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?а??????????? ??а????? ????? ?а??????? ??а??????, ????
??? ?????? ????? ????? ?????????. ????? ????? ??????
???????????? ?а????? ??????????? ????? ?а??????
diskmanagerd ?а???????? ??????????? ?а????н???? ??????.
????????????? ?а???????, Linux.BtcMine.174 ???????????
????????????? ???????, ?, ???а???????????, ????????? ??а????????.
???? Linux.BtcMine.174 ??а??? ??????? ??а?????
????????????????? (root), ??? ????????? ????? ?????????? ?а?????????? ??????? ??а?????????? ????? ??????????; ???а???? ??????????? ??а????????? ?????????
DirtyCow ??????? ??????????? ????? ??а??????????
??????. ????? ????? ??????????? ????????? ????????
???????? ?????????? ??????? ???????????? ????????
?а??????? safedog, aegis, yunsuo, clamd, avast, avgd,
?
cmdavd, cmdmgd, drweb-configd,
drweb-spider-kmod, esets а?аxmirrord.
?а?????? ??а??????????? ???????
??а?????? ????????? ??????? ??????????, ??а?а??????? ????????
?????????? ??????? ??? ??? ?????
?а??????????, ?а??????? ??? ?????????? ???????????? ???????. ?????
Linux.BtcMine.174 ???????????? ????
?а????????????, ????? ???? ????????? ?а????????? ??а??????????????
?????????? ??????; ??????? ????????
?????????? ?а??????? ?????, ?а??????? ????? ???????????? ??а????????? SSH, ?а???????
????н???? ??.
???????? ??? ??? ????????, Linux.BtcMine.174
????????? ?а??????? ??????, ??????????????? ???
?????? ???????????? Monero (XMR). ?а??????????
?а?????? ??????? ?????????, ???????а?? ???? ??????,
?а???а????н????????? ??????????н??? ????????????? ???.
????? ??а?а??????????? ????? ??????????? ?а??????????? ???????? ?а????????? ?????? ??????????, ????
???????а????????.
????? ??????? Linux.BtcMine.174
???????? ???????????? ????????а? ??а?????????? ??????????? ????????...
????????????
??????? ?????????-?????????
Acrosser ??????????? ????? ?????????? ?????? ??????? ????????????.
??????? Acrosser (??????? Intel IoT Solutions
Alliance) ??????????? ?????????? ???а??????????? GNU/Linux ?????????? ??????? ???н
???????-?????? Micro Box AND-DNV3N2, ??????????????? ??? ?????? ????????????.
??? ?а??????? ?а?????? ??????? FWA-1012VC
??а????????-??????????аAdvantech, ??????? ????????????? 4???????? л?????????╗ SoC Atom C3558
?Denverton? 2,2а???, ?а???????????? ???? ?а??????
л???????╗ ??????? Gigabit Ethernet, ???? ?а????????
л???????╗ ??????? GbE ?а????? ???????????????
??????? SFP (Advantech ????? ?????????? ?????? ?а??????? ??????? ?а8???????? ????? C3758), ????? ??а???
?????аmini-PCIe ?аUSB 3.0, 2,5-???????? ????? SATA-III
??? ??????????? SSD, 8??????? GPIO, ????????? ????????????? ????? ???????? ???а?????????? ??????? (?????????? ??????) ?а(???????????) TPM 2.0. ??????????
??????? GbE ?????????????? ???????? ?????????????
Intel I210 ?аMarvell 88E1543.
??н? ??н? ?н? ?: https://news.drweb.ru; www.acrosser.com
?
www.linuxformat.ru
л?????????╗ AND-DNV3N2 ???????????? ???????
??????????, ??????? ??????? ?????????????? ???????
?????????, ?????????? ????????, ??????????????
?????? ??????, VPN, UTM-??????? ?аSD-WAN, ??? ??????? 230?╫?105?╫?44а??. ??? ?????? DDR4 ?????????
???????? ??????? 8 ?? ??? (????????, ??? ??????????? ????????? Atom C3000 ???????????? ??а48 ?? ???,
?а??????? ?????????????? Congatec ?????? Conga-B7AC
???????????? 3 ?????? DDR4 ??а32 ??а? ????? ??а96 ??
DDR4). ??????? ????? ???? 2?pair LAN bypass ?а???????????????? ?????????? ???? WAN.
??????? 2 ??????аmini-PCIe ?а????? ??? SIM-????
????????? ????????????а???нн????????? ??????????, ?????????????? 4 ???????? ????? ?а?????????? LTE ?аWiFi
??а802.11ac. ?????????????? Intel QuickAssist Technology
(Intel QAT) ?аopen source Data Plane Development Kit
(DPDK). ?????????? ???????????? ?а????????? ???????
DC 12а?а40а?? ?а???????? Li-Ion 3V 220а?A╖?; ???????? ???
??????? ??????????а? ??а0░C ??а40░C.
?????? ??????? ????????????
Acrosser AND-DNV3N2 ????
??а????? ??????????? ???????
AND-G420N1.
??????? 2018? LXF244? |?7
???????
???? ?????!
?????н???????? ????????????????
?????? ????????????? ????????-?????? л??????╗.
?????? л??????????????╗ ????????????? ?????? ????????????? ???????? ?????? (Internet
ofаDrones, IoD)а? ???????????????? ???????
????? ??? ????????????? л??????╗. ???????? ???????????? ????? ???? ?????????????? ???????? ???????,
??????? ???????????? ????? ??????????? ?а??????????
???????? ???????? ?????????????, ???????????? ???????????? ?а???????. ?????? ???????????? л???????╗
????????????? ??а????? 2020а?.а???????????? ????? ???????????? ????? ??ал??????╗ ??а?????????? ??а300а??
??а????????? ???????? ???????. ??????? ????? ???????? ?????????, ??? ????????? ????????? ???? ?????? ??????? ?а?????????????? ?????? ??????, ?а????? ????????? ??? ??а??????? ?????? ??????????. ???????? ?????
???? ??????????? ???а?????????? ??????????? ?????????а? ??????н???? ???????? ??????? ?а????? ??а???????????? ??????? ??а???????????? ??????, ????? ?????????????, ???? ?а??????? ???????????? ??????, ???????
?а???????????? ?????????. л??? ???????? ?????????
?????? ???? ???????????? ????????? ??????????,а??н
????? ????? ?????? ??????????????? ???? ???а???????????? ????????? ???????? ??????????. ??????? ?????
?
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??? ??????? ????????????? ??а???????????? ??а??????? ??????????.
л??????╗ ????? ??????????? ???
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?????????. ?а??????????? ??а???????? ???????? ?????а? ???????????, ??????????, ?????? ????а? л??????╗ ????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????? ????,
??а?????????????? ??а????????? ?????????? ????.
??а??????????? ???? ?????? ???????? ???????? ???????. ??????????? ???????а? ?? л??? л?????╗ (??????
?а??????? л??????????????╗)а? ?????????? ???????
??????? ?а2019а?.
??????? ????????????? ??????????-??????????? ?????????
л??????╗ ???????? ??????? ????
???????? ???????? ???????.
??????? INTEL
л??? ??? ???????? ??? ????????╗
????????? Core ?аXeon ?????????? ?????????
????? ????????? ??а?????????????? 11а??????? ?а?????? ?Architecture Day 2018? ?????
??????????? CPU, ?????????? ???????? Sunny Cove. ????? ????, Intel ??????? ?а????? 2019а?.а??????? ??а?????
???? 10????????????? ????. ???????? ?а????????????
Sunny Cove ?а???????? ???????? ????? ????? ??? ????
???????, ?????? Intel ???????, ??? Sunny Cove ????????
??????????? ????????? ?????? ???????? ?а??? ?????
????????? ???????? ???а?????????? ??????. ?????
????, Intel ??????? ??ал????????????? ??????????? ???
?????????? ????????? ????????????? ?а??????????.
????????, ????? ?????????? ??а????????? ?????????????????? ??? ????????????, ????? ??? ?????? ????????????? AES ?аSHA-NI, ?а?????? ???????н??? ??????
????????, ?а??? ????? ?????? ?а????????????╗. ????????? ????? ??????????????? ??????????????? ???????
Gen11, ??????? л????????????? ??? ??????????? ???????
1 TFLOPS╗, ?а?????????? ???? 3D-?????????? ?Foveros?
??? ?????????? ??????н???? ????? ?а????????? ?????,
?
8? |? LXF244? ??????? 2018
??????????????? ??а??? л??????????? ????????????? ???????????????
??????╗. ?а???? ???????? ???????????
??????н???? ??? ??????? ??а????????? ?а???? ??????н???? л????????╗, ???
????????? ????????? ?????????? ???
???????????? ?????. л??????????,
?????? ?????????? ??? ??????????? ???????? CPU, ??а???????????
????? ?????? ???????????? ??? GPU.
??? ?????? 5G ?а??? ???????????
?????????????? ???? ????? ??????
???????????,а? ??????? ???????????? ????????????? ???????? Intel ????? ?????? [Raja
Koduri].а? ?????? ??а???????? ?????????? ??а????????? ???????????. ?????? ??а????? ????? ????????
?????????? ?????????????? ???????? ?а??????????
??а?а???? ?????. ?а????????? ??????? ?????????? ??????????? ????? ??????????? ??? ????? ????????, ???
????а?? ???? ????? ?????╗.
??????н? ??? ??????????????
?????? ?аiGPU Gen11 ??????????
??а64 (?а???????? Gen9 ??а24).
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??н? ??н? ???: https://rostec.ru; www.theinquirer.net
Intel ??????? ???????????? Architecture Day.
???????
???????? ??????
????????
???????
????????? ????????
??????????
Canonical ????????? ????
????????? ????????????
Ubuntu 18.04 LTS ??а10а???.
????????: www.serverwatch.com
╗
???????????? ?????????? Samsung SSD X5 ????????
?а???????а?а??????.
?????? ???????? ??????? ???????????? ?????????????? ?????????? Samsung Portable SSD
X5, ?????????? ??а???? ???????????? NVMe
?а????????????? ??????????? ????????? Thunderbolt
3?(40а????/?). ?????????? ??????? ?????????н???? ???????????? ????????? ?????? ?а???????????? ??????????,
??????? ??????????? ??????? ?а?????? ??а2 ??????,
?а????????н???? ???????? ?????? ??а??????? ??????????? ???????? X5 ??а????????? ?а????????? ???????????? ??????????? ??????????? ??? ???????? ??????.
?????????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ????????? ??а?Samsung Portable SSD Software?, ???????????
??а256??????? ????????? ?????????? AES, ???????
??????????? ?????? ??????? ?а?????? ????????? ?????????? ????????????. ?????? ???????н???? ??????????????: ?????? 119?╫?62?╫?19,7а??; ???????? ???????? ??а2800
??/?, ?а?????? ??а2300 ??/?а(500 ??а? ??а2100а??/?);
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CB; ???????????? RoHS2; ???????? ??а3 ????.
Samsung ??????? ??????????? ??????? лIoT ????????
Samsung╗ ?а?????????? ??а????
????-?????????? ???????????????? ????????????.
????????: https://news.samsung.com
╗
?
?????? ???? Total War:
Warhammer II ????????
???аLinux ?аMacOS.
????????: www.gamingonlinux.com
╗
???????? ??????? ??а?????
???? ????? ????????? ????
?????? Meltdown/Spectre ??а?????????? Intel, AMD ?аARM.
????????: http://safe.cnews.ru
╗
????????? ?????????? Thunderbolt 3 ?а????????????
NVMe, SSD X5 ???????????? ???????????? ????????
???????? ??????.
? 19 ?????? ?????????? ????? ?????????? ?а????????? ????????? ?а?а?????? ?????? ????????? Samsung
??а??????????????? ????????? ???? 28?990а???. (??????
?а???????? 500 ??), 49?990а???. (?????? ?а???????? 1а??),
99?990а???. (?????? ?а???????? 2а??).
????? Microsoft Office ?????
???? ?????? ?????????????
??а????? ???? ???а???????????
?????????? ???? ???????.
????????: http://safe.cnews.ru
╗
?????????????? ?????
???????? ?????? Apaнche
OpenOffice 4.1.6 ???? 13 ???????????.
????????: www.mail-archive.com
╗
????????????????
???? ?????? ???????????
??????? Devuan ????????
?а?????????? 5????7 ?????? 2019а?.
????????: https://lists.dyne.org
╗
л?????? ???????????
????????...╗
Microsoft ????????? ????????
Edge ?аWindows 10 ?????????
??а????????? ?????? Chromium.
????????: www.windowscentral.com
╗
?????????? л??????? ????????╗ ????? ????????????
?а????????????????? ?? ????.
?
10? |? LXF244? ??????? 2018
??????? ??????. ??? ????????? ????????? л??????? ????????╗ ???????? л??????? ???╗ ??????? ???????????
??????????? ?? ????, ??????? ???????????? ???????
?????????????????? ?а?????????? ??. ???????????
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??????: ????????? ??????, ??????, ???????????, ??????? ?а?????, ???????? ??? ???????????? ??????????,
web-???????, ???????? ?????????? ?а??. ????????????
???? ????????? ??а???? ?????н????????? ???????????
л?????╗, ??????????????? ????????? ????????н???
??????????????? ?????????? ????? ??. ?????? ????????? ??????????? ???????, ??????????? ???????? ???????????? ?????н???????? ?????????????? ??????????,
??????????? ???????????? ???????? ????????????
???а?????? ?????????? ?????????. |
??????? ?????? libcamera,
????????? ?????????? ???
?????????? ????????? ?а????????? ?????? ?а?????????????, ???????????? ?аTV-???????? ?аLinux,
Android ?аChromeOS.
????????: http://libcamera.org
╗
???????? SUSE ???????н
???? ????? ?????????????
???????????? SUSE Linux Enterprise
12 SP4.
????????: www.suse.com
╗
www.linuxformat.ru
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??????? л??????? ???╗ ?ал?-?????????╗
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?? л???? ??????? ???????╗, ??????????? ??????? ??????
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?? ?а??????? ??????? ???????? ??. ?????????????? ??????? ????? л??????? ????????╗ ????????????
????????? л?-?????????╗ ??а???? ??????????? ?????????? л??????-?╗ ?а???????????? MIPS (??????????
л?????? ???????????╗). ?а??????????? ??а????????????,
?????????? ????? ?????????????? ???? ??? ????????????????? ??????? ???????, ???? ??? л?????? ??????╗
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????????? ????????????
?????????? Windows 10 ???????? ??а??????????? ???????????
Microsoft Surface Book 2 л?????
????? ??????╗.
????????: http://safe.cnews.ru
╗
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?? ????????, ????????, ??????? ?????? ??а??????? ????? Huggis, ?????????? ??? ????????. ?????н?????
??????????? ?а???????????... ???? ?????? ???.
??????? Surf ?????? ??? ????????, ?а??????
??????????? ????????? ???????.
???????????? ?????????? ??? ?????????
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???????: ??а???????? ??а????????? ??????
????????? (??? ??а????-????????? ??аAlt?+?F2)
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?а??????????? ???? ?а??????????? ????.
????? ???????, ?аSurf?? ????? ??а?????н
???? ??а?????????? ?????? ??????????,
????? ?????????????.
alv@posix.ru
?
www.linuxformat.ru
Ubuntu 18.10 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 14
??????????? ?????????? ????????????
?а?????????? Snap-??????? ?а??????? ??????
?а???????? Gnome Shell. ???????, ????????????? 18.04 ????????? ?? ??????? ?? ?????.
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??????????????? ??????????? ??а???? Arch,
?а??????? ??а?????? ????????, ???????????
??а???????? ?????????????.
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Synology DiskStation DS418 Play ? ? ? 19
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????????? ????????? ?????.
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???????????? ??????????????????.
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??? ???? ?????? ????а? ??????????? ????????? ?????????. ?????????? ?????н??????
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INTEL CORE I9?9900K
MANJARO 18.0
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????? ?? ???????.
????????? 9900K ?????? ????? ????????
???а???????? ?????.
╗╗?????????:
???????а?????????? ???. 26
CALLIGRA SUITE
GOOGLE DOCS
ONLYOFFICE
WPS OFFICE
LIBREOFFICE
Linux ??????????? ??а??????? ?????????, ????????
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??????? ??????? ?а?????н
????? ??? ???????????
?а??????? ?????????.
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?????? ??????????? Linux
Ubuntu 18.10
??????????? ??а?????? ????? ??а????? ???????????? ????????? ????????,
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Linux, ?????????
???????? Linux
????????? ?а?????????. ??????
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Ubuntu ???????????? ???????
??а?????????
???????? ?????
Gnome, ???????
?????????? ??????????, ?????
???????? ???
???????????.
?? ??а???????? ??????????
????????????, ???? ??????????
?????? ??? ??????? Ubuntu.
????? ?????????? ???????, ??????? ?????????? ?????????, ??????????? ?а???????
?????????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ???????????? ??????????, ?а????? ????? ???????????? ???????. ?????? Ubuntu ????????
?а???? ??????? ??????а? ??а????? ??????
LTS-??????? ???а???????? ????? Unity
?а?а??????? ?????? ??????????????????
???????н???? ??????? Wayland ??аX.org.
?а?????? ?????? Ubuntu 18.10, ???????
????????? ???????н???? ???????????
[Cosmic Cuttlefish], ?????? ???????? ?????
????????? ?а?????, ??а???? ????, ??? ????????? ??а?????? ???????????? ??????????? ??????????? Ubuntu ??? ????????? ??????????? ?????? ?а????.
??????? Snap ??а?????? ???????, ????? ??? Stable ?аBeta.
???????? ???????? ????????? ?аUbuntu
18.10а? ????? ???? ??????. ?аGnome, ??????????? ??а???????
??????????? ??????? ??????????? Steam, ??????? ?????????
???? Ubuntu, ??????????? ??? ??????? ?а??????, ??????? ?а??????????????? Steam ???????? ??? ??????? ?????????? ????? HID
???????? ?а??? ??????? ?а????????????. ????? Ambiance ?аRadi??а???????. Ubuntu 18.10а????? ????????? ?????? X.org ??а???ance, ???????, ?????? ??а????? ?????, ?????????? Yaru, ???????
???????? ?????????? v1.20.1. ??? ????? ?????????? ?????????????? ????? ?????????? ?а??????. ???? ?????? ???????????
???? ???????? ????????????? ?????? LZ4 ?????? ????? ???????
??????? ?????? Suru.
?????? gzip ??? ram-????? initramfs. ??? ????????? ???? ?а????
?????? ??????????? ??????????? ????????? ?????????
????? ?а???? ????? ??????? ????????. ???????????? ?????????а???? ??????? ?????? ??а????. ????? ???????? ??а???? Linux
??, ??? ?????????? ?????????? ??а10?%, ???? ?а??? ??? ???????
4.18, ??????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ?????????
?????? ???????????.
Raspberry Pi ??????? 3 B ?а3 B+ , ?????? ?а???????????????????
??????? ???? Ubuntu 18.10а????? ?????????? ??а???????????????? ????????? Thunderbolt ?аUSB-C. ??????? ??????????????????? ???????? Gnome Shell. ???????????? ????????
???????? ????????????? ????? ???? ???????? ??? ????????????? ?????????? ???, ??????? ?????????????????? ???????????? ????????? ??? ????????. ?а???? ????????? ?????????
??? ???????????. Ubuntu 18.10 ???????? Gnome 3.30, ???????
???????н???? ??????????? AMD Radeon RX Vega M, ?а?????
?????????? ?????? ???????? ???????, ??? ?????-???? ??????,
?
??????? ????
?????????????
??????? ????????? ?????????
?????????????????? Gnome.
14? |? LXF244? ??????? 2018
www.linuxformat.ru
??????????? Linux ??????
╗╗? ?????? ??????? ?? UBUNTU...
???????????? Ubuntu ???????, ??? ????????? ??????? ???????????? ?????? ?????????????, ?а?????? ?????? ?????????????? ??? ????????????? ??????, ?а??????? ??? ???????? ????.
??????????? ??????? ???? ??????????????. ??????????? ?????
?????????? ??а????????? ??-????? ?????????? Gnome. ???????? ?????? ??а??? ???????? ??????? Disks, ??????? ?????? ?????
?????????????? ?а??????????? ???? ????????, ?????????????
??????????? VeraCrypt, ????????? ?????? ???????????? Tails.
Thunderbolt ?????!
???? ????? ????????? ?????????, ????????? ?а????????????? ????????????, ??????? ???????? ?а?????????? Settings
[?????????] ?????? 18.10. ??? ?????????? ????? ???????????
???????? ??? ?????????? ???????????? Thunderbolt 3. ?????
????, ?а????? ??????? ?????????? ????????? ?аSettings ?????н
???? ????????н???? ??????, ?????????????? ?????? ?????,
????? ??? ????? ????? ??????????? ????????????. ??а?????
?????? ???????????? ??? ?????????????? ??а????? ????????
?????? ?????????? ???????, ???а?????????????? ?????? ???
??????????? ?????????.
????? ??а???????? ??????????? Gnome, ???????????
???а??????????, ???????? ???????? ???????? Nautilus. Ubuntu
18.10 ?????????? ?????? ??а?????? v3.26.4 ????????? ??? ????
????????? ?????? ????????? ????????? ?а?????????? ???????
??а??????? ?????. ?????? ???а??????????? ??? ??????????????
??????? ???????? ????? ??? ???????, ?а??а???????????, ??? ???
????? ???????? ??а??????? ????? Ubuntu, ???? ??????а?? ?????
???????????? ???????? ????????????? ?а?????????? ?????????,
???????? ?а????? ????? ???????? ????????? ?????????.
??? ???? ????, ??а???????? ?а????????? ?????а? ??? ?????????? ?аAndroid ???а?????? GSConnect, ?????????? Gnome
Shell. ??? ??-???????? ???????? ?а??????????? Universe, ?а????
???????????? Ubuntu ???? ??а????? ??? ??????? ??? ?????????,
??? ???????? ????? ??а?????? ??????????, ??????? ??а??????
?????????? ?????? ?????????????? ????????? 18.10. ????? ???а??
???????????? Ubuntu ?????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????
???????? ????? ?????-?????? DLNA ??а??????? ????, ??а??а??????
??-??а?????? ??????.
?? ????? ???????????? ???????????, ??????????? ?????????? ???????????? ?а?????????? ??????? Snap ?а??????? ??????.
????????? xdg-desktop-portal ?????? ????? ???????????? Snaps,
??? ????????????? ??? ????????? ???????? ????????????? ???????????? ????????? ??а??????? ?????. ?????? 18.10а????? ???????????? ?а????? ??????????? Snap ??а????????? (Calculator,
System Monitor ?аCharacters), ?а?а??????????? ???????????? ????
??? ????? 4000 ????????.
??? ??а?????, ???????? ??а??? ??? ?????????, Ubuntu 18.10а?
??? ??а??????? ??????????н????? ?????????? ??? ????. ?????????, ???? ??а??? ??????????? Ubuntu 18.04 LTS, ??? ??????????
??????????? ????????? ??а?????? 2023а?. ????????, Ubuntu
18.10 ????? ???????? ?????????? ??? ??????? ????????????,
??????????? ?????? ?а?????? ?????????? ?????? ?а???????
?????? ???????, ??? ???????? ??? ???????? ??а??а??????
www.linuxformat.ru
????? Ubuntuа? ??? ??????, ??? ?????? ???? ???????????. ?????? ?а???????????? ???????????????, ????? ????? Ubuntu ??????????? ??? ???????????
?????????????, ?????? ??а??????? ????????? ?????????? ?а?????????? ?????.
????????, ????? ??а????? ??????? ????????? ?а???? ?????????? ???????? ?????
??а32??????????? ISO. ???? ?????? ?????? Ubuntu ???????? ????????????? ???
?????????? 32?????????? ISO-?????? ??? 18.04 LTS ??????, ??? ??????? ??????
18.10 ????????? ??а??? ???????????? ???? 64???????????. ?а??? ?????????
Kubuntu, Ubuntu Mate, Ubuntu Budgie ?аUbuntu Studio. ???????, ?????????? 32??????????? ????????????? ???????? ??а???????? ???????????? 32??????????
?????????? ?????????? ??а????? ????? ?????? ????? ???????????. ?????? ?????????? ???????, ?????? ??????? ?????????? Ubuntu, Ubuntu Server, ????? ???????? ????????? ??????????. ?а????? ?????? ?а?????? Canonical ??????? ??а??, ???
??? ????????????? ??а????? ?????????? ?????: л?а???? ???? ????????? ?????????? ????? ?????????? ????????????????? ?аCanonical ?аUbuntu ??? ?????????
????????????? ?????????????? ????? ??? ?а????????? ??а???????? ?а??????.
????? ?а??????? ?????????, ????????? ???????? ?а?????????? ?????? ??????
?????????, ?????????? ??? ?????????????? ???????? ?а??????????? ????????
??????????? ?????????? ?а????????? Ubuntu ??а?????? ??????╗. ??а????, ???
????????, ??? Ubuntu Server ?????? ????? ????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????? ?а??????? ?????????????? ????????? ??? ????????? ???????
???????? ???????? ?а??а??????????????. ?????? Ubuntu Server 18.10 ????????
??а???? ???????? ????????????? ???????. ??? ?????????? ??????? ???????
18.10 ???????? ????????? ?????? OpenStack ?????? Rocky, ??????? ????????????? ??? ?????? ?а?????????????? ?????????? ?????????????, ?????? ???
??????????? ??????????, ????????????? ??????? ??????? (NFV) ?а????????
????????. ?????????? ????? LXD 3.0а? ?????? ?????, ????????? ??????????
????????? ??????????? ??????? LXD ?а???????, ?аKubernetes 1.12 ??? ????????????? ???????????? ??????????.
?????? ???-??а?а???????? 2019а?. ????? ????, ?????? ????????? ???????? ????? ?а?????????? ???????? ?а18.10, ????? ???
????? ????, ??? ????????? ?а18.04, ?а??????, ????? ??? ????????? xdg-portals, ?а???????? ????? ?????????? ????? ?????
??????????? ????????????.
??? ???, ?????? ?а????? ???????? ?????? ?????????, ????????, ???, ???? ??? ????????????? ??а????? ?????????? ?????????? ????????? ?а?????????????????? ????????????, ????????
???????????? 18.04 ????? ?????????? ?????????????? ?????
LTS-????????? ?а?????, ????? ?????????? ??????? ?а???????????
18.04. ????, ?а?????? ???????, ??а???? ??а???????????? Ubuntu
?а??????? ????????? ??????????, Ubuntu 18.10 ??а???? ??????
??????? ??????? Ubuntu. |
???????
???????????: Canonical
????: www.ubuntu.com
????????: GPL ?а??.
???????????????? ?????????????????? ???????? ?а?????? ???????????? 7/10
8/10
8/10
8/10
????????? ??-LTS ????? Ubuntu ?а????? ??????????,
??????? ??а???????? ??????? ?а????? LTS.
╗ ???????7/10
??????? 2018? LXF244? |?15
?????? ??????????? Linux
Manjaro Linux 18.0
????? ????? ? ???????? ??????? ??????????? ??а???? Arch, ????????? ????????
?????? ????????, ??????????? ??? ??????????????????? Arch.
???????
??????????
??аArch Linux,
Manjaro ????????
????? ??а?????
?????????? ???????????, ???????????????
??а???????? ????????????. ??а???????????? ??????? ?????? ???????
?????? ?а??????????? ?а?????????????? ??????????? ???????.
??? ??????????????? ???????????,
??????? ?????
??????? ?????????
????????????
???????? (??????
??? 64???????
???????????), ???
???????????????.
anjaro ??? ???????? ????? ???????? ?????? ?????
??а???????? ???????? ???????????? distrowatch.com.
????????, ??? ??а?????? ????????? ???????????? ???????, ??, ??а??????? ????, ????????????? ??????????? ????????
?а????????????.
Manjaroа? ??????? ?????? ???????????. ??а?????????????
???? ???????? ???????????? ?а??????? ??а??????????? ??????
????????????????? ????? ??а???????а? ??? ??? ?????????????? ?аArch ??????????????. ???? Arch ???????? ??? ???????????
??? ??????????????? ??????, ??????????? ??????? ????????????? ????????? ???? ????????? ?а????, ??аManjaro ???????????? ?а??????? ???????н???? ????????????, ??????? ????????
????а? ?????????? ??а?????? ??а????????????а? ???????????
??????????? Arch ?а???? ???????????? ?????????? ???????.
Manjaro ???????? ?а???? ?????????? ??????????????
???????, ?а???????? ?аXfce ???????? ??????????? ????????????. ????????? ?????? ??????? ????? ????? ???а?????????аAdapta-Maia, ?а????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ??????????? ??????????? ?а??????? ??? ????????? ??????????????
?а?????????????. ??а???? ???????? ???????????? ???????????????? ?????????? Calamares, ???????, ?????? ?????????н????
???????, ????? ????????? ????????? ??????, ??? ???????????
?????????? ???????????.
??????? ???????????? ??а??????????? ?????? ManjaroArchitect, ?????????? ????????? ??????, ???????????????
?????? ????????????? ?????????? ????????? ?????????????
?????? ??а????? ??????? ???????????, ??????? ????, ???????
?????????????, ????? ???????? ????? ?а??., ?а???????? ??????
M
?????? ???? ??????? ??а????????????. ?????? ???? ???????????
????????, ?????? ????? ????????? ????????? ??????????????
??????????? ???????? ?а??????? ???????? ???????, ???????
Budge, Cinnamon, Deepin, Mate, LXDE ?а??.
???? ???????? ????? Live ???? ??????????? ????????? ???????????, ????????? ??? ????? ?????????? ???????? ?а???????? ???????? ????? ???? ?????????????. ????? ??а?????? ???????????? ?????? Hardware Detection ?аManjaro Settings Manager
??? ????????? ?а???????????? ????? ?????????? ???????н?????
???????????? ?а???????? ???????? ????? ?а??????????????.
?????? Xfce Manjaro 18 ???????? ????????? ?????? ????????
????? 4.13. ??????????? ??????? ???? ??????? ??????? ?????
???????? ????? ?а???????? ???????? ??????н???? ?????????????.
??? ??а?????, ???????? ??а?????????, ???????? ???????? ?????
??? ??? ????? ???????? ??а?????????. ?????? ?????? ????
Whisker, ?а????? ?а??а??????? ????? ????? ???????? ?????, ??????? ???????? ????.
???????? ?????????
????????? ?????????? Xfce ??а???? ????????? ?????????,
???????? ????????. ??а??????????, ?а??? ??????? ?????? ?а?????? ????????????? ??????????, ????????? ??а??????? ?????:
???????????? ?????? ????? ?а????????? ?????????? ?????????????, ???????? ???? ?а??? ???? ?????? ???? ????????, ????????
?а??????? ??????. ????????????? Xfce ?????? ?????? ????н
???? ????? ??а???????????? ???????? ????????????? Manjaro.
????? ??а????? ??????? ?а????????? ????????? mousepad Xfce
???????? ??????????? ????????? ?????????? ?????, ?????????
? ??????? ???? Manjaro ????????? ????????? 32?????????? ???????????? ?????????,
??а??а?????? ????????????
manjaro32.org, ??????? ????????
?????? ??а??????? archlinux32.
16? |? LXF244? ??????? 2018
www.linuxformat.ru
??а????????? ?????? ????? ?а?????? ????? (??а??а????????)
?а??а????????????? ????????????? ???а?????????? ?????????
?а?????, ???????? ?а?????? ????.
?? ??а??? ??? ?????? ??а?????? ???????? ?????????????.
????? ??а????? ??????? ????? ??????? ???????? Display-Profiles,
??????? ????????? ????????????? ????????? ????????? ????????? ??? ???? ???????????? ?????????. ????? ????, ??а?????? ????????? Manjaro 18 ??????????н??? ????????????? ??а??????????? ??????? ????????, ??? ?????? ??а???????????. ?????
??а??? ?? ?а?????, ??а????????? ??а?????? ??????? ????????? ???
????????????? ?а??????????? ??????????, ??????? ?????????
?????????? ????????? ??????? ???????, ???, ????????, ???????? ?????????, ????????? ???? ??????? ????? ?????????? ????
?а?а?????.
????? ???????? ??????????? ???????????? ?????????????
???????? Hello, ??????? ????????????? ?????? ?????? ??а???????????? ??????? ?а??????? ?????????. ????? ?а???? ???????
???????? ?????????? ?????? Applications, ???????????? ???????? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ?а????????? ??????????,
??????? ????? ???????????? ??? ????????? ????? ?????????.
??? ??а?????, ???? ?а??? ??? ?????? ??????????, ??а?????? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ????? ?????????????? ??????????,
????????? Manjaro 18 ???????????? ?а?????? ??????? ????????
?а????? ?????????????? ????? ??а???????. ??а??????? ??? ??????? ?????????? ??????????, ????? ??? ????? LibreOffice, GIMP,
VLC, Firefox, Thunderbird, ?????? Steam ?а?????? ??????.
????? ??а?????????? ????????????, ??????? ???????
???? ????????, ??? Microsoft Office. ?а???? Office ??????????
?????? ??аMicrosoft Office Online, ??????? ???????? ??? ??????????? ?????????, ?????? ?????? ?????????? Linux, ?????????
???????? JAK. ???? ????????? LibreOffice ????????? ????????
??????? ????? ??? ??а???????, ?????? ?а?????? ?????????????? ??????????? ??????? Manjaro ????? ???????????????.
???????? ????????? ?????? ??????????? ???????? ?????????
??а?????????? Xfce.
??????????? Linux ??????
╗╗MANJAROWARE
?????? Manjaro ????? ??а??????? ????????? ???????????? ????? ????????????
??? ?????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????????. ????????? ??а???? ????????????????? Manjaro ????????? ???????? Bladebook Fall 2018. ??? ?????????? ????????
13,3????????? ???????? FHD IPS ?а??????????? Intel Celeron N3450 ?аIntel HD
Graphics 500. ?а????н???? ????????? ????????? ??? ?????????? ???? eMMC ???????? 64 ?? ?а???????????? ?а6а?? ??????????? ?????? DDR3L ?а?????????????
???????? 8000 ??╖?, ??????? ????? ?????????? ?????? ???????????? ??????????
??а?????? ?????. Manjaro ???????? 100 ???? Bladebook ?а????? ????????-????????, ?а??а?????? ???????? ??? ??а259,05 ??????????? ???????, ??? ??????????
????? г?200.
???????????, ??а?????? ????????? Xfce, Bladebook ???????? ???а???????????
KDE Manjaro. ??? ?????? KDE ???????????? ?аPlasma v5.14 ?а??????? ???????? KDE
v18.08. ??а???????? ????? ?????????? Display Configuration, ??????? ????? ??????? ???, ??? ????????? ?????????? ???? ???????? ??? ??????????? ?а??????????
??? ?????????? ???????????. ???? ??????? ???? KDE ???????? ??????? ?????,
??? Xfce, ????????????? ??????????? ???? ?а?????? ??????? ?????????? Kickoff
???????? ?????????.
?????? ?????
????????
??????? ??????
?а?????????.
??аwiki ????????
????????
?а?????? ????????????????,
?а?а???????????
?????? ????????? ???????????
????????????
?а??????? PDF.
?????? ??а????? ????
???? ??? ?????????? ????????? ????????? ??а????????????,
?????? ???????????? ???????? ??????? Manjaro Pamac, ???????
????? ????????? ??????? ????????? ??????????. ?????????
?????? ????????? ??????? Pamac v7.2 ???????? ????? ?????????? ????????? ?????? ?а?????? pamac-cli, ??????? ?????
??аapt-get ?аDebian. ??а?????-??а??????? KDE ??а??????????
Pamac. ??а?????????? Octopi, ?????????? ????????? ??? pacman.
?а?а??, ??а??? ??? ?????? ???????????? pacman ?а?????????
?????? ??а???? ????????? Manjaro.
????? ????, ???? Manjaro ??????? ??аArch, ?а????????????
???? ??????????? ??????????? ??????????, ??????? ??????????
?????????? ??????????? ???????????. ??????????? ???????????? ????????? ?а??? ?????? ????????????. ???? ?????????? ??????????? ????????? ????????????????? ????????????
???????????, ?а????? ???????? ???????????, ?????????? ??????,
???????????????? ?а????????????? ????????????? ??????
??????. ???????, ?а???????????? ???????????? ???????????
???????? ?????? Arch, ??????? ??а?????? ???????????? ?а???????????? ??????? Manjaro. ????? ????, ????? ????? ????????
???????????????? ??????????? AUR Arch ??? ??????? ??а??????
???????? ????????????.
??? ????? ?????? ?а?????????? ???????????? Manjaro
???????? ???????????????? ??????????? ????????????, ?????????? ?аManjaro Settings Manager. ????? ??а?????? ???????????? ?а???? ????????? ???????? ????????????? ????. Manjaro 18
????????? ????????????? ???????? ??а?????? ????????? ????а?
??а????????? v4.19 ?????? ??аv3.16, ??????? ??? ???? ?????????
???????. ??????? ?????? ????????? ???? ???????????, ???
www.linuxformat.ru
Manjaro 18 ????? ???????? ??? ??а????????, ??? ?а??а??????????
????????????. ???????????? ???????????? ?а???, ??? ??а????????? ????????? ???? ???????? ????????????????, ??а??????????
????????? ????????????????? Linux: ?????????? ?а?????????
???? ?а???????????? ????? ?????????? ?а??????????????
???????н????? ??????????. |
???????
???????????: Manjaro Team
????: www.manjaro.org
????????: GPL ?а??.
???????????????? ?????????????????? ???????? ?а?????? ???????????? 8/10
8/10
8/10
9/10
????????? ??????????? ???????????? ?а????????? ???????????, ?????????? ??????? ????????
??????? ?????? ?а??а?????, ?а??а??????????.
╗ ???????8/10
??????? 2018? LXF244? |?17
?????? ??????????? Linux
Fedora 29
????? ????? ?
??? ??????????, ????? ??аGnome ??????? Ubuntu. ??? ??а?????, Fedora
????????? ??????? ??????? ????????????? ?аGnome...
???????
???? ??а???????? ??????????
?????????????
??аRPM, ???????
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Hat, ???????
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edora 29 ???????? ??????
??а??????? ?????????????
?аGnome, ??????????? ?а????
??????. ??? ??а?????, ??? ??? (??????а?
Ubuntu) ????? ???? ??????, ??а??????????? ????? ???????? ?????. Fedoraа? ???
????????????? ??????? ??? Red Hat
Enterprise Linux (RHEL). ????????, ??????
??????? ??а?????????? ????? ????????н
??? ??????, ??? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ????????? Ubuntu. ????????, ????
Beta-?????? Fedora 29 ???????? ??а????
Linux 4.18, ????????????? ????? ?????
???????????? ??аv4.19, ??????????? ???н
????????? ??а?????? ????????? ??????.
????? ???? ??????? ?а?????? ???Fedora 29 ?????????? ???? ?????????????? ???? ?????? ??-??а?????????? ??????????????. ?а??????? ??аUbuntu 18.10, Fedora
??? ??????, ??а?????? ????? ?а???? ???????, ??? ???? ????? ??????? ??а????????.
Workstation 29 ??а????????? ?????????? ???????н???? ?????? Wayland. ??? ?????? ????? ??????????
?????? ?????? ?а????а?? ???????????? ??????????? ?а???????Gnome 3.30 ?а?????????? ??????????????????? ?а????????
?????? ???????????. ??? ????? ???????? ???????????? ?а??????
????? ???????????????????? ??????? ??????, ???????????
????????? ???????????????? ?????? ???????? ?а?????????,
?а?????? Ubuntu 18.10. ????????? ?????????????????? ????????
?а?а??а?? ????? ?????? ?а??а?????????? ????????, ??а??????????
???а?????????? ????? ?а??????????? ????????? ??а????? ??????
?а???, ??? ???? ??а??? ?????? ??????. ?а?а????????? ??? ????????
?а????????????? ??а??????????? ??????.
??????????? ?????????? ?а????????????? ???????????. ????
Fedora 29 ???????? ???????????? ??, ????????????? ??а?????????? ??а??????? ???? Gnome
????, Grub ?????????? ????? ?а???, ??а????????? ???? ????????.
??????, ?а??????? ??аUbuntu 18.10, Fedora 29 ????????? ??????????? ??????????? ??????? ???? Xfce 4.13 ??аGTK3 ????????
????????? ????????? Gnome ??а?????????. ????? ????????
??а??????????? ???????????? Fedora 29.
????????? ????? ????? ?????????????? ?аGnome 3.30 ????????
?????? ??а????? ???????? ?????, Fedora 29а? ??? ??а??????
?????????? ????????? ??????? ???????? ????? ?аFedora 29. ????
??????? ???????. ???? ????? Fedora Server ?аFedora Atomic Host
?а???, ??? ?????? ???????? ????? ??????? ??а??????? ?а???? ????? ?????????? ???????????, ??????? ?????? ????????????
????? Gnome 3, ?, ??????? ?аv3.28, ???????????? ?????? ??????
?аFedora Silverblue. ???????????? ????? ??????????, ??? Fedora 29
6а??? ??а???????????????? ??? ??а????????? ????????? Nautilus. ??????????? ?аARM, ??? ??????. ????????? ????????? zRAM
??? ??????????? ?а?????? Ubuntu 18.10, Ubuntu ??????? ????н
??? ???????? ??аARMv7 ??????? ?????????????????? ?а????????? ??????? ??а??????? ?????, ??????? ????? ?????? ??????
????? ????????????? ??а??????????? ARM ?а????????? ???????
Nautilus. ?а?????? ???????, Ubuntu ?????? ??? ??????????????????, ???? Raspberry Pi. |
??? Nautilus 3.30, ????? ??? ????? ????????????? ?????? л???????
?????? [breadcrumbs]╗, ?????????? ?????? ??????, ????????н????
????????? ??????? ?а??????. ?????????? Gnome Shell ??? ??????????? ??????? ???????? ?????, ??????? ????????? ?а??????
??????????, ????????? ??????? ????? ?????? ??????????????
???????????: Red Hat
?а???? ???????.
????: www.fedoraproject.org
??? ???? ???????? ????? ????? ?????????????? ?????????????: GPL ?а??.
?????? ?а???????????????? ?????? ???????? ?????????????
??????????. ??? Ubuntu ??? Snaps, ??? Fedoraа? Flatpaks (??.
???????????????? 8/10
???.а64). ?????? ????????? Gnome, ????? ??? Games [????],
?????????????????? 8/10
Recipes [???????] ?а????? ?????????? Podcasts [????????], ????
???????? ?а?????? 8/10
?а??а???????? ?а??????????? ???????????? Fedora, ?а??????
???????????? 9/10
????? ?????????????? ??а????????? ?а????н???? Flatpaks. ??а??н
???? ?????????? Flatpaks ??а?????????? Software, ???????
???????????? ?????????? ????????? ??????? Fedora.
???н?????? Flathub. ??????, Software ?аFedora 29а?????? ?????????
???? ?????? ?????????, ????????? ?аGnome 3.30,
??????????н??? ????????? ?а?????????? Flatpak.
??? ?????? ??? ????????? ???????????? ??? ?????????????? ???????? Fedora 29 ???????? ??????? ?????????
????????? ?????????? ??.
???????????? ??? ?????????????? Fedora. ????????? ???????????
???? ??????? ?а?????????? ????? ???????, ??а?????? ??? ???????? Fedora 28 Server. ??????????? ???????? ????????? ?????????
F
???????
╗ ???????8/10
18? |? LXF244? ??????? 2018
www.linuxformat.ru
NAS ??????
DiskStation DS418play
??????????? ????? ???????? ?????????? 4K-?????, ?
????? ???????????????
????????: ??а??? ?а????? ?????, ??? ????????? ??????? ????????????
????????????
??
?????????
?????????? Intel
Celeron J3355,
2а???
??? 2 ??
(??а6а??)
??????
4?╫?3,5/2,5????????? (???????
??????)
??????? 56а??
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???? 2?╫?Gigabit
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??????? 2?╫?USB
3.0
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?а??? ??????? ?????????? ???????????),
??а????? ??а???? ?????????? ?а??????????. ??а????? ????????????? ?????????????? ????? ?????????? ???????????
??? ???? ???????????? ????????????
?а????? ???? ?????? ?????????? ???????.
DS418play ???????? ??а???? ??????
??????????? ??????????? ??????????
Intel Celeron J3355, ?????????? ?????????
??????? ??а2,5а???. ???? ????????? ???????? Intel Graphics, ??????? HDMI ???. NAS
???? ???? ??? ??????? ?аDS418play, ??а?????? ????????? ??а???? ????? web-????????????????? ?а2 ?? ??????????? ??????
????, ???? ??а?????? ??????, ????????? ???????? ??? ???????.
???? ?????? ????, ??????? ????? ???????
?????????????? 4 ??; ????? 6 ??.
???????? ??????????? DS418play ????????????? ??а??????
????? 418play ????? ??? ?????????? ????? LAN, ??????? ????а?????. ????? ???????, ??? ?????????? ???????? ??????????????
????????? ????????? ??????? ?а????????? ????????????. ??????? ??????????? 4K ????????????. ????????? ???????????? 4K
????????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ?а???? ??????: ??? ????????,
?????????? ??? ????? ??????????, ??а???????, ??? ???, ????н
??? ???а?????????? ????????? ???? ??а?????? ??????? ????????? ??????, ???????? ??????? ??а???????.
?????????? ??????????? ??? NAS. 418play ????? ????? ??? ?????
?? ?????????????? Synology DS418play ?а2 ?? ????????USB 3.0 (???? ??????? ?а???? ?????), ??????? ????? ????????? ??????, ???????? ???????? ??????? Seagate IronWolf Pro
?????? ??? ??????????? ??????? ????????? ???????? ??????,
?а????????? RAID Synology. DS418play ??????? ??????, ?а?а???
??а???аeSATA.
??а???????? ??????? ?а????????? ????????? ???????????
?????? ?????? ??? ?????? ??а??????? ???????????? ?а?????
??а????????? ????????? ????????????. ???????????????? ?????
???? ???????? ?а??????? ??????, ?а?????????? ?а2,5? ?а3,5???????????? ??????????, ???? ??? ??????? ?а?????? Plex ???????н
?????? ???????. ??? ????? ?????????? ?а??????? ???????????????? ??????? ??????????. ??а???????? ?????? ????????
?? ?????, ??а??? ??а????? ???????, ?????? ????? ??????? ?а?????????? ???а???????? ?????? 108,5 ??/?а?а???????? ??????
??? ????????? ???????? ?а??????? ????????. NAS ????????????
109,2а??/?аDS418play ??????????? ???? ???? ??а??????.
???????? ??????? Btrfs ?аExt4, ?а?а?????????? ??а??????? ???н
Synology DS418playа? ?????????? ?????????? NAS, ???а???
??? ??а14а?? ????? ????? ?а????? ????????? 56а?? ???????.
????????????? ??а????????? 4K-???????????, ??а????? ??н
???н?????? ????????? ?а???? ???????, ????? ??? ???? HDMI ???
?????? ?????? ??????????
??????????? ??????????? ??????????, ????? ??? eSATA. |
???????? ??а??????? ??????????, ??????? 92??? ???????????
DS418play ????? ???? ??????? ???а????????? ??а?????????
?а????? ??????? ????????????. ??????? ??????????? ??а??????? ?а????? ??????, ???? ?а??а???? ????? ??????? ??????????
????? ??????? ??????.
?????????????: Synology
????????? ?а????????? ?????????? Synology ????? ??????.
????: www.synology.com
???????? ????????? ??????, ?????????? ??? ?а????????? ???????
????: г?420 (???а??????)
?а????????? ????, ?а????? ??????? ???????? ??аhttp://find.synology.
com. ????? ??????????? ????????? ????????????, DS418play
????????????????
7/10
???????? ????????????? ??????????? ??а???????? ??????? ?а????????????????????
9/10
?????????? ?а???????.
???????? ?а??????
8/10
???????????? ??????? Synology NAS ???????? ????? ??а?????
????????????? ????
7/10
???????, ??? ?????? ????????? ?а?????? ?а?????????????,
?а????? ????????????? ???? ????????, ??????? ????? ?????????
??????? ??? ???????? ???????????? ???????????,
?а????????? ??аNAS. ???? web-????????? ???????? ????????
??а?????????? ?????????? eSATA ?а????????? ??,
?????????? ????????? ?а?????????? HDMI ?????????
???????? ?????????? NAS, Synology ????? ?????????? ????????????? ???????.
??? ??? ?????????? ??а????????? ??? ????????. ?????? ????,
????? ?????????? ??? ??????? ?а????? ??????????, Synology
??????? ????? 10 ????????? ??????????, ??????? ??????????
???, ??а?????????? ??????? ??а???????? ???????.
D
???????
╗ ???????8/10
www.linuxformat.ru
??????? 2018? LXF244? |?19
?????? ?????????
Intel Core i9 9900K
??? ?????? ???????? ???? ??аIntel ??? ??????? ??????, ????? ???????? ??????
Monero ?а??? ????????? ???????? ?????????.
????????????
??
??
??
??
??
??
?????? LGA1151
??? 64а???
??????????
14 ??
???? 8
??????? 16
????????
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(5а??? ?????)
??? 16 ?? L3
??????
DDR4?2666,
2а??????, 64а??
????.
PCIe v3.0,
16а?????
??????? Intel
UHD Graphics
630
???????
??????? 350а???
(1,2а??? ????),
OpenGLа4.5
??????????????
95а??
?????????????
VT-x, VT-d
??
??
??
??
??
??
??
?? ?а????? 2006а?.аIntel ??????????? ???? ??????
?????????? ??????????????? ?????????. ??????????? ?????? ????? ??а11а??? ?а???? 2017а?., ?а???
??????????? ?а????? ?????? ??????н???? ????, ??а??? ?????.
???????? ????? Intel ??? ?????????? ?? ??-???????? ?????????
???????? ??????.
??????, ??а?????а?? ?????? ??? ?????????? ??????????
???? ?а????? ??? ???????? ??????, ??а??? ???? ?????? ????, ???
???? ?а???????? ??????? ?????? ????????? ???????? ??а??????
???????? ?????, ?????????? ?????????????? ???????????????
????????????? ?????? ?а??????? ?????????, ??????? ??????????? ????, ??а???? ??? ?????? ??? ????????? ?????????????????? ?????????? ???????????. ??? ??а?????, ?а????? 2018а?.
??а????????? ???????? ????????????? ????????? Intel, ?????
????? ??? ????? ????, ??? ???????? ??????????? ???? ?????? ???????????? ??????????. ???, ??????????, ???????????
?????а? Ryzen. ?????? Core i9?9900K ??а??????а?? ???а?????????? AMD Ryzen ?а??????? ????. Ryzen ??а???????, ??а???
???????, ????? ????????? Intel ??а??????. ?а??????????а? ???????
????????? ?????? Intel ?а???????? ??????н???? ???????? ????
?????????? ?? ???? ????? ??? ??а???.
????? 9900K ???????? ??? ???????? ?????????? ??????????? ??? ????????? ?????? LGA1151. ?а???? ????? ?????? 9000 ??
Intel ??????????? ???? ?????????? HyperThreading. ????? ??????, HyperThreading ?????, ??а??????????? ???????? ?????????????? ?????????? 9900K ?а16 ????????. ??? ????????????, ????????? ??? ??????? ??????? ??а???? ?????: Intel ?????? ????????? ??,
????? ??????? ????????????? ???????? ?????????.
?
?????н???? ??????????????????
?????? ?????????????????? ????? ???????????? ?????????????
????? ????? ???????? ?????????? Intel ????????????? ??? ???????
??????? ?а3,6а???, ?а???????????? ??????? ????? ?а5а??? (??????????: ????????? ??а???????? ???????? ???? ????). ??? ??а?????,
?????????????, ??? ????? 9900K ???????????? ??????????? ???????????? ??????????????????. ??? ????????? ??а????? ??????
?а???????????? ???????????? ??????? Core i7?8086K.
??? ?а?????????, 9900K ?????? ????? ???????? ??? ????????
?????, ????? ???? ???? ????? ?а?а????????????? ??????????????????. ??, ??а?????? л????╗ ??????? ??? AMD Ryzen 2700X,
????? ??а????. ??а????? ????, ?а????????? ?????????? ??
Intel Core
i9-9900K
214
1994
Intel Core
i7-8086K
212
1630
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2700X
180
1814
42,69
35,98
31,71
47,7
49,1
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?????????? ???????????
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46144
46451
46506
???????????? ????????
??????/??????? (??)
65/185
69/200
91/221
600
490
300
????
Cinebench R15 Single (Index)
Cinebench R15 Multi (Index)
??????????? x264
(????/?,а?а???????)
???????? ?????? (??)
???? (г)
20? |? LXF244? ??????? 2018
??????? ????????? ?????? ????
??? ???????????
??? ???????????
???????? ?????????????, ??а??,
??? ????? ????
????? ?????????, ????????
??а???????? ??????????????????.
?????????? ?????? ??????? ???????? 10????????? ??????????
7900X Intel, ??????????? ??а?????????? ?? ??? ?????? LGA2011,
???????? ???????????.
??????????, ???? ??а????????? 9900K ??????????? ?а???????.
??а???????????? ??????????? ?а???а??????? ???????? ??а???н
??? ???????? ??а4,7а??? ???? ?????? ????. ??? ??????? ??????? ???
??а5а??? ??а???? ?????. ??? ?????? ??а????? ?а????????? ?????????, ?а????? ????????????, ????? ???????? ??а??? ????????????
???? ?????????? ?а???????? ????. ???????? ??????н???? ????
?а???а???? ??????? ???????? ???????, ??????? Intel ????????
??? ???????? ??? 9900K, ???????????? ??????? ??? ???????
??а???????????.
9900K ?а????????? ????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ?????????
?????????? ?а????????????? ????????? ??????????? ????
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????? ???????, ??? ??а???? ????? 9900Kа? ??????????н????
???. ??? ????? ??????? ????????? ????????? ??? ?????????? ??. ??а???????????? ?????? ?????????????? ?????
??????? ???????? ?????????а? ???????????. ??? ????????
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?????????? ??????. |
???????
?????????????: Intel
????: www.intel.com
????: г?600
???????????????? ?????????????????? ???????? ?а?????? ????????????? ???? 9/10
9/10
9/10
7/10
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??????, ??а??а????? ?????? ??а???????, ?а??а???а??
???????? ??а????.
╗ ???????9/10
www.linuxformat.ru
???? ? ?????????? ????????? ??????
Surviving Mars
?? ????? ???????, ??? ?????????? ?????? ?а????? ??????????? ???????? ??????.
?????а??, ??? ??????? ????? ?????? ??а?а??????? ??а?????...
????????????
???????????
??
??
?? Ubuntuа14
64??????????
?????????
Intel Core i3
4???а?????????
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?? ????? 6 ??
??????? OpenGL
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н adeon
7700), 1а??
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??????? GeForce
970?level, 4 ??
???????????
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?а?????, ??а?????
??а????? ??? ???
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??а??????????
?????.
???????? ?а???? ??????????????? ????а? ??????
??а??????, ??а??????? ??????.
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??? ?????? ??????. ?????? ?????????????
????? ???????????, ??а???? Surviving Mars
[????????? ??а?????] ??а?????????? ???
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?????????, Surviving Mars ??????? ???а??
?????, ??? ?аTropico ??аHaemimont, ????????? ??????? ?а???????
????????? ??? ?????? ?????????????? ??????? ????? ?????????????? ?а???????? ??а??а???? ????? ??????? ??????????????,
???? ??а??????????? ???????, Surviving Mars ????????? ????????
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??????, ????? ?????????? ?????????????.
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??? ????н???? ?????, ????? ??? ??????????? ?????????? ????
????????н???? ?????????
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????? ????, ???????? ?а???????, ???????????? ????? ??а?????а???????. ?????? ??????? ????? ???????, ??а????? ??????
??а? ??? ?????? ??????. ??????????? ?????? ???????? ?а????????????? ?????????? ?а???????.
????? ??а???, ??? ????? ?????? ??? ??????????а? ????, ????????????????? ???????? ???????? ?????-??????????, ???????
?????? ??????????? ??????????????. ???? ??а?????????????
??????? ?????????? ?а????, ??? ??а?????????? ??????? ???????а???????, ?????????? ???? ?????? ?а????????? ?????????? ????
???????????? ??????????. ??? ?а?????-??а????????, ??? ????
?????, ??а??? ????????? ????????? ????????н???? ?????, ??а????
????? ??а????????? ???????? ???????? ???????, ??? ????? ?????
???? ??? ????????? ???????? ????????? ??????? ?а????? ?а?????а???????, ??а????? ?????? ??????? ?? ????? ?????, ???? ?????????? ??????? ????? ??? ???а????????, ?????????? ??????
???????? ???? ????????????.
?а????? ??а???? ???????.
???а???? ????????????? ?а????????????? Surviving Mars,
??? ??а?????, ???? ?а?????? ????????????? ??? ????? ??????? ?????? ??? ????? ??а???????? ????????? ?а??????????????, ??? ?????????? ???? ??а???? ??а?????. ??? ????? ?????
?????????. ??? ?????????, ??а?????????? ??????????????
?????? ?а????????, ?а???а???? ?????????? ??????????? ??????
???????н???? ????????? ????????, ???? ???-???? ???? ???????
????????? ????????? ???????? ???????.
?????????, ??????????? ?а??????? ????... |
Surviving Mars ????????? ?????????? ??? ???????????, ????
???? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ??? ?????????, ?????????
????? ?????. ?????????????, ??? ????????? ??????????? ???
?????? ?????????? ?а????? ???????.
?
???????
???????????: Paradox Interactive
????: www.paradoxplaza.com
????: г?26,99
??????? ???????
???????
???? ??????
????????????? ????
7/10
7/10
8/10
8/10
????????? ??а?????а? ?????? ????, ??а?????????? ???????????? ???????? ??????? ??а?????????
???? ??????????????.
╗ ??????? 8/10
www.linuxformat.ru
??????? 2018? LXF244? |?21
?????? ????????? ????????
Megaquarium
?????? ????? ?а?????? ????, ?а?а???-??а???? ??????????а? ??? ??а????????????????
????????? ? ????????? ??а?????, ??? ??????????? ?
?????? ????!
????????????
??
??
??
???????????
?? Ubuntu
64??????????
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Core i5?4690 ???
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2700U
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?а???????????.
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???? ?????? ???????????. ??? ????????
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???, ??????????????. ??????? ?????????
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?????????? ?а?????????????? ???? ????????? ???????а?? ?а???????н???? ??????????, ?а??? ??????? ??????????, ?????????????
???????? ????????? ??а???????? ???, ??? ??????????? ?а???????????? ??????? ?????? ??? ?????? ?????????.
?? ??? ???????? ???? ????????????? ????????. ?????????????
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?????? ???????? ????? ?????????? ???????????, ??? ??? ?а?????????? ???а?????????? ???????? ?а???????.
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???? ??а??? ???????? ?????? ?а????а?? ?????? ?а?????? ???????
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??а????, ??? ????а?? ??а???? ???????????, ??????? ????? ????????????, ?????????? ?????? ????????????.
??? ?а??????? ????????? ?????????? ?????. |
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??а????????? ??????????, ?а??а????????а?? ????????? ???????? ????н???? ?????. ???? ??а??????а? ??? ???? ??а???? ????
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????? ?а????????? ??? ?????????. ??????????? ??????? ??????
???????????: Twice Circled
?
???????
????: www.twicecircled.com/2c/megaquarium
????: ???19,49
????? ??????? ??????????????? ????????????? ???? ????????????,
????? ?????
????? ??????????? ???????
????????.
22? |? LXF244? ??????? 2018
8/10
8/10
8/10
9/10
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?????? ??????, ??? ????а? ??????, ?а??а????????
?а?????.
╗ ???????8/10
www.linuxformat.ru
?????????
???????
????????? 5G
????? ???????? ????
Huawei ?????????????????? ??????????? ???????? ?????????????? ???? 5G.
???? ?????? ????????? ??????????????
????? Huawei 2018 ???????? Huawei ?аThree UK
?????????????????? ?????? ???????? ?????????????? ???? ??а?????????? 5G ?а??????????????
?-????????? 100а???. ??????????? ???????? ??????????? 5G-????????, ?????????? ???????? ?????????
?????? ?а???????. ??????????????? ???????? ?????????????? ???????? ?????????????? ????? Huaweiа?
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?
????. ??????????????, ??? ???????????? ???????? ???????? ????????? 2а??/? ??а??????? ????????? 1а??/?а???
?????? ????????????. Huawei ????????? ????????????
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?а2019а?. л??????????? ????????? ?????????? 5G ????????????? ???????????, ??????? ??? ??????? ?а????????
???????? ?????????????? ?????. Huawei ????????? ???????????? ?аThree UK, ????? ??????? ???????? ??????
?????? ?а?????????????, ??????? ???? ????????н????
????????????? ?????????? 5G╗, ??????? ??? ??????
[Yang Chaobin], ????????? ??????????? Huawei 5G.
?????? ?а???? ????????н????
????????? ????????? 5G: ??????????? ?????????? 5G (CPE).
???????? SAMSUNG
?????????? ??????????? ????????
amsung ????????? ?????????? ?а??????????????? (MoU) ?а????????? ??????????
??а???????????? ????????? (KOTSA) ?а?????
??????????н???? ?а??????? ???????????????? ?????????? ????????? ?а???????? ????????????? ??????????
??? ??????????? ????????. ???????? ????????? ??????
????? 4G LTE, 5G ?аTele-To-Everything (V2X), ?а?????
??????????????? IT-??????????????? ?????????????
??????? ??? ???????????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????? K-City ?а?????. K-City ?????????? ??а??????????
???????? 360а???. ??.??. ?а?????????? 5а?????? ???????
????????: ?????, ???????? ?????????, ??????????????
?а???????. ????????? ????? ??????????? ????? ?????
????????????? ??????????, ??а???????? ????? ?????
S
24? |? LXF244? ??????? 2018
?????????? ???????? ???????? ???????? ????????,
?а????? ??????????? ?а???????. Samsung ??????? ???????? IT-??????????????, ????????? ?аK-City ??????????? ????? ???????? ?а?????????? ??????????????
????н????????. ????????? ?????????? (Mobile Edge
Computing, MEC) ????? ??????? ??????? ???????н??? ????? ??? ??????????? ??????????? ????? ????? ??????
??????????? ???????????? ?а????????? ??????? ??????????? ??а??????????? ????????. ??????? ???????,
????????????? ?аK-City ???а????????? Samsung ?аKOTSA,
????? ???????? ???????????? ?а????????? ???????
??????. ????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ????????????
??????????? ???????? ?а???????????? ???????????,
????????? ????????????? ????????, ????????? ?а5G.
www.linuxformat.ru
??н? ??н? ?н? ?: www.huawei.com; https://news.samsung.com
Samsung ?аKOTSA ???????? ??????? 5Gа? V2X.
????????? ???????
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amsung ??????????? ???????? ???????????
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??????????????? ????? ??????? ???а????????? ?????.
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??? ???? 4-?? ????????? Exynos 9820 ???????????? 20?%
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???????н???? ?????? Mali-G76, ??а40% ??????????
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???????????? ??????? ?????????н??? ?????? ?а?????????
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????? 3,7а?? ???? ????? 15 ?, ?а????????????
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????????? ??????? ?????? ?а???????? 4?╫?4
MIMO (Multiple-Input, Multiple-Output) ?а??????
256?QAM (???????????? ??н???н? ????? ?????????) ?а??????? ????????????? ??????????????? ?а?????????н???????? ?????????
?????????? Licensed-Assisted Access (eLAA), ?????
?????? ?????????? ??????? ?а?????????? ????? ????
???а????????. Exynos 9820 ??????? ??????н???н???н???
????? (MFC) ?а???????????? ?а?????????????? ?????
?а??????? 4K UHD ??а150а????/?. ????? ????? ???????????? 10??????? ?????. ???????? ???????????? ??????????? Exynos ?????? ?а????? 2018 ?.
Exynos 9820: ????????????????
???? 4??? ????????? ?а?????????? ????? LTEаAdvanced Pro.
5G ??? ?????
????????????? ????????
?????????? ???????? ?????? 5G ?а?????? 400а??? ??-???????.
amsung Electronics America, Qualcomm Techн
noнlogies ?а???????? ????? Verizon ????????
??а???????? ????????? ?????? ????????
?????? 5G New Radio (NR) ??а?????? ??????? 400а???
?а??????? 28а???, ?а?????????? ???? ?????????? ??????????? ???? ????????? 1,7а????/?. ?????????? ?????????
?????????? ?????? ??а???????? ???????? ??а?????????, ??????????? 1а????/c. ???????? ?????? ??а????
????????? 3GPP 5G NR ?а???????? ??????????? (EN-DC)
?????????? ???????????. ????????н???? ????????????
5G NR ?а4G LTE ??аSamsung ?????????????? ??? ???????? ?????? ?а???? 5G NR ??а??????? 28а??? ?????????
Verizon. ???? ????????????????? ???????, ?????????? ?а??????????? ???? ?а??????? ????????н???? 5G
????? ?а?????????????? ????????????? ?????? ??????
?а???????? ??????????? ??а???? ?????????? 5G ?аLTE
????????????. ????? ?????? ??а????????? 1,7а????/?
??????????? ??а???????? Qualcomm Technologies ?а????????? ??????????, ??????????? ??????? Qualcomm
Snapdragon X50 5G ?а????????? ???????? ?а???????????????? RF-???????????? ?а????????. ???????????? ????????? ?а??????????? Qualcomm Technologies
??н? ??н? ?н? ?: https://news.samsung.com
S
www.linuxformat.ru
?а???-?????. ????? Verizon ???????? ?а?????? ????????
???????? ?????? ?а???? ???????? ??а????????????????
??? ????????? 5G ????????? ?а????????н???? 5G-????
?а?????? ?????????, ???? ???-??????. ???а???????????? ?????????????? ??????? Samsung 5G NR ?а5G-????? Snapdragon X50, ?а????? ????????????? ????????
?????? Qualcomm QTM052 ??? ??-???????. л????????
????????? ?????????? ??????? ?????????? ??? ??а???
?????????? ??? ?а????????н????? ??????? ?????????
????? 5G,а?
н??????? ??????
??? [Woojune
Kim], ???????
????-?????????
??????-????????????? Network
Business Samsung Electronics ?а???????? ???????.а?
н????????????? ????????? ?????????????? ???????
?а??????????? EN-DC ?????????????, ??? ?????????
????? 5G/LTE ????????? ??????? ???????????? ?????????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ?а????? ??????????а?????????╗. |
????? 5G/LTE ????????? ?????????? ???????? ???????
??????? ?????? ? ?????.
??????? 2018? LXF244? |?25
?????? ????? ?? ?????????? ????? ???????? ? ? ?? ?????? ????????!
?????????
??????
?????
????а? ???????????????? ???????
?а???? ???-????,
?а?????а? ????????
????????? ????!
Calligra Suite ╗ Google Docs
╗ LibreOffice ╗ OnlyOffice ╗ WPS Office
??????? ?????????
??????а? ?????????? ????????? ?а????????? ??????; ?а????? ??????? ?????????
???????? ?а?а????????. ?
????? ????? ? ????? ?????? ??а???.
??? ??? ????...
?? ????????? ????????? ??????
???? ?????????? ?????? ????????
????? Budgie. WPS Office ?аOnlyOffice
????????????? Snap-??????, ??? ???
????????? ?????????? ?а?????????
???????????. ??а????? ???????
?????? ?????? LibreOffice ?аCalligra
?а???????????? ?????? ?????????????. ??? ?????? ??а??а????????? ??а??а???????? ?????????.
??????а???? ?а???????????? ??????
???????????? ??????????? ????????? ?????? Calligra, ??а????????
?????????????? ??? ??а???????
?????????? ??а???????. ???????н???
???????? ??????? ????? ???????,
?а???????? ?а?????????? ??????
?а????????????? ???????.
?? ?????????????? ??? ?????
?????????? ??????? ??????????,
??а??а????? ?????????????? ?а?????? ???????????? ???????????,
???? ??????? ???????. ?????? ?????? ???????? ???????? ?????????
????????? ????????, ??????? ODF
?а???? ????????????? ?????? Microsoft Office, ?а????? ?????? ??????
?а???????.
????????????? ??????????????
???????????? ????????? ?а????н???
????????????, ?????????? ?????
????????????? ????????? ?а???????????? ???????????????, ?????
?????? ????????? ??????????
????? ??????.
26? |? LXF244? ??????? 2018
??? ???, ??? ??а?а????????? ??? ????????????? ??????? ?????????, ???
?аLXF167, ??????? ????????????????
??????????, ???????????? ????????????? Linux, ?????????? ????????? ?????????.
????????, ?????? ?????????? ????? ????????????
??????? ?????? ?????????????? ?а?????????????? ?????????. ?????? ?????? ???????? ????????
???????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????-??????,
???????? Google Docs. ???????н???, ?????? ???????
??????, ????? ??? Microsoft Office ?а???? LibreOffice,
?????? ?????????? ??????-???????.
?????????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ????????
????????? ????????? ??????????: ????????? ?????????, ?????????? ??????????? ?????? ?а????????
?
?????????? ???????????. ?а????????? ??????????
???? ??? ???? ?????? ??? ?????????? ??? ???????.
??????????? ????????????? Linux, ???? ??????????? ??????, ????? ??? Damn Small Linux, ???????????? ?а??????? ?????????? ??? ???????????,
???????????????? ??а?? ???????????. ??? ??а??????????? ????????? ?а??????????? ???????, ????
???, ??? ??? ??????????а? ??? ????????? ?????????.
?а???????? ????????? ??а????? ?????? ??????????
?????????? ??????????, ????? ??? Abiword ??? ????????? ?????? ?аGnumeric ??? ??????????? ??????.
???????? ??? ?????????? ???? ??а????? ?????
??????? ??а?????????. ??? ?????? ???????? ?????,
???? ??а???????? ??????-??????? ?а??????????
?????????? ???????????.
www.linuxformat.ru
??????? ????????? ?????????
????????? ????
????, ??? ?????????? ???????!
???????? ????????? ?аCalligra Suite ?????????? Words [?????].
??????, ?а??????? ??а?????? ????????? ???????????, ??а?????
??????? ?????? ??????, ???????????? ??? ????????? ?????????
?????????? ?????????????? ?????????: ??????? ????????????, ???????
?а?????? ???????????? ?а?.??.
?????? ???? ??????????? ??????? ?????? ??а?????????, ??????????
????? ????????????? ???? ????????? ?????????, ?????????? ????????.
???а???????? ?????????? ??а?????????, ????????? ??????, ?а?.??., ?а???????? ?????? ????? ??а??????, ????? ??а???????? ??????? ??? ?????? ??????
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???? ?????????? ??а????? ??????? ?а??????, ???????? ???? ??а?????-????
???????? ?а????????? ???????????.
Google Docs ????????? ????????? ????? ??а????? ?а????????? ?а????????????? ?????????? ?а????????, ??????????н??? ???????? ??????; ?а????
??? ????? [USP], ????? ????, ??? ??а????????? ?а????.
? LibreOffice Writer, ?аCalligra Words ????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????????? ????????? ????????, ??????? ???????? ?????? ?????????? ?а????????????? ??????? Microsoft Office. ?а?????????, ???а?????? ?а???????
DOC ??? DOCX ??? ???? ?????????? ????? ????????? ????????? ????????
??????? ??? ?????????. LibreOffice Writer ?????????? ????? ?а???????? ??а????? ?????????? ?????????????? ?????? ?а?????????? ???????? ??????????
?????, ??? ????????; ??аCalligra Words ???????? ??????? ?????. ??? ??а?????,
???? ?а?аCalligra Words ?????? ????????? ???????? ?а???????????? ???????????? ??????? ??? ???????? ????.
?? ???? ??????????, ?????????????? ?а????? ?????????, OnlyOffice
????н???????? ????????? ????????? ???????? Microsoft Office ?а??????????
?
??? ???????, ?????????????? ?а???? ??????, ??????????????? ??? ????
??????????, ???????????? ??????? ????????, ????????? ????????
??а?????.
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??а?а????????? ????????? ????? ????? ??а????? ????? ?аMicrosoft Office.
????? ??????? ??????????? WPS Writer ???????? ?????????? ?????????
Open Document Format (ODF). ?а????? FAQ ???????????, ??? ????????????
????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????????????? ODF, ???????? ???? ??????? ??? ??????? ?????????? ?????????????, ????? ?????????
??????? ??????? ?а??????, ??????????? ??? ?????????? ????????? ODF.
??а???? ODF ????????? ?аWPS Writer ?а????? ????????.
???????
CALLIGRA SUITE GOOGLE DOCS LIBREOFFICE 6/10
7/10
10/10
ONLYOFFICE WPS OFFICE 10/10
5/10
Calligra ??????? ??-??а?????? ??????????????? ??????????, ?аWPS
Office ????? ??а????????? ?????, ????????? ??а???????????? ODF.
???????????
н???????
??????? ?????, ??? ?????.
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л??? ????╗, ????? ??а??????? ???? ???? ?????? ?а??????, ??? ???????????
??????????н??? ?????? ???????? ????????? ?????.
LibreOffice Calc ?аWPS Spreadsheets ??????????? ?????? ??а???????? ?????????????. ????? ????, Calc ????? ???????????? ?????????? ????????,
??????? ??????? ??? ??????? ??? ??????????? ???????. ????? ????? ????????? ?????? ??а??? ?????? ?а???????????? ?а??????? ??????????????, ???
???????? ??? ??????????? ??????? ?????????. Google Spreadsheets ??а???
?? ?а?????? ??????, ?, ??? ?а??? ?????? ?????????? Google Docs, ????????????? ????? ????????? ???????? ??а?????. ???????????? ????????????
??а????? ?а?????????? ????? ?????? ??????. ??? ????????? ????????????
?????? ???????? ?а????????? ?????????????? ?????? ?а????а????? PDF
?
www.linuxformat.ru
????????? WPS Spreadsheets ????? ???????????, ??? ?аOnlyOffice, ??а??а????
??????????? ????????? ??????? ????? ???????? ?аCalligra.
???аCSV, ?а??а????????? (????? Calc ?аSheets)а? ?а?????? XLSX. ?????н
??н??? ????? ???????? ???????? ???????, ?а???????????? ???????????а? Calligra Sheets. ?а?????-????, ???????????? ??????? ??? ?????????????? ????????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ?аCalligra ??????? ??а???????????,
???????? ??а??????? ???а?? ???????, ??? ?а?а?????? ???????????, ????????,
LibreOffice Calc.
???????
CALLIGRA SUITE GOOGLE DOCS LIBREOFFICE 7/10
10/10
10/10
ONLYOFFICE WPS OFFICE 9/10
10/10
????? ???????? Calligraа? ??-??а?????? ??????????, ?а??а????????
???????????? ???????.
??????? 2018? LXF244? |?27
????????? ??????? ?????????
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??? ?????? ???? ??а?????;
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Google Docs 8/10 Calligra Suite ?????? ??????????? ?????????? ???, ??? ?а????? ????????? ??? ???????????? ???????
???????? ??????. (??а????? ???????????:
OnlyOffice ???? ????????????? ???????? ???????.) ???????н?????? ???? ???????? ????? ?????
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??а?????-???? ???н?????????, ????????, ?аFirefox,
??а??а???????? ?а???????? ?а??????????????????? ???а??н????????? ???????.
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??? ?????????? ?????? ?а?????????? ???????????
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Google ?а????н???? ????????? ???????????? ??????? ???????а? ???? ??а?????? ???????? ??????
?а????? ?????? ??а?????? ?????, ????а?? ??????????? ?а?????????.
7/10
? ????? Calligra ?а?????-?? ??? ?а???????,
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??? ??а????????.
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???? ??? ?????????? ??????????????????, ?????? Linux ??? WPS Writer
??а?????????? ??????а?? ????????, ??? ??а??????? ??аMicrosoft. ??? ??????
?а??????????? ???????????? ??а?????? ????? ??????? ???????, ??а??????? ????????? ?а?????? Linux. ????????, ??????????? ???????-Help ????????? ???, ??? ???????????? ??????? Mail Merge [??????? ?а??????], ??а?аLinux
????? ??? ?????.
?? ????? OnlyOffice ??а??? ????? ???????????? ????? ??????????
??а????????? ?а???????? ?????????????, ??а?а????? ????????? ??а??????? ??????? ?????? ???????? ??????????. ??????? File > Help [???? >
???????], ?а??????????? ?????????????????? ??????, ????????? ??а????????????? ??????????; ??????? ????? ?????? ??????, ???? ??а????????????
????? ??????????.
?
28? |? LXF244? ??????? 2018
? ??????? ?? ??????, ???????????? ? Calligra ??? ?????. ??? ??????? ??????????? ?? ????????? ?? ????????? ?? ???????? ??????????? KDE, ???????
???? ?? ??????????. ????? ???, ???????, ??????? ????????? ????????? ???????????? ?? ???? ????????????? KDE, ???, ??? ??? ??????????? ? ?????????
????????? ???????. ? ???????, ?? ?????? ??????????? ? ?????????? ????????????? ? ???????? ?????? ? ?????? ?? ??????????? ???????.
LibreOffice ????? ???????????? ?????????? ????????????? ????????????, ?????????? ?? ??????? ?????????? ??????????. ?????? ?????????
?????????? ?? ????????????, ? ??????? ????? ???? ???? ???????? ? ???????,
??? ????????? Ask LibreOffice.
???????
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8/10
10/10
ONLYOFFICE WPS OFFICE 8/10
4/10
??????? ????????? ????а?? ????????? ????? ?????????????, ????
??? ?????? ???????, ????????? ?????? ?а???????????????.
www.linuxformat.ru
??????? ????????? ?????????
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?а?????? ??а??????????-??????????? ???????? ????????? ????????????, ?????????
??а?????? ??????????.
? ?????? 6.0 ?????? ????? ?????????? ????????? ?????????, ????? ??????? ??аMicrosoft
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???аLibreOffice ??? ??а???????.
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??а???????????.
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7/10
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??????????? ???????, ????????? ?????????
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?????? ????? ??????, ???? ??? ??????? ?????????
????? Linux.
??? ??????????? ???????, ??????????
???а????????? Linux, ??а????? ??а???????, ?????а?? ?????? ??-???????? ???????? ?а???????.
????? ??????????, ??????????а?? ??а?????-????
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?????????? ??????, ??????? ???? ??????????????
??????? ??? Windows.
?????????? ????????? ODF ????? ?????????????? ?а????? ?????????? ?????? ????????
????????? ????????? ????. ??а??? ??????????
????? ??????????, ?а??а?? ???? ????????????,
??? ????? ?аWPS Office ????? ????????? ????
??? LibreOffice.
?????? ???????????
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?а??????? ?????????. ???? ???????? ?????????? ??? ????? ????????? ???????? ?а?????? ??????????.
Forms [?????] ??аGoogle Docs ????? ???????????? ??? ???????? ???????? ???????? ???????????????? ???????, ????? ??? ???????, RSVP ?а??????????? ??а?????????. ??????? ????????????? ??????? ????? ????????
????? ???????????? ?а?????? ??????????, ????? ??? Personal [??????], Word
(????????? ?а?????? ??а??????, ?????? ?а????????) ?аEducation [???????????] (??????, ??????? ???????). ????? ????? ???????????? Google Drawings
??? ???????? ????-???? ?а???? ??????, ??а??а??? ?????????????? ?????.
Calligra ????????????? ??? Karbon, ?????????? ??? ????????? ?????????
???????, ??а?????????? ??? ??а??????????????. ???? ??а??????????????
?а???????н???? ?????????? ??? ???????? ??? ??????, ?????? ???????????
???? ???? ?аKexi. Calligra Planа? ??? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????, ????????? ???? ??? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ?????????.
??? ?аKexi ??аCalligra, LibreOffice Baseа? ???????н???? ??????????
??? ?????????? ?????? ??????, ??????? ??аMicrosoft Access. Base ?????
?
www.linuxformat.ru
??????????? ?????????? ?????????, ??????????? ?а?????, ?а??????
????????????? ????????? ???????, ???????, ????? ?а??????. ????? ???????????? ??????? ??????? ??? ???????????? ???????, ????????, ???????
??а??????? ?а??????, ????? ????????? ??????? ?????????????. ??????????
?????????? ????????? ??? ??????????? ?????? ???????????? ??????????
??? ??????, ????? ??? MySQL, MS Access, PostgreSQL ?а??. ??? ?????????,
Kexi ??аCalligra ??а???????????? MS Access ?а????? ??????, ??? Base.
? ??????? ??а?????? ????????????, ?аWPS Office ?аOnlyOffice ???? ??????
??? ???????? ??????????, ?а??? ??а????? ?а???, ?????а?? ??? ?????-????
????????????? ?????????? ??? ????????? ??? ???? ??????.
???????
CALLIGRA SUITE GOOGLE DOCS LIBREOFFICE 9/10
7/10
9/10
ONLYOFFICE WPS OFFICE 5/10
5/10
?????? ????? ???????? ?????? ??????н? ??? ????????????, ???????????? ?а?????? ??????, ?а??а???????? ??а?????????????.
??????? 2018? LXF244? |?29
????????? ??????? ?????????
??????????н????
?????? ???? ????????, ????? ????
????????? ??????? ?????????
??????? ???????? ???????????? ??????? ??????-??????????
???????? ??, ??? ??? ????????? ?????????? ????????????? ???????????? ?а???????? ???а????? ?а???а?? ?????????? ????????????.
?а???? ?????????? ??????? ????????? ?????????? ???????? ???????,
?а???? ?????, ???????????, ????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ?????????
?????????? Google Docs.
Google Docs ????????? ?а?????? ????????? ??????? ???????????? ???????????? ?????????????? ?а???????????? Google Docs, Google Sheets,
Google Slides ?аGoogle Drawings. ????? ????????? ??????? ???????? ???а?????
?а???а?? ?????????? ?а???? ?а??а?? ?????, ??? ??? ????? ?????? ?????????,
????????? ???????. ??? ????????? ?????????? ?????? ???????? ?а????????? ?а??????????? ?????? ???????, ???????????? ????????????? ??????
??????? ?а??????, ?а??а??????? ??????????????, ??? ????? ?а??????????? ???? ?????. ??? ?а?а?????? ?а??????? ?????????, ????? ???????????? ??????
?????? Google, Google Groups, ????? ???????? ?????????? ?а??????? ?????
????? ??????? ????.
LibreOffice Calc ????????? ???????????? ??????????? ?а?????????????
???????? ??а?????? ??? ?????????? ?????????????. ???? ?????? ??а????????????? ??????? ???? ??? ??а???????? User Data [?????? ????????????]
LibreOffice ?а??????? Tools > Options [??????????? > ?????????], ????????
?????? ????????? ?????, ????????? ??????? ??????????????.
? Calligra Suite ???????? ??????? ??а??? ??? ??а???????????, ?а??? ???????
?????????? ?а??а????????? ?а??????? ???????. ??а????? ??????? ???????????
?
?????????? ?????? ?аLibreOffice ?????????? Calc, ????????? ??????
?????????? ??а????????? ?????????????? ??????? ??а??????.
???????? ????? ??? ??????? ????????, ??????? ?????? ???????????, ??н???
??? ??????? ????? ???? ???????а? ?а??????????а?? ????? ??????.
? OnlyOffice ??а????????? ?????????? ?????????, ????????????? ???
??а????????, ???а???????? ???????? ???? ??????????, ?а??а?????? ?????????? ?а????, ????? ???????? ????. ??а??? ??????? ?????????? ?а????????????????, ?а??? ??????? ?а??? ???? ?????????? ?а???????? ???????.
???????
CALLIGRA SUITE GOOGLE DOCS LIBREOFFICE N/A
10/10
8/10
ONLYOFFICE WPS OFFICE N/A
N/A
?????????? ??????а? ??? ???? ???????, ???? ??а?????????????
?аLinux-?????? WPS Office.
???????????
??????? ?????-??? ??????? ????????,
???а?????? ????? ???????? ??????.
?? ?а?а?????? ?а?????????? ????????????, ????????? ??? ??????????? Calligra Stage ??????? ?????????? ??????????. ?????????
????????? ??????????????, ??????, ??????????? ????????
?а?????????, ???????? ?а????????? ????? ?а?????? ????? ??????. ??????????
????? ?????????? ?????????????? ???????аAdd Shapes.
Google Slides ?????????? ????? ??а?????????? ????????, ??????? ??????? ??? ?????? ??????. ?а??????? ?????? ????? ???????? ???????????,
?????? ?а????????? ?а????????? ??????? ????????. ????? ????? ???????? ????????? ???????? ????? ?а???? ??? ???????? ????????н???? ???????.
???????????? ??????? ??????н???? ??????????, ??????? ????????, ???
??а?????? ???????? ??а????? ??? ?????? ????????. ????????, ??а??????
????????? ?а???? ?????? ?????????? ?????????? HD, ????????? ??????????
Unslpash. ?????????? ????????? ??а?????????а? Education [???????????],
Business Tools [??????-???????????] ?аProductivity [??????????????????].
OnlyOffice ????????? ???????? ?????? ????. ????? ??????? ??????,
???????, ????????? ??????????? ?а???????, ?а????? ????????? ?а???????
????????. ?????????? ???????????? ???????? ?????????? ???????? ??????????. ??а????? ??????????? ??? ?????????? ????????, ??????????????
?а????????? ?????? ???????????, ???????????? ?а?????. ??а????? ??????
???????? ?а??????????? ?????, ???????? ???, ???????? ?????? ??? ?????????? ?а??????? ????? ?????? ??????. ???????????? ???????? ?????????, ???
??????????? ??????????? ??? ?????????????? ??????????? ????? GIMP.
??а??а???? ???? ??????, ?а???????? ?????????????? ??????????? ??а??????
??????????? ?????????? ???????????. ??а????? ?????? ???????? ?а?????
????? ?аYouTube, ??????? ??а??????? YouTube ?а??????? Plugins [???????]
?
30? |? LXF244? ??????? 2018
??????? ????????? ???????? ?аWPS Presentation ????????? ??????? ?а??????????? ??????????н???? ??????? ??? ??????? ??????.
?а?????? URL-????? ?????. ??? ??а?????, ???а??????? ?????-??? ????? ??а????????, ?а???, ??? ??а??????, ??? ??? ???????????, ???а?????? ??? ?????-????
????? ??? ??????? ???????????????.
WPS Presentation ?аLibreOffice ?????????? ??? ?????????????? ???????????, ???????????? ??????????? ???????????, ????? ??? ??????????
????????, ?????????, ???????? ?а?.??. ?аWP Presentation, ?аCalligra Stage ????????? ???????? ?????? ?????? (???? ??????????? ????? 4:3, ???? ??????н
???????? ??????? 16:9).
???????
CALLIGRA SUITE GOOGLE DOCS LIBREOFFICE 5/10
9/10
10/10
ONLYOFFICE WPS OFFICE 10/10
10/10
????? ??????? ??????????? Calligra ???????? ??? ??????????????
?????????.
www.linuxformat.ru
??????? ????????? ?????????
??????? ?????????
???????
???? ???????? ????????? ??а????????? ????????? ???????? ?????? ??? ?а??????, ???, ????????, ??? ???? ??????????? ?????
??????????? ????????????? ??а?????????. ??? ???? ??????????? ??? ???н????н???? ?а???????????????, ?а??????? ????????? ??а?????
???????????. ???а??????? ??????????? ???????? ??а?????? ?а????? ?????????? ???????? ???????????, ?а??? ????? ??????????? ?????? ??????????
??а?????? ?????????.
???????? ???????? ??а?????????, ?????????? ??????? ????????? ???
?а?????????? ???? ?а?????????, ?а????????????. WPS Officeа? ?????????????????????? ?????????, ?а??а?? ???????????? ???????????? ????????????? ???? ??? ????, ??а?????????? ????????? ODF, ??а?????? ??? ?а?????????????, ????? ??? ????? ????????, ?????? ??? ?????? ?а?????? ?????????.
??а???????????? ???, ??? ??а????? ?а???????? ?а?а??? ?????? ????????.
?????????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ?а???????? Linux ?????? ????????
??? ???????.
Calligra Office, ???????? ??а??????? ?????????????????? ?а????????????
????? ???????, ???? ?????? ?????????????, ??а??????? ??????? ??-??а???
??????????. ???? ??а???????? ??????? ??? ?????????н???? ??????? ???????
?а??а?????????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ???????????? ???? ??????? ????
?а??????, ?а??? ??? ?????? ???????. ??а???? ??а?????????? ????????? Calligra
??а????????? ??????, ??????, ??а14????????? ????????, ?а??? ???? ??????
????? ??? ??н???? ???а?????????? ??? ????????, ??? ??? ??? ???? ??????
?????? ??а??????????.
???? OnlyOffice ?аLibreOffice ???????????? ????????????? ???????
Microsoft Office, OnlyOffice ??????????? ?а???????????? ?????????? ???????
?????. ??????, ?а??????? ??а?????? ??????????, ??а??а??????????? ??а?????
??????, ??а??????????? ??? ?????????, ?а???????? ???????????? ??????
??????????? ???????, ????????? ????????? ?а?????????? ??? ???????????.
????? ????, ???????-?????? ??? ?????????? ??????????? ??а????? ???? ???
???????, ??????? ???????????? ?а???????? ?????????, ?а??? ???? ????????.
??? ??а?????, ?а???????????? ?????? ???????????? ?????????? OnlyOffice
???????? ???????? ?????? ?а????? ???????????, ??? LibreOffice. ???? ???
??????? ?????????? ?а??????????н???? ?а?????????, ???????? ??? ???????????
??????????? ???.
Google Docs ?аLibreOffice ?????????? ????? ????, ??а??????????? ????
?????, ??? ??? ?????? ??????? ????????? ??????????? ?а?????????, ?а??????а? ??????? ??? ?????????? ???????????. |
?
1? ?????
LibreOffice10/10
??????: 6.1.2 ????: www.libreoffice.org ????????: MPL 2.0 ?а??. ?????????
???? ?????? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ????????н??? ??а????.
2? ?????
Google Docs 9/10
??????:а? ????: https://docs.google.com ????????: ?????????????
?????? ??????????н???? ?????? ?????.
3? ?????
OnlyOffice 8/10
??????: 5.1.29 ????: www.onlyoffice.com ????????: AGPLv3
???????????? ????????? ????????????? ????????, ?а????????
???а???????.
4? ?????
Calligra Suite 6/10
??????: 3.1.0 ????: www.calligra.org ????????: GPL
?????а?? ?????????????????, ??? LibreOffice, ??а??? ?????????
?????а?????????.
5? ?????
WPS Office 5/10
??????: 10.1.0 ????: http://wps-community.org ????????: ?????????????
???????? ??а?????????? ????????????? ???????? ?а??????????
?????????аODF.
╗╗??????????? ?????
?????? ?????????? ?а???????? ???????? ?????, ????? ??????????а??н
???? ?????????, ??а????? ???. ???? ??а???? ??а??? ??? ??а???????,а????н
???????? ?аApache OpenOffice. ??а??? ??????? LibreOffice, ??а??? ??????н
???? ??????? ?????????, ?а??? OpenOffice ?а????????? ???? ??????????.
??? ???? ?????????? ????????а? FreeOffice ??а???? Softmaker Office
2018, ??, ??? ?аWPS Office ?аOnlyOffice, ??а???????? ?????? ???????????
???????, ????????? ????????? ?а?????????? ??? ???????????.
www.linuxformat.ru
??? ????? ???????? ????????????? ????? Google Docs, ??а?????????,
?а??? ????? ????????????? Zoho Office Suite ??? Tiki ?а??н??????а?????н
??? ????? ??? ???????????????? ?????????????. ?????? ??????????
??н?????а? Feng Office Community Edition, ???а????????? AGPLv3. ?а????
??а???? ??а??? ??? ??а??????????, ?????????? ?а????????? ???????????:
Gnumeric ??? Pyspread ? ??? ??????????? ??????, Abiword ?аSoziа? ???
????????? ?????? ?а???????? ??????????? ??????????????.
??????? 2018? LXF244? |?31
?????????????
?
?
?
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?а? ???? L
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?
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? ???? ??? ?
?
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??? ?? ??? ?????,
?
?
? ? ????? ????
?
?
,
??? tualBox ???, ?а?
r
?аVi ??? ??
?а??
?
?
?
?
???????????? ?????????? ??а?????? ??????????? 1960??, ???
?????? ????? ????????? ????
???????? ??а??????. ??????? IBM
CP-40 ???? ??????? ??????????? ?а???????????
?????????????? ???????????????? ??????????
???????????? ??????.
??????? ????????????? ????? ???????????
?а???????? 2000??, ????? ????????? 64???????
?????????? ?а?????? ????????? ??? ?????
???????????? ??????? ???????? ??. ??????????? ????????????? ??????????? (?а??????)
??????? ????? ?????????? ?????. ????? ????
?????? ???????????? ?????? ????? ??????,
????????? ??а????????? ????? ?а???????????????
??а???????, ??? ?????. ????? ???? ???????????
???????н???? ?????????? ?а??????????? ?????????, ??????? ???????? ??????????? ???????
???а??а????????????? ?а??????н???? ????????.
?
32? |? LXF244? ??????? 2018
????????? ??????????? ????? (VM, ??) ?????
?????????????? ?а????? ??????? ?а???а???? ????
????????н??? ????????? ?????????????? ????
??а?????, ??? ???????? ?????????? ?а????????????. ???????? ???????????? ????? ???????????? ???????????? ????? ?Lye-nux?,а??а??????
????????? ???? ???????? ??.
? ??? ??? ???????????? ????????????
??? ??????, ?а?????? ??а?????? ??????????
??а?? ????? ??????????. ??? ???? ???????????, ?????? ????? ???????, ????????? ??
Windows ?а??????? ??????????? ???????????
??????????? ??????????.
????? ?? ?? ????????? ??????????, ???????
?????? ?????????? ????? ???????????? ????????????????? ???? ????? ?а???????? ?????? ??, ???
?????????? ??? ??????? ????????????? ???????
??? ?????? ????????. ??? ????????? ??а???????????? ?а??????????? ????????????, ???????
???????? ????????? ?????? ???а????????? ????????? ??а?????? ?????????. ????????? ?????
??? ????? ??????????, ??? ??????????? ??????,
?а??а????????? ??????? ?????????? ???а??
??????? ????????.
????? ????? ???????? ????? ????????
Docker, ?????? ?????????? ??а?????????????? ????? ?????????. Snaps ?аFlatpaks (??. ??? ???????
??а???.а64) ?????????? ?????????? ???????????
?а??? ????? ??????????? ?????? ????????????
???????. ??? ????????, ??? ????????????? ?????????? ????? ????????? ?а?????? ?????????? ??а????????? ??а???????????? ??????, ????? ????????
???? ????????? ?а????????? ?????, ??а????????? ???????????? ???????.
??????? ???? ??а?????? ??????????? ?????????? Linux ?а?????????? ????? ??? ???????????
????? ???? LAMP ??а????? ??????? ?а???????
????? ???????, ??????? ??????!
www.linuxformat.ru
?????????????
?а????????????а?а?? ???????
???????а? ?а??????????, ???????? ????????????? ????????? ?а??????????.
???????????
??????? Microsoft Edgeа? ????
??а??????
????????????
???????????
??????, ??????
??а?????
???????.
?????????? ?????? ????? ???????? ??а????? ??????
??????????. ?а????? ??????, ???? ???????? ?а??????????? ??? ??а???? ???. ??а???????? ???????????
???????????а? ???? ?????????, ??? ??? ?? ???????? ?????????
??????????????? ??а???? ????? ?????? ???????????, ??? ????.
??????, ???????? ?????????, ???????????? ??????? ??????
?????, ??а????? ?????????? ????? ?а????. ?????? ????, ?????
??????????? CPU ?а?????? ??????????, ??а????? ??????????
???? ??????????? ??????????. ?а??? ?????? ??а??? ??????, ???
?????? ????????? ??а???????? ?а??????? ?????????????.
??? ?????????? ????????????? ????? ??????????, ??????? ??????????? ?????? ?? ?а????????? ?????? ?????
?????? ?а??????. ??? ??а????, ????? ??? ?????????? ????????????, ????? ??а????? ????????????? ?а???????? ?????
????????? ?а?????? ????????????? ????, ?? ?а??а????, ?????
??а???????? ??????????.
???????? ?а2006а?.а????? ??????? CPU (Intel VT-x ?аAMD-V)
????????? ????????????? ?????????? ???????????, ????????
?????????? ???????????. ?аLinux ???? KVM, ?аWindows ????
Hyper-V, ????? ??? ???? ?????????? Xen, ??????? ????????
??а????????????????? ?????????????????? ?????? ?? (dom0,
??? ????? ???????? ????? ??). ????? ????????????????? (domU)
?? ?????????? dom0 ??? ??????? ??а????? ?????? ????????????, ?а?????????? ?????? ????? ???????????? ?????? ????????
?????. ??????????????? ??а???????????? Qubes OS ??????????
????????????? Xen, ????? ?????????? ????????????? ??????????. ?????????? ????????? CPU (VT-d ?? Intel ?аAMD-Vi) ????
?? ?????? ?????? ?а?????????. ?????? ??? ????? ?????? ?аOpen
Virtual Machine Firmware (OVMF) ?а???????? ???????? VFIO ????????? ??? ???????? ????? ?????????? ?? Windows 10 ?а?????????
??а???????? ????????н??? ?а?????? ?????????, ???????? ??? ???
????, ??????? ???? ??? ??а???????? ????????? ?аSteam Play.
?????????????а? ??? ????? ???????? ?????? ??????????
??????????? ??????н????? ???????. ?????????? ???????????
?
www.linuxformat.ru
???????? ?????? ???????, ??а?????? ??????? ??? ????????????
?????? ?а?????????????????? ?а??????? ??????????? ??? ????????????, ??????? ????а?? ????????? ????????? ?а???????????? ????????????. ???? ??? ??а?????????, ??а????? ?????????
?а???????? ????????? ?а??????? ????????? ?????. ???? ???????
??? ??????н???? ??????, ??а????? ????? (?а????????) ?????????????? [???.:а? ??????-??а?????? ????? ???] ???? ???????????
????????? ????? ??а????? ????????????. ?а??????? ????????????, ??а?????? ?????????? ????? ???? ??а? ?а?????? ?????
??????????? ?????.
╗╗?????????? ?????? ??
????? ???а??, ??? ????????????? ????????? ??? ??????? ?а????? 2000??, ???????? ???? ??? ?????? ?????? ????? ??????????. ?а??? ???? ????? ????? ??а?????
???????? ?????? ?а????????????? ??а?????. ??а??а????? ???? ?????????? ?????
?????? ?????????? ??а??.
??? ??????, ?????????? ??а????????? ??????????? ???? ????????? ???????.
??? ??а???????? ?????? ?? ?а?????????? ???? ?????, ??????? ????? ????????.
????? ????, ?а???? ??????? ???????????. ?????? ??? ?????? ??аchroot (???? jail
?аBSD ????? ??????), ??а???? ??????????? ??????, ??а??? ???? ????? ???? ??а??????? ?а??????????.
? ??????????? ?????? л??????????╗ ?????????? ????? ????? ??????????а?
????????? ?????? ????????????? ???? ?????????? ?а????????????? ????????
????????. ????а?? ?????? ????????????? ??а?а????? ???????????а? ??????,
?аDockerа? ??а??? ?????? ???? ????? ????????. LXC, LXD, CRI ?аCoreOS rktа?
?????? ???????????, ??????????? ?????? ??? ?????? ??а?????? Docker.
?????????? ??????? ???????? ??? ??????????????? ??????????, ???????
?а???? ?????? ????а?? ???????? ?????? ?????????. ???а????, ??? ??????? ?а?????????? ?????????? ??????? Python ??? ???????????? ?????? ?????????, ??????????? ??, ??? ?????????? ?????????? ?а?????????????? ?????? ???????.
??????? 2018? LXF244? |?33
?????????????
VirtualBox
?????? ???????? ?а??? ??????????? ????? ?????
?????????? ????????? ??? VirtualBox.
?????? ???? ?????? ??????????? ?????? ?????:
??????? ????? ??????? ??????? ?а?????? ?????????.
VMWare ?аVirtualBox ?????????? ?????????? ??????????? ??? ???? ???????????? ?????? (??????? Linux). ?аWindows
????? ???????????? Hyper-V, ???????, ??а????? ????? ????????
Quick Create, ????? ?????????? ????????? Ubuntu ???????, ???
??а???????: л????????? ???????? Microsoft ??????????? ?а??????
???????????? ?а????????? ???????? ??аLinux ?а???????? ???
?
?а?????╗. ??а????? ???????????? VirtualBox, ????????? ??? ?????
???????? GPL ?????? 2 (??а??????????? Extension Pack, ???????
?????????? ????? ???????, ??? ?????????? ???????? USB [USB
passthrough] ?а?????????? NVMeа? ??а??????? ??а?аGuestаAdditions [?????????? ??? ???????? ???????], ??????? ?????? ????
??????? ???аGPL) ?а????????? ???????? ??а???? ??. ????????
?????????? ??????????? ?????, ????? ?????????? ?а??????,
???, ???? ??а??? ?а????? ????, ??????? ?????? ?а?????????????
?а?????????? ??а??а????? ????????? ???????.
??????????? ?????????
????? ?????? ?????? ????????????? ??????? ??????????? ?а??????? ?а?а?????
?а?а?????. ????????: ???а?????????????? ?????? ??????? ?????? X, ?????? ??????
???????? ?????.
???????????, ??? ??а??? ???????????? ?а????? ????????????,
????????? ???????? ????????? ?а?????????? Ubuntu ??а????
Virtualнbox. ???? ???, ???, ????????, ??? ????? ??? ???????а? ???
?а?а???????? ????, live-?? ??????? ?????????, ??? ????????????? ?а??????????? ????. ????? ?????????? ??, ??а???????
????????? ??а?????????? ??????? ????. ??? ????? ????????
???????, ??????? ???????????? ??????? ???????? ???? ??а?????
?а??а?????. ???? ??а??????????? ???????? ?? ???а????????? ????
???????, ?????????????? ???????? л?????? Ctrl╗, ????? ????????? ?????? ???? ??а????????? ?а???????? ????.
????????? Virtualbox ??а????????? ??????? ???????? ???
????????? ??????????? ???????? ?? Linux, ??а?????? ???? ?????
??? ?????????. ??????, ??? ??, ????????, ????????, ??? ??? ?а??
?????? ?????????? ?а??? ???? ???????????? ?а???????? ??????? ?????????? ?????. ??????? ?а???, ??? ?а????? ???????????
?????????? ???????? 16 ?? ?????? ?а??????? ??????? ???????.
????? ??? ?????????, ???? ????????? ??. ????? ????????
?? ??а?????? ????? ?а??????? ??а?????? Settings [?????????]
????????? ?а????????? VIRTUALBOX
1 ???????? VirtualBox
???? ??а????????? ?аmacOS ??? Windows,
????????? ??аwww.virtualbox.org ?а????????
??а?????? ??? ??????????. ????? ????????? ????????? ???????? ??? ?????????. ???? ??а??????н
??? ?аLinux, ??аVirtualBox ????? ????????? ????
?а???????????? ?????? ????????????. ?аUbuntu
??? ????????? ??????????? sudo apt install
virtualbox. ????????? VirtualBox ??а???? Applications [??????????] (??? ??? ??? ???? ???????н
???? ??? ????????).
34? |? LXF244? ??????? 2018
2 ???????? ????? ??
??????? ??а?????? New ?а??????? ?????
????? ?????????? VirtualBox. ??а????????
??????????? ?????? Ubuntu 18.10; ??а???????
???? LXFUbuntu-VM, ??а??а?????? ???? ??а?????
???, ????? ??? ?????????. ?????????? Machine
Type ?аLinux, ?а???? Versionа? ?аUbuntu (64????),
???? ?????? ??? ??а????????? 32??????? ??. ????
??а??????? ?а????? ?????????, ??????? ??а??????
Expert Mode [????? ????????], ?а?а?????????
??????а? ????? Next [?????].
3 ???????? ????? ??????
??????? ??????????? ?????? ??? ???????
??????? ????? ??????????? ??????, ???????
??а????, ????? ??????? ??а?????? ??а????????????, ?а??а??????н???? ?????? ??а?????? ?????.
??????????? ??????? ????? ?а??????????
(???????? ????????) ?????? ??????? 2а??, ?????
??? ???????? ?а??????? ??????? ????? ????. ????
??а???????? ????? ??????????? ?????? ??????? ????? ??н????, ??, ???????????,а??????????
?????????????????? ?????.
www.linuxformat.ru
?????????????
??а?????? ???????????? ?а????????? ?а?????? Display [???????????]. ????? ??а?????? ?????????? ???????????? ???????????
??????????. ??? ????? ???????? ?????????? ?????? ???а??????? ??????? ????? ????? ?????? ???????????. ?а???????????
??а????????? ?????? ??????????? ???????????? ??? ???????,
??? ??? ??, ????????, ??????? ???????? ????? ??? ???????
64а??. ??а????? ???? ?????? ???????? ????????? ??а????????,
??? ????????? ????????, ????????? ?????????? ????????? ?????? VboxManage. ??а??а????а? ???????.
??? ??????????? ??????? ?????, ???????? ??а???? ??????? ??а????????? ???????????, ?????????? ??? ???????????
???? ?а???????? ???а???? ??????????? ????? ?????-???? ???
3D-??????? (OpenGL, OpenGL ES ??? ??????? ??????????? Vulkan). ????? ??а???? Enable 3D acceleration [???????? 3D-???????]
??а????????? ????? ?? ?????????? ??? ??????? ???????? ????? ??? ????? ???????? ??а?????????? ?????, ?а????? ????????
???????? ?????? ?а??? ???????????. ??? ??? ???? ??а???????????
?????????? ??????? (??? ????? ?????? ?????????? ?а?????????
VRAM), ?????????, ??? ??а??а?????? ??????? ?????. ???? ???????
?????? ????? ??а???? 2D-???????, ??а??? ???????? ?????? ???
??????? DirectDraw ?а???????? ?? Windows.
?? ????? ????? ????????? CPU. ????????? ??а?????????
??????? ??а?????? ?а???????? ?? ?????? ???? ?????; ??? ????????
?????????? ??? ????, ??? ??????????????? ??????????? ???
???????. ??????? ???????? ?????? System [???????] ?????
?а??????? Processor [?????????]. ????? ????? ??????? ??????? ??????????? CPU, ??????? ??????? ???????? ????????? ????
(??????? ??????? ????? ????, ???? ??? ????????? ????????????
HyperThreading [???????????????] ??? ??? ??? ??? ?????? ?????????? ?аAMD). ?а?????, ???? ??а???????? ????? ??????? ????? CPU,
?????????? ????, ??? ?а???? ??????? ??????? ???????? ?а?????.
????????????? ???????? ????? ??а???????? ????? ????????
???????? ???????? CPU. ????? ????? ?????? ?????? ??????????, ????? ?? ??а????? ????????? ??? ??????? ???? ??а?????, ???
?????? ??????? ??? ????????? ???????????? ?????.
????????? ???????????? ???????? ????????? ??????? Enable
PAE/NX, ??? ???? ??????????? 32??????? ?? ???????? ??????
?а????? ??? 4 ?? ??????. ???? ??а???????????? Ubuntu Server
???????
4 ???????????
?????
????? ?? ????? ????? ?????????? ?????????. ??????????? ???????????? Linux ???????
????????????, ??????а????????? ??а????? ???
??а10а??, ?а???? ????? ?????????, ????? ????а??
???????? ??????. ????? ?????? ???????, ????н
???? Create aаvirtual hard disk now [??????? ??????????? ??????? ???? ??????]. ???? ?а??? ?????????? ?????? ??????, ????? ??????? ?? ???, ?????
??а??????????? ???? ???????? ??????????.
www.linuxformat.ru
?????? ???????????? Linux ?????? ???????? ???????? ??????????, ?а?.??. ????????
???????, ????????? ?????. ??а?????? ??? ???????? ????????????? ??а??а????? ???????.
guest (??? ?а??????? ?а????? Machine Type ?аVersion), ??? ?????????? ??????????н???. ??????? ??а??????? Acceleration [?????????],
??а?????? ???????, ??? ???? VT-x ?аNested Paging ????????. ???
?????? ???????????? ???????? ????? ?????????? ??а????????????? ???????? Use Host I/O Cache [???????????? ??? ?????-??-
??????????? ??????? ?????
л???? ??а???????? ????? ???????
????? CPU, ?????????? ????, ???
?а???? ??????? ??????? ????????
?а?????.╗
???? ?????], ???????? ??????????? ??? VirtualBox, ????? ???????????? ??? ??. ?????? ???? ?????????, ??? ????? ??????????
?????????? ????? ?а???????? ?????????????? ?????/??????,
?а?????????, ????????? ?? ?а?????????? ???????. ??а??а?????
???????????? ????? ?а????????? ?? Windows, ??а???? ??? ???
?????, ??а???, ????????, ???????? ??????? ????????????????????, ????? ??? ???????? ??????.
????????????
5 ?????????
?????????
6 ????????? ???? ??
???????? ????????? VDI ??а?????????. ???
????? ????? ????????? ??? ?????????? ?????? ????????н??? (??а????????? ?????????).
????????н???? ?????????, ??????????, ???????
????? ??????, ?а?а???? ??? ??а????а?? ????????
????????? ???????? ?????/??????, ??? ??? ??????????? ???. ??а?????? ??????? ??????????????? ????? ?а??????? ?????????? ?????? ??????,
?а???? ?????? ??а?????????? ?а~/VirtualBox VMs/.
????? ????????? ???? ??????, ??? ?????
ISO-?????. ???? ???????? ??????? Ubuntu ??а????
?????, ???? ?????????? ??? ?а?????? DVD. ?????н
???? ?аSettings > Storage [????????? > ?????????],
??????? ??????н???? ????, ??????? ??а?????????? ???????? ??? ????? ?????? ?а????????
Choose Virtual Optical Disk File [??????? ???? ???????????? ??????н????? ?????](sic). ??????? ????
ISO ?а??????? OK, ?а????? ??а??????? ???????
Start. ??????? ?????!
??????? 2018? LXF244? |?35
?????????????
QEMU ? Libvirt
??????? ? ????? ??????????? ???????? ? ????????? ????????? ?????? ??...
irtualBoxа? ???????? ????? ??? ?????? ?????? ?а???н
???????????: ??а????????? ??????? ????????, ??????????? ????????? ?а?????-???????????????. ??????
?аLinux ???? ?а?????? ?????.
?????? ??????? ???????? VirtualBox ??-??а?????????? ?аOracle
(??? ???????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ?????????????
????????), ???????? ??? ????????? ?????? ?а????????? Sun
?а2010а?.аQEmuа? ??????????, ???? ????? ?????????? ??????????
Linux (??а??а??????: ???????????? ????? ????????? ??????, ??н
????? ????? ????????? ?а?????????? ????????? ??а???????).
??? ??а???? QEmuа? ??? ????????, ??а?а????????? ?а????? KVM
??а???????????? ?а????????????? ?????????? ?????????????.
????? ????, Libvirt ????????????? ?????????, ??????????
?????????? ?? QEmu (?а???????). ??? ????? ??а???? ????????
??????????? ??????????? ????? ?а????????? ?а?????????
????????? ?а???????? ?????? ?а?? ????????. ????? ?????????
?????????? ???? ???? ??????? ??а??????? ?а???????????? ????
????????????? ????? ?????? [Alberto Garcia] ?аLXF234. Libvirt,
?а???? ???????, ????? ??????????? ???????????? virt-manager,
??????? ???? ?????? ?а??????????? ????? QEmu ????? ????????
?а??????????? ???????н???? ?????????. ??а??????? ???????
V
????????? ?????? ????????. ????? ?????????? QEmu (?а?????
???????? Libvirt, ???????? ??а????????????? ???????) ?аUbuntu
18.04 (?а??? ???????????), ???????? ?????????:
$ sudo apt install sudo apt install qemu-kvm libvirt-clients libvirtdaemon-system bridge-utils virt-manager
??? ?????? ?? QEmu
╗╗???????????: VIRGL
Virtual Machine Manager GUI ????????? ??? ??????? ??????????????? QXL ?????
???????? ??????. ?????? ??а????? ????????? ??? ????? ??? ?????? ?а??????????????? (??? ???? ?????????) ??????????? 3D-??????? VirtualBox.
???? ??????? Collabora ?????? ????? [Daniel Stone] ???????? ?а????? ???????? (??. LXF243) ?а??????? VirGL (???????????? ?Virgil?) ?а??? ?????????????
?аCrosVM, ??????????? Chrome OS. VirGL ????? ?????????? ?????? OpenGL ?????
?аGPU ?????, ????? ????? ??????????? 3D-?????????. ???????? VirGL ??аvirtmanager (??. ???.а37) ??а????????? ??????: ?а??????? Video ?????? ????н???? Virtio
??? ?????? ?а???????? ???? 3D-???????. ????? ?а??????? Display Spice ????????
Listen type ??аNone (VirGL ??а???????? ??аTCP) ?а???????? ???? OpenGL. ????????,
??? ????? ??????????? ??????? ??????? ???? ??????????????? ?а????, ???????
???????? ????, ???? ???? ?а??? ??? ??? ????.
? ?? ??а????? ?????????, ???????а?? VirGL, ????????
$ dmesg | grep drm
? ???????
[drm] virgl 3d acceleration enabled
???? ??? ????? ??? ?є????? ?????????????????? ???????, ????????? ? ????
??????????? ?? ???????? GPU ?? ???.а40.
??? ??? ??а???????? ????? ??????
??? ??????????????
???а???????аMint ?а??.
36? |? LXF244? ??????? 2018
?????????? QXL ??????? ?????????? ?? ??????? ????????, ????
??а????? ????? ??? ??????.
?????? ??? ?????? ??????????? ??????, ???? ???????????
??????????? ??????????. ?????????? ?????? ??????? ???а?
???????????? qemu-img, ??? ???:
$ qemu-img create -f qcow2 lxf.qcow2 20G
????????? ????????н???? ????? QCOW2, ??? ??? ?а?????? ?????? ??а??а???????? ????? 20а?? ??а?????. ???????????? ??????? ???
?а????? ?????, ??? ??а?????? ???????? ????? ?а??????, ?????????
???? ??а????? ??????? root ?????????? ?????, ????? ?????????
?????н???? ?????. ????? ????? ???????????? л????? [raw]╗ ????? ??а???????н???? ???????. ?а????????? ????????? ??? ????????? ???????????? ?а?????????????????? ?а??а??????? ????????
???????? ???????? ????????? ???а?????????? ?а??? ??????,
??а???? ????? ??а??? ????????? ???а???? ????? ??.
?? ?????????? ??????????? ????? ?? ??????????? ?????
????????? ??????. ??? ??а?????????, ??? ????? ???????? ????????? ????? ????? ?????? Linux Format, ??? ??? ??а?????????????? ??????? ??а????????. ?а????? ??????? ??а????????????? ISO
Elementary OS (??????? ??а??????? ??а????? DVD, ??а????? ??????????? ??? ??а????? ??????? ????), ???? ????? ??а?????? ???
????????? ?? ??а?????? ??????. ?????а?? ???????? ??а??????
??????? /dev/cdrom ?????? ????? ISO, ???? ?????? ????????????
???????? ????????. ??? ??? ????????? ???? ?? ?а??????? ??а3а??
?????? (???????? ??????н???? ??? ??????????? Linux):
$ qemu-system-x86_64 -cdrom elementaryos-5.0stable.20181016.iso -drive file=lxf.qcow2 -enable-kvm -m 3G
???????? ???????? ??а????? -enable-kvm. QEmuа? ??? ??????? ????????, ?а???? ??а??а???????? ???????????? KVM, ???
????? ?????????????, ?.??. ???????? ????? ????????. ??а?????
????????. ?????????? ????? live (?а??????? ????? Try Elementary), ??а?????? ??????????, ??? ???????? ?а????????? ?????,
?а??? ???????????? ????? ??????.
QEmu ??а????????? ????????????? ???????? ??????? ?????????? NAT, ??? ????????? ???????? ?а??????????? ???????,
www.linuxformat.ru
?????????????
??а??а???????? ???, ????????, ????? ?а?? ????? SSH. ?????????
??а?????? ?????? ??????, ????? ?????? ????? ???????????
??н????? ?????. ??а????? ????? ????? ?????? ?а??????????
Elementary OS, ??? ????а?? ??а?????? ??? ?а??????????. ??а?????????? ????????? ???????? Restart [?????????????]. ??????????? ??????н???? ???????? ??????????, ?а??а??????? ?????
?а??????? ?а??????? ??????????????, ??????? ???????????? ???
?????????. ??а????? ?????? ????????, ??? ?а????????? live ???
??????? ??????????, ??, ????????, ??? ????? ?????? ??а?????????
??а?????? ??????.
?? ????????? QEmu ????????????? ??????? ?????????? VGA,
??????? ?а????? ????????? Elementary ??а?????-??а????????
?????????? ?????? ?а800?╫?600. ??? ?????? ???? ?а????????? ???????????? ????? ??????? ??????????, ??а???? ????? ???????.
???? ??а???а? ??????????? ??????????????? ?????????????????
QXL, ??????? ?????????? 2D-????????? ?а????? (???а??????????????? ????????? ?????????) ???????????? ???????? SPICE, ???
??? ????? ??????? ??????. ????????? ?? ?а?????????? ????????? ??а????? ?а??????????? QXL:
$ qemu-system-x86_64 -drive file=/mnt/stor/VMs/lxf.qcow2
-enable-kvm -m 3G -vga qxl
??????, ???????? lspci ?????? ?????, ?? ?????? ??????? ???????? ????? ??????:
... Red Hat, Inc. QXL paravirtual graphic card
? ?????? ???????? ?????? ?а????? ??????? ??????????? ?????
System Settings > Displays [????????? ????????? > ????????]. ??а????? ?????? ???????? ?????????? QXL ??????????? (??а????????? ??? 16а??, ???? ?????????? ??? 1080p
???а32??????? ??????? ?????, ??а??? 4K ??????????? ??????),
???????? ?а????? ?????????? ??????? ????? -global qxl-vga.
vram_size=64MB. ???? ?а?????? ????????? ??? ?????? ?а???????
QXLа? vgamem ?аramа? ??а??а??????????? ??? ????? ??????????? ?а????????? ??а???????. ???????, ??? ??? ??? ??а????????????? ???????? ??????????? ?а??а??????? ??? ?а3D-??????????
(??а??????????, ???а???? ??а???? ?????????).
? ??????????? ??а????????? ???? ?? ????????? ?????? Intel
440FX ?а???????????? ????? PIIX3 IDE ?а????????????? ????????????? CPU. ??а???????? ?????????? ??? ????? ??????? ????????????, ??? ?а???????: ??? ????? ??? ????????. ?????? ?????н
?????????? QXL ??? ???????? VGA ??а?????????, ????? ?????
???????????? ????????? Cirrus Logic GD5446 (??????? ?аQEmu
??? ??а?????????). ?????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ?????????
?????????? ????? ?????????? ????, ?????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????????? ?а????????? ?????? ??а???????????????
???????????? ????????? ??????????. ??? ?????????? ????????
??? ?????????????????, ?а?????, ??????????? KVM ?????????
?? ???????? ??а??????? Performance [??????????????????]
?????? ???????, ??? ?????????? ???? ??.
www.linuxformat.ru
╗╗VIRTUAL MACHINE MANAGER
????? ???????????? virt-manager, ??? ????, ????? ??????? ?????? libvirtd,
?а????????? ??? ???????, ????????, ???????? ??? ??а??, ??а????? ????? ????????? ?????? ??а?????? ???а?????? ????????:
$ sudo systemctl enable --now libvirtd
?????? ??а?????? ????? ??????????? ????????? Virtual Machine Manager
??а???? ??????????. ??????? ??а?????? New Virtual Machine, ?а?????? ???????? ??? ??а???????? ???????? ??. ???????? Local install media [?????????
???????? ?????????], ???? ??а?????????? ????-??а???????. ??????? Libvirt, ?????
?? ??а??????????????, ??а?????? ????????? CPU ?а??????. ????? ??? ??????????? ????????? ??? ???????????? ?????????. ??а????????? ????????? ???????
?а/var/lib/libvirt/images. ???? ??а?????? ?????????? ??а?а?????? ?????, ??????
???????? ??????????, ????? ??а??????? ?????? + ?а?????????? ???? ?????????
????????, ?а????? ??????? ????????? ???.
?, ???????, ???????? ????? ??????? ?????. ???? NAT ??а????????? ???????
????????, ??, ????????, ??а???????? ??????????? ?????????? vtap, ???? ?а??? ????
?????????? ??а??????????. ??????????? ???? ???????? ????? ???????? ???????,
??а???? ??? ???? ????????? ???????? UEFI (????????, ???? ??а??????? ???????
GPU), ??? ???????? ??а????????? ??, ???????? ???? Customise [?????????] ?????
???????? Finish [??????].
??? ????-?????? ?????????
Customise ?????
??????????,
??а??? ???
???????????
???????.
??, ????????? VirtIO. ?????????? QXL ?????????????????? ?а???
??????, ??? ??? ???????????? ?????? ?а?????????? ????????
??а?????? ?????, ??? ??? ??? ????а?? ?????? ??????? ????????.
??а??????? ???? VirtIO ????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????-
??????? ???????????
????????????
л??? ??а???? QEmuа? ??? ????????, ??а?а????????? ?а?????
KVM ???????????? ?а??????????
?????????????.╗
?????? ??а????????; ??????? ??????? VirtIO ????? ??????? ?????
???????? ?а???????? ??????????? ??а????. ???????? VirtIO ???????? ??а??? ???????????? Linux, ??а??? Windows ???????? ???
???????? ?????????????; ????? ??а????? ??аhttps://fedorapeople.
org/groups/virt/virtio-win/direct-downloads/. ?????????? VirtIO
????? ????????? ??а????????? ??????, ??а??? ?????? ????????
?а?????????? ????????. ???? ????? ???????????? virt-manager
?а???????н???? ???????????, ?????????? ??аLibvirt. ???????
??а?????? ?????? ?????? ??????????.
??????? 2018? LXF244? |?37
?????????????
???????? GPU
????????????? ????? ?????? ????????? ??????? ? ?? ????????? ?????
??????????а???????? PCI. ??? ??????????? ???????? ???????? ?? ?????!
? ??? ????? Steam Play ??????? ????????? ????????
???????? Linux, ?а??а???а???????. ??а?????? ??а????????? ????? ???, ?а??????????? ??а??????? ?????
??а??????????? ???????????? ???? ????? ????. ?????? ??????
????, ?????????? ??????????? ?????????, ???????? ?аLinux
????, ??? ?аWindows, ?а?а?????? ?????? ???? ???? ????? ?????н
???????? ??????, ??????? ?????? ??а???? ?а??? ?????????
??????. ???, ??а???????, ?а???????????? Proton Wine ??аValve
?а???????????? DXVK ??? ???????, ?????? ??? ??а??????? ??????????? ???????? ??а???? ??? ????????? ??аLinux. ???? ??????
????? Linux ??аFeral ?аAspyr ????? ???????? ?????????????
??а?????????????????? ??а?????? ?????????? ?аWindows.
Virtual Function IO (VFIO) ????????? ???? Linux ???????? ?????????? ???????????? PCI ?а?? ?а?????????????? ??????????.
???? ?????? ????? ??????? ????????????, ??? ??????? ??????????, ??? ??? ??а?????? ??????????, ???? ??? ????????. ??????
??????????? ?????? ?а?? Windows, ??? ???????, ???? ?а??? ?а??
??????? ????? ??? ????????? ???????? ??? ????????. ??????
??а???, ??? ??? ????????, ???????? ?а??????????????????, ??????? ?а99?% ????????. ??????, ????? ??? ??? ??????????, ????????
?????????? ????? ????????? ???????.
??-??????, ???? ???????? ???????, ??????? ????????:
??? ??????????? ??? ??????????. ?? ????? ??????? ?? ??????
???????? ???а???????????? GPU, ??? ??? ??? ???? ????? ?а???
??????. ???? ????? ??? ?????? ?????????? ??????????, ???????
??а?????????? ???????? ??а?????? ??а???.а39. ???? ??а??????????? ??? ????????? ?????, ?????????, ??????????а?? ??а???????.
?????????н???, ??, ??? ??а?????, ??а?????? ?????????? ?????
???????, ???? ???????? ??, ??а??????? ?????? ????? ???????. ??????????? GPU ????? ??а?????? ??????, ??а?а???????????, ?????? ?а???? ??????? ???? ????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ?????
???????? ??а???? 250а??.
?
??? ????? IOMMU
?????? ????????? ?аBIOS, ???? ????????? ???? ????????????
IOMMU, ????? ????? ?????????? [bootloader], ??????? ??а????
????? ???????? ?а?????? linux ?а/boot/grub/grub.cfg, ???? ???????? ????????????? ????????? ??а?????????? ?а??????
GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX_DEFAULT ?а/etc/default/grub ?а????? ????????? grub-mkconfig. ?а???????? Intel ????????? ?????а? нintel_
iommu=on, ?а??аAMDа? amd_iommu=on. ??????????????? ?а?????
????????? ????????? ?????? (?????? ?а???????? ?а?????????
????????? ???????? wiki Arch ??аVFIO, https://wiki.archlinux.org/
index.php/PCI_passthrough_via_OVMF):
#!/bin/bash
shopt -s nullglob
for d in /sys/kernel/iommu_groups/*/devices/*; do
n=${d#*/iommu_groups/*}; n=${n%%/*}
printf ?IOMMU Group %s ? ?$n?
lspci -nns ?${d##*/}?
done;
???????????? PCI ????? ???? ???????? ?????? ??? ????????,
??????? ???????? ????? ?????????????. ???? ???? ??????????
(??, ??????? ??а?????? ????????) ????????? ?а???а?? ??????, ???
?а?????? ??? ????????? ???????? ??????????, ??????????
???????? ????? ??????????? ??а?а?????? ???? ?а??????????? ??????. ?а????? ?????? ?????? ?????
...
IOMMU Group 16 01:00.0 VGA ... Hawaii XT / Grenada
XT [Radeon R9 290X/390X] [1002:67b0]
IOMMU Group 16 01:00.1 Audio device ... Hawaii
HDMI Audio [Radeon R9 290/290X / 390/390X]
[1002:aac8]
...
?????? ????????н??? ?????????. ??????????????? HDMI
??а????? GPU ????????? ?а?????? IOMMU, ??????? ??? ????
???????? ??? ????, ??????????? ????? ?? ??? ?????-, ???
?а?????????????????.
???? ?а?????? ????????????? GPU ????????? ???????? ????,
?? ??а??а????? ???????? ??? ??а???????, ??? ??? ??? ???? ??? ??????? ???????. ??? ???????? ?а??????? ???????? vfio-pci, ???????
??????? ???????????????? ?а????????????? ?????????????
??? ?а??:
??? ?????
??а???????????? Nvidia
GTX 680, ?а???
?????а? Radeнon
290 OCX,
???? ???????
?а?????????.
38? |? LXF244? ??????? 2018
www.linuxformat.ru
?????????????
?????????? ?аID ?????????? (????? ?а????? ??????????? ????
??????). ??????? ?????????? GPU ?а????? ?а????? ????? ???????
????????, ?????? ??? ??аID ????????? (????????? ?аwiki Arch,
??? ?????????? ???????? ????). ????? ???????? ???? GPU
?а???????????????, ??а??????? ???? /etc/modprobe.d/vfio.conf,
??????????
options vfio-pci ids=1002:67b0,1002:aac8
????? ??? ????? ??????????, ???? ????????? ?????? VFIO
?аinitramfs. ?аUbuntu ??? ???????? ????? ???? /etc/initramfs-tools/
modules, ?а?аArch (??????? ??, ??????, ?а??????????) ??а??????????? ?????? MODULES= ?а/etc/mkinitcpio.conf. ?а????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ?????? vfio, vfio_iommu_type1, vfio_pci ?аvfio_virqfd
???, ????? ??? ????????? ????? ????, ??? ???????? ?????. ????????? ?????, ??? ?????? ??а????? ???????, ???? ?????? ??а??а???? ??а??????????? KMS ??? ????? ????????. ?????? ??а?????
??????? initramfs ?а??????? sudo update-initramfs -u ?аUbuntu ???
mkinitcpio -k ?аArch. ??????????????? ?а????????? ?????????:
$ dmesg | grep -i vfio
???? ?????????, ??? ?? ?????? ?????????????? ????:
[ 1.488517] VFIO ? User Level meta-driver version: 0.3
[ 1.489469] vfio-pci 0000:01:00.0: vgaarb: changed VGA decodes:
olddecodes=io+mem,decodes=io+me m:owns=none
[ 1.504260] vfio_pci: add [1002:67b0[ffff:ffff]] class
0x000000/00000000
[ 1.520925] vfio_pci: add [1002:aac8[ffff:ffff]] class
0x000000/00000000
[ 5.429259] vfio-pci 0000:01:00.0: vgaarb: changed VGA decodes:
olddecodes=io+mem,decodes=io+me m:owns=none
????????, ?? ??????? ??????, ?? ???, ????????, ?? ????? ?????. ????????? ?????
$ lspci -nnk -d 1002:67b0
??????? ??????? ??????? ???? ??????????????????????????.
??? ??????? ???, ???а?? ??????? VFIO ????????? ????????
?а?????????? ??? ???.
?? ?????????, ?а????????
????? ??? ??? ?????????, ???????????? GPU ?????? ???????????? UEFI, ?а?? ???? ????????? ??а???????? ?а???. Open Virtual
Machine Firmware (OVMF)а? ??? ???? Intel Tianocore (??а??а? EFI
Development Kit II, ??? edk2) ???????? UEFI, ??????? ?????????
?? ???????????? ??????? UEFI. ?????????? ??а?а??????? sudo
apt install ovmf. ??а????????????, ??? ?а??? ??? ???? ??????
QEMU, Libvirt ?аvirtmanager ??а??????????? ???????. ??? ?????
???????? Libvirt, ??? ????? ??? ????????, ??? ??????? ??????????
?????? ?а/etc/libvirt/qemu.conf. ????? ?а???? ????? nvram, ???
??а??????? ???-????? ??????????, ?а???????? ???а????? ????????????? ??????
nvram = [
?/usr/share/OVMF/OVMF_CODE.fd:/usr/share/OVMF/OVMF_VARS.
fd?
]
??? ??? Ubuntu. ?аArch ???????? ???? ?а/usr/share/ovmf/x64/.
???????, ??а?????? ????????? ?? ?аvirt-manager. ??? ????????
??а???а?? ?????????, ??? ?а??????, ?????? ???????????? ISO
Windows (??????? ????? ??????? ?аMicrosoft). ????? ??а????????? ?????? ???????, ??????????? ???????? ???? Customize, ?????
??а????? ??????? ???????? UEFI (??. ???????? ?????? ?????
??????). ?а??? ??? ???? ?????, ??? ??? ??а??а????? ????????????
??а????????? Windowsа? ???????, ??? ??а?а???? ???????????а?
??а??????????? ????????? VirtIO SCSI ???? ?а??????????????????? ?а??????????? ???? ??а??????, ???? ????/????? ?????
????? ??? ?????????. ??? ?????? Windows ???????????, ??а?????
????????? ??? ?а????????? ?????????? ????????.
?а?????????? ???? ?? Details [???????????] ??????? ??аAdd
Hardware [???????? ????????????], ???????? PCI Host Devices
www.linuxformat.ru
╗╗?????????? ? ????????????
????? ??? ??? ???????? ?????????, ????? ???????? ??????????? ????????????, ?а???? ?а??? ??? ????? ????? ??а???. ??????????, ???????????? ??????,
????? ???? ????? ??????, ???? ??????????. ???? ?а??? ??? ????????? GPU, ???
??????? ????????????? ?а??????????? ?????? ??? ????? ?аBIOS/UEFI, ??????
??? ??? ????????? ????? ????????? ?????????? ????????? ??а?? ??????????.
?????????? ????? ?????? ???????????? UEFI (??????????? ????? ????? ??а????),
????????? ??а??????????? ?а??????? OVMF. ????? ????????? ?а????????????? ??????????? BIOS GPU (??? ????????, ??? ???? ??? ??????, ?а??а???
?????????) ?а???????? ??? QEmu ?????? ??????? ?а???? ??????????. ?а????? ???,
????????????? ????? 2012а?., ??????? ????????. ???? ??????????? ????? ??????
???????????? IOMMU (???а??а? Directed I/O), ???, ????????, ??????????? ???????? ?аBIOS, ?а??? CPU ???? ?????? ??? ???????????? (Intel ???????? ??? VT-d,
?аAMDа? AMD-Vi; ??????, ??? ??? ?а?????????? ?а????? ????? VT-x ?аAMD-V,
??????????а?????).
?????? ???? ?????????? ??, ????????, ?????? ??????????? ??а????????????? KVM (?????? ?????? ?а?????) ??? ?????????????? ??????????/????/
??????, ????????? (??а????????? ?????????? VNC ??? SPICE) ???????? ?????? ??а????? ????? ??????? ?а??????????? ????? ?????. ??а?????? ????????
?????????? USB, ??а???? ??а????? ???-??а?????? ??а???, ??, ????????, ??а???????
??????????, ?а??а???????? ??????????? ????????? ??????. ???? ??? ??а??????? ???????????? ??????, ??а??? ????? ??????????? ??????? ?а??????????? ??????? (?а??? ???? ???????????) ???? ?????? ???????. ???? ?а??? ?????
Nvidia, ??а?????? ??????????? ?а??????? ?error 43?, ??????? ????? ??????,
??????????? QEmu.
[PCI-?????????? ?????] ?а???????? ??? ??а?????? IOMMU, ???????
??а???????? ????????? ?????. ??????? ????? ????? ????? ???????? ?????????? ?а???? USB, ??а??а????? ???????? ??а???????????? ??? ?????????? ??????. ??? ?????? ??а????? ???????????
?????????? (????? SPICE, ???????????? QXL ?а?????????????
???????????? ??????????), ?а??а????? ???????.
?а?????? ?????? ??????: ????????? ??, ???????? (??? ??????????? ???? ????????) ???????????? GPU ?а??????????,
??????? ??а???-????? ???????, ?, ???? ?????????, ??а??????????? ?аWindows. ??? ?? ??а????????а??, ??? ?? ?????-??????
????? ????????!
????????? Firmware ?????? ???????? ????? ???????? ???????? ?????????, ???????
???????? UEFI.
??????? 2018? LXF244? |?39
?????????????
??????? ? ??????????
??????????????? ???? ??????????, ????????? ???????? ?????? ? ???????!
? ??а???, ??? ????? ?????? ??? ????????-??????????
???а?????-???? ?????????????? ???????????? ????????? Linux ?а????? live, ??????? ?а???????? chroot.
??? ???????? ?????????? root ??????? ????????, ?а??????
??????? ?а??????????, ?????????? ??? Linux, ??????????
????????????? ?а???. ???? ??а?????????????? ????????? ???
???????? ?а????????????, ??? ???????? ??? ???????????? ???
????????? ?а?????????? ?а?????????? /chroot ?а????? ?а????????????? ??а??????? ?????????. ?????? ??? ???????? ???????????
???????????? Linux.
???? ????????? ?а???????? ??????? ??????????? ????
(?а?????????, ??а?????????? ????????? ?а??????? cgroups ?а???????? ??????????? ????), ??а??????????? ?????????? ????????
?????? ???????????? ????????? ???? ????. ?а?????? ???????,
??????????? ??????????а? ??? ??, ??? ??а????????, ??????????? ????? ?????? ???????? ?? ?а??????????? ??а??????????
??????? ?????? ???????????? ???????. ??????? ??????????
????? ???????? ?а?????? ?а?????????????, ??? ??. ?а??????????? ????? ?????? ?????????? ????????? ????????? ??????????
?
╗╗K?-??, KUBERNETES...
???? ??а??? ???? ??? ?????????? ??а????????? ??а?????? ??????? ?а????, ??, ????????, ?????? ?а????, ?????, ??? ????????? ??а??????????????? ???????. ?а?????????? ?????????? Cloud Native ????? ???????????? ???????, ??? ????? ???
??а????????? ?????? ??а?????? ??????. Kubernetes (????????? Google, ??а????
??????????????? ???а?????? Cloud Native Computing Foundation) ?????????
??? лPOSIX ??????╗а? ?а??? ??????, ??? ??а????? ?????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????? ?а?????????? ???????????? ?а?? ?????????? ??а??????????????.
????????????а? ??? ??, ??? ??а?????????, ???????? ???????? UNIX ?а????????,
?????????? ?а??????: ????????? ???????????, ?????? ??а??????? ?????????
????????? ?????? (??а????????? ??а??????), ???????????? ??? ??????????
??????? ?????.
?????????? ?а???????????? ??????????? (???????? ??а????????? ?а??)
???????? ????????? ?????? ??????????. ???-??а????? ??????, ??? ??????????
??а????? ??????? ?????? ????????, ????????????? ??, ??а?????? ?? ?а?????
???????????? ????, ????????? ?а????? ?а??????????? ??????????? ??? ?????? ???????? ????? ???? ?????. ?????????? ????? ????????????? ?а???????
AppнArmor ??? SELinux ??? ????????аseccomp, ??а??? ????? ???????? ?а??????
??????? ??????????. ??????????? Kata Containers, ??????? ????????? ?????????? ?а??????????? ?????, ?а???????
CPU ??? ??????????? ????????, ???
?а??. ??? ?????????? ??????????
?????????? Docker, ???а??а? л????
[pods]╗, k8s ?а??????????? ??. ???,
??????????? ??а? ??, ?а??????? ??????????? ?????? ?????? ??аhttps://
katacontainers.io.
?????????? Kata: ???????? ???????,
????????? ???????? ?а?????????
????????????.
?а?????? ???? ??? ?а????? ????????????? ??а??? ?????? ???а??????
?????????????? ???????????? (????? ??????? ????? ?????????? ??????????).
????????? Docker
????? docker ??????? ?а???????????? Ubuntu, ??а??а??а?????
???????? ????????? ?а???????????, ??? ?????? ???? ??? ?????????? ????????? ???? WindowMaker. ????? ?????????? Docker
?аUbuntu 18.04, ????? ???????????? Snap (????????? ?????
??аSoftware Centre) ??? ???????? ??????????? Docker. ?????????
??????? ???? ?????? ??????, ?????? ??? ????? ??????? ?????, ???
?аSnap, ?а??а???????? ?????? ???. ??????? ??????????, ????? ???
??????????:
$ sudo apt update && sudo apt upgrade
????? ?????????? ?????????? ? ????????? ??? Apt, ? ??н
?????? ???? Docker GPG:
$ sudo apt install git apt-transport-https ca-certificates curl
software-properties-common
$ curl -fsSL https://download.docker.com/linux/ubuntu/gpg | sudo
apt-key add ?
?????? ???????? ??????????? Docker ??? Ubuntu ? ????????
?????? ???????:
$ sudo add-apt-repository ?deb [arch=amd64] https://download.
docker.com/linux/ubuntu bionic stable?
$ sudo apt update
?, ???????, ??а????? ?????????? Docker Community Edition,
?а???????
$ sudo apt install docker-ce
????? ??? ???????
? LXF239/240 ??а??????? ??? ????????? ??????????? ???????? ??????. ??? ?????? ?????? ??? ???????? ?а???? ????????
??????????. ?????? ???????? ??????? ??? ?а????????? ?а??????? mailcow:dockerized [mailcowа? ????. ???????? ??????],
??????????? ???????? ????? ??????? ????? ??????? ????????? ???????? ?????? (??????? ????????? webmail, ??????????
?????, ????????? ????????????? ?????????????? [Two Factor
Authentication] ?а?????? ????????) ???? ????? ??? ????? ???????? ??????. ???????????, ??а???? ?????????????.
???? ???? (??????? ??. ?????) ????????? ????????????, ??????
Docker ??? ???????.
* л??? ??? ?? ????????!╗ л?? *????* ?????? ????????.╗ л??????, ????????? ???? ??????!╗
??? ??? ????????? Docker :)
40? |? LXF244? ??????? 2018
www.linuxformat.ru
?????????????
???????а??, ??а??? ??? ??????, ?, ???
?а??????, ??а??а????? ?????????????
??? ???? ?а????????? ?????? ?????????
????? ?а??????? MX. ??? ????? ????
????? ????????????, ????? ??? ??????/
?????????? ?????????????/????????
??????????????? ?????. ??? ????? ????????? ?????????? ????????? ??аhttps://
mailcow.github.io/mailcow-dockerizeddocs/
prerequisite-system/ ?а?а?????????
???????????? ????????????.
???????? ??????????
mailcow:dockerizedа? ??? ??а????? ????
?????? ??? ?????? ???????????, ??????????? ????? ????? ??????????? Docker
Compose. Docker Compose ??????????
???? YAML (YAML Ain?t Markup Language),
??????? ?????????? ??? ??????? ?а????,
???????????? ???????????, ?а?????????
???? ????????? ??????????? ????????
????? ?????. ????а? ??? ???????? ??????????????? ????????
??????, ????????? ????????????. ????а?? ??а??а????????????
??а(??? ?????-???? ????????????), ??а???а?????? ????????? ?????????? ??? ????????? ??а?????? ????????а??. ?а???а?????????
??????? ????????? ????????а?? ??? ???а????? ??????. ??? ?????
mailcow:dockerized ?????????? ????? ?????.
?????? ????????
Docker Compose ??????????? ?а????????????, ??????? ??а????н
???? ?????, ??????? ???????? ??? ????? ?аGitHub:
$ curl -L https://github.com/docker/compose/releases/
download/$(curl -Ls https://www.servercow.de/docker-compose/
latest.php)/docker-compose
$ echo $(uname -s)-$(uname -m) > docker-compose
$ sudo mv docker-compose /usr/local/bin/
$ sudo chmod +x /usr/local/bin/docker-compose
? ??????? ????????????, ???? ??а??а?????? ???????? ??а??????? ??? ???????? ???????, ?????? ????????? ??аhttps://github.
com/docker/compose/releases ?а???????? ????? ?????? ?????.
????? ??????????? ???????? ?а/usr/local/. ?????? ??а????? ?????
??????????? ??????????? Git ??? mailcow:dockerized, ???????
??а???????? ?а?????????? /opt.
??? ???? ????? ????????? ?а??????? root (????? ????????,
??????? ??а????????? ??а????? root, ????? ??????????? #), ??????? ?????????
$ sudo -i
# cd /opt
????? ???а??????? ????????? ????? umaskа? ??а?????? ????
0022 (????? ???? ????? ????? ?????? ??????? ????????????).
???? ??а???????? ??????, ????? ???????? ??? ???? ??а????,
???????? ???? ????? ?????????? ?а??????? ??????????? ?????????????? Time-based One Time Pad ??? ????-??а?????????.
www.linuxformat.ru
?а??????? umask 0022. ?????? ??а????? ??????????? ??????????? ?а???????:
# git clone https://github.com/mailcow/mailcow-dockerized
? ???????? ?????????:
# cd mailcow-dockerized
# ./generate_config.sh
? ??? ??????? ??? ???????? ??? (FQDN) ?????? ?????????
??????? ?а??? ??????? ????. ????? ????????????????????,
?????? ??????? ????? ?а???????? ??? ?а???? ???? ??????. ????????, ??а???????????? mail.lxfmail.net ?а???????? ??????
?а127.0.0.1а?а/etc/hosts ??
127.0.0.1 localhost mail.lxfmail.net
?????? ?????????? ???? ?????????, ? ???????
# nano mailcow.conf
????????? mailcow ??????, ???
????????! ???????
?а?????????????????? ??????????? ??а????????? ?а?????
??? ????? ??????
???????? ??.
????????? DOCKER
л????? ?????????? Docker ?аUbuntu
18.04, ????? ???????????? Snap
??аSoftware Centre ??? ????????
н??????????? Docker.╗
????, ??? ?а??, ??а?????? ??????? ?а?????????? ??????
?????, ??? ???? ????? ??????
SKIP_LETS_ENCRYPT=y
????? ??????? ????????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????? ???
??????????????? ??????, ??? ?????????? ???????? ?????н
???. ????? ??????? ??????? ??????, ??????? ??????????
mailcow:dockerized (??? ?????? ??а???? ?????? ???? ??а???????
??????????) ?а???????? ??:
# docker-compose pull
# docker-compose up ?d
?? ?????? ??????? ??????? ?а???????? ???? ??????????
?????. ???? (??????? ???) ?а??? ??? ??????? web-?????? (???
????? ?????? ??????, ???????????? ??????????? ??? Mailcow
?????а? ????????? ?а?????????????? ????????????), ??а???
??????? ??а?????????. Web-?????? Mailcow ????? ?????????
???????? ????? ???????? ??????, ??? ?????? ????????? ???? web??????. ????? ?????????, ??? ??? ????????, ????? ??а?????? ?????
??а???? ????????? Mailcow ??а?????????? ?????? ?а????????? ???
??а?????? ???????. ????????, ?????? ????????? docker-compose
stop ??а?????????? Mailcow. |
??????? 2018? LXF244? |?41
???????? ??????? ???????
???????
?? ??????
???? ???????????? ??????? ?а???????? ?????????
???????? ???? IP-?????? ?а????? ??а??а?????????...
????, ??? ???????? ?а????? ??????
????????????, ??????, ??? ?а????
???????????? ???? ??????????
????? ????????????. ??? ??????
????????????? ????????? ???????? ?а?????
??????????? ?????? ????????? ???????? ???????
??? ??????? ?а???? ??????? ????????? ???????.
??? ?а???????? 2018а?. ??????? ??????? [Pascal
Geenens] ????????????? ??а??????????? ???????
Linux Foundation Open Networking Summit Europe
?а??????????, ????? ???????? ?????????????
??????????? ?а????????? ???? ?а????н???? ???????
????? EMEA CyberаSecurity ??? Radware. ?а???, ???
??а????????, ??а??????? ??????? ??а?????????
?а???????? ??????? ??? ???????.
?
L?F: ?а????? ??????????? ??а????????? ??????
????? ?????????????????? ????????? ????????.
????а?? ????????, ??? ????????????? ??????????
??? ????? ???????????? ???????
??????? ???????: ???? ???????? ??а????????????? ?а????? ??????, ?а?????? ????? ?а????????, ??а???????????????? ????? ??а??????????.
42? |? LXF244? ??????? 2018
??? ?????? ???? ?????????. ???????? ??а????
???????а? ?????? ??аDDoS, ????????: ?????
?а??? ???? DDoS-?????, ???? ??????? ?а???, ?????
?????????? ??, ????? ????????????????, ?а?????
??????? ?????????, ?????????? ?? ?а???? ?а????????????? ?????. ??????, ???? ????? ?????????
???????, ??? ????????? ?а??????? ?????????
2???3а?????, ??? ????? ??????, ??а?а??????? ????????????? ?????? ????? ???????? ?????? ?????,
??????? ??? ??????? ?????? ?а???????? ????.
??? ????????????? ?аUDP ??аTCP, ??????????
?????? ????????? ????? ?а????????? ?а????????,
????????? ?а?????? ????????, ?.??. ??????????
?????? ?????? ????? ?????.
?? ????? ???????????? ???-?????? ?????, ????????, NetFlow (?????????? ??????????? ??????? ???????), ?а??а???? ??????? ?а???? ???? ?????
????????????, ??????? ????????? ?????????,
????? ??????????? ??? ?????; ??а?а???? ???????,
????? ??? ??? ?????????а? ????????? ?аpcap,
?а??? ??????????? ?????, ?????????????? ????????? ?а????????? ??а??а?????а? ?а????? ???????
??? ?????????? ?????? ?????.
? ????????? ?????, ??-??а???? ???? ????????
IoT ??????, ??а????? ??????? ?????? ????????????? ????. ??? ????? ????????? ?????, ??а?а??????? ?????????? ?а??а???????? ??????: ??? ??????
6а??????. ??? ??????? ??????? ????????, ??а????н
?????. ??? ?????????????? ????????? ??а?????
???????, ?а?а???????, ????? ??? ?????????????????, ??????? ??? ???? ???.
??? ??? ?????????, ??? ???????, ??????, ???
????????? ??????? ?????????? ??? ???????????,
????????, SNMP [??????? ???????? ??????????
?????]. ?а???? ??а??????????? SNMP, ??а????????? ????? ?????? 5а?????, ?а?а????? ??????, ????
?а??? ????????? ??????? ??а5а??????, ??а5 ?????
??а??????????, ?а??а??а???????, ??? ????????? ????? ?????? ??????????? ????????? ????? ?а80?%,
????? ??? ??????? ?а??????? ?????????? ?????,
????? ??????? ????? ?а????????????. ??????????,
??? ??? ????? ??а??????????, ?а???? ??а??????????, ??а??а?а??а?????? ????????????? ??а?а??????, ????? ???????н??? ??????????? ?????.
??? ?????? ???? ???????, ??а??? ????? ???????? ??? ???????? ???? ??????, ?????? ???,
www.linuxformat.ru
??????? ??????? ????????
???? ??? ????????? ????????????????, ??а?????? ?????????????? ?????. ?а??? ?????? 15а??????
??а??????????? ?????, ??????????? ????????
??????????н???? ????????? ?а??а?????????. ??а????
15а?????? ????? ?????????? ????? 6а??????, ?а???
????????? ???? ????, ?а????? ????????????, ?,
????????? ??а???аDDoS, ??????????? ?????????
???. ??? ????????, ??? ??а??а????? ????????? ???
?????????, ?????? ??? ??? ??????, ??? ?? ??а?????????? ???аDDoS-??????, ?.??. ???????? ??????????? ???????? ???????? ????? ??а???????? ????,
??????? ??а??а?????? ????????? ?????????.
?????????? ????????? ?????, ??а????????
??????????????? ??, ?а?????? ??? ??а?????????
????... ???! ?а??? ?????. ??????, ?????? ??а?????? ???????? ????? ??? ??????? ?а?????????? ??????: ?????? ???, ????????? ?????, ??а????????
????????? ???????????, ?а????? ????? ??????????????? ????? ?а??????? 6а??????. ?????????
????????, ?а????? ?а????????? ???, ????? ???????? ?????, ????????? ?а???? ?????, ??а???????
????????????, ??а??? ???, ???? ??а??????? ??????
15а??????. ??? ???????? ?а??????? ?????????????, ??????? ?а??? ??? ????? ???-???? ???? ????
??????, ???? ????? ??????????, ??? ????? ??????
л????, ???????? ????? ??а6а??????╗ ?а??????????
??? ?????. ??? ???? ??????? ???????????? ????
?а??а?? ???? ?а??????? 6а??????, ?а????? ????????.
L?F: ????????????? ??????????????? ???????
??: ??, ?????? ??? ???а????????????? ??а??
??????? ??а?????? ???????? ?????? ???? ?????,
???? ??а??????? ?????????????-??????????. ???
??? ??а??????????? ???? ??????? ???????????????, ?????? ??? ????? ????????? ????? ?????
???? ??????. ??? ?????? ???????? ??а?а??????
?а???????? ?????, ???????? DDoS. ??? ?????
??????. ??????? ????????????? ?а???? ???????
??????????? ?????.
L?F: ???? ??а?????, ?а??????? ??а????????, ???
??????? ????????? ??????...
??: ?????????? ????????? ???????? ?а????????
???????? ?????, ?а??????? ???? ??????, ??а???
??а????????? ?а????? ????. ?а??? ????? ???? ?????? ???????, ?а??? ????? ??????? ??а????, ?????
???????? ???????? ??? ????? ?? ??а?????? ?????????. ???? ??а?????? ???????? ??? ??а????????
??аWindows ??? ??а???????? ???????? ???????а?
????????, pcaps ??? NetFlow, ??а??? ??? ?????????? ???????? ??-???????. ?а??? ???? ??а?????
??????????? ????? ?а?? ?а???? ????? ?а??????.
??? ?????????? ????????????? ???? ??????.
??? ??а????? ??????? ????? ?????????????.
?????? ???????????? ???????? ?є????? ?????
??????а? ?????? ????????????????, ?????
??а????????? ?????????? ??????, ????? ??а??н
??? ??????????? ??а????? ???? ?????? ?а????????? ??????????? ?????? ?а???. ??? ???????
?????, ?а????? ?????? ?????????? ????????.
? ???? ????? ?а?а????? ??????????? ??а???????: ??? ?????????????? ?а????????????????
www.linuxformat.ru
??????? ??а???????????
???????????? ????????
?????????а??????.
????????. ???, ???а?????????????? ????????
????? ?????????? ??????. ?а??? ???? ???????????, ????? ???????: ??? ?????, ??? ??????.
??а??????? ??а?а???? ??? ???????? ??а???????,
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?а???????.
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www.linuxformat.ru
???????? ?????
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??? ????? ????????? ?а?????????? 3D-??????.
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3D-??????? ???????? ????? ??? ??????. ????????, ?????????
?? ??????? [Roo Walters] ???????? ????? ????? ?????? ?????????
?????????? ?а???? ????????? ??????? ?а??????? ?????????
???????, ?а?????? ????????? ????????????? ????????. ????????,
??????????? ?????? ?а????????а? ????? ??????? ?а???? ??а???????, ?а?????????? ??????, ????? ??а??а???? ????? ???? ???????????? 47 ?????????? ????????? Boeing 747. ?????? ????????
?????? ?????? ????? ??????????. ??????? ??????? ????? ?????
48? |? LXF244? ??????? 2018
??????????? ??а????? ???????, ?????? ??? ????????? ??а?????
?????? ????? ??????, ?а??а???? ??????????? ?а?????????? ???????, ?а????? ??????? ??????. ??????????? ?????? ????????
??????? ????????. ?? ?????? ??а??а101 ???????, ??? ?????? ?????? ??? ?а????????????? 137 ?? ??????, ?а????? ??а???????????
?????? ???? 20 ????? ?????????.
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??????????? ???????????? ????? DistoX2, ?а??? ??????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????? ??????? ????????. ??а?????? ???????-?????????, ZEB1 ??аGeoSlam, ??? ?????????? ???????????
?????, ??а??????? ???????, ??????? ???????????? ????????????
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?????? ????????? ?????????. GeoSlam ?????????? ??? ????????
?????????: ?????? ??а????????????? ??а????? ???????? ????????
Linux ??? ????????, ?а????? ???????????? ??????????? ?а??????????????, ?а??????????? ????????????, ????????? ?а????????? ????? ?????? ???аWindows.
?????? ???????? ??????, ???? ?а??????? ????? ???????,
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?а??а?????? Cave Surveying, ?????????????? ?????? ???????
(cavesurveying.org.uk). ????? ?????? ??????? ????????????
Cave Radio & Electronics Group (CREG) ??а??????аbcra.org.uk/
creg, ??????? ????????? ?????????????? ?????? ?а??????????
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??? ???????????а? ??? ???????? ???????????... ?а???? ??????
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??? Linux, ?????? ??? surveyx.com ?аTherion (therion.
speleo.sk), ?а????? ?аTunnel, ?????????? ??аJava ???
????????? ????? (https://bitbucket.org/goatchurch/
tunnelx).
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?а??? ???????? ????????, ??? ?????? ??? ??? ??а???!
?
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?????, ?????????????? ????,
??аAH ??аX509.
? Linux ????? ?????????? ??????????. ??а??а?????? ????????????а? ??а?????????????. ?а??а???????, ??? Linux ?????
???????????, ??а??????? ????, ?а????????? ????????.
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?а??????? Linux ?????, ?а???????, ??? ?????????? ?????????.
?????? 10 ??? 15а??? ????? ????????? ?а???????????? ??а???н
??? ???? ?а?????? Linux, ???????? ??а?????????? ??.
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???? ??????????????? ??? ???????? ??????????, ??а????
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???? ?????? ?????????: л????????, ?аLinux ??? ????? ????,
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??а????????? ?а??????????. ??? ??? ?????? ???????? ??????
???????а? ??? ???????? ???а??? ?а?????????? ??????╗. ?????? ??? ????????, ?????? ??а?????; ??????????? ?????а? ???
???? ???????. ???? ?а???, ??? ????? ????????: ???? ????????
????????? ?????.
???????? DTrace. ????? ??а??????? ???????? ?аSolaris,
?а?????, ???????-???????? ?аSun ??????? ???, ??? Linux
???????, ??? ??? ??? ??а??????? ????? ??????? ???????????.
???????, ????? Solaris ???? ?????????, ?????????? ???????????? ?а???, ????? ??? DTrace ????? ???????? ?????????
?аLinux. ??? ???? ??????? ?????, ????????? ???? ??? ??????
???????? ??? ??а???????. ??а??? ?????????? ??а??????????
????а?? ??????????? ????? ?а??????????? ???????????
???????. ???? ??? ?????? ??а????????. ?а?а???? ???????
?????????? ??.
50? |? LXF244? ??????? 2018
?????? ??а?????? ??????. ?а????? ????? ?????, ???а?? ????????
bpftrace ?????????, ????? ??????? ????? [Brendan Gregg] ??????
??? ?DTrace 2.0? ?а????? ?????1?
??????? ???????? ????? ??а???? ??????? bpftrace; ??????а?
??????? ????????? [Alastair Robertson], ????????? ???????. ????????, ??? ??а???????????? ???????. bpftrace ???????????? ??????????????? ?????????, ??????? ??аawk. ??а????, ??а??? ??????
bpftrace ??????? ??????? ??? ??????????????. ??????? ?а???
???? ???????? ?а??????????????????? ?а???????????????? ????????. ???? ?а??????? ?аC ?а?????????????? eBPF, ??? ??????? ?????? ?аSystemTap ???????????? ?а?????????, ??? ???? CPU ????
?????? ???????? ???????. BCCа? ??? C ??а???????????? Python
(LXF231); bpftrace ??а?????? ????? ??аDTrace. ??? ??а??????????
??а??????????: DTrace ?????????? D (??а??а??? D, ??????? ????????
?????????? C++). ?????? ???????, ?????????а?? ??аthis-> var
??? $var. ?????? ??, ??? bpftools ????? ??а??, ??? DTrace, ?а????
??????. ?????????????? ??????? (sizeof()) ???????????, ??а???
????н????????? ??а????? ????????. ???? bpftools ????? ????????
????? ???????, ??? ??????? ??????????? ????????? ?аDTrace. ???
??? ??????? ?????????? bpftrace ?????? ?DTrace 2.0?.
???????, ??? ?????????: ???? bpftraceа? ???????????? ??н
????? ??????. ??а?????????? LLVM ??? ?????????????? ??????
???????????????? ?????????? ?а??? eBPF, ?а??? ????? ?????????
??????????????. ?????? (eBPF)а? ??? ??????????? ?а??????????? ?а?????? ??????????. ????????, ??????? bpftrace ????? ?????????????? ??а???? ????????? ???? ????????????? Linux, ??? ???
???? ?аDTrace ?аSolaris.
bpftrace ?????????? flex, Bison, ????? Clang, ???????? ?????? LLVM ?аeBPF ??? ???????? ???????????????????? ???????????????? ???????????. ????????: https://github.com/iovisor/
bpftrace/blob/master/images/bpftrace_internals_2018.png
www.linuxformat.ru
1) www.brendangregg.com/blog/2018-10-08/dtrace-for-linux-2018.html
????????? ??????, eBPF ?а?.??.а? ?????? ???? ?а?????????? Linux. ??????? ?аbpftrace (https://github.com/
iovisor/bpftrace), ????? ?????? ????????????, ???????
??? ??????????? ?а?????? ??????? 2018а?.а?аLinux ??? ?????????? ?а???????? ????????????. SystemTap (https://sourceware.
org/systemtap/) ??а??????? ??аeBPF ?а???? ??а????????? ?????
?а???????? ????.аBCC (https://github.com/iovisor/bcc) ?????????,
??а??а????? ?????? ??? ????????-??????????????. Ply (https://
github.com/iovisor/ply)а? ?????????????????аBCC: ??????????????? ?????????? ???? ??а??????? ???????? ????????. ?а???
??????? ??????? ????????
tmux: ??????????? ??????
?а????????? ??????
?????? ?????? ????? ?????? ?? ???????, ?а??? ?а??????????? ????? ??????????а?
????? ????? ???? ????????? ?????????????? ???????.
?????? ???????????? Linux ??а??????? ????? ????????? ???? ????????. ??? ???, ???????????????,
??? ?????. ??а????? ?а?????????????, ?а???????н????
??????????? ?а???? ??а????? ??????. ??а????? ????????????
??????н??? ?????? ?а????? ???????????, ????? ?????????????
????????? ?????? ???????? ??? ?????????? ???????????. ?????
????, ???а???????????? GPRS-??????????? ??? ????? ?????????
???????????? ??????.
?????????? ??а????? ????, ??? ??а??????????? ????????
?а??????. ????????????? ??????????? ??-??а??????????? SSH?????????? ???????? ??????????. ?????? ???? ????????? ??????? ?а??????????? ????????? ?????? ??а???? ??????. ?а??а?????
??а????? ????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????????????????
???????, ??????? ?????? ????????, ?????? ????? ?а??????????
?а???? ???????, ????? ??а????????????.
GNU screen
?????? ??????????? ??а?????
???????, ??а???????? ??? ?????
??а??а???.
?
??????????? ?а?????
??? ?????????, ??????? ????????? ?????????? ??????????????
????????, ????? ????????? л????????????? ?????????╗. ??????
??а???? ??? ??????????? ?????? ????????????? ?????? (??????)
????????? ?а?????????? ?????, ??????? ??а?????? ???????
?ал?????????╗. ?????????????? ????????? ?????? ??????????? ????? ??????, ?а??? ????????, ??? ??а??????? ???????????
?????? ???????.
????????н???? ?????? ????? ?????????а? GNU screen.
??а??а?????? ???? ?????? Linux ?а????? ????????? ???????? ?а???????????? ??????? ?????? ????????????. GNU screen ??а??????? ????????????? ?????? [???.:а? ??а??? ???? ?а?а?????????],
??а??а????? ??????? ??????????? ??????. ??а???????? ??????
???????????? ?а????? ????? ???????????? ???????? ?????
??а????? ?????????. ??????? ??? ????? ??????????? ????????
???????? ?????????? ??????, ????? ??? Ctrl?+?AаC (??????? ????),
Ctrl?+?AаN/P (??????? ?а??????????/??????????? ????) ?аCtrl?+?AаD
(????????? ?????). ?а??????? ?аGNU screen ????? ???, ??а?а?????
??????? ??аtmux.
??? ?????????? ????????а? ??а??? ??????????а? ?terminal
multiplexer [???????????? ?????????]?, ?аtmux ???? ?????? ????
?а???????????? ?????? ????????????. tmux ??а???????? ??????
GNU, ??а?????? ????????? ????????? ?а?????????? ??? ??????????? ???????, ????????, ????????. ???? ??? ??????????, ???
??а???? ????? ????????? ????? ??????????, ??????? ??????.
?????? ?а????
?????? ??а???????? ????? ?????? tmux ?а??????? tmux. ???
??а?? ?????, ??? ?аtmux new. ????? ???? ????? ?????? ???, ???????? ??аtmux new -s mysession.
?????? ????? ??????? ?????? ??????, ???? ??а??????????
????????? ????? ???????????. tmux attach (???, ??? ?????????,
tmux at) ????????????? ?а????????? ??????. ????? ?????????? ?????? ????? ???????????? ??????, ????????? tmux at -t
mysession. ?????? ????????? ?????? ????? ??????? ???????? tmux ls. ???? ?????? ???????? ?????? ??????, ???????
????? ???????????? ??? ???????????? ?а????????????,
??а?????????? ??????.
www.linuxformat.ru
?????? tmux ??????? ??а??????? ?а???????, ?????? ???
???????? ????????? ??????????. ?????? ??????????? ??????
?а????????, ??????? ??? ????????. ??????? tmux attach, ??а?????????? ?????? ?а???????????? ??? ?а????? ??а??????, ??????????? ??а?????????? ???????. ??????? ?????? ??????????
??а??????? ???????????? ??????? (??????)?????????, ???????
?????? ??????? ??? ???? ?а????? ????????? ????????? (????????, Konsole) ?????? ?????? ?????? ??а?????. ?????? ????? ????????????? ????? ???????? ??а????? ??????? ?а??????? Ctrl?+?Bа(
?а). Ctrl?+?Bа? ??? ??? ?????????? л??????? ????????╗, ?????????
??а?????????, ??????? ??а?????? ????????. ????-??а?????
?????? ??????????? ??????? ????????? ?????????а? ?`?.
╗╗????? ????????? ??????
??????????? ?????? ???????? ??а?????? ??а??????, ????????, ???????? ???????? ???????????????? ????????? ????????????? tmux ?аGNU screen. ?????? ????
?а?????? ????? ??? ?????????? ???? ????.
????? ??а???????? ??а??????, Linux ????????? ???????? ???, ??? ?????
???????? ?а???? ???, ??????-???????????? ??????????. ????????, ??????? ?а???????????? ??? ?а????н???? ???????????? ?????????, ??а???? ????????????? ?????????, ??????? ??а????????? ??а????? ??????, ????? ???????? ?????? SIGHUP.
??а????????? ???? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ????????. ???? ??????? ??????
????????? ??а?????????: ??????????? ??????, ???? ??а????? ?????????; ??? ?????? ???????? ?а?????? ??????? nohup. ???? ??????? ?????????? ??????????????
??????????? ?????? ?????/?????? ?а????????? (????? ?????? ???? ??аnohup.out),
?????????? ???????????? ???????? SIGHUP. ????????? ????????? ?а&, ????? ???
???????? ?а??????? ??????, ?а??? ??????? ????? ?????????? ?????? SSH.
? ???? ??а??????? ????????? ?????????, ??????? ??а?????????? ?????????
???????, ??а????? ?????????????? ??????????? ???????, ??а?????? ?????????? ??
?а?????????????, ??а???? ?????? ???????. ??????? ??????? Ctrl?+?Z, ????? ????????????? ?????????? ????????? ?а????????? ?а????????. ????? ????????? disown
-h N, ??? Nа? ????? ?????????, ??????? ???????? ?????????? ?а?????????? ???????, ????? ??а?????????? ???????. ????? ???????? ???????? SIGHUP, ??? ??????
???????? ???? ?????? ???? ??????????, ??? ??????????, ??? ?а?????????????;
disown -h ???? ?????????? ??а???????????? ?????????. ?, ???????, ????????? bg
N, ????? ??????????? ????????? ?а????????? ??а?а??????? ?????.
??????? 2018? LXF244? |?51
??????? ??????? ????????
?????????? ??а????, ??? ??а???????? ?а?????? tmux, ??,
?????? ?????, ??????? ??????? ?????? ????? ??????. ?????? ????
?а??????? ??? ????? ?????????? ?а??????????? ??а?????????
?а????? ????????? ???????? tmux, ??а???? ?????? ???? ?а??а??.
?????? ?????? ??????????? л????╗ ?а?????? tmux. ???? ?????????
????????????? ????????а? ??? ???????, ????????.
??????????? ??????? ??а??????? ???? ????? ?а??? ????????????? ????????. ????? ??????? ?аtmux, ??????? Ctrl?+?B ??? ????
???????????? ???? ???????. ??? ????? Ctrl?+?Bаc ??????? ?????
????, ?аCtrl?+?B 0???9 ????????????? ??а???? ???а???????? ???????.
???? ?а??? ????? 10 ????, ??а??????? ??аCtrl?+?B ???????? ???
?????? ???????? ?????, ?а??????? Ctrl?+?Bаw ??????? ????. ?????
????????????? ????, ??????????? Ctrl?+?B. ????? ????? ????????????? ?????? ??аtmux ?а??????? Ctrl?+?Bа$.
?????????? ?????? ??????? ????а? ?????????? ??????????
?????? ???? ???????. ???? ??? ????????, ?????? ???????? exit.
?а???? ??????? ???????? ?а???????????? ???????????, ??????
????????????? ??????? ???? ?а??????? Ctrl?+?B &. ?а???? ?????? tmux ?????? ?????????????. ??а???????? ?????????? ???
????????????? ???? ?а?????? tmux ??? ????????????? ???? ??????. ?а?????? ????? ??????????? ??????, ??????? ???????? ????
??????????? ????????, ?а??????? Ctrl?+?B d.
????????????? ??????
?? ?????? ??????
tmux ??а?????
??????????
??аGNU screen.
??а??, ??а???????
????, ????????,
??? ??? ???????
????? ????????
?а??????!
???? ??? tmux, ????????, ??????? ??? ???????? ???????????.
?????? ??? ?????? ???? ??????????, ????? ??а???????, ??? ?????
?а?????? ????????? ?????? ???? ??а????????????? ???????,
????????? л???????? [pane]╗.
?????? ????????? ?????? ???????? ?????????????. ????????, ??а?????? ?????? ??? ?а???????????? ??????? ????????
man-???????? ??? ???????, ??????? ??а???????????. ??????
??????? ????????????? ??????? ????????, ???????? ?????????
????????????. ????????? ??а???, ?а??? ????? ?а?, ???????????? ???????????? ????????? ?????? SSH ?а????? ????, ???? ???
??а??????? ????? ???? ?????.
????? ??????? ??????, ??а?????????? ??????? ???? ????
??а????????? ?а??????? Ctrl?+?Bа", ???? ??а??????????? ?а??????? Ctrl?+?Bа%. ??? ??а????????? ?????????, ?а?????????????
??а???????? ??аCtrl?+?B | ?аCtrl?+?Bа- (?.??. ???????????? ?а?????????????? ??????). ??????? Ctrl?+?B ?????????? ??? ??а??????
?????, ??????, ?????? ??? ????? ??а???????, ?а??а????? ??????
??????? Ctrl?+?B o ?аCtrl?+?B ; ??? ??????????? ????? ?а??????
????? ????????. ???? ??а?????? ?????????? ?????? ?а??????
????, ??????? Ctrl?+?B ! ??????? ?????? ???. ?а??????? ???????????? ??а?????? ???????? л????????? ???????╗ ??????? ??????
?а??????? Ctrl?+?B z. ?????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ??????
??а??????? ????, ?а?????? ?????????? ??? ?а?????????? ?????????. ?а????? ????????? ???, ????? ?а????? ??а???? SSH-????????
??????? ??????? ?????.
????? ??а?????????? ????, ?????????? ?а?????????? ??????
????? ?????? ???????, ??а??? ??а???????????. Ctrl?+?B Ctrl?+????????
??????????? ??? ????????? ??????? ?а??????????????? ??????????? ?????? ??а????????, ????? ??? Ctrl?+?B Meta?+???????? ??????
??а?? ?????, ??а?є?????? ?????? (???? ????????). ??????? Meta
??а??????????? ??а??????????? ??????????? ?????????, ??а???н
??? ??? ????????????? ????? ??а?????? Alt.
?????? ????????? ???????, ??? ????? ?????????? ????????
???????? ???????????? ??????? ?а????. Ctrl?+?B Ctrl?+?o ????????????? ??а??????, Ctrl?+?B Meta?+?o ?????? ??а?? ?????, ??а?а??????????????? ???????????. Ctrl?+?B { ?аCtrl?+?B } ?????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ?а?????????? ??? ?????????, ??????????????.
?????? ??????????? ???а??, ??? ?а????. ?????????? ???? ???????, ?????????? ?а???, ???? ???? ??????а? ?а??????? ??????
Ctrl?+?B x.
??????????? ?а???????
?? ????? ????, tmuxа? ??? ??а?????? ?????????? ????????
????. ?а??? ???? ??????? ?????, ?а??? ?????? ??????? ?????????? ????? ???????. ??? ??????, ??? ??????????? ???????н????
?????????? ????????? ???????????? ?????????, ??а??? ?????
??а?????????, ???? ??а????????? tmux ?????? ???. ??????? ?аtmux
?????????? ??????????? ???????? ?????????, ?а????? ????????
??????????? ?а???????. ????????? ???????? ???????????
?а??а?????????? ??аX ??? ????? ?????? ????? ?????? ?аLinux.
?????????? ????: ???????? ???????, ?а??????? ??????? ?????, ????????, ls -lR, ????? ??????? Ctrl?+?B [. ?????? ??????????
????????, ?а??а??????? ???????????? ?????, ????????? ???????
???????, PgUp ?аPgDown. ??а????? ????, tmux ????? ???????????
???????? ?????? Vi ??? Emacs, ??????? ??????????????? ????н
????????? ??????? (??????, ?hjkl?) ????? ????????, ???? ???
??????? ????????. ???????, ??? ??? ???????? ?а???а?????????,
??????? ??????????? ?????? ?????? ??а?????? ?????. ??? ??????
???? ???? ????????????? ????? ??? ?????????.
??????? ???????? ?????? Vi (??. ????), ????????????? ?а????? ??????????? ?а??????? Ctrl?+?B [ ?а????? ??????? ?. ??а??????? ??????????? ????, ??????? ???????? ??? ????????????
????? ??а??????? ?up [?????]? (?????). ?/? ?????? ??а?? ?????,
??а???????????? ????? ?down [????]?. ?n? ????????? ?а?????????? ???????, ?N? ?????? ??? ?а???????????.
????? ??????????? ?????, ??????? ???????? ??? ????????.
????????????? (???????, ??????????? ?????? Vi ????????!),
????? ??????? Enter. ???? ??? ??????????, ?????а?? ?????? ?????
???????????? ?v? ?а?y?, ??а?????а? ??, ??а??? ?????є ?????????
??а?????????? ???????. ??????????? ????????? ????????? ????? ???????????; ????? ????? ???а?????????, ?????? ??????? q.
?? ????? ???????
??????, ????? ??а??????, ??? tmux ????? ??аVim, ??? ??а??????
???????? ??????? ?а???? ??????????? ????????? ??????. ??а????????? ??а?а??????? Ctrl?+?Bа:. ?????????????? ??????? ??????
?а?????????????? ??аTab. ?аtmux ??? ?????????? ??????? (?????
Ctrl?+?Bа?, ??????? ?????????? ??????? ???????? ??????), ??а????
??а??????????? ??????? ???????, tmux ??а???? ??????? ???????
??????? ??????. ???? ??а??а?????? ????????? ??? ??? ??????,
Ctrl?+?Bа~ ??????? ????? ????????? ?????????.
?????? ??????? ?????????? ?? ????? ~/.tmux.conf, ????????????? ???а???????. ??? ??? ????? ??? ?????????????? ?а????????
???????????? Vim:
set-window-option -g mode-keys vi
bind-key -T copy-mode-vi ?v? send -X begin-selection
bind-key -T copy-mode-vi ?y? send -X copy-selection
52? |? LXF244? ??????? 2018
www.linuxformat.ru
??????? ??????? ????????
╗╗????????? TMUX
??? ????? ??????? ????????? л??????? ????????? [main-vertical]╗. ?????а? ??? ??????? ???????. ???????? ???????? ??а????
??а????: ?а????? ??а?а??????? Ctrl?+?Bаt.
? ???? ????????? ???? ??а???????? ???????? ?????? ?а?????? Vi ?а????????? ??????? ?v? ?а?y? ?????????? ?аtmux ???????
begin-selection ?аcopy-selection, ???????? ?а?????? ???????????.
???? ??? ??????????? ???????? ?????? ???? ??а????? ????
???????? ??? ??????????????? ?????? tmux.
? ????????? ?????? ??? ??????????????? ???????? ??????
??а?????????. ?????? ????????? ??????а? ???????, ???????????? ?????????? ??????? ??? ????:
swap-window -s 1 -t 0
??? ?????????? ?????? ???? ??а?????? ?а???????? (tmux ?????
??????, ??????? ?а0). ????? ??а??????????? ?а????? ??а??а?????н
???. ???? ?????? ????? ??? ???? ???????? ??????? ??????,а??а??н
???? ???????????? ??????? swap-pane. Ctrl?+?Bаq (??????) ?????????? ?????? ??? ??????? ???????.
?????? ??? ??а???????????? ????? ?????????. ?а????? ????? ??????????, ????????? ????? ??? ???? ??????????? ????????
(bash*) ??? ???????????? ???? ??????. ??? ??????? ????? ???????????? ????????????? ?????????, ????????, {left-of} [?????],
{previous} [??????????] ??? {next} [?????????]. ??? ?????????
???????? ?а??? ????, ?а??а????? ????? ????????? ??а+ ?а-, ??????????????, ??? ????????? ????? ???? ???????? (+2). ???????????, ??????? ???? ???? 2; ??????, ??????????? ???? ???????
????? ???? ?????????? ???
swap-window -t -2
????????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ?а??а???????? ?????:
swap-pane -t {left-of}
? tmux ????? ???????, ??а?????? ???? ????? ??? ???????? ??????н????. ??????? tmux ???????????? ???????, ??????? ????????? ???????. ??? ????????
??аhttps://github.com/tmux-plugins.
?????? tmux-sensible ?????????? ??????? ??а?????????, ??????? ?????
??????? ???????????? tmux. ???? ?????-?? ??а??? ??? ?????????, ?????? ???????
???? ?????? ??аGithub. Tmux-sensible ??а???????? ???????? ?а~/.tmux.conf ?а????????? ??а???????????? ???? ????.
? ?аtmux, ?а?аX ??????? ?????? ??????, ?а???????????????? ??а?????? ????н
???????. ?????? ??? ?????? tmux-yank. ??????????? ?????? ??а????: ??а??????
?????????????? ???, ?а???.
Tmux ??а????? ????????? ?а??????????????? ??????. ??? ?????????? ????????? ??? ???, ??? ??а????????????? ???? ????????? ????????, ?а????? ????? ???????? ?????? ??? ???????. ?????? tmux-resurrect ????????? ??? ????? ????????
??????: Ctrl?+?B Ctrl?+?S ??? ?????????? ??????? ?????? ?аCtrl?+?B Ctrl?+?O ??? ??а??????????????. ??????????? tmux-resurrect ????? ????? ???????????? ??????,
??????? ??а?????? ????? ?а???? ?????????? ?????????. ??????????? ??????,
tmux-continuum, ?????? ?????????? ?а?????????????? ?????? ??????????н????.
???? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ????????, Tmux Plugin Manager (TPM)
?????? ??? ?????? ?????? ????????. ??-??????, ??а?????????? ??????????? ?а???????????? ~/.tmux.conf ?а???????????? ?аReadme. ????? ????? ?????????? ??????
??????? ???????? ?а??? ???????????? ?а@plugin, ?а??????? Ctrl?+?B I.аCtrl?+?B U
????????? ??? ?????????? ???????.
?????? ?а???????: ?????? ?????? ????????? ??а?а???????
???????????? ??????, ????????, ?????????? ??а???????????
[even-horizontal], ??а??????? ??????????? [main-horizontal], ?????
???а?? ??а????????? ??? ???????? [tiled]. ??? ????? ???? ????????
?????? (Ctrl?+?B Meta?+??????), ????, ????????, ??? ????????
?????? ???????????, ????? ????????? ??а???????? ?а???????н????
?????????: Alt?+?Digit ????????? ????????? ??????. ???????,
????????, select-layout main-horizontal ??????? ??? ????????
????????? ???????? ???????. ?????????? ??? ????? ????, ?????
????? ??????, ??? ??? ????????.
???? ??а????????? ?????????? ??????? ?а?????????,
???????н???? ??? ?????????, ??а??? ??????????? ????? ????????????? ?аtmux. ??а??????? ??а???????????? ??????? ???????,
?а?а???? ????? ????????, ?????????? ??????????????????. ?????? ??????? ??, ??????? ????? л??????╗, ?а????? ????? ???н????
????????: ??? ??? ??а???а???? ??????????? |
tmux ????????
???? ???????? ??????;
man-????????
tmux(1) ??????????? ??а???, ?????? ?а??????????? ?а?????????? ??????.
╗╗????? ??????? LINUX FORMAT????? ?? www.linuxformat.ru!
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Flatpak ?????? ?????? ??????? ?????????? ??а????????? Deb-???????. ??? ?а??????
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?????-?? ??????????? ??? ???? ????????? ??????????. ???????? ??? ?а???????
?????????????, ???????? ?а???, ??????? ??????????? Tomb ??? ???????? ?????
??????. ??-??а?????? ?????? ?????, ?а??????????? .key, ????? ?????? ?????
????????????????а? ?а??????????? ??????, ????а?? ?????????, ????? ???????
????????? ??????.
????? ??а????а?? ???????????? ??????????? ???? ????? ?????? ??????
?????????? ?а???? ??????? ?а???????, Tomb ????????? ???????? ????? ????????
????? ?????? ?а??????????? JPEG, ????????? ??????? steghide, ??????? ??а?????? ?????????? ??а???????????? ?????? ????????????.
????? ????????? ??а?????? ???????????? tomb bury -k hidey-hole.tomb.key
imagename.jpg.
??????? ??а?????????? ???????? ???? ?????, ??а?????? ??? ??????????
??? ???????? ?????? ?????? ???? ????? ??????? ???????????: tomb open -k
~/Pictures/Wallpapers/P1040866.JPG hidey-hole.tomb.
??????? ???? ????? ??а??????????? ????? ?а??????? ??????? tomb
exhume. ??????? ??????? ??? ?????????. ??а?????? ?????? ??? ????? ?????,
??????? ????? ???????? ??а???????????а? ??? ????????? ????? ????? ???
????. ??а????? ?????? ??????? ??? ????? ???????????, ??????????????? ???
???????? ????? ?????: tomb exhume -k keyfile.key imagename.jpg. ??????????
???? ????? ????? ????????, ?????? ???? ??а????????? ??????? ??????, ????????? ?а?????? ?????.
56? |? LXF244? ??????? 2018
????? ???????? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ?а??????, ??????
Tomb ??а????? ???????????? ????????, ?????????? ?аman???????? ???????.
????? ???????? ??а????? ??????????? ?????????? tomb [?????],
?а??а?????? ??????? ??????? ???????, ??????? ????????, ?а????
????????? ?????? ?????????? ??????, ???? ??? ????? ??????
????? ??? ?????? ????? ??????.
????????? ??????
??????? ????????? ?????? ??????????????? ???????? ??????,
??а??????? ??а?????? ???????? ??? ??а???????????. ?????? zsh,
?????????? ????? ??????? gnupg, cryptsetup ?аpinentry-curses. ????????? ??а???, pinentry-cursesа? ??? ???????, ???????????? ???
??????????? ?????????????? ??????? ?а???-?????.
?? ??????????? pinentry-curses ?аcryptsetup, ?????? ???????????, ????????, ??? ??????????? ??а????? ?????????? Linux.
?а????? ??????, ??? ??? ??????? ?а???????????? ????????????
??????????? ???????? ?????????? ????????????? ?а????? ????
??????????? ?а??????? sudo apt install zsh pienentry-curses
cryptsetup ??? sudo dnf install zsh pienentry-curses cryptsetup
?аUbuntu ?аDebian ???аFedora, ??????????????.
?????? ??????? ??аhttps://files.dyne.org/tomb ?а????????? ????????? tar-????? ?????????:
$ wget https://files.dyne.org/tomb/Tomb-2.5.tar.gz
$ tar zxvf Tomb-2.5.tar.gz
$ cd Tomb-2.5
$ sudo make install
???а???????, ??? ??? ??????????? ??? ???????????, ????????? ??????? ???????????? ????? ???? ????????? ???????.
www.linuxformat.ru
Tomb ???????
???????, ??а??????? ???а????????? Tomb ??а????????? ?????????
??????? ./configure ?аmake, ??? ???а????????? ?????? ???????
??а????????? ????, ??????????? ?а???, ??? Tombа? ?????-???????
??????. ??а?????? ????????? ???? ??????, ????????? ?а????????????? ???????? Tomb-2.5, ?а????? ????? ?а????? $PATH, ?????
????? ??????????? ??? ?????????. ?????? sudo make install ?????? ???????? ???? ?????? ?а??????? /usr/local/bin ?а????????? ???
???????? ?????? ?а?????????? man-????????.
???????? ????????
????? ???? ??????????????? ???????? ??а?????? ?????? ????????? ?????, ??? ??????? ???? ???????. ?а??????? ??????????
?????? ??? ????? ???? ??????? ???? ???????????? ??? ?????????? ??? ???????????. ?????? ???? ?????, ?а???? ???????, ??????? ???????а? ??? ?????????????? ????????????. ??а????????
???????? ??????? ??а??????? ???? ?????? ?а????????? ?а????
????? ????? ?а????? ????????.
?????? ???а? ???????? ????? ??? ??????, ?а??? ????????
?а??????? ??????? tomb dig:
$ sudo tomb dig -s 100 hidey-hole.tomb
$ tomb dig -s 150 hidey-hole.tomb
tomb . Commanded to dig tomb hidey-hole.tomb
tomb (*) Creating a new tomb in hidey-hole.tomb
tomb . Generating hidey-hole.tomb of 150MiB
150+0 records in
150+0 records out
157286400 bytes (157 MB, 150 MiB) copied, 1.4048 s, 112 MB/s
-rw------- 1 linuxlala linuxlala 150M Oct 25 17:26 hidey-hole.tomb
tomb (*) Done digging hidey-hole
tomb . Your tomb is not yet ready, you need to forge a key and lock it:
tomb . tomb forge hidey-hole.tomb.key
tomb . tomb lock hidey-hole.tomb -k hidey-hole.tomb. key
??? ??а?????? ?????? ??а????? ????, ?????? ?????????
????? ?????? ????? ?????????? .tomb. ???????? ??????? -s
????? ?? ????? ??????? ???????? ????????, ??????? ??????????
?????? ?????? ?а??. ?????? ????????? ??а???????? ????????
?????? ?а??? ???? ??????? ??а?????????, ?????? ????? ??????????? ??? ?а????????, ??????? ??а?????? ????????? ??????.
????? ??а?а???? ?????? ??????? ?????.
??? ???????? ????? ?а?????????? ?????? ????????????
??????? tomb forge. ???? ????? ????? ?????????? .key,
?а?а????????? ????????? ??а?? ???, ??? ?а?????, ???????
??а???????? ???????? tomb dig. ??????? forge ??????? ????,
????????? ???????? ?????????? AES256. ??????? ????? ?????? ????????? ?????, ?а??????????? ??а??????? ??????. ???
????????????? ??????????? ???????? ????? ????????, ????
??а??????????? ???????????? ??????. ????? ????????? ?????
??? ????????? ?????? ??????. ?а??????????? ??а???????????
pinentry, ?????????????? ?а????? ????????????, ??? ????? ????
???? ????? ???????н???? ?????????? ????, ???? ????? ?????????,
??????????? curses.
???а???????? ????? ????? ????? ?????????? ?а?????????
??????, ???? ????????? ??а????? ??????? ????? ????????????
????????. ??а?????? ???? ???????????? ?а??????? ????????
-f, ????? ????????? ?????????? ???????????? ???? ?????, ????
????????? ??????? sudo swapoff -a, ???????? ????????. ?????
??а?????? ????? ???????????? tomb forge, ????? ?????????????
???? ?????.
?? ?????????, ??а??? ??а?????????. ??????, ????? ?а??? ????
????, ??а?????? ????????????? ???? ????? ?а??????? tomb lock
hide- hole.tomb -k hidey-hole.tomb.key. ??? ??????? ???????????
??? ????????????? ????? ?а???????? ???????? Ext4.
?? ????????? ??? ?????? ???????????? ?а???????? /media.
????? ??????? ?????, ???? ????????? sudo tomb open -k hideyhole.tomb.key hidey-hole.tomb.
?????? ??а?????? ???????? ??? ?????, ??????? ?????? ????????? ?а???????, ?а?????????????? ??????? ??????. ??а?????? ???????????? ??????? ???????? ????????, ????? ??? ???????????
??? ???????????, ????? ????????? ????? ?а??? ?????????????? ?????. ????? ?????????, ??а???????? ??????? ????? ????????
tomb close.
?????? ?аtomb
?? ?????? ????????? ??????? tomb list, ????? ??????? ??????
???? ???????? ???????. ?а?????????? ?а?????????????? ??????,
??? ??????? ????? ??????? ???, ??? ????? ????? ??? ??????, ???
????? ?????? ?а????????? ????????? ?????.
?? ???????? ???? ?????? ????? ?????, ????? ????????
?????? ?????. ???? ?????? ???????, ????????? ??????? tomb
index, ??????? ??????? ??? ??????? ????????? ??????, ????
??а??? ??????????. ?????? ??????, ??а??????? ????????????
??????? tomb search <??????> ??? ?????? ?????? ?а????????
???????. ?????? ????? ???? ????? ???????, ?а?????????? ?????????? ??????????? ??а?а??????? ?????? ?а??????? ??? ????
???????? ???????.
???? ??а??а?????? ????????????? ?????-???? ??????????
?????, ??а?????? ??????? ??????? ???, ?а????? ????????? ??????? touch .noindex ??а???????? ???????. Tomb ????? ??????????н???
?????????? ?????????????? ???? ???????, ??? ????????? ????
.noindex:
$ tomb index
tomb (*) Creating and updating search indexes.
tomb . Indexing [hidey-hole] filenames...
tomb . Search index updated.
tomb . Skipping [hole] (.noindex found).
tomb . Indexing [secrets] filenames...
tomb . Search index updated.
???? ?????? ???????? ?????, ??а????? ???????????? ?а?????????? ??????????????? ?????????????, ?????? ??? ??????
GTK ?а????? ?аgtomb, ??????? ???????????? ????? ?????? ???????
???????н????? ?????????? ???????????. ??а??????? ??а?а??????
??????, ????? ?а???????? extras, ??????? ????????? ?а????????????? ???????? Tomb-2.5. |
??????
??????
???? ??а??н
???? ????????
???? ?????,
?????????
?а????? ???????, ??????????? ???????
tomb setkey
-k newkeyfile.
key oldkeyfile.
key tombname.
tomb. ????????? ???? ?????
??????? ???????, ??а??????
????????????
???? ?а???а??
???? ?????
??? ??????????
???????.
??????, ???????????? ??? ?????? ????? ?????, ????? ???????? ???????? tomb
passwd -k keyfile.key.
╗╗????? ??????? LINUX FORMAT????? ?? www.linuxformat.ru!
www.linuxformat.ru
??????? 2018? LXF244? |?57
??????? ?????????????? PDF
LIBREOFFICE
??????????? PDF?
??????? ?????? ????? ???????? ???????, ?
??? ????????????? ??????, ?????????
?а????????? PDF-?????? ?аLibreOffice. ????????? ?????????!
???????????? ??????????? ?????? 1990?? ????? ???????, ??? Farallon Replica ?аCommon Ground Digital Paper,
???? ?????? ???????, ????????? ????????? ????????
???? ???????????? ????? ????????, ????? ?????????? ?????
???????? ??? ????????? ??????????? ??????????.
?????????? ?????? ???????? ?а1993а?., ?????аAdobe Systems
??????? PDF (Portable Document Format) ?????????? ??? ???????? ??????????????. ???????? ?????? ?????????????? ??????????, ?а?а????????? ????? ??????????? ???????? ???????? ?????????? ????????????? PDF, ??? ??а???? ???????????: ????????,
????????? ??а????? ??????????, ????? ????????? ????? ???а??
??а??????.
??????, ?????? PDF, ??? ??? ???????? ?????????????. ????
??а?????????????? ??????????? ???????????????? ?????????,
??? ??а????????, ???? ??? ????? ?????? ?????? ??? ???????????
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? ??? ???? ??а???????? ???????? ???? ??? ??? ???? ??????
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????? ??????, ??а?????? ??????????? ?а???????????.
? ???????, ??? ????????????? Linux ???? ????? ??? ????????
?а??????????????? ????????????, ??????? ??????? ??? ??????
??????????? ?????????.
???? ??а???????????? Ubuntu, ??, ????????, ????????,
??? ?а????????? ??????????? ?? ???????????? ???????? PDF
????? ???? Print [??????]. ??? ???????, ???? ??а?????? ???????
PDF ?????? ??а????? ??????? ?????????, ????????, ??????
??а?????? ????????.
????? ??????? ???, ?????? ????????, ????? ??????? PDF
?а???????????? ?????????? ??а????????? ?аUbuntu [Document
Viewer]. ???????? Print ?а??????? ?????? Options [?????] ?а?????? ??????? ????, ?а????? ??????? Print toаFile [?????? ?а????].
?????? ??а?????? ??????? ????????? ???? ???????? ?а???????
Range [????????]. ???????, ???????? Print ?а?????? ??????? ????.
???? ??а????? ????????????аAdobe Acrobat Reader ??а??????
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??????? ????????, ??????????? ???????:
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????? ???????
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????? ???????
???????????
PDF ?а????????
?????????
??а?????????
??аLibreOffice
Draw, ????????
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???? ?а???????? Edit with
External Tool
[????????????? ???????
????????????].
Ubuntu ???????????? ???????
????????? ??????? ?????????
?а?????? PDF.
58? |? LXF244? ??????? 2018
??????????? PDF ??а????????? ?аUbuntu ???????????? ???????
PDF-?????????. ??? ??????? ????????аAdd Text Annotation
???аAdd Highlight Annotation.
?аPDF. ??? ????? ???????, ???? ??а????????????? ???????? ???
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? ?????????, Acrobat Reader ??а???????? ?аLinux; ??????
??????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?аUbuntu ????????????
??? ???????.
????? ??????, ???????? ???? PDF ?а???????? ?????? Annotate
theаDocument [?????????? ?а?????????] ?а??????? ????? ????.
????? ??а?????? ???????аAdd text annotation [???????? ??????????] ???аAdd highlight annotation [???????? ?????????? ?а??????????? ?????????] ??? ??????? ???????.
???????? ??????????????
???? ??? ????? ?????? ????? ???????? ?????????, ?????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????? ?а?????????? ???????, ??? ?????н
?????? ?????? ?а????????? PDF.
??? ????? ?????????? ????????? ??????-???????, ??, ???????? ????? ??а???????????? ?а?????????? ?????????????, ??а??????????, ??? LibreOffice Draw ????? ????? ???????? ??? ?????
???????????? ?а??????????????.
??? ??????? ??а????????, Draw [?????????] ?а?????? ???????
???????????? ??? ???????? ???????, ??а????? ????? ?????????
?а???????? ????? PDF. ?????????? ???????? ?????? ??????
LibreOffice, ??????? ?аUbuntu ?????????? ??а?????????. ???? ?а???
?????? ??????? Linux, ??а???? ?????? ????? ?????????? ?????
????? ???? LibreOffice ??? ??а????????? ??????. ??? ????? ????????? ???????? ??????????? ??а????????? ????????.
Draw ???????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????: ??а??????
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??а?????? ?????????????? ???? ?а????? PDF ??? ?а????? ??????? ??? ?????????????? ??????, ????????, HTML.
www.linuxformat.ru
?????????????? PDF ???????
LibreOffice
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?а????? ????????????? ?а??????.
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??? LibreOffice Writer. ??а???? ??????????? LibreOffice ??а??????
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????? ??????? ????? ????.
?? ????????? ??а???? 2017а?. PDF ??а???????? ??????????н
???? ????, ?а??? ???????? ??????? ??? ????????????? Linux.
??н???? ????????? ????? ????? ???? ??????????? ?/??? ??н
??????? ??????? DRM, ?.??. ???????? ??а??????.
? ????????? ????? ?аLinux ??? ?????????? ????????? ??????
PDF ?а???????????, ??? ????? ???? ?????????, ???? ??а????????????? ?????? ?????? ?а??????. ???? ??? ??????????, ?????????
???? PDF ??????? ?????, ???????? ?????? ?аAdobe Reader, ?а????????? ??? ????????? ????????? ????????: https://helpx.adobe.
com/acrobat/kb/print-comments-acrobat-reader.html.
???? ??? ????????? ????????????, ??????????? ???????
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???????????? ????? ???????? ??????????? ?а???, ??? ??а??????
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www.linuxformat.ru
??????? ??????, ??????? ??? ?????????? ?????, ??? ??? ?????? ??а???. ?????? ?????? ?аGPG ????? ??аhttps://gnupg.org/
documentation/howtos.html.
??????????? PDF ????? ???????? ?а????????????? ?????????? ??? ???????, ????????? ??? ??????????????? ??а?????????.
????????? ??а????????????? ????? ????? TinyPDF.com, ?????
??????? ???? ???? ??а????????? ????????. |
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???? ??а???????????????? ?????? ????????????? PDFа? ????????????? ????????? ?а????????? ??????????? ?????-?????. ??? ???? ??а???????? ????????, ???
Linux ??а???????????, ????????? ????????????аAdobe Reader ??а?????? ?????????? ????? ???????????? ??? ???????? ???????? ??????? ??? ???????????.
? ???????, ??а??? ?? ?????? ????????? PDF ??????????? ???????? ?а??????? LibreOffice Draw. ?????? ?а????, ??? ??? ???????? ??????? ???? ??????? ?а??????? ????, ???? ?????? ?а??? ??а????????? ?????? ?а???????. ???? ??а?????
??? ??а???????, ?????????? LibreOffice, ?а????? ???????? ????? PDF.
????? ??????? ?????? Show Draw Functions [???????? ??????? ?????????]
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???? ??? ???? ?????????? ???? ??? ??? ????? ????????.
???? ??? ????????? ????? ??????????? ?????, ????????? ?а????????
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???????? File > New > Drawing [???? > ??????? > ?????????]. ???????? ??????
??????, ?????? Dimension Lines
[????????? ?????] ???а???????. ????????? ??? ????,
????? ???????????? ??????????
Freeform Line ??? ????????
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Export [???????] ?а??????? ?????
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????? ????????? ???? ???????,
??????????? ??????? Insert
??????????? ??????? ?????????
Image [???????? ???????????]
?аLibreOffice ??? ???????? ???????
?а?????? ?????? ????? ?а?????? PDF.
?аLibreOffice Draw.
??????? 2018? LXF244? |?59
??????? Web-??????
HTTP-??????
?????? ??????????
web-???????
??????? ???????????? ???????? ???????? ? ?? ?????? web-??????? ??? ????????????
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???-???? ??????????.
eb-??????а? ??? ????????? ????? ????????????
???????????, ??????????? ??а???????? ???????, ???????а? ??? ?а??а???????????а? ???? ??? ??а??? ?????
????. ???????, ????? ??????? ????? web-????????, ??а??????
???????????? ??????-?????? ??? ???????????? ?????? ???? CSS,
????? ??? Codepen ??? Jsfiddle.
?????? ??? ?????? ?????? ?????????????? ??????????
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??????? ???? ????????? ?????????? ???????????????. ?а???????
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???? ??а????????? ????? ???????????????? ?????????????, ???
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??а?а???????? ????? ?????????????. ??а????? ????? ??а???????
????????? ??????? ??? ???? ????.
? ???? ????? ??????? ????? JavaScript ???? ???????? ?а???
HTML. ??? ???? ??????, ?????? ??? ??а?????? ???????? ????
????? ????????? ?????. ?????? ??????, ????? ?????? ????????????
??????? ?????????? ??а?????? ????????? ????, ????? ?????????? ????????? ??????????? ?????. ?????????? ??????????????? ??аJavaScript, ????? ????? ?????? ?а????????? ??????
JavaScript ?а??????? ?????? ????????? ??? ????? ?????? ????????,
??????? HTML, CSS ?а???????????. ??? ???????????, ??? ??а?????? ?????, ??? ???????? ??????????, ??????????? ??? ??????
??а????? ?????????? ?????? ???????????????? ?Hello World?.
??? ?????? ???????? ???????? ?Hello World? ?а????????? ???
?а???? JavaScript ?а?????? app.js:
const http = require(?http?);
const hostname = ?127.0.0.1?;
const port = 3000;
const server = http.createServer((req, res) => {
res.statusCode = 200;
res.setHeader(?Content-Type?, ?text/plain?);
res.end(?Hello World\n?);
});
server.listen(port, hostname, () => {
console.log(`Server running athttp://${hostname}:${port}/`);
});
? ?????? ??? ????????? web-?????? ?а????????????? ??????????? ????????? ??? ??? ?????????? ???????. ??? ?????
??????? ?????? ????????? ??? ??? ????????? ??????. ?????
??а?????? ??????? ???, ??????? ????????? ?????? ?Hello World?.
????? ????????? ???? JavaScript, ?????? ??????????? node app.
js. ??? ????????, ???? ??а?????? ?????? ??????????, ??? ????????
W
???
???????
????-????
?????????? ?????
???? ???????????
?аLinux, ????????? IBM Thinkpad
?а????????????
???????. ??а???
??? ???????? ?????? ????????
??а???????????
????????????,
????????.
??????
??????
??? ??????
?????? ?????????? ????????
?????????
?а??????? ??????????? ???????? ????????????. ???
Python ??????????? python
-m Simple
HTTPServer.
??а??????????? ??????
???????н????
???????, ????????? Python,
??а??? ?????
??????? ??????? ??? Python.
60? |? LXF244? ??????? 2018
??? ?????? ?????? ?????????????????? ????????? ?????? ???
????? ????????. ??? ??????????? ???? ??????? ???????? ???
?????????? ???????? ??????.
???????????? ???????? ????. ??? ??а?????, ????? ??а??????????
?а????? ??????? ????????, ???? ?????? ???????, ??????? ?????
?а?????????, ???? ??? ??????? ??????. ??? ?????? ?????????
??????, ????? ??? ????? ?а????? ?????? ???????? ???а??, ???
????а?? ??? ???? ??а???????? ???????.
????????? ?а?????? ??????
? ????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ????? ?????: ??? ????, ?????
?????? ??? ?????????, ??а???а???? ??????????? ??? ???????, ??????? ??? ????? ????????????. ??а?????? ????? ??????
?а?????? react-native-httpd. ??а?????? ????? ???????????? React,
??а??? ????? ????????? ?????????? ???????????, ????? ???
?????? ??а????? ????????. ?а?????? ???????, ???? ?а??? ????
?????????????? ????????, ??а???а????????????? ??????????
????? ??????????. ???????? ??????? ?а???, ??? ??а???????
????????н????? ????????н????? ??????? ???????????????? *nix:
????????? ?????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????? ???? ????
?а?????? ??? ??????.
????? ??а???????? ???????????????? ???? ??? ????
JavaScript ???????? Node.js. ??? ????????? ???? ??????? ??????
???????????? ??????????? ??????. ??? ????? ???? ??а??????
???????, ?????? ??? ??? ?????? ??а????? ????? ??????. ???
????? ????? ????????????? ????????? ?????? ??-??а???????
???????????? ??????????? ?????. ????? ????? ??аhttps://nodejs.
org/en/download/package-manager/#debian-and-ubuntu-based-linuxdistributions ?а????? ????? ???.
www.linuxformat.ru
Web-?????? ???????
?????? ????????? ???????? ?????? ???????????? ????? ???????, ??????? ??а?????? ?????????? ???????????? ????????
??????. ??а?????? ?????????????????? ??аwww.npmjs.com, ??а???
??????? ?????? ?????, ????? ??а??????? ???????? ?????.
? ??????? npm ??а??????? ????????? ??????? ??? ???????
?????????? ?????????? web-???????. ???? ?????????????
?????? ??? ???????н????? ???????????, ?а??????а? ?????? ???
?????? ?а???????. ????? ???а????????? httpd-server ?????
?????? ??а??, ??? ?а??????????? ??????? ????????, ?, ???
???а?????, ??а???????????? ????????? ?а?????????????.
$ sudo npm install http-server -g
????????? ??? ?????? ???????? http-server. ???а??????????
?????? ?????????? ?а??????? ????????? ?а????н???? ?????????.
??? ????????? ????? ??????? ?а??????????? ?????????? ?а????????? ???, ??? ??а???????.
????? ????? ????????? ??????? ?а???????????, ???????????? ??а?????????? ???????. ??? ???????? ??? ?????? ????
??????????? ???, ????? ??а????? ????? ????????? ????????????? ?а???а?? ??????? ?????? ??а???????? ???????. ?а??????
?аhttp-server ?а??? ?????? ???? ??????? ???????. ???????, ???
????? ????? ??? ????????, ??а???????? ??а?????????, ????????
??? ???????.
????????? HTTP-???????
????? ??? ???????? ??? ????? ????? ?а??????????, ?????????
????????? ????? ??????????. ???? ??а?????????а? 8080,
??а??а?????? ??????? ??????????? ????, ???? ?а??? ???? ??????
????????? ???????. ???????? -g ??????? GZIP-?????? ?????? ?????, ??????? ??а????????? ?а??????? ???? ??а?? ???
????? ??????????? gz. ??а????? ?????? ???????? ?????????? HTML ??а?????????, ??? ?????? ???????, ???? ??а????????
?????????? PHP.
????? ??? ????? ?????????? web-????????, ??а????? ??????
?????????? SSL ?а??????? ?????????? ?а???? ?????????? ?????.
???а???? ???? ?????? ???? ??а??????????, ????????? ??????????
??????????а? ?????, ?????????? ?а??????????? ???????,
??? ??? ????????. ????? ?????????, ??? ??? ?????? ???????????
?а????????, ??а????? ?????? ????????? ???????????, ?????????
????? ??????????? ?а-1.
???? ??а??а?????? ??????? ??, ????????? ?????? ?????? ????
?????????, ?а??? ??а????? ?????? ????????? ?????-???? ????,
????? Node.js. ????? ????? ????? ???????????? ??????? ??????.
??? ???????? ????????? ??????? ??аweb-????????, ???? ???? ???
??? ?а?????? ???????? ??????????. ???? ??? ?а????, ??а??????
?????????, ??? ???????? ?????????? ?а?????? ??????, ????????,
?????????? ????????? ???????. ??а?????? ????????? ???, ????н
??? ??? ?????, ??а?????? ??? ??????? ???, ?????????? ??????
????????? ?????:
$ http-server -p 8080 --gzip -c -1
???? ???а????????????? ????? ?????????? ??????? ??а??н????
????????? ??????, ??????? ????? ??? ????? ??а????, ??? ???
??н????????? ???????. ??а????? ??????????? web-???????, ????????, Nginx, ??а?????? ??????? ?????? ??а??????????. ?а?????
?????? ??????? ????? ??????????? ???????? ??????? ????????
??а?????? ??????.
???????????, ??? ??????? ???????? ?????? ????? ??а??????. ?а???? ??????? ??а??????? ?а???????????? ?а????????????
?????? ???.
?????? ????????? ???????? web-???????, ??????? ???????
???????? ?/??? ??????? ??????н???? ???????. ????? local-websever ???????? ????? ??????? ????? ??????? ?а????????????
?????????. ????? ?????????? ???, ??????????? ???????? npm:
$ npm install -g local-web-server
?????? ???, ????? ????? ????? ?????????? ???????н????
???? ???а??????????а? ???а??, ??? ?а?а?????????? ???????,
www.linuxformat.ru
Mozilla Foundation ????? ??????????н???? ????? ??????? ??????? ??а????? web???????? ????????????. ??? ???? ??а?????? ?????????? ?????????? ?аJavaScript
?а?????????.
???????? ws. ???? ??а?????????а? 8000, ??а???? ??а??????
??????? ????. ????? ??????????? ?????????????? ??????????, ??????????? ???????? --spa. ?а???? ?????? ??а????? ??????
???????????? ??????.
????? ??????????? HTTPS ?аHTTP2, ??????? ?а??????????
--https ??? --http2 ??????????????. ???? ?????????? ????? ?а???????????, ??????? ??а?????? ???????? ???а??????????? ??????,
???? ????? ?а???????????? ???? ???????????.
?а??????, ???? ??а???????????????? ?а?????? ??????,
????а?? ?а???? ??? ?а?????? ?????? ?????? ?????, ??а??????
????????? ???????? ??? ??????? ?а?????????? ?????? ??а?????? ?а????????????? ?????, ????????? ?????????????? ????????????? ?????. ????? ??а??????? ????????? ????????????,
???? ???? ?а??? ??? ???????? ?а?????????? ??????, ???? ????
??а?????????? ???????.
????? ????????? ????????? ??????, ??????????? ????
JavaScript, ???????? ???????????? ????:
module.exports = MockBase => class MockPaths
??????
??????
? Electronic
Frontier Foundation ????
??????? ??????
?а??????????
?????? ?а??????? PGP
(http://bit.
ly/2KP3g0O).
?????? ??а???????? ????????? ???????
?????? ?а?????? ????????
?????.
╗╗ONLINE-???????????
????????????
?????? ??? ?????????? ?а????????? ????? ????? ??а???????? ???????, ?а?????
???? ??а?????? ???????? ?а?????????? ??????????? ????, ?????????? ?????????????, ????? ??? Codepen ?аJsfiddle.
Codepen ????? ???????? ??????, ?а??? ????? ?????????? ??а???????? ?????.
??? ??????? ??????? ?а??? ???? ???? ??? HTML, ???? ??? CSS ?, ???????, ????
??? JavaScript. ?а?????? ???? ????? ???? ????????? ??? ??????? ?????? ????
?????????? ?????????. ???? ??????? Tidy, Analyse ?аShow Compiled. ??? ???????, ???? ?а??? ???? ?????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ??? ??а?????? ??а?????????????, ?а??? ????????. ????? ???????, ??? ?????????? ??? ???. ??? ???? ?а?????
????? ???? ??????, ????? ??? ?????. ???? ??а?????? ?????? ??????????? ??????,
?а??? ???? ????????? ????????, ????????? ??? ??????. ??? ??????? ?????? ??н
??? ??????? ?а???? ZIP-??????.
Jsfiddle ????? ??аCodepen, ??а????? ?????? ????? ????????? ?а?????? ????????. ??а????? ????? ?????????? ?????????????? ??????, ?а??????? ??а??????
??????? ????, ?????????? ?а?????? ????????? ??? ?????? ????. ?аJsfiddle ?а???
????? ???? ??????? ??????????н????. ????? ??а??????????? ??? ???????, ??а???????? ??????, ??????? ???????? ?а???-??, ???? ??а?????????, ?а??а?????? ??????
???????? ???а????? ?????.
??? ??????????? ??????? ???????? ??? ???????????? ????? ???? ?а????????
????????? ????. ???????, ???? ?а??? ??? ???? ??? ??аGithub, ??а?????? ????????
??????? ??? ?аJsfiddle.
??????? 2018? LXF244? |?61
??????? Web-??????
??????
??????
???? ??а??а??????????? Ruby
??? Python ???
?????? ??а?????? ??а????н
???, ?а??? ???
??а????? ????
????????.
Thttpd ???
?????????? ???
IoT, ??а???????
??? ???????
?????????????.
??? ??н????
??а??????? ?????? tftp.
extends MockBase{
mocks () {
return {
route: ?/paths?,
responses: [
{
response: {
type: ?json?,
body: [
{name : ?Roslagsleden?, goesThrough = ?Roslagen?},
{name : ?SЎrmlandsleden?, goesThrough = ?SЎrmland?},
{name : ?Nordkalottleden?, goesThrough = ?Norway?},
]
}
}
}
}
}
????????? ??????????? ???, ???????? ??? mock-example.js
?а????????? web-??????:
$ ws --mocks mock-example.js
????? ????? ?? ?????? ???????? ?????? ? ??????? ???????
curl:
$ curl http://127.0.0.1/paths
?????? ??а?????? ????????? ???? ?????? ??а????????? ???????, ??? ????????, ??? ??? ??? ???????? ?????????? ?????.
?? ???? ????? ????? ???????? ?????????? ?а???? ??????????
?а????????????. ?а?????? ???????? ???????????????? ??а?????? ????????? ????? ???????????? dev-web-server, ?а????????
?????? ???????. ??а????? ???????????? ??????????? ????????? ????? APIа? ?а?а??????? ???? ??????? ??а?????? ????????
API. ?а??? ?а????а?? ???????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????
?а??????? ????????? ?????. ??а???? ???? ?????????????????
?????? ?????????? ?а???????????? ????? ????????? ????????,
????? ???? ??????? ????? ?????????? ?а????? ???????????? ?????????, ??????? ????????? ??? ?????? ????????.
????? dev-web-server ????? ????? ??????? ??? ?????????
???а?????. ????? ??? ?????????, ??????????? ????????? ??????? ??????? ???????:
$ dev-web-server DOMAIN 0.0.0.0 PORT 1234 BASEDIR..\rep\
httpdocs DELAY 2000 ENDPOINTS..\rep\server\ my-endpoints.js
╗╗??????? REACT
React ?????? ??? ?????? ?а???????????? ????????????, ??????? ??а?????? ????????????? ??? ??? ????? ?????? ?????? ????????????, ?а??а??? ????? ???????.
????? ???????????? React, ??а?????? ???????????, ????? ?????? ???
????? ?????????? ?а???. ??????????? React ?аCMSа? ??? ???? ??а????????, ?а??? ???? ???? ???? web-???????? (https://reactfordrupal.com). ??????
Drupalа? ??а???????????? ?????. WordPress ????? API, ??????? ????????
?????????? ??????????.
????? ????????? NPM ????? ?????? ??????, ????????? ?????????? ?????.
?а?????????? ?????????? ??????? ?????? ???????, ??????? ??????????? ????????? react-dom ??? web-??????? ?аreact-nativeа? ??? ??????????? ????. ??????
???????, ???????????? React, ??? ???????. ???????н???, ???? ?????? ??? ?????
?????? ???????? ??? ??????? React ?а???????? ??а??? ?????????? ?а????? ????????? ???????. ????? ?а???, ??? ????? ??а???????????? ?а???????? ??????????,
?????? ???? ?????????. React ???????? ???????? ???????? ????? ????????
?а?????????? ??????, ?а??????? ???????? ??????????? CMS, ?а???? ??а??а??????
???????????? CMS, ??а??? ????? ?????? ???????????? ??? ??? ?????? ????????
??????????. ??а???????? ???????? ??? ?????????????? ??????????, ??? ????н
???? ????? ???? ?????? ??? ??????????, ??? web-????????.
62? |? LXF244? ??????? 2018
??? ??????, ???????? ??????????? ?а2000. ????????? ????
????????, ??а?????? ?????????, ??? ??? ????? ????????, ?????
?а?????? ???????????? ??????? ?????????? ??аweb-????????. ???
????????? ????? ????? ???? ?????????? ?????? dev-web-server.
json ?а???????? ???????. ????? ????????? ?а????????? ??????
?????????????? ????. ???? ??????? ?????????? ???? ?а????????. ??а????? ??????????, ???????????а?? ??аCORS ??? ???.
CORSа? ??? ??????, ??????????? ?????????? ????????? ??????
??а?????? ???????, ?а???????? ??? ????????????. ??? ??????
??????????? ??-??а??????? ????????????.
{
?domain?: ?0.0.0.0?,
?port?: 13002,
?baseDir?: ?./test/test-pages?,
?delay?: 0,
?endPointsFilePath?: ?./api-proxy/api.js?,
?withCORS?: ?true?
}
?????? ????????? ?????? ??????? ???????, ??? ??а?????????? ????? web-????????, ?, ???????, ???? ????????? ?????.
?а????? ????????? ????? ??а???????????, ??? ??????????????
??????. ??? ?????? ???????? ??? ??????, ??? ?а???????. ??????
???????????? ????? ???? JavaScript, ?а??????? ??????????
???????. ?а??????? ??????????? ??а???? api.js, ?а????? ?????
????? ???????? ????.
var Repository = {
count:0
};
module.exports = {
?/example?: function (req, res, params, sendSuccess, sendError) {
// Response result is: ?{?test?:?Cool, success?,?count?:1}?.
// HTTP code is 200
sendSuccess(req, res, {
test: ?Cool, success?,
count: Repository.count++
});
},
?/exampleError?: function (req, res, params, sendSuccess,
sendError) {
// Response result is: ?{?code?:401,?message?:?You need to
login?}?.
// HTTP code is 401
sendError(req, res, 401, ?You need to login?);
}
};
?? ????? ???? ??????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ?????
??????, ?а??? ??? ?????? ??а????????. ????? ????, ??????, ???
????? dev-web-server ????? ??? ???????????: colors ?аobject-tools.
?????? ??? ??а????????, ??а????????? ?????.
??????? ???????????? ?????????
???? ??а??????????? ?????? webpack, ??? ???????????? webpackdev-server. ??? ??????? ??а????????, ????? ???????????? ??????
??? ??????????. ????? ??а???????? ?????????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ????????????, ??????? ?????????? ?????????
??? ???? ?????????. ?????, ????? ??а????????????? ????????
?а????? ????, ????????? ???? ??????????? ??????, ??а????? ????
?????????, ??? ??? ????????????? ???????????? ????????. ???
??????, ??а???????????? ???????? ???????? ????? ?????????????. ??? ???????? ?а??????? ???????????? ???????? ?????????? ??????????? ??? ?????????????, ??а????? ??а?????????, ???
??а?????? ????????, ?а????? ??????? ?????????? ??? ???????,
??а?????? ???????.
??? ?????????????, ?????? webpack ???????????? ??? ????,
????? ????? ??? ?????? ?а??? ??????????? ?а????????? ??а?а????
www.linuxformat.ru
Web-?????? ???????
??????. ??? ????????, ??? ?????, ??? ?????????????? ?????
???????, ????? ????????? ????? ?а???????????? ??? ??? ????,
??а?????????? ?а????????????. ?а?????? webpack-dev-server ?????
????????? ?а?????? ?а???????? ???????.
????? ??????? npm ?????? ????????, ??а?????? ?????? ???????????????? ???? ???????. ????????? ??????? node_modules,
?????????? ??? ??????, ??????? ??а?????? ????????????.
$ npm init -y
???аinit ?????? ??а????? ????????? ??????????? ?а???????;
??а?????? ?????????? ??а?????????, ?????? ??????? ????????
?а??? ????? ???а????????? ?????????. ??????????? ?????????? ???????? ???????, ??а??? ???? ????????, ??? ??а?????.
??а?????? ?????????, ??? ?а????? ??????? ???????? ??????
webpack. ???? ??? ???, ?????????? ??? ?а???????
$ npm install webpack --save-dev
$ npm install webpack-cli --save-dev
???????? save-dev ????????, ??? ????? ????? ???????????
?????? ??? ??????????. ??? ?????, ?????? ??? ???? ??????
??? ????? ????????????? ??? ??????????, ?а????????? ?????? ???????н??? ????? ??? ???????????? ???????. ?? ????????
????????? ??????????????, ??а?????????????? ?а???????????
fsevents ?????? ???????? ????????????, ????????? ??? ??а?????????????? ?аLinux.
????? ???? ???????????? ???? ???????????? ?а?????
?????? ??????. ?а???? ????? ????? ??????? ??????? ????????
????? ?????. ??? ???? JavaScript, ??? webpack ???????? ????????????? ???? ??????????. ?а?????? ???????? ?????????? ????
JavaScript ?а??? ????? ???? ?????? ????, ??а???а?????????? ???
??????? ????? ????? ????? ?????. ???????? ?????? ????????
??аGitHub (https://github.com/mschwarzmueller/yt-webpack2?basics).
?? ???????????? ??аwebpack, ??а???????? ????????? ??????????? ?а??????? web-??????????. ??????? ??? ???? ??????? ????
package.jsonа? ?а??? ??а??????????, ??? ????? ??????????? ?????:
{
?name?: ?webpack2-basics?,
?version?: ?1.0.0?,
?description?: ??,
?main?: ?index.js?,
?scripts?: {
?test?: ?echo \?Error: no test specified\? && exit 1?,
?run-server?: ?webpack-dev-server --entry ./src/js/app.js
--output-filename ./dist/bundle.js?,
?build:prod?: ?webpack src/js/app.js dist/bundle.js -p?
},
?author?: ??,
?license?: ?MIT?,
?devDependencies?: {
?webpack?: ?^2.2.1?,
?webpack-dev-server?: ?^2.4.1?
}
}
? ???????? ????? package.json ????????? npm. ???????? runserver ??????? ??а???????? package.json. ?а???? ?????? ??а??????
???????????? build:prod ??? ???????? ????? ??????:
$ npm run run-server
?????? ??а??????? ??????? ???? ?а????? web-????????. ????
???????? ?а???? ?????? ?????????.
??? ????? ???????????? ????????????? webpack ???????????
???? webpack.config.js. ??????? ??? ???????? ????? ???? ???????
????????. ??а?????? ?????? ??????????? ???? ??????????: https://
webpack.jakoblind.no, ??????? ??????? ????? ????????????
??а???. ????????? ????? ??????? ????????? ??????.
Webpack-dev-server ????? ?????????????? ??? ???????????? ?а???????? ??????
JavaScript ?а???? ?????. ??? ??????????? ???????? ???????? ??????? web-????????.
???????????? ??????????
??????? ???? web-???????? ????? ??????????, ??а???а?? ??????? ?????, ??? ?????? ??????, ??????? ????? ????????? ????
??????? ???????? ???????????. ??????? ????????? ???????
??? ?????; ??? ??а???????? ?????????а? ?forky? ?а?throng?. ??а???
?forky? ???????? ????? ???????????, ??а?а??????? JavaScript
??? ??????? ???????????? ???. ?Forky? ????? ???? ??????? ????
?а????????? ?????? ?????????, ?а?throng?а? ?????? ??????? ????? ?а????????.
?????а?? ??????? ??а??а???????, ????????????? ???????????
??? ??????? ??????? ??а????, ??? ??а?????????, ??? ??? ?????
??? ????????????.
???а????? ???????????????? ??????? ??а?????? ????????? ????????? ???????????? ?????, ????? ??? ???? ????????
?????????? ???????, ?????????? ??а????, ??? ??а?а???????? ?????
?????????? ???? ???. ????? ???? ????????? ?????????, ???
???? ??????? ????? ?????, ??а??????? ??????????? ?????????????. ??????? ????? ??????????, ??? ??а???????? ??????-н??????,
???????? ??а????? ????? ??а?????????? ????????, ??а???
??а?????? ???!
???? ??а??????????? ??????? ????????, ????? ??? Docker
(??. ???.а40), ??а??а?????? ????????? ??? ???, ??а?????????? ????
???????, ?а????????? ???? лweb-??????╗ ????? ??????????? ???
?????????. ??????? ????????? ?????? ??? web-???????? ???????? ????????????? ???????????? ??????а? ?????? ??????????
????? ????????. ???? Ubuntu One ?аNginx ?????? ???????? ???,
??а???а????????????? Docker ?????????? ????????а? ??? ???
???? ????????. ??? ??????? ??а?????? ???...
??????
??????
???? ??? ??????? ????а?
Ruby, ??а?????? ?????????
??????? web?????? ?а??????? ruby
-run -ehttpd.
-p 8000. ??????????? web??????, Webrick,
???????? ?????
???????????
?а????? ????????????
SSL, CGI ?а?????? ??????
web-???????.
??? ??а???????
?? ???? ????? ??а?????? ?а??????? ??????? ??????? web-???????
??а????????? ?????????? ??? ????????????. ????????? ?????????????????? ?????? ??а????? ??????????? ???? ?????????
????????????а? ??? ?????? ????? ?????????? ???????? ????????. Npm ?????????? ????????? ???????? ??????? ??? ?????
???? ?????.
??? ????? ??????? ????? ???, ?????? ?????, ??????????? ???????????? ???????????? ??????????, ????? ??? Docker, ?????
??????? ??а?? ?????. ??? ??а?????, ??? ??????? ???????? ?а????????????? npm ?????? ??? ????????. |
╗╗????? ??????? LINUX FORMAT????? ?? www.linuxformat.ru!
www.linuxformat.ru
??????? 2018? LXF244? |?63
??????? Flatpak
FLATPAK
????????? ????????
?? ? Flatpak
????? ?????? ?
???? ??? ????? ????? ??-???? ? ???????? Deb-?????? Ubuntu ? ? ???
?? ??????????? ?????. ??? ?? ?????, ?????? ???? ????? ??????????...
inux ??????? ??????? ??????? ?а??????? ????????????? ???????????? ???????????. ???, ??????, ?????????
???????????? ??????????? ????? ????? ?????????????
?а????????? ????????????? ?а??а??????????? ???????? ???????.
??а??? ??? ????????? ??????? ?????? ?????????? ???????. ??а???? ????? ?????????? ?а????????? ??? ???а?????????? ??????????
?????? ????????????? ?а???? ?????? ??а??????. ?????? ????????? ????????? ????? ????????????? ???????? ???????, ???????
???????: л???????? ???????а? ???????? ?????╗ (??а??????
??????, ?аLinux).
Flatpak (https://flatpak.org) ?????? ?а????? ?????????? ??????
?????, ????????????? ?аLXF234, ?а??? ??????? ?а??????. ??а????? ????? ??а?????????? Flatpak, ??????, ??? ??? ????????????,
?а?????????? ??? ?????? ??????????.
L
???
???????
????? ??????
?????а?? ????
?????????????,
??, ?а?????????,
???????? ????????????????
?????????? ?????????????, ???
??????, ?а?????
????????????
?а??.
??????
??????
Flatpak ????????????????
??а????? ?????? ???? лURL
????????╗,
?????а??, ??????? ??а??????
????????????
???а?????????? ???????
????. ???????
???? ?????
???????? ??????, ??а???
?????, ?????
????????,
?а ?.??.
????? ??????
Flatpak ???????? ?а???????? ??????, ?а???????????? ??? ????????? ?а?????????? ????? ????????. ?????? ??????? ???????
Linux ???????? ?а?????????? ????????????, ??????????, ???
??????????? ????? ??????????, ??? ????? Aа??????? ??а?????? B.
????? ???????????? ???????? ?????????? ??? ????? A, ???????
?????????? ??????????? ?а????????????? ????? B ?????? ?а???.
???, apt install ????????????? ???? ?????????? ?а???????? ?????
??????? ??? ???????? ?а?????????. Flatpak, ????????, ????????????? ??? ?а??????????, ?а??? ??????????? ??? ?????? ?а??????????? ??а???????????? ???????. ?а????? ??????? ???? ???? ?????
?а??????:
?????
??????
?????????????
??а????????????
?????????? ??????????????
н???????????? ?а????????? ?????.
???????? ?????????
????????? ??? ????????????? root,
???а?а??????? ?????????????.
??? ??????????
?ан????????? ????????
?????????? ??????????
????????? ??????????.
?? ???????? ???? Flatpak ??????????????. ????? ?????????,
??а????? ?????????? ??а?а?????????, ??а??????????, ??? ?????
???? ?а????? ??????? ?????????? ????????????? ?????? ???а??
??????????. ????? ????, ????????? ?????????? ?а???? Flatpak ????????? ???????????? ???????????? ?а???????????? ?????????
???, ??? ??? ?????????? ?а??????? ???????? ???????, ????????:
64? |? LXF244? ??????? 2018
???? flatpakref ???????? ??? ??????????, ???????????
???а?????? ??????????, ??????????? ??? ???????????? ?а????????? ?????.
??
???????????? ???????? ?????? ??????????, ????????
???а???? ?а??????????? ??????. ??????: LibreOffice, ??????????
??а????????? ??а???.а66, ???????? ???????????? ?а??????? 5 ?а6.
? ??? ???? ???????? ?а?????????????, ?а??а?????????? ????
????? ?а??????????, ?????????? ?а?????????. ??????: Flash
Player ??аAdobe.
???????????? ????? ??????, ????? ?????????? ?/??? ?????
??????????????????? ?????? ??????????, ??? ?????????????
??? ???????????. ??????: Calibre, ??????? ?????? ??????? ????
??аUbuntu 16.04.
??? ??а?????, ??? ??а?????? ?аLXF234, ?????????? ??????
???????, ??????? ????????????? ??????????? ????????н????.
?а??? ????????? ?????? Snap ?аUbuntu (www.snapcraft.io)
?аAppImage (https://appimage.org). ???? ??? ??? ????????? ??????
???????, ?а????????? Flatpak ????? ???? ??а?????????? ???????:
Snapcraftа? ??? ?????? Canonical, ?а???? ??а???????? ?а??????
?????????????, ??а?а?????? ??????? ???????????? ??? Ubuntu.
???? ??а??????????? ?????? ??????????? ??? ?????? ????????????? ??????????? ???????, ??а?????????????? ?????
????????н???? ????????????, Flatpakа? ?????? ?????, ??? Snap.
AppImage ?????????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ?а???????
?????? ?????. ??? ??????, ??а??а??????????? ?????, ????????
??? ????? ?????????????. ??? ??????, ??? ???? ??????????
??????????? ???? AppImage ??? ???????????, ?????? ???
??а??????? ????????? ??????????. ????? ????, ??? ???????????
????????? ??? ?????????? ????? AppImage. ?????? ??????????
??????? ?????????? ??? ?????, ??а??? ??? ?????????? ?????????
?а????????? ???.
???????? ??а??? ??? ????????? ?а?????? ?а???????,
??а?????? ???????????? ???????????? ????? (??? ???!)
??
??
??
??
www.linuxformat.ru
Flatpak ???????
??а????????????? ???????? ??а????? ??????. ??? ???????????? ??????, ??а???а??? ??? ???????????? ???????? ??????
??????? ?????????? ?????? Flatpak ??????? ?????????, ?????
???????? ???.
?????????? Flatpak
??? ?а??????????? ???????? ?а???????? ???????? ?????, Flatpak
??? ?????????? ????? ????? ?????????? ??а????? ????????. ???
???????? ??????????, ??????? ?а?????? Flatpakа? ??? ostree
?аbubblewrap.
???????????? Flatpak, ??а?????????????? л????????╗ ostree,
?????????? ??????????. ???? ??????? ????????? ??? ??? ?????
????? лGit ??? ?????????? ???????????? ???????╗. ?а??????????
?а?????? ?????????????, ?????? ?????? ???????????? ????????? ??????????? ??? ????? ?????????? ?????? ???????, ???
??????????? ?????? ??, ??? ????? ?????????. ??а????? ???????????? ???????? ??????.
???????????, ?а??? ???? ????????? ?а??????а1 ?а??????а2.
?????????? ????????????? ????? ?????? ?????а2, ???????
??а????? ????????? ??? ????а3. ????????? ????? ???????? ???????? ???????, ????????? ????а1 ?а????а3, ???? ??а??а????????
???????? ??????. ??а??? ??а???? ?????? ??? ???????? ????????
??? ?????????????. ??? ?????? ????? ???????? ??????????,
????? ??? ???????????? ????а2 ?????? ????? ?????? ?????а3
(??????? ??? ??? ?????????? ??а??? ??????, ???? ??а?????? ????????? л?????╗).
?????? ??????????????? ??????????? ???????? bubblewrap,
??????????? ???????, ???????, ?а???? ???????, ??????????
??????? ????????????????? ???????????? ???? ???? Linux. ???
????????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ????????????? ?????????
???? ??????? ??????? root ?а???????????, ??????? ?????????
Flatpak. ???а??????? ?????????? Flatpak ???????? ??????????,
????????? ??а?????????? Flatpak ?а????????????? ??????н????
????????? ???????? ??? ????????????? ?а?????????. ?а????
FlatPak ??аGitHub (https://github.com/flatpak/flatpak/wiki/Sandbox)
???? ????????, ??????? ???????? ????????? ?????????? ?????????а? ??? ????????? ???????? ????????:
?????(-?) ?????????? ?????????? ??????????? ?а????????? ?а/usr (????????? ??????? ????? ???????? ???????
??а?????? ??????.
???? ?????????? ??????????? ?а/app.
???????????? ??а???????? ????? /etc ??????????? ?а/usr/
etc ?????????.
?? ????????? ????? ?????? ???????? ?а?????????, ????????,
??????? /proc.
????? ???????, ??? ??????, ?????? ?а?.??., ???????? ?????
?bind-mounts? ??? ????? ???????????? ?????? ?????/???????? (??? ?????????) ?а?????? ????? ?а???????? ??????? (??????
?????????).
? ?????, ????????? ????? ?????? ?????? ?а????????, ??????
??????????? ??а??? ??????, ?????? ?????? ?а??????????
??н?????н???? ????????????.
??????, ???? ??а??? ??а??????? ??????????, ??а??????? ???
???? ??????? ?????????. ??? ????????? ??????????? ????????
?а??????? Linux ????????? ????? root, ??аFlatpak ????? ????????????? ?а??????? ????????????. ?а????????? ??????? ??а?????????? ??????? ????? ????? л????????????????? ???????????╗
?а????? ???????????? л????????? ??????????╗.
??
??
??
??
??
??
??????? ?????? ????????????
???а????????? ???????????? ??????????? ??????? ????????н
???? Linux ???????? ????????????? ?????? root. ??? ???????????
??????????? ???????? ?а??????? ??а????????? ?????? $HOME,
????? ??? /usr/bin, /opt ???, ????????, ???? /usr/local. ??, ???
??????????? ?а????? ?????? ??????, Flatpak ????????????
www.linuxformat.ru
?????????? ???????
?????? flatpak ????
????????????? ?????????
?????? ??а???? ??????,
??????? ??? ???????????
???а?????????.
╗╗???????? FLATPAK
????????? Flatpak ??????? ???????? ????????? ??? ????????? ?а??а???? ??????????, ?а????? ????????? ??????????. ??????? ????????? ??????? ??а???????
????????? ???????? ?????? ?а$HOME/.local/share/flatpak ??? /var/lib/flatpak, ?а??????????? ??а????, ????а?? ??? ????????? ??? ???????????????? ?????????.
?????? ??а??? ???????? repo, ?????????? ?????????? ??а?????????????
?а??????? ??????????? ?а?????? ??????????. ??????? appа? ??? ?????, ???
????????? ???? ??????????. ?а?????? ????????? ???? ?????????? ?а??????, ????????? ??а???? ?????? (????????, org.gnome.GEdit). ?????????? ??????????????
???????????, ?????????? ??? ??????????? (????????, x86_64), ??????? ??????
?а????????? ?а???? ??????????? ????.
????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????а?? ???????, ??а???????? ????????
?а???????? runtime. ??? ??????? ?а???, ??? ??? ????? ?????????????? ???????????
????????????. ????????? ???????а? exports, ?????????? ????????, ????????? ?а??????????? Flatpak, ??а??????????? ??? ?????????. ?а??? ?????????
????? ????, ??? ?????? ?????????? ?а???? .desktop (??????? ???????? ?а????
?????????? ??а??????? ?????), ?а????? ????????? ??????, ????? ??? ??????????? ?а??????? ???????. ??????? exports ???????? ?????? ??а???? ?????? Flatpak
?а???????? ????? ??а????????? ?????????????? ????? ??????????????? ?????
????-???????? ?а?????????? Flatpak.
???? ??????? ??????? ??????? tree ????? ????????? LibreOffice Flatpak:
$ aaron@acp-demon:/var/lib/flatpak$ tree -L 2
app
org.libreoffice.LibreOffice
appstream
flathub
exports
bin
share
repo
config
extensions
flathub.trustedkeys.gpg
objects
refs
state
tmp
runtime
org.freedesktop.Platform
org.freedesktop.Platform.ffmpeg
org.freedesktop.Platform.Locale
org.libreoffice.LibreOffice.Locale
??????? 2018? LXF244? |?65
??????? Flatpak
?????????????? ????, ??? ??а???? ?????? ???????? ?а???????
л???????╗ ?????????.
????????? Flatpak
??? ????????? ?????? LibreOffice ???????? ???????????? ??а????? ??????.
н??????????? ???, ?????? Flatpak.
??????
??????
???? ??а??????
??? ??????????
Flatpak ?а????
?????? ?????????, ??а?????? ????????,
??? ?а????????? ???? ???
??а??????. ??????? ???????
?а???, ?????
?????, ?а?????
????? ?????
?а???????. ???
????????????
??????????
????? $XDG_
DATA_DIRS,
?а???????
Flatpak ??????? ???? ????.
??????????? ????????? ????????? ??? ??????????? ????????????, ?а??а??? ???? ???????. ??? ????????, ?????? ??? ???????
???????????? ????? ?????? ?а??????????? ???????? ??? ???????
?????????, ?а?????????, ????????? ?????????????, ????????
?????а?? ??????.
????? ??а????????? ????? ??а?????? ?????????, ???????
??а?????? ????? ????????? ?????, ??? ????????? ?????? ??????.
???? ?а???, ??? ??а????????? Flatpak ????? ????????? ????????? ?????????. ??? ????????, ??? ????????? ????? ???????? ????
?????????????, ?а??а????? ????? ????????? ?а/var/lib/flatpak.
? ?????? ???????, ???? ??а??????????? ?а???????? ????
--userа? ??а??????????? ?????? ??? ????? ??????? ?????? (?????? ?а??? ??????????? ??а?????). ????? ?а???? ?????? ????? ?????????? ?а$HOME/.local/share/flatpak. ??? ???????, ???? ?а??? ???
??????? ?????? ?????????????? ??а??????????, ???, ????????,
???? ??а?????? ??????????? ???????? ?????? ?????????, ??????? ??????????? ?а?????? ????? ???????.
???????????????? ????????? ???????? ????????? ??????????
?????????. ??????? ??а???? ???: ??? ????????????, ??а?а????????? ????????? ??????????. ??? ?????????? ????? ????? (?????
???? ??????? ??????) ??а???????? ????????? ????, ?????? ?????? ??а???? ?а?????? ?а??????? ????????????. ????? ??а?????????????? Flatpak ??? ????????????, ????? ??????? ????-???????
╗╗??????????? FLATPAK
??? ?????? ??????? ????, ????? Flatpak ????????? ????? ??????? ?????????. ?????? ???????? ????? v1.0 ???????, ??????? ????? 20 ??????? 2018а?. ??? ?а???????? ????? ?????, ?????-????? (https://flatpak.org/press/2018?08?20?flatpak-1.0) ??????
????? ?????? л???????????????????╗, ??а????? ???????????? ????????? ???
??? ?????????????, ??? ?а??? ?????????????. ??????? ?а?????????? ?а????????
Flatpak, ?а??????? ??????????? ?а???? ??????, ?а????????? ???????????? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ?а???????н???? ???????????, ???? ????? ???????????,
?????????? ????????????? ????????? ???? ?????????? ?а???? Flatpaks. ????
??а???????????, ?????????? ?а??????? ?Build applications? ??????? Flatpak (flatpak
--help), ????? ??????, ????? ??????? ???? ?а????? ????????????.
?? ?????? ?????? ??????????, ????????, ????? ?????????. ?????? WinePak
(www.winepak.org) ?????????? Flatpak, ????? ????????? ????????? ????????
Windows. ??? ??????????? ????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?а???????????????? ????????? WINE ?а???????, ??????? ????? ??????????. ??а??????? ?????????
??а???? ?????? ?а??????????, ?????? ?????????????? ????????? ?аWINE. ????
????? ??а?????? ?????? ???????? ???, ?а??? ??? ???? ????????? ??????? ???,
??????? Overwatch, World ofаWarcraft ?аLeague ofаLegends. ???????, ????????? ??,
??а?????? ?а???????? ????? ?????????? WINE ?а????? ??????? ??????? ???. ??а???
?а?????????, ?а????? ??а????? ??????, ??? ??? ????????????!
66? |? LXF244? ??????? 2018
?????? ?????????, ??????? ??? ????? ??? ????????? Flatpaks
(?????? ??????)а? ??? Flatpak (??????????). ??????????? ????????????? ????????????? ??? ?а????? ????????????. ?аUbuntu
??а?????? ????????? ?????????, ????? ???????? ?а?????????:
$ sudo apt install flatpak
??, ???????, ???????? ??????, ???????????? ?а??????? ??????? ?????? ????????????. ???? ???? ??????а? ?а????????????
??????????, ????????, Ubuntu 16.04 (Xenial), ??? ????? ????????,
??? ????? ??????? ?а??? ??а?????. ????????? ?а???????????? PPA
Flatpakа? ????????????? ?????? ??????????, ????? ?а??? ??????
???? ????? ?????? ??????:
$ sudo add-apt-repository ppa:alexlarsson/flatpak
$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install flatpak
????? ????????? ??а??????? ????????????? ?????????
Flatpak ??а????????? ??????. ??а????????? ????????? ???????
?а???????н???? ??????????? ????? ???????????? ???? ??????.
????????, Discover ?аKDE ????? ????????? ?????? ???????
Flatpak, ???? ??а?????????? ??????????????? ??????.
????????? ?????????? ???????????, ???? ??????? ??? ????
???, ?????? ??? ??а??????? ?????? ????? ????? ??????????.
???? Flatpak
??????, ??? ??? ???????? ????????? ???????????? ???????????, ????? ??? RPM- ??? Deb-???????????, Flatpak ?????? ??????
л????╗. ??? ???? Flatpak ?????? ?????? ???, ??????? ??а??????
????????а? FlatHub. ??????????????? ??? ?а????? ???????, ????????? ???????? ???????, ??? ?а????????? ??а???????
$ flatpak remote-add --if-not-exists FlatHub https://flathub.org/
repo/flathub.flatpakrepo
?? ?????? ??????? ?????? ???????????? ???? ?????,
????????
$ flatpak remotes
? ????
?????????? ????????? ????????? ????? ??????????, ??????? ????? ??????????? ??? Flatpaks. ?????? ??а???а? ???
????????н???? ??????????. ???? ???????????? ????????н????
????????? ??а????????? ?????????? ????????? ???? ??????????,
??а??? ???? ?????? ??? ???????????.
Flatpak ???? ?????? ???? ??? ???????а? ??? ????? ???????? ?а?????? ?????????????, ?а????????? ?????????? ??????? ????????? ??????? ??а?????????. ????????? ???????
????????н???? (???? ?а??????????) ???????? ??аFlathub ????????
Steam, Slack ?аSublime Text.
?????? ??? ?????????? ?а???????? Flatpakа? ???????,
??????? ??????????. ??? ?????????? ??а????????? ?????????? Flatpak, ????? ??????? ?????????? ???? ????? ???????????,
?а??????? ??????а? ??? ?????. LibreOffice, ??????? ?????? ????????? 200 ??, ?аAndroid Studio, ??????? ??? ??????, ?????????? ????????? ??????? ?а???? Flatpaks.
???????, ?????????????????? ?????????? ??? ????? ???
?????????? ?????? ??????? ?? (??а??????? ????, ??? ?????????? ???????????, ?а???? ??????а? ??? ?????????). ??????????, ????????????? ?а??????????? ??а????? ????????????
??а???????????? ???????? ????????????? Linux. ?????? ????????
???? ?????????? ??? Flatpak, ?а??? ??????.
????????? ???????? Flatpak
????????? ?????????? ??аFlatpak ????? ????? ???????, ????
??а???????? ???????????? ?а????? ??????? apt, yum ??? dnf.
www.linuxformat.ru
Flatpak ???????
??????? search ??????? ??? ?????????? ??а?????? ??а??????????? ???? ???????? ????:
$ flatpak search calibre
???????? ????????? ??? ????????? ????????? ???????????
???? Calibre, ??????? ?а???????????? Ubuntu ????? ??????????.
???????? ???????? ??а?????? ???????: ?а??? ?????? ????????????? ?????????? ?а?????? ???? ???????? ???????? ??????? (??????? com, ????? domain ?а?.??.). ??? ????? ???????? ??? ???????
install ??? Flatpak, ????? ?????????? Calibre:
$ flatpak install com.calibre_ebook.calibre
?? ???? ????? Flatpak ?????? ????????? ?а?????????????
?????????? ?а??? ??????????? ??? ????? ?????????? (org.
freedesktopа? ??. ???????? ?????? ????? ??????). ????? ??????????а? ??? ????? ????????? ?а??????? ???????????? ??????????? ??? ??????????. ??? ?????? ?????????? ????????????
??аFlatpak.
л?????????,а? ??????? ??,а? ????? ??а??а?? ?????? apt
?аyum?╗ ??? ???????????? ??????. ???? ????????? ?????????????? ????????, ??????? ???????? ????? ?????????? ??а????????
?????????? ????????????? Linux.
????? ????????? Flatpak ???????????, ??? ??? ???? ????????????? ??а????? ????????????? ?а????? ????????.
????? ??????????а? ??? ????????????? ????? ???????????? ???????????, ??????? ??а??????, ??? ???????? ?????? ??, ???
??? ????? ??? ??????? ??????????: ??а??????, ??а??????.
Flatpaks ??????? ?а?????? ???????????? ????? ??????????,
??????? ??? ??а???? ???????????? ?а???, ??? ?????????? ???н
????? ???????? ???? ?????????.
?????????? ???????? ?а??????????? ?а???, ??? ?????????
?????? ????? ????? ???, ??? ??а????? ??? ??????????? ???????,
??а??????, ??? ??? ????? ??????????? ?????? ????? ??а?????.
???? ????????? ?????? ???????, ??????? ??а?????? ???????????? ??? ????????? ??????????. ???? ??а??????????? ?а????????? Flatpak ?а??????? ???, ?????????? ??? ??а????????? ??????,
????????? ??????????? ???????:
$ flatpak install somefile.flatpak
???????, Flatpak ????????????? ????? ??? ????????? ?????????? ????? ??????? ????????????? ?????. ???? ????, ?????????? flatpakref, ???????? ????????? ?????????? ?а?????????,
?а?????????:
?????? ??? ?????????
???, ?а???????? ?? ????? ???????.
?????? ?????????
????а?? ????? ??????????
??????? GPG
????????? ??а????? flatpakref ?????????? ????????? ??а???????? ???????????? ????? Flatpak:
$ flatpak install ./somereffile.flatpakref
?? ????? ?????? ???????????? ???????? ???????
?а???????н???? ???????????, ??????? ?????? ??????????
?а????????????? Flatpak ???а??, ??? ?а?????? ?????? (???а???????,
??? ??а?????????? ??????).
??
??
??
??
??
??
??
??
????????????????? ?а?????? ???????, ?????? ????. ???????????? Flatpak ?????? ???.
?? ????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ?????????? ?а????
?????? ???????? ?????. ???? ??а?? ??а??????, ?????? л?????? ??????╗ ??а???.а66, ?????????, ??? ??? ?????????. ??а????? ????,
?а??????????? ??????? ??а??а??????? ???????? ??? ?????????
??а??????????????? ????? ?????????????. ??а?????? ?????????
?????? ???????, ?????????????? ????? ???????????, ?а??????
???????????? ??а??? л???????╗ ?????????.
?????????? ??????????? Flatpak
????? ????? ??? ???? ????????? Flatpak, ??, ???????, ??????
???????????? ???????? ??????? ?а???????н???? ???????????
??? ??а?????????????????. ??а???? ??а????????????? ????????,
?????????? ????????? ??а??????????? ???? ??????. ??а??????
???????? ?????? ????????????? Flatpak (??? ??????????, ???
?а???? ??????????) ?а??????? ????????? ???????:
$ flatpak list
????????? ?????????? ??а?????? ????????????? ??????,
??а?а??? ??а????????? (????????? ??? ????????????????, system/
user). ??а?????? ???????? ??? ???? Flatpak ????? ????????,
???а??, ??? ?а??????????? ????????? ???????:
$ flatpak update
???? ??? ???? ??????? Flatpak, ??????? ? ????????? ??????
?????????:
$ flatpak remove [full-qualified app name]
???? ??? ???? ??????? ???? ?? ??????????? ???? ?????, ???
???????? ????????? ???????:
$ flatpak remove-remote [name of remote]
??????
??????
???? ??а?????
?????? Flatpak
??а??????????
ls / ?а??а??????
??????? ???????, ?????????
?????????:
$ flatpak run
--command=sh
org.libreoffice.
LibreOffice.
?а?????????
?????? ??????????
??????????
????????.
??????, ?????
lsа/, ??а??????
??????? ?????
????????, ???
/app.
??????????
???????????? ??????? Flatpak ?????????????. ??а????????????? ????????????? ??????????? ??????????????? ??а?????????
?????????????, ???????????? ????????????? ????????? ???????????? ??? ????????? ?????????? ??????????. ??а?????????
?????????? ???????? ?????? ?а?????? ??а????????, ???????????? ???????? ?? ??а????, ??? ?? ??а??????????. ??а??????
????????? ???????? ?а????????????? ???????????? ????????
???????? ??а???? ?????????? ????????? ????????????. ???????,
??а????????? ????? ?????????????? ??????????? ?????????
??????????, ??????? ??????????? ????????? ?а?????????,
?а??????? ??????.
???????, ???? ??а?????? ??????????? ???????? ??????
LibreOffice ??? ????????? ?аWINE ???? ????? World ofаWarcraft, ?????????? Flatpak. ?а??а?????????! |
?????? ???????? Flatpak
????????? ?????????, ??а?????? ????????? ??а??а?????????
?????? ????????? ???????:
$ flatpak run com.calibre_ebook.calibre
????? ??????? ????????? ??а???????? ???? ?????. ????????, ?а??? ????? ?????? ??а???? ??????? ?????? ????????
$HOME. л??,а? ???????? ??,а? ?а?????, ??? ????????? Flatpak
??????????? ??а????????? ????????╗ ??? ????? ?????????????
?а????? ???????. ?????? ??а??????? ?????????, ???????????
??? ?а???????????? ????????? ???????, Flatpak ???????? ?а????????? Calibre ?а?????
??????????, ??а???????? ??а???????.
╗╗????? ??????? LINUX FORMAT????? ?? www.linuxformat.ru!
www.linuxformat.ru
??????? 2018? LXF244? |?67
??????? ???????????? ??????
GNUPLOT
??????? ?? ?????
??????, ??? ???????
???? ???? ????? ????????? ?????? ????????, ?? ??????? ????. ??? ???? ????
??а?????? ??????? ???????? ?? Linux, ???????? ??? ?????? ????? ?????? ?????????.
??????, ??? ???????? ????? ?????? ????, ?а??а??? ???????, ???? ????? ???????? ?????? ???????? ??????.
??а?????? ??? ?аLXF243, ????? ??????????? ????????? ?а???????????? ??? ????? gnuplot. ??а???? ????? ??а???????,
??? ???????????? gnuplot ??? ?????????? ???????? ?а????????
??а??????????? ??????.
gnuplotа? ??? ?????????? ??? ????????????? ??????.
??а??а????? ?????? ?????? ?а???????? GNU, ??? ????????а? ???
??????????, ?а?????а?? ????????? ??а???а?? ???? llamaplot (??.
gnuplot.info/faq, ????? 1.2). ??а??а?????????? GNU GPL, ?а???????????? ??????????? ???????? ??? ????????? ????????? ????.
?? ????? ???????????? gnuplot ??? ????????????? ?????????
??????? ?????? ?а???? л???????╗, ????????????? ??а?????????
?а?????????, ?а?а????н???? л?????????╗, ??????? ????????????
???????? ?а????????.
?? ?????? ????? ??????????? ?????????? gnuplot ??а??????????? ??????? ?????? ????????????:
sudo apt install gnuplot #Debian, Ubuntu, etc
sudo dnf install gnuplot #Fedora, CentOS, etc
sudo pacman -S gnuplot #Arch Linux
?
???
???????
???? ???? ????????????? ?а?????
?аLinux, ??????
??аThinkPad, ?а????, ?а????????
?????...
??????
??????
Gnuplot ?????
????? ????????? ???????
???????????
??????? (????????, sin(x))
?а???? ??? ????
??????????,
??а????? ????????????? ???
?аLXF210.
?????????? ??????? ??????
??? ??????????? ????? ???????? ??? ??????????? ?????????
??????; gnuplot ???????, ??? ?????? ????? ????????????? ?а????????? ?????, ??? ?????? ??????? ???????????? ????? ??????,
?а???????а? ?????? ?????????? ????????.
?? ?????????? ??????, ??????? ??а?????? ??а?????????
?????. ??а???????????? ?????? ????????? ??????? (??а?????
?а??????) ??а??????? (?а????????) ?????????, ??????????? ??аC,
Ruby, Python ?аPerl, ??????????? ??????? ???????????? ?????????????? ????????? ? ??а???????????? ??????????? ?????,
Gnuplot ???????????? ??????? ??????, ????????????? ??а??????? ?а????????. ??????????? ?а????????? ??а???????????.
68? |? LXF244? ??????? 2018
????????? ??????????? ??? ????????? [Nilakantha], ??????????
XV ????. ?????? ?????? ?????? ??? ???????? gnuplot, ?а??а??????????, ??????? ??? ????????????.
?????? ??????, ???????????? ?а#, ???????? ?????????????,
??????? gnuplot ??????????. ???????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ??????????? ?????????? ?/??? ?????????, ?а?????? ??????
???а???????????? ???????? ?????????????? ??????????; ???
???????? ????? ?????????????? ??? ??????????? ?а???????.
??? ??????????, ????? gnuplot ??????? ????????????????
??????? ??????. ?????? ?????? ???????? ??? ????? ?????
?????????? ??????а? ????????, ?????????н???? ?????? ?а????????? ????????, ???????????? ?а?????? ?????????? ???????
Raspberry Pi?
? ??????? gnuplot ????????? ?????? ??????. ????????
???????? ?а??????? gnuplot, ????? ????????? ??? ?????????????
????????? ????????? ??????. ??а?????? ??????? ??????? ??????????????? ?а??????????? gnuplot>. ????? ????:
plot for [i=1:4] ?pi-nilakantha-15.dat? using 0:i with lines title
columnheader
??????? plotа? ???? ??а???????? ?????? gnuplot. ??? ??????
?????? ??а??????, ?а?????? ?????? ???????????? ?а????? pinilakantha-15.dat, ????????? ?????? ??а???????? 0 ??? ?????????
X ?аiа??? ????????? Y, ??? with linesа? ?????????? ?????, ??????????? ????? ?????? ?а????????? title ??а??????? ??????????
columnheader. ??? ???????????а? forа? ??? ???????? iа??а1 ??а4
??? ??????? ??а??????? ???????? ?????? ?а?????. ??????? 0а?
??? ????? ??????, ???????????? ?а0 ?а??????????????? ???
?????? ??????.
?? ??????? ???????? ?????? ?????, ??а????? ??а???????,
?а???????????? ?????? ??а??? X ?а????????? ?????? ??а???
Y.а?????? ????? ????????, ?а??????? ???????????? ?а?????????????? ???? ????????, ?????? ??а?????? ?????????. ??? ????????
??а?????????, ??аgnuplot ?????, ?а??а????????????????, ??? ???
????? ?????????.
?? ?????а?? ?????????? ?????? ????? ???????? ?????? ????????????? for:
plot ?pi-nilakantha-15.dat? using 0:1 with lines title columnheader, \
?? using 0:2 with lines title columnheader, \
?? using 0:3 with lines title columnheader, \
?? using 0:4 with lines title columnheader
????? ????????, ??? plot ????????? ??? ??????????? ???????? ??????????. ????????, ??? ??а?????? ???????? ??? ?????
???а???????????????? ?????????????. Gnuplot ???????? ??????
?????? (??) ????? ?????????????? ?????? ????? (?а????? ??????
pi-nilakantha-15.dat).
www.linuxformat.ru
???????????? ?????? ???????
? ????????, ??? ??а?????? ???????????? ?????? ??????????? ??????а? ???????? ????? ????? (\), ????? ??????? ????????
??а????????? ?????.
?????? ??????? gnuplot ????????? ??????????. ??????
?????? ????? ????????? ??
p for [i=1:4] ?pi-nilakantha-15.dat? u :i w l t columnh
??? ??????????? ???? ???????? ?а????? ??????? ?а????? ???а????????, ??????? ???? ??????? ???????? ?а??????????????
??а?????? ?????. ?а?????????, ?????? ??????? ?а???????
???????, ??????? ???????????? ??аgnuplot, ??????????? ??????????? ?????. ????? ???????? ?????????? gnuplot (https://
superuser.com/q/508644), ??а??? ??а??? ??????, ??? ?????а?? ????.
???а??????? ??а?????? ???????? ??????, ??????? ?????????
?а????? ????:
set title ?Pi Computation comparison?
set xlabel ?Execution time (seconds)?
set ylabel ?Sample number?
???? ??? ?????? ????? ??????????? ??????????, ??? ???????? ??а???????. ????????? ???????? ???а????????.
??????????, ??????? ?а???????
???? ?а??? ????????? ??????? ?????? (??а????? ????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?), ??а?????? ????????? ??а???. ????? ?????
??????? ?????? ????? ????????? ?а??????????:
datasets = ?nilakantha simpson viete?
??? ?????? ????????? ??????????, ?? ?? ????? ????????????
??, ????? ????????? ??????? do ??? ??????? ?? ???? ???????
?????? ? for:
do for [dataset in datasets] {
plot for [i=1:4] ?pi-?.dataset.?-15.dat? using 0:i with lines title
columnheader
pause 5 ?Displaying ?.dataset
}
???????, ????????????? ?а???????? ???????, ???????????
?а?????????? dataset, ????????????? ??? ??????? (????????????
?????????) ????? ?аdatasets. ??а?????????? ??? ??? ????????
????? ????? ???????????? ???????? ?????????? ., ???????,
????????, ?????????? ??а???? ?????? ??????, ??????????
?а?????? ?а???????????????? ???????. ??а????? ??????????
pause, ????? ??????? ??????? ????? ?????????, ????? ?????
???? ?????????? ?????? ??а???. ??? ????? ??????????, ??? ??н
??? ??????? ????????????? ????? (???????????? ?????????
????????): ??????????? ????????? ?????? ?????? ????? ???????? ??аmore> .
??? ?а??????????, ??а????? ?????????? ???????. ??? ????????? ????????? ?????????, ?????? ????????? ??? ????????
?????????. ????? ???????????? ??????? ??? ???????? ?????
????? ?????? ??????:
file(dataset,extn) = ?pi-?.dataset.?-15.?.extn
?????, ???????? ??? ?????? ?????? ?а?????????? ?????, ??а?????????? ????????????????? ??? ?????. ???????
?аgnuplot ?????? ????? ????? ?????: ??? ?а????????? ??????????, ?а????? ?????????, ??????? ?????????? ????????? ???
???????? ????????. ??а??а?????? ??????????????? ???????,
????????? ??а?????????? ?????????? (?????? ???????????? ????
do) ??? ???????, ??????? ???????? ?????????, ?????????? ????????? ??? ??????, ??? ?????? ????? ????? ?а???????. ???????
??????? gnuplot ????????? ?????????? (https://stackoverflow.
com/a/27835753), ??а???а?? ????? ???? ????????.
??????? ?????????? ???????????? ????????, ???????
??а????????? ?????????. ??? ???????? ?????? ??? ?????????.
??а????? ???????????? ?????? ??а????????? ?????????? ?????
??????? plot:
draw_plot = ?plot for [i=1:4] file(dataset,?dat?) using 0:i with lines
title columnheader?
www.linuxformat.ru
л???╗ ???????????? ??????????
??????? ??????
????????? ??????.
????? ??а????? ??????? ?????????? ?????? ????????. ???
?????? ??а??????????, ?а??? ????????????? ???. ??а???? ?????
?????? ??????????? @, ??а????? ??????????? ??? ??????????.
????? ?????:
do for [dataset in datasets] { @draw_plot; pause 5 }
??????? ????? ????? ???????:
draw_plots = ?do for [dataset in datasets] { @draw_plot; pause 5 }?
??? ????????? ???????? ??????? ?а??????? ???????? @draw_
plots. ???????? ????????, ??? gnuplot ????????? ????????????
????? ?а??????? ??? ?????????? ?????????? ?????? ?а????? ??????, ??? ??????? ??? ????????, ????????? ??? ??а????? ?????????
??????? ??????. ??а????? ???????????? ??????? ?а???????
??а?????????? ????? ?????, ????? ???????? ?????????? ?????.
?????? stats
?????????, ??? ??а????? ???????, ??? ??????? ?????????
??????, ????? ???????? ???????? ????? ???????? ??????.
??а????? ???????????? ??????? stats ?? gnuplot ??? ?????????
??????? ????????, ????????? ?а?????????? ??? ???, ?а?????
?????????? ??а??а???????????.
??????? stats ????????? ???? ??? ??? ??????? ?а???????? ?а????????. ??а?????? ??????? ??? ?а??????? stats ?pinilakantha-15.dat?. ??? ????? ????????????? ??????????, ???????
??а?????? ???????????? ??а????????а? ?????????? ??????? ????????? ???: help stats. ??? ???????????? ??а?????а?? ???????????? stats, ????? ???????? ????? ???????? ?а????н???? ??????????
??? ????????????? ?а??????? plot ?????? ???????? ???????????
??? ???а4. ???? ??а????????? ??????????, ??????? ??? ?????????????, ?????????? STAT_columns, ??????? ??а???????
stats ?pi-nilakantha-15.dat? nooutput; plot for [i=1..STAT_ columns]
{ ... }
??????
??????
?? ??????
??????????????? ??а??????
gnuplot ??????
?а??????? #!/
usr/bin/gnuplot
?а?????????а??.
╗╗???????? ???????
?????, ?????????????? ?а????????, ???? ??????? gnuplot. ?????????? ??????
????? ?????, ?????????????? ?????, ???????? ???? ????? (??? ??????????????,
??? ????-?? ???). ??? ??????????? ????????????? ?а??????? set linetype, ?а??н
??? ????????? ??????.
???? ?????? ???????? ?????? ?????, ??? ????? ?????, ??а????? ???????н???
????????? ???????????? ???? ????? (??? ??? ??????? ????? ????? ????а?? ?????,
??? ?а??????, ?а?.??.). ????? ?????????? ?а????? ?????? ????? ?????, ??????
????? ???????????? ???? ????? ????? ????? ????????? ???а???????н?????: ????
??а??а?????????? ??? ????? ??????, ??а??? ??? ????? ?????????????? ??? ?????
????; ???? ??а?????????? ??? ????? 10, ??а??? 10?? ????? ????? ??????????????
?????? ??, ?а??а??? ????? ???.
????? ????????? ??????н???? ??????, ??? ????? ??????? ??? ????: ??????????
?????? ????? ?а??а?????????? ???? ????? ??а????? ????? (?а????????? ??????
??? ????? ????? ?????????):
set linetype cycle n
unset for [l=n+1:99] linetype l
??????? 2018? LXF244? |?69
??????? ???????????? ??????
??????
??????
????? ?????????? ?????????
??????? ?а?????? ???????,
???????????
some_string.
columnhead(i).
????????
????????,
??? ?а??????
????????? ???
?????? л?????╗,
?а??ал????н
?????╗.
????????????? nooutput ????????? ????? ??а?????????, ??????? ??????? ??????а?? ?а????????? ??????, ??????? ??? ??????
????????????? ???? ??????????.
???? ??а?????????? ??????????????? ?а????? ????????
?????, ?а?????? 4 ??а?????? ???????? ?????????????? ?а?????н
??? ??????. ??? ?????????? ??????, ??? ????????? ????????
??а???????? ?????????? ??????, ??????? ????? ????????????
stats. ?????????????? ????? ???????????????, ??? ??а??????
???????? gnuplot, ??? ?а????? ???? ?????? ?????????:
set key autotitle columnhead
??????????? stats ??????? ????? ????????? ??????????
??????????, ?????, ??? ?а?а????? ??????, ????????? ???????н
???? ????? ???? ????????. ??? ??? ??а????????? for ?аusing ???
??н???? ??а?????? ??????? ??а???,ал???????╗ ?????? ??? ??????,
??а????? ?????? ??а??????? ?
do for [i=1:4] { stats ?pi-nilakantha-15.dat? using i nooutput; print i,
STATS_mean, STATS_min, STATS_ max }
? ????????
1 1.8755842 1.873858 1.879206
2 21.7233386516571 21.4641873836517 22.1631166934967
3 97.6620037794113 93.8680853843689 101.46163392067
4 43.4605897188187 42.7861561775208 45.4818699359894
?? ????? ???????? ?????? ????????? ????????? ??????, ??а??????? ??? ???? ????????, ????? ????? ???????????
?????????. ??аstats ??а?????????? ??????????, ??????????
????????? ??????? (STATS_columnheader ??а??????????). ???
??а?????, ??а????? ???????? ???????:
columnheading(f,c) = system(?awk ?/^#/ {next}; {print $?.c.?;exit}? ?.f)
??? ?????????? ??????? system ?? gnuplot ??? ??????????
??????? ????????. ?а???? ?????? ??а?????????? awk ??? ?????????? ???????????? ????????? ??????? c ??а????? f. ????,
??? gnuplot ??а????? ????? ???????, ?????? ??? ????? ??а????????
????????? ???????????, ??????? ????? ???? ??а?????????? (????
╗╗????????? ??????
?????? ????????? ?????? ?????????????? ???? ??а?????????, gnuplot ???????????? ????????? ?????? ????? ??????, ??????? PNG, PDF, EPS (Postscript)
?аLaTeX. ??а?????? ?????? ????????? ?а??????? set terminal ??? print GPVAL_
TERMINALS. ???????? ????????, ??? terminal ?а???? ????????? ?????????
?а???????н????? ?????????? ??????, ?а??а?а?????????? ?????????, ??????? ??а??????????? ??? ?????????????? ?аgnuplot.
????????? ????????? ?????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????, ????? ?????????? ???????? ?а???????? ????:
set terminal pdf size 8,10 inch
set output ?report.pdf?
?????????????? ????? ??????? ?? ?????????? ????????? ??????. ?????
??????? ??? ?????, ????? ?????????? ? ?????????? ???????, ????????:
help terminal pdf
?? ?????? ?????????? ????????? ????????? ??а???????????, ????????? set
termoption. ????????, ????????? ????????? ????? л???????????╗ ?????????
?????, ?а??????? ????????? ?????? ???????????????? ???, ??? ????? ????????? ????? ????, ??? ?????? ?а??????? ???????. ?????????? ????? ??????
????????а???:
set termoption noenhanced
??????????? ????????? ????? ????????? ??????????? ???????? ??????,
??????????? ??????????? ??????? ??????, ????? ??? ?????????????, ??? ?????????? ??????????? ????? ????????.
????? ????????? ?а?????????????? ????????? ??а?????????:
unset output; unset terminal
??? ? ??????????? ?????????:
unset output; set terminal pop
70? |? LXF244? ??????? 2018
??? ?????????, gnuplot ????? ???????? ??аMacOS ?аWindows).
??????? awk ?????????? ??? ?????? ???????????? ?а????? ???????? ????????? ????? ??а????????? ??????, ?а????? ?????????
??????, ????????? ???? ????? ?а????? gnuplot.
??? ????? ???? ???-??а????????? ????? stats. ????? ???????????? set print ??? ?????? gnuplot ?а???? ?????? ?????????,
?а???? ??????????? ????? print ????? ???? ?а????????? ????.
??а????? ???????? ?????? ????????? ?а???????????? stats, ???
??????? ????, ??? ?????? ?????? ?а????. ??? ?????? ??????
???????????? ??? ???????????? ????????? ??? ???????? ???????, ????? ??? ???? ???????? ????? ???а???????? ?????????.
??а????? ????????? ??? ??? ?а????????? do ??? ???? ?????
??????? ??????а? for:
do for [dataset in datasets] {
set print file(dataset,?stats?)
print dataset.? mean min max?
do for [i=1:4] {
f = file(dataset, ?dat?)
stats f using i nooutput
print columnheading(f,i).? ?, STATS_mean, STATS_min,
STATS_max
}
}
unset print
????????? ???????? ??????????????? ????? print ?а????????.
??а????? ????? ??? ??? ?а??????, ???? ???????? ??? ?а???? ?????? ?а????????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ?а???????:
build_stats = ?do for [dataset in datasets] { set print
file(dataset,?stats?); print dataset.? mean min max?; do for
[i=1:4] { f = file(dataset, ?dat?); stats f using i nooutput; print
columnheading(f,i).? ?, STATS_mean, STATS_min, STATS_max } };
unset print?
?????????? ?????????
?????? ??а????? ??????? ??????????? ??а?????? stats, ???????
??а????????? ????? ???????????????. ??? ????????, ??? ??????
?????? ?????? ???????????? ??????? ????????? ?а????? ????????? ??а???????, ?????? ?????? ???????? ????????, ????????????? ?????? ???? ????????.
plot for [i=2:4] file(?nilakantha?,?stats?) using i with histogram title
columnheader
??????? ????????? ????? ???????, ??? ??? ?????????? ?????????, ????????? ??? ?????????? ?????????????????? ??????,
????? ??? ??????????? ?????????? ????????н???? ??????н????????
??????, ????? ??? ??????? ?????, ?а????? ????????????? (????????, ??а?????????). ???????????а? ??? ????????? ?????,
?????????? л????????н???? ?????????╗; ?????? ??? ??????????? gnuplot, ??????? ?????? ??? ?????? ?????????, ??????????
????????????, ??????? ??? ??а????? ?а??????????.
???? ????????? ???????? ???????? ??????, ??а??а?????
???????? ?а??????? ??????. ??а??????? ????????? ?????????,
??????????????? ??????????? ?????????? ????????? ??????????? ??? ?????? ???????, ??а????????? ??а????????? ????????
??????????.
www.linuxformat.ru
???????????? ?????? ???????
????? ????????????????? ???????????,
??а????? ?????????? ????????????.
set style data histogram
set style histogram gap 1
set style fill solid border -1
set boxwidth 0.8
??а?????? ?а????????? ????? ??????
data style ??а?????????, ?.??. ????, ??? plot
?????????? ??????, ????? ????? ??а??????.
????????? histogram ??а????????? ????????, ??? ??а????? ???????? with histogram
?а????????? ?????? plot. ????? ??а????????????? ?????????? ????? ????????
???????????, ??????? ??? ??а????????
??а????????? 2 ??а1. ????? ??а????????????? ???????? ??????? ??а????????
????????, ????????? ??? ????? ??а?????????а? ???????? ?????? (-1). ???????,
??а????????????? ?????? ?????????????? ?????? 0,8, ????? ???????? ????????? ????? ????? ?????????? (??????
??????????? ??а0 ??а1).
?? ?????? ??????????? ????????? ???? ????? ?а??????
???????? ??????????? ?а??????? ??????????? ????? ?????????.
??????? test ?а????????? ??????. ????? ??????? ??а?????????,
???????, ???? ??а?????????? ?????????????? ??????? ?аPNG ???
PDF, ??????? ????????? ??.
?????? ?????? ????????????? ??????а? л???╗ ???????????:
set style histogram errorbars
set key off autotitle columnhead
plot ?pi-8.stats? using 2:3:4 title columnheader, \
?? using (0):xticlabels(1) with lines
??? ???? ???? ??????? ??а?????????, ?????????????? ???
??????? ????????, ??а?а???????? ??????????? ?а????????????
???????? ?????? ?а??????? л????╗ ??????????? [error bars].
???????? ????? ?????? ???? ?????? (??????? ????????), ???????
??а????????? ???а? set key off. ??? ??? ??? ????? ????????
gnuplot, ??? ???? ?????? ?????????, ?????????????, ?????????
autotitle columnhead.
? ??????? ?????????? ?????????, ????????? ??? X, ??а???
??????? ?????????? ?????????. ??? ?????????????? ??????????
??? plot ?????? (0) ??? ??? Y, ?а??? ??? Xа? xticlabels(1)а? ???????, ??????? ????????????? ?????-??????? ??а??? X ??а???????
??????? ?а?????. ??а?????????? with lines, ?????? ??? ????? ???????? y=0 ???????? ????????????? ?????, ??а??????????? ????
X ?а??????? ???????? (????? ??а???????, ??а?? ??а???????!).
?? ????? ??????? ??? ??? ??????, ????? ?????????? ???
?????? ?????? ?а??????????????? ??????????? ?ал?????╗
????????????:
plot for [dataset in datasets] file(dataset,?stats?) \
using 2:3:4 title columnheader(1),\
?? using (0):xticlabels(1) with lines
??????? ??? ??? ?????? ? ? ?????? ???????????? ?????:
??????????
??????? ?????
??????? ???????
???? ???????.
www.linuxformat.ru
plot_histogram = ?plot for [dataset in datasets] file(dataset,?stats?)
using 2:3:4 title columnheader(1), ?? using (0):xticlabels(1) with
lines?
????? ????? ??????? ????????? ?????????, ??? ????????
using; ??? ??????? ??а????? ??????????? ?????? (?аset style ???
??????????? with). ????????? ??????? ???????, ??? ?а???
??????, ???? ????????? x ?аy, ??а???????? y ????? ???? ???????:
using 1а? ??? ??а?? ?????, ??? ?аusing 0:1, ?а????????? ??????
?а??????? ?????? (??а??????? 0) ??а??? ? ??а????????? ??а???????а1 ??а??? Y.
????? ??????????? ???????????? using ?а????? ?????????
??? ???????? ???????, ??????? ????? ???????????? ?а???? ???????????? ?????, ?????? ????? ??а??? Y.а????? errorbars ???????
?????????????? ????????а? ??а???? ?а????? ????????? 3,
????? ??????? ???????, ?????????? ???????? ????????, ?а?????
??????????? ?а???????????? ???????? ??? ??? ???????????.
multiplot ?????????? ????? ???
????????????
?а??????????
????????.
??????????? ????????
?? ????? ????? ??? ???????, ??????? ??а?????? ???????,
?а???????????? ??????? multiplot ??аgnuplot, ????? ??????????
??. ??????? ???? ?????????? ???????????? ????? ??? ??????
???????:
set multiplot layout 2,2
????? ?????????? 2?╫?2, ??? ????? ???????? ?????? ???????;
????? ?????????? ??? ???? ???????? ?????? ?????? ?а??????????????? ???????????. ??? ?????? ???? ????????? ??а??а???????:
do for [dataset in datasets] { @draw_plot }
@draw_chart
???????, ????????? multiplot:
unset multiplot
??? ???????? ???????????????? ????????????? multiplot, ????? ??????? ????????? ????? ??????? ?а?????? ????. help multiplot
???????, ??? ????? ????????? ?????????? ?????? ??? ???????????? ?????????? ????????????????, ???? ?????????? ????
?????? ??а??????.
??? ???????н????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????? ??а?????
????????? ??????? gnuplot, ??а?????? ????? ??? ????? ????.
??а?????? ??????? ????????? ?????? ??а????????????? ???????, ??а??????????? ????????????, ????????? ??аwww.gnuplot.
info, ???????? ????? ??????, ???? ?????? ??????????, ???
??????? ????????.
???? ????? ????? Gnuplot inаAction, ??????? ??а?????? ???????
????????? ??а????? ??????. ??а????? ??? ????? ????? ???????
??? ??????????? ???????????? gnuplot. |
??????
??????
???????????????? ???????
????????
?а???? ?????????? ?а????????? GPFUN,
?а??а??????
????????????
print, ?????
??????? ????н
??????? ????н
???: print
GPFUN_file.
??????? 2018? LXF244? |?71
??????? ??????? ???????
SCRIBUS
??????? ???????
????? ??? ?а?????
???? ???? ? ??????? ??????????? ?а???????? ????????? ??????? Scribus ?а???????,
??? ??? ??????а? ??? ????? ???? ??а??????.
? ??????? ??аScribus ?а????????. ???? ??а???????
?????? ??????-?????? Microsoft Publisher, ?????????
????????? ?????????? ??а?????????? ??? ???????????
?????, ??? ??????? ??? ??????????? ?????????. ??а??? ????????? ????????????, ?а???????? ?????? ??????? Scribusа? ?????????????? ???-?????? ??????.
?????????? ????? Scribus ???????? ?????? ?????? ???????,
?а?????? ????? ??а???????? ??? ??а???????? ????????? ??????????, ??? ?????????? ??? ?????? ??????. ??а??????????????
??а???????? ???????, ??а??а?? ???????? ????????? ?а???? ???н
???, ????????, ?а??????????? ???????? ??? ???????? ??????.
?????????? ?????? ?????? ?аScribusа? ??? ???????? ?а????????, ?а??? ?????? ???????? ?????? ?????????? ????? ????????????? ?????? ?а?????? ???????? ????? ?а???????????. ????,
??а?????? ?а???????, ?а???????а? ?а?а????, ????? ???????
????????? ????? ???????н????? ??????????.
?
???
???????
????? ???? ????
??а????? ??????????? ????? ?а???,
??? ?????? ??а????????, ??а????? ???????? ?а?????????? Commodoreа64.
?????? ??????
??????
??????
?????? ?????,
??? ?а??????н
?????????.
?????? ??????? ??????????
?????? ??????? ??????.
??? ????? ??????? ???????
???????????
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???????, ???
??? ?????????
?а????.
???а??????? Scribus ??????????н??? ??????????? ???? New Docuн
ment [????? ????????] ??а???????? New Document, ???????
??н???? ?а????. ??а??-??а?а????? ???? ??? ??а?????? ??????, ???
??? ?????????? ??????: ????????? ??????? ?????????? New from
Template [??????? ??а???????]. ????? ??а??????? ??????????
??????? ????? ???????? ?а????????? ??????.
??? ???????? ??а??????? ?Newsletter 1 [???????????????
?????????]?. ??? ????? ???????? ?????, ??? ??????????? ?????????, ?а????? ?????????? ??? ???, ????? ??а????? ?????? ????????
????? ????? ??? ??????????? ????? ???????????.
???? ???? ???????? ?????????? ?аScribus ????? ????????н??
???????? ???????????, ?а????? ?????? ??? ???????? ??????
?а????????? ?????? ???? ?????????: ??? ??????????? ?а????????????? [frameа? ????. ?????], ?а??? ??????? ???????? ??а?????.
????????? ????????? ??????а?
??????? ???????,
??????? ?????
??????? ???
??а???????????? ??????????
??????????.
72? |? LXF244? ??????? 2018
Scribus ?????????? ?а???????? ?????? ????????? ?а?????н
??н???? ???????. ?????????а?? ??а???а??????? ??? ?????????????, ?а?????? ???? ?????? ????? ???????? ??а????? ?????? ???
?????, ?а??, ??? ???????, ?????? ???????? ????? ?????????
?????????? ???, ??? ??? ??????. ??????? ?????? ?а??????.
?????????? ??????
???????? ????? ????????? ???? ?а???????? ?????? ???????
????. ???????? ???? ?а??????? ??????н????? ?????, ??а??????
??а?????????? ???: Get Text [???????? ?????] ?аEdit Text [????????????? ?????]. Get Text ????? ?????????? ??а???????? ?????
?а???????? ??? ?а????. ????? ?????, ??а??,а?????? ?????, ??????
?????????? ?а???????? ?аEdit Text.
Edit Text ????????? ???? Story Editor [???????? ???????], ??????? ??а??????? ????????? ?????????. ??????????? ?????????
?????????? ??а??????? ???????, ???? ???? ?а????????? ???????????. ???????? ??????????????, ??а?????? ?????? ??????
??а??????? ??????? ?????? ?а????????. ?????? ?аStory Editor ???
??????? ?????????????, ?а?????? ???, ????? ??а???????? ??????
?????????, ??? ???? ????? ???????? ?????? Edit Text.
????? ???????? Story Editor ?а???????, ????? ??а????? ??????
???????? ????????? ????, ??????? ?????? ?????????????. ?????, ????? ??а?????? ????????? ?????????, ??????? Update Text
Frame [???????? ????????? ?????] ??а??????? ?????? ???????????? Story Editor, ?а??а???????, ??? ???????? ????????? ?????
?а??????? ???? ????????.
?????????? ?????????????
????? ???????? ???????????, ???????? ?????? ??????? ????
?а????? ?а???????? Get Image [???????? ???????????]. ????????? ???????? ???????. ?????? ???? ???????????, ???????
OK. ?????? ??а?????? ??????????? ???????? ???? ????????,
??а???? ??а????????? ??а?????????, ???????, ????????, ?????
?????????????: ????? ?????? ????? ?????? ??? ???????? ??????
????? ???????????.
????? ???????? ??????? ???????????, ???????? ??а????
?????? ??????? ???? ?а???????? Properties [????????]. ?а????
Properties ????????? ??а??????? Image [???????????]. ?????
???? ???????? ????? Scale ToаFrame Size [??????????????
?а??????? ??????] ?аProportional [???????????????]. ???? ???
???, ??а????? ??а????????? ??????????? ??? ????????????????
?????? ???????? ?????? ?????? Proportional, ??? ???????? ??????????? ??а??????? ??????.
?????? ??? ????? ????????? ??????, ??????? ??а?????? ????????? ???????????, ?????? ???????? Free Scaling [???????????? ???????], ?а??????? ??а?????? ?????????? ?а???????????
www.linuxformat.ru
??????? ??????? ???????
??????????? ??? ?????????. ??? ???????? ?????? ??????
??????????? ??????????????.
? ??????? Newsletter 1 ?????? ??????????? ?а?????? ?????????????, ?.??. ??а??а?????? ???????? ??а??????. ????? ?????????????? ??????, ???????? ?????? ??????? ???? ????? ????
??????????? ??? ?????? ?а??????? ?????? Is Locked [?????????????]; ?????? ??а?????? ?????? ?????? ????? ??? ??????.
???а??????????? ???????, ??? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ????? ?????????? ?????? ?а????????. ???? ??? ???, ????????? ???? ?????? ?а????????????? ??. ?????? ???????? Scribus
???????? .sla, ??а???? ??а??????????? ???? ?????? ????-????,
??а???????????? Scribus, ??? ????? ???????????? ????? ?????
?????????????, ????????, PDF. ??? ????? ???????, ????? File >
Export > Save as PDF [???? > ??????? > ????????? ?а??????? PDF].
????????, ??? ?а???а???????? ??????, ?а?а?????? Print Preview
[???????????? ??????] ??а?????? ????????? ???????????????
?????????. ??? ?????? ?????????а? Scribus ?????? ??????????!
??а????????? ??а??? ????????, ??? ????? ?а???????.
? ????
???? ?а??? ?а?????? ????? ????? ????????????, ??????????? ???н
???? ????? ??а???????, ?а??????, ??? ????? ????? ??????? ????
???????? ?а????. ??а??а??????????, ??а?????, ????? ???????????
??? ?а????????.
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????? ????????? ??а?????? ?а??????н???? ????????; ?????????????, ??а?????? ????? ??????????? ?????????? ????????
?????????????? ?????? ???????? ???????.
??? ????? ?а??? ???? ?????????? ????? ????????????? ?????
?а??? Commodore Format ??а?????? 1990?? ??., ??? ??? ??а?????
???????? ???а??????????? ?????? ?а???????????? ????????
?????? ??? ?????? ??????? ?а??????????. ?????? ???????????
??????н???? ???????? ?а????? ??????, ??????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ??а???? ????????, ??? ??? ??? ??????? ????? ??? ??????. ?????????? ???? ???? ??а??????????????, ?а??а??????.
??????? File > New [???? > ???????], ????? ?????? ??????,
?а???????? ???? New Document, ??? ??а??????????? ???? ?????.
??? ???????? ??а????? ?????????????? ?????? Single Page
[????????? ????????]. ?а????????? ??? ???????? ???????, ?????
?????? Default Unit [??????? ????????? ??а?????????], ???????
?????????? Points (pt) [??????]. ??? ?????, ??? ??? ??????, ??? ???
??????????? ??а??а???-?????? ????????, ????????, ??????????!
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?а???? ??а?????????? ?????? Automatic Text Frames [??????н
????н???? ?????? ??????], ??а??????? ?????????? ??????н????
??????? ?а?????????? ????? ????. ???? ??а?????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ??а???????? ???????, ???????? ???????? Columns
[???????] ???а1, ??а??????????? ???????? ?????????? ??? ???
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??а????????! ????????, ??? ?????? ????а?? ?а??????, ???????
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?????????? ??????? ?????? ???????????? ????????? ??????
Insert Text Frame [???????? ????????? ?????]. ??а????? ??????
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??? ????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ??. ??????
www.linuxformat.ru
??? ????? ?????? ??????? ?аScribus ?????: ??????? ?????????? ?????? ?а?????
?????????????????.
?а???????????? (???.а75). ??????, ??? ????? ??а???????? ?????,
Scribus ????? ???????????? ?а????? ?????? ????????, ??? ???
??? ???? ????? ???????? ?????? ?????? ???, ????? ??а??????
??????? ????? ????????? ????.
????? ???????? ?????, ??????????? ???а?? ?????, ??? ?а??????: ???????? ?????? ??????? ???? ?а???????? Edit Text. ????
??? ??а??????? ????? ?а?????? ??????, ??а??????????. ????????
??? ????????? ?????? ???????, ?а??а?????? ??????? ???? ??а????? ?????? ???????????? Scribus: ????????? ????????? ??????,
?а??????? ????? ?????? ?????????? ??а?????? ?????? ?а??????.
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????????? ??????] ??а??????? ?????? ????????????, ????????? ???? ????????? ??а??????????? ???? ????????? ??????? ??а???????? ?????. ???а?????? ??а????????? ?????? ???
?????? ??????????.
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Sample Text
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???????? ??а???? ?а???-?????? ????????? ???, ??? ??? ????????, ??? ?????? л???????????╗ ??????? ?а???. ???? ??а??????? ??????? ?????? ??а????????? ??????????? ????????, ???????? ??а??? ????. ??а???? ??а??????? ???-??а?????н?????
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toаGrid [???????? > ????????? ?а?????]. ??????, ??????? ????? ??а?????????
??????? ????????, ?а???? ???????? ??а??????????? ?а??? ??????? ???????.
????? ??????? ????? ????? ????????, ???????? ??а?????????, ????? File >
Document Setup [???? > ????????? ?????????], ?а?а????? ???? ??????? Guides
[????????????]. ????????? ????? Show Page Grid [???????? ????? ????????] ???????? ??? ???????? ????????? ?????. ???????? ??а????????? ?????????? 35,278а?? ??? ??????? ????? ?а7,056а?? ??? ???????????????. ????
???????? ??а??а35а?? ?а7а?? ??????????????, ???? ???????? ?????? ?????
??????????????? ?????.
??????? 2018? LXF244? |?73
??????? ??????? ???????
??????
??????
Print Preview
?????? ????
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???????? ??н
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Antialiasing
[????????????
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Settings [????????? ???????????]
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?????? ???, ????? ??а?????????? ????????? ???????, Scribus
????? ???????????? ???????, ????? ????????, ????? ?????? ??????? ?а?а????? ???????????. ??а???????, ??? ????? ?????????,
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Unlink Text Frames [????????? ????????? ??????]. ???? ??а???????? ???, Scribus ????? ?????? ?????????? ?????, ??????? ?????
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??????? ????? ?????, ???? ???????? ?????? Insert Image Frame.
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?????? ??????? ???? ??а??????????? ?а???????? Properties.
??????? ????? ???????? ?а????? ??????, ??? opendesktop.org, ?а??? ????? ????
???????? ?а????? ????????? ???????. ????????? ???????????? ???? ????????
??а?а?????? ?????? Scribus.
?аProperties ????????? ??а??????? Image ?а???????? Scale
ToаFrame Size.
???? ?????????? ?????? Proportional, ??????????? ????????
???????? ??????????? ??????. ?????, ?????? ?????, ??а??????
????????? ?????-??а?????, ?а??? ???????? ???????? ???????
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????????? ???? ??? ???? ???.
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?????? ????-??а????? Microsoft Word, ??? ????????? ??????
?а???????? ???????. ??а???? ??а??????? ?а???????? ????????
?????? ??????, ?????????? ?а??????, ??? ??? ?????????? ???????
????? ??????.
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?а????? ???????????, ?а?????? ???????? ????????? ?????. ???????, ?????? ??а???????? ???????? ???.
??????? ??а??????? ????? ???????????, ????? ?????????
?а??? ??? ???????????, ??? ?а????????? ????????? ?????, ???
???????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????? ??????? (??????? ???
1990?? ??.!).
???????? ???????????? ???????????? ?аGIMP
1 ???????? ???
GIMPа? ???????? ???????????, ???????????? Scribus. ??????? ?????????, ??? ????
??????????? ????? ???????? ???? ????, ???????
????????? ????? ??????? ??а?????????? ???????????. ????? ?????а? ??? ???????, ??? ????????????? ???????? ???????? ???????? ??????.
74? |? LXF244? ??????? 2018
2 Colour toаAlpha
?????? ???????????, ?а??????? ????
???????? Colours > Colour toаAlpha [????? > ????
?а?????-??????] ?а??????? ??. ???? ??? ??????,
??а?????? ?????????? ??? ??????????н??? ?а???????? ?????? ??а????. ???? ???, ??? ????? ???????????? ?????????? Color Picker [????? ?????].
3 ??????? ???????????
???? ?а??? ??? ??????????? ??????? Color
toаAlpha, ???????? ????? ??????????? ??аRGB,
??????? Image > Mode > RGB [??????????? >
????? > RGB]. ??????, ??? ??? ???? ?????????
??????????? ?а??????? PNG ??? GIF, ?????????
????? JPEG ??а????? ??????? ????????????.
www.linuxformat.ru
??????? ??????? ???????
╗╗?????????? ????????????
????????? ??????, ???? ?а??????????? ????, ??а??????
?????????? ??????? ????????? ??????????????? ??????
??а?????а? ???а??????? ???????.
????? ???????? ??????? ???????, ??а??????? Properties
?????? ?а??????? Image. ????? ??а???????? Scale ToаFrame Size,
??а??а???????? Proportional, ?а??????, ??а????? ???????? ??????? ?а????? ??????, ????? ???????? ??????? ????? ????????. ????? ??а?????????? ????????? ????? ?????? ?????? ?а????????
????????????? ?а????????????? ?????.
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?????? Scribus. ?????? ????? ????????????? ???а????????????,
??? ??а?а??????; ?а????? ??а???-??а??????? ???????????, ?а???
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???? ???а????? ???????????, ?а????? ?????? ??? ???????.
???????? ?????? ??????? ???? ??а?????????? ?????? ?а???????? Level > Lower [??????? > ????]. ????? ?????? ?????? ????
?????, ??? ??????????? ????????? ??????. ????? ??????? ?????,
???? ???????? ??????? ???????????, ??????? ???????? ??????
??????? ???? ?а????? ???????? Level > Lower. ??????????? ???????? ??????? ??а????? ?а??????????? ????????? ???? ??????.
?????? ??????? ????? ???. ??а??? ??????????? ?аGIMP
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Lower toаBottom [??????? > ???????? ??а???] ??????? ??? ????????? ??а???????? ????, ?а??а?? ????? ??????? ???????? ???.
????? ?????? ?????? ????
? ????????? ????? ??????????? Scribus ???????? ??????????
??????? ?а????? ????? ?????? ?????? ?а???????? ?????????? ????? ???????? ??. ???? ??а???????? ????? ???????????,
????????????? ????????? ??????, ??а?????? ?????????? ???
???????, ??????? ?????? ??????? ???? ??а???????????, ?????? Properties ?а?????? ??????? Shape [??????]. ?а???? Text Flow
Around Frame [????????? ?????? ???????] ??а????? ??????????????? ??а??????? ??????: Disabled [?????????], Use Frame Shape
[???????????? ????? ??????], Use Bounding Box [????????????
??????? ????] ?аUse Contour Line [???????????? ????? ???????].
Disabled ????????? ????????? ??? ???????, ?а????? ?????
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????? ??? ?????. Use Frame Shape ???????? ??? ????? ??????
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??????? ?????? ??????????, ??а????????? ????? ?????? ???
?а?????????.
??? ??????????? ????????????? ???? ????? Use Contour Line.
??а?????? ????????? ???а????? ????????????, ??а??? ?????????
?????? ????? ??? ????????? ??????, ?????????? ??а????, ??? ??????????? ????? ????????? ????? ??????. ?????? ????? ???????
www.linuxformat.ru
???????????? ?аScribusа? ????? ???????. ???? ??а???????? ??????? ????
?а??????? View > Show Guides [??? > ???????? ????????????], ???????? ??????? ????????? ?????, ????????????, ??? ??? ??????????. ???а?????????????
??а????? ???????? ??? ????????? ??а?????????, ?а??????????? ??а???????????? ?????????. ?а?????????? ????? ????????? ??а????????? ??? ??????????,
????????, ?????? ??а????, ????????? ?????? ??? ??а?????? ?????????? ????.
??? ????? ?????????? Page > Snap toаGuides [???????? > ????????? ?а????????????] ????? ???????, ??? Snap toаGrid, ????????? ??? ????? ?????????????
?????? ?а???????? ????????, ?а??а?а????????а? ????? ????а?? ????????????,
??? Snap toаGuides ????? ???????? ?а????????? ?а?????? ??????. ?а?????????,
???? ??а??????, ????? ???? ?????? ????????????? ?а????????, ???????? ??????
??а??????? ?аGuide Manager (?а??????? ???? ???????? Page > Manage Guides
[???????? > ????????? ?????????????]). ??? ?????????? ??????, ??а?а??? ?????? ??? ?????, ????? ??????????? ??? ??а???? ?????.
??????????? ????? ????? ?????????? ???????? ?????? ??а???? ??а???????
????????????, ????, ???? ??а??????????? ???????? ?а????? ?а???а?? ??????
???? ??а????, ????????, ????? ??????? ????????. ??а??а??????????? ??? ??????
?????, ??? ??????????? ?????? ?????? ?а???????, ???? ?????? ?а?????? ??а????
?????? ?????! ????? ????, ????? ?????. ????? ????.
??а???, ????? ???? ???????? ????? ?????? ???????????, ??а????? Edit, ??а?????? ??????? ?????? ????????н??? ?????, ????????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ??????????.
?????? ?а?????????
???????? ?????????????? ?а????????? ?????, ??а?????? ???????
????? ??????, ?????????? ??а????? ??????????? ????? ?а??????. ??а????? ?????? ???????????? ??? ??? ??????, ????????
?????? ?????, ??????? ?????? ???????????? ???? ????????.
?? ???? ????? ??а??????????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ???????, ?????? ??????? ??а?????? ?а???????. ????? ?????
??а?????????????? ??а???????, ????? ??? ???????, ???????а?а?.??.
????????, ??? ??? ??а????? ??? ?????? ?????????? ??????????, ??а???? ??? ????? ????? Word ??? LibreOffice Writer,
??а?? ???а????? ????????, ??????? ????????? ??????? ?????????? ?а??????? ????? ?а????????? ????????, ??? ????????? ??????? ??????????????. ?аScribus ??а?????? ???????? ??а????-??, ?????????????? ???, ?а??? ??????. ?????????
??а??а??? ???????, ??а?????? ??????. ??????????????? ???,
?а??а?????? ?????????????. |
??? ??а??????? ??а???? ???????? ????? ??????? ??аCommodore Format 1990???
?????а?? ??? ???????????? ??а?? ?????, ??? ?????? ?а????? [???.:а? ????????!]
??????? 2018? LXF244? |?75
???????? ???????
HTTPS
??????????? HTTP???? ????????????
??????? ??????? ? ????????, ??? ?????????? ?????????? HTTP WordPress, Drupal 7
??? ??????????? ???????? Monit ? ??????? ??? ????? ???? HTTPS.
???, ??а?????? ?????????????? HTTP-????? ?аHTTPS?
????? ??а?????? ??а??????! ??? ????? ????? ?а????н????
????????? ??????? ????? ?????????????? ???????????? ???? WordPress, ??а??????? ????? ?????????????? ?????????? ???????? ?????. ??????? ???????????? HTTP-?????
WordPress ??а????????????? HTTPS ???????????? ??????????,
??а????????? ??? ????????а? ???? ?????? ???? ??????????
?а??????????. ????? ????, ??а???????, ??? ???? ??????????
???????????? HTTPS ????? Drupal 7, ?а????? ???????н????? ?????,
??????? ?а?????? ?????? ????? ?????? ??????????? ???????????
Monit, ?????????? ??а??????????? web-???????.
Web-?????? https://www.whynopadlock.com ??????? ???
????????, ????а?? ?а?????? ????? HTTPS ?????-???? ????????. ???????, ??????? ?аGoogle Chrome ?????? 68, ?????? ????,
??а???????????? HTTPS, ????? ??????? ?аChrome ??? ?Not Secure
[????????????]?а? ??? ????? ??????? ??а???. ??????. ?????
????, Google Chrome 69 ?????? ??а?????????? ????? ?Secure?
??аweb-?????? HTTPS, ?а??? ????? ????? ??????? ??а???????.
?
???
???????
??????? ?????
???а? ???????
UNIX ?а????? Go
Systems Programming ?аMastering
Go. ??а?????? ????????? ?а??? ?????
www.mtsoukalos.eu
?а@mactsouk.
??? ????? HTTPS?
??????
??????
?? ?????? ?????? ??????
?аHTTP ?аHTTPS
??а??????????????? RFCs,
?а??????: tools.
ietf.org/html/
rfc2616, tools.
ietf.org/html/
rfc7231, tools.
ietf.org/html/
rfc2818 ?аtools.
ietf.org/html/
rfc2660.
HTTP ???????? HyperText Transfer (??? Transport) Protocol, ?????
??? HTTPS ???????? Hypertext Transfer ProtocolаSecure. ??????
????????? ????? ?а?????????? ???????? ?а?????? ??????. ???????
?а???????? ???????? ?а??????? ?????? HTTP: ????????????
?????? (??????? ?????) ??а?????????, ??? ????????? ??а???????.
???? ????? ?????? ?????? HTTPS ???????????? ??? ?????????? ????????аSecure Sockets Layer (SSL), ????? ?????????
?????????? HTTPS ?????????? Transport LayerаSecurity (TLS).
??? ????????, ??? HTTPS ????? ????? ???????? ??? лHTTP ?????
SSL╗, ??? лHTTP ????? TLS╗, ??????????????.
?? ???????? ??, ??? ?????? HTTPS ?а???? ??а?????? HTTPа?
??? ?????????????? ??????? ?а????? ?????? ?а??? ?????????.
???, ?а???? ???????, ???????? ?????????????????? ?а??????????? ??????, ???????? ???????????? ????? ????? HTTPS?????? ?аHTTPS-??????. ???, ?????, ?а??а??????? ????? ??????,
??а???????????, ????????? ??? ????????, ????? ??а?????? ????????
?????? ?аweb-??????? ?????? ?????, ????? ???????? ??????????
?а????? ?????? ??? ????????? ???????? ????????. ????? ??????,
??а?????? ???? ???????, ??? ??а???????????? ?а????????? ?????
?????? ????? ?а??? ????? ?????? ??а????? ??????, ????????
??а?????????????.
76? |? LXF244? ??????? 2018
????? ????????, ??? Google Chrome ?????????? ?а??????? HTTP
??а?а????? Chrome 68. Chrome 68 ?????????? ??? ?????? HTTP
????????? л????????????╗. Chrome 69, ????? ????, ????????
????? HTTPS ????????.
SEO ???????? Search Engine Optimisation [??????????? ????????? ??????] ?а?????????? ???, ??? ???????? ???????? ??? ?????
?????? ??????? ??а????????? ??????. Google ??????????, ???
???? ??? ???? ??а?????????? HTTPS, ??а???????? ???????, ???
?????! ?а???? ???? ???????? ??????? ??аSEO, ??а?????????????
HTTPS ???????????!
? ????????????
??????????а? ??? ????????? ???????? ????, ???????, ??????
????? ???????, ???????? ?????????? ??а???????????. ????? ??,
??? ?????????? ????? ???????? ???????? ????, ???????????
??? ??????? ?????????? ?????? HTTP.
???? ????????, ??????????????? ??????????? ??а?????;
???? ?а?????, ??????? ????????????? ??????????? ?????????.
??а????? ????? ????? ?????????????? ?????????? ???????????
??аLet?s Encrypt. ??а?????? ???????? ???? ??????????? ??а?????
????? ????а? ????? ??????? ????? ?а???????? ??????????.
?.??. ??? ?????????? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ?????
??? ?????? web-???????, ??????????? ?????????? ???????
????????????, ??????? ?а???? ?????? ????? ????? Let?s Encrypt.
????? ????, ??? ??а??????? ????? ??а???? ?????, ???? ????????
???????????? ???????, ?а??а?????????? ?????????. ??? ??????
??а?????????? ????? ??????.
Let?s Encrypt!
?????? ??? ??а??????? ??????? ??а?????????? ??????? ???????,
????????????, ????? ?а??? ??а?????????? Linux ??? ?????????? Git, ????????? ??а????? ????????? ??????? Let?s Encrypt.
www.linuxformat.ru
???????????? ?????? ???????? ???????
2018?10?07╗). ????????? ??????????? ???
????? www.truthtarget.gr ???????? ?а/etc/
letsencrypt/archive/truthtarget.gr/ ???
??? ?????????н???? ?????? UNIX ?а/etc/
letsencrypt/live/truthtarget.gr.
? ???? ?????? ??? ???? ???????
?а???????, ??? Apache ?????? ???? ?????
?????????, ????? ?????? ???????????
????????? ?а???? ????????? Apache 2 ???
?????? ?????. ???? ?а??? ????????? ??????,
??? ???????? ????????? ?????????????? ??????? ????????? ???, ??а????? ???
??????? ??????. ????? ??????, ??? ????? ????????? ?????????? ??? ???????
?????, ??????? ??а?????? ??????????????
?аHTTPS.
????????? Apache
????????? ??? ??????????? ?а?????????
Apache ??а????????????? ????????????, ??????? ??а??????? ?а?????????? ???????. ???? ????????? www.
truthtarget.gr ?????????? ??? ??????????????? ??? /etc/apache2/sites-available/
truthtarget.gr, ?а??? ????, ?????????
????? ??????? Let?s Encrypt, ?????????????? ??? ???????? ???????????? ??? ??????
?????. ??? ????? ???? ??? ?????, ????? TCP-???? 80 ??а?????????????.
??аWordPress. ???.а????? ???. 78 ?????????? ????????? ?????? ????? ?????????????????? ????????? ?????? ??? ?????????? Let?s Encrypt
??аApacheа???а????? WordPress.
??????? ?????????? ????????? ??????? ?а??????? root:
????? ???? ???? ?????? ??????. ???? ???? ????? ????????
# git clone https://github.com/letsencrypt/letsencrypt /opt/
?????? ?аHTTPS, ???? ????????? Apache ??????? ??а???? ?????н
letsencrypt
???: ???? ??? ??????? ??????? HTTP ?а?????? ??? ????? ???????н
??? ??????? ???????? ??? ????????? Let?s Encrypt ??????
???? HTTPS. ????????? ????? ??????????? ???????, ????? ???
?а?????????? ????????? ?а/opt/letsencrypt. ?????? ??а??????
?????? ????? ?????????????? ??????? ??а???????, ?????? ???
??????? ?????????? ??? ?????? ?????. ???????? ????????, ???
??? ??? ??? ????? ????????? HTTP.
??? ??????? ??а????? ?????? ?????? ?аWordPress ??? Drupal, ???
?, ???????, ??????, ??? ?????? HTTP ?????????? TCP-????
?а???, ??? ??а???????? ???? ?????.
????? 80, ?аHTTPS ?????????? TCP-???? ????? 443.
???????? ??????????
??? ?????? WordPress?
????????? ??????????? ??аLet?s Encrypt ??? ??????? ?????
?а??????????? ???????? ?????? (www.truthtarget.gr)а? ??????
??? ??а???? ????????????? ??аHTTPS. ??а??????? ??????????
??????? letsencrypt-auto ??а????? root:
# cd /opt/letsencrypt
# ./letsencrypt-auto certonly --standalone -d truthtarget.gr -d
www.truthtarget.gr
...
Problem binding to port 80: Could not bind to IPv4 or IPv6.
[???????? ?????????? ? ?????? 80: ?????????? ???????????
? IPv4 ??? IPv6]
???????? ????????, ??? ???? ?а?????? ????? ????????? ????
(???????), ??а???? ???? ????????? Apache 2, ??? ???? ??????
?????? ??а???? ???? ?а????н???? ???????? ?а????? -d. ?а??????
?????? ?????? ?аwww.truthtarget.gr ????? ????? ???????? ?????
truthtarget.gr, ?????? ????????????? -d ??????.
????????? ????????? ??а?????? ??????, ??? ??????? ???????
UNIX, ?????????? TCP-???? 80, ?а?а??????????? ??????? ???
?????????? web-??????? (Apache ??? Nginx). ????? ?????????
??????? ???? ??????? ?????????, ??? ????? ?????????? Apache
(/etc/init.d/apache2 stop ??? service apache2 stop), ?????????
??????? ?а????? ????????? Apache (/etc/init.d/apache2 start ???
service apache2 start).
?? ???. ?????? ?????? ??????? ????? ????? ????????, ?а?а???
??а????? ?????? ??????? ??????????????, ??? Let?s Encrypt ????????? ???????????, ?а????? ???? ????????? ????? ????????
???????????? (л???? ???????? ?????? ??????????? ????????
??????? ???????, ??? ????????? WordPress, ?????? ??? www.
truthtarget.gr ?????????? WordPress ??? ????????? HTTPS, ?а????????? ???????????? ??????? ?а??????? HTTP. ??? ???????
www.linuxformat.ru
??????
??????
???? ??? ????
WordPress ???
??? ??а???????? ?аHTTPS,
??а??? ?????
?????? ??????? ???????,
???????? ???
??????? WordPress. ??????
??????? WordPress ??а????????? ???????????????
HTTPS.
╗╗?????????? DRUPAL 7 ? HTTPS
? ???????? ???????????? Drupal ?? ????????????? HTTPS ?????? HTTP ????? ?????? ? ?????? WordPress, ??????? ??? ????? ?????? ????? ????? ??????????????
???? http://www.mtsoukalos.eu. ??????? ??? ???? ??????? ??????????? ???а?????
?????, ??????? ?? ????? ????????? ? ??????? ?????????? ?????:
# /etc/init.d/apache2 stop
# ./letsencrypt-auto certonly --standalone -d mtsoukalos.eu -d www.mtsoukalos.eu
# /etc/init.d/apache2 start
??-??????, ???? ????????? Apache ??? Nginx, ??? ??а?????? ?а??????
WordPress. ??а????? ???????? ?????????????, ?????? ??? ????? ????? ??? ???????? ?????? ????????? ?а???????? ???? ???????????? Drupal 7, ????????????? ??а./public_html/sites/default/settings.php. ?????? ?????????а? ????????
?а????? ????? $conf[?https?] = TRUE;, ?а?????? ?????????а? ?????? ?????????? ???????? $base_url, ??????? ?а?????? ?????? ????? $base_url = ?https://
www.mtsoukalos.eu?;.
??????? ????????? ? ???? .htaccess ????? Drupal 7 ???????, ??? ?а??????:
?????? ??????а? ??? ?????? ??????.
???. ????? ???.а79 ?????????? ?????????? https://www.whynopadlock.com ???
https://www.mtsoukalos.eu.
??????? 2018? LXF244? |?77
???????? ??????? ???????????? ??????
??????
??????
???? ??? ????
WordPress ?????????? ?????? iThemes
Security,
??а?а????????
????? ??а?????? ??????
?????? ???????? ?????????
??а???????
???а????????
??????? ?а?????? HTTPS.
?а???? ??????
?????н????
??аhttps://
darekkay.
com/blog/
solve-redirectloop-problemwordpress/,
????? ?????
???????.
??????????? ???????. ?????? ????? ??? ???? ???????? ????????? ?????? ?а???? wp-config.php ????? WordPress:
define( ?FORCE_SSL_LOGIN?, true );
?????? ????????? ???????? ??? ???????????? ?а??????
?????????? ?????? ????? WordPress ??а????????? HTTPSа? ???
?????????? ??? ?????????? ????????? ?????????. ???? ??а?????? ???????????? ?а?????? ????????????????? WordPress
??а????????? HTTPS, ??? ??????? ??????? ????, ??? ???? ??????????? ?а???????????? Apache ????????.
?????????, ??? ???? ???????а? ??????? ?аSettings > General
[????????? > ?????] ??а?????? ????????????????? WordPress
?а???????? ???????? ?WordPressаAddress (URL)? ?а?SiteаAddress
(URL)? ??а????????????? HTTPS. ??а???. ?????? ???????? ????????? ??а?а????? ???????? ?????????.
? ??????????? ??а?????? ????? ?а???? ???????????? ??а????????, ??? ????? ????????????? ?????????? ??????????????
?????? WordPress ??? ?????????? ???????????? URL-???????
HTTP ?а??аHTTPS-??????????. ????????, ??????? ????? ??????н
???????? ??а????? ?????, ????? SSL Insecure Content Fixer. ??а?????? ????? ????? ????????? ?????????? ?а??? ??аhttps://ssl.
webaware.net.au. ??????, ??? ???? ???? WordPress, ????????????
HTTPS, ??а???????? ?а????, ?????? ????????, ??? ??? ??а??????????? ????? ??????, ?????? ??? ??? ?????? ????? ????????????
HTTPS. ?????? ??? ????????? ?????? ??? ????? ?????????? ???
????? ???????!
???. ?????? ???.а79 ?????????? ????????? ??????? SSL
Insecure Content Fixer. ?????? ??????, ??????????? ????? ??????? ???????, ??????? ??????? ???? ??????а? ??? ????????, ???
??а??а?????? ???????????? ??????? ?Capture All?, ????? ?????н
????? ?????? ?Content?. ????????? ?а??????????, ??? ?????????,
??? ???????? ??? ???.
????????? .htaccess
??????? ???????????? Apache ???????, ????? ??а??а???????
????????? ?а???? .htaccess, ??????? ????????? ?а???????? ???????? ????????? WordPress. ??а???? ??а????????????? ????????
.htaccess ?????? ????, ????? ???????? ?а??????? ????????????
Apache, ?????? ????????? ?а.htaccess ????????? ?????:
<IfModule mod_rewrite.c>
RewriteEngine On
????????? ?????? ????? ???????????? Apache, ??????????????? ??? ????? WordPress.
??? ??????, ????? ??? ???????: ???? ??? ????????? HTTP ?а??? ????а? ??? HTTPS.
78? |? LXF244? ??????? 2018
?????????, ??????? ??? ???? ?????? ??а?????? Settings > General ?аWordPress, ????? ??а??????????? HTTPS ?????? HTTP.
RewriteCond %{HTTPS} off
RewriteRule ^(.*)$ https://%{HTTPHOST}%{REQUEST_URI}
[L,R=301]
</IfModule>
?????? ?а????, ??? ???????? ????????? ?а.htaccess ????? ????
???????????? ?а???? ??????????. ???????????? ??????? ?а???,
??? ????????? ???????? ?а???? ??????????, ???а???????????
?????-???? ?????????. ?????? ???????? ??? ???????????? ???????????? ?а.htaccess ????? ???????? ?а????, ??? ??? ???? ??????
???????????. ??????? ????? ?????????, ????????? ?а.htaccess,
??????? ???????????.
???? ????? ????????? .htaccess ?а??? ???????? ????????
?а???????????? ?а?????? ?????, ??????, ??? ???? ???????а? ???
???????? ????????? ??? ??????? WordPress. ???? ?а???, ???
??????? WordPress ????? ???????? Apache ?а????????? ??????????? ????????????? ????????н???? ??????? ?????? ?????. ???
??????? ?????? WordPress, ??? ????? ????????, ??? ??а????????
????????????? ?????? Apache ?а????? .htaccess!
?????????? ????????????
???????????, ??? ???????, ??????? ????????? ?????????. ??????? ?????????? ????????????? ??????????? Let?s Encrypt ??????? ?????????? ????????? ?????? ?а??????? root:
# cd /opt/letsencrypt
# ./letsencrypt-auto certonly --standalone --renew-bydefault-d
truthtarget.gr -d www.truthtarget.gr
...
Problem binding to port 443: Could not bind to IPv4 or IPv6.
?????а??, ????? ??????????? ??????? ??? ??????????
????? ???????????? ??а?????? ?????????? Apache 2 (service
apache2 stop), ?????? ???, ???? Apache 2 ??? ????????, ???????
?????????? ?????????? ????????. ????? ???????, ????? ????????? ?????? web-??????? ??????? ????????????? ????? ?????????
??????? ?а??????????? ????? ??????? ????. ?????????? ?????
????? ?????? ???????? ????????? ???????:
Your cert will expire on 2018-12-05. To obtain a new or tweaked
version of this certificate in the future, simply run letsencryptauto again. To non-interactively renew *all* of your certificates,
run ?letsencrypt-auto renew? [???? ???????? ??????
??????????? ???????? 2018-12-05. ????? ???????? ????? ???
?????????? ?????? ????? ??????????? ? ???????, ??????
????? ????????? letsencrypt-auto. ????? ?? ????????? *???*
???? ??????????? ? ????????????? ??????, ?????????
?letsencrypt-auto renew?]
???? ????? ??????????, ??? ???? ???????? ?????? ??????????? ???????? ?а?????? ??????? 2018а?., ????????? Let?s Encrypt
?????????? ???? ??????????? ??а??? ??????, ?а??? ???????
???? ????????? ?а???????? 2018а?. ????????????? ?????
???????????? ??а??????? ??????? ?????????????? ????????
?а????? ???????.
???????, ??а?????? ???????????????? ??????? ?а?????????
??????? ??? ?????????? ???????????? Let?s Encrypt ?а????н????
???????? cron. ??? ??а?????, ?а?????? ??? ????? ??????????????
cron ????а?? ??????? ????????? ??????? ???????, ?????? ?????
?????????, ??? ??? ????????, ??? ?????????.
www.linuxformat.ru
???????????? ?????? ???????? ???????
╗╗????????? HTTPS ? HTTP
???????? ????????? ??????? WordPress SSL Insecure Content
Fixer, ????????????? ??? ?????????????? ?????? ??а???????????? ??????? ?аHTTP ?аHTTPS.
Monit ?а?????????????? HTTPS
? ???????? LXF242 ??а???????? ?аMunin ?аMonit. ?а???? ??????? ??а??????, ??? ?????????????? ???? Monit ?аHTTP, ???????
??а????????? ?а???? ????????, ??аHTTPS.
????????? Monit ?????????? ???? ??????????? web-??????,
??????? ????? ??????? ?????????? ??а???????????. ??? ????
????? ??????? Monit, ??? ??а?????? ???????????? ?а??? web?????????? ??аHTTPS, ?а????? ??????? ??????????? ??? ????????? ???? ???????.
??????? ??? ???? ?????? ????????? ?а???? ????????????
Monit, ??????, ??? ??а?????? ???????????? HTTPS ?????? HTTP.
??????? ????а?? ??????? ?а???? ?????? ????????? ????? /etc/
monit/monitrc. ????, ????????? ????????? ?????? ?а??????? set
httpd ?а/etc/monit/monitrc:
set httpd port 2812 and
ssl enable
pemfile /etc/monit/certs/monit.pem
use address 127.0.0.1
allow admin:monit
????? ?????? ?????? ?????а? ssl enable ?а??????, ??????????????? ???? ?а?????????? pemfile, ??????? ???????? ????????????. ????? ???? ??????? ???? ?????????? ?а??????? OpenSSLа?
??????????, ?????????? ?а????? ??????? Linux OpenSSL, ????
??? ??? ??? ???. ????? ????? ???? ????? ????????? ?????????
??????? ?а??????? root:
# mkdir /etc/monit/certs/
# cd /etc/monit/certs/
# vi monit.cnf
# openssl req -new -x509 -days 365 -nodes -config ./monit.cnf
-out ./monit.pem -keyout ./monit.pem
# openssl dhparam 1024 >> /etc/monit/certs/monit.pem
# openssl x509 -subject -dates -fingerprint -noout -in ./monit.pem
# chmod 700 monit.pem
# service monit restart
??????? ???????? ???, ???????????? ?а???? ?????????,
????? ???????? ?????????? /etc/monit/certs/monit.cnfа? ???
???? ????????????, ???????????? OpenSSL ??? ????????
??????????? Monit.
???? ??????? ??????? ??????, ??а??????? ???а???????
???????????? ?аhttps://localhost: 1234/. ?????? ????? ????? ????
??????? ??????. ????????? ???????????? ???? ??????????
??а?????????????? ??а????? ????????????, Firefox ????? ??а???
??????? ???????????? HTTPS ?а???, ??? ??а???????, ??? HTTP. ?????? ????
????????? ???????н???? ??????, ??а??????? HTTPS ?????, ??? HTTP. ????????????? ????? ????????????? HTTP-?????? ??а?????????? ?????, ????? ???????
????? ????????????? ?а??????, ????????? ???????, ?????????? ????????, ???
???????????????, DNS. HTTPS ????? ????????????? ???????? DNS, ??????? ?????
??????????? ??а??????????? web-???????, ?а????? ??а?????? ??????? ???????????,
????? ??? ???????????, ??????? ?а??????, ??????? ???????????? ???????
??а????????? HTTP. ????? ????, ?а???????????? ???????? HTTP ????? ????
????????? ????????? ?????????? ??? ?????? ???????, ?????? ???????? ????????
?????? ??а????? ??а???? ?????. ????? ???а?? ??аHTTP-???????? ???а?????? ??а????????? ????? ???? ????????? ?а????????? ??????????? ??????????? ??? ????????. ??? ??? ??????? ???????? ????????? ???а????????? ????? ???? л?????????╗,
?аHTTPS ???? ??? ???????? ??????? ??????????? ?а???, ??? ?а????? ??????????????? ????? ?аweb-???????? ??? ??????????, ???????????? ?а???? ??????????.
?? ?а??????, ????? ??а??, ??? HTTPS ?????????? ??? ??????????, ?а??,
??? ??а????? ?????? ??????????? ?а?????????, ??? HTTP. ??а???? ???? ?а?????? ?????? ???????? ??? ????? ?????? ?????????????? ??? ???? ?????
?а???????? HTTPS.
??????????, ?а??? ???????? ???????? ?аFirefox ??????????, ?????
???????? IP-?????? 127.0.0.1.
???????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ??, ??? ????
???? ?????????? ???? ??????????? web-??????, ??????? ?????????????? ????? ????? ?аHTTPS ????? ??????? ??????????. ?????
????, ?????????? ????? ??а???????н????? ??????? ??а????????????? HTTPS ??????? ?????, ??? ????? ??? ?????????? ????? ????
?а????????н????? ???????.
????? ??? ?а???????????? ????????????? ????? ??????.
?а?а?????????? ????? ??????? ???????? ?????а?? ????????
????????????? ???????? [Kalliopi] (www.popelix.gr) ??а??а??????
?а??????.а|
????? ????? https://www.whynopadlock.com ???а???????????? https://www.
mtsoukalos.eu. ??????? ????? ????????? ????????? ?????, ???????? ???? ?????
??а??????? ?????? ??? ??????????.
╗╗????? ??????? LINUX FORMAT????? ?? www.linuxformat.ru!
www.linuxformat.ru
??????? 2018? LXF244? |?79
???????? ??????? Web-?????
JAVASCRIPT
???????????
web-?????
???? ?????? ?????????, ??? ??????? ? ???????? ???????????? web-????,
?а?????????а???????? ????? ? ?????.
???? ?а???? ?????????. ??а?????????? ??, ?????
????? ?аFacebook, ???????? ?????? ?а????? ??????
?????????????? WordPress ?а??????????? ????????
?а?????????? ???????? ??? ??????. ?????? ??а????? ??а?а????????. ??а??? ??а?????????, ??? ??? ????????. ??? ??? ???????
????????? ???а????? ?а????????? ???????.
?? ?????????? ????? ????? ??а?????? ?????? ???????? ????,
????? ??? ????????? ????, ????? ???????????? ????? ???????????? ??????????, ??а??? ?а???????? ??? ??? ????????? ?????
????? ????? ??? ????????. ?????? ????, ??а????? ???????? ?????????? ???????????? ?аweb-?????, ??? ????? ???????, ??? web?????а? ??? ??????? ??????, ??? ??????? ??а?????? ??????.
???а??????????? ?????? ?а????????, ?????? ?а??????????????
????? ??а???? ??а?????а?? ???????? ???????? ???????? ?а???????????? ???????? ????????????н???? ???? ?а?????????????
????? SEO, ????????? ???????????? ???????? ????.
?
???
???????
???? ??????а?
??????? web???????????
?а????????? Linux,
??????? ??а??????
?????????????
?а?????????? ??????????? ??????? ????????.
??????
??????
?????????????? ???????
?????? ?а??????а? ????????
???? ?а???? ????????? ??????????? ?????.
????? ???????
????? ?????
?????????????
?????????, ?????????? ????? ???? Viagra,
SEO, ??????
?а?????????.
???????? ????
? ????????, web-????? ????????? ????? ??????? ?????????.
???? ??? ????????????? ?????? ?????????? ??? ??а???????
??????? ?ал???-??а?а???? ??????╗, ?а?????? ?????????? ??? ????????? ?????? JavaScript (??? ?????????? JavaScript, ????? ???
Jquery). ??а?????? ?????? ??? ????????? ?????? web-?????
?????? ??????????? ????? Ajax. Ajax ?????????? JavaScript (???
Jquery), ??а????? ????????????????? ?а?а????????? ??????,
????? PHP, ??? ????????? ???????????? ???? ?а??????????????
??а?????????. ??? ????? ????????, ??? ?????? ??а???????? ?????
??????????? ???а????????????? ?????????? ????????.
?????, ?????????????? ???аAjax, ???????????? ??? ????????,
??а??????? ??? ?????????. ???? ??? ?а????????, ?????, ???????,
?????? ??????? ??а?????????. ????? ????????????????? ???,
??а?????? ?а????? ??????? ????? Contact Us [????????? ?а????]. ???? ????? ?????????? ?а<form> ?а????????????? </ form>.
??? ??а????? ???? ?а?????? ??????, ?????? ??? ????? ?????
???????? ??? ????????. ???? ???????а? ??? action, ??а??????????
?????? ????? ??а?????????? URL; ??????? ?а?????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ?а?????? contact_submitted-LF.php. ?????? ?????
???????? ????????, ??? ?????????? ?????? ?????, ??? ?а??????
?????? ?????????????? ??????? POST. ?????? ???????????????? ????????? ???????? GET, ???????, ?а??????? ??аPOST, ???????????. ?а?????? ?????? ??а??????????? ???? HTML-???, ?а?????
??????????, ??? ??? ??? ??????.
80? |? LXF244? ??????? 2018
???? ??а??а??????????? ?а?????????? Google Recaptcha, ?????
????? ?????? ??????? ?а?????.
<form action=?contact_submitted-LF.php? method=?post?>
<div class=?control-group?>
<label>Name</label>
<div class=?controls?>
<input type=?text? name=?names?/>
</div>
</div>
<div class=?control-group?>
<label >Email <span class=?color-red?>*</span></label>
<div class=?controls?>
<input type=?text? name=?email?>
</div>
</div>
<div class=?control-group?>
<label>Message</label>
<div class=?controls?>
<textarea rows=?8? name=?message?></textarea>
</div>
</div>
<div class=?control-group?>
<input type=?submit? class=?btn theme-btn? name=?submit?
value=?Submit?/>
</div>
</form>
????, ??а??? ????????, ??? ????? ????????? ?????? ?????
<form>. ??? ????? ???? ?????, ??? ???? ????????? ????? ?????,
www.linuxformat.ru
Web-????? ???????? ???????
????????? ??????? ?а?????? ????????, ??????? ???????????? ???
????????? ?????? ?а??а????????.
??????? ?????? ?а????? ????? ?а????????? ????????. ??? ???
????? ??????? name ?а??????????? ????????, ?????????????
?а???. ????????, name = ?names? ????? ???????? ??? ?????????????? ????????? ?????????? ??а????, ??? ???? ?????? ???? ???.
??а?? ????????? ?а?а?????? ?????? ?а?а????? textarea. ??а??????
????????, ??? ??? ????? submit ??а???????? ???????, ??? ??????
???????? ?????. ??а??? ?а??????????а? submit. ??? ?а?а??????
?????, ?а???? ???? ??????? name, ??????? ????? ????? ????????
submit. ?????? ??? ???????? ???????????? ????? ?????? ?????,
??????? ??а?????? ??а?????? ???а????????? ?а????????.
??????, ????? ??а????? ?????? ?????, ??? ?????????
???а? ??????????? ?а??????? ??????, ????? ??? ????? ???????
????? ????????, ????????, ???????? ?????? ?а???? ?/??? ????????? ??????????? ?????? ?а?????????????. ?а????? ??????
??а???????? ???? ????? ??а??????????? ?????. ???? ??? ?а????,
??????? ?????????? ??????????? ???? ???, ?а????? ????????,
??? ??????????. ????????? ??????, ??????? ????? ?????????????? ??? ????????? ????, ???????? PHP:
$instructions = array(
?names? => FILTER_SANITIZE_STRING,
?email? => array(?filter? => FILTER_VALIDATE_EMAIL),
?message? => array(?filter? => FILTER_SANITIZE_STRING));
$filtered = filter_input_array(INPUT_POST, $instructions);
if ($filtered[?names?] == ?? || $filtered[?message?] == ?? ||
empty($filtered[?message?])) {
echo ?<h2>??????? ????????</h2>?;
echo ???????????, ????????? ? ????????? ??? ?????;
} else {
if ($filtered[?email?] == ??) {
echo ?<h2>??????? ????????</h2>?;
echo ???????????, ????????? ? ??????? ????? ?????.?;
} else {
if ((substr_count($filtered[?message?], ?http?) || substr_count(
$filtered[?message?],
?&lt;a?
) || substr_count($filtered[?message?], ?<a?)) > 0
){
echo ?<h2>??????? ????????</h2>?;
echo ???????????, ????????? ? ??????? ??????.?;
} else {
$email = $filtered[?email?];
$email_send_to = ?test@example.com?;
$Subject = ?Enquiry From Website?;
$name = $filtered[?names?];
$message = $filtered[?message?];
$body = ??;
$body .= ?name: ?;
$body .= $name;
$body .= ?\n?;
$body .= ?message: ?;
$body .= $message;
$body .= ?\n?;
$mail_send = mail($email_send_to, $Subject, $body,
?From: <$email>?);
?>
<h2>??????? ??????</h2>
<p>?? ??????? ? ???????????? ?????????.</p>
<?php }
}
}
??-??????, ??? ?????????? PHP, ?а??????? $instructions
?а$filtered, ??????? ?????? ??а???????????? ?а???????????,
??? ??????????? ????? ????????? ????????? ??????. ???????,
www.linuxformat.ru
??а??????? ??а??????? ??????, ??????????? ?а???, ??? ????????? ???? ????? ???????? ?????????? ?????? ?а????????? ????,
??? ????? ???????, ????????, SQL-???????? ?а?????? ?а????
??????. ??? ???? ????????????????, ???????? ????, ?а????
????? ??????????. ????? ??????? filter_input_array() ???????
?????? ??????? ?????? ??а?????. ????? ???????, ?????????
????????????? ????? ??????????? ?????а? $filtered[?email?], ?а???
???а? $filtered[?names?].
????????? ?а????????? ??????: ?а??? ???? ???????, ???????
???? ????????? ?а?????????, ??? ?????????????? ??????
??а?????. ???? ???? ?????? ???? ?????, ?????? ???????????
????? ??? ?????????, ???????????? ???????????? ?????????
????? ?а????????? ?????????. ?а?????????? ?а???????? ??????
??? ???? ?????????, ??? ?а???????????? ?а??????????? ??????
??? ??????. ????? ?????? ???????? ????????? ?????. ?а?а?????
?????? ??а??а????? ????????? ????????, ?а???????? ??а???????,
????? ?????????? ??а???.
??????? substr_count() ????????? ??? ???????? ?????? ???
??? ???????н????? ?????????? ???? ?????? <a, ??? ?а??? ??????
??????? HTML &lt; a, ????? ???????? ??? ???????????.
???? ??? ???? ??????, ?а??? ???? ??????????, ??????? ????
??????????? ????? ??????????? ?????, ????????? ?????
?а????????? ?????????. ?а???? ?????? ??а??????? ?а????????
?????????? ??? ?????????? ??????????? ?????, ????, ????????? ?а??????????. ?а????? ?????? ??????????? ?????? ?????
?????????? ??а????? test@example.com. ????? ????? ??????
?а?????. ????? ??а??????, ??? ??? ?????? ??а????? ?????. ?????????? body ????? ????? ??????????? ????? ?а????? ?????????
??????????? ?а?????????.
???????, ??а???????? ????? ??????????? ????? ???????????,
????? ??а????? ????? ???????? ???. ??????? PHP, ??????? ?????н
???? ??? ??? ?????? ?а?????????? ??????????? ?????а? mail().
??????
??????
??????? ??а????????? ?????
?????????????.
???а????????
????, ????????
???? ??????
??а??? ??????н??
?а????, ?????
????????????
??????????
??????? PHP,
????????,
htmlspecialchars() ???
htmlentities(),
?а??????? ????????? ?аhttps://
bit.ly/2QNRDam.
???????:а??????, ???????????? ??аSSL
(HTTPS),а?????????,
?аHTTPа? ??????? ?????, ???
????? ???????н
?????? Wireнн
shark ?????
Wi-Fi.
╗╗?????????? ???????
?????????? ??????? ????? ??????????? ?????????? ????????????? ?а????????
??? ?а?????? ??????? ?а??????????????. ??а?????? ????????? ?????????
?????? ???? ?а?????? ?????? ????? ??? ?????? ?а????????:
session_start ();
??????? ?????????? ???????, ??????? ??а?????????? ????????????, ????????
????-??а????????? ???? ????? ?????? ???? ???, ????????? ?????? ?????????
????? ?????? ???????? ?????, ?а??????????? ????????? ???? ???????? ?????????? ?????? ?а??????? ??????? mail().
????? ???????? ?????????? ???????, ??а????? ???????? ?????????? ???????? ???? else ??? ?????????? ??????????? ???:
if(isset($_SESSION[?sent?])) {
}else{
}
???, ??????????? ????, ??????????? ??а???????????? ????. ??? PHP-???,
??????? ??????: л???? ?????????? ?????? ?а?????? ?sent? ??????????, ??????
??а??????; ?а????????? ?????? ??????????? ?а????????? ????????? ????? ???????????, ??????????? ?а??????╗.
??? ?????? ????? ???????? ??????. ??а????????? ????????? ????? ????
?а????? ????? ???? ???? ?????????? ???? </ body>:
if(isset($_SESSION[?sent?])){
}else {
$_SESSION[?sent?] = true;
}
???, ??????? ??а????????, ?????? ??а??????, ???? ???????????? ??????????
?????? ??? ??????????; ?а???? ??а??а??????????, ??а??????? ??. ????? ???????,
????? ????, ??? ?????? ?????????? ???, ??? ??????????а?????????? ?а?????????,
???? ???? ???????????? ???????????? ?а????? ????? ?а?????????? ??а??????.
??????? 2018? LXF244? |?81
???????? ??????? Web-?????
??????
??????
?????а? ?????????? ??????
??????????? ????????
?аweb-??????н
????????,
??а?????????
?????? ???????????? ??????, ??? ?????
?????? ???
???????? ????????? ?а???????н????.
????а?? ??а?????? ??????? ?????????????? ???, ??а?????а??
???????? IP-????? ???????????? ?а???????? ??? ?а???? ??????.
?а?????? ?????? ??? ???? ??? ??????????? ??????? ?а??????
?????? IP-??????, ???????? ??а???????? ??? ????.
???? ??? ????????????????? ??????? ?а????????? ???????
?????????? ?а??????????, ?????? ?а???, ??? ??? ??а??????
??а?????. ??а?????? ?????? ?????? ????? ????? ????????????
????????? ???????? ????, ?????????? ????, ?а?????????
?????????????????? ?????? ??? ???????? ????? ???????????
?????. ????? ????, ???? ??? ?а??а???????? ?а???????, ??????????
????? ??????????? ????? ????, ??? ?????? ????????, ?а?????????
??????? ????, ????????? ?а??????? ??????????? ?????, ???????
????? ????????? ???, ????? ?????? ???????????? ?????????
???? ?????, ???? ??? ???а?? ????? ??????? ??????, ???????
??????????? ????????.
????? ?а??? ??????? ????, ??????? ????? ?????????
??а????????? ??????, ??аcron ??? ??а????????. ????, ???????
?????????, ??? ??а??????. ????? ????? ??а????????? ?а???????,
??????????? ?????????????, ??? ?а????? ????????? ????? ?????
??????????, ??????? ????? ???????, ??? Google Recaptcha.
<?php
$postfields = array();
$postfields[?action?] = ?submit?;
$postfields[?names?] = ?Kent?;
$postfields[?email?] = ?spammer@example.com?;
$postfields[?message?] = ?Carl, Blah blah?;
$url = ?https://example.com/contact_submitted-LF.php?;
$useragent = ?Mozilla/5.0?;
$referer = $url;
$ch = curl_init($url);
curl_setopt($ch, CURLOPT_POST, 1);
//We post $postfields data
curl_setopt($ch, CURLOPT_POSTFIELDS, $postfields);
//We define an useragent (Mozilla/5.0)
curl_setopt($ch, CURLOPT_USERAGENT, $useragent);
//We define a refferer ($url)
curl_setopt($ch, CURLOPT_REFERER, $referer);
//We get the result page in a string
curl_setopt($ch, CURLOPT_RETURNTRANSFER, 1);
$result = curl_exec($ch); //We exit CURL
curl_close($ch);
//Finally, we display the result
echo $result;
echo $url;
??? ???? ????????? ????? Google Recaptcha ?а????? ?????? Google ??аhttps://bit.
ly/2QNRDam ?а???????? ??а?а???? ????????? WordPress.
82? |? LXF244? ??????? 2018
?? ?????? ?а???????? ??????? ?????????а? $postfields.
?а??? ????????? ????????, ??????????? ??? ???????? ?????,
?????????? names, ?????? ?????? ??????????? ????? ?а?????????. ????? ????? ??а?????????? $url, ???? ??а????? ??????????
??? ??????; ??? https://example.com/contact_submitted-LF.php.
?????????, ??а????, ???????? ?а????????? curl. ??а?????????????? ??а?а????????? ???? $url, ??????? ?????????, ?????????
???? $postfields, ????????? ??а?а?????????. ??? ?а???. ???
?????? ??а???????? ????, ???????? ????? ??????? ???????????
?????? ?а??????? ??а????? ???????, ?а??? ???? ??а????? ????
?????? ??????? ?а??????-?????. ??????!
Google Recaptcha
??????? ???????????? ??а????????? ??а????? ???????????
?????, ????? ??а???? ?????а? ??? ?????? ?????? ?????????????, ??? ??? ??а?????? ??-???а????????. ?а???????, ??????
???????? ??????, ?а??????? ????????? ???????? ??????????
Google Recaptcha, ????????? ??? ??? ???? ??????? ????????,
????? ?????????: ????? ????????? ???????? ????????????,
?а??а??????????н???? ??????.
???????? ????????? ?????????: ???????, ??а??????? Google
Recaptcha ????????, ??????????? ?а???????? ?????? ?????????????? ?????????? post, ??????? ????? ?????????, ?????
?????????, ??? ????? ????????? ??а??? ?а??а??????. ?????
???????????? Recaptcha, ??? ???? ?????????????????? ?а???????
??? ????, ????? ???????? ???? ??а??????? ??????? ?а?????????
?????? ??а??????? ???????. ????а? www.google.com/recaptcha. ???????????????????, ??а?????? ???????? ??? ??а??? ????. ?????
?????????? ??а??????? ??? л????╗ ?ал??????╗. ????? ??? ?????
????? ???????????. ????, ??????? ??????????, ??? ??а?????????
??? ??а??? ????.
??? ?????? ??а????????? ???? ???????? ?а??????. ??????
???, ??а??????? ??? ???? ????? ??????????? ????? </head>:
<script src=?https://www.google.com/recaptcha/apijs?></script>
????? ????? ??а????????? ?а????? ?????? ??? <div>. ??????
??????? ????:
<div class=?g-recaptcha? datasitekey=?6LcV4RAUAAAAAE2iJS1bejxxxxxxxNrzRxFz4fg?></div>
?????? ???????? ?а?????? ????, ??????? ???????? ?????,
?????? ??????????? ????? ?а?????? ?????????. ??а????? ???????? ??? ????, ??????? ???????? ????? ??а????? ?а??? ????,
????????? ???????:
if(isset($_POST[?g-recaptcha-response?])){
$captcha = $_POST[?g-recaptcha-response?];
$secretKey = ?6LcV4RAUAAAAAEYPv7-qJ4gIPpfjCFCqSzZiBU_i?;
$response = file_get_contents(?https://www.google.com/
recaptcha/api/siteverify?secret=? Key.?&response=?.$captcha);
$responseKeys = json_decode($response,true);
if(intval($responseKeys[?success?]) !== 1) {
echo ?<h2>?? ?? ????????? ??? ????? ? ?????. ??????????,
??????????.</h2>?;
} else {
echo ?<h2>??????? ?? ??? ???????????.</h2>?;
}
}
????????? ???? ??? ????? ????????? ?а??????????? ????,
??а????? ????????. ???????, ??а????? ???????????? ??? ??? ?????????????? ?????? ??? ????? ??????? mail(), ????? ????????
?????????????? ???????, ??????? ??а????? ??а?????????а? ???
?????? ????, ??????? ?????? ?????? ???? ???????.
? ????? ??????? ??а?????, ??? ?????????, ??????????? ?а???????? ???? web-?????, ????? ???? ????? ???????? ??а??????????? ???????, ??? McDonalds ??а????? ?????????? ????????.
?????? ??????? ????????? ?а?????????? ????????? ??????,
??-?? ??????? ??а????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ???????
www.linuxformat.ru
Web-????? ???????? ???????
╗╗????? ????????
???????? web-?????, ??????? ?????????? Google Recaptcha.
?????? ??а?????? ???????? ???????.
??????: ?????? ??а??????????н????? ?????????? ???? ?а????????.
????????? ?а????????? ????? Chrome ????? ????????? ??????????, ????????, Form Filler, ??? ????????? web-?????????????
????????? ????? ??????? ???а????????????? ????????. ??,
??а????????? ??????????. ?????????? ????? ???????? ??????,
????? ????????? ?????, ????? ????????? Google Recaptcha ?а?????? ?????? Send [?????????].
?? ?а?????? ??а??????, ??? ?а????? ???????? ????? ????????
????????????? ???? ??а????-??, ??? ???? ?????? ????????????
??? ??????????. ??? ??? ????, ???????????? ?????? ?????????
??? ??? ??? ?????? ??????-?????, ???? Google Recaptcha ??а????????? ????????? ???????????? л???????? ??а???? ????????????
?а?????????╗ ??? л???????? ??а???? ???????????? ?а????????
???????╗, ?????? ??? ????????????? ??????????? ?а?????????,
??? ????? ????????? ?а????????? ??а???? ?а????????? ????
??????????? Wi-Fi.
??? ???? ???? ???-??а??????? ??а????????? ?????. ?а???????,
????? ???????? ?а??????? ?????????? ????????.
????? WordPress
????????? ????????? ?????? ????????? ??аWordPress, ??а?????????? ??? ???????? ?????????? ?????? ??? ????, ?????????? Contact Forms 7. ???????????, ??? ??? ????????????? ???
??????????? ????????? WordPress. ?????? ????? ??????????
????? ??????? ???? ????? ????? ?а??????? ??????????????
WordPress. ??? ?????? ??а???????????, ???? ????? ??????????
????????? ????????? ?????????, ?а??а????????? ??????
?а??????????.
????? ???????? ?????? ?а?????? ??????? Contact Forms 7,
??а????? ??????? Contact ?а????? ???? ??? ??????? ????
??а???????? ?????????, ????? ??? Contact Forms [??????????
?????],аAdd New [???????? ?????] ?аIntegration [??????????].
????? Integration ????????? ??? ?????????? ??? ???? ?????
Google Recaptcha ?а????????? ??????, ????? ??а????? ????????
??? ?а????? ????? ??а?????? ???????. ??? ???? ??????????,
??? ??? ????????, ????? ??а??????? ????? ????? ?а?????????
?а??? Recaptcha:
<label> Your Name (required)
[text* your-name] </label>
<label> Your Email (required)
[email* your-email] </label>
<label> Subject
[text your-subject] </label>
<label> Your Message
[textarea your-message] </label>
[recaptcha]
?? ????? ????? ??а???????, ??? ???? ????? ????????? ?а????????? URL??????? ?а???????????? ???, ?????? ???????? PHP-????, ??????? ?????????? curl
??? ????????? URL-?????? ?а??????????н???? ???????? ?????.
????????? ?????? ????? ?????? ???????????? ??а????? ??????????? ?????,
???????????? ????? ???????? ????? ???????, ????? ??? ???? ??? ???????, ????????? ?а????????. ?а????? ?????? ????????? ?????, ??а????? ?????? ????????
????????? ???????.
??? ????????? ???????? ?????? ????? ????????? ?а?????? ?????, ???????
????? ???????????? ???? ????? ??????. ????? ????, ??????????? ?????? ?????
??????? ?а??????, ??????? ????? ????????? ?????? ?????, ??? ???????? ?а?????????? ??????н???? ????????.
?????? ??????? ??????????? ????? ????? ???? ???????? ?а???? ??????
MySQL ??а????????? ??????? ?а????????? ????? ????? foreach ?а??????? ?????
??????? ????????. ???? ???????????? ????? ???????????? SMTP ??а??????? ???????, ????? ??? Gmail, ??? ???????? ??а?а????? ??????? ??????????? ?????.
???????? ??а??, ??? ?????? ????? ?а??????????? ????? ?????????? ?а??????
??????, ??? ????????? ??????? ????? ????????? ?а????????? ????? ???????
??а?????? IP-???????; ????????, ?а????????. ??? ??????, ???????????? ?????
?????? ????????? ??а?????? ?а???а???? ??????? ?????????? ?????? ??? ??????.
[submit ?Send?]
??????? ???? ????? ?????, ??а????? ???????? ??а???????
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????????? ??????, ?а????? ?????? Save [?????????]. ??? ???,
??? ??????? ?а??????? ?????? WordPress. ??????? ????????,
??? ??а???????? Recaptcha ?а????? ??а?????????. ???аGoogle
Recaptcha ??? ??????????н???? ???????? ???? WordPress ???а??
?????????????? ?????? curl, ??????? ??а????????? ?????.
???? ????????, ??????????, ????????, ??????????? ????????? ??????, ??????????? ?????????? ?а???? ?????????
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Inspector ???????? ?а???????? URL-????? ?????????, ?а????? ???
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?????? ??????? ????, ??? ??? ??а?????а?? ?????? ????????
????????? ?????, ??????? ???????? ?????, ??????????? ??а???
?????????? ???? WordPress. ????????:
$postfields[?_wpcf7?] = ?1510?;
$postfields[?_wpcf7_version?] = ?5.0.2?;
$postfields[?_wpcf7_locale?] = ?en_CA?;
$postfields[?_wpcf7_unit_tag?] = ?wpcf7-f1510-p1511-o1?;
$postfields[?_wpcf7_container_post?] = ?1511?;
$postfields[?your-name?] = ?My Name?;
$postfields[?your-email?] = ?spammer_test@example.ca?;
$postfields[?your-subject?] = ?Super Migraine Pills?;
$postfields[?your-message?] = ?Carl, Blah blah?;
$url = ?https://example.com/test/#wpcf7-f1510-p1511-o1?;
?? ??? ?? ????? ?????
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?????? ????? ???? ???????? ????? ??????? web-????, ????????? ??? ???????? ????? ???????????????? web-??????????.
???????? web-????????????! |
╗╗????? ??????? LINUX FORMAT????? ?? www.linuxformat.ru!
www.linuxformat.ru
??????? 2018? LXF244? |?83
???????? ??????? ???????????????? ?? Go
GO
???????, ??????
?а????????? ??????
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?
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Go Systems Programming ?аMastering Go. ??а??????
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?аhttps://linuxformat.com/
archives?
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?????, ????? ????????? ????? ??а?????? ??а??????, ??а??????-??
??а?????? ???????????? ????? ?????? ?????, ????? ????????.
??????, ???? ??а??????????? ???????????? ?????? ?????, ???
????? ????? ?????? ????????? ?а??? Go ????? ?????.
?????? ????????, ??????? ?????? ???? ?????????, ???????
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????????????, ??? ?????? ???? ??а?????? ??а???????, ???? ??????????, ???? ??? ????? ??а????? ?????????. ?а?????? ??????
84? |? LXF244? ??????? 2018
??? Go ??????? importFile(), ??????? ????????? ??????
н????????? ???? ?а??????????? ??? ?а???? Go.
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????? ???????? ????? ??а?????? ????? ??????????? ??а?????
??????? ??????, ?????? ??? ??????? importFile(), ??????? ?????
???????? ??а?????? ???????? ?????????? ????? ?а??????? ??????
?а??????? ?????????? Go, ?????? ???? ??? ????? ????? ?????.
????????????, ??? ????????? ??????? importFile()а? ???
??????а?? ??? ?????????? ????? ????? ??? ???. ????? ??????,
importFile() ????? ????????? ????????????? ????? ??? ?????
?????, ??????? ??????, ??а??а?????? ???????? ?a?, ???????
??а???????? ?????? ??? ?????? ?а????????? ???????. ??? ????
????, ??????? ????? ????????? importFile()а? ???????? ????,
??? ??? ?????? ?а????? ????? ????? ?????????? ??????н????
www.linuxformat.ru
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????????? ??????н???? ????????, ??????? ?????? ???? ?а??????
????? ?????.
???????? ????, ???? loadFile.go ??аGo ????? ????????? ??????
?????????? importFile(), ????? ??а????? ????????? ??а???????????? ????? ?????????????? ?а?????? ?????????. ??????????
??????? importFile() ??а????? ?????????? ????? ??????? ??а???.
???.а84. ??? ?????? ???? ???? ??-??????, ??????? importFile() ????? ???? ???????? ?а?????????? ??? ??????????: ????, ???????
?????? ?????????? ????? ?????, ?а?????????? ??????. ????
?????? ???, ??а?????????? ?????? ????? nilа? ?а???? ??????
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???????? ?????????? ????? ????? nil. ????????? ??????????? if
???????????? ??? ???????? ????, ????? ??? ?????? ????? ?????
???? ?а??а?? ??????н???? ????? ?????:
if len(temp) != len(mySlice[0])
???? ??? ????????? ??????н???? ????????? ?а??????? ????????
?????????? ????? ?а?????????? ??? ?а??????н????? ?????????
?а?????? ?????? ????? mySlice. ??? ????????, ??? ?а?????? ??????
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??????? ??а???????? ??????? ??а???? ?????? ??????? ??????????
????? ?????. ???? ????? ????? ????? ?????????? ???? ???????,
??????? importFile() ?а????н???? ????????????? ???????? ???
????? ?????? nil, ?а????? ?????????? ?????? ?а??????????????
?????????? ??а??????!
????????????? ???????????
?????? ?????? ????????? ????? ????????? ??? sudoku.go.
????????? ??? ??аsudoku.go ?????????? ???? for, ????????????
??? ?????? ???? ????????? ????? Go. ??????, ??? ????? ?????
??????? for ??????? ?????????????? ??? Go, ??????? ?????
??а???????:
for i := 0; i <= 2; i++ {
for j := 0; j <= 2; j++ {
for k := 0; k <= 2; k++ {
for m := 0; m <= 2; m++ {
??? ??????, ????? ??????? ??? ???????? ??????????? ??????,
sudoku.go ?????????? ?????? ????? for. ???? ?????????????
??????? ?????? for ??? ??????? 9?╫?9, ????????, ?а??а????????
? ??? ?????????? ??????? validPuzzle(), ??? ??? ????????
?аsudoku.go. ??????? ?????????? ?????? ????? for ??? ??????
???? ????????? ???? ??????.
www.linuxformat.ru
?????????? ??????? validPuzzle()
?а??? ????,
?а????? ??? ??????? ?аfaster.go.
??????? ?????????? ?????? ???
????? for ???
?????? ???? ????????? ????
??????.
???????? ?а????? ?????? ??????????????????, ??? ???????????
?????а?? ?????????, ????а?? ??? ???????? ???????? ?а???????
??????? ????????.
?????? ????????? ????????????а? ???? ????????? ??? ???
???????? ?а??????? validPuzzle():
if val > 0 && val < 10 {
if mySlice[val-1] == 1 {
fmt.Println(?Value appeared two times!?)
return false
} else {
mySlice[val-1] = 1
}
}
????, ???? ???????? ?а????? ?????????? ????? ?????? ????,
??а??????????? ?????? ???????????????, ?а?????????, ??????,
?????? ???????????? ??????????. ????? ????, ???? ????????
?????? 10, ????? 10 ??? ????? 0, ??а?а??? ???? ????????????
??????
??????
???????????
CI/CD ?????
Jenkins (https://
jenkins.io)
?аSemaphore
(https://
semaphoreci.
com) ????????н
?????? ????
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??? ?????.
╗╗????? ????? ? GO
???? ????????? ?????? ????????? ????????????? ?????? ?аGo. ??-??????, ?????????? go test ???????? ??а???????????? ?????????. ????? ????????????? ???????? ??????? ????????? ?а????? Go, ??????? ????????????? ??а_test.go. ??? ????? ??????? ????????? ?????? ?????????? ?аBenchmarkа? ???????, ??? ???????
?????????? ??а???????? ????? b, ??а?????????????? Go ??? ??????? ?????????.
????? ????, ?а??????? ????????? ?????? ???? ???????? ???????, ???????
????????, ??? ??????? ????????? ?????? ?????? ????????? ???????? *testing.B
?а??а?????????? ??????? ????????. ?, ???????, ?????, ??????? ???????? ???????
????????? ?????? ???????? ????? ?????????? Go ?testing?.
??????? ????????? ??????????? ? ??????? ???????
$ go test -bench=. file.go file_test.go
???????? ????????? -bench ?????? ??????????? ???????, ??????? ?????
??????????? ?а??????????? ?????????? ?????????. ???????????? ???????? .
???????? ?????????? ??????????, ??????? ????????????? ???? ??????????????
???????????? ???????? ?????????. ???? ??а?????????? ???????? -bench ???
???? ?????????? ??а?????, ??а??????? ????????? ??а????? ?????????.
?? ????????? ?????? ????????????? ???? ??????????? ??? ??????? ????
???????. ???? ??????? ?????????????? ????? ???????????? ??а?????, ??????? ????? ???????, ???????? b.N ?????????????, ?а??????? ??????????? ?????. ?а??????
??? ???????? b.N ????? 1, ????? ??? ?????????? 2, 5, 10, 20, 50 ?а?.??. ??? ?????????? ??????, ??? ??? ??????? ???????, ??? ?????? ??? ??? ????? ??а?????????,
????? ???????? ????? ?????? ??????????. ?????? ?а????????????? ????????????
??????? ????? ???????????????? ??????????а? ???????, ???а???????, ??? ????
??????? ????????? ?????? ????????.
??????? 2018? LXF244? |?85
???????? ??????? ???????????????? ?? Go
??????
??????
????? ?????????? Go, ??а?????? ???????????? ????
??????? ???????? ???????
??? ?????н??
??аhttps://
golang.org/dl/
?а?????????
???????????.
??????, ?????
?????? Go
??а???????????, ?????,
???????? go
version.
????????, ??? ????? ?????????? ???????? ??????? ????????. ???
??? ?????????? ????? ?????? sudoku.go ??????? ???????, ????
??а????? ???? ?а??????? ???????? ???????????? ??????.
???????? ?????? sudoku.go ????? ????????? ??????????
?????? validPuzzle(), ?а??а????? ??????? ??а???????? ??????
????? ???.а85.
????????? ???????
???? ?????????? ??????? ????????, ????????, ??? ????? ??????
??????????????а? ?????? ?????? ??????? ???, ??? ??? ???????.
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??-???????. ?????????????? ??????? ????? ???????????? ???
????? for ??? ??????? ??а???? ????????? ?????, ??? ?????????а??
???????, ????а?? ??? ???????? ???????? ??а??????? ??а????? ???
50 ???????? ?а50 ?????.
?????? faster.go, ??????? ????????? ???????? ?????? ??а????
????????? ??????????? ??????, ????? ?????????? ?а?????????
???? Go:
for i := 0; i <= 8; i++ {
for j := 0; j <= 8; j++ {
????????, ??? ???????? ?????? faster.go ??а??, ??? ?а?аsudoku.
goа? ???????????? ???????? ????? ????? ????? ????????????
??????????? ?а???, ??? ?????? ????????? ?????????? ?а????????? ?????, ??????? ???????????? ???????? ???????????
??????. ??а???????? ?????? ?????? ???.а85 ??????? ??? Go ???
validPuzzle(), ??????? ????? ????? ?аfaster.go. ??? ???? ?????????? importFile() ????? ??????? ??а???????? ?????? ??а???.а84.
?????????? validPuzzle() ?аfaster.go ?????????? ?а??????????, ???
?аsudoku.go.
????????? ??? ??????? ????? ?????????? ??? ???????, ?????
????????, ????а?? ????? ??????? ??а?????????????????? ???а????????????? ???? ?????? for ?????? ??????? ??? ??????? ??а????
????????? ????? Go.
?а???????? ?????????? ??????? time. ????????? ?????? ?????????? ????? ??????? ?????.
?? ???. ????? ????? ??????? ????? sudoku.go ?аfaster.go
???а????????????? time. ?а?????????, ????????? time, ?а?????
????????? ??????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ?а?????????????????? ????? sudoku.go ?аfaster.go. ????? time ???а?? ?????
??????, ????а?? ??а????????? ??? ??????????? sudoku.go ?аfaster.
go, ????????? ??????? ?????? ??????????? ??????а? Go ?????
?????? ??? ?а????, ??????? ?а????????? ??????? ??а???????
?????? Go ????????? ????? ???????????????? ?????? ?а???????
??????? ????????? Go.
?????? ?????????? Go ????? ?????????????? ?????? ???
??а????????. ????????? ????? ???????? ??????????? ??????????? ??????, ????? ??????? ?а??? ?????? ???????? ?????
??а?????? ????????, ??????? ?????????? ???????? ????????.
????????? ??????????
????????????? ????? ?аGo
?? ??????? ?????????????????? sudoku.go ?аfaster.go ?????
??????? ?????????. ?????? ??а???? ????а? ????? ???????
Go ????????? ?????? ????????????? ????? ??? ????????? ?????????????????? ?????? ?????????? ???????, ??????? ?а??????
??????? ??а??????? ????????? ????????? Go, ????? ????????
?????????? ??????? validPuzzle() ?аsudoku.go ?аfaster.go.
??? Go ??? ????????????? ?????? ???? ??????? ????? ????
?а???а??. ?????? ??? ???? ??????? ??? ????? ?????: ???? ???
sudoku.go ?а??????а? ??? faster.go, ??????? ??а??????? sudoku_
test.go ?аfaster_test.go, ??????????????.
?????? ??? Go sudoku_test.go ?аfaster_test.go, ??????? ???????? ?а??????????? ??????? ?????????, ?????????:
func BenchmarkValidPuzzle(b *testing.B) {
benchmark_validPuzzle(b, ?./OK.txt?)
}
func BenchmarkInValidPuzzles(b *testing.B) {
benchmark_validPuzzle(b, ?./noOK1.txt?)
benchmark_validPuzzle(b, ?./noOK2.txt?)
}
??????? BenchmarkValidPuzzle() ????????? ??????????
??????????? ??????, ????? ??? BenchmarkInValidPuzzles() ???????????? ??? ???????????? ??????????? ??????. ??а???. ??????
???????? ?????????? ???????????? ??? ??? sudoku.go, ??? ?а???
faster.go. ?????? ????????????? ???? ??????????? ????? ?????????: ??-??????, ??????? ?, ??-??????, ?а??????? ?????????
-benchmem, ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ??а?????????????
?????? ?????? ???????? ?????????.
????, ??? ??????? ??? ?????????? ?????????????? ??????
?????? ?????, ??? ??????????, ??? ?????????????????? faster.
go ?аsudoku.go ????????н??? ?????????. ??? ??????? ???????
??????? ?а??? ??????, ??? ??а???????? ??а?????? 9?╫?9, ???????
??????????
?????? time
go run sudoku.
go ?аtime go run
faster.go.
86? |? LXF244? ??????? 2018
?????????? ????????? ??? sudoku.go ?аfaster.go. ?а??????
?????? ??? faster.go [fasterа? ????. ???????] ??а????? ????????
????????? ?а?????????????????? ?????????!
www.linuxformat.ru
???????????????? ?? Go ???????? ???????
????? ???. ????? ????, ????????? ??? ????????? Go ??????
????? ?????? ?а??????????? ??????н???? ?????????, ???????, ???
??? ????? ??а????????? ?????????? ??????н???? ???????.
????? ????? ??? ??? ???????? ??-??????, ??????? ?аfaster.
go ??????? ??????????, ??? ?????????? sudoku.go, ??????? ??????? ????????? ???????? ????? ?????? for; ?а??-??????, ??????
?????? ?????????? ????????? ??? ???????? ???????!
????? ?????? ????????
? ????????? ??????? ?????? ????? ????? ???????? ????????????? ???? ????????? Go, ??????? ?????????? ?а??????? ??????,
??а???????? ??????? ??????????. ???? ????? ???????? ????????
???????????????? ??????? ??а?????? ??а??????. ???? ???? ?????
????? ?????????? ????? ????? ?а????????а? ??????, ???? ????????? ??а????? ???????? ????????? ??????, ???? ????? ?????
1002 ?????? ?а1002 ???????, ?а??????? ????? ??????????????
?????? ?а?????? (????? 3?╫?3).
??? ????????? Go, ??????? ????? ???????? ??????????,
????? big.go, ?а??????? ????????? ????? ???????? ?аbig_test.
go. ??????????, ??????, ??? ??? Go, ??????????? ?????????
???????? ?????? ??а???? ????????? ?????, ????? ??а??, ???
??????? validPuzzle() ?аfaster.go ???????? ?????? ??а????
????????? ?????.
? big_test.go ?????????? ??? ??????? ?????????. ?????? ?????????? ???? ?а1002 ???????? ?а1002 ?????????, ??????а? ????
102?╫?102, ?а?????????а? ???? 9?╫?9. ??? Go ????????? ?????:
func Benchmark_9_accessPuzzle(b *testing.B) {
var r bool
sl := createSlice(9)
for i := 0; i < b.N; i++ {
r = accessPuzzle(sl, 9)
}
result = r
}
??????? ?????????? ?????????? accessPuzzle() ?а??????????
?а?????? r ?а???????????? ????????????? ?????? ??????????
?????????? ?а?????? result ???????? ?????????. ??????????
???????, ??? ???? ????? ????????????, ????? ??а???? ??????????? ????????? ?????-???? ???????????, ??????? ????????
???????, ??????? ??а?????? ????????, ????????? ??а??????????
??????? ??а????????????. ??? ????? ????????? ?аfaster_test.go
╗╗??????? ??????????? ??????
???? ?а???? ??????????? ??????????? ???, ??????? ?????????? ????????? ??????????? ??????, ??????? ??? ???? ??????, ?????????? ????????? ?а??????,
????????? ?????? ??? ?????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????? ??? ???????
????? ????? ???????????. ??? ??а?????? ???? ???????????, ??? ????????? ?а?????? ??????? ??????? ?????????????? ?????, ??????? ??????? ??????????????
???????? ?а????? ?????? ?????? ?а???????.
???????? ????????? ???а???????? ?????? ???????? ??????а? ?????????, ???
??????????? ?????? ????? ???????. ?????? ??а????? ????????????, ??? ??????????? ????????, ?????? ???????? ?а??????? ?????? ????????? ?????!
?????? ??????, ???? ??а???????? ??????? ??????????? ?????? ??????? ?а???,
????? ?????????? ??????? ?????? ??а??а??? ???, ???? ??а??а??????? ?а?????.
????? ??а?????? ????????? ?????, ??????? ?????? ???????? ?а??????????,
???? ??а?????? ??????????? ??? ???? ????? ??а??????? ?а?????. ???? ??а??????
???????????? ???? ??????, ??? ??????? ?????? ?????? ?а?????????? ????????
?а?????????.
???????, ???? ?а??? ?????????? ?????????????? ????????, ????? ??????????? ??? ????????? ???? ?а????? ??, ??????? ????????????? ?????? ??????
??????????? ??????а? ??? ????? ??????? ?????. ???? ?????? ??????? ?????, ???
???????, ?????????, ??а????? ????????? ?а???????????? ??????, ????????? ???????????? ???????????? ????????? ????????. ??? ??а?????, ?????????? ??????
??????? ????? ?а???????? 100?╫?100 ??а?????????????!
?аsudoku_test.go. ??? ????? ???????????????? ?????????? ???а????????? ????????????? ??????? ?аGo.
?????????? ????????? big_test.go ????? ??????? ??а???.
?????. ??а????????? ???????? ??а?????????????? ?no tests toаrun
[??? ?????? ??? ??????????]? ?а??????, ????????? ??? ?????????
?а?????? ???????, ??????? ??а??а??????а? ????? ????? ??????аGo ????? ?????????????? ??а??????????. ??? ??????, ?????
????????? ?а????? ??? ??????? ?????? ?????? ??а?????????????????? ?????????, ??????? ???????? ?????? ??а???? ?????????
????? ??? ???????.
??????????? ??аbig.goа? ??а??????? ??? ?????? ??? ??? ?????
????????. ?а?????, ????? ??а??? ??????? ?????? ?????????,
???????????? ??а??????? ??????????? ?????? ?а????????????
???? ????! |
????? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ??аbig.go ?аbig_test.go, ????? ????? ??????, ??? ?????? ????? ??? ??????? ?????? ??а????????
??????????а?????????.
╗╗????? ??????? LINUX FORMAT????? ?? www.linuxformat.ru!
www.linuxformat.ru
??????? 2018? LXF244? |?87
????????????? Pi
??? ??????? ?н ???????
? ?????????????
???? Raspberry Pi
Foundation, ???????
????????? ??????
????????.
╗╗??? ????????
?? ??? ????? ?, ??? ?а?????? ??????, ??????? ?????? ????? ??????? [John Pinner]
??аPyConUK. ??? ??????? ??????? ?а?????
????????? PyConUK, ???????, ???, ????
?а2015а?. ???? ??? ???????? ??? ?????????? ?????????? Python, ?а???????????
???????? ???? ????? ?а?????? ??????????.
??? ????? ????? ??? ??а???????.
? ??? ????? ??????? ????? ???????
????????? ??? ?????? ??????????,
????н??? ??а???????? ???????????? ???
?????????. ??? ??????? ???????? ??????,
??????? ?а???????? ?а?????????? ??????????, ??????? ????? ??????? Python
?а?????? ???? ?????? ???? ?а???????????
???? ??? ???????.
?? ??????? ????????? ???? ??????
?????????? ?а???????????. ??? ????????
?????????? ????????? ??? ??? ????? ????,
??? Raspberry Pi ?аArduino. ???а??????????
??? ??????????а? ?????? ????? ???????.
?????????? ??????????? ?????? ????????
?а?????????? ??? ??????, ???????? ???н
???? ??????????????? ??????????.
??????????? ??????? ????????, ?????????????? ?? ?а????????????? ??а??а?????? ????, ????? ????????? ?а??????????
??????????? ????????? ??? ?????????.
????????? ??? ?????, ????? ???????? ?????????? ?а?????. ?????????? ????????
???????, ????? ???? ??? ?????? ???????.
??а??? ?????-?? ???? ?а?????? ??????
???? ?а????????? ?а?????? ??????????,
????? ????????? ?????? ??? ?????? ?????
??????а?????.
?????? ?а???????? ???? ?а?????а?
??? ????? ??????? ??????????, ?а??????
??? ??а??? ?????? ??????, ??????????
??а????????? ??? ?????.
????????, ???????????,
Pi-????
???????? ??????????? ????????? Raspberry Pi ??????
????? ?? ?????????? ??аPi. ??????, ???а??????...
Raspberry Pi, ???????????? ?а????? ?????? ????????, ????? ??а????????????,
??????? ??а??? ??? ????? ??а???????,
??? ??-?????. ??????? ?????????????, ??? ????????? ??????????? ?????????? ??аRaspberry Pi
Foundationа? ??? ?????? ???????? ????? ???а????????? TV HAT.
?????? ?????????? ???????? ??? ???????
??а???? ?????? (??????? ????? ???????). ??? ????? ????? г?20 ?а???????? ??а????????????? ??????
Sony CXD2880, ??????? ????????? ?а?????? Pi
?
????? DVB-T2. ?????? ?????, ??? ??-??а???????? ??а????????? ????????????? Raspberry Pi 2
??? ???????????.
TV HAT ????????? ????????????? ??????
????????????? ?????????? ????? ?а?????? Pi ???
?а????????? ?????? ??а????????? ????. ????????????? TV HAT ????? ?????????? ?а????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????? HAT, ????а?? ???????,
??? Pi Zero; ??? ????? ????????н???? ?????????.
??????? ?????? ??аwww.raspberrypi.org/products/
raspberry-pi-tv-hat.
?????? ?а???????????? ?????? PI ?????
????????? ????????? ??.
???????
?????????!
??????? 2
????????? ????????.
?? ?аLXF236 ??а?????????? ?а???, ???
????????? ?? [Rongzhong Li] ?????????? ???? ?????? Pi-????? ??а?????? Paw.
?а????? ????????? ???????? ?????? ??аIndigogo,
??????? ????? ?????????? ?а?????? ????? ??????! ??? ?????? DIY-????? ??? ?????, ??????? ????????а? ????? ??а????? ??аwww.indiegogo.com/
projects/nybble-world-s-cutest-open-source-robotickitten# ?? ??????? ?????????????? ??????????.
??????? ?????? Arduino-??????????
???????н????? ?????????, Pi ?а?????? ????, ?а??а???????? ??????????
????????? ?????? Brother KM950i ?а????????
??????? ?????? ???????? ?????. ?????????????
?????? ??????? ????? ?????? 100а?????, ?а???
15а?? ????-??,а??????????? ???????. ??????????
????? Twitter ??????? ??а????????? ????? ?????:
https://twitter.com/HeartOfPluto.
?
Petoi ????????!
?
???????? ?а??????
?а????? ????????
???????? ?????, ???
?????-????!
??????? ??????
н???????? ?а?????????.
88? |? LXF244? ??????? 2018
www.linuxformat.ru
????? ?????????? ??????
Raspberry Pi PoE HAT
??? ??????? ? ???? ???????! ?а?????? ??? ???????? ??аEthernet. ?????а?? ??а?????????
???? ??????? ?????-USB ?а???? ??? ?????? ?аEthernet-????????
???????
HAT-???????????
?????, ?????????????? ???????
??аEthernet ???
?????????????
Piа3 B+. ??????????????? ??а??????
????? ????????
PoE ??аPi 3 B+
?а????????? ???
?????? GPIO, PoE
HAT ???????????
?аPi ????? ??????????? ????
????????????,
??????? ????????????? ????????????? ????? ??????.
?????? ?аGPIO ????????, ??а???????
??????????????
?????????? ???
????????? ???????.
????? ???????? ????????
????, ??????а??
??а?????? ??????
???? Pi ??а??????
Ethernet.
www.linuxformat.ru
?????? ??аEthernet (PoE) ??а???????? ???-??а?????.
??а????? ????, ??? ????? ???. ??а??? ????????? ????
Raspberry Pi... ??а??? ???.
PoE HAT ???????? ??????????? ????????? Raspberry Pi
?а???????????? ??? ?????? ?????? ?а????? Pi 3 B+ ????? ????????
PoE, ????????? ??а???? ?????. ????? ???????????? PoE HAT,
???? ?????????? HAT ??а???? 40 ????????? GPIO ?а??????? ????????? ??????? PoE. ????? ??а?????? ??????? ????? ??????????
Ethernet, ?а??а????? ???????? ??????? ?????-USB. ??? ???????
???? PoE-???????????? ??????????? ??? ??????????????, ????
PoE-?????????, ??????? ????? ?????????? 48а?а??????? ?а??????
??а?????? ?????? Ethernet. ?????? ?????????, ????????? ???
?а????? ????, ????????? ??????????, ??а??????????? ?аPoE, ?????
???? ??????????.
??????? ????? ??? ????? ??????? ??а??? ????????? ?????????
?????? Raspbian. ??а??? ?????? ??? ??? ???????, ????? ??????
????????, ?а???, ??? ??? ?????а? ??? ???? ??????!
? PoE HAT ?????? ???????????? 25?????????????? 5?????????? ??????????, ??????????????? ??? ?????????? ??????????
??аRaspberry Pi. ????? ?????????? ???????? ??а?????? ????????,
??а?????? ?????? ????. ??? ??????? ??????????, ??а??????? ??н
???. ?????? ?аPoE HAT ???? ????????, ?а???????? ???????.
?
??? ?????????
????????? ????? ????????? ???? GPIO, ??а??а????? ??????????
?????-???? ?????????????? ????? ??? ??????????????? ???????????? ?аGPIO. ?????????? ???????? ????, ??????? ????????
40??????????? ?????????? ??????? ?а????????????????? ?????????? ??????? PoE, ??а??????????? ?????????? ??а????????????. ??? ?????, ?????? ??? ??????? ????? ???????????? PoE
HAT ??? ??????? ????????, ?а??????? ???????????? ???????. ???????????? HAT ?????? PoE HAT ????????, ??а????? ???????????
???????? ??????, ????? ????????????? ??????? PoE HAT ?а??????
??????????. ???? ????, ????? ????? ???????????? ?а??????
?????????? ?????????? ????? ?????????? ?, ??? ???????, ?????
?????? ???????????.
?????????? ???????????? ?????????????? ??????????н???
??а????????? ?????????????? ??????, ?????????????? ??????
?????????, ??????? ??????????????? ??а?????????? ?????
Atmel ?а??????? I2C. ???а45?░C ?????????? ????????? ?а??????? ???????. ??? ???? ???????????, ??? ??????? ?????
????????? ??????????.
?????????? ??????????? PoE HAT, ???????? ?????? USB.
?а???????????? ????????? ?а????? ??? ?а???????, ??а?????
PoE HAT ??????????
?????? Raspberry Pi,
???????? ?????? ?аGPIO,
???? ??а????????
????????а??????????.
??????????, ???????????? ????? 40 ??, ????? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ??????? ?????? USB ??а??? ???, ???? ??а??????????
???. ??? ???????? ???? ?????? ?????? ??????? [Eben Upton],
??????? ??????, ??? ??????? ???? ??ал?????????????? ?????
???????? ?????????????? ????????????? ??????????? ??аHAT
?а????? ??а???? ????? ????????????? ???? USB, ??????? ??а?????????? ??а??????? ?????╗. ????? ????, ???????????? ???????????? ???????? ??????????? ?а??????? ??????????????????? ????????????? ????? ?????, ?а??а????????????? ?????????? ????
???????? ????? ?????? ????????, ???????????? ???? ?????????? ???????????. ??? ??? ???? ???????????, ??? ??а??а??????
?????????? ??????? USB-??????????, ????????? ????? 40а??.
??? ???? ??а??а????? ?????? ????? ??????????? ??аPoE HAT.
??????а?? PoE HAT? ??, ???? ??? ?????? ??????? ?????
???????а?а????н???????? ???????. ???????? ?а???, ??? PoE HAT
???????????? ?????? ?аGPIO, ???? ??а??а??????? ??????????????
???????. ?а???? ?????? GPIO ?????? Raspberry Pi ????? ??????????????????? ???????????. ???аGPIO ??? ?????? ??????????
????????? ?аLinux. |
???????
?????????????: Raspberry Pi Trading
????: www.raspberrypi.org/products/poe-hat
????: г?18,35
???????????????? ?????????????????? ???????? ?а?????? ????????????? ???? 7/10
6/10
8/10
6/10
?????? ?а????????????? ?а?????????. ??а???? ?????????? ??????? ?аGPIO ????????, ??? ??? ????? ??????
Pi ?????? ???????? ????????????. ??? ??????????
??а???? ?????????.
╗ ???????7/10
??????? 2018? LXF244? |?89
??????? Minecraft Zero
RASPBERRY Pi
?????? ?а???????
?а?????аMinecraft
??? ??????? ? ????? ????????, ????????????аMinecraft ?а??????, ?????? ?????,
?а???а??????????, ??????? ????? ????????!
inecraftа? ??????????? ?????????? ????????. ????
??????а? ?а?а??а?? ????? ?????? ????????? ?????
??а????, ??????? ?а????. ?????? ??? ??????? ????????? ?????? ??????. ??????? ??? ?????? ????? ?а???? ???????
??а???????? ??????? ?а????????????? ????? ??????, ???????
??а?????? ???????аMinecraft Zero ?а????? ????????? GPIO ?аGUI
Zero, ??????????? ????? ???????????? ?а?????? ???????????
?аPython.
?? ????? Raspberry Pi ???????? ???????? Python 3, ??????????? ?а???? Programming [????????????????]. ????? ???????
File > New [???? > ???????] ??? ???????? ?????? ??????? ?????????. ?????? ??????? File > Save [???? > ?????????] ?а????????
???? mczero.py. ??а????????? ????????? ??????????? ?а????????.
??? ?????? ??????? ??а????? ???????, ?????? ???? Python, ??????? ??а????? ????????????, ?????? ??а???. ??????
??а???а? ???????? ???????, ?а??????????? ?а?????????? ????????? ?а???? ????аMinecraft. ??? ?а??а???? ????????, ??а??????
?????? ???, ?а??а??????? ??аchat, ??а??а??????? ?а??????? msg.
??? msgа? ?????, ??????? ??а????? ?????????? ?а???? ????.
def chat(msg):
????? ?????? ??????? ??а????? ???????????? ??????????аMinecraft, ??????? ??????? ??????????? ?а??????????? ?аmc,
?а??????а? ?? ??????? postToChat. ???????? ????????, ???
??а????? ?????????? ??????????????? ??????? str(), ?????
?????????? ?????????????? ???? ??????, ?????????????? ???
?????????, ?а????????? ??????????, ?????? ??? ???????
postToChat ???????? ?????? ??а?????????? ???????????:
mc.postToChat(str(msg))
M
???
???????
??? ???????а?
н??????-?????????,
??????? ????????
?а?????? ?????????????, ???
Raspberry Pi Foundation, ?????????
?????? ????????.
??? ???? ????????
??аbigl.es.
????????????? ? ??????
???
?????
?? ?????
н??????аPi
?? ????? ??????
Raspbian
?? https://github.
com/lesp/
LXF243?mczero/
archive/master.
zip
????????? ??????? ?????????? teleport ?а???????????? ???
???????? ?????? ?а????? ????? ????. ???, ??? ??а?????а? ??? ?????????? x, y, z, ??????? ????????? ?а??????? ????? ????? ??????.
??????? ???????? ?????????? chat, ?а??? ??????, ??? ??а???????? ??????? ?а??????????? ?????????а? x, y, z. ????? ?а???????
??а?????? ????????? ?????? (setPos) ?а???? ???????????:
def teleport(x,y,z):
mc.player.setPos(x, y, z)
???? ????? ???????? ?а???????, ?а????? ?????????? ??а?????.
???а?, ??а????? ??????? ??? ?а??????? ??????? drop. ???????
????????? ???????? ?????? height (?а??????), ?а??????? ??????
????. ????? ??? ???????????? ?а???????, ????? ??а??????
??????? ????????? ?????? ?а??????? getPos ??? ??????????
90? |? LXF244? ??????? 2018
????? ??????? ???????????? ?????????? mczero, ??? ????????
???????? ????????? ?а???????? Python ?а???? ????аMinecraft.
????????? x, y, z. ????? ?а??????? setPos ??а???????? ????????
y ???, ????? ??? ??????????? ??а???????? height.
def drop(height):
x, y, z = mc.player.getPos()
mc.player.setPos(x, y+height, z)
????????? ?????? ?????аMinecraftа? ????????? ??????. ?а??????? Python ??а????? ??????????????? ????? ????? ????,
????????? ????? ?а?????? ????, ?????? ??? ??????. ??? ????? ???
???? ???????? ??? ?????а? blocktype, ?а???? ??????? setblock
??????? ???, ??????? ????, ??а??????? ??а??????, ??а??, ???
??а???????? ?а????н???? ?????????. ???? ??а??а?????? ???? ?????? (?????), ??а??????????, ??а????????? ?а??? ??????? ?а?????
???????аblocks().
def setblock(blocktype):
x, y, z = mc.player.getPos()
mc.setBlock(x, y, z, blocktype)
?????? ?? ?????!
???? ??????? cube ????????? ??? ?????????: ?????? ????
(?а??????) ?а??? ??????, ??а??????? ??а??????. ??????? ??а?????
????????? ???? ??а??????? ?а???????????? ??, ????? ??????????
?????? ??????! ?а???? ??????? ??а?????????? setBlocks ?а????
??? ??????? x, y, z. ??????а? ??? ????????? ?????? ???? ????
???? ??а?????? ???, ?а??????а? ????????? ?????? ???? ??????
????. ?????аMinecraft ????????? ???????? ????? ????, ?????
??????? ???????? ???, ??? ???:
def cube(size,blocktype):
www.linuxformat.ru
Minecraft Zero ???????
x, y, z = mc.player.getPos()
mc.setBlocks(x+1, y+1, z+1, x+size, y+size, z+size, blocktype)
? ???? ??? ????? ??????? ????? ???? ???а?, ???? ??????? hollow_cube ??????? ??? ??? ???. ??? ??????? ???????? ???
??а???????? ?????? (??? ?????а? 57), ?а????? ??а????????
??????? ??а??????? ?????? ??? ?????? ???? ??а?????? ???????
(??? ?????а? 0):
def hollow_cube(size):
x, y, z = mc.player.getPos()
mc.setBlocks(x+1, y+1, z+1, x+size, y+size, z+size, 57)
size = size - 2
mc.setBlocks(x+2, y+2, z+2, x+size, y+size, z+size, 0)
???-???, ???!
????? ??????? ??????? ???? ???????? ?????? TNT [????????н
??????], ??????? ???????? ??? ???? ????. ????? ??а????????
??а??? ?????, ??? ??????????! ??? ????? ??? ???? ????????
????????? ??????, ????? ?????? ???? ???а??? ?????? ???аTNT
(??? ?????а? 46), ?а????? ???????? ???????? 1, ????? TNT ???
??????????. ????? ??ал????╗ 0,1 ???????, ????? ?????????
??????н???? ?????? TNT ??а??????. ??? ??????? ????? ????? ????????? ?????? ????? while True:, ????? ??? ???????? ??????????.
def tnt_trail():
x, y, z = mc.player.getPos()
mc.setBlock(x, y, z, 46,1)
sleep(0.1)
???? ??????? tnt_cube ??????? ???, ??????? TNT! ??????
??????? ???????? ???????, ??????? ??а???? ?а??????! ??????,
??? ??а????? ?????? Pi ???????????? ?????? ?????? ????
10?╫?10?╫?10. ??? Pi 3 ????? ???????? ?а??????? 20?╫?20?╫?20,
??а???????, ??? ??? ???????? ????????? Pi:
def tnt_cube(size):
x, y, z = mc.player.getPos()
tnt = 46
mc.setBlocks(x+1, y+1, z+1, x+size, y+size, z+size, tnt, 1)
??????? ??????? ????? ??а?????? ??????! ??а?а??????? ????? ????? ??????? slab ??а????? ????????? ??????? ????????? ??а??????, ????? ????? (l), ?????? (w) ?а??? ??????. ?а?????
??? ??а?? ?????, ??? ?а???? ??????? cube, ??а???????? y ??а????????, ??? ??? ????????? ???????? ?????? ??а???? ????:
def slab(l,w,blocktype):
x, y, z = mc.player.getPos()
mc.setBlocks(x+1, y+1, z+1, x+w, y+1, z+l, blocktype)
????????? ??????? ??????? ?????????? fire_feet, ?а??? ???????? ?а????? ??? ??????? ?????? (??? ?????а? 50), ????а??
??а??а???????????. ????? ????? ???????????? ??а?а?????? while
True:, ??? ??????? tnt_trail.
def fire_feet():
x, y, z = mc.player.getPos()
mc.setBlock(x+1, y, z+1, 50,1)
sleep(0.1)
????????? ??? ???????а? ?????????? ???????????
?????????. ?????? ?????????? blocks(), ?а??? ?????? ???????
(???а????????? block_dictionary), ??? ?????? ??? ???????? ??????? ??????? ??????, ??а??????? ????????? ????? ?????????
????:???????? [key:value]. ?а?????? ?????? ?????а? ??? ?????
??????, ?а????????а? ?????? ????? ??????. ???????, ????????,
???? AIR [??????] ?????????? ??? ????? 0. ?а??????? ???????
????????? ?????? ??????, ?а????? ???????? ??а???, ??а?????????? ???? for, ??????? ????????? ??а??? ?а??????? ???? ?а????????
?а?????? ?а0,1 ??????? ????? ????????. ??а?????? ????? ???????
???? ???? ??????? ?а???????? ??? ?????? ???????.
? ??????? ??????? commands() ??а????? ??????? ??? ???????? ???? ?а???????
10?╫?10?╫?10 ??????а? ?????? ??????, ??? ?????! ?а??? ??? ???????? ????? ??????????
??? ???????? ?????!
????????? ???? ??????? ?????????? commands(), ??? ?????? ????????????? ??? ??????? ?а??а????????. ????? ??????,
???н????? ????? ??а?????????? ?а????? ??????? ?????! ???????
???? ???? ??????? ?? ???? ?????? ????? ?а???????? ??? ???????
???????.
??? ?????????? ????? ???? ??а?????????? ??????????
??????????, ??????? ?????????? ????????? ???. ?а???? ??????
??а??????????? ??????????аMinecraft, ?????????? ?????? ?а??????? sleep ??а?????????? time. ????? ??а??????? ??????????
?а?????????? ?????аMinecraft. ???? ??? ????????, ??а????? ???????????? ?а???????? Python ?а?а???? ????аMinecraft, ?????????? ?????? ?а???????? ??????? (blocks() ?аcommands()), ??а????
?????????? ??а???????, ????????? ?????????? ?а?а????????
????????? ??????.
????????? ???, ????????? ????аMinecraft, ?а????? ????????
?а??????? ???, ??????? Run > Run Module [????????? > ?????????
??????] ?а????????? Python. ?????? ?????????? ??????? ?а?????????? ??????? ???? ?а????????????! |
??????
??????
? ????????
Python ???????
commands()
?а???????
Enter, ?????
??????? ???
???????.
??? ????????
?а??? blocks(),
?????????
??? ?????,
???????????
?а??а???????,
?а??????????????? ??а???
(?????).
╗╗?????????? ???? ? ??????
??? ??? mczero.py ????? ???????????? ?а????????, ????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????? ?а??????? ????????. ??а??? ????? ?????????? ?а??? ????? ???????
???а??, ??? ??а????????????? ?????? ?????????? ????, ????????, ????? ??а????????????? ??????????аMinecraft (mcpi) ?а??? ??? mczero.py. ??? ????? ????
??????????, ????? ???? ????????? ???? ??? ???????? ?а???а?? ??????????, ???
?а???? mczero.py. ??????? ??????????? ?????????? mczero:
import mczero
?????? ??а????? ???????????? ????? ??а??????? ?а????? ????, ???????
??а??а??????, ????? ???????? ??????? ??? ??????????, ?а?????? ??????а? mczero. ????????, ??????? ??????? ????????? ?а???? ????:
mczero.chat(?Hello Linux Format?)
????? ??????? ???????? ???? ??? ????? ??????? fire_feet:
while True:
fire_feet()
????? ???, ??????? ?????? ???????? ??????????, ????? ???? ???????
?а????, ??????? ???? ??????? tnt_trail () ?аfire_feet () ????? ????????? ??????.
?????? ??????? ???????, ??????? ??????? ????, ????????? ?а?.??., ?а??????
??????? ????????? ???? ??? ??? ??а??????????, ????????? ???????? ???????? (if..
elif..else). ????????, ??, ??????? ????????? ??? ?????, ??а??????? ????? ?????.
╗╗????? ??????? LINUX FORMAT????? ?? www.linuxformat.ru!
www.linuxformat.ru
??????? 2018? LXF244? |?91
??????? ???????????
OMXPLAYER
???????? ?????
??а??????
??? ??????? ? ?????? ????????, ? ?????? ????? ??????? ????????? ????? ?? ???????!
???????? ???????? ?????????? ????? ????????!
???????????, ??? ???????? ???? ??????? ?а???????
??а?????????а? ??? ?????? ??????? ??????? ???,
????? ??? Raspberry Pi ??????????? ??????? ?????
??? ?????????. ????, ??????? ?????? ????????? ?а??????????
??????????? ??????????? ??? ????????????? ?????????! ????
??? ?а????????? ????? ?а??????? ?????????? ????? ???????
?аhttps://github.com/lesp/LXF244?VideoPlayer/archive/master.zip.
?
???
???????
??? ???????а?
н???????????
???????????,
??а???????????? ?а??????
?????????????,
??? Raspberry Pi
Foundation, ???????? ??????????
????????. ???????
??? ???? ??аbigl.es.
???
?????
?? ????? ??????
Raspberry Pi
?? ????????? ????
??? Raspbian
?? ??? ??????
?? ????????
?????
?? ??????
н?????????
???????????
?? ??? ?????????
???????????
??????
??????? ????? ??? ????? ??????? ??????. ??? ????? ?????? ???
??????, ???????????? ?а????????? GPIO 2, 3 ?а4, ?а?????? ??а????
?????? ????? ?????? ???? ?????????? ?аGND [?????]. ??? ?????
??а????? ???????????? ???? ????? GND ??аPi ?а?????????
???????????. ??????????? ?а???? ???????? ????? ????????, ???
?а??? ???? ????????? ?????????? ?аGND, ??????? ????? ???? ?????????? ????? ??????????? ???????????. ??????????? ????????
?а?????, ?????????? ?а???????? ??? ????? ???????.
?????? л??????╗, ?????????? ??????????, ??????????? ???
?????? Pi, ?а??????????? ?а??????? ???? Raspbian.
?????????
?????? ??? ??а?????? ???????? ?????-???? ??? Python, ????
?????????? ??? ??????????, ??????? ??????? ??? ??????? ??????.
???????? ???????? ?а??????? ?????????:
$ sudo pip3 install glob
$ sudo pip3 install keyboard
?? ??????? ??а?????. ?а???? ???????? ???????? Python 3,
??????? ????????? ?а???? Programming [????????????????],
?а???????? File > New [???? > ???????], ????? ??????? ?????
?????? ????. ?????а?? ??????? File > Save [???? > ?????????]
?а????? ????. ????????? ??? ??? VideoPlayer.py ?а??а?????????
????????? ??? ??????!
????, ?????? ??а???????? ?????? ???, ?а??? ?????? ???а?
????????????? ?????? ??????????. ?????? ??? ??????????
???????????? ??? ??????????? ??????? ?????? (GPIO Zero), ????????? ???????????? ?????????? ???? ?а?????? (pause), ?а?????
??? ?????? ?????????? ????? (choice).
from gpiozero import Button
from signal import pause
from random import choice
????????? ??? ???????а? ??? ??????????, ??????? ??а????????? ??? ??????????? ??????????? ???????? (glob), ???????
?????? ????????? (subprocess), ?а?????????а? ?????????? ???
???????? ?????????? (keyboard).
import glob
92? |? LXF244? ??????? 2018
????????????? ????? ??а????? Raspberry Pi ????? ??????,
????????? ???? ?????? ?а??????? omxplayer, ??????? ??????
??????????? ????? 1080p.
import subprocess
import keyboard
????? ??а??????? ??? ???????а? ????? ????, ???????
??а????? ????? ????????????, ??????? ??а?????. ?????? ??????? ?????????? play_video, ?а??????? ??? ??????? ?????? (??????
???????? ??????) ?а?????? videos.
def play_video():
videos = []
????? ????????? ?????? ????? ?????, ??????? ??а????? ?????????????, ??а?????????? ???? for. ??а????????? ??? ?????????? ?а???????? ?????????? MP4. ??а?????????? glob ??? ???????
?а???????? /media/pi/Videos, ??????? ??а????? ???? ????????
USB-??????????? ?а?????? Videos, ??????????? ??????? MP4.
???????? ??? ?а???????????? ?а?????? ?????????? ???? ????????,
???????????? ????????????. ?????? ???, ????? ??????????????
???? MP4, ??а??????????? ?а?????? videos, ??????? ??а??????
??? ???????.
or file in glob.glob(?/media/pi/Videos/*.mp4?):
videos.append(file)
?????????, ??? ?????? ???????? ??????? ??????, ?????? ?????????? ?????? ?а???????? Python:
print(videos)
???????? ????????? ????? ??а??????, ????????? ??? ?а?????????? ?а?????? chosen ?а???????? ??? ?а???????? Python:
chosen = choice(videos)
www.linuxformat.ru
??????????? ???????
print(chosen)
????????? ?????? ???? ??????? ?????????? ????? Popen
??а?????????? subprocess ??? ??????? ???????, ??? ????а??
??а???? ?а?????????, ?а????????? ??????? ?????? ???????
?????-?????? omxplayer, ?а????? ????????????? ????????? ?????:
subprocess.Popen([?omxplayer?,(chosen)])
????????? ??????? ?????????? stop_video ?, ??? ??а??????
??????????, ??? ????????? ??????????????? ?а?????? ?????? ?????. ??? ????? ??а?????????? ?????????? keyboard, ?а?????????
??????? press_and_release ??? ???????? ??????? Q.
def stop_video():
keyboard.press_and_release(?q?)
????????? ??????? ?????????? pause_video, ?а??? ?????????
??????? ??????? ??????? ??а??????????, ??а???????? omxplayer
???????????????? ?????:
def pause_video():
keyboard.press_and_release(?space?)
????? ???????? ??????? ??? ????? ???????? ?????? ????,
???? ?????????? ???? ??????. ?а??? ?????????? ??? ??????:
randomiser (???????????????), stop ?аpause_button. ??? ??????
?????????? ?а????????? GPIO 2, 3 ?а4, ??????????????.
randomiser = Button(2)
stop = Button(3)
pause_button = Button(4)
?????? ??????
???????? ?а????????? ?????, ??????? ???? ????? ???а??????? ?????? ?а????????? ??????????????? ???????. ??а???????
??а??????? ???? ?????? ?а?????????? ??????????. ??а?????????? ????????? ???, ??а???? ???????????? ?????? Ctrl?+?C, ???
??????????. ????, ??? ??????? try ??? ??? ??????? ??????? ???
?????? ?а????????а? ??? ?????????? ??? ????????????. \n ?????
????? ???????а? ??? ?????????? Python ??? ??????? ????? ?????? ????? ????????????:
try:
print(???? ?????? ??????? ??????? ??????\n??? ?????
??????\n??? ????????? ????????)
???? ??? ?????? ??????? ???????, ?а?а??????? ?????????? GPIO Zero ??а???????? ????? when_pressed, ????? ??????????, ????? ?????? ?????? ??а??????. ????? ??? ??????????,
??????????? ??????????????? ???????. ?а????? ??а????????
??????? (???????????????) ?????? randomiser, ??? ?????????
? ???? ??????? ?????? 34 ?????? ????, ?????? ??? ???????
?????-?????? ???????? ?????????????? ????? 1080p.
www.linuxformat.ru
?????? ???????
??????; ?????????? ??а????????, ?????
??а ??н??????????.
??????? ???????? ????? ?аUSB-?????????? ?а????????????? ???.
??а????????, ??? ??????? ??а????? () ?а????? ????? ???????.
??? ??????, ??? ?а????????? ?????? ??? ????? ???????????
??????????н???. ?а?????? ??? ?????? ???????? ??а??????????.
randomiser.when_pressed = play_video
stop.when_pressed = stop_video
pause_button.when_pressed = pause_video
????????? ?????? ?а???? ???????а? ??? ??????? pause(),
???????????? ??? ??????????? ?????? ????, ?а??а?????? ??? ?????? ????? ???????????? ???????.
pause()
? ??? ??????????, ???? ???????????? ?????? Ctrl?+?C? ??, ???
Keyboard Interrupt [?????????? ?а??????????], ?а???? ??? ??????????, ??а?????? ??????? ??а????? ?????? ??????, ?а????? Exit.
except KeyboardInterrupt:
print(?\nEXIT?)
?????? ????????? ???? ??? ?а???????? ???????? ?а????????,
??? ??а????????? ???. ????? ???????????? ???, ???? ?????????
??? ????? sudo (?а??????? root), ?????? ??? ?а?????????? keyboard,
???????????? ?а???????, ??????????? ?????? root.
??? ??????? ???? ????????
$ sudo python3 VideoPlayer.py
??? ?????? ???????? ???????? ??а?????, ??????? ???????
??????, ????? ????????????? ???????? ????????? ?????; ???
????? ??????? ??????, ?а??? ????????? ??????? ???????. ????????? ??????... ??а????????????, ??а?????? ?????????! |
??????
??????
?? ??????
???????? ?????? ?а???????
???????, ?????
?????????
???????
??а????????
???????????.
????? ?????
????? ??????
?а????? ??????, ???????
??????? ???????? ?а????????? ?а???????
????????????.
╗╗???????????? KEYBOARD
? ???? ??????? ??а???????????? ??? ???????? ?????????? Keyboard, ?????????? Python, ????????? ?????? ?????? ??? ?????????? ????????????????, ????????????? ?а?????????? ??????????????? ?????. ?????????? Keyboard ?????
???????????? ??? ??????? ????? ??????, ??????? ??а????? ????????????????
????????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????? ????? ???????. ?????????? ?????
?????????? ??? ?????? ?????? ??а?????.
?? ????? ??????? ???????? ???? ?????????? ???????? ??, ??? ??? ?????
?????????????? ??? ?????? ???? ??????? ??????? ??а??????? ??????????. ???
??????? ?????? ????? ???? ???????? ?а??????, ????? ????????? ?а???? ?а???????????? ??? ??????? ?????. ???????, ?????? ??????? ?????? ?????????????
???а??? ???????? ???????? ?????????? ?а????? ????????? ??? ????? ?????????????. ??? ??? ??а??????? ?????! ?????? Keyboard ????? ???????????? ??? ??????
?????????? ???а??????? ?????????????? ???????????? ?а????? ?????, ???????
??? ???????????? ??а(??а???????????? ?а??????? ??????????????? ?а????????? ??????????????) ??а?????? ???????, ????? ??????? ??? ???????? ??????????????? ????? ??????????? ???? ?/??? ?????? ??а???? ????????????!
?????????? Keyboard ???????? ?аLinux ?аWindows, ?а?а??? ????? ?????? ??????.
????? ????????? ??????? ?????? ??а???? ??????????, ????????? ?а????? ?а?????
https://bigl.es/tuesday-tooling-record-replay-keystrokes-with-python ?а??????????
????????? ???????? ??а?????????? ?а???????????? ?????.
??????? 2018? LXF244? |?93
??????? ?????? ???????? ?????
?????? ????????
???????? ????
??????????? ?????
?????? ??????? ????????? ?аRaspberry Pi ??? Arduino, ??а??а??????, ?а?????? ?????
??????? ??а????????? ?
??? ??????? ? ??? ?????, ??????? ??а?????.
???? ????????? ?????? ???????????? ??????????,
?????? ???????????? ????? ???????? ??????????? ?????. ????????? ??а?????? ??????? ???? ???????????
??? ????????? ??? ??????????????? ??????.
??????? ????????, ??? ??????? ??????????, ?а????? ?????
??????????? ????????????? ?? ????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ??????? ????? ???????????. ??????, ????????? ???????????? ??????????? ??????????? (SBCа? Single-Board Computer),
????? ??? Raspberry Pi ?аArduino, ??????? ??????? ?????.
???????н??? ???????? ???????????? ??????????? ?????
???????? ??????????? ??????? ?а???????????, ??, ?а???????
??а???????????? ??????????? 1980??, ??????????????? ????
?а??????????? ?а??? ???????????. ???? ?????? ??????а? ???????
?????? ??? ?а?????????????? ???? ?????? ???????????? ????????? ????????????? SBC.
??? ??????? ???????? ?а????? ??????, ??????? ??а???????? ?а????? ?а?а????, ??? ??????? ???????? ?????. ??а??? HAT
[Hardware Attached on Top, ?????-?????????] ??? Pi ?а??????
??? Arduino ???????? ?а????????? ????, ???????? ?а??????. ???
?а?????? Sinclair ZX80 1980?? ??., ????????? ??а???? ??????? SBC
???????????? ?????? ?а???? ?????????? ???????, ??????????
???????? ????? (PCBа? Printed Circuit Board) ?а????????????? ??
??????????, ??????? ??а?????? ??????? ??????????????.
????????? ??????????? ???? ??а????????? ???????????.
???? ??а????????? ??а???? ?????????? ??а?????????? ?????????
????????? ???? Fritzing (http://fritzing.org), ??а??????? ?????????
????, ??????? ???????????? ?????? ?а??????????. ??? ???? ??????????? ??? ???????? ??????? ?????? ??? ??????????, ??????
??? ???????? ?????.
?? ?????????? ?????? ??? ?????????? ?а?????? ????? ?????????: ??????????? ????????? ?????????? ??а?????? ????????
?????, ???????, ??? ???????? ?????????? ?????? ??? ???????,
?а?????????, ??? ???????? ?????? ??? ??????, ????? ??а?????
?????????? ??, ??????? ????? ?а???????? ??а?????.
?
???
???????
??????? ?
н ????
???????? ?а??????????? ????????????? ???
????????? ????????????. ?????? ???
??? ???????? ???????? ???? ??а????
?а???? ?????????
?????????????????? ??????????.
??????
??????
???, ???? ???
?а??а?????н
??????, ?????
???????????
??????? ???????? ???????.
??а????? ???????, ???? ?а??н
??? ??а???????
???????? ???-??
??а??????,
??а???? ??????
??а??????????
??? ?????????
??????????
??????? ?а???????? ??????????, ?а?????
??? ????????
??а?????а???
????????
??н??н?????.
?????? ?????
?????? ????????????? Pi HAT ??? ?????? ??? Arduino, ?а????н????
??????? ??а???????? ??????????? ???????. ????? ??? ??????
????? ???????, ??? ??-??а?????????? ????? ??а??????? ???? Pi
??? Arduino.
????? ????????????? ???????? ??????? ?а??????????? ???
?????, ?а????????? ????? ????????? ???????? ?????????????
????????? ???????. ??а??????? ???? ????? ???????? ??аwww.
kitronik.co.uk. ??а???????????????? ??? ??????? ??а?????????, ??а??а?????????: ????????? ??ал???????╗ ??????? ?? ?????
94? |? LXF244? ??????? 2018
?????????? ??????. ?????? ????? ???????????? ????? ???????????? ?а??????????????????? ?а????? ????? г?6,14. ???, ??? ???
????? ????? ????а? ??? ?????? ????????? ??.
? ?????? ?????? Kitronik ?????? ?????????? ?а???????????
???????? ??????, ?? ????????? ??а????????? ?а?а???, ???? ?????
????????????? ??????? ????? ??а?????? ?????, ????????????
???а????????? ???????, ??а????????????? ???????????????? ????????? ??????????. ?а????? ?а????????? ???????????
??????????? ???? ???????, ??а????????? ??? ???? ??а?????
??????? ??????? ???а??????? ???????? ?????, ??????????? ?????????? ????????? ????????? ?????????? ?а?????????? ?????
??????? ????.
?????? ?????
??? ?????? ???????? ???????? ?а????????? ????????? ?????,
????? ??а????????. ???? ??а?????, ???????? ????? ?а?????????
????????? ??? ?????????. ????????? ???????? ?????????, ??????
???? ???? ?????? ?а?????????. ??????? ????????? ??? ?????????
????? ??а??????? ?????, ????? ??????? ?????? ????????????
?????? ??? ??????? ?????, ???? ??а??????????? ??? ???????.
?????? ????????? ?????? ?а???? ????????? ?а??????? ??? ???????, ??????? ??а?????. ????????, ??? ??? ???????? ?а???????
???? (???????? ?????? ????? ?????????? ?????? ??????). ????????, ??????????? ????????? ??? ????????? ???? ?????????
??????, ????? ???????? ????????? ??????? ????. ????? ????,
???????? ????????, ??? ??? ?????, ????????, ???????? ?????
?????? ????, ???? ???? ??????? ???????? ????? ??????, ????
???????? ???????.
????? ??????? ???? ????????? ??а?????? ??????? ???? ?????? ?????. ???????? ????? ?????? ????????????? ?????????????
???????? ????; ????????? ???????? ?а????? ???, ????? ??а??????? ?а?????? ??????, ?а????????. ??? ??????? ??? ?????????????
??????? ?????? ????????? ??? ?????? ??????. ?????? ?????????
????? ?????? ?а??????????????? ??????? ????????. ?а??????? ??????? ??? ???? ????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ?????????.
??? ?????? ??? ??????????, ???????? ?????? ?а????????, ?????
?????? ?????????.
?????????, ??? ??а??а????????????? ??????н????? ??????,
??-??а???? ???????? ?????????? ???????? ????? ??????? ?а????.
???? ???, ??а???? ??????? ?????? ?а??????? ?????? ??? ??????
?а??????????? ?????. ??? ??а????? ????????? ??????, ?а?????????? ???? ????? ?????? ??а????????? ??????????? ?а????????.
?а???? ?????? ?????? ????? ????-???? ????????. ?????????, ???
???????? ?????????? ???????. ???? ??? ???????, ??а??????????
??а????????, ??? ???????? ???????? ?????????н???? ???????,
www.linuxformat.ru
?????? ???????? ????? ???????
??????? ??????? ??? ?а??????? ?????? ??? ?????? ?а?????н
????? ?????. ??????, ??? ??????? ?????? ??????????? ?????????
?а???????? ?а????????? ???????? ???????????????? ????????
??????? ??????????, ??????? ?????????? ?????? ????? ??? ?????
???????. ?а???????, ??? ????????? ??????????, ???????? ???????????? ?????, ????? ???? ?????????? ??-??а?????????.
?????????? ??????
????????? ????? ??а?????, ????? ????? ???????????? ??????.
????? ??? ??????? ?????????? ??а??????, ??а??а?????????????
?????? ?????, ??? ???????? ????????? ???? ???????. ??????
?????? ????????? ????????, ??????????? ???????????? ?а???????????? ????????? ???????.
????????? ?????????? ?????. ?а??? ????????? ?????н???н
??н???? ??????, ????????, 6а?? ?????? ?а2а?? ?а????????, ?а??н
???? ?а????? ?????? ???????. ??? ????? ????????? ??????? ?????, ?????????? ???????? ??а?????????????а? ??. ?????? ?????
?а???, ??? л??????╗ ?????????.
???????????? ?????????? ??а??? ??????, ????????? ?а???
????? ????? ?????, ??а?????????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ???
?????????? ???????? ???????????????? ????????. ?????? ??????, ???? ????? ????? ??? ?????? ?а??а???????? ??????????, ?????? ??? ??????????? [Light-Emitting Diode, LED], ??а???, ????????,
???????????. ?а??????? ??а??????????, ???????? ????? ??????????
??а??? ?а???? ??????. ??а?????????????? ?????????????н????
??? ?????????? ????????????? ??????? ??????? ??а???????? ????????? ?????????, ????????, 47 ??? ??? 47╡, ???? ????? ????
?????? 47, ?а???? ?????? ??? ??????????????. ??а?????????????
??????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ?а?????????, ???????? .47╡, ??, ?????? ?????, ??? ????? ??? ?????, ????? ?а??????
?????. ?а???? ?????? ?????? ??? ????? ???????? ?????????
???????, ?а??????а? ?????????, ?.??. ????? ?????, ?а????????
?а??. ???, ????????, 103 [10?╫?103] ???????? 10000 ?? = 10 ??.
????? ????? ????????? ??????????н???? ??????? ?а???????? ??а?????? ????? ???????. ?а??????? ??а??????????, ?а???
??? ??????? ?????. ?????? ?а??? ?????? ??? ?????????? ???????
?а????? ???????, ???????????? ?????а? ????????????? ?????.
??????????? ?????? ?????????? ??а???????, ????????, 1N4148.
?????????? ?????? ????? ????????? ??????????
??????н???????? ??????? ?а?????? ?????? ??????а? ????
??????? ?????? ?????? ?а??а????? ????? ??а????? ?????????, ????????????, ?????,
??????????, ???????????, ?????????? ?????????? ?а???????????? ????? (??).
?????? ????????? ??а??????? ??а????????. ??? ?????? ???????а??а????н???? ????? ???????. ??????? ????? ??????? ??????
?а????? ???????, ????????? ?????.
???????????, ?? ??????????? ????? ?????? ?????????,
????? ?????? ??? ?????????н???? ??????????н???? ???????, ?????? ?????????? ??а????? ???????; ?а?????а? ?????? ?????н
???????? ???????. ??????????? ?????? ?????????? ??а???????,
????????,аBC548. ?а??? ??? ??????. ?????????? ???? ???????
??????????? ??? ?????? ???????????? ?а????? ???? ??????????
?????? ??а??????? ?????????????, ???? ?????? ???????? ?????
?????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????????.
?????????? ?????????? ?????? ??а???????????, ???? ???????? ???????????????? ???? ????? ?????? ??????????? ????????????? ???????. ??а??????????? ????? ?????????? ??а???. ???
?а??? ????????????, ??? ??????? ?????????? ?а????????, ?????
?????????? ??????, ??а???а??????? ??????? ???????? ?????
??????? ??????????.
???????????? ????? (??) ?????? ???????????? ????? ?????? ??????????? ?????????????? ?а???????? ??а???? ?????.
??????????, ??? ???????, ????? ??????, 14 ??? 16 ???????.
╗╗?????? ???????? ??????????
? ??????? ??а??????????? ???????, ??????? ????????? ???????????? ????????
?????????. ??а????? ????, ???????? ??????????? ??? ????? ??????????? ???:
?????????????? ???????? ???, ??????? ??? ???????, ?а????? ?????, ?а????????
?????????. ?а????? ??????? ?а???? ???? ??? ??????? ??????????? ??? ???????,
???????????? ?????? ?, ????????, ????????????? ???????????. ?????? ???
?????????????? ??????? ????? ????????????, ??а????? ????? ????????? ???????? ?а????.
???? ???????????? ??? ??????? ????????, ??а?????? ??? ???????????? ??????
??? ?????, ?а?????? ???????? ??????????, ?.??. ?????? ????????????? ?????.
???? ???????????? ?????? ??????? ????????, ??а?????? ??? ???????????? ?????
(??????? ?????? ?????? ????? ????), ?а?????????а? ?????????. ???? ?????????
?????, ???????????? ??? ????????, ??а??? ?????? (0), ?????????? (1), ???????
(2), ????????? (3), ?????? (4), ??????? (5), ????? (6), ?????????? (7), ????? (8)
?а????? (9).
??? ??????? ??а??????? ?????? ??????? ??? ????? ?????? ?????, ?а??????
??? ?????? ?????? ???????. ???????????? ????????????? ????????? ???????????
?а???, ??? ?????? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ?????, ?????????, ????????, ?????????? ?а?????????? ????? ????????? ?????????, ??? ?а?????? ???? ??????. ????
????????????, ?????? ???????? ???????? ?а??????? ???????.
www.linuxformat.ru
???????? ?????????? ????????
?а???? ???????
?????. ???????? ?????? ????????? ?а???????????? ???????????? ?а???????а? ?а???????н
????????.
??????? 2018? LXF244? |?95
??????? ?????? ???????? ?????
??????
??????
????????
????? ???????????? ?????
???????????
???????? ?а??????????????? ????????
??а????? ???
????? ????????, ???????
???а????????????? ??????? ????????
????. ??????
??????? ???????? ?????
?????????
?а????????
????? ?а????????????
?а??????????
?????????
?а?????? ???????. ???????
????? ?????
????? ????
?а?????????
?????? ?????,
?а????? ?????
?????? ??а????? ????????.
???а?????????? ????? ????????? ??а???????. ??а????? ??а???????? ????? ?????? ???? ??????. ??? ????????? ????????????
??????а1, ??????? ????????? ????? ??а???. ?????, ??? ????????
??, ??а??????? ?????????? ????????? ?а??? ?????? DIL, ????
??? ????????????.
??????? ???????
????? ?????, ???? ??????? ?????? ???????? ?а?????? ??????
?, ????????, ???? ??????????? ??????? ?а??????????? ?????????????. ?????, ??????, ????? ???????? ?????? ???????? ??????,
?а?а???? ?????? ??? ???? ????? ??????? ????????? ?????????????. ????? ??????а?? ??????? ????????? ???????? ??????, ?????
????? ???? ????????? ????? ??????????? ?????????.
?? ????? ????????????? ?????? л????????╗ ??????????,
??а???? ????? ???, ?а??????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ????????? ?а?????. ????? ????? ?????? ??? ?????????????? ???????
(SMDа? Surface Mounting Device), ??????? ??а???????????????
????????????? ???????? ??????, ????? ?????? ?а???????????,
?а??????? ??????????? ??????? ???????. ??????? ??????? ???
?????????????? ??????? ??а?????? ????? ?????????.
? ??????????? ?????? ??? ??????, ???? ???а???????????? ???????. ??а??????? ????, ?а??? ????? ????????а? ?а????,
???????? ??? ???????, ??????? ????? ????????? ??а? ??? R,
k? ??? ?????? k, ??? M? ??? ?????? M ??????????????. ??????
???????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????, ??????? 2,2 ??? ?????
???????? ??? 2?2. ???? ??? ???????????? ??????????, ???????
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????? ???????.
? 2018а?.а?????? Haiku ??????? ???? ???????? ?а?????????
????????? ????????????? ????? ???????. ?аHaiku ??? ?????????? ????? ??? ???????? ?а???????? ???????? ?????; ??? ???
???????? ????? ???????? ????????? Haiku Depotа? ????????????? ???????? ??????? ?а??????? ???????????? ???????????.
?????????? ????? ?????? ?????? ???? ?????????? ???????
??????????, ??а?????? ?аHaiku ????? ???????? LibreOffice, Krita,
Blender, Qmplay2 ?а??????? ?????? ????????? ???????? OSS.
????? ?????? R1 ??? ????????????, ???? ??????????
??????????? ??????а? R1 Alphaа? ????? ??? ?а2012а?.а??? ????
??????? ?а?????, ????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????????
?а??а???????????? ?аHaiku Depot, ??а???????? ?????????????
????? ??????, ????? ??? ??????? ??????????? ???????? ?а??????
??????? *.hpkg ??? ????????? ??а???????? ??????????? BeOS. ????? ??а??????? ???? ???????? ???? ????????????? Haiku Nightly,
???, ???? ?а?????? ?????? ???, ????? ???? ???? ????? ??????????, ??? R1 Alpha. ??????, ????? Haiku R1 ????????? ?а?????????
???????, ??? ???????? ??? ????? ?????????? ?????? ????????
??а???????????.
Haiku ??а???????? ??аUNIX, ??а????? ???? ?????????????
?аPOSIX ?а???????? ????????? ??????? ?????? GNU, ???????????? ??а???????. ??? ???????????? ??, ????????? ???????
??аmacOS, ??? ???????? ??? ??????? ???????. ???а?????????
???????????? ??????? ???????? ????? ?anyboot? ?а???????? ???
??аUSB-?????? ??? CD. ???????????? ????? ????? ?????????????
??????? live, ??????? ???? ?????????? ??????????? ???????, ???
Haiku ???????? ??а????? ????????????, ??а??а???????н???? ?????????. ??а????????? ??????? ?????, ???????? Haiku R1, ?а??????
?а??????, ??? Haiku Depot ???????? ??????. ??а???????? ?а????
???????????? ????????? ??????? (????? Synaptic) ?а?????????,
??? ??????????? ?????????? ?????? ??????????? ????????????
??????????? (??а?????? ??? ?аApp Center ?аelementary OS).
H
100? |? LXF244? ??????? 2018
????????? ???????? ?????? ????????? ??-??а??? ???????? BeOS, ??а????
??????????????.
??????????? ?? Haiku OS
1
3
2
5
4
??????? ????
?? ??????? ????? ????? ?????????
?????, ????? ?а?????? ??????????
[???.:а? ?????????????!], ??? ?а?а?????
????????н???? ??????? ?????.
1
????????? ??????? ????
??? ???????????? ??????? ??? BeOS
?аHaiku, ??????? ???????? ????? ??а??????.
2
????????????? ?а???????
????? ??а?????????? ?а????
?????????? ??????, ???????
3
???????? ?а???? ?????????, ?????? ?????
?а?????????а?????.
????????? ???????
Haiku ??????? ????????????? ?а????????? ???????? ????????? ?????????
????????????.
4
??????????? ????
Tracker, ???????? ???????? Haiku,
????????? ????????? ??????? ?а????????? ????? ????, ?????????? ??????
??????? ????.
5
www.linuxformat.ru
HOTPICKS
Eolie ???????? ?????
????? ??а??????
?а???а???????
???????? ??????????? ???????.
WEB-???????
Eolie
??????: 0.9.37
????: https://gitlab.gnome.org/world/eolie
?????? ?????????????? ????? ???????????? ??????????, ?а???? ????? ??????? ??а???????????? ?????
????? ????????, ??? ??????? ??????????? ??а??????????. ??? ??????, Eolieа? ?а???????????? ???????? ???????
????????? web-??????? ????????? ?а????? ????; ??а???????,
??? ???? ?????? ?а??????? ?????????? ?????? ?????. ??????
??????????????? ??????????? ??????? Eolie ?????? ????????????
?????, ??? ?????? ???? ??????????? ?а???? ?????????? ??????????????. ??? ?????? ??а???????????? ?????? ?????, ???????
???????????? ?????? ???????????? Linux.
Eolie ??????? ??аWebkit2, GTK3 ?а?????????? ???????
Python3. ??а?????????? ?а????? ???????? ????????? ?а??????????? ??????? ???? Gnome ?, ????????, ???????? Gnome Web
(?????????? Epiphany). ??а?????????? ????? ???????? ?????
Eolie ?аEpiphany, ????????? ??? ?????????? WebkitGTK ?а?????
????? ????? ???????, ????????, ????????? Sync, ??? ?аFirefox.
?????? Eolie ????? ???????????? ????? ???????? ?????????;
?а??а???? ??????????????? ??? ?????, ??????? ??????????
??????????? Epiphany.
Eolie ?????, ????? ??? ???? ??????. ??а?????????? ????????????? ???????? ?????? ??а?????????? ???????? ?????????,
?
???????????? ?а?????? ????????? ????, ????????????? ?????
?а??????????? ????????? ??? ???????? ??????? ??????.
??? ??а?????, ?а???? ???????? ???????? ????????? ???????. ?аEolie ???? ??????????? ??????????? ???????, ?????
л??????╗, ????? ?????????? ????????? ?а???? ?????????? ???
???????? ?????. ????????? ???????? ?????????: ???????? ??????
??????? ???? web-???????? ?а???????? Save videos [?????????
?????]. ????? ?????????? ??а?????? ?????? ?а????????, ??? ????
??????? ????? ?аYouTube ??????????? ?а??????? MP4. Eolie ?????
????? ????????? ??????????? ??а???????? ??? ??????????????
???? ???????? ??? ???????????.
Eolie ????? ??????????? ??а?????? ????????????? Linux,
?а????? ???????? ??? ?аFlathub.
?????????? ???? ??????
Heimer
??????: 1.2.0 ????: https://github.com/juzzlin/heimer
?????? ????? ??? ????????? ??? ????, ??????? ??а???????? ???? ???????????? ??? ???????? ?аLinux ????
?????? (???а??а? ?????????-?????):аMinder (https://
github.com/phase1geo/Minder) ?аHeimer. ????? ??а???????????
??а????????, ??а??????аMinder ???????????? ??????? ?????
????????, ??? ??????????? ???????? ????. Heimer ???????? ??????а?????? ??????, ??а??????? ??????? ?а????????
?????аHotPicks ????? ??????.
?????? ??а??????????? ???? ?????? ????????? ????????
?????????????, ?а?????? ????? Heimer ????????. ??? ?????????? ?а????? ?????? ???????? ?????, ?.??. ????? ????????????
Linux ????? ?а??????? Heimer ?????????? ???????? ?????
?????? ??а????????? ??????. ??????? ???????????? ??а???
?? ?????: ????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ?????, ?????????
??а????????, ????????? ???? ?а???????? ??????? ?????????????? ???????. ??? ?а???; ??а??а??а???????, ??? ?????????
????????? ????????????????.
?????? ???? ????? ???? ???????????? ??? ??????
??????н???? ???????? ?????, ??а?а???? ????? ??????? ??????
???? ???????. ???? ??? ???? ?????????? ?????, ??? ????? ?????
????????? ??а??????, ????????? ????? ???????? ??????: ??????
?
www.linuxformat.ru
???????? ????????? ????? ?????????? ?а??????? ??а???????,
????? ??? ????????? ??? ???? ????.
Heimer ???????? ??????????? ?????, ????? ????????
????????н???? ?????, ??? ???? ?????? ?????????? ??а???????
?а?????????? ???? ??????????? ???????? ???????. ??????? ?????
????? ???????, ?????????? ???????? ????? ??????. ???? ???
??а????? ????????? ????, ?????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ???? ??а?????? ?а???????? Create floating node [??????? ?????????
????], ????? ??????? ??????????? ???? ???а???????. ????????,
??а?????? ?????????????? ???? ????? ?а???? ??????????? PNG
??? ????????? ??а?а??????????? ?????????? ??????? Heimer,
??????? ??а???а???????? ?????? .alz.
???? ??? ??????????? ??? ???????, ?????? ???????????
Heimer, ???? Appimage ??а???????? ???????, ?????? ??? ??????????? ?а???????? ???.
???????? ????????? ????? ??????
?аHeimerа? ????
????????!
??????? 2018? LXF244? |?101
HOTPICKS
?????????? ??? ????????? ?????
Acid Cam
??????: 1.19.1
????: https://github.com/lostjared/acid.cam.v2.qt
??????????? Linux ???????????? ?аCheese. ??? ?????н
????? Gnome ??а????????? ??? web-??????, ?а???
????? ????????? ?????????????. ?????? ?а?????????? ?????? ????????? ?а???????? ?????? ????? ???????, ??а??а???
??? ??а???????? ????? ???????.
Acid Camа? ????????? ?????????? ??? web-??????, ?а???????? ???????? ?а??? ????????? ?????????????, ????? ?????
??а???????а? л????????? [acid]╗ ?????????. ??? ?????? ???????
??????? ?????????. ????? ?????? 1.19.1а? ?????????? ??? ?????
Acid Cam ??аQt ??? Linux ?аWindows (??? ?????? macOS ???????
????????? ??????).
???????? Acid Cam, ??а???????, ??? ????? ???????????? ?????
??? ???????? ?а????????. ?????? ?????? ???????? ????? 80а????????? ????????????, ??????????? ???????? ?????, ?????????,
????????? ?????????? ??????? ?а??????????? ???????????
?????. ??????? ??????????? ??, ???? ????? ??????? ?аCheese
??? Kamoso.
?????? ??????? ????????? ???? ????????? ?????????
???????? ???????? ?????. ????? ???????????? web-??????
?а?????????? V4L, ?а????? ??????? ????????? ?а????????? Acid
Cam ????????? ??????????? ?а?????? ????????? ???????. ???,
?
??? ??а?????? ??а??????, ?????????????? ??а????, ?а?????????
????? ???????? ?????????? ?а????????? ????. ??????? ????
Acid Cam ????????? ??????? ????????? ???????? ?а?????????
??а????????????, ???? ??? ????? ???????? ??? ???????н????
????????? ??а??????. ???? Options [?????????] ?????????
????????? ????????? ??????, ???????? ???????????? ????????
?а????????? ???????.
?? ??????? ??????? ????? ?аAcid Cam, ?а???? ??а??а??????
?????????? ??????? ????????? ?а???????????? ?????????,
??? ??????? ?????? ???????????. ?????????? ??а????, ???
??а???????? Acid Camа? ????? ??????????? ?аweb-?????? ???
????????? ?????-????а? ???????????? ????????? ????? ????,
????? ??? ??????????. ?а???а?????? ??????? ?????? Start [????]
?????? ?????? ??????????? ??а????? ??????? ?????!
??????? ?а???
?????????
?????н????????
?а????????
??????????
????а?аAcid Cam.
Audacity 2.3 ???????? ???????????,
??????????
????? ??а?????
??????????
???????.
???????? ?????
Audacity
??????: 2.3 ????: www.audacityteam.org
??????? ?а?????? ????????? ??? ?????? ?????????,
?а???????? ???????? ?????, ????????? ?????? ???
??????? ??????????????? ???????????, ?, ???????,
???? ??а?????? ???????? ??????????н????????? FOSSа? ???,
???????, Audacity. ??а?????? ?а?????? 2.2 ??? ?????, ?аLXF232,
??а??????, ?а?????? 2.3, ????????? ??? ????? ??????????????
????? ???????.
?? ????? ????????? ?????? Audacity ?а???????? ??-??а???
????????????? ??????? Punch and Roll [?????? ?а????????]. ???
????????? ???, ???????, ?????? ???а??????????? ?а??????? ?????????? ????? ?а??????, ???? ??? ????? ???????? [splice] ?????
??а??????? (????????, ???а???????? ??????-?????? ??а??????????
??????? ??????). ??????? Punch and Rollа? ??????? ???????
??? ??????????? ??????. ??? ?????? ??а????????????, ???
??? ?????а?? ?????????? ??????, ?????????? ??а?а?а???????
??????? ???????? ????????? ????? ???????. ????? ????????
Transport > Recording > Punch and Roll Record [?????? > ?????? >
?????? Punch and Roll], ????? ??????????? ??????. ??? ???????
??а????????? ???????? ?а???????; ?????? ????? ????? ???????????????? ???, ??? ??????? ??а?????? ???????, ???? ??а??????????
??а?????є???? ???.
?
102? |? LXF244? ??????? 2018
??????? Punch and Rollа? ?????????? ?????? ?????? ???
????, ??? ?????????? Audacity ??? ?????? ????????? ??? ??????,
????????? ???????? ????? ??????? ??а???????? ??????? ????????? ???????? ???????. ??а?аAudacity 3.0 ???? ?а?????? ?????
???????. ????????, ?????? ????? ?????? ??????? ???????
?????????? ???????????????? ?а??????????; ???????????? ????
??????? ???????? ???????? ????? ?????? ????????? ?????. ?а?????? ?????? ?????? ????????? ?????????? ????????????, Audacity
????????, ???????, ?????? ???????? ?????????? ??? Linuxа?
??????, ??а??????? ?а?????????????, ?????????? ????????
?а?????????????. ???????????? ?????, ???????? ???????? ????, ???????????? ???? ?????? ?а????????? ????????? ?а???????
??????? ?аOGG ??? MP3 ??а??????? ?а??? ????? ???????.
Audacity ?????? ???????? ????????н??? ??а???? ?????????????
Linux, ?а????? ?а????????? Flathub ?аSnap.
www.linuxformat.ru
HOTPICKS
???????? ???????????? ??????????
TreeLine
??????: 3.0.1 ????: http://treeline.bellz.org
?? ???? ???? ??????? ??а?????????? ???????, ???????,
????????? ?а?????? ?????? ??????? ??????. ????????? ???????????? ?????????? (PIM) ????????
???????????? ???????? ??????, ??а??????????? ??а????????????? ??а?????????? ???? ??????????: ??????????? ??????,
???????? ?а?.??. ?а??????? ??а???, TreeLine ?????????? ???????????
???: ??? ?????????? PIM, ??????????? ??????? ??????????
?????? ????.
TreeLineа? ?????????? ??аPyQt, ??????? ?????????? ???
????? ???, ???? ???а???? ????????? ?????? ??? ??? ?а?а??????
??а??????. ??? ??????????? ?а????????. ????????? ?????? ?а?????????? ????????, ?а??????? ?????? ????? ?а??????? ????????
????? ?а???. ????? ????????? ??????? ????? ???????? ??а??????? ???????? ?????????, ?а?????? ?а??? ?????????? ?????????
[breadcrumbs]. ?????? ?????? ????? ??????? ??а?????? ?????,
?а????? ????? ??????????. ?????????????? ??????????????
?????? ?а???????? HTML. ?????? ???? ???????? ?????? ?аTreeLine
?????????? ?????? ?а???????н??? ???????? ?????? JSON. ?????
????? ????????? ???????? ???? ?а??????? ???????? ?????,
??????? TreeLine ??а?????????????? ????????? ?????????? ???
??????????? ????????.
?
????????? ????????? ????????? ??????????? ???? ?а???????????? ?а??? ???? (????? ?????????? ???? Data Types [????
??????]), ????????? ???? ?????????? ????? ????? ?????????
???а????? ??????????. ??? ???????? ??? ????????????? ???????? ??????. ?????????? ??а???????????, ??????? ??а??????
????????? ?аTreeLine, ?????? ????? ???????? ??????? ??????????? ?????????? ??? ???????: Data output [????? ??????], Data
Edit [?????????????? ??????] ?аTitle list [?????? ??????????]. ???
?????????? HTML-????????? WYSIWYG, ??? ????? ?????????
???????, ??? ????????? ?а???? ??? ?????????? ??????????
?а????????????? ??????????? ????????.
????? ???????, ???? ?аTreeLine ??? ???????? ?????? ???????,
??? ???????? ?а????? ?????????? ?????????, ?а??? ???????
??????????? ??а????? ???????. ??а??? ??????????? ?????
????????? ???????.
?????? ?а???????? ?????????
??? ?????????
??????????????.
?????? ????????? ?????????
????????? ?????
??????? ?????????? ????????.
???????? ???????????
GrafX2
??????: 2.5 ????: http://grafx2.tk
?? ???? ??а????? ????????? ?????????? ???????????,
??????? ??а?????-???? ?????????????. GrafX2 ???????? ?????, ??? LibreSprite (LXF242), ?а????? ??а??????? ?????????? ??????????? ????? AzPainter (LXF223). ??? ???
??????н???? ????????? ????? ???? ????? ?????: ???? ???????????? ?????? ??а?????? ????????? ???????????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ??????? ?а??????. ??а???????? ?????? ?а???????
????? ?аGrafX2а? ?а??????????, ??? ??а????? ??????.
GrafX2а? ??? ???????? ??? ????????? ?????????? ???????????, ?а??? ?????? ??а??????? ???-??а?????? ??а??????, ??а????????,
????????? ?????? ??? ???????????. ???????? ??а?????????
??????????? ?????????, GrafX2 ????? ?????????, ??? Paint???????? ????????? ??????? ???. ??а????? ?????????????
??????? ????? [Undo], ????????? ?????, ???? ?????????, ????,
??????????? ????????? ?а???? ??? ???????????? ????????
?а??????? ?????? ????????? [Drawing].
???? ????? ??а???????????? ?а???, ??? ???????? ???????????
?????????, ??? ??????????? ?????? ??????? ??? ??????????
??????? ?????, ????? ??? ????????? ?????? ?а??????, ??? ??????
????? ??????????? ?а????????????? ??? ?а????н???? ?????????????? ?????. ?????? ?????? ???????? ?????????????, ??а??а?????
?
www.linuxformat.ru
???? ???????????? ???????? ???? GrafX2. ?????? ??????????
???? ?а?????????? ??????????, ??????? ????????????, ?а?????
????????. ??а????????? GrafX2 ?????????? ????????? ???????
?а??????? GIF, ??? ???????? ???????????? ?а?????, ??а???????????? ??????? ????? ?????? ???????? ????????, ???????
PNG ?аBMP.
? ????? ?????? ????? ???? GrafX2 ???????? ?????? ?а???????? ??? ???????????? ????. ??а?????? ??????? ??? ????????
??????, ?????? ??? ?????? ???????????? ????? ??а??????? ????????? ??????????? ??? ???????.
GrafX2а? ??? ??? ??????????, ??????? ?????????? ?а??????????? ???? ???????????????? ????????????? ??????? ?????
??????н????. ????????????? ????? ?????? ???????????? ????????? ?а????????? ?а??????? ????????????? ???????н???? ???????????, ??? ???????? ??? ???????а? ??? ???? ?а??????!
??????? 2018? LXF244? |?103
HOTPICKS ????
??????????
???? ??????
?????? ??аDouble
Dragon ??а?????
????????????
??????????.
????-????????
Zabuyaki
??????: Git ????: www.zabuyaki.com
ua ? ?????????????? ?????????? ????, ?????????
??? ???????? ????????? ???, ??????? ??????? ?????..
???? LOVE, ???????? ?????? ??аLua. ???? ??????? ???????а? ?????????? ???? ??аLua ???а????????? Zabuyaki, ??? ?а???????? ??а??????? ???????? л??????? ???????╗. ??? ??????? ????,
?????? ???????, ?????? ?а???????????? ????? ?а????? ?????.
Zabuyaki ???????? ?а???? ???????? ???????? ?????????
?а????????н???? ????????? ?а???????. ???????? ?????? ?????????: Rick [???] (????? ???????), Kisa [????] (????????), Chai
[???] (????????? ?????? ????-??) ?аYar [??] (??????? ?а???????
??????????). ??????, ????????? ???? ????????? ?а?????? ??????????, ???? ?а??? ????? ??????? ?????? ??? ?а???. ??? ?????
???? ?????????? ?а????????????? ?????, ????? ?а?????, ?а??? ???
???????? ????? ???????? ?а?????????????.
???????? Zabuyaki ???????? ?а?????? ?????-??????????. ??????? ??????? ??а?????? ?????, ??????? ????-???? ?а??????????? ??????????? ????? ???????? ???????????? ??????? ?а????,
???????? ???????????? ????????? ????????????? ??????а??нн
????????? ???? л???? ??а????╗. ?а????? ??????, ??а??????
?а??а???????? ??????? ?????, ?????? ??? ??????? ????? ????????
L
?????? ?????????? ??? ?а????. ??а???????????? ??????????? ??,
??а?а???, ?а??? ???? ?????? ??????.
????? ?????? ?а???????? ??????? ??????? ?????????, ??????? ???????? ?а??????? ??????????. ??? ????? ???????????
????????? ??а????????? ????аX ??? ????? ?аC ??? ??????, ??а?????????? ????????? ?????????? ???? ??????, ??????? ????????? ????????? ?????-????? ?а??????? ?????. ????? ????????
??????, ????? ??????? ???????? ???? ?а?????????? ??а????????
???, ??а?????? ?а??а??????? ???????. ??? ????? ???????? ???,
??????? ??а??? ?а?????? ??? ?????????? ?????. ??????? ???????
??а?????? ??а??? ?????? ???????? ?а????, ??? ???? ??????????
???????? ?а????? ?а?????? ??а???????.
????????? ???????, ?а??а?????????????, ??? Zabuyaki ?????
?????? ?????-???????, ???а??????? ??????? ??а?????????. ??а???
????? ???????? ?????!
?????
uRacer: TheаKing
OfаTheаDrift
??????: 0.9.4 ????: https://github.com/manuelbua/uracer-kotd
?????? ??????? ??????????, ?а??а??????. ??? ??????????????? ???? ?а???? ?????? ???????? ???????
?????????? ??? ???, ??? ????? ????? ?а????????
??????? ?а????? ?а???????? ???????? ????? ??? Linux. uRacer:
TheаKing OfаtheаDrift ?????????? ?????? ??? ???????? ???????
??????? ????????.
?? ?????? ??????, ?аuRacer ????? ?????? ?аDust Racing 2D
(LXF200), ??????? ???? ???????? ?а???? ??????; ??а????? ????
???????? ?а???? ?????. ??? ?????????? ????? ????????????
?а????н???????? ????????. uRacer ??????? ??а??????????????????
?????? ????????? ?а??а???????????? ??????? ????н???? ????????
?????????, ??а???а????????? ????????? ??????????а? ????????????. ??????????, ?????? ?а?????? ???????? ????? ??????,
?а???? ??????????????? ????? ?????? ?????? ???-??????? ?а??????? ????????? ?а????????? ?а??????????? ?????????? ?????.
??????, ???????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????. ??????
?????? ??а?????????, ?????????? ??????????? ?????. ????????? ??????? ?????? ???????????, ?а?????? ????? ??????? ???????? ??????????. ????, ??? ???? ?????? ?а?????????? ????? ??????
?
104? |? LXF244? ??????? 2018
????, ?а????? ??????????? ??а?????????? ???????. ??????а?
????? ?а??????????, ?а?а??? ????? ???? ???????, ????? ??????????? ??а????????. ????????, ??? ????????? ????? ?аuRacer ?????
???? ?????? ???????? ?????? ??а??????, ??а???????? ?а????????
??????????, ??а??? ?????? ??а????????: ?????????? ????????????? ?а????????????, ?а?а??? ???? ?????????????? ??????? ???
?????????? ????? ??а??????. ?????? ???? ??а??????? ?????????????? ??????????? ???????? ?-?? л????????? ?????╗, ??????? ????? ??????? ??? ??а????.
?? ????????? ??????? ?????, ???????? ?????? ??а?????
?????? uRacer, ??? ????? ????????????? ?ал?????????╗ ??????
??????? ??????????. ???-???? ??????????? ???????, ??а?а?????
?????? ??а??????? ??????????? ??????, ????????? ?а??????????? ????? ?????????? ??????? ???? ?аNeverball. ??????????? ?????????? ?а?????????????? ????? ??????? ???????????
??????? ????? ????????, ???? ???? ???????? ??????.
? ???? ??????????? ??????????
???????, ???????
??????? ??а?????? ????, ?????
??а????????????? ?а????????
????????.
www.linuxformat.ru
HOTPICKS
???? ??а?????????? ?????????? ??а????, ????
?????????? ?????
?????????????...
??????????? ????
EtherApe
??????: 0.9.18
????: https://etherape.sourceforge.io
therApeа? ?????????? ??????????? ?а???????, ???????
??????? ???, ??? ?????????? ??а???????? ????? ????????? ????. ??а?????? ??????????? ????????????
???????????? ???????? ??????????, EtherApe ???????? ?????н
?????? ??? ??????? ????????? ?а????????????? ?????? ????,
????? ???? ???????? ?? ????, ??? ?а?а????? ?????????.
??????????? EtherApe ??? ????????? ???????? ??????????? ???
?????????????. ?а??????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ????????
???????????? ???????? ??????? ?????????, ????? ???????????? ???? ?а?????? ????????? ???????. ?????? ?????? ?????????
????? ??????? ??а???? ????, ?а???? ????????? ??? ??????? (HTTP,
HTTPS, NTP ?а?.??.).
?????? ????????? ???????????, ??????? ??? ?????????
??????? ???? ?а????? ???????????? ????? ????? ????? ??????
?????? Nodes [????] ??а?????? ???????????? EtherApe, ?????
??????????? ?????? ???????. ?????? ?????? ?????????? ?????
???????????? ??????? ??? ???????????????? ??????, ?а?????
??????? ???????? ??????. ???? Capture [??????] ????????? ??н
????? ????? ????????????? (Link Layer, IP ??? TCP), ?а?????
???????????? ??????? ?????????.
E
??????? ?????????? ?????, ??? ??????? ??????????? ???????????? ?аFirefox ??? Chromium (??????? F12), ????? ???????
??????? ???????????, ??аEtherApe ????????????? ??? ??????
??а???? ????? ???????, ?а??а?????? ?а????, ??? ???????? ?а????????. ????????? CDN [???? ???????? ??????], ????????? ?????????, ???????????н???? ??????? ?а?????????? ????а? ??? ???
??????? ?????. ??????, ?????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ?а??????
?????? /etc/hosts ????а?? ????? ??а???.
EtherApe 0.9.18 ???????????? ????????? ?????? ????????????? ???????? ??аGTK3, ??а????? ????????, ??? ???а??????? ???а????
root (????????, ????? ??а?????? ???????? ??а?????? ???????
EtherнApe) ??????????? ?????????? ??????????. ?????? ??а?????
root ?????????? ?а???????н???? ??????????? ????????? ????
????????????????, ?а??? ????????, ??????? ????? ??????????:
$ xhost + local: && sudo etherape
?? ???????, ???? ???????? ???? ?? ????????? ??????????
???????? EtherApe.
????????????? ????????
??а???????????
?????? ?а??????????? ????????
?аGaupol!
???????? ?????????
Gaupol
??????: 1.4.1
????: https://otsaloma.io/gaupol
? ????? ????? ?а??????????? ???????????, ?????????
?а???????????????? ??? ??????????????? ?????-??????, ??а?????????? ????? ?????? ????????, ?????????? ?а????????? ???????????. ?????????? Gaupol ??????????
?а?????? ????????????? Linux ???а???????? ?а??????????????
????????? ??? ???????????. ???? ???? ????? ??????????, ????????, ???????, ??? ??????? ?????? ????????? UNIX, ???????
?????????????, ??? ?????????? ?????? ????????? ???? ??????,
??а?????? ??? ??????.
Gaupolа? ?????????? ?????????? ??аGTK3, ??????????
??????? ?????????? ????????? ?а????????????. ???????????
??????? Load/Save [????????/??????????] ????????? ??а?а?????н
??????, ?а?а?????????. Gaupol ???????????? ??????? ??????
?????????? ???????? ?????????, ??????? SUB, SRT, LRC, SSA,
VTT ?а??????а? ???а??а??????? ????? ????, ??????? Gaupol
??а???? ??????????. ??????????? ???????? ???????? ??? ???????
??а????????? ??? ?????????, ??????? ??????/?????????, ????????????????? ?а????????? ???????. ???????? Video > Load Video
[????? > ????????? ?????] ??? ??????? Ctrl?+?L, ????? ???????
?????????, ??????????????? ????? ?????????. ??????-??
Gaupol ??????? ???????? ??? ?а??? ???????????, ???? ?а??н
??????а?????????????? ??????.
?
www.linuxformat.ru
????????? ???????? ?????????????? ????????, ???? ???
??а????????????? ?????. ?а??????? ???? Tools [???????????]
?аGaupol ????? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ??? ??????? Text
[?????], ???????? ???????? ??? ?????? ??а?????????????????.
?а????????? ???? ????? ???????????????? ???????? ??????.
????????, ??????? Correct Texts [????????? ??????] (F8) ?????
??????????/????????? ?????, ????????? ??????, ?????? ???????
??????? ?а???? ?????????? ???????? ???а??????? ?????????????. ???? ????? ????? ???????? ????????, ??а??? ????? ????????? ??? ????? ???????. ???? ???? ??????????? ???????? ???????
?????? ????? ?????? ?а??????? Preview [????????????], ??????? ????????? ?????? MPV (?????????, ??? ??а??????????).
? ????????? ????? Gaupol ???????? ???????? ?????? ???????????? ??? ???????? ???????? ???????????? ?????? ???
??????????? ???????????????? ?????? ?а??????? ?????????.
??а??????????? ????? ???? ????????? ????! |
??????? 2018? LXF244? |?105
?? ?????
????? ?????!
DVD??????????? ? ??????? Linux Format ? 12 (244). ??????? 2018
??????????
Elementary 5.0
??????? 1
????????????
Elementary 5.0 (64-??????)
?????????? ??????????? ??а???? Ubuntu, ?????????
????? ??????????? ????????. ?????????? ?????????
??????? ???????????????? ??????????, ???????
Photos, Music, Videos, Calendar, Terminal, Files ?а?. ?.,
?????? ??????? ????? ????????? ??а????????????
Ubuntu ?аDebian.
Ubuntu 18.10 (64-??????)
??????????? ?? Linux ??а???? Debian, ??? ??????????
??, ???????? ????????? ?а?????????? ??????????
?а??????????????. ?????????? Ubuntu ?????????
??а???????, ???????????? ?????????? Ubuntu:
??а?????? ???? ????????, ??????????? ???????????
?????? ??????????????? ????? ??а??а??????
????? ?а???????? ??а??????????? ??а??????????
????????????, ?а???????????? ?????? ????? ?????
??????????? ?а???????? ???? ??а????? ????????
??а???? ??????????.
????????
HTTPS
Webforms
???????
Grub
Memtest86+
????????????: 17 ???? ? Linux
(?? ?????????? ?????)
Advanced Bash Scripting Guide ????????? ???????????
??а???????????????? ??аBash
Bash Guide for Beginners ??????????? ??аBash
???а??????????
Bits and bolts ???????? ????????а? ??? ??а??????
???а??а
Bourne Shell Scripting ????????? ???????????
??а???????????????? ??аBash
TheаCathedral and theаBazaar ???????????? ????? ?????
???????? [Eric S Raymond] л????? ?а?????╗
TheаDebianаAdministrator?s Handbook ???????????
??????????????, ?????????? ?????????????? Debian
Dive Into Python ??????? ??а????????????????
??аPython
Intro toаLinux ????????? ??????????? ??аLinux
Linux Dictionary ??????? Linux, ??????????? ????????????? ????????????
??н??н??н?? н??н??, ???н??н??н???, ??н??, ???н?? ? ???н???-???н???...
╗╗???????
??????
?????? ? ??????
?????? ?????????? Linux ?????
?????????. Linux ??????? ??а????,
??? ?а???, ??????, ???? ??????,
???????? ???? ??а ???????? ?аMS
Windows ??? MacOS ??аApple.
?????? ?а????? DVD ?????? ??????, ?.??. ???а???н??? ?????????
??? ?? (??? Mac) ?????? л???????????╗ ?аDVD,а?а??? ??а????????
Windows ??? MacOS ????? ?аDVD
?????????? Linux. ???? ???? ???????? ??? Live DVD ?а?????????
??????????? ?????? ?????? Linux,
?????? ??а???????????? ??? ??????? ??а????? ??. ?????? ?????????
DVD, ???????????????, ?а??а??????
?????, ????? ??? ??а????. ??????
???????, ????????? DVD, ?????????? ?а????, ??а??????а? ???. ????
???????? ??????????? ???????
????????? ???????? ?аDVD ??а?????? ?????????? ?? ?а?????????.
????????????а? ????? ??аDVD
???? ISO, ???????? ??? ??а????????? USB-?????????? ?а??????????
????????? ???. ??? ?а??????а?
Etcher ?аhttps://etcher.io, ?????????
??? Windows, MacOS ?аLinux. ?????!
106? |? LXF244? ??????? 2018
?
?
?
?
?????????? ??????? ???? Pantheon
??????????? ????????? ?????????
??????? ? ?????????? ??????????
??? ??????? ? ?????????? ??
64???????
???????! Ubuntu 18.10!
C????? ????? ????????????? ? ???? ????????????!
64???????
???????? ??????????? ??? ????????
Elementary 5.0 Juno
?????? Elementary OS ??????????? ???? ??а????? ?????? ?????????????, ?????-???? ????????? ??? Linux. ?а????? ????????? ???????
???а??? ????????? ?а??????????, ???, ??????? ?аv0.4
??аv5.0, Elementary OS ??а?????????????? ???????? ???????????? ?а??????? ?а????????????? ??????????.
Elementary OS ???????? ??аUbuntu (??????? ??????
?а????? ?????? ?????? Ubuntu ??а???.а107), ??а?????????? ??а?????, ???????????? ????? ??????????, ???????
?а?????? ?а????? ??????????? ??????? ????. ????????
??а?????? ???????? ?????????????? ??????? ???? ???
????????? Pantheon, ??????? ?????????????? ??????
?а?????????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????
????????? ????.
Elementary 5.0 ???????? ????????? ?????????? ?????????. Night Light [?????? ????] ?????? ???????? ???????? ??????????? ??????? ??????? ??? ??а?????? ???????? ??????? ??????/???????. ????????? ????????? ????
??????????н??? ??????????? ?? ?а???????? ???????????
??????? ??? ?????????? ???????? ????????. Picture-inpicture ?????????? ???? Android ? web-???????????????
?????: ??? ????????? ?а????, ??а????? ??? ???????????
????????? ?????? ??????. ????????? ?????? ?????
?????????? ??????? ??????? ????? ?а????????????? ???,
????? ??а???? ????? ???????. ?а????? 1000 ?????? ????
???????? ?а????? ??????? ??а????? ??????????????.
64-??????
?
???????? ?????
???? ??? ?? ??? ?????????а?аDVD
?а????????? ??а??????????? ????н
??н??н??н???, ?.??. ??а??????????а???нн
??? л??????????? ????╗ ??а??н??н
??? ??????? ???а?????????: F9
(HP), F12 (Dell, Lenovo), F8 (Amibios)
??? F11 (Award BIOS). ???, ?????
?????? ?????? ?а??????н????? ???????, ????????? ??????? ???????? ????? BIOS/UEFI. ?аBIOS/UEFI
??а????н????,а????? ??? ?????????
??????? ???????а? ?????? Del,
??а?????? F1 ??? F2. ??? ???? ????? ?? ?аUEFI ????? ?????? ??????
??аWindows: ????????? Shift, ???????? ???????? Restart [??????????].
???? ???????? ?аDVD ????????, ??.
www.linuxformat.com/dvdsupport.
?а??? Mac? ??? ???????? ?аDVD,
????н?????, ????н???? ?????н?? C.
????????? ?? ??????? ╗
???????????
? ?????????? ?????
?????????????
Linux! ????????!
????????? ??????? Elementary ???? ?????????????????
???? ????? ????????? ?а???????????? ????.
?????? ?а?????? ????????. ??а?????? ?????????
??а????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? Super Key (????????? ???????? ??а???????? Windows), ????? ???????? ?????? ???????? ???????????????? ????????? ??????. ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????? ???????
[screenнgrabber], ?а???????????? ????????? ??????????
?а????????н???? ?????? Noto Color Emoji. ?????? ??????
Elementary OS ????? ??????? ??н???? ?а???? ?????, ???????????? ????? ???????????.
????????, ???а?????????? ??????? Elementary OS
????? ?????????, ???????? ?? ???????????? ????? ??????????. ??? ??????????????? ???? ??а?????????, ????
????? AppCenter ??а????? ??а?????? ??????????, ???
????????? ??? ???????????? ?????????? Elementary OS, ???????н?????
??????? ???? ?????????????? ???н
????????. ??? ????? ?????????
???????? ??а?????????: Code
(?????????????????? ????? IDE),
Files (???????? ????????), Music
(??? ?????????? ?????? ?????????) ?аPhotos, ??????????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????????.
????????? ???? ???????????
??-??????, ?а??????? AppCenter.
╗╗ ????????! ??? ?????!
???????? ?????: ? ????????????? ?????? ??????-???? ??????? ?????? LXFDVD ???????????, ??????????,
?? ?????? disks@linuxformat.ru ??? ???????? +7 (812) 309-0686.
www.linuxformat.ru
╗╗? ???!
?????? ?????????????
Ubuntu 18.10
buntuа? ???? ??а????????????? ?????? Linux
?а????. ????????н???,
Ubuntu ????? ????????? ??? ???????? ?????? ????????, ?аUbuntu 18.10
???????? ?????? ?а2018а?. ??а10?????????? ???????. ?а??????? ??а???????? ?а???????????? ??????????,
??? ????????????? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ?????? ???????,
??????? ??? ????????????? ??????
??? ?????, ???????? ??????????
Ubuntu, ??? ??? ????????? ?? ???
????????????? ?????????????.
???????? ??? Ubuntu 18.10 ???????? ?????? ??????
???????? ????? Gnome 3.30. ?????????? ?????, 18.04,
??????? ??а??????? ???? Gnome 3.x. ????? ??????????
???????? ???????? ???? ?????????? Yaru, ??????? ??????????? ??а?????????а? ?????????? ????????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????????.
Ubuntu ?????? ????? ????????? ????????? ??????,
?????????? LZ4 ?аztsd. ??????????????????? ???????
????????? ????????? ?а????????????? Ubuntu ???????
???? ??а10?%. ????????, ??????? ??аUbuntu, ????? ?????????? ????????? ???? ?????????? ???????? Snap???????, ??? ????? ?????? ???????? ???????????? ?????? ??????????. ????????? ?а18.10 ???????? ???????
????????? Snaps ?а???????? ??а?????????. ???????
64-??????
U
??????? ?????
??
??????????? ???????????
??а???????? Bash ????????
????????? ????????.
??
??????????? ??аBash ??? ?????
?????? ?????????? ?????????????? ?аBash.
??
??
??????? Bourne Shell ?????????
????????? ??????? ????????.
TheаCathedral and theаBazaar
[????? ?а?????] ????????н????
????? ????? ?.а???????? [Eric S
Raymond], ??????????? ???????????? ???????? ??????????.
??? ??а??????
???????
?аUbuntu
????????
??
??? ??????? ?а???, ??? Snap applicationz ?????????????
?а????? ???????????? ???????????.
?????? ????? ?????? Ubuntu ????????? Kernel 4.18,
????????? ?????? ????, ????????? ??а?????? ???????.
?????? ????????? ???????; ?????????? ???????? ????????? ???????н????? ?????????? AMD Radeon RX VegaаM
?а?????? ????????? Raspberry Pi 3 B ?а3 B+ ?а?????????? ?????????? Thunderbolt ?аUSB Type-C.а???? ??а???????? ???, ?????? ?????????????? Steam Controller,
?????? ?аOpen GL 4.4 ?а??????????? Mesa 18.2. ??, ?а????
??? ????? ?????????, ??? ??? ??а???????? ??????? ???????????а? ??? ???????? ??а???????? ???????? ???????
??????: Cosmic Cuttlefish [??????????? ??????????].
??а???????????...
?????????? ??????????????
Debian ??????? ???????????
??? ??????????.
??
??
??????? ?аPython ???, ??? ???
???? ?????.
???????? ?аLinux ???????
??????????? ??а??????????
????????? ??? ??????????
????????????? Linux.
??
??
??????? Linux Linux ??а?а??а?.
Linux Kernel inаaаNutshell [????
Linux ?а???? ??????] ????????
?а????, ?????????? ??????? ????????? ???? ?????? ????-????н
????? [Greg Kroah-Hartman].
??
??????????? ?????????? ?????
?????????? Linux ?????????????
???? ???????.
??
??
????? ???????????? ?????? ????? ???????????? GNU.
?????????? ??аGNU
Emacs ???????? ???????
?????? ??????????!
??
??
???????? ???????? ?а????????
????? ???, ??? ??? ???? ?????.
???????????????? ?а????? ???????? ?????? ????.
╗╗ ??????? ? LINUX? ??????? ??????!
?? ??????? ?? ???? ???????, ?????????? DVD ? ???????? index.html.
??? ????? Linux? ??? ??? ???????????
???? ?? ?????????? MS Office?
??? ???? ????? ????????? ???????
??
??
??
www.linuxformat.ru
????????
???? ??????
DVD!
??????? ??? ? ?????? DVD
??аwww.linuxformat.com/
archives
??????? 2018? LXF244? |?107
????? ?????
??????? ?????? ╗ ???????????
LXF243
LXF242
LXF241
?
?
?
?????? 2018
??????? 2018
??????, Windows
???? ???????????
???????????
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???????? 2018
????? ???? ?????
????????????
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?
?
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LXFDVD
LXFDVD
LXFDVD
??н???н??? ???н???: shop.linuxformat.ru/lxf_243/
PDF-??????: shop.linuxformat.ru/elxf_243/
??н???н??? ???н???: shop.linuxformat.ru/lxf_242/
PDF-??????: shop.linuxformat.ru/elxf_242/
??н???н??? ???н???: shop.linuxformat.ru/lxf_241/
PDF-??????: shop.linuxformat.ru/elxf_241/
LXF239/240
LXF238
LXF237
?
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Android ?аLinux ??????? ?????????а? ?????
Austrumi, Endless OS, Hyperbola, Mint, Peppermint,
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?????? 2018
????... ?????! ??????? ??аRaspberry Pi
Antix, Bodhi, deepin, KaOS, Manjaro, Mint, Puppy,
Solus, 17 ???? ? Linux (?? ?????????? ?????),
??????? ??????? ? ??????...
???? 2018
????????, ??????
???????? ????
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? macOS
BunsenLabs, Feren OS 2018, GhostBSD, Kali Linux,
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??????? ??????? ? ??????...
???? 2018
???????н????
????? Ubuntu
????????????
CMS ???? ???????? ??????????
?????????
?
?
?
?
?
LXFDVD
LXFDVD
LXFDVD
??н???н??? ???н???: shop.linuxformat.ru/lxf_239-240/
PDF-??????: shop.linuxformat.ru/elxf_239-240/
??н???н??? ???н???: shop.linuxformat.ru/lxf_238/
PDF-??????: shop.linuxformat.ru/elxf_238/
??н???н??? ???н???: shop.linuxformat.ru/lxf_237/
PDF-??????: shop.linuxformat.ru/elxf_237/
??????, ?????????
???????? ??????
??????
????? ??а????? ???? ?????? ?а???????
?????? ??а???????? Raspberry Pi
?????????а?????!
Devuan, Linux Mint ? Cinnamon ? Mate, openSUSE
Leap, Q4OS, Sparky Linux LXQt, Trisquel Mini,
12а???? ? Linux (?? ?????????? ?????), ???????
??????? ? ??????...
Fedora, NixOS, Pinguy, Salix, Ubuntu, Void OS,
12 ???? ?аLinux (??а?????????? ?????), ???????
??????? ?а??????...
????, ??????
?а?????? ????????
???? ??????????
????????? ?????????? ??????? ????????
Linux Lite, Pinguy, Rosa, Sculpt, Slax, Ubuntu, Zorin,
12 ???? ? Linux (?? ?????????? ?????), ???????
??????? ? ??????...
???????? ?? ????? www.linuxformat.ru
???????? ?????? ??????? ?? ??????? ?? www.linuxformat.ru ???аwww.linuxcenter.ru
????????: (812) 309-0686 ? ?????-?????????, (499) 283-8606 ? ??????
Linux Format ????н???н??: vk.com/linuxform
108? |? LXF244? ??????? 2018
www.linuxformat.ru
DVD
??
64???????
www.linuxformat.ru
64???????
??? ????????????, ?? ???? ???а?? ??????????? ?а???????
???? ?????????, ??????????, ????????? ? ????? ???????
????????? ?? ??????????? ?????: disks@linuxformat.ru
??????? 2018? LXF244? |?109
????? ?????!
??
???????! Ubuntu 18.10!
??
C????? ????? ????????????? ? ???? ????????????!
??
??
??
??
??
Elementary 5.0
?????????? ??????? ???? Pantheon
??????????? ????????? ?????????
??????? ? ?????????? ??????????
??? ??????? ? ?????????? ??
??
???? ???? ??а????????...
???????????
? ?????????? ?????
?????????????
Linux! ????????!
?
?
?
?
???? ?? ??????? ?аLinux, ??? ????? ??????? ????????
????????? ?????? ? ??????????. ??? ??? ?? ?????????
??????? ??? ????? ?????? ????????? ??????? ??? ??????????? ?????????????, ?а????? ???????? ????? ?????????
??? ??? ??? ????? ??? ????????? ?????? Linux ?а????????? ??????????, ???????? ?????? ?а?????????????????
??????. ????? ??????????, ????? ?????? ???? ??? ?????,
?????????? ???????? ???????? ?? ??? ??? ??? ??????????:
???_?????????-1.0.1.i386.rpmа? ????????, ???а???????? ????? RPM, ??????????????? ???а??????
?? ????????аx86.
???_?????????-1.0.1.i386.debа? ?????а?? ?????, ?? ???
??? Debian.
???_?????????-1.0.1.tar.gzа? ?????? ??? ????????а???.
???_?????????-1.0.1.tgzа? ??? ?? ????, ??? ?а???? ?????? ?? ??????: ?tgz? ? ??? ?????н????? ?? ?tar.gz?.
???_?????????-1.0.1.tar.bz2а? ??? ?? ????, ?? ??????
bzip2 ?????? ???????? gzip.
???_?????????-1.0.1.src.rpmа? ????? ????????
???, ?? ???????????? ??? RPM-????? ??? ?????????
???????? ?????????.
???_?????????-1.0.1.i386.FC4.RPMа? ???????? ?????
RPM ??? x86, ??????????????? ?????????? ???а?????н
??????? ??????? Fedora Core 4.
???_?????????-1.0.1.ppc.Suse9.rpmа? ???????? ?????
RPM, ??????????????? ?????????? ???а????????????
??????? SUSE 9.x PPC.
???_?????????-devel-1.0.1.i386.rpmа? ??????
???а?????????????.
DVD??????????? ? ??????? Linux Format ? 12 (244). ??????? 2018
??? ??? ?? ??????
??????????
????????? ?? ??????? ╗
?? ????? ?? ??????? ????? ??? ??????????? ?????????? ?а???, ??? ????????????? ?а???????????? ?????????
?????????. ??????????, ??а?????????, ??? ???????????
???????? ???????????? ?????? ?? ????? ?????????????,
??????? ?????????????? ????????? ?а????? ?????????
?а??????????????? ???????????.
???????
????????????
Grub
Memtest86+
????????????: 17 ???? ? Linux
(?? ?????????? ?????)
Advanced Bash Scripting Guide ????????? ???????????
??а???????????????? ??аBash
Bash Guide for Beginners ??????????? ??аBash
???а??????????
Bits and bolts ???????? ????????а? ??? ??а??????
???а??а
Bourne Shell Scripting ????????? ???????????
??а???????????????? ??аBash
TheаCathedral and theаBazaar ???????????? ????? ?????
???????? [Eric S Raymond] л????? ?а?????╗
TheаDebianаAdministrator?s Handbook ???????????
??????????????, ?????????? ?????????????? Debian
Dive Into Python ??????? ??а????????????????
??аPython
Intro toаLinux ????????? ??????????? ??аLinux
Linux Dictionary ??????? Linux, ??????????? ????????????? ????????????
?? ????????? ???????? ??? ????? ?????? ?????????
????? ???????????? ???????: RPM, Deb ??? ????? ??????. ?????? ??? ??????? ?? ????????, ??? ?? ??????????
????????? ????????????? ?а?????????? ?????????
????????? ????????. ?? ???????????, ?? ????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ??? ?????? ??????, ????? ?? ?????
??????? ??? ??????????????.
??????? 1
??????? ???????
????????????
????? ?????????, ??? ????? ????????? ??????? ?? ??????
??????????? ?????????, ??????? ????? ??а??????? ?а??????? ?????? ?????? ???????????? Linux.
?? ????????? ???????????? ??? ??? ????? ??????
?????? ??????????????? ??????. ?а???????н???? ???н????
????????? ?????? ????????? ? ?????? ?????? ?? ????????
?а??????? Essentials [???????] ?? ??????????? ?????. ?а????
?а????? ??????? ???????? ????н???? ?а?????????????,
?????? ????? ??????? ????????? ?????? ????.
Elementary 5.0 (64-??????)
?????????? ??????????? ??а???? Ubuntu, ?????????
????? ??????????? ????????. ?????????? ?????????
??????? ???????????????? ??????????, ???????
Photos, Music, Videos, Calendar, Terminal, Files ?а?. ?.,
?????? ??????? ????? ????????? ??а????????????
Ubuntu ?аDebian.
???-?? ?????????
Ubuntu 18.10 (64-??????)
??????????? ?? Linux ??а???? Debian, ??? ??????????
??, ???????? ????????? ?а?????????? ??????????
?а??????????????. ?????????? Ubuntu ?????????
??а???????, ???????????? ?????????? Ubuntu:
??а?????? ???? ????????, ??????????? ???????????
?????? ??????????????? ????? ??а??а??????
????? ?а???????? ??а??????????? ??а??????????
????????????, ?а???????????? ?????? ????? ?????
??????????? ?а???????? ???? ??а????? ????????
??а???? ??????????.
????????
HTTPS
Webforms
╗╗?????????? ?а?????
110? |? LXF244? ??????? 2018
??????????, ????? ??????????????
??????? ????? ????????????
? ???????????, ??????????????
? ??????? ?? ???? 109!
Linux Kernel inаaаNutshell ???????? ???? Linux,
????????? ????? ??а??? ?????????? ?????????????а?
??????а????-????????? [Greg Kroah-Hartman]
Producing OSS ??? ??????????? ???
Programming from theаGround Up ????????????????
?а????? ?????
Python 3.7.0 ??????????? ????????????
SystemаAdministrators Guide ??????????? ??а????????
????????????????? Linux
GNU Tools Summary ??????????? ??а?????? ?а?????????
?????? ?а????? ???????? ?????? GNU
Ultimate Linux Newbie Guide ??????????? ??аLinux
???а????????, ??а??а??????
Understanding Open Source And Free Software Licensing
??? ????????????? ???????? ?а????????? ??
??????????
????????? ????? ? ????????????? ?????? ??????????? ????????
?? ?????? ?????, ???????????, ??????????, ?? ?????? disks@linuxformat.ru
???????????? ?????????? ???? ????????? ? ??????????? ?? ???????????
?????: info@linuxformat.ru
Fedora 29 Netinstall (32-??????)
?????????? ????, ??? ????? ??????? ??????? ???????
?????, ?а????? ???????? ??а???????. ??????? ?????
????? ???? ?????????? ??????? ??????, ???????????
?????????? ??? web-????????. ?а????? ??а??????
???????? ??????????? ??? ??????????, ???? ?а??.,
????? ??а????????? ??????? ?????? ??????????????
?????????, ??? ????????? ?????? ??????????? ??????.
Fedora 29 (64-??????)
??????????? Linux, ??????????????? ???????????
???а????????? ??????? Fedora. ??????????? Red
Hat ?а???????? ???????? ??, ????????????????
???а????????? ?????????. Fedora ????? ?????????
???????????? ?а?????? ??а?????????, ??????????
????? ?????????? ??а?????? ?????? ?а??????
?????????????? ?а??????? ???????????? Linux.
????????????
??????? 2
DVD??????????? ? ??????? Linux Format ? 12 (244). ??????? 2018
????? ?????????? ??? л??????╗, 188652, ??????, ????????????? ???????, ???????????? ?-?, ???. ????, ???????? ??., 7-?. ???????? ???? ??? N 77-103.
????????? ???? ????????? ???????????? ? ?????????? ?? ???? ??????? ????????????; ??????, ??? ? ? ?????? ? ????? ????? ??, ?? ??????????? ???
???????????? ???????????? ??????. ?? ????? ??????????? ?????? ????? ??? ????? ?????????? ????????? ????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ?????.
? ?????????, ???????? Linux Format ?? ? ????????? ????????? ?? ???? ??????????????? ?? ????? ???????????, ?????????? ??? ???? ??????, ???????
????? ??????? ?? ????? ????????????? ????? DVD, ?????????????? ?? ??? ???????? ??? ??????. ?????? ??? ????????????? ?????-???? ?? ?? ?????????,
???????????? ? ????, ??????????????????? ? ??????? ???????????????.
??? ???????????? ???????????? ISO-???????, ??????? ????? ?а???????? ??а????????? ????????, ?а?????????а?аlive-?????? ????? ?аLXFDVD.
?а???? ???????????? ??????????? ????????? ??а???????а????.
Sudoku
????????
Manjaro 18.0 KDE (64-??????)
??????????? ?а???????????? ??????????? Linux
??а???? ?????????? ????????????? ???????????????
?? Arch ????????????? ??? ???????????? Arch
?а??????? ?????? ???????? ???????? ?а???????????.
???????? ?а????????, ?а??????? ?????????????.
DVD
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????????????
?????? ??? ??????
CDRECORD
????? ??????? ?????? ???????? ISO-????? ?? ??????
???????а? ??? ?????????? ?а????????? cdrecord. ???
???? ????????????? ???? ???????? ???????????
????? ?????????????????-root. C?????? ??????????
???? ?а?????? ?????????? ??? ?????? ??????. ???????? ????????? ???????:
cdrecord -scanbus
????? ????? ?? ?????? ????????? ?????? ???????????? ?????? ?????????, ???????????? ?а?????
???????. SCSI-????? ??????? ?????????? ????????????
????? ??? ????? ?а????? ???????а? ????????, 0,3,0.
?????? ?? ?????? ?а????????? ???????? ????? ?? ????:
cdrecord dev=0,3,0 -v /???? ? ??????/image.iso
????? ????????? ?????????? ?????????????
cdrecord, ????????? ????????? ????????? ?а?????
/etc/default/cdrecord. ???????? ??а??н??? ?????? ???
??????? ?????????? ?????? (?????? ?????, ?а?????
??????? ???????????? ?????? ???? ????? ??????????):
Plextor= 0,3,0?12?16M
?????? ????? ? ???? ??????а? ?????; ????? ?????
?????? SCSI-?????????? ?? ?????? ??????? ????????
?а????? ??????. ?????? ?????? ???????? SCSI-?????
?а????????? ?????? ?? ????????? ???? ?????. ???
????? ??? ?????, ???? ?? ???????? ?????????:
CDR_DEVICE=Plextor
??? ?????? ISO-?????? ??? ????????
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cdrecord -v /path/to/image.iso
???? ?? ??а???????????? ?а????????? ??????н
??? ??????, ?а????? ?????? ??? ?????? ?? ??????
??????? gcombust. ?????????а?? ??а????? root
?а???????? ??????? Burn ?аISO 9660 Image ?а???????
????? ????. ??????? ???? ?а??????, ??????? ?? ??????
???????? ?? ????, ?а????? ????????? ?? Combust!
???? ??? ????? ??????????? ?? ????, ?????? ??????
??????? ????.
?????? ???
???????????? Linux ??? ?????? ???????-????? ??а???????????. ????????? ????? cdrecord ?????? ????????? ???????? ?????? ?? ?????? ???????. ???а??????????? ????? ??? ???????? ?аISO-?????, ???????
???????????? ????? ???????????? ????????, ????а??
Linux, Windows, Mac OS X ??? AmigaOS.
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?а??????????, ?а??????? ???? ?а???. ?????-????, ???
???????? ????? ???????????? ???????, ?????????
?????????? ??????? ?????? (??. ????).
????????? ???????????? ????? ???????????
?????? ?????? ?а????????? ??????? ????????? ???
???? ????????? ?а??????? ????н???? ?????. ?????????? ??????, ???????, ??????? ?? ????????????. ?? ?????????????? ??????????? ???????????
??а???? ???????????? ????????????.
www.linuxformat.ru
??????? ?а???? Linux
?????? ??????????????? ??????????? ???????
?? ??????? ??а??????????? ???????????????? ?а?????
???????? ???????????? ?а?????? ??????????? ????????
?? ? ??77-21973 ?? 14а???????? 2005а????.
??????? ??????????. ????? ???????? ?????? 1000а???.,
??????????????? ??????????? ?????? 30?000 ???.
???????? ????????????? ??????
??????? ????????
?????? ???????? info@linuxformat.ru
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195027, ?????-?????????, ??????? ??., 10, ????. 2, ????? ?, ???.а44
???????,
???а????
?а????!
????????? ???????? Linux Format!
?????????? ?????? ????????? ??????? ??????? ?а13??????? ????????
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???????? ??????? ?????? ???????а? ???????????? ???????? ??????
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????? ??????????? ??????.
??а????????, ??? ?????????? Linux-?????????? ? ???????? ?????
??а????? ?а??а????? ??????? ??а???????, ?а?аLinux Format ??????? ????????? ??????. ??????? ??а????? ?????? ????? ????? ??????????? ???? ?????????? ???????????? ?а??????????? ??????????? ?а????????? ???а?????????? ??????????. ?????? LinuxFormat
??а??????????? ????????? ??? ??????????а? ????????, ???
????-??а??????????.
????????? ????, ??? ????? LinuxFormat ?а???????
?а??? ???н????????!
????????, ??? ??а????????? ?а??????????? ???? ????????.
???????? ???????????? ??????
???????? ???? ??? [Neil Mohr] neil.mohr@futurenet.com
?????? ????? ?????? ??????? [Jonni Bidwell]
jonni.bidwell@futurenet.com
?????????????? ???????? ?????? ????????-???????
[Efrain Hernandez-Mendoza] efrain.hernandez-mendoza@futurenet.com
??????????? ???????? ????? ???? [Cliff Hope]
clifford.hope@futurenet.com
???????? ???????? ???? ?????? [Graham Barlow]
??????? ?????????????? ???????? ??? ???????? [Jo Gulliver]
?????????? ??????????
????-???? ?????????? [Mats Tage Axelsson], ???? ??????? [Mike Bedford],
?????? ??????? [Jonni Bidwell], ???? ?????? [Neil Bothwick],
??????? ????? [Fraser Brown], ???? ????? [Nate Drake], ???? ??????
[Kent Elchuk], ?????? ??????? [Lindsay Handmer], ???? ????
[John Knight] ??????? ????? [Jeremy Laird], ???? ???? [John Lane],
????? ?????? [Aaron Peters], ??? ??????? [Les Pounder], ????? ?????
[Mayank Sharma], ?????? ????? [Shashank Sharma], ???????? ???????
[Valentine Sinitsyn], ???? ??????? [Chris Thornett], ????????? ???????
[Alexander Tolstoy], ??????? ??????? [Mihalis Tsoukalos], ??????? ????
[Philippa Warr], ??????? ??????, ?????? ???????????, ??????? ????????
??????????? ???? ???????? [Shane Collinge]
??????????? ?? ??????? magictorch.com
?????????? ??????????
UK: Linux Format, 30 Monнmouth Street, Bath BA1 2BW
Te?. +44 (0) 344 848 2852, email: linuxformat@myfavouritemagazines.co.uk
??????: ?????-?????????, ??. ???????, 5, ????. 7
???.: +7 (812) 309-0686 ? ?????-?????????, +7 (499) 283-8606 ? ??????
??????????? ?????: info@linuxformat.ru
?? ???????? ??????????????, ???????????, ??????? ???????:
partner@linuxcenter.ru
????????? ?????: ??????, ???????????? ?? ??????????? ??????? Linux Format,
???????? ?????????????? ??? ????????????? Future Publishing Ltd (Future plc group
company). ??? ????? ????????????????. ??????? ????? ??????? ??????? ??а????? ????
???????? ???????????? ??? ??????????? ?????????? ????????.
??? ??????, ?????????? ?? ??????? ????????, ????????? ???????????????? ??? ??????????, ???? ???? ??а??????? ????. ???????? ????????? ?? ????? ????? ??????????????
?????????? ?????? ? ?????? ?????????. ???????? Linux Format ???????? ?????????????? ????? ??а?????????? ?а?????????????? ???? ?????????? ??????????, ???? ??а????
????????? ????. Linux Format ????????? ????????? ??????????? ?? ????????? ??????
?????, ??? ??? ????????. ????????? ?а????, ???? ?? ??а????????? ??? ??? ??????
???????????? ???? ??????????, ?а?? ??????????? ????????? ??? ??????. ????????
Linux Format ??а????? ??????????????? ?? ????????.
??????????????? ?? ?????????? ?????? ????? ?? ?????. ?????? ??????? ?????
??а????????? ?а??????? ????????.
??? ?????????? ????????? ????? ???? ???????? ?? ?????а? CD ??? DVD,
???????????? ?????? ?а????????, ???? ?? ???? ????????? ????.
??????????? ???????????????: ??????????? ??? ?????? ?? ???? ????? ? ????. ?? ???
????? ???????? ???????? Linux Format ?? ????? ??????????????? ?? ??????????? ???
?????, ????н? ????? ?????? ?????????? ? ????????? ?????????? ????????????? ???
??? ???? ???????.
Linux ? ?????????????????? ???????? ???? ?????? ?????????? [Linus Torvalds].
?GNU/Linux? ?????????? ?? ?Linux? ?а????? ??????????. ??? ????????? ????????
????? ???????? ?????????????? ?? ???????? ??????????. ???? ???, ??????????????
?а???????, ???????????? ?? ???????? GPL v3. ??. www.gnu.org/copyleft/gpl.html
?? ??????????? ? ????????, ?????????? Future plc group company, ???????????
??а???? www.futureplc.com.
? ?????????,
????? ??????,
???????? LinuxFormat ?а??????
16+
й Linux Format 2005
й Future Publishing Ltd 2005
112? |? LXF244? ??????? 2018
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
vS
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ITC
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?а????? ?????????????
??????? ????? [Undo], ????????? ?????, ???? ?????????, ????,
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?а??????? ?????? ????????? [Drawing].
???? ????? ??а???????????? ?а???, ??? ???????? ???????????
?????????, ??? ??????????? ?????? ??????? ??? ??????????
??????? ?????, ????? ??? ????????? ?????? ?а??????, ??? ??????
????? ??????????? ?а????????????? ??? ?а????н???? ?????????????? ?????. ?????? ?????? ???????? ?????????????, ??а??а?????
?
www.linuxformat.ru
???? ???????????? ???????? ???? GrafX2. ?????? ??????????
???? ?а?????????? ??????????, ??????? ????????????, ?а?????
????????. ??а????????? GrafX2 ?????????? ????????? ???????
?а??????? GIF, ??? ???????? ???????????? ?а?????, ??а???????????? ??????? ????? ?????? ???????? ????????, ???????
PNG ?аBMP.
? ????? ?????? ????? ???? GrafX2 ???????? ?????? ?а???????? ??? ???????????? ????. ??а?????? ??????? ??? ????????
??????, ?????? ??? ?????? ???????????? ????? ??а??????? ????????? ??????????? ??? ???????.
GrafX2а? ??? ??? ??????????, ??????? ?????????? ?а??????????? ???? ???????????????? ????????????? ??????? ?????
??????н????. ????????????? ????? ?????? ???????????? ????????? ?а????????? ?а??????? ????????????? ???????н???? ???????????, ??? ???????? ??? ???????а? ??? ???? ?а??????!
??????? 2018? LXF244? |?103
HOTPICKS ????
??????????
???? ??????
?????? ??аDouble
Dragon ??а?????
????????????
??????????.
????-????????
Zabuyaki
??????: Git ????: www.zabuyaki.com
ua ? ?????????????? ?????????? ????, ?????????
??? ???????? ????????? ???, ??????? ??????? ?????..
???? LOVE, ???????? ?????? ??аLua. ???? ??????? ???????а? ?????????? ???? ??аLua ???а????????? Zabuyaki, ??? ?а???????? ??а??????? ???????? л??????? ???????╗. ??? ??????? ????,
?????? ???????, ?????? ?а???????????? ????? ?а????? ?????.
Zabuyaki ???????? ?а???? ???????? ???????? ?????????
?а????????н???? ????????? ?а???????. ???????? ?????? ?????????: Rick [???] (????? ???????), Kisa [????] (????????), Chai
[???] (????????? ?????? ????-??) ?аYar [??] (??????? ?а???????
??????????). ??????, ????????? ???? ????????? ?а?????? ??????????, ???? ?а??? ????? ????
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