ?????????, ??????? ????? ???????? ?? ?а??????????????? ??????? ??? ??? ?????? ?? ?????????? ????????, ??? ? ?а???????? ????????.
2. ???????, ?????????????? ???????????????? ????????? ?а????? ?????????? ???, ?????? ?????? ?? ??????? ?????? ??????????? ???????????? ?? ??? ??? ??????? VI, ??? ? ?а?????????? ????????? ???????? ?????????, ? ????? ?????? ????????? ???? ??????????? ????????? ?? ??????????
????????, ??? ??? ???????????? ????? ????? ??? ????????? ?????????? ?а????????????, ??? ? ?а?????
?????????????????? ????????? ???????????????? ??????????? ?????????? ????? ??????????????,
? ????? ??????? ? ??????? ?????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????? ??????????, ??????? ??? ?????????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????? ???????????? ?а????? ?????? ????????? ??????????.
199
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
3. ???????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ?????? ??????????? ? ??????????????? ????????? ? ????? ???????? ????????? ?? ??? ??????????????? ?????????? ??????????,
??????? ???????? ?????????? ???? ? ??????????? ????? ????????????? ????????.
4. ???????????? ??????? ? ???????, ???????????? ???????? ????????? ? ??????? ?????????
?????????? ??????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ????????? ? ???????? ????????????? ????????????
???????.
?????????? ?? ????????? ????????? 3-?? ????? ?????????????? ?????????? ???? ????????,
??? ??????? ???????????? ????? ????????-???????????? ??????? ?? ?????????? ???????? ????????? ??
18% ????, ??? ??????? ???????????? ??????? ?? ?????????? ?????????? ????????, ?????? ?а???????
??? ????? ?????????? 31%, ?.?. ???????????? ???? ????????? ????????? ????????????. ????? ????,
??? ?????????? ??????????? ?????????? ???? ????????, ??? ?? ????????? ?а ??????? ?????????,
?а???????? ???????? ????? ??????????? ???? ??????? ?????????? ??????????? ????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?а??????? ?? 4,55%, ?а?? ????? ??? ?а????????? ????????? ?????????????? ?????? ? ???????????????? ?? 2,31%, ? ?а????????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????? ?? 0,64%.
???????? ????????? ??????? ??????????? ???????? ?а??? ??????????, ?а??????? ??????? ??????????
?????????? ???????? ?????? ?? ????????? (????????? ???, ????? ???? ?а??????, ???????????? ?? ????
?? ?????? ??????????? ?а???????).
???????? ?????????????, ????? ??????? ????? ? ???, ??? ????????????? ???? ????????? ?????????? ????? ????????-???????????? ??????? ?? ?????????? л?????????? ????????╗ ???????? ????
??????????????? ?а ????? ?????? ????????? ???????????????? ???????? ? ?????????? ????????????
???????????? ? ????? ???? ????????????? ?а????????? ?а??????? ??????? ? ?а?????? ?????????? ?
??????????? ????.
????????????????? ??????
1. ??????? ????????? ?? ??????????? л?????????? ?????????? ????????╗ (????-3+ 328 ?) ? л?????????? ????????╗ (????-3+ 66 ?).
2. ???????? ?.?., ?????????? ?.?. ???????????? ??? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ? ???????. ?.:
??????????? ? ?????, 1984. 32 ?.
3. ??????? ?.?. 1500 ?????????? ??? ???????? ??????????. ?????: ???????? ?????, 1976. 300 ?.
4. ????????? ?.?. ???????? ????????? ????? ???? ?? ???????? ????????? ?? ?????? ???????? ????????????????? ?????????????? ????????? ???????? ????: ???????. ???. ... ????. ???. ????. ???.,
2003.
5. ????????? ?.?. ?????? ????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ??????????? ???????????????? ?????????, ???????????? ????????. ???.: ????, 2017. 54 ?.
6. ????????? ?.?., ????????? ?.?. ??????????????? ??????? ????????? ??? ?????????? ?а????? ????
????????? ???. ???.: ????, 2016. 68 ?.
7. Gumnastik 1200 ▄bungen. Autorenllektiv unter Leitung von B. Kos. Berlin: Sportverlag, 1975. 320 s.
8. http://www.gto.ru
200
?????????? ???????? ? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
??? 796
?. ?. ??????????
???????? ?????????????? ????, ??????
?. ?. ?????????
???????? ?????????????? ????, ??????
?. ?. ?????????
?????-????????????? ???????????????
??????????? ???????????????? ???????????????
????????? ?????????? ???????????????? ? ????????????
??????????? ?? ???????? ?? ???????-??????
?а????????? ????? ????? ???????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????? ?а?????????? ???????????? ?? ????? ????? ??????. ????? ?? ????? ????? ???????? ??????? ? ????????? ????????????? ???? ?а???????? ??????. ???? ???? ? ??????? ???? ?а???????? ????, ??????????? ? ????????? ????
????? ???? ?? ????, ?? ?????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ???????????. ???????????? ??????????,
??? ???????? ?? ????????? ???????? ? ???????? ????, ??????? ???????? ????? ?? ???????? ????????????? ????? ??????, ????????? ???????????? ?????? ?????????? ? ??????????????? ????????????????. ?а?????? ?????? ?????? ??????????? ???????? ??????? ???????????, ? ????? ?????????? ???????? ? ?????? ?????????? ??????????, ???????????? ?? ??? ????????.
???????? ?????: ???????-??????, ???????? ?????, ??????????, ?????????? ??????????, ???????????
??????????????? ??????????.
S. S. Plonikova
PhD of Pedagogical Sciences, Associate Professor
A. S. Sidorenko
PhD of Pedagogical Sciences, Associate Professor
V. S. Sidorenko
Saint Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation
INCREASING OF PHYSICAL PREPAREDNESS AND INJURY PREVENTION
ON ULTIMATE FRISBEE ?RAININGS
Nowadays there is a steady interest among the students for the competition in new kind of sports. One of these
types is a non-contact team game with a flying disc, called altimate. The target of the game is to score a goal
by moving and passing each other a disc on the half of football field. Studies show that despite the apparent
simplicity and ease of play, ultimate is one of the most traumatic kind of sports that requires a sufficient level
of physical and psychological preparedness. In this article, the authors analyze the main causes of injury and
offer means and methods of physical training aimed at reducing it.
Keywords: altimate-frisbee, university students, injuries, sports training, special general developmental exercises.
??????? ? ????????? ??? ?????? ?а???????? ??????. ??? ??????? ?? ???? ??????? ??????
?? ????????????? ????, ?? ?????? ?????? ???????? ???????? ???????????, ?а????????? ?????? ??
?????. ???? ???? ? ???????? ??? ?????? ????? ???????, ??????? ?????? ??????? ???? ?а???????? ????
?????????. ???? ????? ?????????? ?? ??????? ?????? ?????? ????? ???????, ???????????? ?а??????
?????????. ?а ?????? ?????????????? ???? ?????????? ??????? ????????, ? ???????????? ???????
???????? ???????? ?????? ? ???????? ????????? ??????????????? ???????? ????.
???????? ?? ??, ??? ?а??????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????? ? ??? ??????? ??????? ????????
?? ????????, ?? ????????? ????? ?? ???????? ????????????? ????? ??????, ????????? ????????????
?????? ?????????? ? ??????????????? ????????????????. ???????????? ??????, ??????????? ???201
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
???????? ???????????? ?????? ????? ??????, ?? ?????????????? ????????? ??????? ?а???? ??? ?а???????????? ????????, ??????? ? ????? [4].
???????????, ??? ??? ???????? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ?????? ????? ????а ?
????, ?? ??????? ?????????? ?? 70% ???? ?????, ?? ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????????
??????? ?а????????? ? ?????????????? ?????????, ? ????? ?а????????????? ???? ???????? ? ??????
???????????? ????? [5]. ????? ?????, ?а???????? ????? ? ??????? ?????, ? ?а?????????? ??????? ?? ?????
?а??????? ????? ??????????? ????? ? ?????????? ???????? ? ????????? ???????.
? ??????????? ???????? ??? ???????????? ??????????? ??????-????????????? ??????? ? ???????????? (???????????? ???????? ?????????? ???????: ?????????? ????????, ????????? ????????
?????????????, ???????????? ?????????? ????????; ???????????????????? ????????? ???? ???????,
????????????, ??????????? ?????????, ?????? ? ????? ???????; ??????????????? ?????????-????????????? ? ????????????????? ???????; ??????????????? ?????????? ????????), ??? ? ??????????? ??????? ??????????? ??????? ?? ????, ??????????????? ???????????? ?? ??????? ?????????, ?а???????
???????????, ??????????? ? ?????? ??????????? ???????? ? ??????? ?????????.
?? ????????? ??????????? ????? ??????? ???????? ???? ?????? ?????? ???? ????????? ?????????, ???? ?????? ?????????????? ??? ???????????????, ??? ? ??????????? ????????. ??? ???? ??
????? ?????????? ???????????? ? ???????????? ?????? ????????, ??? ???????????????? ????? ?????????? ??????????? ??????? ?? ??????? ???????????? ????????. ?а?????? ?????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????? ?????????? ?? ???????? ???????? ?????? ?? ???????? ????????? ???? ??? ????,
? ?????????? ?? ?????????? ????????, ????????? ????????? ???????? ? ??????????? ??????? ?
????????? ????????????????? ?????????? ????????????.
???????? ????????? ????, ??? ??????????? ?????????? ??????? ?а ??????????? ?????????
?а???????????????? ????? ??????????, ????? ????????????? ??????????, ?????????? ???????? ??????? ????? ?????????? ?? ???????????? ??? ????????? ???????? ???? ????????.
????????? ??????????? ?? ????????? ???????? ??????? ? ????????? ??????????, ???????
?????????? ?а ??????????? ???????? ?? ?????? ???????? ? ?????? ??????? ????? ??????, ??????
?????????????? ? ?? ??????????? ?? ???????. ?????? ?????????? ????? ?? ????? ??????????????
????????? ?а?????????? ??????? ?? ???? ? ????????????:
?) ????????????????? ??????? ??????????? ?а???? ?? ????????;
?) ?????????? ????????? ? ?????????????? ????????, ???? ?????? ???????????;
?) ????????? ???????? ? ?????????? ????????? ????????;
?) ???????? ???????? ? ?????????? ???????????.
?? ?????? ????????????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ??????? 7?8 ??????????? ??????????
?? ????????? 30?40 ???????, ??????? ??????? ?? ???????? ? ??????? ?а???????????? ??????? ??????????????.
??????????? ??????????, ??????????? ??????????????? ????????, ?????? ???????? ?? ???????? ???????????? ?а????????? ??????? ????. ?????? ?????????? ??????? ????????? ?а??????????? ??????? ????? (??? ?а??????? ??????????? ?????, ??????, ???????? ????? ?а???????????? ??????).
??? ????????? ?????????-??????? ???????????? ??????? ?????????? ??????????, ??????????? ???? ???? ?????? ??????????? (?????? ?а???? ?? ????, ?????? ?? ????? ????, ??? ?? ??????
?????) [3].
? ????????? ?????????? ?а??????????? ?? ???????? ? ????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ??
?????????? ???????????? ??????. ???, ????????, ?????????? ?а???? ?? ???? ??? ?????????? ???? ???
??????? ????????? ?а????????? ?????????, ????? ???????????? ?? ?????? ????, ? ??? ???????????
?????? ???????? ???????? ? ?????????? ???? ??? ???? ? ?????????? ????????? ????????, ??????
?????????? ??????? ????????? ?а???????????? ????????? ?а???????? ?? ????? ???? ?????-?????? ?
???????? ??????? ??????.
????? ?????????? ?????????? ? ?????????-??????? ?????????????? ?а????????????? ???????
?????????? ???????? ????????? ?????????? ?? ????????? ??????????? ??????????? ? ?????????? ????????? ????????, ??????? ???????? ????????? ??????? ??????????? ???????? ???? ?????
???????? ? ???????????? (??????????? ?????? ?а???????????? ?????? ?????? ? ??????????????
???????? ?????? ??? ??????? ?????, ??? ????????? ?????, ??? ?????? ??????) [2].
???? ?а ??????? ????????????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ? ??????????????? ???????????? ???????, ??????? ?а??????????? ???????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????? ?? ?? ????????. ?????? ???????????? ???????? ????????? ???????? ?а????????? ??? ???????????? ???????????,
202
?????????? ???????? ? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
?а????????? ??? ????????? ?????????, ??????? ? ?????????????? ?????????? ?а????? ?? ?????????????? ????? ? ?.?.
? ???????????????? ????? ?????? ??????-?????????????? ??????? ??????????? ?????? ?????????? ??? ?а???????????. ????????????? ?а???????? ??? ????? ????: ????????? ?? ??????? ?? ????????? ???????? ?????????, ??????? ??? ??????? ?а????????? ???????????, ??????? ??? ?а??????? ??
???????, ????????? ??? ?а????????? ???????????? ?а??????????? ? ?????????? ????????.
???????? ????????? ??? ?? ??????? ?а ???????, ??????? ???????? ????? ????????? ? ?????????? ??????????? ????????. ????????? ??? ????? ????????? ?а????????? ?????????: 6╫18 ? (??
????? ???????? ????); 10╫9 ? (1/2 ???????? ????); 4╫25,8 (?? ?????? ?? ????? ???????? ????) ? ?.?. [1].
???????????? ???????????????? ???????, ????????? ? ??????????????? ?????????? ??????
?????????????? ????? ???????????????? ?????????? ??????? ? ??????????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????? ???????? ?????, ??? ?????? ??????????? ???????????.
????????? ???????????? ?????????????? ???????? ??? ???? ?а??????? ???????? ???????? ?
?????????? ??????????, ???????? ? ??????? ???, ??????? ??????????????? ????????? ?а????????, ????????? ? ????????? ?????.
? ????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????? ??? ??????????? ?????? ????
?????? ? ??????? ??? (?????????? ? ???????? ??????? ?а??????? ??????; ???????? ? ?????????? ???????
?а ????? ?а ???????????? ??????????? ????; ???????????? ???????? ???? ?? ????? ?а ???????????
????????? ???????; ??????????? ???????? ???????? ????? ???? ??а?????? ??????; ???????? ???????????? ?а????? ??????? ??? ?? ? ?????? ??????? ???????).
? ???????? ????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????? ????? ??? ?????????? ?????????? ?? ????
(???? ?? ??????????? ??? ?????????????? ?????? ???????? ? ???????? ??????, ?????????? ?? ?????
???? ? ?? ???????; ????????? ?? ???????; ??????? ????; ???? ?а?????????).
? ????????? ?? ?????????? ? ??? ????? ????????? ????????, ????? ??? ? ?????????? ?????
?а??????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????????? ? ????????????, ???????? ?????????? ?а?????????? ? ????????????? ???????????, ? ????? ?а??????????? ???? ??? ???? (????????-?????????? ???????? ? ???????? ??????????, ????????? ???? ?? ?????? ??? ????? ???????????; ??????? ?? ?????
?а????????????? ????????????? ????????; ???????????? ???????? ?????????? ???? ?а??????; ????????????? ?????? ??? ???????? ??????????; ????? ????????? ??????? ??? ???????? ?? ???????
??? ?????? ????????????).
??????????? ?? ?????? ????????????? ??????? ????????? ???????????????? ??????? ?
????????? ??????????, ? ????? ??????? ?????????? ?? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ????? ?
?????????? ?? ??????????? ?????? ?????????????? ????? ???????????????? ?????????? ???????
?а??????? ???????? ?????????? ???????? ?????, ??? ?????? ??????????? ???????????.
????????????????? ??????
1. ????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?. ???????? ?????????? ? ???????-??????????? ??????????
??? ??????? ?а??????? ??????. ???????: ????, 2016. 26 ?.
2. ????????? ?.?. ?????? ????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ??????????? ???????????????? ?????????, ???????????? ????????. ???.: ????, 2017. 54 ?.
3. ????????? ?.?. ????????? ??????????? ???????????????? ?а???? ?? ???????? ????????? ?а????????? ??? ? ???: ??. ?????????? ????????????? ??????-???????????? ???????????. ?????????? ???????? ? ????? ?а??????? ??????????? ??????: ????????? ? ??????????? ????????. ???.:
?????, 2016. ?. 172?177.
4. Yen L.E., Gregory A. Kuhn J.E., Markle R.аThe ultimate frisbee injury study: the 2007 Ultimate Players
Association College Championships.аClin J of Sport Med.а2010; ? 20(4), 300?305 pp.
5. Reynolds K.H., Halsmer S.E.аInjuries from ultimate frisbee.аWMJ: Official publication of the State Medical Society of Wisconsin.а2006; ? 105(6). Pp 46?49.
203
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
??? 796
?. ?. ??????
?????-????????????? ???????????????
??????????? ???????????????? ???????????????
?. ?. ?????????
?????-????????????? ???????????????
??????????? ???????????????? ???????????????
???????????? ??????????????? ???????? ???????????,
??????????????? ??????? ???????????????? ?????? ???????? ?????
????????? ????????????
? ?????? ???????? ?????? ?????? ? ???????? ??????????????? ???????????.
???????? ?????: ???????????????, ???????????????, ?????????????? ?????????? ????????? ?????????????? ????????, ?????????? ?????????? ???????????.
A. O. Shiryaev
Saint Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation,
M.B. Perelman
Saint Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation
A STUDY OF INFORMATIVENESS OF THE MAIN INDICATORS CHARACTERIZING
THE LEVEL OF PREPAREDNESS OF FREESTYLE WRESTLERS
OF VARIOUS QUALIFICATIONS
The article shows methods of evaluation and control of athletes training.
Keywords: informative, predictive, functional indicators of the correction of the training process, the success
of the training of athletes.
? ????????? ????? ????????? ??????? ???????????, ???????????? ?????????? ??????????
???????????, ??????????? ?? ????????????? ??????????????? ??????????, ?????????? ??????? ????????? ???? ?????????????? ???????? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ?? ??????????? ????? ?????????? ??????????? ????????? ????????????.
? ???????????? ??????????????? ????????? ??????????: ???????(?????????? ?????? ???), ????
??????? ??????? (?????????? ???); ???? (??); ???(??); ?????????? ?????, ???, ????, ?????, ??????????,
?????, ??????; ????? ????????, ????, ????, ??????, ?????, ??????????, ????? (??).
?????????????? ????????? ????????????? ?? ??????????? ????????-?????????? ???????, ??????? ??????? ? ??????? ????????? ???????? ????? ???? (????????? л??????????-????????????╗).
????????????? ????????? ??????? ?????? (?), ??????? ?????? ?а ????? ?? 10 ? (??/?), ????????????
???????????? ???????? ?а?????, ???????????? ???????????? ???????? (??. ??. ??????), ????? ???????? ??????? ?? ????? (?), ?????????????? ?????? ????????? /3/, ????????? ?????? ??????? ???????
?????, ?????? ?????????? ????? ?????, ?????? ????? ??????, ????????? ?????? ???????, ?????? ????????, ????????? ?????? ????????? ?????, ?????? ?????? ??????????? ?????, ?????? ????????????? ????? ?????, ????????? ?????? ?????????? ????? (??????).
?????????? ???????????????? ? ??????? ????????????? ??????????? ?? ????????? ???????????: ???????? ???????????? (??), ??? ?????? ?? ???? ????? ?а????? (??), ???????????? ????? (??),
??? 20 ? ?? ????????? ????????? л???? ??????╗, ??????? ???? (??? 7,257 ??) ????? ?????? ????? ?а?????
(?), ??? 100 ? (?), ?????? ?а????? ?а????? (??), ??? 1500 ?, ??????????????? ??????? ??????? ??????? (????. ?), ??????????????? ??????? ??????? ??????? (????. ?), ???????????? ??????? ????????
?? ? ? (????? ?-?? ??.), ??????????? (???????) ??????? ???????? ?? 10 ?а(???? ?-?? ??.), ??????????? (???????) ???????????? ????? (??), ????????? ??????????? ???????????? ????? ?а ???????????? (???. ??,) ????? ???????? (?), ??????????????? ???? ??????? 7 ?? (?????? ?а ??), ?????????????? 70 *(????).
204
?????????? ???????? ? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
???????-??????????? ???????????????? ??????????? ?? ???????????????? ???????? ?????????-????????? ????????. ?????? ??????????? ????????? ?а ??????? ???? ??????? (??????? ???????
?. ?????-?????????? ?? ??????? ??????) ????????? ?? 10-???????? ????? ??????????? ??????????
???????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ??? ????????? ????????????? ????????. ?????????? ??????? ????????? ?????? ?? ?????????? ???????: ?????? ???????? ???????? ?а???????? ???? ????? ?????, ??????
???????-???????? ???? ? ????????, ???????? ???????? ???? ? ??????????? ???? ???????, ????????
??????? ?а???????? ?? ???? ???????, ????? ??????????? ????????? (????????) ??????, ?а??????? ????????? ?а???????? ????? ? ????? ?а??????? ??????? ???? ???????. ?а?????????? ?а????? ?????????????
??????????? ????????????? ?????????? ??????? ??? ?????????? ????????? ?????????? ?????????
??????? ?? ???? ????????? ?????. ???? ?????????? ???????????? ?а??????? ?? 2 ???, ??? ????? ??????
2 ??? ?а?????? ??????? ????? ???????, ????? ?? ??????? ?????????, ?? ?????? ????????????.
????? ????????, ??? ?а ?????? ????????? ??????????? ? ?? ???????? ?????? ?????????????
???????? ??????? ??? ?????? ???????? ????? ??????? ???????-??????????????? ???????????? ? ???????-???????????? ??????????. ??? ????? ???? ????????? ???, ??? ???????-??????????????? ??????????? ?? ?????? ?????????????? ??????????? ???????????, ???????-??????????? ??????????, ?? ??????????? ? ??????? ????????????????. ?а?? ?? ?????, ?????? ? ??????????? ???????-???????????????
???????????? ??????????? ?? ????? ??????????????, ??? ?а??????????? ????????? ???????? ???? (??
????? ? ??????) ????????????? ???????? ?????, ? ??? ???????? ?а?????????? ???? ???????????. ??????, ????????????, ??? ?а??????? ?????? ?????????? ?????? ??????? (???????? ?а?????? ?????) ??????? ?? ??????? ??????????, ? ?????????? ???? ????? ???????? ?а???????? ?? ????? ??????? ?????????
?а??????, ??? ?? ?????? ??????????. ??????, ?????????, ??? ?????????? ???????-??????????????? ???????????? ?????? ????????????, ????????? ?????????? ??? ???????? ?? ??????? ????????????????,
?????????? ???????, ??? ???????????? ?? ?????????? ?? ?????? ?????????.
?? ??????? ????? ????????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????? ? ?????????????, ?? ????????? ?
?????????? ?????????????? ????????????.
? ????? ?а???, ??? ??? ?????? ????????????? ????? ??????????? ??????????? ????? ??????
???????? ??????? ?????? ? ???????????????, ????? ???????, ??? ??????????????? ???? (?????????
??????????????) ??? ?????? ?????? ???????????????? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ?? ???? ????????.
?? ??????????? ???????-??????????????? ???????????? ??? ????????????? ??????????: ???,
?????????? ????, ??????????, ?????; ????? ????, ?????. ?????? ??? ?? ????? ???? ??????????? ???
??????????????? ????????? ??????????, ??? ??? ?а ?????? ??????? ?????? ??????????? ??????????
??????? ??????? ?????????. ?????? ?а???, ?а??????????? ????? ?????? ????, ??????? ????? ?? ????
????????????????? ???????, ????????? ?????????, ? ??? ?? ????? ??????????????? ??? ??????????????? ?????????. ?????? ?????, ??? ???? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ???????????? ??? ??????
??????????? ? ??????????? ???????? ?? ????????? ?????????? ??? ??????? ???????.
?????????? ???? ? ????? ?????? ??????????? ????? ????? (Z >> 0,84), ? ????????? ?????????????? ?? ???? ???? ??????????? ??????? ???, ??????? ????? ????? ??????? ??????? ???????????
?а??????????? ? ????? ????? ?а?????????. ????? ??????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????.
?????? ??????????? ??????????????? ??????????? ???????????? ?????? ???????? ????? ?????? ????? ??? ???????????? (?? ???????) ????????????? ????????, ??????? ? ???????? ?а??????????????? ????:
? ???????? ??????? ?? ?????(??);
? ????????? ?????? ???????(?^?).
????? ?????? ??????? ???? ?а??????? ??????????????? ??????????? ?? ?????????? ?????????
? ?????????????. ?????????????? ???????? ??????????: ???????? ????, ??????? ?????? ?? ???? ????? ?а?????, ???????????? ????? ? ????? ?????????? 1500 ?.
?????? ???????? ???? ? ????????? ?????? ?а????? ????? ????????????? ????? ????? (Z >> 0,68).
?а?? ?? ????? ?????????? ???????? ???? ????? ?????? ?????? ?а??????????? ?а????? ?????????? ???
?????????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????, ????????? ?????????? ??????? ?????????? ????.
????? ???? ?? 1500 ? ?????????? ? ???????????? ? ??????? ???? ?????????? ????? ???????
?а??????????????? ????.
???????????? ????? ??????????, ??? ???????????? ?????, ?? ????????? ??????????? ??????????? ??? ???? ?????????? ?? ?????? ?????????????, ? ?????? ????????? ???????? ?а ?????????
????????????. ???? ???? ?????????? ?????? ??????????? ?а???????????? ?????????????, ?? ?а?? ??
????? ???????? ??????? ??????????????? ????????, ??? ?????????? ??????? ? ????????? ?? ??????????
205
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
???????? ??????????. ?? ????????? ??????????????? ?? ???????? ?а??????????????? ???? ?? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ? ????????????? ????????? ??????????:
? ???????? ???????????? (??. ???. ??);
? ????? ???? ?? 1500 ? (1500 ?);
? ????????? ??????????? ???????????? ?а???????????? (???. ??.)
????? ?????? ???????-??????????? ???????????????? ???????? ???????????? ??????????:
?????? ??????? л?????????╗ ??????, ??????????? ????????????? ? ?????????? ???????. ??????? ????????, ??? ??? ???????????? ????????????? ????? ?????. ?а?? ?? ????? ??????? ????????? ??????????? ????? ????? ??????? ???????? ????????????? ?????????? ??????????? ?? ???? ??????? ?
????? ????????? ????????????? ??????? ???????-??????????? ????????????????. ?????? ?? ?????, ??
??????? ?????????????? ???????? ?а??????????????? ????:
? ?????? ??????? ?????????? л????????? ??????╗ (??);
? ??????? ????????? ??????????? ?????????? ? ????????????? ??? ???????? ?а???????????? ????????? ???????????? (Kg).
????? ???????, ?а ????????? ????????? ????????????? ??? ?????? ?????? ????????????????
?????? ???????? ????? ????? ?????? ???????????. ?????? ?? ?? ?????? ????????, ??? ?а????? ???????????? ??? ?????????? ?? ??????????? ?????????? ???????? ?? ??????????? ????? ???????
?????????, ??? ?????????? ?????????, ?????????? ????????? ??????????????. ?????? ?? ?????, ?? ????? ?а???????? ????????? ?????????? ????, ???????????? ???????? ?? ? ???????????? ??????? ???????
???????????????? ??????.
?????????????? ????????? ????????? ????????????? ?? ????????????? ??? ???????? ???????????? ??????? ??? ??????? ?????? ????????????.
?? ?????????? ?? ??????? ????? ????? ?????? ????????? ????????? (?????????) ?????????
?????????????, ??? ??? ????? ????? ?????? ???? ?????????? ????? ??????????? ???????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????? (???????? ?? ???????? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ? ???????????????
?????????? ????? ????????.
??????? ?????????? ???? ????????? ??????? ?а ?????????? ????????? ????????????? ??
??? ??????????? ?????. ??? ??????? ?а???, ??? ?????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ????????????? ?????????
?а ??????????? ?? ????. ?а ????????? ??????????? ????????? ???????? ????? ????? ? ???????????
?????????? (Z = 0,53), ??????????? ????? (Z = 0,61), ???????? ????????????? (Z >> 0,76), ????????
???? ?? 1500 ? (Z >> -0,57).
?????? ?? ????? ??????????????? ??? ????? ????????? ?????????????:
? ? ?????? ??? ?????? ??????????? ???????? ? ?????????? ???????????????? (? ???????????
?? ??????? ?????????);
? ? ?????? ?????????????? ? ???????-??????????? ???????????????? (?????????? ?? ???????
?????????).
?? ????????? ?????????? ?а ???????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ??????????? ??????
????????? ??? ??????? ?????? ???????????? ?? ???? ????????? ?а??????.
?????????? ? ???????? ??????????: ??? ?????????? (??), ?????????? ?????, ???????? ???????????? ? ??, ????? ???? ?? 1500 ? (? ???.).
?????????? ? ????????: ????? ???????? ??????? ?? ????? (???), ????????? ?????? ???????
(? ???.??.) ????????? ??????????? ???????????? ?а???????????? (? ????????????? ????????), ????????? ??????????? ???????????? ?а ???????????? (? ????????????? ????????), ?????? ???????
?????????? л?????????╗ ?????? (? ??????), ??????? ????????? ??????????? ?????? ?????????????
??????? (? ????????????? ????????).
?????????????? ???????????? ???? ???????????? ? ???????? ?????????? ?????????? ? ???????????? ?????? ???????? ????? ?? ???? ???? ?а??????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????? ? ???????
?? ?????-??????????. ????? ???????????? ???????? ??????????? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ??
????? ????????????????? ?????? ?а??????, ????? ???????, ??? ?????? ???????? ??????????. ??????????? ????????????? ?? ???????????-???????? ? ??????????? ???????? ???????, ??????? ? ??????? ????????. ????????? (???????), ??????? ??????? ?????????? ??? ??????????, ???? ?????????? ????????
?????? ? ?????????? ?а??????? ?????? [1].
?????????? ???????????? ???? ????????? ??? ????????? ?????????.
1. ??????? ?????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ? ???????-??????????? ????????????????? ?????? ???????? ????? ?? ????????? ?????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????? ??206
?????????? ???????? ? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
?????????? ?? ???????????? ? ????????????? ?????????, ????? ??????? ?????????? ????????????-??????????????? ?????????? ????? ?????? ???????????. ??????????? ???????? ????????? ??????
?????????? ???????????? ???????? ????? ??????????? ????????????? ? ????????????? ?????? ???????? ?????, ??? ????????????? ????????????? ?????? ???????? ????????????? ?? ????? ???????????
??????? ??????????? ??????????.
2. ?????????? ????????????? ????????? ????????? ????????????? ?????? ??????????? ???????? ? ?????????? ???????????????? ?????? ???????? ?????, ???????? ? ?????? ???? ????????, ?????????? ?а??????? ?????? ? ???????? ??????, ? ????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????
?????????????? ??? ?????? ?? ?????????????? ? ???????-??????????? ???????????????? ???????? ??????????? ???????? ??????????? ?? ?????? ????????, ?? ? ???????????? ???????? ?? ?????? ????????????????? ?????? ?а?????? ?а???????????? ???????????? ??????? ???????????????? ???????????, ??????????????? ??????????? ????? ?????????? ?????????????.
3. ??????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????? ???????? ????? 17?29 ??? ??? ?????????????
????????????? ??????? ?????????? ?? ?????????????? ?????????? ? ???????-??????????? ????????????????? ?????????? ????????????? ??????? ??????? ? ?? ????? ??????? ???????????? ??????, ???
??? ???????? ?? ???????????? ????????, ??? ?????????????? ??????? ?????????????-??????????????? ?????????? ????????????? ???? ?????????????? ??????????? (P < 0,05).
????????????????? ??????.
1. ????? ?.?., ?????? ?.?. ???????????? ????????????? ? ???????????????? ???????? ?а???????
??????? ???? ?? ??????? ?????? // ??????????? ? ?????. 1986, ? 2. ?. 27?30.
2. ??????? ?.?., ?????? ?.?., ?????????? ?.?. ???????????????? ?????????? ??????. ?.: ??????????? ? ?????, 1984.
207
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
??? 796
?. ?. ?????
???????? ?????????????? ????, ??????
?. ?. ????????
???????? ?????????????? ????, ??????
?. ?. ???????
??????
?????-????????????? ???????????????
??????????? ???????????????? ???????????????
????????????-?????????????? ??????
?а?????? ?????????? ????????
? ?????? ?? ????????? ??????????? ???????????? ????????????, ??? ??? ?????? ?????? ??????????????? ?????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????? ???????????????? ????????? ??????????, ???????????
? ??????????? ???????????????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ???? ?????? ??????????????? ?? ?????????? ???????????.
???????? ?????: ??????????? ????????; ????????????? ??????; ?????? ???????????????; ?????????;
??????????? ??????????; ?????????; ?????????? ????????????????; ?????????? ?????????.
Shubin Evgeny G.
PhD of Pedagogical Sciences, Associate Professor
Evgenyev Alexander A.
PhD of Pedagogical Sciences, Associate Professor
Matyunin Michael ?.
PhD
Saint Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation
PROBABILISTIC-STATISTICAL APPROACH
TO ASSESSING THE SUCCESS TRAINING
In the article, on the basis of research it is stated that when assessing the level of fitness, multidimensional
statistics methods will help to analyze the structure of the physical, special and technical preparedness of the
athlete and the relationship of these aspects of fitness with a sporting result.
Key words: complex criterion; quantitative assessment; level of fitness; athlete; multidimensional statistics;
structure; physical preparedness; athletic result.
??? ???? ????? ?????? ? ???????????? ???????????????? ?????????? ???????? ????????????
??????? ? ??????? ??????????????? ??????????, ?????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ?????????
????????? ???????????????????? ??????????, ????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????????? ???????????. ??????? ?????? ??? ?????????? ?а?????? ??????? ???????????? ????????, ? ????? ???????????? ???????????? ????? ????, ??? ???????, ??????? ?а???????? ????????????? ???????????. ???
???? ?????????? ?????????, ??? ?а???????????? ???????????????????? ????????? ??????? ?????????
?? ?????? ???? ??????????, ?? ? ???? ?????????. ?????? ?????????? ????????? ??????????????
?????? ???????????? ???????? ?????????????? ?????? ??? ????? ? ??? ?? ?????????, ??????????,
???????? ??, ?а?????????? ????????. ??? ?? ????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????????? ?а?????????? ???????????? ????????, ??????? ???????? ?? ??????????? ?????????????? ?????? ??????????
???????? ? ?????? ??????????????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????? ?? ???????? ??????????. ?????
????????, ?? ??? ??????, ????? ???? ??????? ?? ???? ?????????? ??????? ??????????? ??????????. ??? ?????? ?????? ??????????????? ?????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????? ????????????????
????????? ??????????, ??????????? ? ??????????? ???????????????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ????
?????? ??????????????? ?? ?????????? ???????????. ???????????? ?????? ??????? ?? ????????????? ????????? ?????????????? ?????? ????????? ??????????. ????? ???????????? ?????????? ??
???????????? ??????? ??????? ????? ???? ?????????? ???????????? ? ??????????? ????????? ?????
208
?????????? ???????? ? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
?а??????????? ???????????? ?????????? (? ????? ??????? ?????? ????????? ????????????????????
??????????, ? ????? ?????????? ??????????), ?????????? ?????????? ?а?????? ?????? ??????? ????????????? ????? ?а???? ????????????. ????????? ?? ????????? ???????? ??? ?????????? ??????????
???????? ?а???????? ???????? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ????????, ????????? ?????
?а?????? ??????????? ?????? ??????? ??????????? ??????. ??????? ????? ???????, ??? ?а???????????? ???????? ?????????? ????? ????? ????? ?????????. ??????? ??? ?????????? ??????-???? ????????
????? ??????? ???? ?????? ????????? ????? ?? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ????????, ?. ?. ??????,
????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????? ?? ????????????? ????????????? ???????????. ?????? ??????, ?????????? ??????????????? ????? ???????? ????????? ???? ?а???????????? ????????, ??? ??? ???
?????????? ?? ?????? ??????? ?? ????????? ?????? ????????, ????? ????????? ????????? ??????????? ???????? ?а???????? ?????????? ? ?. ?. ??? ??? ???????, ?а???? ???????, ????? ????????? ???????
?а??????? ?????????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ??????????, ??????? ????????????? ??????????, ? ?????
????????? ??? ?????????????? ???????? ??????????.
??? ???? ???????? ??????????? ????????? ?????? ??????????????? ?а?????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ???????????? ??????? ?????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????? ?????????? ??? ??,
??? ??????????? ?????????? ???????????? ???? ????? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ?а ????????????
??????????. ?????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ???????????? ??? ????????? ?????????? ?????? ??? ??????? ?????? ????? ???? ??????????? ?? ????????????? ???? ?????????? ?
????????? ?????????? ???????? ?????? ??????????????? ?????????? ? ?????????????? ???????????
?????????? ??? ????????.
209
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
??? 796
?. ?. ?????
???????? ?????????????? ????, ??????
?. ?. ????????
???????? ?????????????? ????, ??????
?. ?. ???????
??????
?????-????????????? ???????????????
??????????? ???????????????? ???????????????
???????????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ??????????
?????????-?????????????
?? ????????? ??????????? ???????????? ??????? ??????, ??? ????????????? ????????????? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ?????????-????????????? ????? ????? ??????? ????? ?????????? ?????????? ? ?????????? ??????????? ??????????. ?????????? ? ?????? ??????? ?? ??????????? ?????????? ?? ??????????-?????????????? ?????? ??????????????? ???????????? ?? ??????????? ????????
? ????????? ???????????????? ??????????.
???????? ?????: ???????? ????? ?????, ?????????? ????????, ???????-???????????, ??????????????? ????????, ????????????? ??????????, ???????????????? ??????????.
Shubin Evgeny G.
PhD of Pedagogical Sciences, Associate Professor
Evgenyev Alexander A.
PhD of Pedagogical Sciences, Associate Professor
Matyunin Michael ?.
PhD
Saint Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation
PROFESSIONAL DIRECTIONS OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION
OF STUDENTS-PROGRAMMERS
In the article, research confirms, with the development of physical qualities of student-programmers need to
use a system of general physical training and special exercises. The content and methods of training for the
physical development of students-programmers should correspond to the features of their physical development and the specifics of the profession.
Key words: healthy lifestyle, physical culture, student-programmer, psychophysical stress, emotional stress,
vocational training.
???? ?????????-????????????? ?????? ?а ??????? ??????????????? ????????? ?? ????????,
?а?????????, ?а??????? ??????? ?????????????? ??????????.
??? ????? ????????? ?а???????? ??? ??????, ??? ? ???????? ?????????. ??????? ??? ????????, ??????? ?????????????? ?????? ?? ????????? ????????? ??? ?????? ?? ??????????, ? ??????:
??????????????? (?? 6 ????? ?????????) ?????????? ?а????????????? ????; ?????????? ??????? ??????????; ????????????? ????? ?????????? ?? ????? ???????. ?????? ?а???? ??? ????? ???????????
?????????? ?а????????????? ??????????? ??????? ????????? ???????? ?? ????? ?????? ????, ??? ?????,
?????????? ? ?????. ???????????????? ?????? ????????????? ????? ????????? ??????? ?а??????????
????????? ???? ???????, ? ????? ? ?а??????. ??? ???? ??????? ???????????? ??? ????????? ???????????? ????????? ??????? ??????. ??????????? ??? ????????????? ??????? ??????? ???? ??????????????
?а???????? ??????? ?????. ?????????? ??????????, ?????????????? ??????? ?? ????? ?????? ??
?????????? ????? ???????????????? ????????, ??? ??? ??? ???????????? ?????????? ?????????? ???.
???, ?а???? ???????, ??????????? ???????????? ?????????? ?а??????????? ???????????? ???? ?????.
?? ???????? ?????? ? ???????? ????? ??????????? ?а?????????-?????????????.
?????????? ?????? ? ????????? ??????? ??????? ????????????????? ??? ????????? ?????
??????????? ?????, ??? ??? ??? ??????? ??????????? ??????? ??? ?????????? ???? ???? ??? ??????
210
?????????? ???????? ? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
?????????, ??????????? ?а??????? ??? ??????? ??????? ????. ?а?????????? ??????????? ??????????
?????? ??????? ???? ?а????????????? ?а??????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????? ??????????. ?а?????????????, ??????????? ???? ?? ?????????? ?????, ???????????, ??? ?а???????? ???????? ???????
?а ????????????? ??????????? ????????? ?????????? ????????????? ???????????????. ?? ???????
?????? ???????? ???? ????? ? ??? ?????? ?а???????????? ???????? ???????????? ???? ???? ?????????? ? ???????????? ???. ??? ??????????? ?а??????? ? ???, ??? ????????????, ?????????? ????????????????? ????????????? ??? (?????????????), ??? ???????, ???????? ????? ?????? ???????????? ?
????????????? ????????? ???????? ????: ??? ??????? ?????? ????? ??????????? ?????? ????????
???? ????????? ????? ? ???. ?а????????? ??????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????, ???????, ??????? ?????. ?????? ?? ?????????? ??????? ?а??????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????, ????????????
???? ???????? ??????????? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ???????? ???????. ??? ???? ???????????
???????????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????? ? ???, ????????? ??????? ???????????? ?????????
?????????? ?????????? ? ???????????? ???????????. ?????????? ???????????? ????? ?????????? ??????? ?????????????? ?а??????? ????????, ????????????? ??? ????? ??????? ??????? ?????????-????????????? ?а??????????? ???????? ?? ?????????????. ????????????? ?? ????????????? ????????
?????????? ??????? ????????????? ????? ????? ??????? ????? ?????????? ??????????. ??????????
? ?????? ??????? ?? ??????????? ?????????? ?? ???????????????????????? ?????? ??????????????? ???????????? ?? ??????????? ???????? ? ????????? ???????????????? ??????????. ??? ?????
??????????:
????????? ???????? ?????????? ???? ?????;
???а??????? ??????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????????? ????????????? ????????? ?а?????
?????????? ???????? ???????????? ??????????;
?????????? ?????????? ????????????? ?????????, ???????????????? ??????????? ???????
?????????. ???????? ?????????????? ?????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????????-????????????? ???????? ??????????? ????. ?? ???????? ?а???? ???????? ?????????? ? ????????? ???, ?????? ????????,
?????????. ?а???????? ????? ????? ??????? ????????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????? ??????????
??????? ? ???????????? ??????? ?а????? ???. ??????? ? ???????????????? ?????????? ??????????????? ????? ?????????????? ???????? ???????????? ? ????????? ???????????????? ????????????????? ????????????? ??? ???????? ????????? ??????????????? ????????.
211
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
??? 796
?. ?. ?????
???????? ?????????????? ????, ??????
?. ?. ????????
???????? ?????????????? ????, ??????
?. ?. ?????????
??????? ?????????????
????? ????????????? ???????????????
??????????? ???????????????? ???????????????
???????? ??????????? ???????????? ?а?????????? ??????
??????? ???????????-???????? ??????????
?? ????????? ?????????? ?????? ????? ??????????, ??? ????????????? ???????????-????????? ?????? ?а????? ?????????? ??????????????? ? ???????????? ???????? ??? ?? ??????, ??? ? ?? ????????????? ???????????? ????????????? ????????? ??????????? ???????????? ??? ????????? ???????
??????????? ????? ?????????? ??????????? ??????.
???????? ?????: ?????????? ??????; ??????????? ????????????; ??????????; ???????????-????????
?????; ??????????? ?????.
Shubin Evgeny G.
PhD of Pedagogical Sciences, Associate Professor
Evgenyev Alexander A.
PhD of Pedagogical Sciences, Associate Professor
Perelman Michael B.
Senior Lecturer
Saint Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation
DEVELOPMENT OF SPECIAL ENDURANCE IN SPORTS WRESTLING BY
THE METHOD OF INTERVAL-CIRCULAR TRAINING
In the article: Based on the data obtained, it can be argued that the use of the intervalа? circular method for
the application of submaximal and maximum loads, both in volume and intensity, contributes to a significant
increase in special endurance as a significant factor in the further growth of sports results of wrestlers
Key words: wrestling; special endurance; training; interval ? circular method; control tests.
? ??????????? ?????????? ?????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?а?????????????????
??????????? ????????????. ??????? ???????????? ?? ??????? ? ???????????? ?????? ??? ????? ??????? ????????? ???????? ?????? ?а??????????? ??????? ?????. ?????????? ???????????? ?а????????????? ???? ?а??????? ????????? ??????????? ?????????? ??? ?????????? ?????????? ??????
???? ??????, ?????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ??????????? ????????????. ???????????-???????? ?????, ?а??????? ?????????????? ????? ???????????? ????????? ?????? ?????? ?????????? л??????╗,
???????? ???????????? ??????? ????????? ??????????? ????????????. ??? ??????? ????????????? ??????? ?а?????????????? ???????????? ????????????? 10 ??? ????????????? ??????? ???????????-????????? ?????? ?а ???????????????????? ?????????? ?????? I ? II ???????? ?? ??????? ??????
(????????? ?????). ?а??????? ?????? (20 ???.) ?????? ??????? 9-???????? ??????-?????????????
??????? ????????????? ???????????-???????? ????? ??? ?????????? ??????????????? ? ???????????? ????????. ?????????? ????????????? ????????????? ????, ?????????? 6 ??????? ???????????
???????????. ???????????-???????? ?????????? ??????????? ?а ?????????. ?????? ????? ????????
??????? ?а????????? ?? 4 ??????? ?а??????? ???????????? ???????? ???????. ?? ??????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ??????????? ???????? ?? ?????? ?????????? ????? ??? ?????? ?а??? ????? ?? 18 ???
?????? (???????? ???????????????), ? ?? ?????? ??????? ?????????????? ????? ? ?? ?????? ?????????? ????? 1 ??? ?а???????????? ?????? ?? 6 ??? ?????? (???????? ???????????????). ???????????212
?????????? ???????? ? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
???????? ??????? ????????? 14 ???????. ??????????? ?????? (16 ???.) ????????????? ?? ???????????? ????????. ? ??????? ??????? ?? ???????? ??????????? ???????????? ?а????? ???????, ? ?????
?????? ?????????? ??????? ? ? ?????????? ??????? ?????? ?? ??????????? ??????: ???????????? ????????????????? ?? ??????? ???????????? ????-????? (????); ??????????? ???????????? ????????????????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ? ?????? ????? 4 ?; ???????????? ?????????? ??????? ? ??? ??
10?30 ? ?? ?????; ??????? ??????? ? ???????????? ???????? ? ???????? ????; ?????????-???????
???????????? ? ???????? ???????????? ?? 10 ?; ??????? ???????????? ? ???????? ????????????
?? 60 ?.; ??????????? ???????????? ?? ??????.
? ?????????? ???????????? ?????? ?а???????? ???????? ???????????? ????????? ?а????? ???????. ?а??????? ?????? ???? ?????????? ?а83,2 ?? 89,2 (? < 0,001), ?а??????????? ? ?а83,4 ?? 85,6
(? > 0,1).
????????? ?а ??????????? ????????? ????? ????????? ?а ??????? ?????? ?а 105,1 ?? 133,8 ?
(? < 0,05), ? ?а ??????????? ? ?а 97,2 ?? 105,6 ? (? > 0,1). ????, ?????? ?? ???? ? ????????????
?????????? ????? ?а ?????? ??????? ?????? ?????????? ????, ??? ?а ???????????. ????????? ???????????? ???????? ?а ?????? ??????? ?????? (17: 11), ??? ??????? ? ???????? ???????? ???????????
???????????? ??? ?????????? ?????????? ??????????? ?а??????. ?????? ?? ??????????? ?????????? ?
??????? ??????? ??????? ?а????? ??????? ????? ???. ??????????? ????? ????? ????????? ???????????
???????????? ? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ?? ?????????? (? = 0,425). ?????????? ?????? ?????????
??????? ????? ? ???, ??? ????????????? ???????????-????????? ?????? ?а????? ?????????? ??????? ?
???????????? ???????? ??? ?? ??????, ??? ? ?? ????????????? ???????????? ????????????? ????????? ??????????? ???????????? ??? ????????? ??????? ??????????? ????? ?????????? ???????????
??????. ???????????? ???????? ???????????-????????? ?????? ????? ????????????? ??????????????
?? ???????? ??????????? ????????????, ?? ???????? ????????????? ??????? ?? ?????? ???????????
????????.
213
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
??? 796.323
?. ?. ????????*
???????? ??????????? ????, ??????
?. ?. ??????????**
???????? ?????????????? ????, ??????
?. ?. ???????***
???????? ?????????????? ????, ??????
*?????-????????????? ???????????????
??????????? ???????????????? ???????????????
**?????????? ??????????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ??. ?.?. ???????
***?????????? ??????????????? ?????????????????????? ???????????
????? ? ?????? ????????????
? ?????? ??????????????? ??????????????? ??????? ???????????? ?а ?????????? ???????? ? ??????;
??????? ??????? ?? ?????????
???????? ?????: ??????????? ????; ?????????; ????????????.
M. B. Farberov
Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor
V. P. Ovchinnikov
Candidate of Pedagogical Sciences, Associate Professor
N. G. Sokolov
Candidate of Pedagogical Sciences, Associate Professor
SPORT AND EARLY CHRISTIANITY
The article deals with the relationship of early Christianity to physical culture and sports; the reasons for their
changes
Key words: Olympic games; paganism; Christianity.
?? ????? XX ?. ??????? ???????????? ?????????? ???????? ????????????? ???? ???? ??????????? ?????????? ????????? ????????, ??-?? ???? ?а ?????????????? ?????????? ???? ????????
????????? ???? ???????????? ????????. ???????, ?а ????? ?а ?????????????? ???????????? ???????
? ??????????? ?????????? ?????? ?? ??????????? ?а????????? ????? ??????????? ???????????? ??
??? ???? ???????? ??????? ????? ?? ??????????, ? ????????????? ??????????? ????????? ????
???????????????? ???? ?????????? ?????????? ???????? ????? ?????? ????, ?????????????? ?а?????? ????? ???????????????? ???????????? ????????. ?а????? ?? ?а????????????? ?????????????
??? ???? ??-???????? ???????? ????? ???? ?????????, ??????? ?? ????????????? ????????? ??? ???
????????? ??????? ?а???????.
? ?????? ???????? ????? ?????? ????????????? ???????????? ???????????? ?а??????????? ???????? ? ??????? ???????, ??? ???????????? ?????????????? ?????????????? ???????? ????????
? ???????????? ????????? ????????? ????????? ????. ??????? ??????? ?а??? ????? ????????????
????? ?????????? ????????????????? ???????????, ?????????? ???????? ?????????? ?а??????? ????????.
?????? ??????? ???????????? ???????????? ?????? ?????????? ?????????? ?а???? ????????
??????????????? ???????? ? ????????????? ???????? ??????. ???????? ??????? ??????? ????????????? ??????????? ? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?а???????. ??????? ???????
??????? ??????? ? ?????? ?????, ??????????? ?а???? ? ???????, ?????? ? ???????? ???, ???????? ????
? ??????????. ?????????? ???? ?а????? ? ????????? ?????????? ???? ?????????????? ?? ??????
????????. ?а????? ??????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????????? ????? ?а????????, ? ????? ??????????? ?????????? ?а??????? ??? ?? ????????????? ?????????? ????. ??? ??? ???????????? ??????????
???? ??????, ???????, ?????????? ? ?????? ???? ?????????? ?????????? ????????.
214
?????????? ???????? ? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
? ??? ????? ?а??????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ???????????????? ?????????? ????????????,
?????????????? ?? ?????????? ???????. ?а???????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????????? ????????
?????????? ?а??????, ????, ???????? ????, ?????? ? ????? ???? ?????? ????? ??????.
??? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ??????????? ? ??????????? ????????? ?а?????? ????, ??????????? ??????????? ??? ??????? ???? ????????, ???????????? ????????? ?а????? ? ????? ?а???????? ?????? ????????????? ????????. ??? ???? ????, ?а??????? ?? ???? ? ????, ???????????? ??????
??????? ?????? ???? ? ??? ????????????? ??????? ???????, ? ????? ???????????, ?? ??? ?а?????????????, ?????????????? ????. ??????? ????????????????? ????????? ?а???????? ???? ?????? ? ???????????. ??? ????????????? ???????? ?а???????????? ???????? ???????? ?????, ?????????? ?а???
????????? ?а ????????, ????????, ??????????. ??????????? ????????????? ??????????? ? ?а ????
?????? ?????????? ???????, ?????????? ?а?????? ???? ????? ????????????? ????????????.
?????? ?а???????? ??????????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ????????????, ??? ??? ??? ?? ?????????, ? ?????? ??? ?а?????????? ??????? ??????????? ?? ????? ??? ???????????????, ???????, ??????
? ????, ???????? ???????????? ????? ?????, ????????? ?а???????? ?????????? ???????? ? ????????
????????? ???????? ????? ????????????. ?????? л???? ??????╗ ???????, ?а??????????? ????????????? ???????? ???????? ????? ??????? ?? ?????? ???????????? ??????, ??????? ?????????? ??????
?а????????? ??????????. ???? ????? ??? ???????? ?а????????? ?????? ?????? ????? ???????? ? ?????
????????? ?????????? ?????????.
? ?????????? ????? ?????????????? ?????????????? ???????????? ??? ????? ? ????? ??????????? ????? ????????????? ?? ??????? ???? ???? ??????????? ??????? ?а??? ????? ??????. ???????????
???? ?а?????????? ??????, ?а???????????? ???? ?? ??????? ????? ? ?????????? ??? ?а????, ?????????
????????????? ???????? ????????? ? ????????? ?а????, ??????????? ?????????? ?????????? ? ?????????? ??????????.
??? ???????? ?а???, ??? ????? ???????????? ???? ??????????? ????????? ?? ???????? ?? ?????????? ???????? ? ?? ?????? ?????????? ?? ????? ????????, ???????????????? ?а???????? ??????????
??????. ??? ??? ?? ????? ?? ????????, ???????????? ??????????? ???????, ?? ?????????? ???????,
?? ????????????? ????????????? ?а ????, ?? ??????? ????? ???????????? ???????????? ? ????????
??????? ????????????? ???????? ?????????? ???????? ????, ??????????? ?а ??????????? ?????????, ???????? ? ?????????????? ?а?????? ?????, ???? ????????? ????? ???????? ?а??????? ?????
?а?????????.
? ???????????? ???????????? ?а ??????????????? ??????? ???? ???????????? ????????? ?????????????? ?????? ???????????? ?????, ?а??????? ????????????????? ?????????????? ????????
????? ??????? ????? ????????? ? ????????????. ????? ???????, ?? ???????? ?????????? ????????????
??????????? ???????????? ?а?????????????? ????.
????????? ??? ????????, ??????????????? ?????? л????????? ??????????╗ ? ?????????????????? ??????? ????????, ????? ????????? ?а?????? ?????? ?????????????? ?????????? ????????
????? ?????????, ??????? ??? ????????????? ??? ????????? ??????, ??????????? ?а?????????????
????????.
?????? ?а?????????? ??????????????? ??????? ? ???????????. ????????? ??????????? ?????????, ?????????? ????????????? ?????????? ??????? ????????????, ????????? ?????? ?????????? ?????????? ? ???? ??????? ????????.
? ?????????? ???? ?????? ?а394 ?. ??? ????????? ?????????? ???????? I ???? ????????? ??????????? ????????????? ? ???????????? 12-??????? ?????????? ?????????? ?? ????? ?????????? ?????????? ?а????? ??????????? ???. ???????? ?????????? ???????????? ????????? ????????? ??????
?? ????????????, ???????????? ?а??? ???????? ?????????? ? ?? ?????? ??? ?????????? ?? ???????.
????? ?????????? ??????? ??????????? ? ????????????? ??????????? ?????????? ????? ???????????? ?????? ?????????? ????????, ?????????? ???????? ? ???????????? ???? ?а????? ????????????? ?????????????? ???????????? ???????? ?????????? ????????.
?????? ??????? ???????? ????????? ? ??? ????????? ?а????????? ?????????????????? ?????????? ?????????? ? ?????????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????? ??? ?? ?? ????? ??? ? ?? ???????, ? ??
???? ????????? ?????????? ??? ?????? ???????? ????????? ?а???????????? ???????????? ?а???????
???????? ????????? ?????????, ????????? ? ???????????? ???? ? ????????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ????????? ????. ???????? ??????? ????????????? ??????????? ???????????? ? ????????????????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????? ??????????? ?а ????????? ??????????
???????.
215
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
?? ??????????? ???????????? ???????, ???????????? ?????????????? ???????????? ?????????? ????????, ????????????? ?????? ???? ????????? ????????? ????? ?? ??????? ???????????
?????????? ???????????????? ?????????? ???, ???????????????? ?? ??????? ???????????. ??????? ??????? IV?VI ??. ???????? ? ????????????? ?????? ?????????????? ????????????? ????????
?? ?????????? ???????? ???. ????????? ??????, ????????????????? ?????????? ???? ???? ?????????, ??? ????? ??????????? ?????????? ?а520 ?.
???????, ??????????? ????????? ??????????? ??? ? ?? ??????? ???????? ?????????????? ??????? ????????????? ???????? ???? ?????????? ?????????? ? ??????????, ??????? ?а????????????
????????? ???????????? ?????? ?? ????????? ?а????????? ?а??????? ???? ????????? ?????? ? ?????? ??????? ????????????. ????? ??????????? ? ????????? ???????????? ??????? ?? ????? ??????
??????? ? ??????????? ????? ??????? ?????????????? ??????????? ??? ???????????? ????, ???????, ????? ???????????? ???? ?????????????.
?????? ??????????
1. ???????? ?.?. ????? ????????? ???? ?а ???????????? ????????? ???????? // ?????? ? ????????
?????????? ????????. 1997. ? 12.
2. ????????? ?.?. ????? ? ???? ?????????? ???????? ? ?????? ?а????????????? ?????????? // ?????????? ??????? ?????????? ????????: ??. ????. ??. / ???????? ??-? ???-??. ????, 1979.
3. ??????? ?. ?а??????? ?? ????????? ??????? ???????????? ?????? ?а??????????? ????????. ??
?????? XXI ?.. ??? 1999: ????. ????????. ?????????? ???. ????.???. ????????. ?????????, ????.
???. 1999.
4. ???????? ?.?. ?????????? ???????? ? ??????? (??????? ???????????????). ???.: ????, 2005.
5. ???????? ?.?. ???????????? ???? ??????????????? ???????????? ??????? ? ?????? (??????????
???????? ? ????? ?а??????????? ????: ?????????? ???? ?????????? ????????? ?????? ?????: ????????? ????????????? ??????-???????????? ???????????. ???????, 2015.
216
??????-???????????? ??????????
??? 658.5
?. ?. ????????
???????? ??????????? ????
?.?. ??????
??????? ???????????
?????-????????????? ??????????????? ???????????
???????????????? ???????????????
???????? ???????? ??????
??? ??????????? ???????? ?????????
? ??????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ???????? ??? ??????? ???????????? ??????????????????? ???????????? ???????? ???????????????? ????????? л????-?╗, ????????????? ?? л??????-????????????????? ???????? ?????? ????????╗. ???????? ?????????? ????? ?????? ??????????,
?????????? ???? ?? ?????????????????.
???????? ?????: ??????????? ???????????, ??????????????? ????, ?????? ????????.
P. M. Beznyakov
Candidate of Technical Sciences
?.?.Shashkov
Saint Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation
DIGITAL DEVICES TESTS DEVELOPMENT PROBLEMS
The report reviews the procedure for test programs creation for the system of integration automated testing
лSkat-C╗ of digital radio-electronic devices, developed by JSC Research Institute of Precision Mechanics. It
shows issues of concern of this procedure and determines ways to improve it.
Keywords:technical diagnostics, diagnostic test,controlling object.
????????
??????? ???????????? ??????????????????? ???????????? ???????? ????????????????
????????? (????? ????-?) ???????????? ????? ?????????-??????????? ????????, ???????????????
??? ????????????? ???????? ? ??????????? ???????? ???????????????? ????????? (???). ???????
????????????? ?? ??????????????? ?????????, ??????? ??????????????? ??? ?????????? ??????????? ?????????? (?????? ????????) [1]. ??????????????? ????????? ???????????? ????? ???????????
??????, ?????????? ???????? ??????? ?????????? ???? ??????, ?????????????????? ? ??????????????
????????, ???????????? ???????? л??????????╗. ? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ?????? ??????????, ? ????????? ???????????? ??????????? ???????, ???????, ????????????? ? ???????? ????????
?????? ??? ?????????? ???????? ?????????. ?????? ?????????? ???? ??????????? ? ??????-????????????????? ????????? ?????? ???????? ? ???????????? ? ??????????? ????????? ???????? ???????????
???? ? ?????? ?????? ????????????????? ?????? ?? ???? ? 1.25.17 л?????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ? ??????????? ?????????????? ???????? ???? ???????????????? ??????????╗. ? ???????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ????????? ??????????????? ?????????
??????????????????????????, ??????????? ?? ???????????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ??????????.
? ?????????? ?????? ???????? ??????????? ???? ??????????????? ???????, ??????????? ????????????? ????? ?????????? ???????? ????????. ??? ???? ????? ????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ???217
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
???????????? ??????. ? ?????? ??????? ???????? ????? ?????????????? ?????????? ???????? ????????
????????, ???????, ??????????? ??? ????????? ??????????????? ???????? ? ????????? ???????? ??
?????????? (???.).
??????????????? ??????? ???????? ??????????????? ?????????
?????????? ???????? ??????????????? ??????
????????? ??????? ??? ???????? ????????? ???????? ?????????????? ????? ?????????
?????????? ? ????? ???????????? ?????????, ??????????? ? ???????????? ? ???????????? ????.
?? ?????? ????? ???????????????? ???????? (???? 1) ?? ?????? ??????? ???? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????????? ????????? ?????????? ? ??????????????? ?? ????????????? ?????? ??
????? ???????? ?????????? Verilog. ? ???????? ????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????? ??????????????????? ?????????????? (????) ??????????????? ?????????? ???????????? ???? QuartusII. ???????? ??????????? ??????? ????? ???????? ????? ?????? ? ???????????? .v ? .bsf ??? ??????? ??????????????? ????????. ?????? ???? ???????????? ????? ?????????, ??????????? ?????? ??????
???????? ?? ????? Verilog, ?????? ? ??? ?????????? ??????????? ? ????? ??????????. ?????? ?????
???????????? ? ?????????? ?????????????? ????????? ? ????? ?? ????????????? ????????????? ???
????????????? ?????? ?????????.
?? ?????? ????? (???? 2) ?? ?????? ????????????? ??????? ????????? ????????? ??????????????? ????????????? ?????? ????? ??????????. ?????????? ?????? ?????????????? ? ???? QuartusII.
??? ?????????? ????????? ?????? ??????????? ?????????? ????? ???????????? ?????????.???????? ??????????? ????? ???????? ???? ??????? ?????? ?????????? ? ??????????? .qpf.
218
??????-???????????? ??????????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
? ??? ?? ???? ? ??????? ?????????? ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ? ????????? ?????????????? ???????? ???????????? ????? ?????? ????????? ?????????? (???? 3). ??????????? ????
??????????????? ??? ??????????????? ???????? ???????????? ????????????? ?????? ?????? ??????????? ???????. ?????????? ??????????? ? ???????????? ?? ????? ?????? ???????????? ?????????????????? ???????? ? ?????? ??????? ?? ?? ?????? ????? ????????? ?????? ??????????. ???? ????????
?????????? ???????????? ????? ???????? ??????? ? ???????, ?? ? ???????? ??????? ???????? ?? ?????? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ?????????? ????????????? ????? ???????, ??????? ?? ?????????? ????????? ????????????? ???? ????????? ??????. ?????????? ????? ?????????????? ? ???????? ????
??????? .tbl, ?????????????? ????? ??????? ? ??????????????? ?? ???????? ???????, ?????????????? ? ????????? ?????.
?? ????????? ????? (???? 4) ???? ? ??????????? ?????? ?????????????? ?????????? л????????╗ ? ???? ? ??????????? .yas. ??????????? ???????? л????????╗ ???????????? ????? ??????????? ????????? ?????????-???????????? ????????? л????-?╗. ???? ??????? .yas???????? ?????????? ???????? ???????????? ????????? ? ????????????:
? ??? ???????????? ???? ???????? ???????? ??? ????????? ?? ??????????? ?????????
л????-?╗ (???? 5) ? ????? ?????? ?? ?? ???? ??????? ???????? (???? 6);
? ??? ????????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ???????????????? ??????????? л????-?╗ ?? ??????? ??????? ? ????????? ?????????, ??????????? ? ?????????? ????????? ?????? ??????.
???? ?????? ??????????? ?????????? ????????????? ?????????? (??????????? ? ????? .yas),
?? ??????????????? ???????? ???????????? ????????????? ?????? ?????? ??????????? ??????? ????????? ?????????? (???? 7) ? ??????????? ????????? ???? ??????????????? ??????? (????? 9, 11). ?
????????? ?????? ?????????? ????? ?????? ? ?????????? ?????? ? ?? ????????? (???? 8). ?? ??????
????? ???????????? ????????? ?????? ????????.
?? ????? ???????????????? (???? 10) ?????????????? ?????????? ?????????????????? ?????????? ???? ???????????? ???????? ????? ???????? ???????? ??????. ?????????? ??????????? ?
????? ? 3 ????????? ????????: .bpm, .png, jpeg.
?? ????? ?????????? ????????? (???? 11) ??????????? ?????????????? ??????? ?????????????? ????????? ? ????????????? ?????????, ??????????????? ??????????? ???????????? ????????
???????????? ????.???????? ??????? ????? ???????? ????????????? ?? ????? ???????? ??????????
Verilog ????????????? ?????? ?????????? ? ??????????? .v, ????????????? ?? ??????????????? ????? (???? 2). ?? ????? ?????????? ????? ????? ??????????????? ?????????? ?????? ?????????????? ????????, ? ????? ????? ????? ?????????????? ??????????, ??????? ????? ?????????????? ????
XML-???????.
???????? ?????????? (???? 11) ??????????? ? ???????? ????? ?????????????? ??????????
(???? 10) ? ???????? ? ??? ??????????????? ????????????? ????????? ??????????. ???????????? ?????????? ???????? ????????????? ????????????? ? ???? XML-?????????. ???????????? ??????????
? ???????????? ??????????, ??????????? ? XML-???????, ???????? ???????? ???? ????? ? ??????????? .ysd.
??????????????? ???? (???? 9) ??????????????? ?? ?????? ?????? ?????????? (???? .v) ? ??????? ?????????? ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ? ????????? QuartusII. ?????????? ???????????
? ???????????? ?? ????? ?????? ??????????? ?????????????????? ???????? ? ?????? ??????? ?? ??
??????. ??????????? ??????? ?????????????????? ?????? ???????????? ??? ???????????? ???????????? ??????? ???????? ???????????? ??????? ?? ??? ?????? ? ????????, ???????????? ?? ??????. ?????????? ????? ?????????????? ? ???????? ????? ??????? .tbl, .vt. ?????????? ? ?????????? ??????
??????????? ????? (???? 5, 9) ??????????.
???? ???????? ????????? ?????? ?????????? (???? 12) ??????????? ? ????????? ?????? ?????????? ? ?????? ???????? ????????? ????????? ???? ????????? ?????? ? ???? ??????? .vcd. ??????
???? ???????? ? ???? ??????????, ??????????? ??? ?????? ??????? ? ?????? ??????????????????
???????????. ?? ?????? ????? ???????????? ?????????-????????? IcarusVerilog. ???????? ???????
??? ???? ????????: ???? ????????????? ?????? ?????????? .v? ????, ?????????? ??????????? ??????? ???????? ?????????????????? .vt.
?????????????? ?????? (???? 15) ???????? ?????? ???? ?????? ? ???? ??????????? ??????
.prj, ? ?????????? ???? ?????????? ??????????????? ?????????, ??????? ????????? ? ?????????? л????????╗ ???????? ??????????? ?????????? ??? ??????? ????-? ??? ?????????????????? ???????????? ??????????? ????????? ??????????.
219
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
?????????? ??????? ?????????? ? ???? ?? ??????????
??? ????? ?? ??????? ??? ???????? ????? ??????????????? ????????? ????????? ??????????
?????????? ???????? ?????????? ???????? ? ??????? ?????????? ???????. ?????? ????????? ????????????? ?????? ?????????????? ???? ? ?????? (????? 1, 3, 9), ???? ? ?????????????????? (????? 2, 4,
14) ??????? ? ???????????? ?????????? ???????? ????????? ??????????????. ????????????? ???????????? ??????????????? ????????? ????????? ?? ?????? ????? ?? ????????. ?????, ??????????? ??
???????????? ????? ??????????????? ?????????, ?????????? ? ??????? ????? ??????.
???????? ??????? ? ?????? ??????-????????????????? ?????? ??????? ????????? ???? ????????
?????????? (???? 11) ? ??????? ?? ?????????????????? ????? ????? ?????????? ????????? ??????????????????? ???????????? ysd-????? лPhotoLinker╗, ??? ????????? ????????? ????? ?? ??????????.
?????? ????????? ?? ??????????????? ??????????? ?????? ?????????. ?????? ?????????? ???????,
??? ?????????? ????????????? ??????????? ????????????? ? ?????? ??????, ???????? ????? 2.
??????, ?????? ?????????? ??????? ????????? ??????????, ??????????? ???????????? ??
?????????? ?????????????. ???? ???? ?? ?????? ???????? ???????????? ? ???????????????? ??????
(???? 3, 9). ?????? ????? ???????? ?????????? ???????????? ???? ??????????????? ??????? ? ??????????? ??????????? ????? ?????????? ??????????????? ????????? ??????????. ? ????????? ?????????? ??????????? ??????????????? ???????? ???????? ???????????? ? ???????????????? ??????
[2]. ??? ???????????? ??????? ? ???? ??????? ??????? ??????????????? ????????????. ??????????
????????? ??????? ?? ????????? ???????????????? ?????? ????.
???????? ????????????? ????? ???????? ???????????????? ????? (???? 9), ???? ?? ?? ?????? ??????????????????? ??? ???????????,??????????? ????????? ?? ????? ?? ?????????? ???????????????
?????????. ? ?????? ?? ?????????????? ????????? ??????? ?????, ?????? ??? ?? ??????? ? ????????.
???? ? ???, ??? ??? ?????????????? ???????? ????? ????????? ????? ????????????? ????? ????????
???????????? ????? ? ?????????? ??????????????? ????????? ??????????? ? ????.
??????????????? ????????? ? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ????????????? ????????? ??????????????? ??????, ?????????? ?????????? ? ???????? ??????. ????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ????????? ?????????????? ???????? ???? ?? ??????????.
??-??????, ?????????? ?????? ?????????? ????????????? ???????????????? ?????, ???????????
? ????????????? ???????? ?? ???????. ?? ????????? ??????? ????????? ??????????? ?????????, ?????????????? ?????? ??????????? ? ?????????????? ??????. ?????????? ???????? ???????? ?????????
???????????? ????? ? ????????? ????? ? ???????????? ? ????????????? ??????????.
??-??????, ?????????? ???????????????? ????? ??????????????? ???????, ????????? ?? ??????? ???????? ???? ???????? ???????????????? ?????. ???? ?????? ??????????? ????????????? ?? ?????? ????????????? ?????? ?????????? ? ??????????????? ???????????? ????????? ?????????????.
? ???????, ????????????? ????????? ??? ????? ??????????????? ??????? ??? ?????????? ?????
?????????, ??????????? ??? ???? ??????? ???????????? ?? ???????????? ???????? ?????????????
?????? ????? ?????????? ???????.
??????????
????????? ???? ?????????? ????????, ?? ??? ??????, ?????????????? ?????? ? ?????? ????????
????????????? ???? ?? ?????????. ??? ????????????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ???????????????? ??
??????? ????????????? ????? ?????????? ???????????????? ?????, ?????? ???????? ?????? ?????????
?? ?????? ??? ?????????????? ??????? ??????????? ????????????? ??????????? ??? ?????????? ?
????????? ?? ? ?????????????? ??????????.
????????????????? ??????
1.
2.
220
?????????? ?. ?., ?????????? ?. ?., ????????? ?. ?. ? ??. ?????? ??????????? ???????????.
?????? ????????, ?????? ? ????????? ????????. ?.: ???????, 1976. 460 ?.
?????????? ?. ?., ????????? ?.?. ?????? ??????????? ???????????. ??????????? ??????????
????????????????, ???????????? ????????. ?.: ???????, 1981. 319 ?.
??????-???????????? ??????????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
??? 355.014
?. ?. ??????????
?????-????????????? ??????????????? ???????????
???????????????? ???????????????
?. ?. ??????????
?????-????????????? ??????????????? ???????????
???????????????? ???????????????
????????????? ????????????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ??????
? ??????-?????????????? ??????????
????????? ???????? ???????? ??????
??????????? ???????????? ? ??????? ????????? ? ???? ??????, ??? ?????????? ?????????
????????? ? ????????, ????? ??????????? ???????????? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ??? ???????????
???????? ????? ??????. ??????????? ????? ???????? ?????????, ?????????? ?? ?????? ?? ???????
???????-???????? ?????????? ??? ?????? ???????????? ?????? ? ?????????????????? ??????. ??????
???????? ???????? ????? ???????? ?????? ?????????????-??????????????? ?????????? ? ????????
?????????????? ??????, ?????????? ?? ???.
?????? ????? ???????? ?????????? ?????? ???????? ???????, ?????????? ????? л????? ???????╗ ???????????? ? ????????? ?????? ?????????? ?????? ????????????? ????????? ???????,
????????? ???????? ????????????????? ??????????, ?????????? ??????? ? ???????????????? ?????
??????, ?????????? ? ??????? ?????????? л????╗ ?????. ??????? ????? ???????? ? ??? ????? ???????: л???????╗ ????????? ? ??????, ?? ???????, ? ????????, ??????, ????? ? ??????.
?????? ?????????? ??????? ?????? ? ??????????????? ????? ? ????????? ??????????????
?????, ??????????? ???????????? ?????? ??????????? ? ??? ???????? ?????? ????????-???????????????? ???????? ???? ??????? ??????? ??????????? ??? ?????????? ?????????, ??? ? ????? ?????????
?????? ? ?????. ??????????? ??? ??? ?? ???? ?????????? ?????????? ????????? ???:
1) ???????? ???????????;
2) ????????? ?????? ????????????? ???????????? ????????? ??????;
3) ???????? ???????? ????????-??????????????? ????????? ??? ? ???????? ?-?????, ??? ? ?
?????? ??????? ?????????? ????????? ? ?????????;
4)????????? ?????? ??????? ???????????? ??????? ????? ?????????: ????????????, ?????????,
??????????, ??????? ??????????, ???????? ????????? ? ?????? ?????? ???????, ?????????? ??? ??
????????????????, ??? ? ?? ??????????? ??????, ??? ??????? ???? ??????? ? ??????? ????????.
????? ????, ?????????? ?? ?????? ????????? ???????????? ???? ??????? ?????? ? ??????
? ?????????? ????????????, ?? ? ??????????? ???????????? ??? ? ??????????? ????????.
?????????? ?? ????????? ?? ?????? ????? ? ??????????, ??? ? ?????????, ?? ?????????. ???
??????????, ?????? ? ???????. ????? ??????????? ?????????, ??? ???? ??????, ???????? ?????, ??
?????????? ???????? ????? ????????? ????? ???????, ? ????? ? ? ???? ??????????? ???????? ????????
???????? ?????? ??? ???????? ??????? ?? ????? ???????? ? ????.
????????? ?? ???????? ?????, ??????? ???? ?????? ????????????? ????? ?????? ?????????? ? ???????? ???????????, ????????????? ?????? ?????: л?????????? ?????? ????? ??? ?????????
???????, ???????? ?????????????????? ??????, ????????? ?????? ? ?????, ? ??????? ??????, ??????
??????? ????????? ??????????? ????? ???????, ?????????? ??? ???? ?????? ?? ???????????╗.
???????? ???????????, ??? ?? ???????? ??????? ? ???? ??????? ?? 109 (??? ??????!) ?????????
??????? ??? ??????? ????? (?????? ? ?? ???????? ???????? ?? ????????? ??????????), ?? ???????
????????????? ??????? ???????? л??????????╗, ??? ???? ?????? ? ?? ???????? ???????????? ????? ? ???????. ? ????? ?????????? ? ???? ??????????? ????? ???? ???? ? ?????? ????? ????? ???? ? ??????, ????
??????? ? ????? ?? ??????, ??? ??? ??? ?? ??????? ??????: ?????????? ? ????? ????????, ??? л??????
? ?????????? ???????????╗? ? ??????? ?? ? ?????????, ? ??? ?????? ? ?????? ??? ??? ??????
????? ???????? ????? ????????? л??????╗ ? ???????? ?? ?????? л??????? ????????╗. ???
???????????, ?????, ???????? ?????? ? ???????? ? ????????. ?? ??????? ?? ????? ??????????? ???????221
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
??????? ???? ????? ?????????? ????????? ?????? ????? ???????, ???????? ???????, ????????? ??? ?
???????, ??? ? ????????? ?????????? ?????. ?????? ?????????, ?????? ?????????????, ??????????? л??????╗ ??????????? ??????, ??? ??????. ? ? ???? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ? ??????????? ? ??????? ?????? ?? ??????-??????????????? ?????????? ?????????.
??????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ????????? ?? ?????: ???????? ?????????, ???????? ??????,
????? ?????? ? ???????, ? ???? ?????, ?? ???? ? ?????? ???????????, ?? ???????? ?????????? ???????????. ?????? ? ??????? ?????????????? ?????? ????????, ????????? ????????????? ????? ???????
??????? ?????? ????????????? ????? ?????? ?? ??????-??????????????? ?????????? ????????? ???????? ???????? ??????.
???? ????????????? ??????? ????????, ???????? ? ?????????, ? ??? ??? ???? ???? ?????????
??????????? ????????. ?? ???? ?????????? ? ?????? ??????? ?????? ???????????, ?? ?????? ????, ???
??? ???? ?? ???? ?? ???????? ? ???????? ??? ????, ?????? ???? ??????, ???? ??????????? ?????????????. ?????????? ???????????? ???????? ???????? (? ??? ?????? ?????????? ???????) ? ??????
?????????? ???? ?????? ????????? ??????? ????????? ? ????????? ?? ??-??????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ????????-????????? ??????? ??????????? ?????. ??? ????????? ???????, ??????? ????? ?, ??
??? ??????, ????? ????????? ?? ????? ???????? ?????????? л??????? ???????╗, ??? ??? ??????????
?????????????? ?????? ?? ??????????.
1. 31 ??? 1788 ?. (??????-???????? ????? 1781?1791 ??.) ? ????? ???? ?????????????? ???????????? ? 2 (???????? ??????? ?????? ?????????) ???? ???????? ?????????????? ????????? ??????. ??????? ?????? ??????? ?? ????????? ???????????, ? ????? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ?????
?? ???????, ???????? ??????? ??????? 2-?? ????? ????????? ???????? ?????-????? ????? ? ???????
??????? ????????? ? ?????-?????? ? ??????? ???????. ??????? ?????? ?? ???????? ????? ? ?????????
?????? ????? ?????, ??????? ? ??????????? ? ??? ????????? ??????. ? ?????? ???????? ??????????
???????, ??? ?????? ?????, ???? ??????????? ????????? ????? ? ????????? ???????, ? ?????? ???????
????????????? ????? ??? ?????? ??? ??????.
2. 15 ??????? 1915 ?. ?????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ? ??????? ?????. ??????????? ? ?????? ??????????? ????? ??????????? ????? л?????╗ ? л??????╗, ????????? ?????? ??????????, ???????? ? ???? ????? ? ???????? ?????? ?????? ? ??????? ?????. л???????╗ ??????? ?????????? ?? ??????????, ? л?????╗ ??????? ? ??? ??????????? л?????╗ ? л??????╗, ????????? л????????╗
? ??????? ?????????. ???????? ???????? ??????????? ????? ???? ?????, ? ?????????? ???? л?????╗ ??????????? ? ???????? ????? ? ???? ??? ????, ??? ? ?? ??????? ???????????? ?????. ?????????? ?? ??????? ?????????? ?? ??????? ? ????????? ???????. ???????? ??????? ??????? 2-?? ?????
???? ?????????? ???????? ??? ????????? ?????????? ? ???????? 1-?? ????? ? ????????? ???????
??????? ??????? IV ??????? ? ?????? ????? ???????? ????????? ???????? ??????????? ????? ? ????
?????? ??????? ?????.
3. 1 ??????? 1917 ?., ????? ? ?????????? ?????? ????????????? ??????? ? ?????? ????? ??????
?? ??????? ??????, ?????? ??????????? ????? ?????????? ????????? ??????? ????????????? ??????????
? ????? ?????? ??? ????? ? ??????? ???????? л??????????╗, л???????╗, л????╗, л??????????╗ ? ??????????? ????? л???????╗ ? ?????? ??????????? ????? ???? ??? ? ??????? ???????? ???????? (??????, ??????? ? 13 ????????). ? ???? ??? ??????? л????╗ ??????? ??????? ??????????? ? ??????? ????, ???????
??? ?????????? ??????????? ?????? л???????╗ ?? ??????? ? ???????? ?????? ??? ??????? ????? ??????.
?? ??????? ??????????? ??????? ??????? ? ???? ?????? ???????? ????? ????????, ?????? ???????????? ???????. ??? ??????? ????????? ???????, ????????????? ????? л????╗ ?? ?????? ? ???????? ??????
? ??????? ?? ??? ?????????? ????, ???????? ?????? ????????? ?? ?????????? ???????? ??????? ???, ?
????? ??????? ?????????????? ??????. л????╗ ???? ??? ???? ? ??????????? ??????????? ??????, ?
????? ???????? ????? ??????? ???: ??????? ??? ???????? ? ????, ?? ??? ???????? ??????? ?, ??????
????, ???????? ?????. ??? ? 1955 ?. ?? ???? ?????? ?? ??? ????????? ??????? ???????? ???????.
4. ??????????? ??????? л????????? ?????????╗ ? ???? ??????? ????????????? ????? ????????? ? ??????? ???????????? ?????? ??????????? ??????? ???????? ??? ????????? л???-6╗ ? ????
?? ?????????? ??? 76 ?? ? ??? 45 ?? ?????. 25 ??????? 1942 ?., ??????????? ?????????????? ? ?????? ??????? ?????? ? ??????? ????, ????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????? ? ??????? ???????
л??????? ????╗. ??????? ?? ???? ? ????, ??????? ? ???????? ??? ? ?????????? ?????, ?? ???????
?????????? ??????-???????? ?????. ???????? ?? ??????, ????????? ????????? л??????????╗, ???????
????????? ????? ?, ?? ???????? ?????? ?? ??????????? ??????? ?????? ??????, ???????? ??? ???????? ???????. ???? ??? л????????? ?????????╗ ????? ???? ?? ?????????? ?????????.
222
??????-???????????? ??????????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
5. ??????? ??????? ??????? ????? ??????????, ??????? 2 ??.?????? ????????? ?????, 25
??????? 1941 ?. ? ????????? ??????? ???? ????????? ???????-?????????. ???????? ??????????? ??????? ? ??????. ? ??????????? ????????? ???? ???????? ????????, ????????? ?? ?????????, ??????
?? ????????? ? ????? ? ?????????? ???????????. ???????, ???????? ? ???????????? ????? ?????
????? ???????? ? ????. ? ????????? ???? ????????? ???????????? ?????? ????? ???. ????? ???????
? ?????????????? ??????? ? ????? 1943 ?. ??????????? ? ?????? ?????. ???????? ??? 109 ?????? ???????, ???? ?? ????? 11 ?????? ????????? ?????. 19 ??????? 1944 ?. ??? ???? ????????? ?????? ?????
?????????? ?????. ????????? ?????? ? ????? ?? 1955 ?.
6. ??????? ????? ???????? ?????? ??????????, ???????? ????????? 4 ??.??? ??? ???????????????? ??????????? ????? ?? ?????? ?????????? ? ?????????? ???, ???????? ????????-??????????? ?????, ? ??????? 1941 ?. ??? ??????????? ??????? ?? ???????????? ? ??? ???????? ????????
???????? ????, ??????? ???????? ????????????. ????? ??????? ? ?????????????? ???????? ? ????,
???????? ??? ????? 300 ?????? ???????, ???? 3 ???????? ?????????? (????? ?? ?????? ????? 7). ????????????? ? ?????????? ?????? ????? ?????????? ????? ? 1945 ?., ??????? ??? ???? ????????? ??????
10 ?????? 1957 ?. ? 1945 ?. ????????? ? ??????, ??? ? ??????????, ??????? ?? ?????? ??????????. ???
????? ???? ????????? ??????? ????? ? ??????????.
7. ? ?????? ?? ????? ??????????? ??? ??????????? ?? ??? ??????? ???????? ?????? ? ??????
??????? ?????. ???, 15 ???? 1915 ?. ??? ????? ????????? ?????????? ??? ??????? ??????? ???????
??????????? ???????????? ?-5 ??????? ??????? ??????????? ????? ??????? ?????????? ???????????
??????????-??????????. ?????? ????????? ? ?????, ??????? ?? ??????? ???????? ????? ???????????? ? ????????? ??? ?????? ?????: ? ????????? ??? ???????????? ????????????? ?????? ????. ?????
????????????? ? ?????????? ? ??????? ?? ?????? ???????????? ?? ????????????????, ??????????
? ?????????? ?????????????? ?? ????????????? ?????? 1-?? ??????????? ???????????? ???????????????, ?????? ??? ???????? ????????????? ??????, ??? ??? ? ?????? ????????? ??????? II. ??????????? ????????? ???????, ?? ???????? ??? ????????? ? ?????? ?????. 13 ??????? 1917 ?. ??????????-??????????, ???????? ? ???? ??????? 13 ????? ? ???????, ???? ????????? ?????? ??????????
?????. ?? ??? ????????? ??????? ??????? ??????? IV ??????? ? ??????? ???????. 12 ??????? 1917 ?.
л??? ??????? ? ????? ?????? ??????????╗ ?? ??? ?????????? ? ??????? ?????????? ? ??????? ??????
???????? ?? ?????? ??????????? ? ??????? ??????? ???????. ????? ? ??????? ???????? ????????????
??????-???????? ????? ??????, ??, ? ?????????, ???? ?? ??????? ? 1922 ?.
? ??? ?????? ????? ?????? ???????? ? ?????, ??? ????? ????????, ???????? ? ???????????????
???????????? ???????? ?????? ??????????? ????? ???????? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ???????????? ???????? ? ??????.
?????? ?????? ? ?????????? ????????????? ????????? ? ??????? ???????? ???????????
??? ? ????????????? ????????? ??????? ????????? ???????? ???????? ??????. ?????? ??????????? ??
???? ??????? ?????????????? ? ????????-????????? (????????????) ????? ? ????? ???????????????? ?? ??????-?????????????? ?????????? ??? ?????? ??????????? ?????? ???????? ????????, ???????? ? ????????????????? ?? ?? ??????????, ??? ??? ?? ??? ??????? ? ???? ?? ????????? ?????????
??????? ???? ????????. ??? ????? ????? ????? ?????? ????????? ?? ????????????-????????????????
?????????. ???, ?????, ?????? ????????? ???????.
1. ????????????? ????? 1812 ?. ? ??????????? ???????? 26 ??????? (7 ????????) ?????????
13-?????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ? ??????????? ????????? ????????? ?????, ??????????. ? ???? ????
?? ??????? ????????? ?? ??????? ??????? ???????, ????? ??????? ????????? ?? ????? ??????? ??????
?? ??????, ????? ? ??????????? ?? ???? ??? ??????????? ?????? ????? ? ???????? ????? ?? ?????
? ????????? ???????????, ?? ????????????? ???????? ??? ????????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ??????. ????? ?? ??????, ??? ?? ???????? ?????? ??????? ????? ?? ???????? ???????-????????????
?.?. ??????? ?? ????? ??? ?? ?????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ????????????.
2. ????????? (????????) ????? 1853?1856 ??. ? ?????? ???? ??????? ??????????? ? 1854?
1855 ??. ? ?????? ????? ??? ?????????? ??? 13-?????? ??????? ??????? ? ??? ??????????, ?????????,
??????? ? ???? ???????????. ? ????? ????? ???? ???? 11 ??? (1 ????? ??????? ? ??????? ????? ??????????? ?? 1 ??? ??????). ?? ???????? ? ??????? ??? ????????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ?
?????? ? ????, ? ????? ?????????? ??????? л?? ?????? ???????????╗.
3. ?????? ??????? ?????. ??????????? ?????????????? ??????-????????? ?????? 14-??????
?????? ??????? ? 1915?1917 ??. ???????????? ?????????? ? ????, ???? ?????? ???????????????, ?????? ??????? ?? ????????. ? ????? 1915 ?. ? ????? ?? ???? ???????? ? ????????? ???????????????,
223
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
?????? ???????? ??? ?????, ? ?????????? ????? ?? ??????????? ?????? ????? ??????? ???? ?????? ??????????, ?? ???????? ???????? ??? ?????. ????? ????? ??????? ????? ? ????? ?????? ?? ????
???????, ?? ??? ??? ????????? ???????????? ??????? IV ???????. ? ?????? 1917 ?. ??????? ?? ??????
?????? ??????? ??? ???? ???????????? ????? (III ???????) ? ??? ?????? л?? ?????????╗ (????? ?????? ?
???????? ?????? ????? ???? ????)! ?????? 1917 ?. ? ???????? ??????????? ??????????? л?????╗ ????????? ?????????? ????? ????? ????? ?????? ? ????? ??? ????????? ? ???????? ?????????? ???????.
? ???? ??????? ????????????? ????? 1941?1945 ??. ???????? ???????? ???? ????????? ????
???????????? ?????????, ?? ????? ???????? ???????? ???? ?? ?????? ?? ?????????? ?????????????
??????? ?????? 24 ???? 1945 ?.
4. ??????? ??????? ??????? ??????? (1929 ?. ????????) ?????? ?? ????? ? ???? ? ?????????
????????? ??????????? ????? ?????????? ????? ???????? ?.?. ??????? ????????????? ???????????? ? ???? ????????, ? ??????? 1943 ?. ? ???????? ?????????? ?????, ? ???? 1943 ?. ? ????? ????????
??-2. ?? ????? ????? ???? ????? 800 ? ?????? ? ???? ?????? ???????? ???????????: ????? ????????
?? ????????? ????? ?????? ???????? ?????????????? ??? л???????????╗ ??-109 ????????? ? ?????. ? ??????? 3-?? ?????????? ?????????-????????????? ???????????????? ?????????? ???????????
?????? ?????? ???? ?????-???????-????????-?????-???????-????????-????-?????. ????????? ???????? ???????? ???????, ????? ??????? ??????, ??????? л?? ??????╗. ??? ?? ??????? ??????? ?
??????? ???????? ????? 2-?? ??????????? ??????. ? 1947?. ? ??????? ??? ??. ??????????. ???? ? 1948
?. ?????????? ?????????? ?? ??????????? ?? ?????? ???????.
5. ??????? ????????? ???????? ??????? (1929 ?. ????????), ???????? ?. ???????????. ??? ????? ??????? ??? ???????? ??????, ???? ??? ?? ??????. ? ???????????? ????? ?????? ???? ?? ??????
? ???? ????????????? 1075-?? ??????????? ????? 316 ?? ???????? ?????????. ?????????? ? ????? ??
??????, ?????? ???? ?????????, ?????????? ? ???????? ??????????. ????? ???????? ??????? ? 1942 ?.
?????? ????? ??????????? ? ??????? 33-? ?????????? ???????-?????????? ??????????????? ??????
???????? ???????. ????? ???????? ? ??????? ? ????????? ????????? ????????????. ?? ?????? ???????
????????? ???????? ????????????? ????? I ? II ????????, ??????? ??????, ????? II ? III ????????,
????? ???????? л?? ??????╗. ?? ?????? ?????? ??? ?? ??????? ??????? ? ??????? ???????? ?????
1-?? ???????????? ??????. ????? ????? ?????? ? ?????? ? ??????? ???. ???????? ?????????? ??????
?? ??????? ??????? 9 ??? 1985?.
6. ??????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ????????? (1932 ?. ????????), ???????? ?. ????. ????? ???????????? ?????? 5 ??????? 1943?. ???????-?????? ???? ????????????? 17-? ??????????? ???????? ??????? 1 ???????????? ???????? ????????? ???????. ???? ?????? ????????????? ?????? ????? ?? ????? ? ??????? ??????????? ? ??????????. ???????????? ?????????? ? ????, ?????????? ?????
????? ? ??????. ????????? ? ???? ???????????? ???????????? ? ?????? ? ???? ???????? л?????????╗ ? ????????-??????????? ????????. ?? ?????? ??????? ??? ????????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ? ????????????? ????? II ???????, ???????? л?? ??????╗ ? л?? ?????? ???????╗. ???????????
2-? ??????????? ??????? ?????? ?.?. ???????????? ???????? ???????? ??? ? ?????? ???????? ?????,
? ??? ??????? ?????????? ?????????????????? ????????? ? ?????? ?????? ????? ????????? ??????.
??? ??? ??-?? ?????? ????? ???? ? ????? ??????? ?? ?? ???, ?? ??????? ?? ??????? ??????? ?? ????????? ? ??????? ????????? ?????????????. ?.?. ?????? ???????? ????? ????? ?????? ????????????????
?????? ? ??????? ? ????, ??????? ? ?????? ? ???????????? ????????? ??? ? ??????????? ???????????
???????. ????? ????????? ??????? ????????? ???????? ???????, ????????????? ????????. ????
? ????? ? ????????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????????? ????????? ??????? ? ?????? ??????????.
???????? ?????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ?????? ? ????? ?? ??????? ??????????????? ?????
??????, ?? ??????????? ?? ??? ?? ????? ????????? ???????????? ?????? ??? ??????????? ??????????? (1926 ?. ????????). ? 1942 ?. ??, ??????????? ??????????????-??????????, ??????????? ????????
? ?????????????? ????????. ???????? ? ???? ???? ?? ????? ?????? ? ?????? ????? ?? ?????????? ???????, ??? ?????????? ?????? ??????? ? ?????? ? ????????. ????????? ? ?????????, ? ??????????? ??????????? ??????, ??, ?????? ???? ?????, ???????????? ???????? ? ??????? ?????? ???????? ? ???????
?????? ???????? ? ??????????. ?? ????? ????? ?? ???????? ??? ???????? ????????. ?????????????
??????? ???? ?? ??????????, ??, ???????? ????????? ?? ???? ???????? ???????, ??????????? ???????? ?? ????????. ? ???????, ??? ???????? ? ???? ???? ?? ????????? ????????????. ?????????, ???
???????? ???????, ?????????? ???????? ?? ??????? ? ????? ????????? ? ????? ?????? ?????????.
????? ????????? ? ????????? ??????? ???????????? ?????? ???????? ? ??????????. ?? ???? ?????? ??? ????????? ??????? ????????????? ????? I ???????. ????? ????????? ? ?????????, ? ???????
224
??????-???????????? ??????????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
1942 ?. ??? ????????????? ?? ??????? ? ????????? ?? ?????. ? 1949 ?. ??????? ???? ??. ???????,
??????? ? ??????-????????????????? ???????????. ? 1964 ?., ? ???????? ????????-?????????????, ??
?????? ? ??????? ???????????? ???????????? ??????????? ??????? л??????╗, ???????? ???????????
??????????? ????? ?????? ?????, ?? ??? 19 ??????? 1964 ?. ???????? ?????? ????? ?????????? ?????.
??? ???? ?????, ????? ??????????? ????? ??? ??????, ????? ????????? ???? ??????? ????????? ??????
???????????? ????????????, ? ????????? ?????? ????? ???????????? ? ????????? ?????????? ? ??
??? ???????:
?????? ???? ?? ??? ???? ?????????,
? ?????? ?? ??? ????? ? ??? ?????? ??????:
???????, ??????, ??????????
????????? ? ???? ??? ???????.
??????????? ????? ????? ?????????? ?????, ??????? ??????????? ????, ?????????? ??????????? ????????? ??????????? ???????? ? ???? ??? ?????????? ? ?????? ???????? ? ???? ??????? ????????????? ????? ? ??? ?????? ??? ??????? ???????? ??? ????????? ???????? ???????????.
?????? ?????, ??????????? ????????????? ??????? ? ????????????? ?????? ? ???????? (?????? ?? ???????? ??? ????????????), ? ???????? ????????????? ????????, ? ???????? ?? ???????
?????? ?????????? ? ????????? ??????? ? ??????? ???????????, ??????? ???????? ?? ??????????? ? ??????????? ????????? ??????. ??? ??????? ?????????? ??????????? ????? ??? ?? ?????????? ??????,
? ????????????? ??????? ????? ? ???????????????? ??????-???????????? ???????, ???????? ??????
???????? ????? ??????? ???????? ? ?????? ???????? ? ???????? ?? ????? ????????, ?, ??????????,
?????????? ? ??????????? ???? ? ?????? ???????????.
????????? ????????????? ????????, ??????? ??????? ????????????? ????? ????? ????????
?????: л???? ?????????? ????????? ?? ???? ??? ??????????????? ?????????????? ?????? (? ??????
?? ??? ????????? ???????????????????), ?? ???????, ? ?????? ??????? ? ???? ??????? ? ??????????
???????? ?????????? ?????????????? ??????????. ??????? ?? ?? ???????? ????????, ? ?? ? ???????? ????? ?????? ????? ???????? ?????, ???????? ???????????? ??????, ??????? ???????? ??????
? ???????? ?????? ????? ?????? ????????, ???? ?????, ?. ?. ????????????? ????? ??? ?????????,
??????? ?? ???? ??????? ???? ??????? ???????, ?? ?? ???? ????????????. ?? ???????? ????? ??? ?????????, ?????, ????????? ?? ???????? ?????, ??????? ???????? ?????? ????????? ???? ?????, ????
???? ???????? ???????????, ??? ?? ???????? ??? ? ??????????? ?????╗.
225
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
??? 355.541.2
?. ?. ??????????
?????-????????????? ??????????????? ???????????
???????????????? ???????????????
????????????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ??????????
????????? ??? ?? ?????? ??????????? ?????? ????????
? ?????????????? ????????? ???????? ????????
???????????? ??????????? ??????????? ????????? ? ??? ???????? ???????????, ????????????
?? ???????? ? ??????????? ??????? ????????????? ???????? ? ???????????????? ??????? ??????????? (???????????) ?????????? ??????? ????????.
??? ???????????? ? ?????????????? ? ????? ?????????????, ??????? ? ?????????????? ?????????????? ???????????? ???????? ????????, ??? ???????? ? ???? ???????????-???????????, ??????????,
???????????? ??????????? ? ??????????? ?????????? ???????????? ?а???? ???????? ??????????? ?????????.
???????? ????????????? ??????????? ??????????? ????????? ?а??????? ??????? ?????? ????????:
?????????? ? ????????????????? ??????-???????????? ???? (???) ?????????????
?а???????????? ??????????? (???????????) ?????????? ????????????? ? ?????? ???? (????) ?????, ???
??????? ?????????????? ?????????? ??????? ????????;
???????????? ? ????????? ??? ???????????? ??????-?????????????? ??????????
(???????????), ???????????? ?????????? ???????? ? ?????????? ?????????????;
?????????????? ??????????? ???????? ????????;
????????????? ?????????? ???????????? ?а???? ??????? ?? ??????????? ??????????.
??????, ?а ???? ???????? ????????? ?а ??????? ??????? ?????? ??? ????? ????????? ?????
???? ???? ???????? ?????????? ???????, ??????? ?? ????????? ?а ?????? ?????? ? ?????????
???????? ????????? ?????? ????????????? ??????????? ??????????? ????????? ??????? ??????????????????, ? ??????:
??????????? ???????????? ??????? ?????????????? ??????????? ?????????? ? ???????????
?????????????? ?а??????????? ????????????? ???;
?????????????? ????????? ???????? ???????????? ??? ?????????? ???????????? ??????? ??
??????????? ???????????, ???????????? ?????????? ? ??????? ???????.
? ???? ????????????????? ???????? ?????????? ? ?????????? ??????? ?? ???????????
???????????, ????????? ????? ???? ????????? ?а ??????????????? ???????? ?????? ?????????
???????? ?????? ? ??????????, ???? ?????????? ? ??????????? ???? ??????? ????????? ????
?????????? ????????.
??? ??????? ???????? ???? ??? ?????????? ??????? ?????????????, ??? ? ?????????
???????????? (?????? ??????????????????? ??????, ?????? ??????????? ? ?.?., ? ???????? ?
????????????? ?????? ? ???????) ????? ????? ?????? ? ?????? ??????? ? ???????? ???????????
?????? ?а???????????-????????????????? ?????????????? (???) ??????????. ?????? ??????????
??????????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ???? ????????????? (? ?????????? ??? ??? ?? ????????
?????????) ?? ???????? ??????? ???, ????????? ?а ??????? ???????? ?? ????????? ???????
?????????????? (???) ? ??????? ???????? (??) ?а???????? ???????????????-????????????? ? ?????
??? ???????? ???????. ??? ????, ?а ????? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ????????? ?????? ?????
?????? ???? ???????? ?????? ???????, ????????, ??????????? (???????-???????????) ??????????,
? ????? ???????? ?????? ?а???, ????????????????? ? ??????????????? ???????? ?а???? ????????.
????????? ?а??????? ??????? ?????? ??? ???? ??????-???????????? ???? ?? ????????? ???
??????????? ????????? ????. ?????????? ??? ?? ????????? ????????, ?а??? ????? ? ?? ??????????,
?? ???????? ? ??? ??????????:
?????????? ???????????? ???? ??? ?????????? ????????? ????????????? (????? л??????????????╗);
226
??????-???????????? ??????????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
??????????? ??? ??????? ?????????? ?? ??????????? ?????? (?????????? ?????????? ? ????????
???????);
??????????? ??????????? ?????????? (??????? ???? ?? ?????????? ??????????, ???? ? ?.?.).
??? ????????? ??????? ????????? ???? ??????? ????????? ????? ???? ???? ????????????,
???????? ? ????????? ?? ?????????????? ?а????? ?? ?????? ????????? ???????? ??????, ???????????
?????? ?????? ??????, ?а ??????? ??????? ??? ??????????????, ??? ? ??????? ???. ?а ?????????,
?а??????? ???? ??? ?? ???? ?????? ???????? ????? ???? ???????????? ? ????????? ???????? ???????
?? ??????????? ?????????? ?а?????????????? ???????? ? ??????? ?????? (??????? ????????), ???????
?????, ??????? ?????????? ? ?????????? ????????????? ?????? ? ???????. ??????? ??????????? ??
??????????? ????, ?а ??????? ??????? л????? ??????????╗, ??????-???????????, ???????????????,
????, ????? ? ?????????? ????????. ?? ??????? ??????????? ?????? ?????? ?? ??????? ???????????
? ??????? ???????? (???) ????????????? ?????? ? ??????? ???????? ?????. ?????? ?????? ?????,
?а??? ????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ????, ???????? ??? ?а???? ????????????? ? ???????????? ??
??????? ?????? ? ??????, ??? ? ??? ??????????? ???????? ????????? ?????????? ?а ???? ?????????
???????????? ?????.
????????, ????????? ????? ???? ??? ????????? ?а????????????? ????????????????? ?????
??? ???? ???????????? ? ????????? ??????? ?? ????????? ????????? ???????????-?????????????????
???????????? ?????????? ?? ????? ?????????? ?????????? ????? ?а ????????????? ???????????
??????????, ??????????? ? ?????????? ???????? ?? ????????? ????????????? ??????? ???,
?????????? ????? ?? ???????????????, ?а????????????? ????????? ???????????, ? ????? ??????????
???????? ??????-????????? ????? ??? ??????? ? ???????? ??????, ???????????? ????????????.
??? ??????? ??????????? ?а ?????????????? ???????? ?????????? ????????????? ?????? ?
??????? ?????, ?а??????????? ??????? ???????? ? ????????????? ??????????????? ?????? ???????.
?????????? ???? ??? ??????????? ?????? ?????????????? ???????, ??? ???????? ?????????????
????????? ??????? ?????????? ?? ??????????? ??????????? ??? ?????????, ??? ? ????? ??????????
??????? ??????? ????? ?? ??????? ?? ????????????? ?????? ? ??????? (???????-?????? ??????).
??????, ?????????? ????? ?? ?????? ??????? ??-?? ?????? ?????? ??????? ? ??????? ???????? ??????????
??????????? ?????????. ?а??????, ???? ????? ?????????? ?? ?????-???? ???????? ?? ??????????, ??
?????? ??????? ???????? ???????????? ?а ????? ??????????? ????????? ???????????? ??????????
???????? ?????????? ??????? ????????????? ?????? ? ??????? ???????? ??????.
????? ?????? ??? ??????????????? ?????????????? ????? ??? ? ???????? ?????? ???
????????? ?????????????, ?????????? ?????????? ??? ?а ??????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????
???????? ?????? ??? ??????????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ? ???????? ??????????
??????? ???????? ????????? ? ??????? ??????? ????????????? ?????? ? ??????? ???????? ?????? ??
??????????? ??????????? ?а?????????????? ????????? ?а??? ??? ?????? ??????????, ?а??????????
??????????? ???????????? ???????, ??????????? ? ??????? ????????, ? ????? ???????????????
??????????? ??? ?????????????? ???.
?????????? ? ?????? ?????? ????????? ????????? ???? ???????, ??????????? ??? ???????
????????. ?? ???????? ?????????????? ??? ?????????????? (? ??????????????, ???? ???????????????
?а???????????? ???????? ???????? ?????), ?????? ?? ????? ????????????? ????? ?? ???????? ????????
????????. ??? ????????????? ??? ?а???????, ??? ? ?а?????? ????? ??????????? ????????? ??? ????
?а????????? ??? ????????. ????????, ?а??????? ??????? ? ?????-?????????? ?а?????????, ??????? ?????
???? ???????? ?????? ?????????, ???????????? ????????? ???? ?????? ????????: ?? ????????????
????????? ??????? ??????????????? ????????????? ?????? ???????? ???? ?????????? ??????, ??
??? ??????????? ???????????? ???????? ??? ? MOUT (????. Military Operationson Urban Terrain ? ??????
???????? ?а????????? ?????????). ????????? ??? ?????? ???????? ???????? ??????????? ??????, ???
??? ?????????? ??????????????, ?????????? ?????????????? ? ??????????? ???????????. ????????
?? ??, ??? ?? ?????? ?????? ??????? ?а??????????? ?????? ??????????? ????????? ?????? ????????
MOUT ? ???? ?????? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ???????, ?? ???? ?а?????? ??????? ?? ??????????
? ??????? ?????? ???????? ???????? ?? ????? ????? ?????, ?? ? ??? ???????????? ????????? ????????
????????? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ?? ????? ????? ???????.
?????? ????????? ??? ?????? ???????? ??? ????? ?????????? ??????? ?? ???????????
?????????? ?а ???????? ????? ??? ????????? ????????? ????????? ? ?????????? ????????? ?????
???????? ???????? ?????? ??? ????, ?????? ????????????. ???????? ?? ???????? ???? ????????????
?? ??????, ??? ???? ??? ???????? ?? ???????? ????????. ???????????? ???????????? ???????????
227
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
????? ?????????????? ???????, ?? ??? ??????, ???????? ??, ??? ??? ??????? ? ??????? ?????????
?????? ??????? ????????? ?????????????? (?????????????) ??????????, ?????????? ? ??????? ??????,
? ????? ????? ?????????? ???????, ??????????? ?а?????? ?? 1500 ?? 3500 ???. ???., ??? ???????? ??????
??? ????????. ?????? ?????? ???????? ?а ????, ??? ???????????? ????? ???? ????? ??????. ??????
???????? ????????????? ?????? ???? ?????? ??, ??? ????? ??????? ??????? ????? ???????? ????
???????????? ????????, ???????? ?????? ? ?????? ?? ?????????????? ?а ??????? ?????????????,
?????? ????????????? ? ?????????????? ?????????? ???????????, ??????? ??????? ???????????????
?? ?????? ??????, ??????????? ?а?? ??????????.
?????? ????????????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ??????, ??? ?? ?????? ?? ?????????????
?а ????????????? (????????????) ????? ????? ??????? ??????, ???????? ?????? ????????? ???
??? ?а ?????? ???????, ????????? ?????????? ???????????? ?? ?????? ????? ????????? ?????????
?а?????????? ???????????? ???????????? ??? ????????? ?а??????? ? ????????????.
??????? ????????, ??? ????? ??? ???????? ???????, ??? ? ????????????? (????????????)
???, ?????????? ??? ??? ???????????? ???????? ???? ?????????? ????? ??????? ??????? ??????
????????, ??????? ????? ????????, ???????????, ?????? ?а ???????? ????????, ?а ????????????
????????? ? ??????????? ????????? ????????, ?а?????????? ?????? ???????????? ??????? ? ??????:
1.? л????????????? (?????? ??????) ?????? ?а??????╗. ??? ?????? ??????? ?????????
????????: ????? ?? ?????, ?? ???????, ?????? ??????? ?а??????? ?????????. ?????? ???? ?а?????,
??????????? ?????????????, ?????? ?????? ? ?????. ???????? ? ??????. ?????? ??????? ?????????
(???? ?? ?????).
????? ?????? ???????, ????? ???????? ??????????????, ???????? ???????? ??? ?????? ????-?? ? ??? ?????? ??????. ???????: ??????? ?????? ?????? ? ?????.
?????? ??????? ??????????? ?а?????????. ??? ???????, ?????????, ??????????? ?а??????, ????????? ????? ?? ?????????? ????????????? ?а?????????? 3?80 ?.
?????????? ?? ??? ?????? ????? ????. ???????? ??????? ? ??? ?????? ?а??????? ??????????,
?? ????? ?? ?а??????? ? ??? ????? ?? ????? ? ????? ????? ???????? ??? ?а?????. ???????????? ?а??????
???????. ???????????? ????????? ????????? ?? ?????????? ? ?? ?????? ?????? ???????.
?????????? ????? ?а???? ?????????? ?а???????? ??????????? ?????: ????? 10?15 ?а??? ?????
?????????? ???????????? ?????? ? ?а???? ????? ? ?а???? ????? ?????? ??? ???? ???????????. ??????
????????????? ????????? ???: ??? ??????? ???????? ??????????????? ?? ???? ???????, ???????? ???????? ? ???????? ?а????????????? ?????????????.
??????????? ??????????? ????? ????????? ????? ?а ???? ??????????. ??????????? ?а ????????????? ????????????? ???? ?? ?????? ?а ???? ?? ??????????? ???, ????? ??????? ??????? ???
???????? ??????????, ??? ???????????? ?? ??????? ?????????? ???????????.
????????? ?????? ???????? ??????????? ????? ?? ???????? ????? ?????? ?а ?????, ????????
?????????????. ???? ?а?????? ????????? ??????? ??? ??????, ?? ?а????????? ?а????????????? ??????? ????? ????????? ??????? ????? ??? ???????. ??????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ?
?????? ? ???? ?? ???????? ????????.
????????? ??????????????? ?а?????? ??????? ? ???????????? ????????? ???????? ??? ??????, ??????????? ?? ?????. ???? ??????? ???????? ?????? ? ??????? ? ??? ?????????? ?????????
??????? ?? ?????? ???? ??????????.
????????? ?????????? ????????????? ???? ??? ????????? ??????? ????? (??? ????????, ??? ?
????????) ?? ?????? ??????????? ??????.
2.? л?? ???? ? ?? ???????╗. ??? ??????, ??? ?? ????? ????????????? ????????? ???? ??????????? ?а????? ????. ?? ???? ????? ????????????? ? ???????????? ????? ? ?????? ??????????, ???
??? ??? ????? ??? ?????? ?????????.
???? ????? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ????? ????????? ????????? (?? 2?3 ???????) ??? ?????????? ?????????? ???? ?? ???????????? ?????. ????????? ??????????, ?????? ????? ?????, ?????????? ?????????? ??????? ????? ??????????. ??? ????? ?? ??????????? ?????? ?????????? ??????????. ?? ??????? ??????? ????? ????? ????????? ?????????? ????? ??????????, ????, ????????
??????????, ? ???? ??????? ????????.
3.? л??????? ?? ?????╗. ?? ????? ?а??? ?? ???? ???? ?????? ?????? ? ??? ?????? (?????).
?????? ????????. ???? ??????, ??? ??????? ????? ??? ???-?? ?? ?????? ?а?????????? ????????? ?
??????? ??? ?????. ???? ????? ???? ??????? ???????? ? ?????? ??: ????? ?????? ??????????? ??????, ????? ?? ????, ?????? ????? ?? ?????? ? ??????????. ?????? ?а?????? ??????????? ? ??????
? ??? ???? ???????? ???? ????? ?? ?????????. ???????? ???????? ? ????? ??????? ??????? ????.
228
??????-???????????? ??????????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
???????? ?а??????? ????? ?????? ??? ?????? ????????, ?? ?????? ????????? ? ??????? ?????????, ??????? ?????????? ?????. ???????????? ?????, ?? ?????? ?????, ????? ??? ?????????? ? ??
???????? ?а?????????? ??????? ????? ??????? ???????, ? ???? ???????? ???????? (??? ??????) ???
?? ?????? ???????.
4.?л???????? ?????????╗. ??? ??????? ?????? ?????? ?а ????????? (???????, ??
???????? ??? ?а???) л??????╗ ??????? ? ?????? ????? ? ?????? ??????.
?????? ????????? ???????????: ?????? ?????? л?????╗, ?????? ? л?????╗, ?????? ? л????╗,
????????? ? л???╗, ??? ?????? ? л?????-????╗, ?????? ? л?????-???╗. ??? ????????????? ?а???????,
??????? ????? ????? ?????? ? ?????? ??????? ?????? ????? ??????????? ????? ? ??????????????
?а ???????, ??????????????? ?????????? ????? ? ??? ????? ????? ?а???????????????? ????, ?????? ? ????????, ?а??????? ?????????? ????? ? ??????????????? ????.
?? ???????? ????????? ??? ????? ????? ?а????? ? ??? ????? ????, ?? ???????? ??? ????????????
????? (? ???????????) ? ??? ?? ???????????? ????, ?а???????? ?? ?????? ??????? ?????????? ? ??????
??????? ?????.
??-?? ???? ??????????? ????????? ? ??????, ?????????? ?? ?????? ????? ??? ?????. ?????
????, ??? ?? ?????? ???????? ?? ?????, ?????? ????? ???????? ????? ? ???? ?а????????????? ??????.
????????????? ?????????????? ????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ????????? ?? ??? ????????
???????, ?????? ?? ??????? ???????? ???? ?а?????? ????? ????????? ?????? ? ???????? ??????. ???
???? (??? ????? ??????) ???????????????? ?????????? ? ????????????? ?????? ????????? ?а??????????
???????????? ?????? ?????? ?? ??????.
????? ?????????? ???????? ?? ??????????? ???????? ?????????? ???????????? ?? ???????????. ????? ?? ?????? ??????????? ????????? ?а???????? ?????? ????????? ? ?????? ?????????
?????????.
?????? ?????????????? ?????? ???????????? ?????????? ???????????? ?а???? ???????? ??????????? ?????????. ?? ???????????? ????? ???????? ??????????????? ? ??????????? ???????????,
???????????? ?? ?????????????? ??????????? ?? ????? ? ???????? ?????, ??????? ????????,
??????????? ?а???? ?????????? ??????? ? ??????????? ?????? ??????????.
???????? ????????? ?????????? ??????? ? ???????? ????????? ?а??????????? ? ??????? ????????, ???????????? ? ??????????? ??????????, ????????? ???????? ?????? ??????????? ?????? ?
?????????? ??? ?????????? ??????? ??????????? ????????? ???????????? ? ?????????? ?а????? ??????? ???? ????????, ? ?????, ????????, ??? ?? ???? ????????????????? ???????? ?????, ????? ???????
????????????? ????? ??????? ?? ??????? ?а???? ????????? ???????????? ????????????? ???????, ?????
???????????? ????? ?? ????????????? (????????????) ????????.
??? ????? ??????? ????? ?????????????? ??? ????????? ??????-???????????? ???? ?? ???????????? ??????? ??????, ??? ???????? ??? ?а??????????? ????????? ????????? ?????????? ?????? ?
????????? ???????? ??? ?????????? ???????????? ??????? ?? ??????????? ???????????.
????? ???????, ?????????? ???? ??????? ????????? ??????? ?а???????????? ???????????
????????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ?а???????????? ???????? ?????????
????????? ?????????????. ??? ??????????? ???????????? л??????????????╗ ?????? ?а?????????????
???????? ?????? ? л????????????╗ ? ?а???????? ?????????? ????????? ???????? ??????, ??????????????
??????-???????????? ???? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ??????, ???????????? ???????? ?????????????
(????????????) ????????? ?????-??????????.
229
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
??? 658
?. ?. ????????
????????? ???????
?????-????????????? ??????????????? ???????????
???????????????? ???????????????
?. ?. ??????
???????? ??????????? ????, ??????? ?????????????
?????-????????????? ??????????????? ???????????
???????????????? ???????????????
?. ?. ?????????
???????? ??????????? ????, ??????
?????-????????????? ??????????????? ???????????
???????????????? ???????????????
?????????? ?????? ????????????? ??????????
??? ?????? ???????????? ??????? ???????
? ?????? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ??????????? ????????????? ?????????? ??? ?????? ????????????
???????.
???????? ?????: ???????????? ??????????; ??????? ??????????; ???????????? ??????????.
V. V. Skuratov
Head of Department
Saint Petersburg state University of Aerospace Instrumentation
V. V. Gribov
Candidate of Technical Sciences, senior lecturer
Saint Petersburg state University of Aerospace Instrumentation
A. V. Starostin
Candidate of Technical Sciences, associate Professor
Saint Petersburg state University of Aerospace Instrumentation
THE METHOD OF INDICATIVE MANAGEMENT
IN ASSESSING THE ACTIVITIES OF THE MILITARY DEPARTMENT
The article describes the approach of using the methodology of indicative management in assessing the
activities of the Department.
Key words: indicative control; control function; integral indicator.
??? ?????????? ????????, ???????????? ?????????? ???????? ???? ?????????? ??????? ????????????? ??? ?????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????? ??????? ?????????? ?а????? ?????? ???????.
???? ????????????? ?????????? ??????? ?а???????????? ??????? ??????? ???????????, ???????? ??????? ????????? ???????? ????????? ?????????? ???????? ????????? ???????.
???????????? ?????? ????????? ????????????? ??????? ???????????? ?????????????? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ? ???????????? ?????????? ???? ??????????? ??? ??????????? ??????????
?????? ??????????.
??? ???? ?????????? ?????????, ??? ????? ??????? ?????????? ??????????? ????? ???????
???????????? ?????????????? ?????, ????????? ??????? ????????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ?????????? ?а????? ?????? ???????. ?????????????, ?????????????? ?????? ????????????? ?????????? ???
??????? ??????????.
???????????? ??????? ?????? ???????????? ?а???????????? ?а???????? ???????? ??????? ?????????? ????????? ? ???????????? ??????????? ? ????? ?????????? ????????? ? 666/249 ?? 10 ????
2009 ?., ?а??????? ?????????? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ?а???????????? ???????????? [1]:
???????????? ? ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ???????;
????????? ?????????? ?????? ???????;
230
??????-???????????? ??????????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
????????????? ??????????????? ????????????;
????????? ????????? ?????????? ??????????;
????????????? ???????? ???????????? ??????.
?????? ???? ?????????? ????????? ?????????? ????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????????
???????:
?????????????? ????????????;
????????????? ????????????;
?????????? ??????;
?????????? ???????????? ????????????-?????????????????? ??????? ???????.
?????? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ????????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ?????:
1.???????? ???????????? ???????????? ??????????????? ??????????:
??????? 30-?? ??????? ? ???????? ??????;
???????????? ??????-????????????? ??????????? ?????????;
2.???????? ??????????? ???????????? ??????????????? ???????????:
???? ??????????? ????????????, ??????? ? ?????????????? ??????;
???? ??????????? ?????? ???????;
???? ??????????? ??????? ??????;
??????????? ?????????? ??????-????????????? ??????????? ?????????;
???????????? ????????? ??????? ? ?????????-???????????? ????????;
3.???????? ???????? ?????? ???????????????:
????????????? ????????? ???????????? ????????????-?????????????????? ???????;
???????? ?????????? ?? ????????? ????????? ??????????;
4.???????? ???????? ???????????? ????????????-?????????????????? ??????? ??????? ???????????????:
?????????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????????? ??????? ? ???????????? ??????;
?????????? ?????????? ???????.
?????????? ??????? ?????? ????? ????????? ??????? ???????????? ?а????? ?????? ??????? ?
?????????? ??????????? ?а????? ?????????? ???????? ??????? ?????????? ????????.
????? ??????? ?????????? ??????????? ????????????? ?????????? ??? ?????? ???????????? ??????? ????? ?????????? ??? ???????? ??????????? ???????? ???????????? ??????? ??????? ???????.
??? ??????? ? ???????? ?????? ????????????? ?????????? ?????????? ????? ???? ??? ????????? ???????????? ???????????, ??????? ?????????? ????????????? ?а ?????????? ?? ??????? ?
?а???????????? ? ??????? ????? ????????????? ????????.
???, ??? ?????? ??????? ?????????????? ????? ???????????? ???????????? ????????? ?????
???????????: 1 ? ??????, 0 ? ?? ?????? (????. 1).
??????? 1
??????? ?????? ??????? ?????????????? ?????
?????????????? ??????
??????? ??????????
??????? j
1
2
3
?
n
1
1
0
?
1
??? ?????? ??????? ?????????? ???????????? ???????????? ???????????? ??????????, ?????????????? ?? ?????? ????????????? л?????? ??????????╗ (1) [2]:
R=
j
? (1 - C )
i =1
j
2
? min, (1)
??? j ? ?????????? ??????? ??????????; ?j ? ??????????? ????????????? ?????????????? ????? ???
?????? ??????? ??????????, ??????????? ????? ??????????????? ??????? ? ?????????? ????????
????? (2):
m
(2)
╤j = , n
??? n ? ????? ?????????? ????? ??????? ??????????; m ? ?????????? ???????? ????? ?????????????
???????.
231
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
??? ????? ?????? ??????, ???????? ???????????? ?????????????? ????? ?? ??? ???????? ?
????????? ???????????? ??????, ????????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ?а???????????.
????????? ???????? ?????????????? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ??????? ?а?????????? ??????? ??
????????? ?????? ????????????. ??????? ? ?????? ?????????? ??????????? ????? ???????, ????? ?????????? ??????? R = 0. ????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ?? ?????????? ????????? ??????????
?? ???? ???????????? ????????????? ?????. ?? ??????????? ????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ?
?а?????????? ???????????? ??????????? ???????? ??????????????? ???????????.
??? ????????? ?????? ????????????? ??????? ?????????? ??????? ?????? ??? ????????????
???? ????? ??????? л???????????? ????????????╗. ?а?????????? ?????????? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????????? ????? ????? ???????????? ???????? ??????? ??? ?????? ??????? ?????????? (????. 2?5).
??????? ?????? ??????? ?????????????? ????? л???????????? ????????????╗
??????? 2
?? 3. ?????????? ?????
????????????????? ???
?? 4. ?????????? ?????
???????? ???????
???????
?? 5. ?????????? ??????
?????? ???????
? ?????? ?? ??????? ???
?? 6. ?????????? ??????
?????? ???????
? ?????? ?? ?????
?? 7. ??????? ?????????
???? ?? ???????????
?? ??????
? 1. ????????????
????????????
?? 2. ?????????? ??????
??????????? ????????????
??????????
???????
??????????
??1. ?????????? ??????
??????????? ???????
??????
?????????????? ??????
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
??????? ?????? ??????? ?????????????? ????? л??????????? ????????????╗
?1
0,?71
??????? 3
?? 3. ???????????
??????????????
??????
?? 4. ??????
?? ?????? ???????
?? 5. ???????????
??????? ??????
?? 6. ??????????
?????????? ????
?? 7. ??????????
????????? ???????
? ???
? 2. ???????????
????????????
?? 2. ???????????
????????????
??????
???????
??????????
?? 1. ???????????
??????? ??????
?????????????? ??????
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
??????? ?????? ??????? ?????????????? ????? л???????? ??????╗
?2
1
??????? 4
?????????????? ??????
???????
??????????
?3. ???????? ??????
232
?? 1. ?????????
???????????? ???
?? 2. ?????? ??????????
?? ????????? ?????????
??????????
?3
1
1
1
??????-???????????? ??????????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
??????? ?????? ??????? ?????????????? ????? л???????? ???????????? ???╗
??????? 5
?????????????? ??????
???????
??????????
?? 1. ????????
?? 2. ????????
??????????? ????????
???????????? ??????
????????
? 4. ????????
???????????? ???
1
?? 2. ????????
?????????? ???????
?4
1
1
1
?????????? ?????????? ?????????? ??? ??????? ????????????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????? ?? ??????? 1:
R=
(1 - 0,71)
2
+ (1 - 1) + (1 - 1) + (1 - 1) = 0, 29.
2
2
2
??? ???????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ????? ?????? ??????? ?????????? ????????
R = 0 (? ?????? ?????? R = 0,29) ?????????? ?? ????????????? ??????? ??????? ????????????? ?????
????????? ????? ? ?????????????? ???????? ??????????????? ??????????? ??? ?? ?????????????
?????????? ?????????? ?????, ??????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ????????????
????????????????.
????????????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ???????????? ?????? ?????? ??????????
?????????? ??????????, ???, ?а???? ???????, ???????? ?а????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ?а????? ??????????? ???????????? ??????? ???????. ????????? ?????????? ?????????????
?????????? ????? ????????, ??????????, ????????? ?? ?????????? ?????? ???????? ? ?????????????
?????????. ???????? ???? ??, ??? ?????????? ?????? ?????????????? ?????????? ??????? ????? ?
??????????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ?????.
????????????????? ??????
1.? ?????? ???????? ??????? ?? ? ???????? ??????????? ? ????? ?? л?? ??????????? ???????????? ??????? ??????? ???????, ??????????? ???????? ???????? ? ??????? ?????? ??? ??????????? ??????????????? ??????????????? ??????????? ??????? ????????????????? ???????????╗
? 666/249 ?? 10 ???? 2009?.
2.? URL: http://sun.tsu.ru/mminfo/000063105/313/image/313-142.pdf/ (???? ?????????: 15.05.2018).
233
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
??? 355.5
?. ?. ????????
????????? ???????
?????-????????????? ??????????????? ???????????
???????????????? ???????????????
?. ?. ?????????
????????? ??????? ?????, ??????????? ?????????? ???????
?????-????????????? ??????????????? ???????????
???????????????? ???????????????
???????????? ????????-???????????? ??????? ? ???????
?????????????? ?????? ?а???????, ?????????? ????????
?а??????? ??????? ??????? ??? ??????????? ???????????????
??????????????? ??????????? ??????? ???????????
? ?????? ?????? ??????? ?????????? ??????? ???????? ?а??????-???????????????? ????????????.
???????? ?????: ???????????????? ????????????; ?????? ??????; ??????????????? ??????????????
????????????.
V. V. Skuratov
Head of Department
Saint Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation
A. A. Latrovkin
Head of studies ? Deputy head of the Department
Saint Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation
HE FORMATION OF COMMAND AND METHODICAL SKILLS AND SKILLS
OF EDUCATIONAL WORK OF THE CITIZENS ENROLLED
IN THE EDUCATIONAL MILITARY CENTRES AT FEDERAL STATE
EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION
The article describes the process of training future officers for military-professional activities.
Key words: professional activity; skills of work; independent management activity.
?????????? ?????????? ?????? ? ???? ?? ???????????? ??????????? ???????? ?????????????
??????????? ??? ?????????? ????????? (?? ??). ?а???????? ? ?????????? ???????? ??????? ?????
?????????? ????? ? ???? ??????? ??? ???????? ????????????? ?а??????? ??????? ? ?????????????
????? ??????????? ?????????????????? ??????, ????????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?а???????
????????????, ???????????? ?????? ???????????????? ?????. ???????????? ??????? ??????????
???????? ??????????? ??????????????? ??? ??????? ???????????????? ????? ??? ?а??????, ??? ? ??????? ?????, ???????? ?а???? ???????? ????????, ????????? ?????????.
? ???? ???????? ?????? ???? ????????? ?????????? ??????? ???????? ?а??????-???????????????? ???????????? ?а ??????? ??????? ??????? (???) ??? ??????????? ??????????????? ??????????????? ??????????? (????), ???????????? ?а??? ?????????????? ? ????????????????? ?????????
?а?????? ????. ????? ????, ????????? ??? ?????? ????? ?????????????? ?а????????? ?а?????????????
????????, ???? ?????????????? ?а???????????????? ???????? ????? ???????? ?????????? ? ???????
??????? [1].
?????????? ????????? ???????????? ????????? ??????????? ??? ?????????? ?????????
??????? ?а??????????? ????????? ????????????. ??????? ????? ?? ??????? ????? ?????????? ???????????, ????????? ?????????? ?????? ?????? ?? ???????????? ??????????????, ???????? ???????????? ?а??? ????????-???????????? ??????? ? ??????? ?????????????? ?????? (??? ? ???). ????????
??? ? ??? ??????????? ??? ???????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ? ??????????????
????? ???????? ???????????????? ????????, ?а?????? ???????? ???????? ???????????????? ??????????, ??????? ????? ? ????????? ????????.
234
??????-???????????? ??????????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
??????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ?? ?????????, ??????????? ? ??????????? ?????? ????? ???????????? ? ??????-??????????????? ??????? ???????????????? ??????????. ??? ??????????? ??????
??????????? ??? ????, ??? ?а?????? ???????? ???????? ?а??? ??????????? ?а???????? ??????, ????????? ?а???????????? ? ??????????? ??????????. ?? ?????? ???????? ???????????????? ? ??????????? ?????? ?? ????????????? ?????????? ????????????.
???????? ????????-???????????? ??????? ? ??????? ?????????????? ?????? ??????????????:
???? ???? ????? ??????? ???????;
????? ?????????? ? ??????? ?????????? ??????;
??? ???????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????? ?????????? ?а??????? ???????;
??? ???? ?????????? ?а???????? ?????????? ? ?????????? ????????????? ??????? ?? ???????
??????;
??? ?????? ????????? ??????? ?????? ? ??????????;
??? ?????? ?????????? ???????, ???????? ?? ??????????? ???????????, ?????????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ?????? ?????;
????? ??????????? ?????????-???????? ??????;
????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????? ?? ?? ?а???????? ???????????? ????????????.
??????????????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ???? ??? ???????????? ??????? ?а??????????? ? ????????? ??? ?????? ???????: ???????????, ???????????, ?????????, ??????????????, ????????????, ???????????, ??????????????, ??????????????, ? ????? ????????????????, ??????????????? ? ???????????? [2].
????? ??????????????? ??????????????? ?????? ??????????? ???????? ???????? ??? ??????????????? ??????, ???????????????? ?????? ? ????? ???????????? ???????????? ?? ???????
?????????????, ? ????? ???????? ???????????? ??????????, ????????????????? ???????????? ? ???????????? ?? ???? ?????? ????? ? ???????????????? ??????????? ???????? ???????????, ???????
?????????? ???????????? ???????????.
??? ?????????? ???????????? ???? ?????????? ?????? ??????: ????????????????? ????????
?????? ? ??????? ??????????????? ?????? ?а???????? ????????; ???????? ????????, ??????, ????????, ?????? ????????, ??????????? ???????????; ?????????? ?????????? ? ??????-????????????????
???????; ???????????? ????????????????? ???????? ? ??????? ??????? ????????? ?а???????? ? ??????????????? ??????.
???????????? ?а??????????? ??? ? ??? ???????? ??????????? ???????, ???????? ??????????
??????? ??????? ?? ????????? ????????:
????????? ??????????, ???????????????? ??????????? ???????????????? ???????? ?а???? ??
?????? ??????-??????? ?????????????;
?????????????????? ??????-?????????????? ?????????? ????;
?????????? ???????????? ??????-???????????? ?????? ?а????;
?????????????????, ??????? ? ???????? ????????? ???????????? ????????????;
????????? ??????????? ??????-???????????? ???? ? ??????????? ??????? ????????;
????????? ?????????? ??????????? ?а??????-?????????????????, ???????????????? ? ?????????????????? ?????? ???????? ?????????;
?????????? ?а ??????????? ???????????? ???????????? ??????????????? ??????, ?????????
?а????????????????????? ? ???????????;
??????????????? ?????? ??????????, ??????????????, ???????????? ? ?????????? ???????? ?????????, ?а????? ?????????? ????????? ??????????? ?а??????? ????? ? ????????? ????????? ?а??????? ??????;
?????????????????? ????????, ?????? ? ??????? ???????????? ???????????? ????????????;
?????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ????????.
???????????? ??? ? ??? ?????????? ??? ?а??????? ?????, ??? ? ?а???????????? ????????????:
????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????????? ???;
????????? ??????????? ?а????????? - ???????? ? ?????????? ????????????.
??? ?????????? ?????????? ?а ??????????????? ?????????????? ???????????? ?? ???? ??????
???????? ?а???? ?????????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ?????????????? ? ?????????-??????????????
??????????, ??????? ?????? ?????????????? ?? ????????? ????????????:
???????????????? ??????,
235
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
???????????????-?????????????? ??????,
????????-?????????? ??????,
????????????????? ??????,
???????????-????????? ??????.
?????????????? ?????? ??????????: ?? ???????????? ? ???????? ??????????????-??????????????? ????????, ???????? ???????????????? ? ????????? ?????, ???????? ?а??????? ? ???????????
?????????? ?????????, ??????????????? ????????? ?а ????? ? ?????????? ?а ???????????? ????????
????????? ??????? ??????????; ???????? ??????????? ??????? ????????-?????? ? ????????????
???????, ????????????????????, ????????????????, ?????????????? ? ?????????????????, ?????????????? ???????? ? ??????????????? ???????, ?????? ??????? ? ??????????? ???????????, ?????????
??????????? ?????????? ?а???????? ???????????, ????????? ?а??? ???????? ??????????; ????????
??????????? ?????????????? ? ???????????? ?????????? ?????? ??????????; ?????????? ?а?????????????????????, ????????? ????? ?????????, ?????????? ?а????????? ?????? ????? [3].
?????????????-?????????????? ?????? ???????????? ?????????????? ? ??????????? ????????-??????????????? ?????????-?????????????? ??????????, ???????????, ????????? ??????????? ???????? ? ??????????, ??????????? ??????????????? ??????; ???????? ?????????? ??????????, ?????? ?? ?????????; ????????????? ???????????? ?а????????????? ?????????-?????????????? ??????????
?а?????? ?????????? ?????. ???????? ????? ???? ?????? - ???????, ????????, ????????????, ????????, л??????? ?????╗, ?????? ???????? ? ???????, ???????????, ?????, ???????? (?????????????)
????- (?????-) ????????, ???????? ????????????? ? ??????? ??????.
??????-?????????? ?????? ??????????????? ???????? ?????????? ? ???????? ??????? ???
????????? ???????? ???????????? ???????? ????????, ?????????? ?? ?а?????????? ?????????-?????????????? ?????? ?а ???????, ???????????? ?????????? ????????-??????????????? ?????; ??????????????? ?????????? ? ????????-??????????????? ?????????? ?а ??????? ?????????? ????????
?????????; ?????? ?????? ??????????? ?????????, ?????, ????????? ?а??????????, ??????????????.
??????????????? ?????? ?????????? ?? ???????????? ????????-??????????????? ????????????,
??????? ????????? ?? ????????? ?????????-??????????????? ????????, ?? ??????????? ?????????
????????-????????????? ??????? ?а????. ?????? ???????? ?а???? ???????? ??????????????? ????????? ???????????, ????????????? ?а????, ???????? ?? ?????? ??? ? ?????????.
?????????-????????? ?????? ??????????????? ?????????? ??????????, ????, ??????? ? ???????,
???????????? ?? ?????????? ?а??????????? ???????? ??????, ???????????? ???????? ?а?????????-?????????????? ????????, ????????? ?а??????-????????????????? ???????????? ?а??????? ?????????? ?
??????????, ?а??????????? ? ?????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ?а??????? ?????.
???????? ???????????? ??????? ??????????? ?а???????????????? ??????????? ??????? ? ?????????
??????????? ??????? ??? ?????????? ?????????? ??? ?а?????????? ??????????? ? ???????????
???????????? ?? ??????????????.
??? ??????????? ???? ????? ??????? ????????????? ?????? ???????????? ????????? ???????????? ??????:
??????????? ?а???????? ??????? ???????, ?а???????? ?????? ???????????? ?а??????? ??? ???????????? ?????????????????, ???????? ? ?????????? ???????????, ?а ???????, ??? ?????? ?? ???????
? ?.?.;
???????????????? ????? ??? ???????? ??????? ??? ?????????? ?????????? ???? ?????;
?????????????? ??????? ??????????? ????? ?а???????? ????????? ???????????? ????????;
??????????? ??????????? ??????? ????????? ??? ??????? ????????????? ? ???????????? ?????;
???? ???????? ??????? ??????, ????????? ???????????????? ? ??????????? ???????;
??? ???????? ??????? ?????????? ?? ??????????? ????????? ??? ???????? ?????????? ???????? ??? ???????? ????? ???????? ?????????????;
??????????????? ?????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????? ????????? ?? ??????? ? ????????????? ??????????? ??????????? ??????????? ??????????????, ?? ???????? ????????? ?????????????
??????, ?????? ? ??????;
??????????? ????????? ??????????? ? ????????????????;
????????????? ????? ????? ???????? ?????? ????? ????????? ?????? ??????????? (????????)
???????????? ?а????????? ????????????? ??????, ??????????? ? ??????? ?? ??????????.
?? ???? ????? ??????? ?????????? ??????????? ??????? ?????? ? ??????????????? ????????,
??? ???? ?????? ??????????? ??????? ? ??????????? ?????????? ?а?????????? ???????????, ???????
236
??????-???????????? ??????????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
???????????? ????????? ?а??????????? ?????????? ?а??????????? ???????????? ?????????? ? ??????????????? ???????? [4].
???????? ???????? ???????????? ???????? ????????? ?а???????????? ?????? ??????????????
?? ?????? ???????. ??????????? ?????????? ?????? ???? ???????? ? ?????????? ????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ?????????.
???????? ?а??? ???????????? ????????? ???????????? ??? ? ??? ????? ?????????????????
???????? ????????? ???????????? ???????????? ??????????? ??? ???????? ?????????????. ??????????????? ?? ???????????? ??? ? ??? ?а??????????? ??????????? ?? ?????????? ???, ? ?а???????
(??????) ? ?? ??????????? ??????? (??????).
????????????????? ??????
1.? ????????????? ?.?., ?????? ?.?. ??????-??????? ?????? ??? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ???????????? ???????????????? ???????????? ??????? ???????? // ??????? ???????????? ???.
2010. ? 5. ?. 1?2.
2.? ???????? ?.?. ??????????? ?????????? ??????????????? ?????? ????????? ??????? ????? ??
?????? ?????????? ??????????? ??????? // ??? ??????????? - ??????????? ?а ????. 2013. ? 4.
?. 13?14.
3.? ?????? ?.?. ?????????????? ???????? ????????? ????????????? ?????????????? ?????? ?а?????. ?.: ?????????, 1991. 68 ?.
4.? ??????????????-???????????? ???????? ?? ???????????? ?а????????? ??????-??????? ????????? ????????-??????????? ??? ?????????? ????????? ???????? ? ???????????? ??????? ? ??????? ?????????????? ??????. ?., 2015.
237
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
??? 37.013.41
?. ?. ?????????
???????? ???????????? ????
?????-????????????? ??????????????? ???????????
???????????????? ???????????????
? ????? л?????????? ?????????╗ 1917?1921 ??.
? ?????? ?? ?????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????? ?????? ????????? ?????, ????????? ??????????????? ????? ???????? ?????? ????? ??????? ?????????? ???????, ?а???????? ??????? ??????????
???????????.
???????? ?????: ???, ???????, ????, ????????????.
?. ?. Chernousov
candidate of Historical Sciences
Saint Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation
MYTHS ABOUT ?UKRAINIAN REVOLUTION? OF 1917?1921
In article on the basis of historical documents the analysis of some of the myths created by ukrainizators the
southern provinces of Russia after the collapse of the Russian Empire, in an attempt to create a Ukrainian state.
Keywords: Myth, Ukraine, language, Ukrainization.
????? ?? ???????? ?????????????????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ??????? 1917?
1921 ??. ????????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ??????? ?????????? ??????? ???
????? ??????? ??????? л?????????? ?????????╗. ????????? ?????????? ???? ?? ??????? л??????-?????????? ?????╗. ????? ??????????? ???????, ??? ??? ????? ???? ??????????: л?? ????? ?? ?????????? ? ???? i?????????, ??i ????????, ?? ?i??? 1917?1921 ??. ?а??????????-?i?????????i? i????i? ????
?? ?????????????, ? ???i????, ??????????? ?? ????? ?i???? ????????? ???i???? ?????i??╗1 [2].
а??? ????, ??????????? ?????? л???? ?? ?????╗, ??????????? ????? ?? ?????????? ???????,
?? ???????? л??????-?????????? ??????╗, ??? ????? ?????? ?? ?????????? ?????. ?а?????? ?????????
???? ??????? ???? ?????? ?????? ???????????? ????? ?? ?????????????, ?? ??? ?? ???????? ????????? ?????????. ??? ??????? ????????? ??????? ???? ????????????? ? ???? ?? ????? ?? ????
? ?????? ?? ??????? ????????? ??????. ?????? ????????? ?????? ????????.
а??????? ?????? л????????? ?????╗ ?? 6 ???? 1937 ?., ???????????? ?а????? (????? ?????????? ??????) ? ???????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ? ????????????? ???????????????.
??????????? ???????? ?? ??? ?а ??????????? ?????????? ?????????: л?????? ?????????? ????
(??????????? ?????? ? ???.) ??????i??? ?? ??????я ??????????i ???? ???i ???????? л??????i?????╗,
??? ?? ??????i? i ?? ??i??? ????я?????? ???i? ? ??? ????, ?? ?? ??i??? ?а??????i ?? ????? ?i??????????
???? ????? i ???i?. ?а??? ???, ???? ???i? ??????? ? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ?i? ?? ????????i???
???. ??????, ?i? ?а???я? ??????????i? ?i??????i ????????? ????????╗2.
а ???????? л????????????? ????????╗3 ??????????? ????? ?????????: л?? ???? ?? ?i????
??????i??? ?? ?i??????, ????????????, ?? ???? ? ??????? i???? i????i??i??????? ???i??? ??-??
????я?????? ??????. ???? ?? ??????????i?? ????i???i? ????? л?? ???? ? ???? ????╗? ????? ??? ????i
i????i??i?????i ?????? ? ???? ?????i?, ??? ????i??, ??????? ?а??????? ???i?? ????? ???????i? ??я???????
1
л?????? ?? ??????????? ? ???? ??????????, ??????? ???????, ??? ????? 1917?1921 ?? ? ?????????-?????????????? ??????? ???? ?? ???????????, ? ??????????, ???????????? ?? ??? ????? ??????? ???????????
???????? ????????╗ (???. ? ???. ? ?????).
2
л???????????? ??????????? ??? (??????????? ?????? ? ???.) ?????????? ? ??????????? ????????????????? ?? ??? ??? ???? ????????????? л????????????╗, ??????? ?? ????? ? ?? ?????? ?????????? ????? ? ???
??, ??? ?? ?????? ????????? ??? ????? ??????????? ??? ??????? ? ?????. ? ?? ?????, ????? ????? ??????? ?
??????? ??? ??????? ??? ?? ????????????? ??????????? ??????, ?? ? ????? ??????????? ??????????? ????????? ??????????╗ (???. ? ???. ? ?????).
л???????????? ?????╗ (???. ? ???. ? ?????).
3
238
л???????????? ?????╗ (???. ? ???. ? ?????).
??????-???????????? ??????????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
?????? ? ?? ?????i?, ??? i ????я??i?. ?????? ???i ????i, ???? ???? ???? ????? ?а????i??? ???i ???????
???????? ???? ??????. ???? ?????? ????: ???? ?i????????? i ????? ???????╗1. ????? ???????, ?????? ??????????????? ? ???, ??? ??????? ????? ??????? ?? ???????? ???????? ???? ?????? ????????.
??? ????, ?????????? ???????? ? ???????? ????????? ??????????, ??? ?????????? ????? ?????? ???
???????????? ?????? ?? ?????????????! ? ???? ??? ????? ???????, ??????? ????????? ?а??????? ??????, ??????? ? ????????????????? ??? ? ?? ????. ??? ??? ???? ???????? ??? ?????????????? ?????????
??????? ? ??????, ??? ?????????? ????????? ?а?????? ?а??????? ?????. ?????????, ??? ?? ??????
?????а??????????? ????? ???????? ???????.
? ????? 18?23 ???? 1917 ?. ????????? II ????????????? ?????. ???? ??????? ??????? ??????
???????????? ?????????? ??????????? ???. ???? ??????? ????????? ??????? ????, ??????? ?????
?а?????? ??????????? ????. 23 ???? ??????????? ???? ??????? ???? ?????? ?????????, ??????? ???????????? ????????? ???????. ?????? ??????????? ???????????? ???????? ???????? ??? ????????
?. ???????. ????????????? ???????????, ??? ?????????? ????????? ?а?????????? ????? ?а1917 ?. ????????? 4 ??? ???????, ?????? ???????????? ?????? ???????? ?????? 1,5 ??? [3. ?.89].
??????????? ?????????? ???????? ??????????, ??? ???????????? ?????????????? ????????? ????
?? ??????? ??????: л???????? ???????????? ??????????? ???? ?а???????? ????? ?????? ??????: ???? ?????
?? ??????? ???? ???????? ? ????????? ????????? ?? ????? ???????? ??????????. ??????? ????????? ?а????? 1917
?. ????????? ????? ???? ???????????? ?????????? ????? ?????????, ??? ?????????? ?? ??????╗2 [3, ?. 87?88].
? ??????, ????? ????????? ????????? ?? ?????, ???????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ???????,
????? ??????? ??????????? ???????? ? ????????????????? ???? ????????, ??????? ???????? ?а??????????????? ?????? ???????????????? ??????? (????). ?? ?????? ?????? ????????? ?? ????????,
??????? ???????????? ?а?? ????? ?? ?????????? ???????? ???????.
а????? ???????? ?????, ???????? ?????????? ????????? (???.):
ал???????????? ????????? я?????i???????? ???i????
а????????? я?????i??????? ???i???? ????????? ??i??????аiа????? ?а????????i?? ???? ???????? ????????? ?? ?i??????? ?????а? ?? ?i???????, ?i??? ???? ??i??????? ???i???? ?? ????i? ?i??? ??
??????i? ????????i?.а??????????, ?? ???? ???????аiа????i????? ?????,а???????i? ????i??аi ????????
???????, ??????? ?? ?i??? ??????аiа????. ?i??????а????iа????????? ?а??i??,а????i???? ?????????? ???? (???????? ???????).а26аI??? 1917 ???? ?1591.
а?????i????? ?.?????
а????????а(??????? ????????????)╗3 [1].
??? ?????????? ???? ?? ????? ??????????
а??????.а?????? ???????? ??????? ??????????? ?????????, ??? ??? ????????. ??? ????????
?? ????????, ??? ????? л???????╗, л?????????? ?????╗.а? ??????????? ????? ?????????, ????????
???????????? ???????, ??????? ???? ?????????? ?????? ?????? ? ?????????? ??????? (???? 1917
?.!); ?а????? ?? ???? ?????? ??????????????-??????????????? ???????, ??? л???????╗, ???? ???????????? ??????? л??????????╗, ? ??? ???? ????? ??????.
??????.а???? ???????????????? ?????????? ?????????, ?? ????? ???????, ??? ???????? ???
????????? ??? ?????????, ???????? ?а????? ?????????? ?????????? ? ??? ??????????????? ?? ????,
??? ??????????? ?? ???????? ???????? ?????????? ?????, ????????? ???????????? ???????? ?????,
1
л?? ???? ??? ????? ??? ??????????? ? ????????? ? ?????? ??????, ?? ???? ?? ????? ?????? ?????????????????? ?????????? ?? ????????? ? ?????????? ??????. ???? ????????? ?????????? ??????? л?? ????
? ???? ???????╗? ????? ??? ?????? ?????????????????? ?????? ?? ??????? ??????? ??? ???????? ???????
? ???????, ? ??? ????? ? ????? ?????????? ????????? ?????? ? ??? ???????, ??? ? ?????????. ?????? ????? ??????, ????? ?????? ???? ????? ????????? ???????????? ???? ????????? ???? ??????. ????? ?????? ????: ????
?????????? ? ????? ???????╗ (???. ? ???. ? ?????).
2
л?????? ???????????? ??????????? ???? ? ???????? ?????? ?????? ???????: ??? ????? ???????????
???? ?????????? ? ?????? ????????? ?? ????? ?????????? ???????????. ??????????? ????????? ? ?????? 1917 ?.
??????? ????? ???? ????????????? ???????? ????? ?????????, ??????? ?????????? ?? ??????╗ (???. ? ???. ? ?????).
3
л???????????? ????????? ??????????????? ????????. ????????? ?????????????? ???????, ???????
????????? ? ??????????? ???????? ??? ?? ???????? ????? ? ?? ?????????, ????? ???? ????????? ???????? ??
?????? ????? ? ???????? ??????????. ??????????, ??? ????? ??????? ? ?????????? ?????, ????????? ??????? ?
????????? ??????, ????? ?? ?????? ???? ? ??????. ????????? ?????? ????????? ? ????, ?????????? ??????????? ????. 26 ???? 1917 ?. ? 1591. ????????????: ?????. ?????????: (??????? ????????????)╗ (???. ? ???. ? ?????).
239
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
?? ??? ???????? ?а??????? ??????????? ????? ?? ??????????? ??????? ???????. ????????????, ??????????? ????????, ???????? ????????? ??????, ?? ?? ????, ??? ????????, ?????, ??? ?? ????? ?????
?????? ?а?????????? ??????. ? ???? ??? ???? ???????? ?а??????? ?????????? ??? ?? ????????? ?????. ?????????? ? ?????? ?а???????. ???? ??????? ?????????? ?????? л?????????????? ???????????
??????? ?а?????? ??????????╗ ??????? ? ???, ??? ?????????? ???? ?????????? ? ????? ?????? ????????? ????. ?а?????? ????????? ?????? ????? ??????? ??????????? ????? ?? ???? ?????? ?? ?.
?? ???????????? ????????? ?????????? ????, ??? ????? ???????, ??? л???????╗ ? л?????????? ?????╗ ??????? ?????????? ????, ??? ??????? ????? ????????? ?????????? ??????.а????????,
????????? ?а ?????????????????? ??????? ?? ??????????? ???????????? ???????. ?????а л?i?????i
????iа????????? ?а??i?? ????i???? ?????????? ????╗,а?? ???? ?????????, ???????? ???????? ?а?????????. ??? ??? ????? ?????????? ??????? ????? ????, ??? ?????? ??????????? ?? ????? ?а???????????
???? ????????? ????? ?????? ? ??? ?????????, ??? ???? ?? л??????? ??????i???? ???????╗, ??????????
???????? ??????? ?????????? ????????????????? ????????? ??????.
а??? ? ?а??????? 1917-?, ?а?????????? ???????????? ?????????? ? ?????? ??????? ???????????? л????????????? ????????????╗ ?? ???? ?????? ???????, ?? ????ал?i?????? ??????╗.
????????????????? ??????
1.
2.
3.
240
???? ?.630, ??.1, ?.9, ?.138.
?????????? ?.?. ???????. ??????i??: ??? л?????╗, 2008. ?.4.
???????? ?. ??????? ???? ???????: ????? ???????. ?????, ???????? ??????????????? ??. ?. ???????????? ???????????? ???????? ???? ???????, ??????????, 1996. 360?.
??????????? ?????
??? 342.573+324
?. ?. ????????
?????? ??????????? ????, ??????
?????-????????????? ??????????????? ???????????
???????????????? ???????????????
???????? ???????????????????? ??????????? ?а?????????? ???????:
???????? ????????????? ? ???????? ??????????
? ?????? ?????????? ????????????? ?????? ????????? ??????????? ????????????? ???????? ?а??????
????????????: ????????, ???????, ??? (??????????). ????????? ??????????? ??????????? ??? ??
???????????? ????? ??????? ?? ????? ???????????, ??? ????? ?????????? ???? ?а ????????????????
????????? ??????, ????????, ??????????, ? ????? ?а ???? ?????? ??????, ?а ??????, ???????????,
??????, ??????????, ??????????????, ?????? ? ?????????. ?а ?????????, ??????????? ???????
??????????? ? ???????? ?????????? ????????????, ?????????? ??????????????? ?????, ?а??? ?????
???????? ???????? ?а???????????.
???????? ?????: ??????????, ????????????? ????????????, ??????????????? ?????
E. V. Bolotina
Doctor of Law, Associate Professor
Saint Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation
INSTITUTE OF GENERAL STATE REFERENDUM IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES:
LEGAL REGULATION AND PRACTICE
The article compares the institution of the national referendum in ten states: Germany, Spain, the United States
(California, since the US Federal Constitution does not presuppose the right of citizens to such referendumsа?
this right is contained only in the laws of some states, for example, California, and a number of other states),
Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, the United Kingdom, Sweden and Switzerland. In particular, the
conditions of organization and practice of holding referendums related to the legislative sphere, including
amendments to the constitution, are being investigated.
Keywords: referendum, comparative law, constitutional law.
?????????? ?????????? ????????????, ??????????? ?а??????????? ???????, ??????? ????????
??? ???????? ???????? ???????????:
? ?????????? ???????? ??????? ?????????, ?????????????? ?????????? ?а ??????? ????????
?????? ?????????? (?????????, ??????????, ??????);
? ?????????? ???????? ??????????? (??????, ??????, ??????????, ??????????????, ??????????, ???????) ??? ??? ??? (????????).
???????? ???????? ?????????????? ??????? ??????????? ?а????? ?????? ??????? ??? ??????? ??????? ????????????, ????? ?????????? ??? ????????? ?а???????:
? ?а???????? ?????????? ???????????, ?? ?????????? ?? ?????????? ????????? ? ?????????
???????? ???, ???????? ???????????, ???? ???????? ???????????;
? ?? ??????? ?????????? ???????????, ?????????? ?????????? ?? ????????? ??????? ?????????? ??? ?????? ?????????????? ??????, ? ????? ????? ???????????? ????? ??????????;
? ????? ????????? ??? ??????? ???????????? ????? ?а ???????? ?????????? ??????? ???????
??????????????? ?????????? (?????????? ? ???????).
241
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
??????? 1
?????? ?а??????? ? ?????? ?? ????????? ???????????
?????? ????????
??????? ????????
??????????
????????????
??????
???????????
??????????
????????????
??????
??????
6
1922?2016
?????????
623?
1848?2016
??????
4
2005?2016
???
(??????????)
363?
1912?2015
??????????
3
1975?2016
??????
70?
1974?2016
??????????????
3
1973?2016
???????
2
1978?2016
??????????
2
2005?2016
????????
0
1949?2016
??????? 2
???????? ?????????????? ??????????? ?а??????? ?а???????
? ?????? ?? ?????? ????????? ???????????
??????
?????????? ??????????
??????????
?????????????? ??????
?????? ????, ?????????
???????????
+
+
+
??????????
????
????????? ???????????
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
????? ????????????
????????
+
+
+
+
+**
+
??????????
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
??????????????? ???
?????? ??????
????? ???????????????
????????
??????????????
+
+
???????? ?????????
?????? (????????????)
???????
+
??????????
+
??????
??????
+
?? ?????? ????????? ????????????
??????
??????????
?????????? ??????
?????????
??????????????
???????????
? ???????
?????????
????????????
+
+
+
?????????
л??????
??????╗
+
+
????????
???????????
??????? ????,
?????????
???????????
+
*
+
+
*
+
+
* ???????? ???????? ?????????????? ????????????, ????????? ?????? ???????, ??? ?????????? ????????? ?? ????? ????????? ??????? ??????????? [1?3].
** ??? ??????? ???????? ???????????? ???????????????? ??????.
242
??????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
??? ???????? ?а??????????? ???? ???????, ??????? ???????? ?? ??????????? ???????????:
? ?????????? 8% ? 5% ?? ????? ?????????? ????????? ??????? ??????????? (? ????????? ?????
? ?? 3,2% ?? 2% ??????????? ?а??????????);
? ??????????? ?? 2,33% (??????????) ? 0,77% (??????????) ?? ?????????? ?а?????? ??????????????? ???????.
??????? 3
????? ????????, ??????????? ??? ??????????? ??????????? [4?8]
??????
??? (??????????)
?? ?????????
?а???????????
??????????
?????????? ???????????
????????? ???????? ?а% ??
???????? ??????????????
???????
????????????? ??????
?????????????
?????? (?)
18а?251а826
?????????? ???????
??????????,
???????? ?? ????
?????????? ?? ????
??????????? ?????
?? ??????????
??????????????
??????? (?)
7а317а581
12а?862а658
??????????
??? (??????????),
?????????????
???????????????
?????? (?)
?????????? ?
?????????? ? ???????? 18а?251а826
??? ?????????? ??????
8%? ?? (?) ? % ?? (?)
585а?407
3,?2%
300а?000
?????????? ???????
5%? ?? (?)
??????????, ????????
?? ???? ??????????
365а?880
?? ???? ???????????
????? ?? ??????????
??????????????
??????? (?)
7а317а581
2,?33%
? % ?? (?)
2%?
?????????, ?????????
?а???????????
5а?260а043
100а?000
1,?9%
??????
46а?730 317
500а?000
1,?07%
?????????,
??????????????
??????????
5а?260а043
50а?000
0,?95%
??????????
9а?682а553
75а?000
0,?77%
1. ???????????, ???????????? ?? ????????? ???????????
????? ????????? ?а????? ?????????? ??????? ??????????????? ????????????.
? ?????????? ?????????? ?? ????? ???? ????????? ?? ???????? ???????? ?а??????????? [9],
? ?????????? ?????? ?????????? ?а??????????? ????????????? (?? ??????????? ???????????? ???????????) ?????????? ??? ????????? ??? ????????, ?а??? ??? ???? ???????, ????????? ?а???? ????????
?????.
?. ????????????? ???????????
?????????? ?????????? ???????????????? ??????????? ????? ???????????? ??????????, ?????? ??? ?????????? ?????????.
????????? ????? ????????? ?а???? ???????:
? ?а???????, ??? ?????????? ?????????? ????? ??????????? ?????????? (??????????? ????????) ? ?????? ?????????? ??????????? ??? ?? ??????? ????? ??????? ?????? ????? ?? ???? ????? ?????
??????????? ? ????????? ??????????????? ?????????? [10];
243
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
???а?????? ??????????????? ?????????? ??????? ???????? ????????????? ? ???????? ????????? ?а??????????? [11];
???а???????????, ??? ?????????? ??????????? ?????? ???? ?????? ??? ?????????? (??????????? ??????), ?а??????? ??????????? ????????????? ???????? ???????? ?а??????????? ?а???????????? ?? ????????. ??? ???????? ???????? ?а???????? ????? ????? ??????????? ?????? ? ???????????
??????? (????? ????????? ?????? ????????????? ???????????? ? ???????? ???????? ?а???????????),
??????? ??-????? ??? ???????? ??????????? [12];
???а??????????????.
????? ???????? ?????????? ?? ????????????? ??????????? ?а?????????, ??? 100а???. ??????? ????? ????????? ??????? ??? ?????????? ?????????? ??????????? [13].
????????? ????????? ????? ???? ???????????? ???????????????? ???????????:
???а ??????????, ??? ?? ????? 8% ???????????, ??????? ??????????? ?а ????????? ???????
??????????? (? ????????? ????? ??? 585а???., ??? 3,2% ?? ?????? ????? ???????????), ????? ??????
??????????? ?? ????????? ???????????, ????????? ????? ???????? ?????????? [14]; ? ????? ??????????????? ???????? ????? ????? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ??? ????????? ??????????? ????
????????? ?? ???????? ??????? ?????? ? ?????? ???????? ??? ?????????? ??????????? [15];
???а ??????, ??? ????? ?????????? ???????????? ????? ?????? ????? ?? ????? ??????????,
500а???. ??????????? ??? ????? ????????????? ????????[16];
???а ??????, ??? ?????? ?????? ?? ????????? ??????????? ????? ?????? ?? ????? 1/5 ?????
????????? ????? (?????? ??????), ????? ??? ????????? ??????????. ???? ????? ?? ????????? ??????????? ???????? ????????? ???????? I, II ??? XII ???????????, ????????????? ???????? ????? ??????????? ?????????? ????????????? ??????????? [17].
?. ?????? ???????????
????????????? ????????? ?? ?????????? ????????:
???а ?????????а ? ????????? ??????? ???????????; ?????????? ?а ??????????? ????????????
???????????? ??? ??????????????? ??????????; ??????????? ???????? ??????? ??????, ??????? ??
????? ???????????????? ????????? ? ???? ???????? ??????? ????????? ???? ???; (??? ??????? ?????? ?а??????? ?????? ???? ????? ?? ???????? ??????? ????????? ???????? ????????? ?? ???????????); ???????? ?????????? ??????? ?????????? ??????? ???????????; ???????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????? ??????????? ?а????? ?????? ???????????, ??????? ????????? ???????
?????????; ?????? ? ???, ??????? ?? ????????? ?????? ????????? ??????? ???????????, ???? ?????
?????? ???????? ??????? ???????????[18];
???а ??????? ?????? ????????? ??????????? ????? ?????????????? ????????????? ????????????.
????????? ???????? ??????????? ?а????????? ??????? ????? ????? ???? ? ????????? ?а???????????, ???????? ???????????:
???а??????, ??? ???? ??????? ????, ???? ????? ?? ????????? ???????????, ???????? ???????,
???????? ????????? ???????? ? ??????????, ?? ????? ????????? ??????, ???? ? ???????????? ????????
? ?????????? ??? ?? ????????? ???????????, ?? ?? ?????????? ???????????? ??????? ????? ????
???????? ???????????? ??????????;
??? ??????? ????????? ???????? ??????????? ????? ???? ???????????? ?? ??????????, ????
????? ????????? 1/10 ?????? ??????????? ????????.
?. ??????? ???????????
? ???????????? ??????????, ??????? ? ?????? ?????????? ?????????, ???????? ???????
??? ??????????? ??????????????? ???????? ????????? ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ???????????. ?а???????????? ?????? ?????????? ?? ?????????? ?????????? ????????? ?? ??????? ???????.
??? ?? ?????, ????????, ?а?????? ????? ?? ????????? ??????????? ???????????, ????? ??????????? ???????????, ??????????????, ?? ??????? ????, ???????? ???????? ??????? (??????? ?????? ?????????), ????????? ?????? ????? ???????????; ?а????????? ????????? ?????, ?????????????? ?? ??????????????? ??????????, ??????? ???? ???????? ????????? ??????????? ???????????,
???? ??????????? ????????, ?а??????????? ?? ???? ???????????? ?????????.
?. ?????????? ???????????
????? ????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ? ????? ????????? ?????? ???? ? ??????????????? ????????, ??? ???????? ???????????. ???, ?а??????????, ???????, ?????? ? ????????? ??????244
??????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
??? ??????????? ?а??????????????? ???????? ???????? ????????????, ? ??????????????? ?????????? ?а?????? ????????? ????????? ????????? ??????????? ? ?? ??????? ???.
2.??????? ???????????????? ???????????
?. ????????????? ???????????
???? ????? ?????????? ???????????? ????????????????? ??????, ?? ?????????? ??? ??????????, ??? ???????, ??????????? ??????????, ?????? ??? ?????????? ?????????.
??????????? ???????????????? ??????????? ????? ???? ?????? ????????? ?а?????????????? ? ?????? (???????, ?????????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ???? ???????? ?? ?????,
??? ????? ?????? ?????? ???? ?????????).
????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????????:
???а????????? 50 ???. ??????? ??? 8 ????????;
???а?????? 500 ???. ??????????? ??? 5 ???????????? ???????;
???а??????, ???? ?????????? ???????????? ??????? ??? ??????????? ?? ????? ???????? ?????????, ?а????? ???????, ? ????????? ???????? ??????????, ?а???????? ??????, ??????? ??????????
???????????? ??????? ??? ??????????? ?? ????? ???????? ?????????, ?а?????? ???????;
???а??????????а? ???????? ? ???????????? ?????? ????? ??????, ? ????? ?????????????, ??
????????, ???????? ?а??? ???????????, ? 75 ???. ???????????;
???а???????, ??? ??? ?????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ??????, ??? ??????? ?????????
???????????.
???? ?а?????? ???? ????? ???????????? ??????????:
???а ???????????, ??? ????? ?????? 10 ???. ????????, ???????????? л????????????? ?????????╗, ?????????? ??????????? ?????? ??????? 300 ???. ???????? ??? ??????????? ???????????;
???а??????????, ??? 5% ???????????, ??????? ??????????? ?а????????? ??????? ???????????,
?а????????? ????? ??? ????? 2% ??????????? ????? ??????????? ???????????? ex nihilo (???. ? ?? ??????) ??? ??????? ?? ??????????? ??????????? ?? ??????, ??????? ????????? ?????? ?а??????? ?????????? 90 ????.
?. ?????? ?? ?????????? ?????????? ?а???????????? ???????
? ?????? ?????????? ?? ????? ???? ???????? ?а ??????? ?????? 6 ???., ????????????????
?????????? ??????? ?а???? ?? ????? ?????????? ??? ?а??????? ?????????? ???????, ??????????????
????????? ????? ?????????? ??????????.
? ??????? ?????????? ?? ????? ????? ????? ?? ????? ????? ??? ????????????? ?????????
???? ?а??????? 90 ???? ????? ?? ???????????, ? ????? ?а??????? 90 ???? ?? ??????? ?а??????? ????
?? ??????? ?а?????? ????????? ??? ??????? ???????????.
? ?????????? ?????? ?а??????????? ????????, ??-??????, ????? ????? ?????????? ? ?????
?????????? ????????????, ??????? ? ??????????? ??????? ?, ??-??????, ?а????????? ???????? ???
????????????? ?????????.
?. ?????? ???????????
? ?????? ????? ?? ???????????? ???????? ???????????.
? ?????? ?????????? ?? ????? ???????? ?????? ????????? ??? ????????? ???????, ????????
??? ?????????? ????????? ? ??????????? ????????????? ?????????.
????????? ??????????? ?????, ???????????? ?? ????? ?????????? ???????????????? ??????????? ?а???????????, ???????? ??????:
?????????????? ????????, ???????????? ???? ? ???????;
?????????? ???????? ?а???????????;
???????????? ?????? ?????????? ????????? ??? ??????? ????????????? ???????????;
??? ?????????? ????????.
? ????????? ?????????? ????? ???????? ?????? ??????????? ??????? ? ?????????????, ? ????? ????????? ????????????? ?????????.
? ?????? ????? ?????????? ????? ???? ???????? ?????? ??? ??????? ????????, л???????
?????? ???????? ??? ???????????╗.
? ??????? ??????????????? ?????????? ???????? л???????????? ???????, ??????? ??????
????????╗.
245
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
? ?????????? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ? л?????? ???????????? ?????????╗, ??????????? ?а??????????? ????????? ?????????? ??? ?????????????, ?? ??????????? ????????? ???????????, ?????????, ????????? ??? ?????????? ????????.
? ?????????? ?? ????? ???? ????????? ?????? ????????? ?????????? ??????:
??л??????????╗, ?. ?. ?????????? ???????????? ??????????;
??? ?????????? ???????;
??? ??, ??????? ??????? ?а?????????? ??????? ??? ?????????? ??????????????, ???????????????? ??? ???????? ??????? ???????? ?????.
?. ?????????? ?а???????? ????, ??????????????? ?? ??????????
????????? ????? ?????????? ????????? ??????? ??????????? ?? ????????????.
? ??????????? ???????? ??????? ?? ??????????? ?? ?????? ??? ?????????? ?????? ??? ???????? ???????, ????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????? ??????? ???? ??? ??????? ?? ?????
30% ???????????. ?а????????? ?????? ??? ???????? ?а????.
? ?????? ?????? ???? ?????????????? ????????????, ???? ??????????? ??????????????????
??????????? ??????? ??????? ?а???????????, ? ??????????? ????????????? ?? ??????.
? ?????? ????? ????????????? ?????????? ???????????????? ???????????, ????????????? ??
????????? ??????? ??? ????????? ?? ?????? ??????? ? ????????????? ?а??????? ???????. ?а?????
?????? ??????? ??????????? ???????????? ????????? ??????????????? ?????????.
?????????? ????? ???????????? ????:
???а??????????, ?????? ????? ????? ?????????? ??????????? ????????? ???????? ?????????????????? ???????????;
??? ?а??????, ?????? ???? ??????? ??????? ????? ???????? ?????????????????? ???????????.
?. ??????????? ???????????
????? ?? ????? ????????? ???????????, ??????? ???????????? ????, ? ??, ??? ????????? ?????
?????? ??????????????? ???????????.
???????????? ???? ???????????
?????????? ????? ???????????? ???? ??? ????????? ?????????? ?????? ?а?????? ???? ?? ?????? ?а?????????? ???????????. ?а?????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ??????????? ??????? ???.
??????????? л???????????????╗ ??????????, ???????? ?? ??? ????????, ??????? ?? ?????????? ???????? ? ???????????? ???, ??????? ?а?????????? ?а????, ? ????? ????, ????????????? ?????????
?????????? ??????, ???????????? ??????? ????? ?????????????? ?????? ??? ????????.
?????????? ????? ???????????? ???? ?а?????????, ????? ??? ? ?????????? ?а??????.
? ??????????, ????????? ?????????? ????? ???????????? ????????, ????????? ??????????
????? 90 ????, ? ????????????? 30 ????, ????? ????????? ????????????? ????????? ??? ??????????????? ?????, ????????? ?????????? ?????? ?????????????? ?????????? ? ???????????? ????????
?????. ?? ?????????, ?? ????????????? ?? ????? ??????? ????????? ??? ????? ????? ????, ??? ?????????? ???? ????????????? ?????????, ???? ?????? ????? ?????? ?а????????? ??? ????? ??????????
?? ????? ?????????????? ??????.
? ?????????? ????????? ?? ????? ???????? ??? ????????:
???????, ?????????? ???????? ???????????, ?? ????? ???? ??????? ??? ??????? ??? ????????
???????????;
????????, ???????? ?? ???????????.
??????????????? ???????? ???????????
? ?????? ??????????, ???????????? ?? ????????? ??????? ??? ????????? ?? ?????? ???????
? ????????????? ?а??????? ???????, ????? ????? ??????????????? ????????.
? ??????????? ???????????, ???????????? ?????????? ?а???? ?????? ?????????????? ????????????, ?? ???????? ???????????? ??? ??????????.
?????? ????????? ?????????????? ????????? ????? ??????????? ?????????? ?? ???????????? 1975 ? 2011 ?., ???????????????? ??????????? ?? л????????╗ ?а2016 ?.
???????? ?а ??????????? ????? ???? ??????? ???????? ?а ?????????????? ?а ??????? ????????????? ?????? ?а ?????????? ???????????? ?????????????? ?????????? (???) ?а 1973 ?. ?а ??????????????5 ???? 1975 ?. ??? ???????? ?????????? ? ???????? ???? ?????? ?а???, ?а??????????
??? ??????????? ??? ???????????? ??????: л??? ?? ???????, ?????? ?? ?????????????? ??????????
246
??????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
?а??????????? ?????????? (????? ?????)?╗ (????. Do you think that the United Kingdom should stay in
the European Community (the Common Market)?). ??????????? 64,5% ??????????, ?? ??? ??????? ??????? л??╗ 67,2% [19].
?????????? ?? ????????? ??????? ??????????? ?? ??????? ?а?????? ????? (????.аAlternative
Vote (AV) referendum) ????????? ?а?????????????? 5 ??? 2011 ?. ????????? ???????????? ???????? ???
?????????? ???? ???????? ?? ????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ?????? ????? (????????????????
???????????), ?а ???????????? ?а ??????? ?????????? ?????? ??????? ?????????? ?? ?????????????
?????. ?????????? ??????????? ???? ????? ?? ??????? ?????? ??????????? ?????????? ??? ???????????? ???????? ?а??????????????. ?? ??????????? ??????, 67,9% ??????????? (? ??? 12 ????????????? ????????, ? ????? 430 ?? 440 ????????????? ???????) ?????????????? ??????????? ??????
???????????? ?? ?????? ???????????? ???????????? ????????????? ???????. ???? ????????? 42,2%.
?????????? ???????? ????? ?? ??????????? ????????????, ??????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?а???????????? ????? ???????????, ?????? ?? ??????? ??????? ??????????????? ??????. ?????? ???????? ?а???? ?????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????????????????? ????????, ???????? ?????????????, ????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ??????????? ??????? ?????? ?????????? ?а?????????
???????. ?????? ?????????? ???????? ????????????, ?? ?????? ??????, ??????????????? ? ???????
?????????????? ????????, ?? ?????? ??????? ????????? ?, ?а???????????? ???????, ?? ??????????????? ?????? ????? ??????????.
????????????????? ??????
1.? Lauvaux Ph., le Divellec A. Les grandes dщmocraties. Paris: PUF, 1990. ?. 483.
2.? Leruel J. Gouvernement et politique en Grande-Bretagne. Paris: Presses de la FNSD-Dalloz, 1989. P. 82.
3.? Mщny Y., Surel Y. Politique comparщe. Paris: Montchrestien, 2009. ?. 223.
4.? ??? ? ???-???? ???????????????? ????????? ??????????: http://www.sos.ca.gov/
5.? ?????? ? ???? ???????????? ?????????? ???: http://www.interno.gov.it/
6.? ?????????? ? ???? ?????????????? ??????: https://english.kiesraad.nl/
7.? ?????????? ? ???? ??????????? ?????? ??????????: https://www.pordata.pt/
8.? ????????? ? ???????????? ?????????? ??????????: https://www.bfs.admin.ch/bfs/fr/home.html
9.? ??.285 ??????????? ????????????? ??????????.
10.? ??.??.167,168 ??????????? ???????.
11.? ??????????? ??????, ??? ? ????? ?????????, ??. 8. ?????? ? ?????? ???????????, з15.
12.? ??. 137 ??????????? ???????????
13.? ??. ??. 138, 139 ??????????? ?????????
14.? ?????? 8 ?????? 2 ??????????? ??????????.
15.? ?????? 1 ?????? 18, ??????????? ??????????
16.? ??. 138 ??????????? ??????
17.? ??. 235 ??????????? ??????.
18.? ??. 140 ??????????? ?????????
19.? Goodman S.F. European Community. 1990. P. 46?47.а
247
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
??? 34
?. ?. ???????
???????? ??????????? ????, ?????????
?????-????????????? ??????????????? ???????????
???????????????? ???????????????
??????? ? ?????????? ??????????? ????????????
? ??????????????? ??????????? ????????????
? ?????? ???????? ???????? ??????????? ???????????? ? ??????????????? ??????????? ????????????.
???????? ?????: ??????????? ????????????, ??????????? ???????, ??????????????? ?????? ????????????.
S. S. Borodin
Candidate juridical sciences, professor
Saint Petersburg State University
of Aerospace Instrumentation
UNDERSTANDING AND CONTENTS CADASTRAL ACTIVIES AND STATE REGITER
The article open essence contents cadastral activies and unitied state regiter.
Keywords: cadastral activies, cadastral engineer, state regiter of rights.
? ????????????? ???????? ?????????? ???????? ? ??????????? ???????????? ???????? ?а ??????? ???????? ?????? ????? ???????????????? ? ?????, ?.?. ?а1968 ?., ?????? ?????? ?????????? ????
??????????? ??? ? ?? ???. ? ?????? ?а ????????? ??????? ????????????? ?? ????? ???? ??????????
?а??????? ?????.
??????????? ??????? ??????? ???????????????? ???????? ???????? ???????????? ???????? ??.
70 ?????????? ??????? ?? (?? ??), ??????????? ????? ?? 24а???? 2007а?. ?а221-?? л? ???????????
????????????╗, ??????????? ????? ?? 13а???? 2015а???? ?а218-?? л? ??????????????? ???????????
????????????╗, ????????????? ????????????? ?? ? ??????????? ???????? ???? ??????????? ??????? ?????????????? ??????.
??????????? ????? л? ??????????? ????????????╗ (? ???. ? 361-?? ?? 03.07.2016) [1] ?????????? ??????????? ???????????? ??? ?????????? ????? ?а????????? ??????????? ????????? ?а???????????? ?а?????????????? ??????????? ??????? ????????????, ?а?????????? ??????? ??????????????
?????????? ??????????, ?????????? ??????????? ??? ????????????? ???????????????? ????????????
????? ??????????? ????????? ???????? ? ????? ?????????? ?????????, ? ???????? ????? ?а????????????? ??????????? ??????? ???????. ??????????? ?????? ?? ????????????? ??????????? ???????????? ???????? ??????????? ???????.
??????????? ?????? ??????????? ?а????????? ????????? ????????, ??????, ??????????, ?????????, ???????? ?????????????? ????????????? (??????? ????????????), ?????? ????????? ????????, ??????, ??????????, ?????????, ? ????? ???? ???????? ????????????, ?????????? ?а???????????? ?а??????????? ??????? ???????????? ?????.
??? ?????????? ??????????? ????? ???????????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????????? ????? ?????? ?????????? ??????? (????? ?????????? ???????), ?????????? ??????????? ????? ??????? ??????, ??????????, ?????? ????? ???????? ????????????, ?????????? ??????????? ?????
??????? ??????? ?????????????? ?????????????, ?????????????? ????????? ??????????? ???????????
????? ?????????, ?а???? ??????? ???????????? ??????? ???????? ???????????? ? ?????????????? ???????? ?????????????? ???????? ????????????, ?????????? ???????????? ?????????????? ?????? ?????????? ???????. ?а??????, ????????????? ????????????? ??????????? ???????, ??? ??????????
??????????? ????? ???????????? ?????????? ????? ???? ????????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ??????, ?????????? ??? ??????? ?????????????? ????????????? ?? ????????? ??????? ???????????
????????????????? ???????? ?????????????? ????????? ??????, ?????????? ??? ??????? ?????????????? ?????????????, ?а??? ????? ?а?????? ?????? ??? ??????? ????? ?????????????? ?????????.
248
??????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
??????????????? ?????? ?? ????????????? ???????????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????, ????????????? ??????????? ???????????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????, ???????
???????????????? ??????? ???????????????? ??????????? ??????????? ????????? ? ??????? ???????????????? ??????? ??????????? ????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ??????? ??????????????
??????, ?????????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?????????.
????????? ??????????? ????? ?? 13а????а2015 ???? ?а218-?? л? ??????????????? ??????????? ????????????╗ [2] ???????? ?а???? ????????????? ???? ????????? ???????: ???????????? ?????
? ??????????????? ??????????? ????, ??????? ??????? ??????? ???????????????? ??????? ???????????? ? ?????????????? ???????????? ?а??? ????????, ?? ???????, ??? ??????????????? ???????????
???? ??????????? ????????? ??? ? ???????? ?а?????? ??????????????? ?????? ???????????? ???????? ? ????????? ????????, ???????, ???????????, ??????????, ?? ???????? ?????????????? ?????????????, ? ?????? ?????????? ??????????, ? ?а ???????, ????????????? ??????????? ???????, ?
?? ???? ????????, ??????? ?????? ??????? ?а??????, ?.а?. ??????????? ??????? ??? ??????????????
?????? ?? ?????????? ??????????, ??????? ???????????? ????????????? ?????? ??????? ???????????? ?а ????????????????, ???????????? ?????????? ??? ?а ???????? ?????????????-????????????
????, ??? ???????????? ??????????? ??? ?????????????, ? ????? ???? ??????????????? ?????????
??????????? ??????? ???????? ?? ???????? ????????????.
????????? ?????? ????? ?а??????????? ????? ????????? ???????????? ????????, ??????????
??????? ?????? ???????????? ???????? ? ??? ????????????.
?????? 29 ???????????? ?????? л? ??????????? ????????????╗ ????????, ??? ??????????? ????????? ?????????? ?????????? ????, ?????????? ?????? ???????????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????. ??????????? ??????? ????? ???? ?????? ?????? ????? ???????????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????.
????????????? ????????? ???????? ??????????? ???? ?а????? ???????????????? ??????????? ??????????? ????????? ????????:
1)???????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????????;
2)???????? ??????? ??????????? ?? ????????????? ??? ??????????? ??????????, ????????
??????? ???????????? ??????? ??????????-????????? ????????????? ?а ????? ??????????? ?????????, ??? ??????? ??????? ??????????? ?? ????????????? ??? ??????????? ??????????, ?? ????????
?а????????? ????????, ? ??????????????? ????????????????? ??????????? ?? ????????? ???????????????? ?????????????? ?а??????? ??????????? ?????????;
3)???????? ????? ?????? ?а???????? ????????? ???????????? ???????? ?? ????? ???? ???, ?а??????? ??????? ?? ??? ???????????? ???????????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ?а?????????? ? ?????????? ??????????? ????? (??????????);
4)?????? ?????????????? ????????, ??????????????? ??????? ???????????????? ??????, ??????????? ??? ????????????? ??????????? ????????????;
5)??????????? ????????? ?а ???? ??????????????? ?? ????????? ???????????????? ? ??????????????? ??????????? ????? ??????????? ????????? ? ??????????? ????????????, ???????????????
???????? ?????????? ????????? ?? ???????????????? ???????????????, ?а???????????? ?а?????????? ?а???????? ???? ???????? ????;
6)??????????? ???????????? ??? ???????? ????????? ?? ?????????? ??????????? ????????????;
7)???????? ???????????? ???????? ????????????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????????????
???????????? ????????;
8)??????????? ???????????, ??????????????? ??????? 19 ? 20 ????????????? ??????.
??????? ? ?????? ??????????? ???? ?а????? ???????????????? ??????????? ??????????? ????????? ??????????? ???????????????? ???????????? ?а ???? ?? ????? ??? ???????? ??????? ????
?а???? ??????????? ?а???????????????? ??????????? ??????????? ????????? ????????? ???????????
???? ? ?????????? (??????????), ?????????????? ???????????? ?????? ???? ???????????? ????????
???????? ?а????? ???????????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????.
???????????????? ??????????? ??????????? ????????? ?а??????? ?????? ???????? ??? ?? ???
???????? ?????????? ??????? ?????? ???????? ? ????? ?????????? ???? ?а?????? ?????? ???????????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????, ? ????? ?????????? ?а ????? ???????????????? ???????
???????? ? ???????? ?а?????? ?????? ???????????????? ??????????? ??????????? ????????? ??????????????? ???????? ?а???????, ????????????? ??????? ??????????-????????? ????????????? ?а?????
??????????? ?????????.
249
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
?????????? ?????????? ??????? ???????????? ???????? ???????? ??? ????? ? ???????????.
??????????? ??????? ????? ?????:
1)?????????? ?? ????????? ??? ?????????? ??????????? ????? ??????????? ??????? ?? ??????,
?а????????? ???????? ??????????? ??????????? ??????, ?? ????????? ??????????? ????? ??? ???????????? ???? ?????????????? ????????????, ??????????? ??? ?????????? ??????????????? ?????,
???? ???? ?? ??????????? ????????? ??????? ?? ?????????? ??????????? ?????;
2)??????????? ?? ?????????? ??????????? ????? ?а??????, ???? ???????? ??????????? ????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ?? ?????????? ??????????? ????? ? ?? ????????? ??????????????
??????????? ?????????? ? (???) ??????????? ?а ???????????? ?а ??????????? ??????? ??????????
??? ?????????? ??????????? ????? ??? ?? ????????? ?????? ?? ??????, ?а????????? ???????? ??????????? ??????????? ??????, ???????????? ????????, ???????????? ????? ??????;
3)??????????? ?? ??????????? ??????????? ?а?????? ??????? ??????????? ?????????????, ?????????????? ?????????? ???????????? ???????????? ??????????.
??????????? ??????? ??????:
1)?????????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????? л? ??????????? ????????????╗, ?????? ??????????? ??????? ? ???? ??????????? ???????? ????? ?????????? ????????? ?а??????? ???????????
?????????, ? ????? ????????? ????????? ????????????? ??????????? ???????????? ? ??????? ???????????????? ????? ??????????? ?????????;
2)??????????? ?? ?????????? ????????-??????? ?? ?????????? ??????????? ????? ?а??????, ????
?????? ????????????, ?а ????????? ???????? ???????? ??????????? ????? ???????????? ??????????
????? ?????, ?? ???????? ???????? ????????????, ?а????????? ???????? ?????????????? ???????????
???? ?а???????????? ?а??????????? ??????? ?? 13 ???? 2015 ?. ? 218-?? л? ??????????????? ??????????? ????????????╗;
3)??????????? ?? ?????????? ??????????? ????? ?а ??????, ???? ?????????, ???????????????
?????????? ??????????? ????? ???????? ????????????? ????????;
4)??????????? ?? ?????????? ??????????? ????? ?а ??????, ???? ?????????, ???????????????
?????????? ??????????? ????? ?? ????? ? (???) ?? ?????????? ?? ????????????? ??????????? ???????????????? ?????????? ?????????, ?????????????? ?а?????? ?? ??????? ? ?а????? ?? ???????;
5)????????? ????????? ??????????? ????? ??? ???????????? ????, ?а??????? ?? ???????? ???????? ???????, ? ????????????? ?????? ??????? ?а?????????? ??????????? ????? ?а???? ?? ????? ???
??? ??????? ??? ?а???? ????????????? ??? ???????????? ????? ?????????????;
6)?????? ?????? ?а????????? ???????, ?????, ???????? (??? ???????), ?????????? ?????? ??????????????? ???????? ????? ?а??????? ????????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????????,
? ????? ????? ????????? ????????????????? ??????????? ???????;
7)?????????????? ?? ?????????? ????????? ??????????? ????? ?????????? ? ???????? ?а???????????????? ??????????? ??????????? ????????? ?а???? ?? ????? ??? ??? ??????? ??? ?а???? ??????????? ???????????????? ??????????;
8)??? ?????????? ??????????, ?а????????? ??????? ??????????? ?????????? ?? ???????????
?? ?????????????????? ? ??????? ???????? ?? ????????? ??????????? ????? ?а???? ?? ??????????, ??
??????????? ???????, ??????????????? ???????????? ????????;
9)???????? ???? ???????????? ?????????????? ?????? ????????? ????????, ??????????????
?а???? ?????????? ??????????? ?????, ? ?????????? ?? ?а????? ??????????? ???? ?а??????? ? ?а?????,
??????? ??????????? ??????? ??????????-????????? ????????????? ?а????? ??????????? ?????????;
10)????? ??? ?а??? ???? ????????? ???????? ?? ?????????????? ???????????????? ?????????
????????? ????????????, ???? ???????? ??????? ??????????????? ??????? ?????????????? ???????????????? ??????????, ???????????? ?а????????????? ??????????? ??????? ?? 29 ??????? 2012 ?.
? 273-?? л?? ??????????? ?а?????????? ?????????╗ ???????, ?а????? ?? ???????????, ?????????????? ??????????????? ????????????, ?? ?????????? ???????????? ????????;
11)?????????????? ???????????????? ??????????? ??????????? ????????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ????, ?а??????? ?? ???????? ???????? ???????, ?а??? ????? ??? ????????????, ????? ??????????, ???????? ?????, ????? ??????????? ????? ? ?????? ?????????? ?????????, ? ????? ? ?????
?????????? ???? ?????????? ?а??????? ?????? ??????? ???? ?а???? ?????????? ????????? ????????
? (???) ???????? ????????? ?а???????? ???????;
12)?????????????? ?? ??????? ???????????????? ??????????? ??????????? ????????? ????????? ? ??????????, ??????????? ??? ?????????? ???????? ??? ??????????? ????????????;
250
??????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
13)?????????? ???? ???????????, ????????????? ????????????? ??????????? ???????, ??????? ???????????? ????????, ????? ???????????? ????????? ?????? ?????????? ????????? ?а??????? ??????????? ?????????, ??????????? ????????????? ??????????? ???????????? ? ?????????
???????????????? ????? ??????????? ?????????.
????????, ?????, ?а??????? ???????????? ?????? 13а????а2015 ?. ?а218-?? л? ???????????????
??????????? ????????????╗, ??? ??????????, ??? ??????????????? ??????????? ???? ?? ??????????
????????? ? ??????????? ??? ????????? ? ????????????? ?????????????, ?????????, ????????, ??????????? ????? ????????????? ???? ?? ?????????? ????????? ??? ??????????? ?????? ????? ? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????.
??????????????? ??????????? ???????? ????? ????????????? ? ?????? ?????? ????? ?? ?????????? ????????? ? ?????? ?а??? ?а???????????? ?? ???????? 130, 131, 132, 1331 ? 164 ????????????
??????? ?????????? ?????????. ?а ???????, ????????????? ??????????? ???????, ???????????????
??????????? ???????? ???????????, ?а??? ????? ?? ????????? ????????, ???? ???? ?????? ??????????????? ??????, ???? ???? ?????? ???????? ??????????????, ??????????? ???? ? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????, ?а ????????? ????????, ???????, ????????????? ??????????, ??????, ???? ??????
?????????.
??????????? ?????????, ??????????? ??? ????????????? ???????????????? ????????????
????? ? (???) ??????????????? ??????????? ????, ???????? ???????????? ??????????? ????????? ?
?????????? ???? ?????????? ??????????????? ??????????? ???? ?? ????, ?????? ???? ?а ??????????????? ????????????? ??????????? ??????? ???????, ?а ??? ????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????, ??????????? ???????? ? ???? ??? ???????????, ?????????? ? ??????????? ??????????? ????,
????????????? ???????????, ??????? ???????????, ??????????? ???????????, ?????????? ?????????,
???????? ?????????? ?????????, ????????????? ???????????, ?????? ??????????????? ?????? ?????????? ?????????, ?????? ??????????????? ?????? ????????? ?????????? ????????? ? ?????? ???????? ??????????????, ??????????? ????????, ?????????, ???????? ????????-???????????, ?а ?????
???????, ? ????? ??????????? ???? ? ?а??????.
??????????? ?????? ??????????????? ???????????, ???????? ? ??????????? (?????????) ? ??
??????????????? ?????? (??????????, ?????? ? ??????????? ??????) ????? ?????? ???????????????
?????? ???????????? [3].
?????? 7 ?????? ? ??????????????? ??????????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????? ??????????????? ?????? ???????????? ??? ???? ??????????? ??????????????????? ???????? ?а ?????????
????? (????????????? ????????) ? ??????????? ????? (??????????? ????????), ??????? ??????? ??:
1)???????? ???????? ????????????;
2)???????? ????, ??????????? ???? ? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????;
3)???????? ???????? ? ???????? ??? ?а??????? ????????? ????????????? ??????????, ??????????????? ???, ?????????? ???????? ??????????? ????????, ????? ?????????? ????????? ??????????,
?????? ????????????? ???, ?????????? ??????, ?????????? ???????????? ?????????-??????????????
????????, ??? ???????????????? ???????? ?а?????????? ?????????, ??????? ???, ??????????, ??????????, ? ??????????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????, ???????? ????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????, ???????? ????????????? ???????????, ???????? ?????????? ???????, ? ????????? ??????
(???????? ?????? ????????), ? ????? ???????? ? ???????? ????????? ??????????;
4)??????????? ???;
5)???????????? ????;
6)????? ????? ??????????.
??????? ??????? ???????????????? ??????? ????????????, ??????????? ????? ? ????? ?????
?????????? ??????? ?а??????????? ?????. ?????????? ???? ???????? ?а??????????? ????? ? (???) ??
???????? ????????.
????????? ??????????? ????? ?а ???? ??????? ????????? ???????? ????????????, ?? ?????????? ?????? ???????? (??? ??????????????) ????????.
? ??????? ???????????? ???????? ????????? ???????? ???????? ?? ??????? ????????????:
1)???? ??????? ???????????? (????????? ???????, ??????, ??????????, ?????????, ?????? ?????????????? ?????????????, ?????? ?????????? ????????, ??????????? ??? ????????????? ???????? ??? ???? ???);
2)???????????? ????? ??????? ???????????? ? ???? ??? ??????????;
3)????????? ?????????????? ??????? ????????????;
251
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
4)?????? ??????????? ??????????????? ??????? ????? (???????????, ??????????? ??? ???????? ?????), ???? ????? ????? ??? ???????? ?? ?????????? ?а???????????? ?а??????????? ??????? ?? 24 ???? 2007 ?. ? 221-?? л? ??????????????? ???????? ????????????╗ ???????????? ??????,
???? ?????????? ?????? ??????, ???????? ?? ??????????? ??? ??????, ??????? ????????? ????? ?????
?а????????????? ????????????????? ?????????? ????????? ???????;
5)???????????? ????? ??????? ????????????, ?? ???????? ?а ?????????? ???????, ?????? ???
????? ???????????????? ???????????????? ?????????? ????????? ???????? ?а???????? ????????????
????????? ????? ?????? ????????????;
6)???????????? ?????? ?????????, ????????????? ?а?????? ??? ??????????, ???? ????????
???????????? ???????? ?????? ??? ??????????;
7)????????? ? ??????????? ????????????? ??????? ???????????? ? ???? ?????? ?а ???????????????? ???????????? ?????, ???? ?????? ???????????? ????????? ?????????????;
8)???????????? ?????? ???? ???????? ????????????, ?а???????? ??????? ?????????? ??????
????????????;
9)????????, ???? ???????? ???????????? ???????? ????????? ???????, ?????? ??? ?????????;
10)????????? ?????????????? ??????? ???????????? (?????????????, ???????, ??????? ?????????, ???????, ?????, ??????, ??????? ?????????) ? ?? ????????, ???? ???????? ???????????? ???????? ??????????;
11)???????? ?????????? ??????? ?????????????? ????????????? ?а?????????;
12)????????? ?????????????? ??????? ???????????? (?????????????, ???????, ??????? ?????????, ???????, ?????, ??????, ??????? ?????????) ? ?? ????????????? ????????, ???? ???????? ???????????? ???????? ?????? ?????????????? ?????????????;
13)?????????????? ?????????? ??????, ??????????, ????????????? ??????? ?? ?????????, ????
???????? ???????????? ???????? ?????? ?????????????? ?????????????;
14)??????????? ??????, ?а??? ????? ?????????, ???? ???????? ???????????? ???????? ??????
??? ?????????? (??? ??????? ????????? ?а?????? ??? ??????????);
15)?????? ????? ?????? ??? ??????????, ?? ??????? ??????????? ?????????;
16)????????? ? ?????????????? ?а?????? ? ???????? ?????????, ??????????? ?а?????? ????????? ????????????? ????????? ?а??????, ???? ???????? ???????????? ???????? ????????? ?а??????, ????? ????????? ?а??????? ?а???????????? ?а??????????? ??????? ????????? ?а????? ???????
????????????? ????????????? ????????? ?а????? ??????;
17)????????? ???????? ????, ???? ???????? ???????????? ???????? ??????;
18)???? ????? ?а???????????? ?????? ??? ??????????, ???? ???????? ???????????? ????????
?????? ??? ??????????, ???? ??? ?????????? ????????????? ????? ???????? ????????????, ???? ?а???????????? ?а??????????? ??????? ?????? ?????????? ?? ???? ??????? ?а???????????? ?? ?????????????????;
19)????????? ? ???, ??? ????????? ?а ???????????? ?а ???????????????? ?????????????????
? ????????????????? ???????????? ???????????, ?а??? ????? ?а????????? ?????????????, ????????????? ??? ???????????? ???? ????????? ????????? ?а??????, ?????????? (????? ? ????????? ???????????????? ?????????????) ??? ????? ????????? ????????? ?а????????? ?????? ??????????? ?а??????????????? ????, ???? ???????? ???????????? ???????? ?????????;
20)??????? ??????????? ?а ??????????????? ??????? ???, ?????????????? ??????????? ????????????, ??????????? ?????????, ??????? ????????? ??????????? ?????? ?а????????? ??????? ????????????, ?????? ? ???? ?????????? ????????? ?? ?????????? ??????????? ?????;
21)???????????? ?????? ???????? ????????????, ???????? ?а?????? ??????? ??????????? ?????????, ???? ???????? ???????????? ???????? ?????? ?????????? ????????;
22)???????????? ?????? ???????? ????????????, ???????? ?а?????? ??????????? ??? ?????????????? ?????????, ???? ???????? ???????????? ???????? ??????????? ??? ????????????? ????????;
23)???? ?????? ????????? ?а???????????? ?а???????? ?????????????????;
24)????????? ? ????? ??????? ????????????;
25)???????????? ????? ????????????? ??????? ???????????? ? ?а????????? ????????? ??????? ????????????;
252
??????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
26)???????????? ?????? ????????????? ?а???????? ?????????? ??????? ???????? ????????????, ???? ???????? ???????????? ???????? ????????? ???????;
27)?????? ???????????? ????????, ?а??????? ????????? ?????? ????????????.
??????????????? ??????????? ???? ? (???) ??????????????? ??????????? ???? ??????????????
?? ????????? ?????????, ?? ??????????? ????????????? ????????????? ??????????? ??????? ???????, ? ??????????, ??????????? ?а????? ??????????? ???? ?а????????????? ????????? ???????????
??????? ???????.
??????????? ??? ????????????? ???????????????? ???????????? ????? ? (???) ??????????????? ??????????? ???? ????????:
1)?????, ???????? ???????? ??????????????? ?????? ??? ???????? ???????? ??????????????
?а?????? ?? ??????????? ? ?а???????, ??????? ?????????? ?????????????????, ????????????? ?а?????
??????? ????? ????? ?? ?????? ?? ???????, ? ??????????????? ???????, ?????????????, ???????, ??????????? ????? ??? ??????????? ????? ? ??????????? ??????? ????????????;
2)????????? ? ?????? ?????? ?а????????? ??????????? ?????????, ??????????? ?а???????????? ?а?????????????????, ????????????? ?а????? ???????????? ??????????? ????????? ?? ??????
?????????? ??????;
3)????? (?????????????) ? ???????????? ????? ?????????, ??????????? ?а???????????? ?а?????????????????, ????????????? ?а????? ????????????? ???????????? ?? ?????? ?? ??????????;
4)?????????????? ? ????? ?? ??????????;
5)??????????? ?а???????? ???? ???????? ????;
6)????? (?????????????) ? ?????? ?? ?????????? ?????????, ???????? ??????????????? ???????? ??????????????? ?????? ?а???????, ????????????? ?????????????????, ????????????? ?а?????
??????? ????? ????? ?? ?????? ?? ???????;
7)???????? ????, ??????????? ???? ??? ??? ????????????, ?????????????? ?а?????????? ?????????? ??????????? ????? ?а????????????? ??????????? ??????? ???????, ???????????? ?а????????????? ??????????? ??????? ??????? ?????-???? ??????????, ?????????????? ?а?????????? ??????????
??????????? ??????????? ????? (????? ? ?????-???? ??????????);
8)????? ?????????, ??????????????? ????????? ??????????? ???????, ? ????? ?????? ?????????, ??????? ???????????? ???????, ?????????????, ???????, ??????????? ????? ??? ??????????? ????? ? ??????????? ??????? ???????????? ?а???????????? ?а?????????????????, ?????????????
?а????? ? ?? ?????? ?????????????, ???????????, ???????? ????, ??????????? ???? ? ???????????
???????? ????????????;
9)???????????? ?????????????, ????????? ?а??????????? ??????.
??? ????????????? ???????????????? ???????????? ????? ? ??????????????? ??????????? ????
???????????? ??????????????? ??????????? ???? ? ??????????????? ??????????? ???? ?????????????? ?? ?????????:
1)????????????? ?????????? ??????? ???? ????, ???????? ????????? ??????? ???????????? ???
????????????? ?? ???? ?????, ? ??? ??????????????? ??????????? ????? ? ??????????????? ??????????? ???? ?? ????????? ??? ??????????? ??? ?? ????? ????????? ??????? ??????, ??????????, ??????
?????????????? ?????????????, ?????? ?????????? ????????;
2)?????, ??????? ?????? ?????????? ?? ???????? ?????????????? ?????????? ??????? ????
???? ????????, ??????????????? ??????????? ??????? ?? 19 ???? 2011 ?. ?а246-?? л?? ????????????? ????????? ????????, ????????? ?? ?????? ????????, ??????????? ?а??????????? ?????????????,
? ? ???????? ????????? ?а????????? ??????????????? ???? ?????????? ?????????╗ [4] ??? ??????????????? ??????????? ????? ? ??????????????? ??????????? ???? ?? ????????? ????????????? ????????? ???????;
3)????????????? ????????? ??????? ????????????, ?? ???????? ?????????? ????? ??????? ????????????, ? ??? ??????????????? ??????????? ????? ? ??????????????? ??????????? ???? ?? ???????????? ??????? ????????????;
4)????????????? ??????, ??????????, ??????? ?????????????? ?????????????, ??????? ??????????? ?????????, ? ??? ??????????????? ??????????? ????? ? ??????????????? ??????????? ???? ?а?????
?а ???????????? ????????????? ????? ???????? ????????????, ????? ?? ??????? ????????????????
?а?????? ??????????????? ??????? ????????????;
5)????????????? ??????? ???????????? ? (???) ????, ?а?????? ???????? ??????????????? ??????????? ???? ? ??????????? ??????? ????????????, ? ??? ??????????????? ??????????? ????? ? (???)
253
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
??????????????? ??????????? ??????????? ???? ? ??????????? ??????? ????????????, ?а??? ?????
?а????? ?а???????????? ??? ???????????? ????????????? ????? ??????? ????????????, ?? ???????
???????????????? ??????????????? ??????????? ???? ? ???????????;
6)????????????? ???????? ?а???????, ????????????? ??????????? ???????;
7)?????? ???? ?а???????, ????????????? ??????????? ???????.
????????????????? ??????
1.? ??????????? ????? ?? 24.07.2007 ? 221-?? л? ??????????? ????????????╗ (? ???. ? 361-?? ??
03.07.2016) // ?? ??. 2016. ? 27. ?. 2. ??.а4294.
2.? ??????????? ????? ?? 13а???? 2015а???? ?а218-?? л? ??????????????? ??????????? ????????????╗ // ?? ??. 2015. ? 29. ?. 1. ??. 4344.
3.? ????????????? ????????????? ?? ?? 1 ???? 2009 ?. ? 457 л? ??????????? ?????? ??????????????? ???????????, ???????? ? ???????????╗ // ?? ??. 2009. ? 25. ??.а3052.
4.? ??????????? ????? ?? 19 ???? 2011 ???? ?а246-?? л?? ????????????? ????????? ????????, ????????? ?? ?????? ????????, ??????????? ?а??????????? ?????????????, ? ? ???????? ?????????
?а????????? ??????????????? ???? ?????????? ?????????╗ // ?? ??. 2011. ? 30. ?.1. ??.а4594.
254
??????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
??? 629.735.33
?. ?. ?????????
????????
?????-????????????? ??????????????? ???????????
???????????????? ???????????????
????????????? ? ?????? ????????? ??????????? ?а????
?????????: ?а?????? ??????????? ???????? ???? ?????????????? ????????, ????????????? ??? ?а??????, ??? ? ?? ???????. ???????? ?? ????????????? ? ????????? ?????, ?????????? ?? ???? ?? ?????.
???????? ?????: ??????????, ????????????? ????????????????, ???????????????? ? ????????????.
G. T. Vashakidze
PhD Student
Saint Petersburg State University Aerospace Instrumentation
TYPOLOGY AND MODEL OF THE INSTITUTE OF REFERENDUM
IN THE WORLD
Abstract: the article deals with the main types of the referendum process occurring both in Russia and abroad.
Their classification and special features separating them from each other are revealed.
Key words: referendum, electoral legislation, legislation on referendums.
?????????? ?а???? ????? ?????? ??????? ????????, ???????? ???????, ?????? ?а???????????????? ?????????? ???, ??? ?? ??? ????????, ??????, ????? ??????? ??????????????? ??????? ?а?????????? ?????? ??????????? ? ????????.
??????? лdemokratia╗ ?а ???????? ?а ?????????? ???????? л?????????????╗ (kratosа ? л??????╗,
demosа ? л?????╗), ? ?????? ????? ?? ????????????? ?????? ?а ?????? ??????????? ??????, ???????
???????????? ?? ???????? ? ???????????????. ?????? ? ??????? ??????? ???????????????? ??????????, ??? ???????, ???????? ?????? ??????? ??????????? ???? ?.?. ????????, ?????????? ????????
??????? ???????????? ??????? [1].
?????? ??? ??????? ????? ???????????? ? ?? ?????? ????? ?????????? ???? ????????????????
??????????. ?? ??? ??????, ??????? ???????? ??????????? ????? ???????????????? ??????????:
1)???????? ??????????? ?????????????? ??????????, ???????????? ?? ???????????????
??????????, ??????????? ????????????????? ??? ?????????? ???????????? ????????;
2)??????????? ????????? ???? ? ???????? ?? ?????????;
3)?????????????? ?????????????? ???????;
4)??????? ???????? ????????, ?????????? ????????????.
?????????? ???????????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ?а????? ?????? ???:
??????????? ??????;
????????????;
???????????? ???????, ???????? ?????? ??????????????? ????????, ???????? ???????;
????????????????? ??????????;
???????????????? ??? ???????????? ????????? (???????) ?а?????? ??????????????? ?????? ?
???????? ??????????????;
????????? ?а?????????? ?????? ???????? ????? ?????? ???????? ??????????????, ???????????? ???????????, ???????? ??????? ? ??.
???????? ????????? ? ??????????????? ??????????????, ?? ??? ??????, ????????? ?????? ?
??????????, ??? ??? ? ?а???, ? ?а?????? ?????? ????????? ??????????, ??????????? ?? ????????????
??????????. ?? ??????? ??????????? ?а??????? ?????????????? ? ????????? ??????????? ???????????.
????? ?????, ???????? ??????????? ? ??? ??????? ???????????????? ??????????, ????? ???
?????? ??????? ?а???????????????? ???????????.
?????? ?а??? ??????????? ??????, ????? ???????????? ??????????? ?? ????? ? ????? ???????
??????? ????????????, ??? ???????? ?а???????? ?????????? ??????.
255
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
??????????? ????? ?а??????? ???????? ??????, ????? ??????????? ?????, ???????????? ?????? ?????????, ?????????? ??? ???????????????? ????????, ??? ? ????????????? ?????????????,
??????? ??????????????? ????????????. ???, ??????????? ????? 1937 ?. ????????????? ???????
???????????? ?????? ? ???????????. ?? ????? ??????, ?? ?????????????? ?? ?????? ????? ?а?????
?а???, ??? ??????????? ???? ? ??????????? ??????????? ?а??????????? ? ?а?????? ??????. ????? ????,
???????????? ?????? ???????? ?а????????? ???????, ?????????? ??????? ?????? ?? ???????? ??????
????????, ??? ??? ?? ??????? ????? ?? ?????????? ??? ???????????? ???????????. ????????, ?? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????????? ??????????. ?а ?????? ??????????? ??????? ??????????
??????? ???????? ??????? ???? ???????????, ??????????? ??? ????????????? ???????? ???????????????? ??????, ??? ??????? ????????, ????????? ?а???????????? ??????????????? ??????????????
??????????, ? ???? ????????.
?????? ?а??? ?а?????? ?????????, ??? ????? ???????????????? ??????????, ?????? ?? ??????????.
?????????? ?????????? ? ????? ? ????????? ?????????? ????????? ???????????, ?? ???
??????, ???? ??????????? ?????????? ???????????????? ?? ????????? ???????:
1.??? ???? ????????? ???????:
?????????????? ??????????. ???????? ?? ????? ??????????? ??????? ???????? ??????
??????????? ????? ? ??????????? ??? ?????????? ????? ??????????, ???????????????? ???????? ?
???????????? ??????;
????????????????? ??????????. ???????? ??????? ?? ????? ???????????? ????????, ??? ?????????? ?????? ?????????. ????????????? ??????? ????????? ?????, ???????????? ??? ??????????.
??????????????? ??????????, ?? ????? ??????, ?? ???????? ?а????? ????????? ???????????, ???
??????? ????????? ???? ??????.
2.??? ?????????? ?? ?????????? ???????:
?????????????????, ?? ??????? ????????? ??????? ?? ???????? ????? ???????????? ??? ???????? ?????????, ???????? ?а???????????;
?????????????????, ?? ???????? ????????? ??? ?????? ???????, ? ????? ???????? ??????????????. ?а ????????? ??????? ?????????? ????? ???????????, ????????? л???????? ????╗ [2],
? ???????????? ???????????, ?????????????? ????????????? [3].
??????????????-????????, ??????????????? ??????? ???????? ?а ????????????? ????????????, ? ????? ?????????? ????????????? ?????????, ??????? ???????? ? ????????????-????????
?????? ?????????? [4].
?????????????????-???????? ?? ???????? ??????????????? ?????????, ?? ???????? ???????????????-???????????????? ??????? ? ?????? ?????????? [5].
3.??? ????????, ??????????? ??? ??? ??????????:
??????????????, ?????????? ?? ????????, ????? ??????????????? ?а???????? ??????? ??????;
????????????????, ?????????????? ???????? ??????????;
????????????????, ?? ??????? ????????? ????, ???????? ??????????????? ??????? ? ?????????????? ?????????? ??????? ??????????. ?????????????? ?????????? ????? ???? ??? ????????????, ??? ? ??????????????.
4.??? ???????????????? ????????:
?????????????????? ??????????, ?????????? ?? ???? ?????????? ??????;
?????????????? ??????????, ??????????? ???????????? ???????, ????????? ??? ??????????????? ??????????? ?? ??????????????? ??????????. ?????? ??? ??????????? ???????? ??? ???????? ????? ????????????? ???????????????? ? ????????????;
????????? ??????????, ??????????? ?????????????, ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????, ????????? ??? ??????????????? ??????????? ?а ???????? ?????? ??? ?????????? ????????????? ???????????.
?????????? ????????, ??? ???? ??????????????? ?а??????, ?а??????? ???????, ?????????? ??????? ?? ??????? ??????. ???, ??????? ?а?????? ?????????? ??? ???????? ?а1990 ?. ?а?. ????????, ??
??????????? ???????? ????????? ????? ???????? ????????? ????????? ????????????? ???????а? ??????? ?????????????? [6].
????? ???????, ??? ?????? ?а????????? ?????? ??????? ??? ??? ???? ???????????: ????????????????, ???????????? ? ???????, ??? ?????????????? ???????????? ?а??????????? ??????????
????????? ???????? ???? ??????? ?? ???????????????? ??????? ?а?????????? ?????? ??????????? [7].
256
??????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
? ???? ???????, ??????????? ?????????? ???????? ????????? ???????? ???? ????????????:
??????????????? ?????????? ?? ??????????????? ?????????????? ??? ??? ???????????
???????? ??????.
?????????? ?????????? ? ???????????, ?????????????? ???????????? ????? ????? ????????.
???????????? ? ???????????, ?????????????? ??????????????, ???????????? ? ??.
????????????????? ??????????? ? ??????????? ?? ?????????? ? ???????????.
????????????? ??????????? ? ???????????, ?????????????? ????????????? ????????????.
????? ????, ?а??????????? ?? ?????????? ??????????? ?? ??? ????? ??????????? ?????????????, ??? ?????????????? ??:
???????????????????;
??????????????????????.
????? ?а??????????? ?? ????????, ??? ?????????????, ??:
????????????, ?????????????? ???????????????? ????????;
????????????, ?????????? ?? ?????????? ??????????? (??????????? ??????????).
????? ???? ????????????? ?????????? ???????, ??? ??????????? ?????? ??????????, ????????????, ???????? ?????????? ?????????? ????????????? ??????, ????????. ????????? ????????
????????? ??????????? ??????????? ? ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ???? ? ?????? ???????????.
???, ??????????? ??????????-?????? ??? ?? ???????? ?????????? ? ??????? ?????. ?а ?????????
??????????? ????????? ???а27 ????? 2014 ?. ???????????? ?????????? 16 ????? 2014 ???? ???????
?? ??????? ???????? ???? [8].
?????? ?а???, ????? ?????? ??? ??????, ?????? ? ???????????, ????????? ???????, ?????????,
???????? ?????, ?????, ????????, ??????????, ??????????, ?????????, ???????, ????, ????????, ???????, ????? ??????, ???????? ???????, ??????????????? ?????????? ??????????, ??????, ????????? (???????) ???????? ?????????? ? ??????? ????? [9].
????? ???????, ?а??????? ???????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????????? ????????????? ????
? ????? ????????????. ?????? ?а???, ??? ??? ????????? ????? ????: ???????? ??????? ?? ??????
???????? ?????? ??? ?? ???????????????, ????????????, ??? ? ?? ??????? ??????, ?? ?????????????
????? ????????, ???????????? ?????????? ????????????????? ??????.
?????????? ???????? ????????? ???????????????? ??????????, ??????? ???????? ?????????
????????? ???? ??????? ?????????? ?? ??????? ??????? ??????????????? ??????. ??????, ?????? ????????? ??????????? ???????? ??????? ?? ???????????????? ????????, ???????? ????????, ??????????? ??????? ?? ?????? ????????????? ?? ??? ??? ???? ????????, ?? ? ??????????, ????????? ?а?????
??????????? ???????.
????????????????? ??????
1.? ???????? ?.?. ????????? ???????????????? ?????????? ?а ??????? ???????? ??????????????
(???????? ?????? ? ????????): ???????. ????. ????. ????. ????. M.,2001. ?. 5
2.? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????? / ???. ?а????. ?. ?. ????????? // ??????????? ??????????
???????????? ????? / ??? ???. ???. ? ?. ?????????. ?.: ???????????? ?????? ?????-??
?????, 1997. ?. 423?450
3.? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????? 1958 ?. // http://www.labex.ru/page/konst_france.html
4.? ??????????? ?????????? (?????) ????, ??????????? ???????? ??????????? 1953 ?.// http://
worldconstitutions.ru/?p=152
5.? ???????? ????? ???????????? ?????????? ????????, 23 ??? 1949 ?. // http://www.1000dokumente.
de/?c=dokument_de&dokument=0014_gru&object=translation&l=ru
6.? ???????????? ?.?. ??????????????? ????? ????????????? ???????? ??????????????: ?????
???? ????????//????????????????╗, ? 4, ?????? 2005 ?. ?. 14
7.? ?. 1 ??. 32 ??????????? ?????????? ?????????, (? ?????? ????????, ????????? ???????? ?? ? ????????? ?а??????????? ?? ?? 30.12.2008 ?а6-???, ?? 30.12.2008 ? 7-???, ?? 05.02.2014 ?а2-???,
?? 21.07.2014 ? 11-???) // л???????? ???????????????? ??╗, 04.08.2014, ? 31, ??. 4398.
8.? ?????????? ? ??????? ????? (2014). URL: ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/??????????_?_???????_?????_(2014)
9.? ??????, ??????? ???????? ????. URL: http://www.sarbc.ru/world/news/2014/03/25/200041/
257
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
??? 342.92
?. ?. ?????????
???????? ??????????? ????, ??????
?????-????????????? ??????????????? ???????????
???????????????? ???????????????
?.?. ?????????
?????-????????????? ??????????????? ???????????
???????????????? ???????????????
????????? ??????? ?????????? ????????????? ?????????????????
???????????????? ?а????????????? ???????
? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ?????????? ???? ???????????????? ??????????????? ?а???????????????? ????????????? ???????
???????? ?????: ???????????????? ???????????????, ???????????? ????????????????, ???????????????? ????????
S. S. Volnitskaya
Candidate of juridicalsciences, PhD
Saint Petersburg State University
of Aerospace Instrumentation
V.G. Volnitskii
Saint Petersburg State University
of Aerospace Instrumentation
SOME ISSUES OF THEIM PLEMENTATION OF REGIONAL ADMINISTRATIVE
LEGISLATION IN THE LENINGRAD REGION
Keywords: administrative responsibility, administrative responsibility, federal and state legislation,
administrative commission
???????????????? ???????????????? ?а????????? ?????????? ????????? ????????? ??????????? ?????? ????????? ??????????????, ?а????????? ?а????????????? ??????? ??????? ????? 60 ???????? ?а??????????? ????? ????????????? ??????? ?а47-?? л?? ???????????????? ???????????????╗.
??????? ??????? ???????????? ????????????? ????????????? ???????????? ?????????, ?????????????? ?а????? ???????????????? ??????????, ?? ??????????????? ??????????? ?????????????????, ??????? ???????? ?????? ?????????? ????? ??????????????.
?? ??????????а??????? I-??а??????????, ?????? ????????????? ??????? ?а47-?? л?? ???????????????? ???????????????╗ ??????? 2 ???? 2003 ?. ???????? ???????????? ????????????? ???????, ?????????? ??????????? ?а ????????? л??????? ????????????? ????????????? ???????╗ ?а 15
?? 23 ???? 2003 ?. ???????, ??? ????????? ????????? ????? ???????? ????????? ?????? ???????????????? ?? ???????????????? ???????????????а(??. 1.1).
? ??????? ????????????? ??????? ?а????????? ????? ????????, ?а?????????, ???????????? ???????????????? ??????????????? ?? ????????, ?? ???????????????а???????? ?????????? ?????????
?? ???????????????? ???????????????, ?а??? ????? ???????????????? ??????????????? ?? ?????????
?????? ? ????, ??????????????? ?????????? ???????? ? ????? ???????????? ????????? ?????? ??????? ??????????????? ?????? ? ??????? ???????? ?????????????? ????????????? ???????а(??. 1.3).
???????????????? ??????????????? ?а????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????? ?????????? ??????????????, ???????? ???????? (???????????) ??????????? ??? ???????????? ????.
? ???????????? ?а??????? л?╗а?. 1 ??. 72 ??????????? ?????????? ????????? ???????????????? ? ???????????????-?????????????? ???????????????? ????????? ?а ?????????? ??????? ?????????? ????????? ? ????????? ?????????? ?????????.
? ???? ?????????а?. 2а?а5 ??. 76 ??????????? ?????????? ?????????а?? ????????? ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ????????? ? ????????? ?????????? ????????? ???????? ??????????? ??????
258
??????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
? ??????????? ?а???????????? ?а???? ???? ??????????? ???????? ???? ????????? ?????????? ?????????, ??????? ?? ????? ????????????? ??????????? ???????.
????????а?????? 1.1 ???? ??а???????????????? ?? ???????????????? ??????????????? ??????? ?? ?????????? ??????? ? ??????????? ?а???????????? ?а??? ??????? ????????? ?????????? ????????? ?? ???????????????? ???????????????.
??????? 1.3 ???? ??а? ??????? ?????????? ????????? ?а??????? ???????????????? ?? ???????????????? ??????????????? ???????? ????????????: ????? ????????? ? ????????? ???????????????? ?? ???????????????? ???????????????; ???????????????? ??????????????? ?? ????????, ??????? ??????????? ????????, ?а??? ?????, ???????????????? ??????????????? ?? ????????? ?????? ?
????, ??????????????? ???????????? ???????? ? ????? ???????????? ????????? ????? ?????????? ?????????; ??????? ???????????? ?? ????? ?? ???????????????? ???????????????, ?а??? ?????
???????????? ??? ??????????? ???????????? ?? ????? ?? ???????????????? ???????????????.
???? ??????? ?а ??????? ???????????????? ?? ???????????????? ??????????????? ?а ?????
???????????? ???????????????? ??????????????? ????????? ?а ??????? ????????? ?????????? ?????????.
? ????????? ????? 25 ?????? ???????? ???? ?а ?????? ?а ????????????? ??????? ?а 47-?? л??
???????????????? ???????????????╗ ?а ??????? ?????????? ?а ????????. ????????,а ??? ??. 2.1, ???
?а??. 7.1 ?????????? ?????? ???? ????????????? ???????????????? ??????????????? ?? ????????? ????????????? ?а???????? ?????? ????? ????? ?? ?????? ???????? ????????????? ??????? ??????????,
????????????? ?а??????????? ???????????? ????? ?? ?????? ????????.
??? ????, ?? ?????????? ?????? ? ???? ?? ????????????????? ?????????????? ???? ??????????? ?????? ??????? ????????? ??????. ????????? ???????? ????? ???????? ????????????? ?????????? ? ?? ???????????? ?????????????? ?? ????????? ??????????????????, ? ?????? ?? ??????????
??????? ?? ?а????????? ?????????? ??????????????, ??????? ? ????????????????? ????????? ?????????????.
????? ????, ?????? ????? ?? ????????? ??????????, ????? ?????? ???????? ??? ???????????
???????? ?а??????????, ???????? ???????????????? ??????????????? ??а??. 2.1а?а7.1 ?????????? ??????, ??? ????? ????????????????? ?? ?? ???????????? ???????????? ????????????????.
????????????? ?????? ??????????? ???? ??????????? ???? ???????? ?а?????? ? ???, ???а????? ????????????? ??????? ?? 2 ???? 2003 ???? ?а 47-?? л?? ???????????????? ???????????????╗а???????????? ???????????? ??????, ???????? ??????? ??????????? ????.
???????????? ????????????? ???????, ??????????? ???????????? ???????? ?????????????, ????? ?? ??????? ??????????, ??????????????? ??? ???????.
??? ???? ????? ?????? ????????????? ?????????? ???????? ???????????????? ?????????????? ? ??????????? ??????? ????? ????? ??а?????? ????????????? ??????? ?? 2 ???? 2003 ???? ?а47-??
л?? ???????????????? ???????????????╗.
????? 6. ???????????????? ?????????????? ?? ??????????. ??. 6.1. ??????????? ??????
? ??. 6.2. ?????? ?????? ??? ??????.
??? ?????? ???????? ???? ?а17 ????? 2010 ?. (???????? ???????????????? ?? ??????????????,
????????? ?а9 ??????? 2009 ?.)а? ????? ????????????? ??????? ?? 9 ????? 2010 ???? ?а8-??.
?????? 6.3. ????????? ?????? ??????? ?????????????, ????????????????? ??????????????
?????????? (?????? ???????? ???? ?а18 ???????? 2004 ?.а? ????? ????????????? ??????? ?? 1 ????????
2004 ?. ?а48-??).
?????? 6.4. ????????? ?а ????? ??????????? ???????????? ?????????? ???????? ???????????? ??????????? ?????? ??????????? (???????? ???? ?а8 ?????? 2016 ?.а? ????? ????????????? ??????? ?? 29 ??????? 2015 ?. ?а149-??.
????????? ?а???? ?????? 3а????? 1 ?????? 1.3 ??????? ?????????? ????????? ?? ???????????????? ???????????????а ???????????? ???????????????? ??????????????? ?? ????????? ?????? ?
????, ??????????????? ???????????? ???????? ? ????? ???????????? ????????? ?????? ?????????? ?????????, ????????? ?а??????? ?????????? ?????????, ?? ????????????? ???????????????????
???????????? ?а ?????????? ???????, ??????????????? ??????????? ??????????? (?????????),а ??????? 3а?а4 ?????? 14.1 ???????а??????????? ????? ???????????????.
??? ????? ??????????????? ????????? ??? ?????????? ????????? ?а??????????? ?? 15 ????
2015 ?. ?а33-???15-13 ?????? ????? ?? ?????????? ?а???????? ?????????? ????????? ?????????? ??
???????????? ???????????????? ??????????????? ?? ???????? ????? ????????? ?? ????????? ?????259
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
????? ? ?????? ???????? ???????????? ??????????? ?????? ??????????? ?? ???????????????? ?
??????????? ????????? ?а??????, ???? ??????????? ??????? ?? ??????????? ? ?????????? ????????? ?????????? ? ?????? ???????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????? ??????????? ??
????????? ?????????? ?????????, ??????????? ????? ?????????????? ??????? ? ????????????.
????? 2а??. 6.4 ?????? ???????? ?????????? ? ??????????????? ??????? ?????? ???????: ?? ?а??????????? ????????? ????, ? ?а??????????????? ????? ????????????? ??????????? ???????? ?????.
??????????? ??????????? ????? ????? ????????????? ???????????????? ??????? ?а ??????????????????? ????????, ? ????? ????????? ?? ?????????? ??????????????? ??????? ? ?? ??????????? ??? ??????? ?????? ? ??????????? ?а???????????????? ???????????????. ????? ????????????????
???????????????? ????????????? ????? ?а????????? ????????????? ?а????? 1 ??. 1.4 ??????? ?????????? ????????? ?? ???????????????? ??????????????? ???????? ????????? ???, ??????????? ???????????????? ??????????????, ????? ???????.
? ???????????? ?а?????? 2а?????? 253 ???????????? ??????????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????а ???, ?????????, ??? ???????????? ??????????? ???????? ??? ??? ??? ????? ????????????
???????????? ?????? ???? ??????? ???????????? ????????? ????, ???????? ??????? ???????????
????, ???????? ??????????? ???????? ??? ????????????? ????????? ??? ?а????? ?? ??? ??? ????????
??? ????? ?????????? ????? ???????.
????????? ????? 1 ? 2а??. 6.4 ?????? ????????????? ??????? ?? 2 ???? 2003 ???? ?а47-?? ??
????????????? ??????????? ???????????? ????????????????, ???????? ??????? ??????????? ????,
? ?? ???????? ???????? ???????? ??????????????, ??? ???? ????????? ??? ????????? ???? ???? ??????????????1.
??????? ????????, ??? ?а2017 ???? ????? ????????????? ??????? ?? 2 ???? 2003 ???? ?а47-????? ????????? ?????? ????????, ? ??????:
????. 2.11 л??????????? ?а????????? ?а???????????? ??????╗;
????. 3.5-1 л????????? ??????????? ?а????? ????????? ??????? ??????????? ?????? ????????
???????? ? ????????? ??? ??????????? ?????? ???????? ???????? ??????????????????╗;
????. 3.7 л?????????? ?????????????? ???????? ???????? ?а ?????????? ????? ??????????
?????????????? ???????? ????????╗;
????. 4.9 л?????????? ???????????? ???????????? ??????? ?? ???????????, ??????? ????????
????????????, ?? ??????????? ??????? ? ?????????? ????????╗;
????. 4.10 л????????? ?????????? ?? ?????????? ? ?????? ???????????? ?????, ?????????? ?
???????? ????????????? ??????????╗;
????. 4.11 л????????? ?????????? ?? ?????????? ??????? ? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ????????? ???????????????? ????╗;
????. 4.12 л??????????? ????????? ??????????????? ??? ???????????? ????????, ????????????
? ????????? ?????1.
?? ?????????? ? ??????????? ???????????? ???????????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????????? ?????? ?? 2017 ?., ?????????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????????????? ??????????????, ??????????????? ?? ??????? ????????????? ??. 2.6 ?????? ????????????? ??????? ?? 02.07.2003
? 47-?? л?? ???????????????? ???????????????╗, ????????????????? ??????????????? ?? ????????? ?????? ? ????? ??????? ?а?????? ?а23.00 ?? 07.00 ?. ????? ?? ????????? ?????? ?а???????????????? ??????????????? ?????????? 46 ????????????????, ???????? ??????? ?? ????? 27 800 ???., ? ????? ????????????? ? ?????????? ?????????????? ???????? ?а????????? ??????? ????????????????.
?? ?????? 3.3 ?????? ????????????? ??????? ?? 02.07.2003 ? 47-?? л?? ????????????????
???????????????╗ ?? ????????????? ???????? ?а?? ?????????? ??? ????? ?????? ?????????? ?а???????????????? ??????????????? 20 ????????????????, ???????? ??????? ?? ????? ????? 14 500 ???.
????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ??????? ?а?????????? ?????????? ?? ????????? ????????????? ????????? ?????????? ?????????, ?????????? ?????? (????????????? ????, ????, ???? ?
????? ????????? ?? ????????? ????????????) ?????? 4.5 ?????? ????????????? ??????? ?? 02.07.2003
? 47-?? л?? ???????????????? ???????????????╗. ?? ??? ????????? ?????????? 39 ???????????????? ?а????? ?а??????? ??????, ? ?а????????? 37 ??????? ???????? ??????????????, ?? 2 ???????????????? ????????? ???????????????? ?????? ?? ????? 1000 ???.
1
??????????? ???????? ???????? ?? ??????????? ????? ?????????? ???? ?????????? ?????????
?? 9 ??????? 2009 ?. N 33-?09-19.
260
??????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
?? ????? ???????? ???????????????? ?????????????? ?а2017-? ? 1-? ???????? 2018 ?. ?а?????????? ????????????? ?????? ????????????? ??????? ?? ???? ????????? ????????? ???????????????? ???. ????????, ??? ??????????? ?????? ??????????? ?????????????????, ????????? ?????????? ???????? ????????????? ??????????? ?????? ???? ?а???????????? ????????????????.
????????????????? ??????
1.? ????????? ????? ?? 02.07.2003 ? 47-?? л?? ???????????????? ???????????????╗;
2.? ??????????? ?????????? ???? ?????????? ????????? ?? 15 ???? 2015 ?. ?а33-???15-13.
3.? ??????????? ???????? ???????? ?? ??????????? ????? ?????????? ???? ?????????? ?????????
?? 9 ??????? 2009 ?. ?а33-?09-19.
4.? ??????? ?????? ????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ?????? ?? 28.06.2013 ? 312 л?? ??????????? ????? ???????? л????????? ?? ???????????????? ???????? ??????????? ??????????????
??????╗.
5.? ????????????? ????????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ?????? ?? 20.01.2017 ? 165 л??
??????????? ??????? ???????????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????????? ??????╗.
6.? ????????????? ????????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ?????? ?? 16.06.2017 ? 2648 л? ????????? ??????????? ??? ????????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ?????? ???????????? ??
??????????? ?????????? ?? ???????????????? ???????????????╗.
261
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
??? 339.543
?. ?. ?????????
?????-????????????? ??????????????? ???????????
???????????????? ??????????????? (????????????? ??????)
????????? ???????????? ??????????? ????????
? ?????? ??????????? ????? ? ???? ??????????? ????????, ??????? ?????????? ????????? ?? ??????????? ?а???? ??????????? ??????? ???????????? ?????????????? ?????.
???????? ?????: ?????????? ?????? ???????????? ?????????????? ????? (?? ????), ??????????
?????? ??????????? ?????, ?????????? ????????????????, ????? ??????????? ????????.
A. V. Gavrilova
Saint Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation (Ivangorod branch)
CHANGE OF INSTRUMENTS OF CUSTOMS CONTROL
The article considers forms and measures of customs control that have undergone changes since the entry into
force of the EAEC TC.
Keywords: Customs Code of the Eurasian Economic Union (?? ????), Customs Code of the Customs
Union, customs legislation, forms of customs control.
?????????? ???????? ???????? ???????????? ??????? ??????????? ???????? ? ????????????
???????? ??????????? ??????? ????? ?????????? ???????. ?????????? ??????? л?????????? ????????╗ ????????????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????, ???????? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ?????? ???? ????????? ????????????? ?? ??????????? ?????????? ??????????? ????????????????. ???
??????? ????????????? ????????????? ???? ?????????? ???????, ??????????-?????????? ??????????, ???????????? ?а????? ??????????? ????????. ???????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ????????? ??????????? ????????, ????????? ? ??????? ?????????? ?????? ??????? ??? ?????????? ???????????????????а????????????.
?????????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ???????????????? ????????, ??? ??????????
??????? ?? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????? ????????. ??????? ?????????? ?а??????????? ????????а? ??? ?????????????. ?? ????????????? ????????????? ???????? ??????? ????????? ?????????
?????????? ?????????, ?????????? ?????? ????????????? ???????? ? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ??????????? ????????????????. ????????? ????????????? ??????????? ???????? ?а????? ?????
?????????????? ?????????? ?????????????, ?????? ??????????, ??????????????? ?????????? ? ???????????? ?а????? ???????????? ???????, ???????? ? ?????? [1].
???????? ?а?? ????? ????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????? ??????????? ????? ? ????????,
??? ?а??? ??? ??????????? ??????????? ???????? ?????????? ???????. ??? ?????????????????? ??????? 110 ??????????? ??????? ??????????? ?????, ??????? ??????????????? 12 ????: 1) ????????
?????????? ? ????????; 2) ?????? ?????; 3) ????????? ??????????; 4) ?????????? ??????????; 5) ?????????? ??????; 6) ?????????? ???????; 7) ?????? ?????????? ???????; 8) ???????? ??????????
??????? ???????????? ???????, ??????? ?? ??? ????????????????? ??????; 9) ?????????? ??????
????????? ? ??????????; 10) ???? ???????, ??????????? ??? ?????????? ?????????; 11) ????????
??????? ????? ??????? ? ??????????; 12) ?????????? ????????.
? ????? ?????????? ??????? ???????????? ?????????????? ????? ?????????? ?а ????
?а1.01.2018 ?. ?????? ?????? ?????????. ?????? ????????? 7 ???? ??????????? ???????? ? 13 ??? ?
????????, ??????? ????? ?? ???????????? [2].
?????????? ?????? ?????? ?? ???:
1.?????????? ??????????а? ????? ??????????? ????????, ????????????? ?а????????? ???????????? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ????????, ??????? ???????? ??? ?????????? ???????????
????????, ?? ????????????, ??????????? ? ???? ???, ????????????? ?????? ??????????.
262
??????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
2.????????? ??????????, ???? ?????????? ? (???) ????????а? ????? ??????????? ????????,
????????????? ?а????????:
1)??????????? ??????????;
2)????? ?????????? ??????????, ?? ??????????? ??????????, ???????????? ???????????
????????;
3)???????????, ?????????????? ????????, ?????????? ?а?????????? ??????????;
4)????? ??????????, ?????????????? ??????????? ?????? ?а???????????? ?а????????? ????????;
5)?????????, ?????????? ?а ?????????? ?????????? ? (???) ???????????? ?а ??????????????
??????????? ?????? ??????????;
6)????? ????????, ?????????????? ??????????? ?????? ??? ?????????? ?? ?а ????????????
?а????????? ???????? ??? ????????????????? ??????????-??????.
3.??????????? ??????а? ????? ??????????? ????????, ????????????? ?а?????????? ??????????? ??????? ???????, ?а??? ????? ???????????? ??????? ? ?????? ?????????? ???, ???????? ????????, ?????????? ?????, ??????? ? ???? ??????? ????????????? ??? ???????? ???????? ?????????
(???????) ???????????? ??????? ? ???????? ???????, ????????, ?????????, ????????? ???????????
??????????? ???????? (??????? ????? ?????????? ???) ? ?? ?????? ????? ?????????, ?? ??????????? ???????, ??????????? ?а???? ??????????? ???????? ?а????? ??????????? ??????? ????????? ?
??????????.
4.??????????? ???????а? ????? ??????????? ????????, ????????????? ?а?????????? ???????
? ?????????? ???? ???????? ?а????????? ???????, ?а??? ????? ???????????? ??????? ? ?????? ?????????? ???, ?? ????????? ???????? ???????, ???????? ????????? (???????) ???????????? ???????,
????????, ??????????? ??? ???? ????, ?а??????? ????????? ??? ????? ?????????? ??????, ? (???) ?а????????? ??????????? ?а??? ?????????? ?????, ??????? ??? ???? ??????? ?????????????, ?????????,
?????????? ??? ?????????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????? ? ?? ?????? ????? ?????????.
5.??????? ?????????? ???????а? ????? ??????????? ????????, ????????????? ?а??????????
???????? ?????????? ???.
6.??????????? ?????? ????????? ? ??????????а? ????? ??????????? ????????, ????????????? ?а?????????? ??????????? ??????? ????????? ? ??????????, ? ????? ??????????? ?а?????????
?????? ??????? ? (???) ??????????.
7.??????????? ????????а? ????? ??????????? ????????, ?????????? ?????????? ??????? ????? ??????? ??????? ?а ??????????? ???? ????????????? ????????? ???????? ???? ???????????
???????? ? ???, ?????????????? ?????????? ??????????? ????????, ??????????????? ????????? ???????? ?а????? ???????? ?????????? ?????? ????????????? ????????? ? ????? ?а????? ???????????
????????????? ? (???) ???????????????? ??????????-?????? ? ?????????? ?????????????.
??? ?????????? ??????????? ???????? ?а??????????? ?? ???????? ??????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????? ?????? ????????? ????????? ????, ?????????????? ?????????? ??????????? ????????:
1)?????????? ?????? ?????;
2)????????????, ????????? ? ???????? ????????? ? (???) ????????, ??????????? ??? ?????????? ??????????? ????????;
3)?????????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????????, ???????? ????? ? (???) ??????? ???????;
4)????????????? ????????????? ???????, ??????????, ???????????? ???????, ????????? ?
?????? ????;
5)????????????? ??????????? ???????? ??????????? ????????, ???? ??????????? ????????, ?????? ? ????????? ???? ?????????? ???????;
6)?????????? ?????????? ?????????????;
7)?????????????? ??????? ????????? ???????;
8)?????? ???? ???????, ??????????? ??? ?????????? ?????????, ??????????? ?а ???? ?????????? ????????;
9)??????????? ???????????;
10)??????????? ???????????? ? ????????? ?????? ??????????????? ??????? ??????????-??????;
11)?????????? ?????????? ???????? ? ???? ???????? ?а ????????? ??????? ? ????????????
???????;
12)????????????? ?????????? ??????????;
263
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
13)?????????? ??????? ??????? ????? ??????? ? ??????? ????? ???????;
14)????? ????, ?????????????? ?????????? ??????????? ????????, ??????????????? ????????????????? ??????????-?????? ? ?????????? ????????????? [3].
??? ????? ?? ????? ??????????????????, ????????? ????? ??????????? ???????? ??? ??? ????? ?????? ??????? ?а?????? ???, ?????????????? ?????????? ??????????? ????????.
????? ???????, ???????? ?????????????? ??????????, ?????????????? ????????, ?????????? ??????? ???????? ? ???? ??????, ????????? ???????????????? ??????? ?? ???????????? ??????????? ????????. ????????????????? ??????????? ???????? ????????? ????? ?????????? ????????, ????????? ????????? ??????????? ????????????????, ????????? ????? ??????? ???????, ?????????????
??????????????????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????? [4].
????????????????? ??????
1.? ??????? ?.?. ????????? ????????????? ??????? ???????????????? ???????? ?а????? ???????????
???? // ?????????????? ?????????? ?а ???????? ?????????????: ??????? ???????? ? ?????: ??.
??????? ?????? / ??? ????? ???. ????. ?.?. ?????????. ???. 9. ?., 2010.
2.? http://??????.?? ?????????????-????????????? ??????? ??????? л??????╗ ???? ?????????
21.03.2018
3.? ?????????? ?????? ???????????? ?????????????? ????? (?????????? ?а1 ?а???????? ? ?????????? ??????? ???????????? ?????????????? ?????)а/а??????????? ???? ???????????? ?????????????? ????? http://www.eaeunion.org/, 12.04.2017
4.?????????, ?.?. ??????????а????????а???а??????а???????????а???????? / ?. ?. ???????? // ????????????????а?????а?а???????. 2016.а? 12. ?. 58а? 60.
264
??????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
??? 341
?. ?. ?????????
?????? ??????????? ????, ?????????
?????-????????????? ??????????????? ???????????
???????????????? ???????????????
?????????? ???????????
?а????? ??????????????? ????????
? ?????? ???????? ????????? ???????? ????????????? ????????? ?а???????? ?а???????? ???????
???????? ??????, ??????????? ??????????? ?????? ?????? ?? ????????? ????????????? ?????????,
??????????? ???? ?????????????? ????? ?? ????????? ?а??????? ???????? ???????????, ?????????
???? ??? ?а???????? ??????????? ????????????? ? ???????? ???? ??? ?а?????????????? ?а???????
?а???????? ?????????????? ????.
???????? ?????: ??????? ????????, ??????? ?а??????? 1878 ?., ??????????, ??????? ??? ??????,
???????????? ????????????, ?????????????? ?????? ? ???.
THE RUSSIAN STATE IN NEW GEOPOLITICAL CONDITIONS
G. P. Ermolovich
Doctor of Jurisprudence, Professor,
Saint Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation
Separate problems in a binding to questions and foreign policy of Russia are shown in article.аUsing parallels
in history, the modern view of Russia onаa condition of the international relations is presented. The role of
international law in relation to foreign policy of the state is emphasized. The role of mass media in policy
of global domination is explained. The role of the USA in opposition with Russia in the conditions of the
multipolar world is shown.а
Keywords: foreign policy,а contract with Turkey of 1878, diplomacy, nuclear board of Russia, political
contradictions, opposition of Russia and USA.
??????????? ????????????? ????????????? ? ???????????? ????????? ?а????-?? ????????
?????????? ? ?????????????, ? ?а????-?? ?????????? ? ????????????. ?а???? ??????? ?????? ??????
?????? ????????? ?????????? ???? ? ?? ??? ????? ?????????? ????????????? ?? ???? ????????, ???-??
?????????? ? ?????????.
? ?????? ???????? ????????????? ????? ? ???????? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ??????
????????????. ?????? ????????? ?????-?? ????????, ?????? ???????, ????????? ?????-?? ???????????????, л??????╗ ?????? ????-?? ? ?????? ???????? ?? ????, ?? ??????? ???? ????????, ????? ??? ????????? ? ??????? ??? ???? ?????????? ????????????? ????????. ???????, ??? ?? ?????? ????? ????????? ???????? ? ?? ??????? ??? ??????????.
????????, ??? ?? ??? ??????? ?????? ????????? ???????????? ????????????? ???????? ??????????. ?? ??????????, ?? ??????? ? ?? ???????, ??? ?????. ?????? ??? ?????????? л????????????╗
??????. ??? ?аXIX ?. ?????? ?????? ?а????? ?а??????? (1877?1878 ??.) ? ???-?????????? ?????? ???????, ??????? ??? ???????? ?? ???? ???????? ? ?????? ?????????????? ????? ???? ???????, ??????
?????? ??????????? ?? ???????. ??????, ??????? ?? ??????????? ?а????? (??????, ??? ???? ???? ?? ???????? ????, ??????? ???? ?????? ???? ???????????? ? ???????? ??????, ????? ?????????? ???????
?????? ?? ????????), ? ??????????? ????????? ?? ???????, ?? ????? ????????? ?????? ????????????
?????????? ??????. ???????, ???? ????? л???????????????╗ ??? ???? ???????? ???????, ?????????????? ????? ???? ???? ?а????????? ???? ? ??????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????? ???????? [1,
?. 146]. ???-?????????? ?????? ??????? ? ??? ?? ?????? ??????????? ??? ?? ??????? ??????. ????????????? ?а19 ?? ?? ???????????????, ?????? ?? ??????????????? ???????????? ?????? ? ???????? ???? ?а????? ?????????????? ??????? ?????? ? ??????????. ?????? ???? ???????????? ????????
265
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
??? ????????? ??? л????????╗ ??? ?? ??????? ???????????, ????? ????? ?? ?????? ??????? ?????
(??????? ?а???? ??????????????? ????????? ??????? ????? ? ???? 1916 ?.) [2, ?.387].
??????????? ???-?????????? ??????? ????????????? ?? ??????? ?????? ??????, ?????? ????? ?????????????? ? ??????-???????. ?????? ??? ???????? ?? ?????????? ????????? ?а1878 ?., ??????? ??????????? ??????? ???? ? ???????? ?????????? ????? ??????. ?? ?????? ??????????? ????????????? ??????????????, ??? ???? ?????? л??????????????? ????????? ??????╗ [3, ?. 189].
?? ?????? ???????? XX ?. ???????? ????? ??????????? ????? ??????. ???, ?????? ? ???????? ??????? ??????? ??????, ????????, ??? ?а????? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ?????. ???,
?????? ?????, ???????????? ???????? ????, ??? ??? ????? ?а??????? ????????. ????? ?????? ???? ??
??????????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ????????, ???? ?? ????????? ????????? ??? ?. ?????? ?????????? ?? ??????????? ???????? ?. ????????? ???????? ??????? ????? ?? ????. ?????? ????????? ???
?? ??? ?? ???????, ? ?. ????????? ?????? ?а??????????????? ??????.
?? ???????? ????????? ?????? ? ?????? ???????-??????? ?????????????? ?.????????, ?? ?
?? ?? ????? ??????????? ??????? ????? ?? ???? ??????. ???????? ????? ???????? ???????, ?????????
???? ??? ???????? ???????? ???? ??? ? ???????? ??????? ??????? ??? ???, ??????? ?????? ???????? ???????? ?? ????-?? ???????????? ????. ?????? ??????? ??????, ?? ????????????? ???????????
????????????. ???? ?????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ??????. ?а???? ????? ?????????? ???
?а?????????? ??????????, ?а???? ????? ????????? ?а??????? ????????, ??? ?а?????????? ???????????,
?? ???????? л??????????╗ ??? ??????? ??????, ??? ??? ?? ?? ?????.
????????? ???????? ?а???????????? ?а???????? ?????, ?? ?????????? ???????????? ???????????? ?? ??????????????? ?????? ??? ?? ??????? ???? ?? ???????? ?? ?? ??????? ?????. ???? ????? ??????? ???? ?? ?????????? ????????? ????????? ? ??????????? ???????? ??? ?????? ??????
??????. ??? ??? ???? ?????? ?????????? ?а ????? ??????????? ??????????? ????????????. ??????
????? ?????????? ?????? ????? ??????? ???? ? ????????? ???????????? ?????? ???????? ??????
??????-????????????? ?????????, ???? ?????? ??????? ????? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????. ??? ???? ???????????? 30 ??????? 2014 ?. ? ?а??? ???? ?????????????? ??????? ?????????
? ?????? ??????. ?? ???????????? ?а ??????? ????????? ??????????? ?????? ?? ????????? ??????? [4]. ??????????? ?а ????????? ????????? ?а ???????????? ???????? ?????????? ????????? 1
????? 2018 ?., ?.?. ????? ??????? ? ???????? ????????????? ????? ????? ??????. ???????????????
???? ???????? ??????????, ??????????? ???????, ??? ???? ??????? ?????? ????? ???????????? ???
??????????, ???????-?????????? ? ????????? ?????. ??????????, ?????, ??????, ??? ?? ?????? ?????
??????????? ?? ?????? ???????? ?????? ?? ??????, ?? ?а????????? ???????, ???????, ???? ????????????, ??? ??????? ???????? ???????????? ?? ?????. ?? ????????, ???????????, ??? ?а??? ??????
?а?????? ?? ????????, ??????? ??????? ??????-???????????? ??????, ??????, ??? ?а????????, ??? ??????? ?а???? ????? ?????????? л???????? ???????╗ ?.?. ??????? л? ????? ??? ?????? ??????, ???
?????? ?? ??????╗ [5].а?????, ?????? ????????? ???????? ????????? ?????-?? ?????, ????? ???????
?????????? ?????? ???????? ???????.
???????, ??? ?а????? ??????, ?????????? ????????? ???????????? ??????????, ??????????
????? ???????. ?????????? ??????, ??? ?????? ???? ?????????????????? ?????? ?? ????? ??????????
????????? ? ??????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ????????. ?????????? ?????? ???????, ??? ?????????
???????? ?????? ????????? (1881?1894) ?????????? ?????????? III, ??? ??????? ???? ?????? ?? ????
???? ? ?а??????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ?? ?????????????? ???????? ?а????, ?? ????????????
??????????? ????? ???????? ???????, ??? ?а??????????? ????????.
?????? ???????????? ????? ????? ???? ????????????? ???????????. ???, ?? ??????? ????
??????????? ????? ??? ?? ?????? ??? ????, ?а??????? ?? ????????? ??????. ???????? ?????????? ???
?? ?????? ???????? ??????? ??????. ???????? ????????? ????, ?? ???????? ???????? ??? ???? ????? ????????, ??????? ?? ??? ????? ?? ????????? ??????. ?????????????? ???????? ????????? ?.?.,
??????? ?? ?а????????? ??? ????????? ??? ???????, ?? ?????????? ???????????? ? ????????????
???????, ??????? ?а??????? ??????????? ????????, ?? ?? ????. ?а??????????, ???? ??? ???????, ???
????????? ?????????? ??? ????, ???????? ???????????? ??? ?а???; ?????? ??? ??????????? ???????????? ???????? ?а???????? [6] ?? ???????? ????????? ??????????? ????????? ?????????? ? ????????????? ??? ?а??????? 1991 ?. ???????????? ???? ?а??????, ????? ??????? ???????? ?? ?????? ?????
???????? ?????????, ? ?? ???? ????? ???????? ?а???????.
??????, ????????? ?????????? ??????????????? ??????????, ????? л????????╗ ????????, ???
????????????? ????????? ??? ????????????? ?а??????? ???????-????????????? ????? (?? ??? ?? ?? ???
266
??????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
????? ? ?????????? ?????????? ????????? ?????? ??????????? ??????? ?а????????? ???????????).
?а????? ??????, ??? ? ?а?????? ????????????, ????????? ????? ??????? ?а?????????. ??? ??????????? ?
??????????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ???????, ??? ?????? ?? ???, ?? ????????? ?? ???????;
????? (????) ?? ???????? ?????????????? ???????; ????????????? ????? ?????? ?? ????? ???? ????????????? ?а ????????????? ?????????? ??? ??????????; ??? ???????????? ??????? ?? ?????????
????? ?????????? ?????????? ????????????, ??????? ???? ?а????? ???????; ?????????? ??? ??
???? ?????? ??????? ????; ?? ????????? ? ?????????????? ?? ???????????? ?????? ????????????????
??????????, ??? ?а????.
????????, ?????? ?????? ????????? ????? ?????-???????, ????????? ?? ??????? ?????-?? ????
?????? ??????? ?????? ???????????а? ????.
?????? ?????? ???? ?а?????????? ???????????? ??????? ?? ????-????????? ?????????? ? ?????
????????? ?а???? ????????? ????? ? ???????. ?????????? ??? ?? ????? ?? ????? ????????????. ?????? ?? ??????????????, ????? ?????????, ??? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ?????? ?????? ???????????
?????????. ?а???????? ???? ??? ??????????? ????????? ? ?????? ?????????? ??????????? ?? ??????????? ?????? ? ??????. ???? ?? ??????? ????????? ?? ??????? ???????.
????? ???????, ??????? л?? ???????╗ ???????? ?а????? ?????? ?? ????????????? ?? ?а????????????, ?? ?а ??????? ????? ??????. ?????????? ????? ??????? ????? ?????? ????????? (????)
??????????? ??????????? ???????????????? л?????╗ ? ???????????????? ?? ????????? ??????. ??????? ?????????? ?????? ?? ??????? ????????? ? ?? ?????? ??????????? ? ?????????? ??? ?? ????
??????????. ?????? ???????? ????? ??????????? ?а??. 31 ??????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????,
???????, ?а?????????, ??????, ??? л? ????? ?????? ????????? ?????????? ????????? ? ?? ???????, ??????????? ?????????????? ???? ? ???????????? ???????????? ??????????? ??? ????? ??????????
?????????????? ?? ????????? ?????????? ????????? ?а???????????? ?а??????????????? ??????????
? ??????? ?????????????? ?????, ?????????????? ?????????? ?????????? ????????? ? ??????????? ?????????????????╗. ????????, ???????? ?? ???????? ??????????? ??????????, ????????? ?????? ?.?. ????? ?? ????????? ?а??????? ????????????? ??????, ??? л??????????? ?????? ???? ??????
?а????????????? ??????????? ? ??? ??????????? ?? ??????????, ???????? ? ?????????? ???????? ??
??? ??????????? ??? ???????????, ?? ?????, ????? ??? ?????? ?а??? ???╗ [7, ?. 171].
???????? ???????????? ???????? ?????????? ?а????? ?? ??????????? ????????????? ??????? ???????????, ?? ?? ?????? ??????????? ?а???????????? ?а??????? ?????????????? ????? ?а??????
???????????, ?? ? ?????? ???????????? ?? ????????????? ???????? ??? ??????????????, ???????? ?????? ??? ?? ?????????? ?????? ?????????? ?а???? ??????. ????????????? ????? ????????-??????????? ??? ????????? ?а?????????????????? ????????, ??-?????, ??? ???????? ?? ?????? ?????????
???????, ?? ??????? ????????, ?? ??????????? ??? ? ???? ?? ??????????, ??????? ????????????
?? ???????? ????????? ??????. ? ???? ? ???????? ? ???, ?? ??????????? ??? ?????????? ????????????? ????.
?????????? ????? ?????? ?а??????-??????????? ??????? ??? л?????????╗ ?а??????. ?ал??????????????╗ ????? ????????? ????????? ?а???????? ??????? ????? ?? ??????? ?????????? ?????
?????? ?????, ?а????????? ??????? ??? ?а?????????? ??????????? ??????. ?? ????????? ??????????? ??????? ????????? ???? ? ??????? ?????? ????????????? ?????? ?? л????? ?????╗, 14 ??????
2018 ?. ???, ??????? ? ?????????????? ??????? ???????? ???? ?? ??????????? ???????????. ????????, ?? ???????? ?а????????????-???????? ??????????????? ??? ?????? ?? ???????? ???????? ?а???????????? ?а??????? ?????????????? ?????? ??? ??? ????????? ?а?????????????? ?????? ?????????
??????? ???????? ?????????? ????????????? ?????????????? ????? ?? ??????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ?? ??? ??????? ????? ???? ??? ???? [8, ?. 323?327], ?? ?а??????????? ???????? ??? ?????? ????????????? ??????? ??????????? ???????????? ??????????? ? ??????????? ?? ????? ?????? ?????
?????? ?????????.
?????, ??? ?? ???????? ? ?? ??????? ??????? ???????? ???????????, ????????????? ?????
???????????? ?????????????????? ???????? ??????????? ?? ????????????? ?????. ??? ?? ?а?????????
??????? ?? ?????????, ?? ??????????? ?????, ?? ?????-???? ???? ??????? ?????. ???, ????????, ??????
??? ???????????? ??????????, ??????? ??? ??????????? ?????? ?????-???? ??????, ??????? ?? ??????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ???????????? ??????????? ??????????? ? ?????? ?а?????? ????????
?????????????? ???????, ??? л???????????╗ ?а???????????? ?а???????????? ? ??????? ?????????????? ?????.
267
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
? ??????? ?????????? ?? ?????????????? ????? ????????????, ??? л? ??????????? ????
??????? ???????? ????? ????????????? ????????????, ????? ??? ????????????? ?????????????? ?????,
????????? ?? ????╗ [9, ?. 40]. ?а????? ?а?????? ????????????? ????????? ????????? ????????. ??-??????, ??? ????????? ?????? л?????????????? ???????????╗, ???????????, ??????? ????????????? ??????????????? ???????? ??? ??? ???????? ?? ?????????????? ??????????? ???? ?? ?????????, ???
??? ??-??????? ??????? ?? ???? ? ?? ?? ????????. ??-??????, ????? ?????? ??????????? ?????? ????
??????? ???????? ?а???????????? ?а??????? ?????????????? ?????? ????? ???? ????????, ??? ?а???????, ??? ? ?а ?????????, ??????? ?? ???????? ??????????????? ????????? ???? ??????????????
?????. ????????, ??? ??????? ????? ????? ?????, ??????? ????????? ?а?????? ????? ????? ???????,
???????, ???. ???? ?????? ?????, ????????, ????? ??????????????? ????????????? ?????????? ?????????, ??????? ????? ??????????????? ????????? ?? ?????????? ???, ?а???????????? ?а???????
?????????? 1961 ?. ? ??????????????? ?????????, ??????? ????????????? ??? ???, ??? ? ???????
[10, ?. 468]. ??????????????, ??? ?????????, ? ?? ?????????? ?????????????? ????? ? ????????????
л???????? ????????╗ ???.
?????? ???????????, ??????? ??????????? ?а??? ?? ?????????, ??? л????????????? ????? ????????? ???????????????? ??????????? ?? ??????? ???????? ???????????╗ [11, ?. 40] ???????? ?а????
????????? ???????? ? ??? ??????????? ????? ??????????? ?а???? ????????? ?????????. ??-??????,
??? ???????? ?а?????? ????????? ????????????? ????? ??? ??????? ????????? ????????, ??? ??????? ???????? ???? ?а л?????????╗, ? ????????????? ????? л?????????╗ ??????????????? ????????
???????? ?????????????? ?????. ?????? ???? ? ???, ??-??????, ? ????????????? ?? ??????? ????????
?????????????? ????? ??? ???? ???????? ???????? ??, ???? ????????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????????? ?????, ?? ????????????? ????? ????????? ???? ??????????? ?? ??????? ????????, ? ????
????????, ?? ? ?? ??????????????!
?????????? ?????? ???????. ???, ??????? ?????? ?а??????? ????????? ?а????? ? ?????????
?????????? ???????? ?а????? ?????? ?????????????? ?????, ??? ??? ???????? ?? ??????????? ????????? ????????????? (? ??? ??? ??????????). ????????? ?? ????????????? ????? ???? ??????????? ??
??????? ???????? ??????? ???????, ??? ????? ?????? ???? ?????????????, ??? ??? ??? ?????????????????? ???? ???????????? ?а???????????? ?? ?????? ?а??????? ??????????????, ?? ? ?????????????????????? ????? ?????????? ????????? ??? ??? ?????????? ?? ?????????? ????????????? ??????????? ?? ??????? ????????? ?????? ? ?.?. ????? ??????? ?? ?????? ????????? ? ??????? ??????
??????????? ?????????? ?а???????????? ?а??????????????? ?????????? [12].
? ????????? ?? ????????????? ????? ???? ??????????? ?? ??????? ???????? ?????? ? ?а?????? ?????? ????? ????? ?????????????, ???? ???????????????? ???????????? ???? ?? ?????? ?а???????????, ??????, ???????????? ?? ???????????? ?????????????????????? ????????????? ???????,
? ????? ?????????????????? ??????????? ??????????????? ???????? ????? ?? ??????? ??????? ??
????????????? ??????? ? ?а ???????? ??????? ? ??????????? ????????? ???????? ??????????
(???).
?????????? ?????? ???????. ??????? ???????? ?? ????? ?а??? ?а????????? ????????? ????????? ?? ????????????? ?????? ?????????????? ?????, ??? ??? ??????????? ???????? ???????????????? ???????? ?????????????? ????? ? ??????????? ?????, ? ??? ???????????? ???????? ??????????? ???? ??????????. ????????? ?? ????????????? ????? ???? ??????????? ?? ??????? ????????
???? ???????? ?? ???????, ??? ???, ??, ????????, ????? ?? ??? ??? ??????????. ???????, ??? ????????????? ????? ? ?а?????? ?????? ????????? ???? ??????? ?? ??????? ???????? ???, ?? ??? ???????
???????????? ??-???????.
? ????? ???????, ?????????? ? ?? ????????, ????????? ?а?????????? ??????????? ??? ????????? ?????? ?а???????????, ?? ????????? ???? ??????????? ?а???????????? ?а???????????? ?????????????? ?????, ?.а?., ?? ????, ?????????? ???. ?а???? ?????? ??????? ? ???????. ?а?????? ???????, ???
л??????????╗ ? ????????????? ?????, ???? ?? ??? л?? ????╗ ? ?????????? ?а????, ????? ???? ???????? ???????????? ???????????? ????????, ???????? ?? ????????? ? ?.а?. ??? ?????, ????????????
????????????? ????????? ?а?????????????? ?????, ??? ??? ?? ???????????? ??????????? ????? ?
л??????????? ?????????????? ????? ?? ??????? ???????? ???????????╗, ?? ????????? ?а????? ????
?????, ????? ?? ??? ????? ??? ?????????? ??????????? ????? ?? ????????????? ?????.
??????, ??? ??? ???????, ???????????? ???????????, ??? л????????????? ????? ? ????????
?????????? ?????????????? ? ??????????? ??????????? ??????? ????????????? ?????????╗ [13,
?.а26], ????? ????????? ?а???????????? ?????????. л?????????? ? ??????????????╗ ????????? ?????
268
??????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
???????????? ?????? ?а????????????? ?????????, ??? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ????? ???? ????????. ?? ????? ????? ??? ????????? л??????????????╗ ??????????? ????????? ?а?????????? ??????????? ??? ???????? ??????????? ?????????????, ??????? ?? ???????? ?????????????? ? ??????????
?? ??????? ????????? ???????? ??????????. л???????? ?????╗ ?а???? ????? ???????? ?????? ? ????
???????? ????????? ???????? ????? ???????? ????????. ???????, ?????, ?? ????? ????????? ?? ?????????????? ????? ????? ??????????. ?????? ??????????? ????????? ????????????? ?? ?????? ?
????????? ????????? л???????????? ???????????╗ [14, ?.а278].
???????, ??? ?а?????????? ?а?????? ?????? ???? ??????????? ?????, ??????????? ?а????????????? ?????????????, ???????????? ? ??????? ????????????? ???????? ????????, ? ????? ?а ??????
(??? ??? ????) ?????????????? ?????. ????? ?????? ??????? ?? ????, ????????? ???????????? ??????????? ?????? ?а????????? ????????? ??????????????? ?????????? ????????, ?????????? ????????
???????????? ?????? ? ???????? ??? ???? ???????????? ????????????????. ????? ??????????????
????? ?а???? ????? ??????, ??????? ???????????? ??????????, ?? ?????? ?а??? ??????, ???? ????????
л???????╗ ??? ????? ?????????????, ?.?. ?????????????????????, ??????????? ? ???????????? ?????
?????? ?а?????? ??????????.
????????, ??? л????????????? ????? ???? ???????? ??????????? ????????????? ?????????╗ ????? ???????? ????????. ????????, ??? ??????? ???????? ????? ???????????? ?? ?????????
?а?????????????????? ????????, ? ????? ?????? ??????????? ?????, ????? ??????, ????????????
?? ?????? ??????? ????????. ?а????????????? ???????????? ????? ??? ?????????? ?????????? ??????? ?????????? ????????????? ??????????, ???????????????? ?????? ??????? ?? ???? ?????, ??
??????? ???????? ?а?????? ???????? ????????????, ??? ?? ???????????? ? ??????? ?а??????? ??????????? ???? ?????????????? ?????. ???????? ?? ?а????????????? ?????, ?а???, ??? ?????????????
????????? ?? ?????????? ????? ?????????? ????????, ??? ??? ?? ????, ? ????, ? ??????????? ??? ?а???,
??? ???? ?? ???? ????? ?? ????? ?? ????????, ?? ???????? ????????????? ?????????. ??? ???????
?? ?????????? ???? ?????????. ??????? ?? ???????? ?????????????? ????? ????????? ?????????????
????????????, ?????? ? ????????? ??, ??? ????? ???????????? ??, ??? ??????? ??? ??, ??????, ???
л???????????╗ ????????????? ??????????
???????, ??? ???? ?????????????? ???????????, ??? л????????????? ????? ?а????????? ??????? ??????????? ?а???????? ?????? ????????? ???? ???????╗ [15, ?.а26], ???????, ?? ???????? ?????????? ? ??????? ?????? ???????????. ???, ?????????? ?????????????? ????? ?а??????? (???????,
??? ???? ???? ? ????????? ???????????), ?? ????????? ?? ?????????? ????????. ??-??????, ????? ??
???????, ? ?????? ?????????????? ????? ? ?а?????????????? ??????????????? ?? ???????? ?????????
?? ?????. ??-??????, ???????????, ??? ?????? ????? ??????? ????? ???? ?? ?????????????? ???????, ??????? ?? ??????????????? ???? ?? ???, ?? ?????? ??????? ????? ? ?????? ??????. ???? ????
??????????? ????? ?????????? ???????????, ?? ?а ??? ??????? ?а ??????? ??????. ??????? ???????
?????? ??? ?????? ?а??????????? ? ?????????? ???? ??????? ?? ?????????? ??????? (???? ?аXXI ?.),
???? ????? ?????? ????????????? ? ????? ? ???, ? ?????????????? ? ????????? ?????????. ?????? ??
????????? ?????? ?? ????. ???????? ????????? ????????? ?а???????????????? ?????????, ????????
?а????? ???????? ?? ????? ?а?????? ? ???? ? ??????????? ??? ????? ?а???????????? ???????? ? ??????? ????????? ????????? ???????. ??????????? ?? ??? ?????????? ????? ????????, ???????? ?? ?????? ??????????? ?? ???? ??????????????? ???????? ?????????????? ?????? ?????? ????? ????????
??? ???? ?????????????? ?????? ?? ?????? ???????????? ????????, ??????????? ? ?????????.
???????, ???????? ?? ???????????? ?? ???????????, ??? л? ??????????? ?????? ????????????? ????? ?????????? ??????? ?????? ????????╗, ????? ??????? ?????????? л??????????? ??????????????? ?????????????? ?? ????????????? ?????, ? ??? ????????? ?????, ??????????? ????????
?????╗ [16, ?.а 42]. ?а ????????? ?????????? ??????? ??????????? ???? ?? ??????, ???, ???????? ??
????????? ????????? ????? ?????????? ?????????? ? ???????????? ??????? ??????? ?а??????
????????????? ?????? ????? ? ??????????? ?????????????? ????? ???????? ??????, ??? ?? ?????,
?????????? ????????, ??? ???????? ??????? ???? ?а???????. ???? ? ??????????? ???????? ??????
???, ? ????????? ?????? ?????? ?? ???????? ??? ?????? ??????, ??? ? ?? ????????? ??????. ??????
????? ?? ??????????? ?ал???????????? ??????????????? ??????????????╗? ???????, ??? ??? ?????????????? ?? ?????? ?? ????, ?? ??? ? ?????????, ??????????????? ?? ?????? ????????????.
??-??????, ??????????? ?????? ?а???????? ???, ??? ???? ?????????? ????????????? ? ??????? ???????? ????? ?????? ? ?????????????, ?? ????, ???????????? ?????????.
269
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
??-??????, ?????? ???????? ????? ?? ????????? (? ?????????????? ?????????????? ???? ???????????? ???????????? ????? ?????) ???? ?????? ????? ?????? ?? ?????????? ??? ??????????
????????? ???.
?-???????, ??????????? ????????. ????????, ??? ???? ????? ??????????????? ??????????????.
?? ??? ?????, ??? ??????? ?????? ???? ?????? ??????????? ????? ?а?????? ?????? ???????? ?????.
?а 1949 ?. ??? ??????? ???????????а ? ??????????????? ??????? ?? ??????????? ???????? ?????
(?? ???. Coordinating Committee for Multilateral Export Controls, CoCom) ??? ???????? ??? ?????????
?а???? ? ?а?????? ????????????????? ???????????. ??? ??????????? ?? ????????? ?????????? ?а??????
?????????? ????? ???????? ?????????? ? л??????????????╗ ?????? [17, ?.а10]. ?????? ???????? ?????????? ???? ???????? ? ?а???? ???. ?????????, ??? ??????????? ????????? ??? ????? ??????? ?????
?????? ?????? ????????????? ??????? л?????╗?
?-?????????, ????? ?????????, ????????? ?? ???????? ???? ?а??????? ??????, ???????? ?? ????????? (???????? л?????????╗ ?а???? ???????, ?????? ? ?????? ??????????). ???????? ??????????
?????????? ? ?????????? ?????????? ????????; ????????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ?????; ??????????
?????? ??????? ????? ? ?????????? ?? ???? ?а???????? ????????; ?????????? ?????????? ?????????
????????, ??????? ?????? ??????????? ?а???????? ?????? ?? ?????? ????????????? ????????? ? ????????? ?????? ????? ?????????. ???????????, ?? ??? ?????????? ???????? ??? ???????? ??????
? ???????? ???????????? ????? ?????????? ???? ??????????? ???? ?а???? ???????? ?????. ???????, ????????, ?а???????? ????? ????? ???????? ????????? ??????, ??? ?????? ??????????? ??????
?????-???????????? ??????.
?????????? ???????? ??????????? ?? ????????????? ????? ????? ????????? ?а???, ??? ???
? ?? ???????? ??-???????? ??????? ??? ????????????. ??? ?? ?????? ????????? ?а????????? ???????????, ??? ???? ???????????? ??? ?? ????? ???????????? ?а????. ????????, ??? ?? ??????? ???????
????? ? ?????? ??????????? ????? ?????, ??????? ?????????????? ???? ??????? ?? ???????? ??????.
?а???? ??? ?????? ????? ?????-??????????: ?????, ????, ?????? ? ?????????? ?????? ?????? ? ??????????? ????, ????? ???????? ?? ???? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ? ?????????? ???????? ???????
??????? ?? ????????????? ?????.
? ?????? ???? ????????: ????? ??? ??????? ?????, ??? ????? ??????? ? ??? ??? ?????????????? ????????, ??????? ????? ????????? ?????? ???? ??? ??????. ??????, ???? ????????, ??? ????
?? ???? ?????????? ?? ???????? ???????, ????? ??-???????? ???? ??????????? ?? ?????? ??????????
?а???????????? ?????. ? ??????????? ????????? ?????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????? ?? ??????????, ??????? ??? ??????????, ?????????? ?????? ???, ????? ?а???? ???? ????????????? (????????,
????????? ?а2013 ?. ??????????? ??????????? ???????????? ?а?????????? ??????????? ???????????
???? ?а ????? ?????????? ??? ???????????????? ??????????). ??? ?? ??????? ????????????? ????
??????? ????? ????????? ???? ??????? 21 ??????? 2013 ?. ??? ??????????? ?а??????????, ? ?????
?????? ? ?? ?????????? ?? ????. ????????? ???????? ?? ?????? ?? ????????? ?????????? ?????? ????????? ? ????????? ?????????????, ?????, ???? ????????????????? ???????? ??????? ? ??????
??????????. ?? ???? ? ?? ???????, ?а???? ??????????? ?????? ???? ??????????? ????????, ???????
???????? ?????????? ??? ??????? ?? ???.
???? ?а??????, ??????? ????????????? ?????? ? ???????, ? ?????? ????? ????? ????????????
? ????????????? ?????????????? ?а ?????????? ???????, ?? ?????? ??????. ?????????????? ?????
???????? ????? ?а л?????????╗ ???????? ??? ? ????? ?а л????╗ ????? ??????????? ??????? ???????,
??????? ??????????? ?? ??????? ?????? ????????????? ??????, ?????????? ?? ????? ????????? ?????
??? ?а?. ?????????. ?а?????? ????? ??????? ?????????? ?????, ?????? ???????? ???? ???????????
?а??? ????, ?а??????? ?? ??? ???? ????????? ??????????.
???, ????, ??? л???????╗ ?????? л?? ?????╗, ?????? ????????? ?? ???????, ?????? л?????╗
??????? ? ??????????? ?????? ?? ????????????? ????? ????? ?????????? ?????????. ? ???????а?
??? ??? ?????, ??????? ?????-??, ?? ?? ??????, ?????? ?????????. ?????? ??????????? ?????????
??????? ?а??? ??? ?????????? ?а?????????, ??? ???? ?а?????? ?????? ? ????? ???????????????
?????????? ???, ?????????? ?????? ????????? ? ?????????? ???????? ?? ???????. ????, ???? ????????????????, ??????? ??? ??? ? ?? ???????? ?????????? ?а???? ??????, ?.?. ?? ???? ????????? ???
????????, ?? ???????? ????? ???? ?? ?а?? ??????. ????????? ??????? ?а??????? ?????????? ???: ???
????? ???????? ????????? ?????????? ?а????? 1 ???; ?????????????? ? 2 ????; ??????? ? 3 ????; ?????? ? 2 ????; ???????? ? 2 ????, ? ?????? ?? ?а???????, ?? ?а????????? ??????? ?? ???????? ?? ???
270
??????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
???????????. ??????, ??? ?????? ???????? ?а?????? ???????? ??????? ? ?????????? ??? ???? ??????
????? ? ??????.
???? ?????????????? ??????? ???, ??????????? ???? ??????? л?????????????╗ ?????????
?????????, ??? ????? ?? ??????? ????????????? ?????? ???????????? ???? ?????? ?а????. ?? ??????
?????? ??????????????? ??????????????? ?????????? л?????? ???????╗а? RT ? ?????????????? ??????????????? ????????? л???????╗, ? ????? ????? ??????, ????????, ?????? ????????????? ???????,
??? ???????????? л????????? ? ?????╗, ??????? ????? 15 ?????????? ???????? ? ????? ?а????? ???????? ??????? ??? ????? ???????? ?????? ?а????,а? ?????????? ???????????. ?????, ????? ??? ?????
????????? ????????? ????? RT? ?????????, ????? ?? ????????????????? ?а??? ?а???????? ???????????? ??????? ????? ?????????? ?а???????????? ????? ???????????, ?? ?????? ?? ????, ??????????
????????? ???????????? ??????, ??? ????? ???????? ???????? ????????? ?а ?? ????????????????
?????????????
??????????, ?????????? ??????? ??????? ?? ????????? ?а??????? ?а?????? ???? ????. ???????
?????????????? ????? ?????????? ????????? ???? ???????????. ??????, ?а???????? ??????? ????????? ??? ? ??? ????????? ????? ??????? ???????? ??????, ? ?????? ?? ?????????????? ????? ??????
?? ??????? ?????? ?????. ??????? ????????????????? ?? ?????? ?????, ????????? ??????? ??????,
??? л????????? ?????? ????????? ?а??????╗, ???????? ?????? ?? ???, ??? ?а???, ??? ? ?а????. ?????
????????????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????? ???? ????????. ?? ???? ?? ????????? ?????????.
?? ???????? ?? ????? ????????? ???????? ????????????, ? ?а2003 ?. ?а????, ????????, ????? ?? ???
????? ?????? ?? ??? ????? ????, ? ?а???????????? ????????? (?????????? ?????? ? ???????), ??????????? ?? ????? ?? ??????? ?????? ?а??????, ???? ???? ???????????. ?????????? ??????????
????? ? ???, ??? ?????? ?? ??????? ????? ??? ???? ?????????? ?а??????? л???????╗, ??????? ?
????? ????? ?????????? ????????? ????????? ??????????. ????? ???????? ?????: ????????? ??????????? ??????. ???????, ??? ???? ????????????? ??????, ??????????? ???? ??????????????? ???????? ?а?????? ? ????? ?? ????? ????????? ? ????? ???????????? ??? ??? ?????? ?? ??????? ??????,
??? ?? ?????? ?????, ??? ???? ?????? ? ?????????? ????????? ?????? ???????, ??? ? ???????? ??????
?? ??????? ????? ??????.
?????? ?? ????????? ???? ?? ??????? ?а?????? ????? ?????????????? ????????? ??????????? ?? ??? ? ?????? ???? ?? ???????? ?????????. ?? ???? ???????? ??? ? ??????????????, ????????????????? ???????? ??????, ????????, ???????????? ??????? ? ????????? ?????????? ????????????
??????? ?? ????????, ?а??? ?а???? 2018 ?. ??????? ???????? ?? ?????? ????? ????.
??????????? ?????? ??????? ?? ?????????? ?а???????? ?????????? ? ?а??????? ?? ??? ?? ??????????? ???? ????? ????? ?????? ???? ?? ????? ???????? ? ??????????. ?а??????? ?????? ??????? ??
????? ??????? ? ???? ?аXIX ?. ??? ???????? ????? ?????? ????????? ??????? ?????????????? ???????-??????? ??????? ????????? ????????? II ????????? ?? ??????????? ??????????? ??????? л???????
?? ????? ????? ?????????╗ ???? ??? ???????????? ???????????, ?.?. ??? ?????? ??????????, ??????? ??
?????? ?а????? ??????? ??????. ???????? ????????????? ???????? ?????????? XIX ?. ?, ????????,
???????????? ?? ???? ????????? ??????????, ??????, ???????? ?? ???????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?а???? ??????? ? ?? ????????????? ?????, ??? ????????????? ???????? ????? ?? ????????????
??? ??????? ???????, ? ????? ?????????????? ???? ??????????, ???? ???? ? ???????????? ???? ??
????????, ??????????? ?????? ????????. ??????, ??? л??????? ?????╗ ??????????? ????, ??????? ??
??????? ???? ???????. ???? ??? ??????????? ??????????? ??????, ??? ?????????? ???????? ??????
???????????????? ???? ?????? ? 300 ?? ?????? ?????? ????? ?????? ??? ???. ?аXIX ?. ?????? ?????????????? ??????? ?? ???????, ??????? ????????? ?????????? ?а??? ???????????? ????????.
?????? ??????? ?? ????????? ???? ?????? ?? ???????? ???????? ? ???? ??????? ???-?? ??-??
??????. ??? ??????? ?? ??? ?? ???-?? ?а????? ????????????? ???????? ? ??? ???? ?? ?? ????. ?????
???????????? ???????? ???? ?????? ????????, ??? ?? ????? ? ??? ??????????????? ??????? ????????
? ???? ??????????? ??????????? ?? ?????? ?????????? ? ???????????? (? ??????????? ???????? ?????????а? л? ???????????? ?а?????????? ????????╗). ??? ????, ??????? ?????? ?? ??? ?????? ????? ????
????????? ? ????????? ??? ?а???? ?а??????????? ????????.
??????? ????? ????? ?????? ? ????????? ??, ???? ?????????????? ? ??????????а? ??? ??????????? ????? ?????? ? ?????????? ?????????. ? ?? ?? ????? ????? ???? ?????????.
? ?????????. ???????? ?? ?????? ???? ?????????? ??????? ???????, ?? ???????????? ??????? ??????????, ??? ???? ?????? ????? ???????????????? ?а??????? ??????? ????? ???????. ?????,
271
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
??? ? ?? ????? ??????? ?? ?????? ?? ?а?????????? л??????????? ?а??????╗, ? ?а????? ?????? ???????
? ????????????? ???????????, ????? ??????? ???????? ?? ????????????? ????? ??? ??? ???? ??????? ???????? ???????? ?????????????? ??????? ? ??????????? ?? ???????? ???????? ?????????????? ?????, ? ???????? ?????? ??????.
????????????????? ??????
1.? ?????????? ?.?., ????????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?. ??????? ????????????? ????????? ? ???????
???????? ?????? (1648?2000) / ??? ???. ?.?. ???????????. ?.: ?????? ?????, 2003. ?. 146.
2.? ?????? ?.?. ?????? ? ?????? ?????????. ?. 2. ?.: ??????????? ??????????, 1957. ?. 387.
3.? ??????? ?.?. ??????? ????????????? ????????? ? ??????? ???????? ??????. ?????? ?/?: ??????, 2010. ?. 189.
4.? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????, ?????????? ??????????? ?? 25.12.2014 ?. ? ??-2976.
URL: https://rg.ru/2014/12/30/doktrina-dok.html (???? ?????????: 08.05.2018 ?.)
5.? URL: https://www.chitalnya.ru/work/1087487/ (???? ?????????: 06.05.2018 ?.).
6.? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????? ?.?. ????????? ?а??????????? ????, ??? ?????????? ?? ??????, ?????????? ? ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ? ???????? ??? ?? 8 ??????? 1991 ?.
? ??? ?????? ??????? ? ???????????? ??? ???? ????? ?????? ?а??????.
7.? ????? ?.?. 100 ? 1 ?????? / ????. ?.?. ??????, ?.?. ???????, ?.?. ?????? ? ??. ?.: ????????,
2017. ?. 171.
8.? ????????? ?.?. ????????????? ????? ? ??????????? ???????? // ?????. ?????. ???????????. Lex.
Jus. Civitas. 2017. ? 2 (14). ?.323?327.
9.? ????????????? ?????. ?.: ?????, 2010. ?. 40.
10.? ??????????? ????????????? ?????. ????????? ?а2-? ?. ?. 1. ?.: ????????. ?????????, ?????,
2007. ?. 468.
11.? ????????????? ????? / ??? ???. ?.?. ???????????. ????. ???. ?. 40.
12.? ????????????? ?????? ????????? ? ???????? ?? ????????????? ??????????? ??????????? ???
?????????? ????????? ?а????? ?? 30.09.2015. URL: https://lenta.ru/news/2015/09/30/za/ (???? ????????? 27.05.2018 ?.).
13.? ????????????? ?????: ???. ???. ?.?. ???????, ?.?. ??????????. 2-? ???, ???????. ? ???. ?.: ????????. ?????????, ?????, 2007. ?. 26.
14.? ???????? ?.?. ??????????? ????????? л??????????????? ?? ??????╗ ? ????????? л????????????
???????????╗ ?а??????????? ?????????????? ???????????? / ????. 2012. ?. 278.
15.? ????????????? ?????: ???. ???. ?.?. ???????, ?.?. ??????????. ????. ???. ?. 26.
16.? ????????????? ?????: ???. ???. ?.?. ?????????, ?.?. ?????? ?.: ?????, 2001. ?.42.
17.? ???. 2017. ? 27. ?. 10.
272
??????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
??? 340.1
?. ?. ?????????
?????? ??????????? ????, ?????????
?????-????????????? ???????????????
??????????? ???????????????? ???????????????,
? ??????????? ???????? ? ?????????? ?????
?а???????? ????????????? ??????????????????? ????????????
?а??????
??????????????? ?????????????? ??????? ??????????????-????????? ????????????? ???????? ????????? ?а???????? ?????? ???????????????? ??????? ?????????? ???????????. ????? ? ???? ???????????
? ????? ???????????? ?а?????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ????????????? ? ???????????????? ????????????? ?????, ???????????? ?????? ???????????? ????????? ????????? ????????????? ?????????.
???????? ????? : ????????? ????????? ????????????? ????????? ?а???????? ???????? ?????????????? ,??????? ?????, ????????? ?????, ???????? ????????? ?????????????.
S.V. Ignatieva
PhD of Pedagogical Sciences, Associate Professor
Saint Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation
ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PRIVATE AND PUBLIC LAW
IN THE LEGAL REGULATION OF BUSINESS ACTIVITIES IN RUSSIA
On the relationship between private and public law in the legalregulation of business in Russia. The article
considers the conceptual aspects of stateа? legal regulation of the market economy in the new geopolitical
status of the Russian Federation. Place and role of the state and law is subject to compliance with the optimal
balance of mechanisms of market self-regulation and state regulation of the market.
Keywords :the concept of legal regulation of the economy in terms of market reforms, private and public law,
the mechanism of legal regulation.
???????? ???????? ?????????? ????? ????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ? ??????????????????? ?а????? ??????, ??????????, ?? ??? ??????, ????????????? ??? ????????? ?а????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ? ???????????? ????????.
??????? ?? ????? ????????, ??????????? ?? ???????????????????, ???????? ?????????????
? ??????????? ??? ???????????, ???????????? ?????????? ???????? ?а????????? ???????????? ????????. ?а?????? ???????? ???????????, ?а????? ???????, ????????? ??? ???????????? ??????? ?? ???????????????? ?а??????? ?????????? ??????? ???????????? ????????, ?а?????? ??????? ? ????????????? ?????????? ????? ???????? л????????? ????????? ????????????, ?????????????? ????? ???????
? ?????????????? ?????????? ?????? ???????? ?? ??? ????? ? ?а??? ?????????╗ [1].
???????????? ??????? ??????????? ????????? ??????????? ?а???????? ?????????. ??-??????,
??????????? ????????? ?а ???????? ??????????? ???????????? ??????????? ? ????? ???????? ?????????, ????? ??????? ??????????????? ???????????? ????????????? ????????????. ?а ???? ???? ???????????, ??? ???????, ??????????? ????? ??????? ???????? ?????????, ??? ???? ?????? ???????????
?? ?? ?????, ??? ? ??? ???????????, ?????????? ?? ?????? ?????? ?????????????. ??? ??????????
???????????? ?????????? ???????-???????? ? ???? ????????????? ?????????.
??-??????, ??????????? ??? ???????, ?а???? ?????? ?????????????? ?????????? ???? ???????
??????????, ?????? ??????????????? ???? ? ???????????? ???, ??? ??? ??????????, ????????????????
????????????? ????????????? ????????????, ?. ?. ????????? ??? ????, ??????? ?? ????????? ?а????????????? ?????????.
????? ???????, ?а???? ???????????? ???????, ??????????? ????????? ??? ?а?????????????, ???
? ?????????????? ??????????.
273
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
????????????? ?????????, ??????? ????????? ?а???????? ?????,а? ???????? л??????????????╗, ??????????????? ?????????. ??? ????????? ???????????? ??????? ?????? ? ?????? ????
????????? ?? ????????????????? ?????????????, ???????????? ???????? ?????????????? ?????????????????.
?????????????? ?????????, ??????? ????????? ?а???? ??????,а? ???????? л????????????╗ ???????????????? ?????????, ?????????? ?а?????? ??????? ??????????? ??? ????????? ? ??? л??????????? ????????╗, ???????????? ????????????? ? ??????????, ??????? ???? ?????????-?????????????, ????????????, ?????? ???? ? ?????? ???????, ??????????????? ?а??????????????-??????????????? ???????, ? ????? ?????????????? ??????? ????????????? ???????, ???????? ????????, ???????????, ????????, ????? ? ???????. ??? ????????? ???????????? ????????? ??????.
????? ????? ???????? ?????????????? ????????????? ? ?????????????? ????????? ????????????. ?а?????? ?????? ?????????? ???????????????? ????????, ? ?? ??????а? ???????????? ?????????. ?а ?????? ?????? ???????? ????? ??????????????? ????????? ?а ??????????? ??????????
???????????? ? ??????, ?????? ??? ???????????????. ???????? ????????????? ????????????? ????????? ?а????? ?????? ??????????? ?????????????? ???????????.
???? ???????? ????? ???????? ????????????? ?????????????? ?????????. ????????? ??????
? ?????????? ?????? ?а???????? ????? ??????????????? ??????????. ?а?? ?? ????? ?????? ???????
?? ???????? ?????????????, ??? ??????? ?????? ?????????????? ????????? ?????? ?? ??????????.
?а??????? ???????????????? ? ?????????????? ????????? ????????? ????????????? ?????????????? ??? ? ?????? ?????? ?а???????? ???????????, ?????????? ?????????????? ??????? ?????? ????
?????? ???????????????? ???????. ?а????????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ????????? ? ???????????????
???????. ????? ????????, ??? ?????? ????????????? ??????, ????????? ????????????? ?? ?????????
?????? ? ???????????????? ????????????????? ????????????, ?????????? ?? ?????????? ? ????????????????, ??????????? ? ???????, ????????? ?????????? ??????? ????? ? ?????? ?????? ??????????
?????, ???????? ??? ??????????????? ????????.
? ??????? ?а???????????? ????????? ????????? ???????????? ? ??????, ??? ????????? ????????? (??????? ?????????? ??????? ????????????, ????????? ?? ?????? ?????????? ???????????? ????????? ? ?.?.) ???????? ?????????????? ????? ?? ??????? ? ????????? ?? ??????????. ??? ????? ????????? ????????-???????? ?????, ?? ??? ???? ????????? ??????????? ? ???? ??? ??????????? ?????????
??????? ????? ???????.
?? ???? ???????? ???????-???????? ????????? ??????????? ???????? ???????? ?????????????? ????? ??????????? ?????????????? ???????, ??? ???????? ?а??????? ????? ????????????????
?????????? ? ?????????? ????? ???????? ???????? ?????. ???? ??????????, ??????????????? ?????????? ????? ??????? ?а???????????? ???????????, ??, ????????, ????????????? ??????? ????????
???????? ?????а? ????????????? ?????????????? ????????, ???????? ???????? ???? ? ?????? ???????.
??????? ????????, ??? ?а??????????? ????????, ????? ? ???? ???????????? ????????? ? ?? ???????? ????????????? ??????????? ???????????, ???????? ?а?????? ???? ????????????? ? ?????????????? ?????????, ??? ??????? ????????? ?????????????, ??????????? ??????????. ???????? ????????????? ?????? ??????????? ????? ???????? ? ?????????? ?????, ??????????? ?? ????????? ????????.
? ???????? ????? ?а??????????? ?? ????????? ???????????? ????????? ? ?????????? ????????, ????????????? ? ?????????????? ????????? ????????? ?а????????? ??????????, ????, ??? ???????, ? ?а????????????? ?????? ?? ???. ?а???????? ?????? ???? ?????????????? ????????? ?????????
?а?????????, ?????? ????? ?а???????????????? ????? ? ???????????? ????? ???????????????? ?????? ????????????? (????? ????????????). ????????????? ????????? ???????????? ???????, ??????????? ??????.
????????? ?????а ? ????? ?????, ??????????????? ????????? (????????? ???????????????
??????, ?????????? ?????, ??????????? ????, ???????????????? ????????, ???????, ???????, ??????????? ???????? ? ?.?.). ????? ??????????? ????????? ????? ???? ??????? ??????????????? ??????,
????????????? ??????????????? ???????? ?? ??????? ????????????, ?.а?. ?? ???????? л?????? ? ??????????╗.
??????? ?????а? ????? ???????, ?????????????? ? ????????? ????????? (????????? ?????????????, ?????????, ???? ????? ??????? ???, ???????? ?????????, ???????????? ? ?.а?.). ????? ??? ??????????? ????????? ??????????? ???? ??????? ???, ???????, ?? ???????????, ????????????? ?????
?????????????????? ????????, ???????? ?? ??????? ???????????, ?.а?. ?? ???????? ???????????? ?????????, ?????????????????, ?????????.
274
??????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
??? ???? ????? ????? ???? ????????????? л??????╗, ??? ??? ????? ?????? ???? л???????????╗, ?? ???? ?? ??? ?? ?????? ????????? ??????.
??????? ?????а? ????????????, ?????????????? ???????. ??? ?????????? ?????????, ?????????
??????? ?? ???????? ??????? ??????? (???, ????????, ???????? ?? ??????????????? ?????? ? ??? ???
?????? ???????? л????????╗), ?? ? ?? ????????, ????, ?а ??? ????? ?????????????, ???????? ????
?????????????, ????? ??????????? ??????????? ????????, ?????????? ?????, ?????????? ? ?????????? ???????????? ??? ??? ?? ??????????? ???????. ??? ?????????? ??????????? ???????? ????? ???
??? ? ????????? ??? ???? ???????? ? ???????? ???????????? ????????, ???????????? ??????? ????????, ????????????? ? ????????????????? ??????? ??? ?, ?????????????, ???? ???????? ? ????????
???????? ?????????, ??????????, ?????????? ????????. ??????? ????? ??????? ??? ?? ?????????????
?? ??????????????? ?????? ???? ???????, ??? ??????????? ????? ?????????????, ????????????? ???
???????? ???? ??????? ????. ????????? ??????????????? ?????? ?а??? ???? ???????, ?? ???????????
???????, ????? ??????????????? ??????? ? ?? ??????? ????, ?? ???????????. ? ?а?? ?? ?????, ??????????????? ?????? ??????? ?? ?????? ??????????, ?? ? ????????. ???????? ??????? ???.
? ???? ????????????? ???????? ????? ????? ????????? ?????? ? ??????? ??????, ??? ???
??????????, ?а ???? ???????? ????? ???????? ?????????, ????????? ????????? ????????-????????
? ??????-???????? ????????? (?? ???????? ? ????????????? ????????, ??????????? ???????????
? ??.). ? ??? ?? ????????? ????? ? ??????? ????? ???????? ????????????????, ????????? ????????
????????????? ??????????????? ???????? ??????. ???? ?а???????????? ????????, ??? ??? ??? ????????? ??????????? ??????????????????, ???????????? ??????????????? ??????, ???????? ???????
????????? ??????????????? ??? ????????-????????.
??????????? ???? ????????? ????? ?????????????? ???????? ?а ??????? ??????? ???????????? ????????? ????????? ????????????? ???????????????????. ?а???????? ??????????? ???????
????????? ?????? ??????????, ??? ????????????? ??????????????????? ???????????? ?????? ?????????????? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ????? [2], ?а???, ???????, ??????????? ??????. ?????????????
??????????????????? ???????????? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ????? ??????????, ???????? ??????,
????? ?а ?????? ????????? ?? ???? ???? ???????????? ???????????????????, ? ????????? ?????????
?а ????????? ?????????. ?а ???? ???????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????????? ????????? ??????? ?
????????? ????????? ?а????????????? ??????????????????? ?????????.
? ?? ?? ????? ?????? ??????????? ????????????????? ???????? ????????????? ???? ????????? ?? ??????????? (?????????????) ? ?? ????????? (??????????????), ??? ???????? ?а?????????
???? ???????????????? ?а???????? ???????????????? ????????????? ?? ????????????. ???, ?????????
????? ?? ????????????? ??????????????????? ???????????? ???????? ?а?.1 ???????????? ???????.
?????? ?? ??? ?????????????? ?? ??????????? ?????? ? ????????? ????????? ????? ????????????.
?а ?? ?? ?????, ?а ?????? ??????? ? ???????????? ??????????. ????????????? ???????????????????
???????????? ? ??? ?????????????? ????????????, ?а??????? ??????? ????????? ????????????????,
??? ???????????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????? ??? ??????-????????? ????. ?а???? ?????? ????????????? ??????????-????????? ???????? ??????????????????? ???????????? ??????? ?????? ???
???????????????? ?????? ???? ?? ????? ??? ?? ??????????? ? ?? ?а????????? ????????????? ?? ??????
?а?????????? ?а????????????, ??? ????????. ?????? ??????????????? ???????? ?а????????? ?? ??????
????? ?????, ?? ? ?а ???????? ???????????????? ??????????а ? ?????????? ?? ?????????? ??????????????? ??????????, ????????, ????????????? ??????????? ??????????? ? ????????? ????????
?? ??????? ???????????? ????? ????????????, ????????????????, ???????????, ?????????? ? ??????? ???????????????? ????????. ???а? ?????? ??? ?????????, ??????? ????? ?????????? ???????
???????????????????? ?????а? ????????? ?? ?????????.
??????????? ????????? ????????????? ??????????????????? ?????? ?а ????? ???????? ?????
???????? ?а???????????? ??????? ?а????? ???????????? ????????? ?а?????????, ??????? ????? ???
???????? ????????????? ?????????, ????????? ???????????? ??????????? ? ?.а ?. ??????????????
??????? ?.1 ?? ?а???????: ?? ??????????? ?????????, ????????????, ???????? ?????????????, ????????????, ??????? ? ??????, ??????? ???????? ??????? ??? ????????? ?а????????? ?????? ?????????
?????????????, ??? ??? ?? ????????? ??????? ??????????? ???????????, ???? ? ???????????? ?????????? ????????????? ????????? ?а???????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????. ??? ?????
?????????? ???????? ?а???? ????????????? ????????? ????????. ????? ???????, ??????????????????? ???????????? ??????? ?? ??????? ??????????-????????? ????????????? ? ?? ????? ???? ???????????????? ?????? ?а??????? ??????? ???????? ????????. ?а???? ????????? ?????? ???????? ?????
275
???????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
?????????? ?????? ??????????-????????? ????, ?а??????? ??????????????????? ????????? ????????
????????? ????????????? ??? ?а??????? ????????, ??? ? ?????????? ???????? ? ?? л??????????????╗
?? ?????????????? ? ???????????? ?????????. ?а??????????? ???????? ?????????? ??????????? ????????????????, ???????????? ??????????????????? ????????????. ?? ????????? ???? ?????? ??????
?????? ? ??????????? ????, ????????? ???????? ?????? ??? ??? ????????. ??????? ?????????? ?????? ???????????? ??????? ????????? ???????? ???????????? ? ??????????? ??????? ??????????????.
??????, ??????? ????????, ??? ???? ????? ?? ???????????? ?????????? ??????, ??????????????????
?????? ?????????? ????? ??????? ?????????????, ???????? ?????????????? ?? ??? ? ?????????????
?а????? ????????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ???????. ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????? ????????????????? ???????????? ????????????????, ??? ???????????? ???????????? ??????????? ????????
? ???????????.
????? ????????? ???????? ???????????? ???????????????? ??, ?????????? ???????? ??????
??? ?????????? ?? ?? ??????????? ? ????????????????? ???????????? ???????????????? ????????
??????????? ?????? ?а?? ?? ????????? ??????????????? ????????? [3], ??? ?а???? ??????? ?????????? ??-?????? ????????? ?? ??????????? ??????? ? ????????? ????? ?а??????????? ????? ? ?? ???????? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ???????? ? ?????????? ????? ?а????????????? ??????????????????? ????????????.
? ???? ????? ????????? ????????????? ?????????? ????? ????????? ? ????????? ????? ????????? ????????? ????????????? ??????????????????? ????????????, ????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ? ???????????????? ?а???????? ?????. ?????????? ????? ?????????, ??????????? ?????????????? ? ??????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ? ????? ????????? ????????????? ?????????
?а???????? ?????? ???????????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????, ????? ?? ?????? ??????? ????????????? ????????, ?? ? ?????????? ?????????? ???????????? ???????, ???, ?? ???? ????? ????????
????????? ? ?????????? ????????????? ??????????????????? ?????????, ?? ????? ???? ??????????
??????????? ???????? ???????????????? ? ??????????????????? ?? ?????????? ?????? ??? ????????.
?а???????? ????? ????? ????????? ? ????????? ???????????????? ????????? ?????? ??????????????? ? ??????????? ????????? ??????: ?? ??????????? ?????????, ? ??????, ?????????????? ????????????, ??????????????? ? ?.?. ????? ????? ?????? ??????? ? ?????????????, ??? ???, ?а ?????
???????, ???? ???????????? ??????????? ??????????????? ???? ???????????? ?, ???????, ?????????
????????????????? ????? ????? ??????. ?а ?????? ???????, ????? ?????? ????????? ?????????????
????????????? ?а?????? ??? ??????????????? ? ???????? ??????????????? ???????, ??????? ?а?????????? ???? ????????????? ????? ???????????? ?????????? ? ????? ?????????????? ?? ????????
?? ?????????? ????? ?????? ???????? ?а???????.
л? ???????? ???????? ?а????????????? ?????,а? ??????? ???????? ?????? ?.?., ? ???? ?? ?????????? ????????????? ???????????????? ?а???????????, ? ????????, ????????? ??????????? ????????????? ????????????? ?????????╗ [4]. ????? ???????, ???????????? ????? ??????? ????????? ???????? ????????????? ????????????? ????????? ?? ??????????? ? ?????????.
? ????? ??????????????? ??????????????-????????? ????????? ??????? ????? ?а????, ??? ????????????? ?а??????????????????? ???????????? ??????????? ?????? ??????????: 1) ???????? ?????????? ???? ?? ??????? ??????????????????? ????????????; 2) ??????? ????????????? ???? ???? (????????, ?????????????? ???????????? ????? ????????????? ????????????); 3) ???????? ??????????,
??????????? ? ???????????? ??????? ?????????.
????????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ???????????? ??????????? ?? ?????????????
??????????????????? ????????? ???, ??????, ????????? ???????. ???????? ???????????? ?????????????? ???????? ? ????????? ???????? ??????????? ????????????? ???????????? ??????????? ????????????? ?а??????????? ???????? ?????????????? ?????????.
??????? ????????, ??? ????? ??????????????? ? ???? ??????????? ???? ??????????? ???????? ???????? ????????????? ??????????????????? ???????????? ?а?????????????? ?????????. ??????
????? ?????? ?????????? ???????????????? ??????? ? ?а ????????? ??????????????? ????????????.
???????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ????????????????а ? ??? ????????????, ???????????? ????????????? ???????????? ????????? ?а ???????????? ??????. ????? ????, ????? ????????
????????????? ??????????????????? ????????? ?????????? ??????? ???????????????,а ? ?????????
??????????? ??? ????? ? ????? ??????, ????? ??????????, ????????????? ?????????????, ?????????? ????? ???????? ??????????? ????, ??????? ?????? ??????? ?????????????????? ?????? ??????
????????? ????????? ?????????? ? ???????? ?а???????????? ????????? ????????? ????????????? ????????? ?а????? ??????????????????? ????????????.
276
??????????? ?????
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
?????? ???????????? ???????????? ??????????? ???????? ??????????? ??????????? ????????? ?????????, ??????? ??? ??????????? ????????????????. ?а???? ????? ??????????? ?????? ??????
??????????? ?????????????? ?????????, ????????? ???????? ?????????????? ?????????, ????????
?????????? ??????????????? ????????? ?а????? ???????? ??????????? ???????????? ?????.
?-???????, ??????????? ?????? ????????????? ????????, ????? ????? ??????? ????????
???????? ???????????? ????????????????? ???? ????????????? ?????????????. ???, ?????? ?????,
???????? ????????????? ?????????-????????????? ???? ????????, ????? ???????????? ?????????????
???????, ????????????? ????????????, ??????????? ??????????? ? ???????????? ????????????, ??????????? ???????? ????????????? ????????????? ??????.
?????? ???????????? ????????????? ???????????? ??????????? ?? ??????? ?????????????
?????????? ???????????? ???????? ????? ?а???????? ????? ???????? ??????????????? ?????????????
??? ?????????? ????????. ??? ????? ?????????????? ????? ?????????? ? ???????? ??????????? ???????, ?а??????? ????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????? ????????, ????????? ????
????? ? ????? ?????????? ??????, ??????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ?а?? ?????????????. ???????
???????? ??? ????, ??? ???????????? ???????? ?????????? ???? ?а?????? (????? ?? ????????? ?????????????, ?? ?????, ???????????? ?????? ????? ? ?.?.), ??? ?? ?????????? ????????? ? ????????????
??? ?? ???????????????, ??? ?? ???????? ???????? ??????????? ?? ???????????????? ?????????? ???
???????. ??????? ? ????? ??????????????? ?????????? ???? ?????????? ???? ?? ??????? ???????????
????????? ?а??????????? ?? ????????? ?????????, ?? ???????????? ? ???????????????? ????????????????. ?????????? ?????а? ???????? ???????? ???????? ?????????????? ?????, ??????? ??????????
????????????? ?а??