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Zadanie 130 Engl

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Министерство образования и науки
Российской Федерации
Санкт-Петербургский государственный
архитектурно-строительный университет
Факультет экономики и управления
Кафедра иностранных языков
АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК
ЗАДАНИЕ № 130
для студентов всех специальностeй I курса
факультета безотрывных форм обучения
Санкт-Петербург
2012
1
Урок 1
УДК 378.6:811.111(075.8)
Рецензент д-р филол. наук, доцент Е. И. Варгина (СПбГУ)
Английский язык: задание № 130 для студентов всех специальностeй I курса факультета безотрывных форм обучения / сост.:
Т. Б. Воеводская, Л. Я. Лапшина; СПбГАСУ. – СПб., 2012. – 48 с.
Задание предназначено для аудиторного чтения для студентов I курса факультета безотрывных форм обучения всех специальностей для развития навыков технического перевода со словарем. В задании использованы тексты, взятые
из оригинальной литературы.
Каждый урок включает тексты для устного и письменного перевода, лексические и грамматические упражнения, направленные на развитие навыков
устного и письменного перевода со словарем. В конце задания имеется англорусский словарь, составленный на основе употребляющейся в задании лексики.
 Санкт-Петербургский государственный
архитектурно-строительный университет, 2012
2
Задание 1. Прочитайте и устно переведите текст А.
Текст A. General Principles of Construction
The building has to resist gravity and remain safe throughout its design
life. Every building consists of some common elements: foundations, floors,
walls, roof, windows and doors, stairs and ramps, surface finishes, services.
An integrated approach is very important for the success of the building
project. It is impossible to consider the choice of, for example, a window
without considering its interaction with the wall in which it is to be positioned
and fixed.
Masonry load bearing construction is well established in the building sector.
It depends on the skills of the site workers and on wet trades, for example
bricklaying and plastering. Quality control depends upon the quality of the
supervision on site.
In a typical load bearing wall construction the main loads are transferred
to the foundations via the internal load bearing wall. The external skin serves
to provide weather protection and aesthetic quality.
Framed construction also has a long practice. The first frames of low rise
buildings were made from timber. Later appeared iron and reinforced concrete
frames. Three main materials are used for low-rise developments: timber,
steel and concrete. Framed construction is better suited for prefabrication
and off-site manufacturing than masonry load bearing construction. Dry
techniques are used and quality control is easier because the production process
is repetitive and a large amount of the work is carried out in a carefully
controlled environment. Site operations are concerned with the correct
placement and connection of individual component parts in a safe manner.
Notes:
via – через,
masonry load bearing construction – возведение несущих стен методом
каменной кладки,
external skin – внешняя оболочка ограждающих конструкций, наружный
слой,
framed construction – каркасное строительство,
low-rise development – малоэтажное здание,
3
supervision – наблюдение, руководство,
off-site manufacturing – производство за пределами участка,
reinforced concrete – железобетон
Задание 2. Переведите на русский язык и выучите следующие слова:
design, erection, erect, resist gravity, foundation, floor, wall, roof, window,
door, surface finish, services, position, fix, consider, masonry, timber, steel,
concrete, load, load bearing, prefabrication, site, use (v.), a number of,
throughout, follow by
Задание 3. Найдите в тексте А и выпишите глаголы в форме пассивного
залога.
Задание 4. Найдите в правой колонке русские эквиваленты английских
слов и словосочетаний.
1. to resist gravity
2. a number of
3. quality control
4. timber
5. surface finish
6. interaction
7. consider
8. without considering
9. throughout
10. load bearing wall
11. life
12. safe
13. site
14. services
15. prefabrication
16. floor
a. перекрытие
b. древесина, строевой лес
c. обработка поверхности
d. ряд (чего-либо), определенное
количество
e. оказывать сопротивление силе
тяжести
f. предварительное изготовление
g. несущая стена
h. строительная площадка, участок
i. контроль качества
j. надежный, безопасный
k. учитывать, полагать
l. коммуникации
m. срок службы
n. взаимодействие
o. не учитывая
p. всюду, повсюду
4
Задание 5. Составьте предложения из двух подходящих по смыслу
частей и переведите предложения на русский язык.
1. Every building is
composed of
2. It is impossible to
consider the choice of
a. are transferred to the foundations via the
internal load bearing wall.
b. the skills of the site workers and on wet
trades, for example bricklaying and
plastering.
c. are used for low-rise developments:
timber, steel and concrete.
3. In a typical load
bearing wall
construction the main
loads
4. Masonry load bearing d. some common elements: foundations,
construction depends on floors, walls, roof, windows and doors, stairs
and ramps, surface finishes, services.
5. Three main materials e. the correct placement and connection of
individual component parts in a safe manner.
6. The external skin
f. resist gravity and remain safe throughout
serves
its design life.
7. The building has to
g. a window without considering its
interaction with the wall in which it is to be
positioned and fixed.
8. Site operations are
h. to provide weather protection and
concerned with
aesthetic quality.
Задание 6. Замените данные в скобках слова и словосочетания на русском
языке их английскими эквивалентами и переведите предложения на
русский язык.
1. Three main materials (используются) for low-rise developments: timber,
steel and concrete. 2. (Внешняя оболочка ограждающих конструкций)
serves to provide weather protection and aesthetic quality. 3. (Возведение
несущих стен методом каменной кладки) depends on the skills of the site
workers. 4. Framed construction is better suited for prefabrication and (за
пределами участка) manufacturing than masonry load bearing construction.
5. In a typical load bearing wall construction the main loads (передаются) to
the foundations via the internal load bearing wall. 6. Site operations (имеют
дело с) the correct placement and connection of individual component parts
5
in a safe manner. 7. (Каркасное строительство) also has a long practice.
8. (Производственный процесс) is repetitive. 9. A large amount of the work
(выполняется) in a carefully controlled environment. 10. Dry techniques are
used and quality control is (легче). 11. The building (должно) resist gravity.
Задание 7. Определите функции глаголов to be, to have и переведите
предложения на русский язык.
1. Every building is composed of some common elements. 2. It is vital for
the success of the building project that an integrated approach is adopted.
3. It is impossible to consider the choice of, for example, a window without
considering its interaction with the wall in which it is to be positioned and
fixed. 4. Masonry load bearing construction is well established in the building
sector. 5. Quality control depends upon the quality of the supervision on site.
6. Three main materials are used for low-rise developments: timber, steel and
concrete. 7. Dry techniques are used and quality control is easier because the
production process is repetitive and a large amount of the work is carried out
in a carefully controlled environment. 8. The building has to resist gravity.
9. Framed construction has a long practice.
Задание 8. Переведите текст В на русский язык письменно со словарем.
Текст B
In a typical framed wall construction the main loads are transferred to the
foundations via the structural frame. The external skin serves to provide
weather protection and aesthetic quality. It is common to clad timber and
steel framed buildings with brickwork, thus from external appearances it may
be impossible to determine whether the construction is framed or load bearing.
Prefabrication and off-site production is also very popular now as the range
of prefabricated units is expanding. Considerable improvements in product
quality and safety may be made through the use of prefabricated components.
It moves the skills away from the building site into the controlled environment
of the factory. Site operations become limited to the lifting, positioning and
fixing of components into the correct position.
6
Урок 2
Задание 1. Прочитайте и устно переведите текст А.
Текст A. Functions of Buildings
There are a number of fundamental principles that we must consider when
we start to design and erect a building.
Buildings are constructed, altered, upgraded, restored or demolished for a
variety of reasons. All building projects need to meet performance
requirements. The primary function of a building is to provide shelter from
our weather, a container for living, working and playing in. The principal
function requirements include: 1) shelter, 2) security, 3) safety and comfort,
4) ease of use and operation (functionality), 5) ease of maintenance, periodic
repair and replacement, 6) ability to recycle materials and components. The
main aim is to achieve these functions in an economical and safe way using
the most appropriate resources available.
The performance of the building will be determined by a number of
interrelated factors set by the client, legislation and society. The main
considerations are: 1) space, determined by a figure for floor area and volume,
2) thermal and acoustic performance, 3) service life of the building and specific
building elements, 4) cost of construction, cost in use and cost of demolition
and recycling, 5) quality of the finished building, 6) appearance of the finished
building.
The functional and performance requirements will inform the design
process, from the initial concepts right through to the completion of the details
and production of the information (drawings, schedules and specifications)
from which the building will be constructed. Good detailing will help the
contractor to assemble the building safely and economically and will contribute
to the durability and ease of use of the building over its life.
Задание 2. Переведите на русский язык и выучите следующие слова:
alter, upgrade, restore, demolish, meet the requirements, performance, provide,
shelter, security, safety, maintenance, repair, replacement, recycle, area, space,
drawing, schedule, specification, contractor, durability, appearance
7
Задание 3. В первых двух абзацах текста А найдите модальные глаголы
и выпишите их. В третьем и четвертом абзацах текста А найдите
и выпишите глаголы в форме будущего времени.
Задание 4. Найдите в правой колонке русские эквиваленты английских
слов и словосочетаний.
1. meet the requirements
2. alter
3. maintenance
4. security
5. upgrade
6. provide
7. safety
8. demolish
9. durability
10. performance
11. appearance
12. specification
13. schedule
14. aim
15. achieve
16. resources available
a. внешний вид
b. модернизировать
c. сносить, разрушать
d. отвечать требованиям
e. техническое обслуживание
f. долговечность
g. изменять, менять
h. безопасность
i. обеспечивать,
предусматривать
j. достигать
k. график, план
l. доступные ресурсы
m. цель
n. деталь, инструкция
o. надежность
p. характеристика, работа
Задание 5. Составьте предложения из двух, подходящих по смыслу
частей и переведите предложения на русский язык.
1. The primary function
of a building is
2. Buildings are
constructed, altered,
upgraded, restored or
demolished for
3. The functional and
performance
requirements
4. The principal function
requirements
5 There are a number of
a. will inform the design process.
b. that we must consider when we start
to design and erect a building.
c. to provide shelter from our weather, a
container for living, working and
playing in.
d. a variety of reasons.
e. to assemble the building safely and
8
requirements
5 There are a number of
fundamental principles
6. The main
considerations are
7. Good detailing will
help the contractor
8. The main aim is
9. The performance of
the building will
e. to assemble the building safely and
economically.
f. to achieve these functions in an
economical and safe way.
g. be determined by a number of
interrelated factors
h. include: 1) shelter, 2) security, 3)
safety and comfort, 4) ease of use and
operation (functionality), 5) ease of
maintenance, periodic repair and
replacement, 6) ability to recycle
materials and components.
i. 1) space, 2) thermal and acoustic
performance, 3) service life of the
building, 4) cost of construction, 5)
quality of the finished building, 6)
appearance of the finished building.
Задание 6. Замените данные в скобках слова и словосочетания на русском
языке их английскими эквивалентами и переведите предложения на
русский язык.
1. The performance of the building (будет определяться) by a number of
interrelated factors set by the client, legislation and society. 2. The (главная
цель) is to achieve these functions in an economical and safe way. 3. The
primary function of a building (состоит в том, чтобы обеспечить) shelter
from our weather, a container for living, working and playing in. 4. Good
detailing will contribute to (долговечность) and ease of use of the building
over its life. 5. All building projects need to (отвечать рабочим
требованиям). 6. (Существует) a number of fundamental principles that we
must consider. 7. The main (соображения) are: 1) space, 2) thermal and
acoustic performance, 3) service life of the building, 4) cost of construction,
5) quality of the finished building, 6) appearance of the finished building.
Задание 7. Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание
на оборот there is (there are).
1. There are a number of fundamental principles that we must consider.
2. There are three groups of soils depending on the size and nature of the
9
particles. 3. There is one primary function of a building – to provide shelter.
4. There is a number of factors set by the client, legislation and society.
Задание 8. Переведите текст В на русский язык письменно со словарем.
Текст B. Quality
The quality of the completed building will be determined by the quality of
thought behind the design process, the quality of the materials and products
and the quality of the work undertaken. The required quality of materials and
workmanship will be set out in the written specification. Good quality materials
and good quality work will have a higher initial cost than lower quality
alternatives. However, the overall feel of the building and its long-term
durability may be considerably improved. When making decisions about the
materials and components to be used it is important to consider the whole life
cost of the materials, not just their initial capital cost and the cost of labour to
assemble the materials.
Урок 3
Задание 1. Прочитайте и устно переведите текст А.
Текст A. Groundwork and Foundations
The foundation of a building is that part of walls, piers and columns in
direct contact with, and transmitting loads to, the ground. The building
foundation is sometimes referred to as the artificial foundation, and the ground
on which it bears as the natural foundation. Early buildings were founded on
rock or firm ground. It was not until the beginning of the twentieth century
that concrete was used as a foundation base for walls. The primary functional
requirement of a foundation is strength and stability.
The combined, dead, imposed and wind loads on a building must be
transmitted to the ground safely, without causing deflection or deformation
of the building or movement of the ground that would impair the stability of
the building or neighboring structures. Foundations should also be designed
and constructed to resist any movement of the subsoil.
Foundations should be designed so that any settlement is both limited and
uniform under the whole of the building. Some settlement of a building on a
soil foundation is inevitable. As the building is erected the loads placed on
the foundation increase and the soil is compressed. This settlement should be
limited to avoid damage to service pipes and drains connected to the building.
Bearing capacities for various rocks and soils are assumed and these capacities
should not be exceeded in the design of the foundation to limit settlement.
There are a number of approaches to foundation construction, from strip
foundations, piles and rafts, all of which are constructed of concrete.
Задание 2. Переведите на русский язык и выучите следующие слова:
pier, column, transmit, ground, found, artificial, rock, firm, concrete, soil,
strength, stability, bearing capacity, dead load, live load, deformation, resist,
subsoil, settlement, uniform, increase, compress, avoid, damage, pipe, strip
foundation, pile, raft
Задание 3. Во втором и третьем абзацах текста А найдите модальные
глаголы и выпишите их.
10
11
Задание 4. Найдите в правой колонке русские эквиваленты английских
слов и словосочетаний.
1. pier
a. горная порода
2. transmit
b. постоянная нагрузка
3. strength
c. опора
4. rock
d. однородный
5. firm
e. повреждение
6. avoid
f. передавать
7. uniform
g. временная нагрузка
8. dead load
h. твердый
9. live load
i. опорная фундаментная плита
10. pile
j. несущая способность
11. raft
k. избегать
12. subsoil
l. ленточный фундамент
13. settlement
m. прочность
14. bearing capacity
n. свая
15. damage
o. осадка
16. strip foundation
p. грунтовое основание
Задание 5. Составьте предложения из двух, подходящих по смыслу
частей и переведите предложения на русский язык.
1. The building foundation is referred
to
2. The primary functional
requirement of a foundation is
3. Foundations should be designed
and constructed
4. The combined, dead, imposed and
wind loads on a building must be
5. Early buildings were founded
6. As the building is erected
7. It was not until the beginning of
the twentieth century
a. strength and stability.
b. transmitted to the ground
safely.
c. approaches to foundation
construction.
d. the loads placed on the
foundation increase.
e. that concrete was used as a
foundation base for walls.
f. is inevitable.
g. to resist any movement of the
subsoil.
8. This settlement should be limited h. as the artificial foundation.
9. There are a number of
i. on rock or firm ground.
10. Some settlement of a building on j. to avoid damage
a soil foundation
12
Задание 6. Замените данные в скобках слова и словосочетания на русском
языке их английскими эквивалентами и переведите предложения на
русский язык.
1. The building foundation is sometimes referred to as (искусственный
фундамент). 2. Early buildings (закладывались) on rock or firm ground.
3. (Фундамент) of a building is that part of walls, piers and columns in direct
contact with, and transmitting loads to, the ground. 4. It was not until the beginning
of the twentieth century that (бетон не использовался) as a foundation base for
walls. 5. The primary functional requirement of a foundation is (прочность и
устойчивость). 6. The combined, dead, imposed and wind loads on a building
must be transmitted to the ground safely, (не вызывая) deflection or deformation
of the building. 7. Foundations should also be designed and constructed (чтобы
выдерживать любое движение грунтового основания). 8. As the building is
erected the loads placed on the foundation (увеличиваются) and the soil
(сжимается). 9. (Существует ряд) approaches to foundation construction.
Задание 7. Переведите текст В на русский язык письменно со словарем.
Текст B. Soil
Soil is the general term for the upper layer of the Earth’s surface that consists of
various combinations of particles of disintegrated rock, such as gravel, sand or clay,
with some organic remains of decayed vegetation generally close to the surface.
The layer of topsoil which is about 100 to 300 mm deep, is loosely compacted
and is unsatisfactory as a foundation because of its poor bearing capacity. It
should be stripped from the site and retained for landscaping around the site.
Subsoil is the general term for soil below the topsoil. It is unusual for a
subsoil to consist of gravel, sand or clay by itself. The majority of subsoils
are mixes of various soils. Gravel, sand and clay may be combined in a variety
of proportions.
There are three groups of soils depending on the size and nature of the particles:
coarse-grained non-cohesive, fine-grained cohesive and organic. The nature and
behaviour under the load on foundations of the soils in each group are similar.
Notes:
coarse-grained non-cohesive soil – грубозернистый несвязный грунт
fine-grained cohesive soil – тонкозернистый связный грунт
13
Урок 4
Задание 1. Прочитайте и устно переведите текст А.
Текст A. Concrete
Concrete is the name given to a mixture of particles of sand and gravel, the
aggregate, bound together with cement, the matrix. Fine aggregate is natural
sand which has been washed and sieved to remove particles larger than
5 mm, and coarse aggregate is gravel that has been crushed, washed and
sieved so that the particles vary from 5mm up to 50mm in size. The fine and
coarse aggregate are delivered separately. By combining them in the correct
proportions, a concrete with very few voids in it can be made.
The cement most used is ordinary Portland cement. It is manufactured by
heating a mixture of finely powdered clay and limestone with water to a
temperature of about 1200ºC, at which the lime and clay fuse to form a clinker.
This clinker is ground with the addition of a little gypsum to a fine powder of
cement. Cement powder reacts with water and its composition gradually
changes; the particles of cement bind together and adhere strongly to materials
with which they are mixed. Cement hardens gradually after it is mixed with
water. Some thirty minutes to an hour after mixing with water the cement is
no longer plastic and it increasingly hardens to a dense solid mass after
7 days.
The materials used in reinforced concrete are weighed and mixed in large
concrete mixers. It is not economical for builders to employ expensive mixing
machinery. Concrete for foundations and floors is usually delivered to site
ready mixed. Ready-mixed concrete is carefully prepared and delivered to
site by lorries.
Задание 2. Переведите на русский язык и выучите следующие слова:
concrete, mixture, particle, sand, gravel, aggregate, fine, coarse, deliver,
manufacture (v, n), powder, lime, limestone, clay, set, harden, dense, solid,
strength, evaporate
Задание 3. Найдите в первом абзаце текста А причастия II, выпишите
их и определите их функции.
14
Задание 4. Найдите в правой колонке русские эквиваленты английских
слов и словосочетаний.
1. particle
2. aggregate
3. fine
4. coarse
5. clay
6. lime
7. sand
8. limestone
9. harden
10. dense
11. solid
12. heating
a. глина
b. крупный
c. известняк
d. затвердевать
e. плотный, густой
f. частица
g. нагревание
h. твердый, плотный
i. заполнитель
j. песок
k. мелкий
l. известь
Задание 5. Составьте предложения из двух, подходящих по смыслу
частей и переведите предложения на русский язык.
1. Fine aggregate is
2. Coarse aggregate is
3. The fine and coarse aggregate
are
a. ordinary Portland cement.
b. with which they are mixed.
c. heating a mixture of finely
powdered clay and limestone with
water.
4. The cement most used is
d. it is mixed with water.
5. Portland cement is
e. gravel that has been crushed,
manufactured by
washed and sieved.
6. Cement hardens gradually after f. the cement is no longer plastic.
7. Some thirty minutes to an hour g. prepare carefully controlled
after mixing with water
concrete mixes.
8. It is not economical for builders h. natural sand which has been
washed and sieved.
9. Ready-mixed concrete plants
i. to employ expensive mixing
machinery.
10. The particles of cement bind
j. delivered separately.
together and adhere strongly to
materials
15
Задание 6. Замените данные в скобках слова и словосочетания на русском
языке их английскими эквивалентами и переведите предложения на
русский язык.
1. Concrete is the name (данное) to a mixture of particles of aggregate,
(связанных) together with cement. 2. Portland cement (производится) by
heating a mixture of finely powdered clay and limestone with water to a
temperature of about 1200ºC. 3. Cement hardens gradually (после того, как
он смешивается) with water. 4. The materials (используемые) in reinforced
concrete are weighed and mixed in large concrete mixers. 5. (Мелкий и
крупный заполнитель) are delivered separately. 6. By combining them in
the correct proportions, a concrete with very few voids or spaces in it can be
made that produces a strong concrete.7. (Бетонная смесь заводского
изготовления) is carefully prepared and delivered to site by lorries.
Задание 7. Переведите текст В на русский язык письменно со словарем.
Текст B. Water-cement ratio
The materials used for making concrete are mixed with water for two
reasons: first to cause the reaction between cement and water, which results
in the cement acting as a binding agent and, secondly, to make the material
sufficiently plastic to be easily placed in position. The ratio of water to cement
used in concrete affects its ultimate strength. If too little water is used the
concrete is so stiff that it cannot be compacted and if too much water is used
the concrete does not develop full strength. Very little water is required to
ensure that a full chemical reaction takes place within the concrete mix. Any
excess water will not be used and will leave very small voids within the
concrete when the unused water eventually evaporates away. The water added
must be sufficient to allow the chemical reaction to take place and enable the
concrete to be worked (poured or vibrated) into place. The amount of water
required to make concrete sufficiently plastic (workable) depends on the
position in which the concrete is to be placed.
16
Урок 5
Задание 1. Прочитайте и устно переведите текст.
Текст A. Strip Foundations
Strip foundations consist of a continuous strip, usually of steel reinforced
concrete, formed centrally under loadbearing walls. This continuous strip
serves as a level base on which the wall is built. It is of such a width to spread
the load on the foundations to an area of subsoil. This subsoil should support
the load without undue compaction. The bearing capacity of the soil should
be grater than the loads imposed by the buildings foundation.
The continuous strip of concrete is spread in the trenches excavated down
to a level of compact soil. The strip of concrete may need to be no wider than
the thickness of the wall. In practice the concrete strip will generally be wider
than the thickness of the wall for the convenience of covering the whole
width of the trench and to provide a wide enough level base for bricklaying
below ground. A continuous strip foundation of concrete is the most economic
form of foundation for small buildings on compact soils.
The width of a concrete strip foundation depends on the bearing capacity
of the subsoil and the load on the foundations: the greater the bearing capacity
of the subsoil, the less the width of the foundation and vice versa.
Distribution of the load over a larger area reduces the load per unit area on
the ground. Strip foundations on subsoils with poor bearing capacity, such as
soft sandy clays, may need to be considerably wider than traditional (narrow)
strip foundations. However, to keep increasing the width and depth of the
concrete ensuring that the foundation does not shear makes the process
uneconomical. The alternative is to form a strip of steel-reinforced concrete.
Note:
vice versa – наоборот
Задание 2. Переведите на русский язык и выучите следующие слова:
strip foundation, continuous, reinforced concrete, compaction, capacity,
support, trench, width, thickness, shear, compression, tension, bar, rod, ensure,
protect, corrosion, composite, spread, economic, depend on
17
Задание 3. Выпишите из 2, 3 и 4 абзацев текста А прилагательные в
сравнительной степени и переведите их на русский язык.
Задание 4. Найдите в правой колонке русские эквиваленты английских
слов и словосочетаний.
1. continuous
2. thickness
3. shear
4. ensure
5. loadbearing
6. convenience
7. compaction
8. strip foundation
9. bricklaying
10. trench
11. tension
12. undue
a. обеспечивать
b. удобство
c. траншея
d. непрерывный
e. траншея
f. толщина
g. растяжение
h. несущий
i. чрезмерный
j. ленточный фундамент
k. уплотнение
l. кладка кирпича
Задание 5. Составьте предложения из двух, подходящих по смыслу
частей и переведите предложения на русский язык.
1. The subsoil should support the
load
2. The strip of concrete may need
to be no wider
3. A continuous strip foundation
of concrete is
a. the most economic form of
foundation for small buildings.
b. a continuous strip, usually of
steel reinforced concrete, formed
centrally under loadbearing walls.
c. to form a strip of steelreinforced concrete.
4. However, to keep increasing the d. than the thickness of the wall.
width and depth of the concrete
ensuring that the foundation does
not shear
5. The bearing capacity of the soil e. wider than the thickness of the
wall
6. Distributing the load over a
f. than the thickness of the wall.
larger area
7. The alternative is
g. without undue compaction.
18
7. The alternative is
8. The continuous strip is of such
a width
9. Strip foundations consist of
g. without undue compaction.
h. to spread the load on the
foundations to an area of subsoil.
i. a level base on which the wall is
built.
j. makes the process uneconomical.
10. In practice the concrete strip
will generally be
11. The strip of concrete may need
k. should be grater than the
to be no wider
loads imposed by the buildings
foundation.
12. This continuous strip serves as l. reduces the load per unit area on
the ground.
Задание 6. Замените данные в скобках слова и словосочетания на русском
языке их английскими эквивалентами и переведите предложения на
русский язык.
1. The continuous strip of concrete (заливается) in the trenches excavated
down to a level of compact soil. 2. A continuous strip foundation of concrete
is (самая экономичная) form of foundation for small buildings on compact
soils. 3. However, to keep increasing the width and depth of the concrete
(гарантируя, что фундамент не сдвигается) makes the process
uneconomical. 4. However, to keep increasing the width and depth of the
concrete ensuring that the foundation does not shear (делает) the process
uneconomical. 5. Strip foundations (состоят из) a continuous strip, usually
of steel reinforced concrete, formed centrally under loadbearing walls. 6.
(Несущая способность) of the soil should be grater than the loads imposed
by the buildings foundation. 7. This continuous strip serves (как) a level base
on which the wall is built. 8. The width of a concrete strip foundation (зависит
от) the bearing capacity of the subsoil and the load on the foundations. 9.
(Чем больше) is the bearing capacity of the subsoil, (тем меньше) is the
width of the foundation and vice versa.
Задание 7. Переведите текст В на русский язык письменно со словарем.
19
Текст B
Concrete is strong in compression, but is weak in tension. The effect of the
downward pressure of the wall on the middle of the foundation and the
opposing force of the ground spread across the base of the foundation attempts
to bend the foundation upwards; this places the top of the foundation in
compression and the base of the foundation in tension.
These opposing pressures will tend to cause shear cracking. To add tensile
properties to the foundation steel, reinforcing bars are cast in the lower edge
where tension will occur. There has to be a sufficient cover of concrete below
the steel reinforcing rods to ensure a good bond between the concrete and
steel and to protect the steel from corrosion. The steel and concrete make up
a composite material that can resist both tensile and compressive forces.
Урок 6
Задание 1. Прочитайте и устно переведите текст.
Текст A. Floors
Concrete and timber are the two materials most used for the construction
of ground and upper floors. The choice of one over another is determined
largely by the span required performance in terms of fire safety and the
resistance to the passage of heat and sound.
The functional requirements of a floor are:
1. Strength and stability.
2. Resistance to weather and ground moisture.
3. Durability and freedom from maintenance.
4. Fire safety – resisting spread and passage of fire.
5. Fire safety – providing stable support for occupants to evacuate.
6. Resistance to passage of heat.
7. Resistance to the passage of sound.
The strength of a floor depends on the characteristics of the materials used
for the structure of the floor, such as timber, steel or concrete. The floor
structure must be strong enough to support safely the dead load of the floor
and its finishes, fixtures, partitions and services and the imposed loads of the
occupants and their movable furniture and equipment. Where imposed loads
are small, as in single family domestic buildings of not more than three storeys,
a timber floor construction is usual. The lightweight timber floor structure is
adequate for the small loads over small spans. Precast concrete block and
beam flooring offers an economical and quick alternative to timber floors.
For larger imposed loads and wider spans a reinforced concrete floor is used,
both for strength in support and for resistance to fire.
Задание 2. Переведите на русский язык и выучите следующие слова:
floor, concrete, timber, choice, determine, span, require, performance, safety,
resistance, heat, sound, strength, durability, maintenance, moisture, occupant,
fixture, partition, services, equipment, storey, lightweight, precast, precast
concrete block, both … and
Задание 3. Выпишите из текста А причастия в функции определения и
переведите их на русский язык.
20
21
Задание 4. Найдите в правой колонке русские эквиваленты английских
слов и словосочетаний.
1. floor
2. maintenance
3. moisture
4. lightweight
5. precast concrete block
6. services
7. performance
8. fixture
9. span
10. heat
11. equipment
12. durability
13. strength
a. пролет
b. легкий
c. коммуникации, инженерные
сети
d. пол, этаж, перекрытие
e. характеристика, работа
f. прочность
g. оборудование
h. ремонт, тех. обслуживантие
i. многоквартирный дом из
сборного бетона
j. арматура, зажимное
приспособление
k. долговечность
l. нагрев, нагревать
m. влажность
Задание 5. Составьте предложения из двух, подходящих по смыслу
частей и переведите предложения на русский язык.
1. The strength of a floor depends
on the characteristics of the
materials
2. Precast concrete block and
beam flooring offers
a. the dead load of the floor and its
finishes, fixtures, partitions and
services and the imposed loads of
the occupants and their movable
furniture and equipment.
b. strength and stability, durability
and freedom from maintenance.
3. For larger imposed loads and
c. the small loads over small spans.
wider spans a reinforced concrete
floor is used,
4. Where imposed loads are small,
d. both for strength in support
a timber floor construction
and also for resistance to fire.
5. The floor structure must be
e. by the span required
22
5. The floor structure must be
strong enough to support safely
6. Concrete and timber are
7. The functional requirements
of a floor are:
8. The choice of one over another
is determined largely
9. The lightweight timber floor
structure is adequate for
e. by the span required
performance in terms of fire safety
and the resistance to the passage of
heat and sound.
f. used for the structure of the
floor, such as timber, steel or
concrete.
g. the two materials most used for
the construction of ground and
upper floors.
h. is usual.
i. an economical and quick
alternative to timber floors.
Задание 6. Замените данные в скобках слова и словосочетания на русском
языке их английскими эквивалентами и переведите предложения на
русский язык.
1. The floor structure (должна быть достаточно прочной, чтобы
выдерживать) safely different loads. 2. The lightweight timber floor structure
(соответствует) for the small loads over small spans. 3. For larger imposed
loads and wider spans a reinforced concrete floor is used, (как) for strength in
support (так и) for resistance to fire. 4. Concrete and timber are the two materials
(наиболее широко используемые) for the construction of ground and upper
floors. 5. (Там, где приложенные нагрузки небольшие), a timber floor
construction is usual. 6. The choice of one over another is determined largely
by the span required performance (с точки зрения) fire safety and the resistance
to the passage of heat and sound. 7. (Прочность перекрытия) depends on the
characteristics of the materials used for the structure of the floor.
Задание 7. Переведите текст В на русский язык письменно со словарем.
Текст B. Floor Stability
A floor is designed and constructed to serve as a horizontal surface to
support people and their furniture, equipment or machinery. The floor should
23
have adequate stiffness to remain stable and horizontal under the dead load
of the floor structure and such partitions and other fixtures it supports and
anticipated static and live loads it is designed to support. The floor structure
should also support and accommodate services either in its depth, or below
or above the floor, without affecting its stability.
Solid ground and basement floors are often built off the ground from which
they derive support. The stability of such floors depends, therefore, on the
characteristics of the concrete under them. Upper or suspended floors are
supported by walls or beams and should have adequate stiffness to minimize
deflection under load. Under load a floor will deflect and bend and this
deflection and this deflection or bending should be limited to avoid cracking
of rigid finishes such as plasterboard, which are attached to the ceiling directly
below the floor.
Урок 7
Задание 1. Прочитайте и устно переведите текст.
Текст A. Walls
A wall is a continuous, usually vertical structure, which is thin relative to
its length and height. External walls help to provide shelter from our
environment and internal walls divide buildings into rooms or compartments.
The main function of an external wall is to provide shelter against wind, rain
and the daily and seasonal variations of outside temperature normal to its
location, for reasonable indoor comfort. To provide adequate shelter a wall
should have sufficient strength and stability to be self-supporting and also to
support roofs and upper floors. The terms loadbearing and non-loadbearing
are used to differentiate the structural requirements of those walls that carry
the loads from roofs and upper floors in addition to their own weight from
those that are freestanding and carry only their own weight. The majority of
walls for single, double and triple storey buildings are constructed with
loadbearing masonry walls or are framed from timber, steel or concrete. The
type of wall used will generally depend on the availability of materials and
labour, economic factors and the design approach.
The function of a wall is to enclose and protect a building or to divide
space within a building. It is convenient to adopt a list of specific requirements
to provide a check that a particular wall construction satisfies these
requirements. The commonly accepted requirements of a wall are:
1. Strength and stability.
2. Resistance to weather and ground moisture.
3. Durability and freedom from maintenance.
4. Fire safety.
5. Resistance to the passage of heat.
6. Resistance to airborne and impact sound.
7. Security.
8. Aesthetics.
Задание 2. Переведите на русский язык и выучите следующие слова:
continuous, vertical, thin, length, height, external, internal, environment, to
divide, indoor, adequate, sufficient, self-supporting, requirement, enclose,
resistance, carry, security, loadbearing, non-loadbearing
24
25
Задание 3. Выпишите из текста А инфинитивы и определите их
функции.
Задание 4. Найдите в правой колонке русские эквиваленты английских
слов и словосочетаний.
1 divide.
2. sufficient
3. continuous
4. self-supporting
5. indoor
6. requirement
7. height
8. enclose
9. security
10. environment
11. adequate
12. thin
13. carry
14. external
15. internal
a. надежность
b. ограждать
c. домашний
d. делить, разделять
e. окружающая среда
f. внутренний
g. соответствующий
h. внешний
i. самонесущие
j. достаточный
k. выдерживать, нести
l. требование
m. непрерывный
n. высота
o. тонкий
Задание 5. Составьте предложения из двух, подходящих по смыслу
частей и переведите предложения на русский язык.
1. The type of wall used will
generally
2. Internal walls divide buildings
a. to divide space within a building.
b. are constructed with loadbearing
masonry walls or are framed from
timber, steel or concrete.
3. The terms loadbearing and non- c. to enclose and protect a building.
loadbearing are used
4. A wall is a continuous, usually d. against wind, rain and the daily
vertical structure, which is
and seasonal variations of outside
temperature normal to its location.
5. The function of a wall is
e. to provide shelter from our
environment
6. The main function of an
f. to differentiate the structural
26
environment
f. to differentiate the structural
requirements of those walls that
carry the loads from roofs and
upper floors in addition to their
own weight from those that are
freestanding and carry only their
own weight.
7. It is convenient to adopt a list of g. Resistance to weather and
specific requirements
ground moisture, resistance to
airborne and impact sound.
8. The function of a wall is
h. thin relative to its length and
height.
9. External walls help
i. sufficient strength and stability to
be self-supporting and also to
support roofs and upper floors.
6. The main function of an
external wall is to provide shelter
Задание 6. Замените данные в скобках слова и словосочетания на русском
языке их английскими эквивалентами и переведите предложения на
русский язык.
1. The terms (несущие) and (ненесущие) are used to differentiate the
structural requirements of walls. 2. The main function of an external wall
(состоит в том, чтобы обеспечить) shelter against wind, rain and the daily
and seasonal variations of outside temperature normal to its location, for
reasonable indoor comfort. 3. A wall is a (непрерывная), usually
(вертикальная) structure, which is thin relative to its length and height. 4. To
provide adequate shelter a wall should have (достаточную прочность и
устойчивость). 5. (Внешние стены) help to provide shelter from our
environment. 6. (Внутренние стены) divide buildings into rooms or
compartments. 7. (Удобно) to adopt a list of specific requirements to provide
a check. 8. A wall should be (самонесущей) and also support roofs and upper
floors. 9. (Используемый тип стены) will generally depend on the availability
of materials and labour, economic factors and the design approach.
Задание 7. Переведите текст В на русский язык письменно со словарем.
27
Текст B. Brick Classifications
Bricks may be classified in accordance with their uses as commons, facing
and engineering bricks.
Commons are sufficiently hard to carry the loads but they have a dull
texture or are a poor colour. Commons are used for internal walls that are not
usually exposed to view.
Facing bricks can carry normal loads, are capable of withstanding the effects
of rain, wind and frost without breaking up and have a pleasant appearance.
Engineering bricks are made from specially prepared clay. They are very
solid and hard are are capable of safely carrying much heavier loads than
other type of brick. These bricks are mainly used for walls carrying
exceptionally heavy loads, for brick piers and general engineering works.
A range of special bricks are made for specific uses in fairface brickwork.
Note:
fairface brickwork – ровная (гладкая) лицевая кирпичная кладка
Урок 8
Задание 1. Прочитайте и устно переведите текст.
Текст A. Walls Strength
The strength of the materials used in wall construction is determined by
the strength of a material in resisting compressive and tensile stress and the
way in which the materials are put together. The usual method of determining
the compressive and tensile strengths of a material is to subject samples of
the material to tests to assess the ultimate compressive and tensile stresses at
which the material fails in compression and in tension. From these tests the
safe working strengths of materials in compression and in tension are set.
The safe working strength of a material is considerably less than the ultimate
strength, to provide a safety factor against variations in the strength of materials
and their behaviour under stress. The characteristic working strengths of
materials, to an extent, determine their use in the construction of buildings.
The moderate compressive and tensile strength of timber members has
long been used to construct a frame of walls, floors and roofs for houses. The
compressive strength of well burned brick combined with the durability, fire
resistance and appearance of the material commends it as a walling material.
The sense of solidity and permanence and the compressive strength of stone
made it the traditional walling material for many larger buildings. Steel and
concrete are used principally for their considerable strength as the structural
frame members of large buildings. In the majority of small buildings, such as
houses, the compressive strength of brick and stone is rarely fully utilized
because the functional requirements of stability and exclusion of weather
dictate a thickness of wall in excess of that required for strength alone.
Задание 2. Переведите на русский язык и выучите следующие слова:
strength, resist, compressive stress, tensile stress, ultimate compressive stress,
compressive strength, ultimate tensile stress, tensile strength, fail, utilize,
subject (v), assess (v), behavior, appearance
Задание 3. Выпишите из текста А слова с окончанием –ing (герундий,
причастие I, отглагольное существительное).
28
29
Задание 4. Найдите в правой колонке русские эквиваленты английских
слов и словосочетаний.
1. compressive stress
2. tensile stress
3. compressive strength
4. tensile strength
5. ultimate compressive
stress
6. ultimate tensile stress
7. fail
8. utilize
9. subject
10. assess
11. appearance
12. behavior
a. предел прочности при сжатии
b. внешний вид
c. прочность на растяжение
d. использовать
e. подвергать
f. определять
g. сжимающее напряжение
h. прочность на сжатие
i. растягивающее напряжение
j. предел прочности при
растяжении
k. не выдерживать
l. поведение
Задание 5. Составьте предложения из двух, подходящих по смыслу
частей и переведите предложения на русский язык.
1. The sense of solidity and
permanence and the compressive
strength of stone
2. The usual method of
determining the compressive and
tensile strengths of a material is to
subject samples of the material to
tests
3. The safe working strength of a
material is considerably less than
4. In the majority of small
buildings, such as houses, the
compressive strength of brick and
stone is rarely fully utilized
because
5. The strength of the materials
used in wall construction is
determined
6. From these tests the safe
a. to construct a frame of walls,
floors and roofs for houses.
b. by the strength of a material in
resisting compressive and tensile
stress.
c. determine their use in the
construction of buildings.
d. as a walling material.
e. for their considerable strength as
the structural frame members of
large buildings.
f. made it the traditional walling
30
6. From these tests the safe
working strengths of materials in
compression and in tension
7. The characteristic working
strengths of materials
8. The compressive strength of
well burned brick combined with
the durability, fire resistance and
appearance of the material
commends it
9. The moderate compressive and
tensile strength of timber
members has long been used
10. Steel and concrete are used
principally
f. made it the traditional walling
material for many larger buildings.
g. to assess the ultimate
compressive and tensile stresses at
which the material fails in
compression and in tension.
h. the ultimate strength.
i. the functional requirements of
stability and exclusion of weather
dictate a thickness of wall in excess
of that required for strength alone.
j. are set.
Задание 6. Замените данные в скобках русские слова и словосочетания
их английскими эквивалентами и переведите предложения на русский
язык.
1. The usual method of determining the compressive and tensile strengths
of a material (состоит в том, чтобы подвергать) samples of the material to
tests. 2. The safe working strength of a material (значительно меньше) than
the ultimate strength. 3. (Прочность материалов) used in wall construction
is determined by the strength of a material in resisting (сжимающему и
растягивающему напряжению). 4. The compressive strength of well burned
brick combined with the durability, fire resistance and (внешний вид) of the
material commends it as a walling material. 5. It is important to assess (предел
прочности при сжатии и растяжении) at which the material (не
выдерживает сжатия и растяжения). 6. In the majority of small buildings,
such as houses, the compressive strength of brick and stone (редко полностью
используется). 7. The moderate compressive and tensile strength of
(деревянных элементов) has long been used to construct a frame of walls,
floors and roofs for houses. 8 . Steel and concrete are used principally for
31
their considerable strength as (элементы строительного каркаса) of large
buildings.
Задание 7. Переведите текст В на русский язык письменно со словарем.
Текст B. Wall Stability
Stability of a wall may be affected by foundation movement, eccentric
loading, lateral forces (wind) and expansion due to changes in temperature
and moisture. Eccentric loads (those not acting on the centre of the wall),
such as from floors and roofs, and lateral forces, such as wind, tend to deform
and overturn walls. The greater the eccentricity of the loads and the greater
the lateral forces, the greater the tendency of a wall to deform, bow out of the
vertical and lose stability. To prevent loss of stability, due to deformation
under loads, building regulations and structural design calculations set limits
to the height or thickness ratios (slenderness ratios) to provide reasonable
stiffness against deformation under load, lateral (horizontal) restraint is
provided by walls and roofs that are tied to the wall, and by intersecting walls
and piers that are bonded or tied to the wall as stiffening against deformation
along the length of walls.
Урок 9
Задание 1. Прочитайте и устно переведите текст А.
Текст А. Roofs
The roof is an important element in providing protection from the weather.
It has a significant role to play in the reduction of heat loss from a building.
Roofs are classified as either pitched or flat. Timber is the most commonly
used material. Concrete is sometimes used for flat roofs. It is common practice
to construct pitched roofs from prefabricated timber trusses.
The functional requirements of a roof are:
1. Strength
2. Stability
3. Resistance to weather
4. Durability and freedom from maintenance
5. Fire safety
6. Resistance to the passage of heat
7. Resistance to the passage of sound
8. Security
9. Aesthetics
The strength and stability of a roof depends on the characteristics of the
materials from which it is constructed and the way in which the materials are
formed as a horizontal (flat) platform or as a triangular (pitched) framework.
A roof prevents water entering a building by using a roof covering which
prevents rain penetration. The materials that cover the roof range from the
continuous impermeable layer of asphalt that can be laid horizontal to exclude
rain, to the small units of clay or concrete tiles that are laid overlapping or
interlocking so that rain runs off the roof to rainwater gutters.
The durability of a roof depends on the ability of the roof covering to
exclude rain, snow and the destructive action of frost and temperature
fluctuations. Persistent penetration of water into the roof structure may cause
or encourage decay of timber, corrosion of steel or disintegration of concrete.
Задание 2. Переведите на русский язык и выучите следующие слова:
roof, heat, protection, reduction, pitched, flat, truss, repair, sound, framework,
prevent, penetration, impermeable, layer, cause, decay, corrosion,
disintegration
32
33
Задание 3. Выпишите из четвертого абзаца текста А герундии.
Задание 4. Найдите в правой колонке русские эквиваленты английских
слов и словосочетаний.
1. prevent
2. truss
3. reduction
4. penetration
5. flat
6. layer
7. decay
8. pitched
9. framework
10. disintegration
11. impermeable
12. cause
a. каркас
b. покатый
c. гнить
d. разрушение
e. препятствовать,
предотвращать
f. ферма
g. непроницаемый
h. сокращение, уменьшение
i. плоский
j. вызывать, причина
k. слой
l. проникновение
Задание 5. Составьте предложения из двух, подходящих по смыслу
частей и переведите предложения на русский язык.
1. Timber is
a. to the small units of clay or
concrete tiles
2. The strength and stability of a
b. in providing protection from the
roof depends on the characteristics weather.
of the materials
3. The roof has a significant role
c. to construct pitched roofs
from prefabricated timber trusses.
4. Roofs are classified as
d. by using a roof covering which
prevents rain penetration.
5. The roof is an important
e. from which it is constructed.
element
6. Persistent penetration of water f. either pitched or flat.
into the roof structure may
7. The strength and stability of a
g. to play in the reduction of heat
roof depends on the way
loss from a building.
8. It is common practice
h. overlapping or interlocking.
9. The small units of clay or
i. to exclude rain, snow and the
34
9. The small units of clay or
concrete tiles are laid
i. to exclude rain, snow and the
destructive action of frost and
temperature fluctuations.
j. the most commonly used
material.
10. The materials that cover the
roof range from the continuous
impermeable layer of asphalt
11. A roof prevents water entering
k. cause or encourage decay of
a building
timber, corrosion of steel or
disintegration of concrete.
12. The durability of a roof
l. in which the materials are
depends on the ability of the roof formed as a horizontal (flat)
covering
platform or as a triangular
(pitched) framework.
Задание 6. Замените данные в скобках русские слова и словосочетания
их английскими эквивалентами и переведите предложения на русский
язык.
4. The roof is an important element (в обеспечении защиты) from the
weather. 8. The roof (играет важную роль) in the reduction of heat loss from
a building. 2. Roofs are classified as (либо покатые, либо плоские). 6. Timber
is (наиболее часто используемый) material. 1. The strength and stability of
a roof depends on the characteristics of the materials (из которых) it is
constructed. 5. (Прочность и устойчивость крыши) depends on the way in
which the materials are formed. 3. A roof (препятствует) water entering a
building by using a roof covering which (препятствует) rain penetration. 7.
The materials that cover the roof range from the continuous (непроницаемый
слой) of asphalt. 9. Rain runs off the roof to (водостоки дождевой воды).
10. Persistent (проникновение) of water into the roof structure may cause or
encourage (гниение) of timber, corrosion of steel or (разрушение) of concrete.
11. The durability of a roof depends on the ability of the roof covering to
exclude rain, snow and the destructive action of frost and (колебания
температур).
Задание 7. Переведите текст В на русский язык письменно со словарем.
35
Текст B
The requirements for fire safety are concerned for the safe escape of
occupants to the outside of buildings. The regulations require adequate means
of escape, and limitation to internal and external fire spread.
The materials of roof structures and roof coverings are generally poor
insulators against the transfer of heat so it is necessary to use insulating
materials to control excessive loss or gain of heat.
The resistance of a roof to the penetration of airborne sound is not generally
considered unless the building is close to an airport or busy road or rail network.
The mass of the materials of a roof is the main consideration in the reducing
airborne sound than a similar timber roof. The introduction of mineral fibre
slabs, batts or boards to a timber roof will have some effect in reducing
intrusive, airborne sound.
36
Урок 10
Задание 1. Прочитайте и устно переведите текст.
Текст А. Stairs and Ramps
For access between floors and different levels in buildings a ladder, stair
or ramp is used. Lifts and escalators are also used for vertical circulation.
A ladder is made as a series of narrow horizontal steps, fixed between two
uprights of wood or metal, on which a person usually climbs up or down
facing the ladder. A ladder may be fixed in an upright, vertical position or
more usually at a slight angle to the vertical for ease of use. It is recommended
that a ladder should only be used where there is not enough space for a stair.
The ladder must be fixed in position and fitted with handrails both sides.
A stair, or stairway, is the name given to a set of steps formed or constructed
to make it possible to pass to another level on foot by putting one foot after
the other on alternate steps to climb up or down the stair. A stair may be
formed as a series of steps rising in one direction between floors as a straight
flight of steps, arranged to make a quarter or half turn at intermediate landings
between floors. Using two flights helps to limit the number of steps in each
flight making use of the stairway potentially safer.
A stair is the conventional means of vertical access between floors in
buildings. It should be constructed to provide ready, easy, comfortable and
safe access up and down with steps that are easy to climb, within a compact
area, so as not to take up excessive floor space.
A ramp is a surface, an inclined plane, linking different levels. A ramp is
formed or constructed at a slope of at least 1 in 20 (1m rise vertically in 20m
horizontally). Because of the comparatively shallow slope of a ramp it occupies
a considerable area and this must be considered early in the design process so
that enough room is allowed.
A stair or ramp serves much the same function as a floor in the support of
the occupants of a building, with the stepped inclined plane of flights, or
shallow rise of a ramp, serving as support for movement between different
levels. The requirements for strength and stability in supporting dead and
imposed loads for floors apply equally to stairs and ramps.
37
Задание 2. Переведите на русский язык и выучите следующие слова:
ladder, stair, ramp, narrow, step, flight, climb, angle, handrail, stairway,
alternate, intermediate, landing, at least, excessive, shallow, occupy, plane,
imposed load, apply, because of
Задание 3. Выпишите из текста А инфинитивы, причастия I, II,
герундии.
Задание 4. Найдите в правой колонке русские эквиваленты английских
слов и словосочетаний.
1. at least
a. лестница
2. flight
b. приставная лестница
3. ramp
c. подниматься (спускаться)
4. ladder
d. по крайней мере
5. apply
e. приложенная (временная)
нагрузка
6. alternate
f. поручни
7. stair
g. лестничная площадка
8. imposed load
h. пролет
9. climb up (down)
i. чередоваться
10. occupy
j. пандус
11. handrails
k. применять, относиться
12. landing
l. занимать
Задание 5. Составьте предложения из двух, подходящих по смыслу
частей и переведите предложения на русский язык.
1. A ladder is made as
a. to provide ready, easy,
comfortable and safe access up and
down with steps that are easy to
climb.
2. It is recommended that a ladder
b. are also used for vertical
should only be used
circulation.
3. For access between floors and
different levels in buildings
c. in an upright, vertical position or
more usually at a slight angle to the
vertical for ease of use.
4. A stair, or stairway, is the name d. where there is not enough space
given to a set of steps
for a stair.
5 The requirements for strength
e. series of narrow horizontal steps,
38
5 The requirements for strength
and stability in supporting dead
and imposed loads for floors
6. A ladder may be fixed
7. Lifts and escalators
8. A stair should be constructed
9. Because of the comparatively
shallow slope of a ramp it
occupies
10. A stair may be formed as a
series of steps
11. A ramp is a surface, an
inclined plane
12. Using two flights helps to
limit the number of steps in each
flight
e. series of narrow horizontal steps,
fixed between two uprights of
wood or metal
f. linking different levels.
g. a ladder, stair or ramp is used.
h. a considerable area.
i. making use of the stairway
potentially safer.
j. formed or constructed to make it
possible to pass to another level on
foot.
k. apply equally to stairs and
ramps.
l. rising in one direction between
floors as a straight flight of steps.
Задание 6. Замените данные в скобках русские слова и словосочетания
их английскими эквивалентами и переведите предложения на русский
язык.
1. A ladder (может устанавливаться) in an upright, vertical position or
more usually at a slight angle to the vertical for ease of use. 2. A stair, or
stairway, (это название, данное) to a set of steps formed or constructed to
make it possible to pass to another level on foot. 3. The requirements for
strength and stability in supporting dead and (прилагаемые нагрузки) for
floors apply equally to stairs and ramps.
4. For access between floors and different levels in buildings a (приставная
лестница), (лестница) or (пандус) is used. 5. Using two flights helps to
limit the number of steps in each flight (делая пользование лестницей)
potentially safer. 6. A ladder is made as a series of (узких горизонтальных
ступенек). 7. A ramp is a surface, (наклонная плоскость), linking different
levels.8. A stair may be formed as a series of steps rising in one direction
between floors as a straight (лестничный марш), arranged to make a quarter
or half turn at (промежуточные лестничные площадки) between floors.
9. The ladder must be fixed in position and fitted with (перила) both sides.
10. A stair is (традиционный способ) of vertical access between floors in
39
buildings. 11. (Из-за) the comparatively shallow slope of a ramp it occupies
a considerable area. 12. A stair or ramp (выполняет в основном такую же)
function as a floor in the support of the (жители) of a building.
Задание 7. Переведите текст В на русский язык письменно со словарем.
Текст B. Flight
The word flight describes an uninterrupted series of steps between floors
or between floor and landing, or between landing and landing. A flight should
have no more than 16 risers. Single steps should be avoided because they are
a hazard. Small changes in height are not always obvious. Where single steps
exist it will be necessary to provide visual warnings, e.g. contrasting colours
should be used on the tread and rise, to warn people of the level change.
The rise and going of each step in one flight and in flights and landings
between floors should be equal. Variations in the rise of steps will interrupt
the rhythm of going up or down. Where levels are different people using the
stair may trip or miss the step.
40
Лексический минимум
access n. доступ, проход
adequate adj. соответствующий
affect v. воздействовать, влиять
against prp. против, на, о, с
aggregate n. заполнитель
aim n. цель
airborne adj. переносимый по воздуху
alter v. изменять, менять
alternate v. чередоваться
angle n. угол
appearance n. внешний вид
apply v. применять, прилагать,
прикладывать, относиться
area n. область, площадь, зона, сфера
around prp. вокруг
artificial adj. искусственный
assemble v. собирать
assume v. предполагать, допускать
at least по крайней мере
avoid v. избегать
bar n. стержень, арматурный прут
batts n. теплозвукоизоляционная
плита
волокнистого материала
be capable of v. быть способным
bearing n. опора
bearing capacity n. несущая
способность
because of cj. из-за
bedrock n. коренная порода
behaviour n. поведение, работа,
режим
behind prp, adv. позади, за, после,
ниже
below adv. ниже, внизу; prp. под
between prp, adv. между
board n. доска, плита, панель, лист,
строительный картон
bond n. крепление, соединение, связь
breaking up n. разрушение
brick n. кирпич
bricklaying n. кладка кирпича
brickwork n. кирпичная кладка
building n. здание, строительство
busy n. давать работу, заниматься
calculation n. расчет, вычисление
capacity n. мощность,
производительность
capital cost капитальные затраты
carefully adv. тщательно,
внимательно, точно
carry the loads выдерживать нагрузки
cause v. быть причиной, вызывать
choice n. выбор
clay n. глина
climb up (down) v. подниматься
(спускаться)
clinker n. клинкер, клинкерный
кирпич
close to prp. рядом с, близко к
coarse adj. крупный, грубый
coarse-grained крупнозернистый,
крупноволокнистый(древесина)
cohesive adv. способный к сцеплению,
связанный
colour n. цвет
column n. колонна, стойка
combination n. сочетание
commend v. рекомендовать,
привлекать
common brick обыкновенный кирпич
compacted adj. компактный,
уплотненный
compaction n. уплотнение
comparatively adv. сравнительно,
относительно
complete v. завершать
component n. компонент, элемент,
составляющая
composite n. смесь, adj. составной,
сложный
compress v. сжимать
41
compression n. сжатие
compressive adj. сжимающий
compressive strength прочность при
сжатии
concern v. касаться, иметь отношение
concrete n. бетон
consider v. считать, полагать
considerably adv. значительно
consideration n. рассмотрение,
соображение
consist of v. состоять
continuous adj. непрерыввный
contractor n. подрядчик
control n. управление, v. управлять,
распоряжаться
corrosion n. коррозия, окисление
cost n. стоимость, v. стоить
covering n. облицовка, настил,
покрытие
damage n. повреждение
dead load постоянная нагрузка
decay n. разрушение, v. разрушаться,
гнить
decision n. решение
deep adj. глубокий
deflection n. прогиб, провес,
отклонение
deformation n. деформация
deliver v. доставлять, поставлять
demolish v. разрушать, сносить
dense adj. плотный, густой
depend v. зависеть
describe v. описывать
design n. проект, конструкция, v.
проектировать
determine v. определять
disintegration n. измельчение,
распадение
divide v. делить, делиться
door n. дверь
drain n. водосток, вытекание
drawing n. чертеж
dull adj. скучный, тусклый
durability n. долговечность
earth n. земля
effect n. результат, следствие
enclose v. окружать, огораживать
encourage v. способствовать
engineering brick плотный кирпич
повышенной и высокой прочности
ensure v. обеспечивать, гарантировать
environment n. окружение,
окружающая среда
equal adj. равный
equipment n. оборудование
erect v. возводить
erection n. возведение
escape v. избежать, избавиться,
n. выпускное отверстие
evaporate v. испаряться
exceptionally adv. исключительно
excessive adj. чрезмерный
exist v. существовать
expose v. выставлять, подвергать,
открывать
external adj. внешний
facing brick лицевой кирпич
feel v. чувствовать, ощущать,
воспринимать
fibre n. волокно
fine adj. мелкий, высококачественный
finish n. отделка, v. заканчивать,
облицовывать
fire n. огонь
firm adj. крепкий, твердый
fix v. укреплять, закреплять
fixture n. арматура, зажимное
приспособление
flat adj. плоский
flight n. лестничный марш
flight of stairs лестничный марш
flight of steps лестничный марш
floor n. перекрытие, пол, этаж
fluctuation n. колебание, изменение
found v. закладывать, основывать
foundation n. основание, фундамент
42
framework n. каркас, стержневая
конструкция
fuse v. растворяться, расплавляться
gain v. добиваться, достигать,
получать, набирать
general adj. общий
generally adv. обычно, как правило,
в целом
gravel n. гравий
gravity n. сила тяжести
ground n. земля, почва, грунт
gutter n. водосток
handrails n. перила, поручни
hard adj. твердый
harden v. твердеть, застывать
hazard n. опасность
heat n. нагрев, v. нагревать
height n. высота
high adj. высокий
however cj. однако
impermeable adj. непроницаемый,
герметичный
important adj. важный
imposed load прилагаемая, временная
нагрузка
improve v. улучшать,
усовершенствовать
in accordance with
increase n. увеличение, v.
увеличиваться
indoor adj. находящийся в
помещении, домашний, комнатный
initial adj. начальный, исходный
insulating adj. изолирующий
insulator n. изоляционный материал
interlock v. соединяться, сцепляться
intermediate adj. промежуточный
internal adj. внутренний
interrupt v. прерывать
intersect v. пересекаться,
перекрещиваться
introduction n. введение, внесение
intrusive adj. интрузивный,
навязчивый
just adj. точно, как раз, именно
labour n. труд
ladder n. приставная лестница,
стремянка
landing n. лестничная площадка
landscaping
lateral adj. боковой
layer n. слой
legislation n. законодательство
length n. длина
level n. уровень
lightweight adj. легкий
lime n. известь
limestone n. известняк
limitation n. ограничение
live load временная нагрузка
load n. нагрузка
loadbearing adj. несущий
long-term adj. долгосрочный
loosely adv. свободно
lorry n. грузовик
loss n. потеря, затухание, ущерб
low adj. низкий
machinery n. машинное
оборудование, техника
main adj. главный
maintenance n. эксплуатация,
техническое обслуживание, ремонт
majority n. большинство
manufacture n. производство,
изготовление, обработка
masonry n. каменная кладка
mass adj. серийный, массовый
material n. материал
means n. средство, способ
meet the requirements отвечать
требованиям
mineral n. минерал, adj. минеральный
miss v. пропустить
mix v. смешивать
mixture n. смесь
43
moderate adj. средний, небольшой
moisture n. влажность
narrow adj. узкий
nature n. природа, характер
necessary adj. необходимый, важный
non-cohesive adj. несвязанный
obvious adj. очевидный
occupant n. жилец, пользователь
occupy v. занимать
organic adj. органический
outside adj. наружный, внешний
overall adj. полный, общий
overlap v. перекрывать
overturn v. опрокидывать
particle n. частица
partition n. перегородка, разделение
passage n. проход
penetration n. проникновение,
проницаемость
performance n. характеристика,
работа
permanence n. постоянство,
прочность
persistent adj. постоянный
pier n. опора, кирпичная колонна
pile n. свая
pipe n. труба
plane n. плоскость, adj. плоский
pleasant adj. приятный
poor adj. слабый
position n. положение, место,
размещение
powder n. порошок
precast adj. сборный
precast concrete block бетонный блок
заводского изготовления
prefabrication n. изготовление,
монтаж сборных конструкций
prevent v. препятствовать,
предотвращать
process n. процесс
proportion n. пропорция, v.
соразмерять, распределять
protect v. защищать
protection n. защита
quality n. качество
raft n. опорная фундаментная плита
rail network сеть железных дорог
ramp n. пандус, наклонный въезд
range n. ряд, диапазон
ready-mixed concrete бетонная смесь
заводского изготовления
recycle n. повторный цикл,
v. Повторно использовать
reduce v. уменьшать
reduction n. уменьшение
regulations n. нормы
reinforced concrete железобетон,
железобетонный
remains n. остатки
repair n. ремонт, v. ремонтировать
replacement n. замена
require v. требовать
requirement n. требование
resist v. сопротивляться. Устоять
против чего-либо
resistance n. сопротивление
restore n. реставрировать,
восстанавливать
retain v. сохранять, удерживать
rhythm n. ритм
rise n. поднимать, возвышать
riser n. подступенок лестницы
road n. дорога
rock n. горная порода
rod n. стержень, брус
roof n. крыша, кровля
safe adj. безопасный
safety n. безопасность
sand n. песок
schedule n. график, таблица, план
security n. надежность
self-supporting adj. самонесущий
series n. ряд, серия
service n. внутридомовая сеть
коммуникаций
44
services n. инженерные сети,
инженерное оборудование (здания)
set v. устанавливать
settlement n. осаждение, осадка
shallow adj. мелкий, неглубокий
shear n. сдвиг, поперечная сила
shelter n. укрытие, защита
sieve n. сито, v. просеивать
similar adj. подобный, сходный
single adj. единственный
site n. участок, местоположение
size n. размер
slab n. плита
slenderness n. гибкость
slope n. наклон, откос
so adv. таким образом
soil n. почва, грунтовое основание
solid adj. твердый, плотный
solidity n. твердость, плотность
some adj. некоторое количество,
несколько
sound n. звук, шум, v. звучать
space n. пространство
span n. пролет, v. перекрывать
specific adj. определенный, особенный
specifications n. детализирование,
подробное описание
spread v. распространяться,
растягивать, вытягивать
stability n. устойчивость
stair n. лестница
staircase n. лестница, лестничная
клетка, лестничный марш
stairway n. лестница, лестничный
марш
steel n. сталь
step n. шаг
stiffness n. жесткость
storey n. этаж
strength n. прочность
stress n. напряжение
strip foundation ленточный
фундамент
strip v. демонтировать опалубку,
снимать
structure n. конструкция, структура
subsoil n. грунтовое основание
sufficient adj. достаточный
sufficiently adv. достаточно
support n. опора, v. поддерживать
surface n. поверхность
tensile adj. растягивающий
tensile strength предел прочности при
растяжении
tension n. напряжение
term n. термин
texture n. текстура
than cj. чем
thickness n. толщина
thin adj. тонкий
thought n. мысль
throughout повсюду, везде, полностью
tie n. анкерная распорка. скреплять
timber n. древесина, строевой лес,
пиломатериал
topsoil n. верхний слой почвы
transfer v. передавать, переносить
transmit v. передавать, переносить
tread n. перекладина приставной
лестницы, ступень лестницы
trench n. ров, котлован
trip n. пробег
truss n. сквозная ферма, стропильная
ферма
type n. тип
ultimate compressive stress предел
прочности при сжатии
ultimate tensile stress предел
прочности при растяжении
ultimate strength предел прочности
under the load под нагрузкой
undertake v. предпринимать
undue adj. чрезмерный
uniform adj. однородный
uninterrupted adj. непрерывный
unless cj. если не, пока не
45
unsatisfactory adj.
неудовлетворительный
unusual adj. необычный
upgrade n. реконструкция,
модернизация, v. модернизировать
upper adj. верхний
upright n. подпорка, колонна, adj.
вертикальный, прямой
use n. применение, v. применять,
использовать
utilize v. использовать
variation n. изменение, отклонение
variety n. разнообразие
various adj. различный
vegetation n. растительный покров
vertical adj. вертикальный
via через
view n. вид, видимость, цель
visual adj.
wall n. стена
warn v. предупреждать
warning n. предупреждение
whole adj. целый, весь
width n. ширина
window n. окно
without prp. без
withstand v. противостоять,
сопротивляться, выдерживать
workmanship n. мастерство,
квалификация, качество работы
46
ОГЛАВЛЕНИЕ
Урок 1 ...................................................................................................................... 3
Текст A. General Principles of Construction................................................... 3
Текст B ............................................................................................................ 6
Урок 2 ...................................................................................................................... 7
Текст A. Functions of Buildings ..................................................................... 7
Текст B. Quality ............................................................................................ 10
Урок 3 .................................................................................................................... 11
Текст A. Groundwork and Foundations ........................................................ 11
Текст B. Soil ................................................................................................. 13
Урок 4 .................................................................................................................... 14
Текст A. Concrete ......................................................................................... 14
Текст B. Water-cement ratio .......................................................................... 16
Урок 5 .................................................................................................................... 17
Текст A. Strip Foundations ...................................................................................17
Текст B. ......................................................................................................... 20
Урок 6 .................................................................................................................... 21
Текст A. Floors .............................................................................................. 21
Текст B. Floor Stability ................................................................................. 23
Урок 7 .................................................................................................................... 25
Текст A. Walls ............................................................................................... 25
Текст B. Brick Classifications ....................................................................... 28
Урок 8 .................................................................................................................... 29
Текст A. Walls Strength................................................................................. 29
Текст B. Wall Stability .................................................................................. 32
Урок 9 .................................................................................................................... 33
Текст А. Roofs .............................................................................................. 33
Текст B .......................................................................................................... 36
Урок 10 .................................................................................................................. 37
Текст А. Stairs and Ramps ............................................................................ 37
Текст B. Flight .............................................................................................. 40
47
АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК
Задание № 130
для студентов всех специальностeй I курса
факультета безотрывных форм обучения
Составители: Воеводская Татьяна Борисовна
Лапшина Лилия Ярославовна
Компьютерная верстка И. А. Яблоковой
Подписано к печати 02.02.12. Формат 60×80 1/16. Бум. офсетная.
Усл. печ. л. 2,8. Тираж 300 экз. Заказ 5. «С» 4.
Санкт-Петербургский государственный архитектурно-строительный университет.
190005, Санкт-Петербург, 2-я Красноармейская ул., д. 4.
Отпечатано на ризографе. 190005, Санкт-Петербург, 2-я Красноармейская ул., д. 5.
48
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