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Engl UMP139 2013

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Министерство образования и науки
Российской Федерации
Санкт-Петербургский государственный
архитектурно-строительный университет
Общестроительный факультет
Кафедра иностранных языков
АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК
Учебно-методическое пособие № 139
Санкт-Петербург
2013
1
УДК 811.111:696:378(075.8)
Рецензент канд. филол. наук, доцент Т. Б. Воеводская
Английский язык. Учебно-методическое пособие № 139 / сост.
Е. П. Селезнёва; СПбГАСУ. – СПб., 2013. – 25 с.
Предназначено для перевода индивидуальных текстов студентами направления подготовки 270800 – строительство – для развития навыков технического перевода со словарем и без него. Основу для адаптированных текстов
составили оригинальные статьи из журналов на английском языке, ресурсов
Интернета, а также Правил и рекомендаций Министерства охраны окружающей среды Финляндии по внутреннему климату и вентиляции зданий.
Каждый текст сопровождается заданиями на повторение словарного минимума и основных грамматических тем, необходимых для выполнения перевода.
Тематика текстов соответствует в основном профилю «Теплогазоснабжение
и вентиляция», в связи с чем пособие может быть использовано для самостоятельной работы студентами 2 и 3 курсов при подготовке к поступлению на
англоязычную программу двойного диплома «Инженерные системы зданий»
в Финляндии, а также в качестве пособия по английскому языку как дисциплины по выбору студента.
Адресовано студентам направления подготовки 270800 – строительство
(профиль «Теплогазоснабжение и вентиляция»).
© Санкт-Петербургский государственный
архитектурно-строительный университет, 2013
2
ДЛЯ ЗАПИСЕЙ
TEXT 1
Indoor climate of buildings
1. As a whole, buildings shall be designed and constructed in such a way
that a healthy, safe and comfortable indoor climate can be achieved in the occupied zone under all normal weather conditions and operational situations.
2. The principal designer must ensure that the building plan and all specific
plans as a whole meet the requirements for indoor climate. 3. The foreman
in charge is responsible for ensuring that the building work is carried out
in accordance with the building plan and specific plans in such a way that
the requirements regarding indoor climate are met. 4. In order to achieve
a healthy, safe and comfortable indoor climate, it is necessary in the design
and construction of buildings to take into account internal and external load
factors and the location of the building and the building site. 5 Internal load
factors include thermal and moisture loads, human loads, processes, and
emissions of building materials and interior furnishing materials. 6. Among
external load factors the most considerable ones are weather and acoustic
conditions and quality of outdoor air. 7. A comfortable room temperature
can be maintained during periods of occupancy so that unnecessary energy
use is avoided. 8. Buildings shall be designed and constructed in such a way
that air movement, thermal radiation and surface temperatures will not cause
discomfort in the occupied zone during periods of use. 9. The indoor air shall
not contain any gases, particles or microbes in such quantities that will be
harmful to health, or any odours that would reduce comfort.
I. Remember the words:
Indoor, outdoor, achieve, ensure, requirement, whole, carry out, healthy,
take into account, responsible for, regarding, in order to, internal, external,
include, site, moisture, load factor, emission, quality, considerable, maintain, thermal, surface, cause (v), particle, microbe, quantity, harmful, odour,
reduce.
II. Note in the text:
1. Modal verbs; Participles II. 2. Subjects and predicates. 3. Gerund; predicates (tense, voice). 4. Infinitives and their functions. 5. Noun groups; “-ing”
forms, their functions. 6. Superlative degree; predicate, adjectives with suffixes. 7. Predicates (tense, voice), noun groups. 8. Noun groups, Participles II
and their functions. 9. Modal verb; Subordinate clauses; Subjunctive.
26
3
TEXT 2
Ventilation systems
1. Ventilation systems shall be designed and constructed in such a way
that, when used, serviced and maintained in the correct manner, they will remain fully functional for their design life span. 2. It must be possible to control and monitor the operation of ventilation systems. 3. Measuring equipment or measuring provisions shall be designed and installed in ventilation
systems for measuring key operating values and for monitoring the different
functions. 4. Mechanical ventilation systems shall be equipped with fixed
air flow rate measuring sensors and devices for measuring the building’s
outdoor air and exhaust air flow rates. 5. In case of air flow rates less than
0.5 m³/s, such fixed measuring equipment may be substituted by measurement
tappings compatible with portable measuring equipment. 6. Thermometers
shall be installed on the inlet and outlet sides of the heating and cooling coils
and heat recovery equipment of the air-handling units and differential pressure gauges shall be installed on air filters. 7. During periods of occupancy
an outdoor air flow to ensure healthy, safe and comfortable quality of indoor
air shall be supplied to the occupied premises. 8. The outdoor air flow rates
are determined primarily on the basis of the number of occupants. 9. In case
there are insufficient grounds for designing air flow rates on the basis the
number of occupants, then such design shall be based on outdoor air rate per
surface area.
I. Remember the words:
Maintain, remain, measure, measurement, value, equip, equipment, fix,
flow, device, sensor, substitute, tap, compatible, portable, install, inlet, outlet, coil, recovery, gauge, ensure, premises, indoor, outdoor, determine, sufficient, insufficient, surface, area.
Учебное издание
АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК
Учебно-методическое пособие № 139
Составитель Селезнёва Елена Петровна
II. Note in the text:
1. Noun groups; Participles II, functions; subjects and predicates (tense,
voice). 2. Modal verb; Infinitives, their functions. 3. “-ing” forms, their
functions; predicates. 4. Noun groups; Gerund. 5. Comparative degree; adjectives with suffix. 6. Noun groups, predicates. 7. Infinitive, its function;
Participle II, its function. 8. Subject and predicate; adverb. 9. Construction
“there + be”; adjective with prefix; noun groups; gerund.
4
Компьютерная верстка А. А. Стешко
Подписано к печати 17.06.13. Формат 60×84 1/16. Бумага офсетная.
Усл. печ. л. 1,5. Тираж 300 экз. Заказ 68. «С» 29.
Санкт-Петербургский государственный архитектурно-строительный университет.
190005, Санкт-Петербург, 2-я Красноармейская ул., д. 4.
Отпечатано на ризографе. 190005, Санкт-Петербург, 2-я Красноармейская ул., д. 5.
25
stub duct – отвод
supply – подача
transfer – передача
treatments for acoustic and thermal insulation – покрытия для акустической и термической изоляции
trunk (or main) duct – коллектор
valve – клапан
vapour barrier – антипаровой экран
velocity – скорость
TEXT 3
Air distribution
1. Air distribution is transportation of a specified air flow to or from the
treated space or spaces, generally by means of ducts. 2. Along the ducts, devices for the purpose of treating the air (for example cleaning, heating, cooling, humidifying or de-humidifying, etc.) and known as air treatment devices
may be inserted. 3. Certain specified conditions such as air change rate, pressure, cleanliness, temperature, humidity, air velocity and noise level must be
satisfied. 4. Air terminal devices form the common boundaries between the
treated space and the air distribution system. 5. Exhaust or the air flow leaving the treated space may be accomplished in one or more of the following
ways: extract, relief, recirculation or transfer. 6. Relief is exhaust in which air
is allowed to escape from the treated space should the pressure in the space
rise above a specified level. 7. Accessories of distribution are permanently
installed components of air distribution system. 8. They ensure the fitting
and fixing in place of the elements of distribution and their maintenance (for
example: fixing collars, sealing joints, inspection covers, etc.). 9. Air duct is
in a general way the envelope in which air is carried. 10. These ducts can be
made of various materials. 11. The assembly of the ducts of an installation
and of the other elements of distribution inserted into these ducts constitutes
the distribution network.
I. Remember:
Distribution, distribute, flow, duct, device, purpose, rate, humidity, humidify, velocity, satisfy, exhaust, accomplish, extract, relief, recirculation,
transfer (n, v), allow, escape, accessories, specified, install, rise, fit, fix, collar, joint, seal (v), cover, assembly, insert, constitute.
II. Note in the text:
1. Participles II and their functions; noun groups. 2. Gerunds; modal verb;
Participles II and their functions. 3. Noun groups; predicate; Participles II
and their functions. 4. Subject and predicate. 5. Participle I and its function.
6. Subordinate clauses; predicates (tense, voice). 7. Noun group; adverb.
8. “-ing” forms and their functions; noun group. 9. Subjects and predicates
(tense, voice); Subordinate clause. 10. Modal verb. 11. Participle II and its
function; noun group.
24
5
TEXT 4
Extract air classification
1. Routing of exhaust air out of the building is based on extract air classification including four main extract air classes. 2. Extract air of class one
contains impurities in low concentrations. 3. The main sources of impurities
are human metabolism and emissions from structures. 4. Examples of premises with such extract air are office premises and related small storage areas,
customer service areas, teaching areas, commercial areas with no odour load.
5. This air is suitable for use as recirculation and/or transferred air. 6. Extract
air of class two contains some impurities (as in dwelling rooms, dining rooms,
stores, office building storage rooms, dressing rooms and restaurants where
smoking is forbidden). 7. This air shall not be used as recirculation air for other
rooms but it can be conducted as transferred air to e.g. toilets and wash rooms.
8. Class three means extract air from areas where damp, processes, chemicals
and odours substantially impair the quality of extract air. 9. Examples of such
premises are toilets and wash rooms, saunas, apartment kitchens, distribution and teaching kitchens, areas of copying drawings. 10. Extract air of class
four contains odours or impurities detrimental to health in significantly higher
concentrations than those acceptable for indoor air. 11. This air shall not be
used as recirculation and/or transferred air. 12. This air can be found in fume
cupboards in professional use, local kitchens, garages and traffic tunnels,
rooms for handling paints and solvents, rooms for unwashed laundry, rooms
for foodstuff waste, chemical laboratories, smoking rooms etc.
I. Remember:
Extract, route, exhaust, include, contain, impurities, source, emission,
area, load, suitable, recirculation, conduct, transfer, damp, substantially, impair, quality, distribution, detrimental, significantly, acceptable, fume.
II. Note in the text:
1. Gerund and its function; noun groups; predicate (tense, voice); Participle I
and its function. 3. Subject and predicate. 4. Noun groups; Participle II
and its function. 5. Participle II and its function. 6. Gerund and its function; Subordinate clause. 7. Modal verbs; Participles II and their function.
8. Predicates; adverb. 9. “-ing” forms, their function. 10. Comparative degree; “those” and its function; adverb. 12. Modal verb; gerund and its function; noun groups.
6
constant flow rate – постоянный расход
damper – заслонка; выравниватель
discharge of air – вытекание воздуха
dual duct box – блок с двойным каналом
drain plug – спусковая пробка
duct – воздуховод
elements of distribution – элементы распределения
evaporator – испаритель
exhaust – выброс
extract – экстракция
fire valve – огнезащитный клапан
flow equalizers – выравниватели потока
flow rate controller – регулятор расхода
grille – решетка; adjustable ~ регулируемая решетка
heat exchanger – теплообменник
high velocity assemblies – высокоскоростные установки
induction supply – индукционное всасывание
induction unit – эжекто-конвектор
installation accessories – установочная арматура
linear air terminal device – линейная отдушина
main (or trunk) duct – коллектор
maintenance – техническое обслуживание
manual damper – ручная заслонка
means of reducing vibration – антивибрационные устройства
mixing section – смесительная камера
nozzle – эжектор
plaster frame – запирающая рама
plate – пластина
recirculation – рециркуляция
register – решетка с заслонкой
relief – избыточное давление
secret fixing (= concealed fixing) – потайное крепление
sections of ducting – секции воздуховода
single duct box – блок с одним каналом
slide damper – скользящая заслонка
spur – ответвление
sound attenuator – акустический аттенюатор
stiffening corner – уголок жесткости
23
2.5. Окна и другие застекленные участки
Энергоэффективное остекление обеспечивает существенный энергосберегающий потенциал (в частности, при замене окон в существующих
зданиях). Действительно, монтаж окон с высокими энергосберегающими характеристиками, предполагающий замену старых окон, обеспечивает одно из самых действенных средств повышения энергоэффективности
существующих общих фондов зданий, поскольку замена окон производится, как правило, несколько раз в течение срока службы здания. Кроме
того, модифицированные окна с высокими энергосберегающими характеристиками являются рентабельными во всех климатических поясах.
Государства должны проводить политику, которая поощряет использование окон и других застекленных участков с высокими энергосберегающими характеристиками, особенно во время замены. Должен быть
осуществлен комплекс политических мер в целях достижения таких результатов, которые включают минимальные стандарты энергоэффективности для застекленных участков и окон, с учетом затрат в течение
срока службы окон, требования по маркировке остеклений и окон, демонстрационные проекты и стратегии осуществления закупок в государственном секторе.
VOCABULARY
accessories of distribution – арматура распределительных устройств
adjustable – регулируемый
air diffusion – диффузия воздуха
air diffuser – воздушный диффузор
air distribution – распределение воздуха
air duct – воздушный канал
air inlet – впуск воздуха
air terminal device – отдушина; exhaust ~ выходная отдушина; supply ~ питающая отдушина
assembly – установка
baffle – дефлектор (отражатель)
branch – разветвление
casing – кожух
complementary accessories to air terminal devices – дополнительные
органы отдушин
concealed fixing (= secret fixing) – потайное крепление
22
TEXT 5
Air-conditioning system
1. If you’ve been thinking of upgrading your old central air-conditioning
system there’s a lot to consider. 2. Every manufacturer today offers a wide
range of products, with one suited to nearly every situation. 3. A few even
make systems for houses that won’t accommodate conventional ductwork.
4. As you might expect, the two most important considerations are efficiency
and cooling capacity, but there’s more to it than buying the biggest, most efficient system you can afford. 5. In fact, there’s quite a bit more. 6. Central air
conditioning is, of necessity, a split system, with some components installed
outdoors and others indoors. 7. The heaviest, noisiest, heat-shedding components–the compressor and condenser coil–are installed outdoors, while the
evaporator coil is installed indoors, usually in the form of an A-frame in the
plenum of a forced-air furnace. 8. In this case, the furnace’s blower moves
warm air over the coils and distributes the chilled air. 9. The indoor and outdoor segments of the system are typically joined by two refrigeration lines
and a low-voltage relay cable. 10. If a home is heated by some means other
than forced air–baseboard or radiant floor heat, for example–the evaporator
coil is typically mounted in a dedicated blower unit, which pushes the cooled
air through conventional ductwork. 11. Most blower units are installed in attics and crawlspaces and are connected to flexible, insulated ductwork, which
is the easiest and least costly to install.
I. Remember:
Consider, suite, accommodate, conventional, ductwork, efficient, efficiency, capacity, install, compressor, coil, evaporator, frame, furnace, blower,
distribute, voltage, relay cable, heat, mount, flexible, least.
II. Note in the text:
1. Subjects and predicates (tense, voice); infinitive and its function.
2. Participle II and its function. 3. Subordinate clause. 4. Superlative degree; construction “there + be”; Gerund. 6. Participle II and its function.
7. Superlative degree; subjects and predicates (tense, voice). 8. Possessive.
9. Noun groups, adverb. 10. Subordinate clause; “-ed” forms, their functions;
noun groups. 11. Subjects and predicates (tense, voice); Subordinate clause;
Superlative degree; infinitive and its function; noun group.
7
TEXT 6
Sizing for capacity and efficiency
1. Your heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) contractor will
size your equipment to meet the specific needs of your home. 2. Factored
into the equation will be the age of your house, the number and quality of its
windows, how well it’s insulated, how many stories it has, its size, and, of
course, local energy rates. 3. Contractors use industry sizing models, such as
Model J, but most use them as a reference, modifying the results to accommodate their own years of experience. 4. A 1500-sq.-ft. ranch-style home,
for example, might normally require a 2 1/2-ton air conditioner, but if it’s
not well insulated, or if a good many windows have western exposure, or if
the trees offer little direct shade, then a 3-ton unit might be more appropriate.
5. In any case, sizing is critical. 6. If sized too small, the system will struggle,
and even freeze over, on the warmest days. 7. If sized too large, the system
will cycle on and off too frequently, greatly reducing its ability to control humidity. 8. It will also be less efficient. 9. Keep in mind that efficiency ratings
are measured at the factory, under conditions that may have little to do with
your house. 10. In any case, sizing is a job best left to seasoned professionals,
and it’s a good idea to seek out more than one opinion.
I. Remember:
Capacity, efficiency, efficient, equipment, equation, quality, insulate, reference, modify, accommodate, experience, sq. ft., require, expose, exposure,
offer, direct (adj.), appropriate, freeze, cycle (n., v.), reduce, ability, humidity,
measure (n., v.), seek out, opinion.
II. Note in the text:
1. Noun group; predicate (tense, voice); infinitive and its function.
2. Participles II and their functions; noun group. 3. Participle I and its function; infinitive and its function. 4. Subjects and predicates (tense, voice);
comparative degree. 5. Gerund and its function. 6. Conditional construction;
Superlative degree. 7. Participle I and its function; infinitive and its function; adverbs. 8. Predicate (tense, voice); comparative degree. 9. Modal verb;
noun group; Subordinate clauses. 10. Subjects and predicates; Participles II
and their functions.
8
Во-первых, стандартизация может уменьшить сомнения, связанные
с измерением выгод от инвестиций в энергоэффективность. Во-вторых, стандартизированный анализ может помочь в передаче информации относительно опыта и решений по повышению энергоэффективности в строительном секторе.
2.4. Схемы строительной сертификации
Для обеспечения большей информированности по вопросам энергоэффективности в целом необходимо предпринять инициативы в строительном секторе рынка. Это диктуется тем, что энергоэффективность
часто игнорируется, когда принимаются основные связанные со строительством решения. Сюда включается проектирование новых зданий,
вопросы их строительства или приобретения, а также покупки и ремонта существующих зданий. Причиной недостатка внимания к проблеме энергоэффективности часто является то, что лица, принимающие
важные решения в строительном секторе (то есть от архитекторов до
владельцев), располагают ограниченной информацией или проявляют
слабый интерес к энергоэффективности. Как ни странно, эта ситуация
имеет место несмотря на то, что энергетические затраты составляют
в основном большой процент затрат, связанных с обслуживанием здания.
Политические меры, имеющие целью повышение осведомленности
населения в вопросе энергоэффективности, могут включать общественные информационные кампании, предоставление информационного материала, создание информационных центров или разработку законодательства по энергоэффективности, освещающего вопросы энергоснабжения, принятие решений по приобретению или техническому обслуживанию зданий.
Одна из стратегий, которая обещает быть особенно эффективной,
представляет собой обязательное предоставление оценок энергоэффективности зданий предполагаемым покупателям/арендаторам. Наиболее
приемлемый способ предоставления такой информации — это схема
сертификации энергоэффективных характеристик зданий. Опыт показал, что, если не включить данный вопрос в число обязательных, эта
информация предоставлена не будет. Такая схема должна дополняться
надежными процедурами контроля и измерения характеристик энергоэффективности и может поддерживаться стимулами к обеспечению эффективности.
21
Ограниченный интерес к энергосберегающим зданиям может быть
объяснен фрагментарным характером этого сектора (в строительство
одного здания вовлекается множество субъектов, принимающих решения) и ограниченным видением более долгосрочных эксплуатационных
затрат, связанных с энергопотреблением и сроком службы. Опыт показал, что активная правительственная поддержка может увеличить интерес к зданиям с низкими энергозатратами. В странах, предоставляющих
правительственную поддержку этим зданиям, они составляли большую
долю общего фонда зданий, чем в других странах.
2.3. Существующие здания
Во всем мире существующие здания представляют главный источник
энергосберегающего потенциала: с помощью реконструкции суммарное потребление энергии существующими зданиями может сократиться вдвое в течение 30 лет. Несмотря на техническую и часто коммерческую выполнимость повышения энергоэффективности существующих
зданий, множество рыночных барьеров препятствует его реализации. Эти
ограничения включают конфликт интересов между владельцами и арендаторами, недостаточный интерес к энергопотреблению, отсутствие знаний об энергоэффективных вариантах и недостаток квалификации для
установки и обслуживания энергоэффективных технологий. Повышение
энергоэффективности часто является наиболее выполнимым во время реконструкции. Страны должны установить стандарты эффективности для
существующих зданий, чтобы гарантировать повышение энергоэффективности во время любой реконструкции или восстановления. Крайне
необходимы дальнейшие исследования для поддержки рекомендаций по
повышению энергоэффективности в существующих зданиях. В настоящее время страны должны активизировать сбор большего объема информации об энергоэффективности их общего фонда зданий, о барьерах на
пути повышения эффективности и успехах существующих инициатив по
энергосбережению.
Сравнительный анализ политических мер по повышению энергоэффективности зданий требует сбора и анализа информации путем согласованных международных действий. Информация особенно необходима для сравнения политических мер по повышению энергоэффективности и определения лучших моделей мирового опыта. Помимо
усовершенствованного процесса формирования политики, такая
стандартизация имеет как минимум еще два других преимущества.
20
TEXT 7
Ductless systems
1. In houses built without ductwork, and where conventional ductwork
would be too costly or too inefficient to install, a ductless central-air system
is now possible. 2. Ductless systems have long been popular in Europe and
Asia, where building methods discourage ductwork, but are relatively new in
the United States. 3. The Carrier Corp. is one of several companies now making ductless systems for the U.S. market. 4. In these systems, a single outdoor
compressor serves several smaller evaporator coils located indoors, each in its
own box and each with its own blower fan. 5. These components are installed
on exterior walls, usually on the upper half, where much of the heat accumulates. 6. They’re finished unobtrusively, but they can be quite large, often measuring 6 x 18 x 24 in. 7. Condensation lines are routed outside, along with the
refrigeration and electrical lines. 8. Ductless systems can also provide heat,
either through resistance coils in the wall units or in heat-pump fashion. 9. The
advantages of ductless air over window air are that ductless systems move the
noisiest components outdoors, they can provide heat, and they distribute the
air more evenly. 10. Installation costs vary widely, but ductless systems can
be more expensive than ducted systems. 11. They’re reliable and efficient, but
they’re not likely to replace ducted systems in the United States. 12. They’re
considered to be problem solvers, the problem being fairly rare.
I. Remember:
Ductwork, ductless, costly, efficient, inefficient, install, relatively, compressor, evaporate, evaporator, coil, fan, exterior, upper, heat, accumulate,
measure (v), route (n, v), along with, resistance, advantage, provide, either
… or…, distribute, even, vary, consider, rare.
II. Note in the text:
1. Subjunctive mood; Participle II and its function; infinitive and its function. 2. Subjects and predicates (tense, voice). 3. Participle I and its function.
4. Comparative degree; “-ed” form its function. 5. Subjects and predicates
(tense, voice). 6. Participle I and its function; modal verb. 7. Noun groups;
predicate (tense, voice). 8. Modal verb; noun groups. 9. Predicates; comparative and superlative degree; modal verb. 10. Noun group; modal verb;
comparative degree. 11. Complex Subject. 12. Complex Subject; Absolute
participle construction; noun group.
9
TEXT 8
How Conventional Systems Work
1. All heating and cooling technology grows from the law of thermal dynamics that says when hot and cold spaces are separated by a medium, the
transfer through the medium will always be from hot to cold. 2. Heat follows cold, whether the medium is human skin, an exterior wall or the metal
surface of an evaporator coil. 3. When warm, humid air is blown across the
evaporator coil in your furnace, the heat in the air is drawn to and impinges
on the cold metal surface of the coil’s fin tubes. 4. In the process, the moisture
in the air condenses on the cold metal and drips into a pan below the coil,
where it’s drained off, thus lowering the humidity in the house. 5. It’s a neat
trick–a double trick–but it requires a repeatable cycle, over and over, every
time the system’s thermostat demands it. 6. The evaporator coil needs to
be constantly recooled and the heat it absorbs needs to be carried outdoors.
7. This is accomplished with a liquid/gas refrigerant, which undergoes
a pressure-induced state change. 8. An outdoor compressor pressurizes the
refrigerant, heating it to a gas state, then sends it through an adjacent condenser coil to be cooled and returned back to the evaporator coil. 9. There it
picks up household heat and carries it back to the compressor. 10. When this
cycle is repeated often enough, our homes become a lot more comfortable.
I. Remember:
Conventional, thermal, dynamics, separate, transfer (n, v), exterior, evaporate, evaporator, coil, humid, furnace, impinge, surface, moisture, lower
(v), absorb, require, repeatable, thermostat, constant, constantly, accomplish,
liquid, refrigerant, pressure, induce, induced, adjacent, condenser, heat,
through, pressurize, refrigerant.
II. Note in the text:
1. Subjects and predicates (tense, voice); Participle II and its function.
2. Subordinate clause. 3. Participles II and their functions. 4. Subjects and
predicates; Participle I and its function. 5. Subjects and predicates; possessive. 6. Subjects and predicates; noun group. 7. Noun groups; “-ed” forms,
their functions. 8. Infinitive and its function; Participle I and its function.
9. Subject and predicates. 10. Subjects and predicates, comparative degree.
10
проблема, которую помогают решить строительные стандарты, —
это проблема «заказчик–агент», или конфликт интересов между владельцами и арендаторами. Одним из последствий этой проблемы является то,
что решения, связанные с энергетикой, имеют тенденцию основываться
на непосредственных затратах на строительство, а не на соображениях
энергоэффективности в долгосрочной перспективе.
Повышение энергоэффективности зданий требует усилий всех стран
и/или федераций. Большинство стран ОЭСР уже имеют обязательные
стандарты энергоэффективности для новых зданий, однако в законодательствах некоторых стран такие стандарты все еще отсутствуют.
В других странах стандарты энергоэффективности применяются только к определенным типам зданий. Кроме того, большинство стандартов
ниже экономически оптимального уровня, если учитывать 30-летний
срок службы зданий. Существует значительный потенциал увеличения
полноты и строгости требований к энергоэффективности в строительных стандартах и для приближения к оптимальному уровню сбережения энергии, рассчитанному на основе 30-летнего срока службы здания.
2.2. Здания с пассивным энергопотреблением и здания с нулевым энергопотреблением
Обязательные стандарты энергоэффективности устанавливают минимальные энергетические характеристики для новых зданий. Однако
существует также необходимость стимулировать максимальную энергоэффективность новых зданий и гарантировать, что эти здания будут доступны на рынке.
Строительство зданий с высокой энергоэффективностью, использующих очень небольшую или вообще нулевую долю полезной энергии,
является технически и коммерчески выполнимой задачей. С течением
времени эти очень низко-энергозатратные «здания с пассивным энергопотреблением» (ЗПЭ) (использующие на 65-80% энергии меньше, чем
стандартные дома) часто оказываются менее дорогостоящими, чем здания, построенные по традиционному проекту. «Здания с нулевым энергопотреблением»» (ЗНЭ) в настоящее время более дорогие, чем традиционные здания, но их стоимость снижается. Технология строительства
зданий с низким энергопотреблением широко доступна уже в течение
некоторого времени. Тем не менее, несмотря на финансовые преимущества низких эксплуатационных расходов и техническую выполнимость,
ЗПЭ и ЗНЭ занимают очень малую долю (менее 1 %) на мировом рынке.
19
ПРИЛОЖЕНИЕ 3
Пример письменного задания тестирования по английскому языку
поступающих на программу двойного диплома по инженерным
системам в университет прикладных наук г. Миккели (2010)
WRITING TEST
Explain / summarize the contents of the enclosed Russian article into
English.
Don't try to translate it word by word (or sentence by sentence) but give
the main contents in English in your own words.
Your text should at least two pages (written on every other line). Remember
to have an introduction, several paragraphs and a conclusion.
The time allowed is 90 minutes.
Энергоэффективные здания
Здания потребляют 40 % энергии, используемой в странах ОЭСР.
Анализ МЭА показывает, что экономически целесообразный потенциал энергосбережения для такого конечного потребления огромен.
Комплекс приоритетных мер по повышению эффективности использования энергии в строительном секторе охватывает:
– строительные нормы для новых зданий;
– здания с пассивным энергопотреблением и здания с нулевым энергопотреблением;
– существующие здания;
– строительные сертификации;
– окна и другие застекленные участки.
2.1. Разработка строительных норм для новых зданий
Повышение энергоэффективности в новых зданиях является особенно
целесообразным и должно занимать центральное место в политических
мерах по повышению энергоэффективности в строительстве. Усилия по
повышению энергоэффективности новых зданий должны предприниматься на соответствующем правительственном уровне посредством введения стандартов энергоэффективности в строительных нормах, которые
устанавливают минимальные стандарты по энергоэффективности для
всех новых зданий. При этом такие стандарты учитывают проблемы рынка путем установки минимального стандарта для всех зданий. Типичная
18
TEXT 9
The Freon Question
1. As a result of the Montreal Protocol, a conference that grew out of
international concern over the ozone-depleting qualities of CFC (chlorofluorocarbon) chemicals, the EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) is mandating the gradual phaseout of Freon, or R22 refrigerant. 2. The new, nonozone-depleting replacement will be R4-10A. 3. In fact, some manufacturers
have switched to R4-10A in some models already. 4. While this new refrigerant works just as well, it requires pressures up to 50% greater than Freon,
so it can’t be used in existing equipment. 5. Interestingly, the higher operating pressure actually improves efficiency slightly. 6. In any case, there’s no
practical way to convert existing equipment. 7. So where does this leave the
tens of millions of us with Freon-based, R22 systems? 8. The short answer
is that the Freon phaseout is stretched so far into the future that nearly all of
today’s air conditioners will have been replaced by then. 9. The EPA required
a substantial reduction by 2004, and all products containing R22 had to stop
production by 2010. 10. The production of R22 itself must cease by 2020.
11. For those few R22 units still in service at that time, recycled R22 will
be available, though it will probably cost a small fortune. 12. Most manufacturers offer two quality levels for each SEER (Seasonal Energy Effective
Rating) number. 13. What you get in return is a better made unit that runs
three to six times quieter and lasts longer.
I. Remember the words:
Concern, ozone, deplete, quality, chemical, gradual, refrigerant, replace,
switch, require, operate, pressure, exist, equipment, improve, efficiency,
slightly, convert, stretch, substantial, reduce, reduction, contain, cease, recycle, available, offer, level, in return, unit, last (v).
II. Note in the text:
1. Subjects and predicates; subordinate clause; Participles I, their functions. 2. Predicate (tense, voice). 3. Predicate (tense, voice). 4. Modal verb;
Comparative degree; “ing” form, its function. 5. Comparative degree; adverb. 6. Construction “there +be”; Infinitive, its function. 7. “-ed” form, its
function. 8. Subjects and predicates (tense, voice); possessive. 9. Participle
I and its function; modal verb substitute. 10. Modal verb. 11. Predicates;
Participle II and its function. 12. Noun groups. 13. Subordinate clause; comparative degrees; Participle II, its function.
11
TEXT 10
Exhaust of air
1. Ventilation shall be designed to be as efficient as possible so that the supply air flows into the entire occupied zone, and that impurities are conducted directly to the extract air terminal devices without spreading into the room. 2. The
supply air shall not flow directly past the occupied zone to the extract air terminal devices. 3. Air belonging to different extract classes must be discharged
out of the building in accordance with the following principles. 4. Extract air of
classes 1 and 2 can usually be conveyed in a common ductwork. 5. Extract air of
class 3 is normally conducted, through separate ducts or through common ductwork that serves areas with similar level of cleanliness, into the ambient, into
a collector duct installed above the areas it serves, or into an extract air chamber. 6. Extract air of class 4 is conducted out through separate extract air ducts.
7. In case significant quantities of substances, which are harmful to health or
emit strong odours are handled or stored in a room, the room in question shall
be provided with outdoor air and extract air ducts that are separate from the
rest of the ventilation system. 8. Such premises include for instance storage areas for toxic substances, waste disposal areas and rooms for unwashed laundry.
9. Extract air from toilets, washrooms and cleaning cupboards that open up to
workplaces, to areas where people spend time or to corridors, is usually conducted out to atmosphere through a separate extract air system. 10. However,
extract air from toilets and similar rooms can be ducted to continually running
exhaust ventilation systems of areas in dwelling and accommodation premises.
I. Remember:
Exhaust, efficient, supply, flow, entire, occupy, impurities, conduct, extract, device, spread, belong, discharge, in accordance with, convey, common, ductwork, separate, duct, emit, store, through, area, similar, above,
significant, substance, quantity, provide, include, toxic, disposal, premises,
dwelling, accommodation.
II. Note in the text:
1. Subjects and predicates (tense, voice); Infinitive, its function; gerund.
2. Participle II, its function; noun groups. 3. Participle I, its function; modal
verb. 4. Predicate. 5. Subjects and predicates; noun groups; Participles II,
their function. 7. Subordinate clauses. 8. Noun groups; Participle II, its function. 9. Subjects and predicates. 10. Modal verb; “-ing” forms, their functions; noun groups; adverb.
12
ПРИЛОЖЕНИЕ 2
Тестирование по английскому языку кандидатов на программу
двойного диплома в г. Миккели, Финляндия
(типы заданий, требования)
LANGUAGE TEST FOR THE APPLICANTS TO THE DOUBLE
DEGREE PROGRAMME OF BUILDING SERVICES
IN MIKKELI, FINLAND
1. WRITING TEST
Explain /summarize the contents of a Russian article in English.
Don't try to translate it word by word (or sentence by sentence) but give
the main contents in English in your own words.
The time allowed is 90 minutes. Dictionaries or grammar books are not
allowed.
The text is related with Building Services more at a general level, not at
a highly technical or professional level. The purpose of the writing test is to
make sure that you master the basic vocabulary required to take professional
courses in English.
2. ORAL TEST
You will be personally interviewed in English. Each interview will take
about ten or fifteen minutes. It will deal with your studies, work experience
and current issues of your field.
REQUIREMENTS
You have to pass both the writing and oral test to be accepted to study in
the double degree programme.
PREPARING FOR THE TEST
You can find useful vocabulary in the articles on the following Internet
sites:
www.eere.energy.gov
www.epa.gov
www.doe.gov
17
21. Air pollution and air cleaning equipment in building
22. Comparison of Finnish and Russian indoor climate requirements in
residential buildings
23. Mechanical ventilation systems in swimming pools
24. Comparison of heat pump and boiler for one-family house. Heat
sources in one-family house
25. Aspiration systems in furniture factories
26. Determining the best location of carbon dioxide sensor in a classroom
27. Efficiency of heat recovery unit in D-building
28. Ventilation of Underground Parking
29. Productivity and Indoor Climate
30. Heating system for a passive house in Finland
31. Influence of Natural and Mechanical Ventilation on the Indoor Climate
32. Demand Control Ventilation Systems in Sport Facilities
33. Efficiency of air handling unit of X-building
34. Determining the best location of smoke sensor in office room
35. Heat recovery potential of a canteen
36. Problem of Grease and its Solutions in Commercial Kitchens
37. Calculating of energy consumption of the sports hall
38. Mechanical supply and exhaust ventilation in high rise residential
buildings in Russia
39. Ventilation and air handling in nearly zero energy buildings in Russian
climate
40. Energy policies of Germany, Finland and Russia
41. Ventilation system at the cinema hall with different customer loading
42. Displacement ventilation in lecture halls
43. Systems Based on Maisotsenko Cycle. Coolerado Coolers
44. Comparison of the standardized requirements for indoor climate in
office buildings
45. Efficiency of heat recovery units in ventilation
46. Ventilation in buildings with high moisture load
47. Determining the most suitable material for water pipes
48. Indoor climate in hospitals. What are the risks factors for patient?
49. Ventilation in sustainable office buildings
50. Energy efficiency of a passive house. Building simulation
51. Economizers in Chiller Systems
16
TEXT 11
The first floor-heating systems
1. It may be of use to analyse the history of panel heating to give a better overall view of its development in the context of systems in general and,
in particular, this may serve to illustrate why these systems are sometimes
seen with a certain diffidence, and used only for applications which are entirely secondary and partial. 2. The idea of using the floor as a heat emission
surface goes back over two thousand years. 3. Heating systems inspired by
this idea were built by the Chinese, Egyptians and Romans. 4. The system
adopted by the Chinese and the Egyptians was fairly simple. 5. It consisted
of building an underground hearth and sending smoke under the flooring
of the rooms to be heated; it was, in practice, single room heating. 6. The
Romans, however, used far more complex, advanced systems. 7. Using the
smoke from a single external hearth, they were able to heat several rooms and
even several buildings, thus achieving the first central-heating type system.
8. However, it was not until the start of this century that underfloor heating
appeared in its present form. 9. And it was an Englishman, Professor Baker,
who was first to patent this type of system using the title “systems for heating
rooms with hot water carried by underfloor piping”. 10. In London in 1909,
Crittal Co. acquired the patent rights and heated one of the Royal palaces
with this new system. 11. However, it was not until the period of the great
reconstruction after the Second World War that a significant spread of panel
heating took place.
I. Remember the words:
Heat, development, in general, in particular, certain, application, entirely,
secondary, partial, emission, surface, adopt, fairly, consist of, hearth, external, achieve, appear, acquire, significant, spread, take place.
II. Note in the text:
1. Subjects and predicates; comparative degree; adverb. 2. Noun group;
gerund and its function. 3. Predicate (tense, voice); Participle II and its function. 4. Participle II and its function. 5. Participle I and its function; infinitive
and its function; “-ing” forms and their functions. 6. Comparative degree.
7. Subject and predicate; Participles I. 8. Subjects and predicates. 9. Infinitive
and its function; Participle I and Participle II: gerund. 10. Subjects and predicates.
13
TEXT 12
Post-war floor-heating systems
1. In the early years after World War II, there were two main reasons for the
spread of panel heating – these were the constant unavailability of heat emitters and the ease of insertion of the panels in prefabricated floor slabs. 2. The
technique used consisted of burying 1/2” or 3/4” steel tubes in the flooring,
without overlying insulating materials. 3. In Europe from 1945 to 1950 over
100,000 homes were heated by this technique. 4. Very soon, however, it was
noted that the equipment was causing numerous physiological problems, such
as poor circulation, high blood pressure, headaches and excessive sweating.
5. Problems of this nature were so serious and well-documented that certain
European countries set up Commissions to identify the causes. 6. The results
of the various Commissions of enquiry agreed that, in the systems constructed,
the physiological problems were due to two values being too high: (1) the surface temperature of the flooring, and (2) the thermal inertia of the floor slabs.
7. It was demonstrated in particular that, in order to avoid feelings of discomfort, the floor temperature should not exceed 28÷29˚C. 8. In fact in the systems
examined, the higher temperatures were found, even in excess of 40˚C. 9. It
was demonstrated that the excessive heat that accumulated in the floor slabs
of systems meant overheating of the rooms above physiologically acceptable
levels. 10. The systems, if constructed for a low surface temperature and with
a not excessively high thermal inertia, can offer heat comfort greatly superior
than that which can be obtained with radiator or convector equipment.
I. Remember the words:
Spread, heat, constant, unavailability, emitter, insertion, slab, technique,
consist of, steel, overlie, insulate, equipment, cause, numerous, circulation,
pressure, excessive, certain, identify, various, due to, value, surface, in particular, in order to, avoid, thermal, inertia, accumulate, overheat, acceptable,
offer, obtain, convector.
II. Note in the text:
1. Construction “there + be”; noun groups. 2. Participle I and its function; “-ed” forms and their functions. 3. Subject and predicate (tense, voice).
4. Subjects and predicates (tense, voice). 5. Infinitive and its function.
6. Participles I and II, their functions; noun groups. 7. Passive predicate;
infinitive, its function; modal verb. 8. Participle II, its function; comparative
degree; predicate (tense, voice). 9. Subjects and predicates. 10. Subjects and
predicates; modal verb; noun groups; adverbs.
14
ПРИЛОЖЕНИЕ 1
Темы дипломных бакалаврских работ студентов, проходивших
обучение по Программе двойного диплома по направлению
«Инженерные системы зданий» в университете прикладных
наук г. Миккели (Финляндия)
List of Bachelor's Theses in the Building Services Double Degree
Program Mikkeli University of Applied Sciences
1. Extract and cleaning of contaminated air in commercial kitchens
2. Low Energy Cooling Systems Based On The Cold Energy Sources Of
The Ground
3. Commissioning of heating systems
4. Energy efficiency of the building
5. Heat pumps and under floor heating as a heating system for Finnish
low-rise residential buildings
6. District heating systems in Finland and Russia
7. Obtaining good water quality without using big treatment plants.
Treatment installations in buildings
8. Cleanrooms In Pharmaceutical Production
9. Indirect Adiabatic Cooling
10. Maintaining thermal conditions in exhibitions of Russian Museum
and Archive of Mikkeli
11. Heating system based on heat pump technology for water treatment
plant
12. Demand Controlled Ventilation Systems
13. Modern Chilled Beam Technology
14. Utilization of solar energy in cold climate
15. Ventilation of commercial kitchens
16. Comparison of Russian and Finnish educational systems at university
level. Education in the field of HVAC
17. Renovation of Ventilation and Air-conditioning System in old Russian
Museums
18. Comparative analysis of Finnish and Russian regulating documents
on water supply and drainage of residential buildings
19. Micro-organisms (bacteria and fungi) in buildings
20. Comparison of Thermal Insulation Materials for Building Envelopes
of the Multi-storey Buildings in Saint-Petersburg
15
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