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English zad 148 2015

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Санкт-Петербургский государственный
архитектурно-строительный университет
Министерство образования и науки
Российской Федерации
Общестроительный факультет
Санкт-Петербургский государственный
архитектурно-строительный университет
Кафедра иностранных языков
Общестроительный факультет
Кафедра иностранных языков
АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК
АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК
Учебно-методическое пособие № 148
Учебно-методическое пособие № 148
Санкт-Петербург
2015
Санкт-Петербург
2015
1
УДК 811. 111
Рецензент канд. фил. наук, доцент Т. Б. Воеводская (СПбГАСУ)
Английский язык: учеб.-метод. пособие № 148 / сост.:
Н. Е. Дубовская, Т. В. Лаппо; СПбГАСУ. – СПб., 2015. – 54 с.
Представляет собой сборник англоязычных текстов для аудиторного перевода. Предназначено для аудиторных занятий студентов I и II курса направлений подготовки юридических специальностей для развития навыков
перевода профессиональной литературы и текстов общественно-политической направленности со словарем и без него, а также развития навыков
общения в избранной специальности. В пособии использованы тексты, взятые из оригинальной литературы.
Каждый текст должен быть переведен на русский язык, при этом должны
быть выполнены два задания, первое из которых направлено на обогащение
словарного запаса студентов в выбранной профессиональной деятельности.
Второе задание подразумевает выполнение грамматического анализа переведенного текста и, таким образом, способствует закреплению навыков, связанных со знанием английской грамматики и осознанным использованием
этого навыка в практике перевода профессионально ориентированных текстов.
ТЕКСТЫ ДЛЯ ИНДИВИДУАЛЬНЫХ ПЕРЕВОДОВ
 Санкт-Петербургский государственный
архитектурно-строительный университет, 2015
2
3
Text 1
1. Punishment alone will never succeed in putting an end to crime. Punishment will and does hold crime to a certain extent in check, but it will
never transform the delinquent population into honest citizens, for the
simple reason that it can only strike at the criminal and not at the causes
which have made him so. Economic prosperity, however widely diffused, will not extinguish crime.
2. Many people imagine that all the evils afflicting society spring from
want, but this is only partially true. A small number of crimes are
probably due to lack of food, but it has to be borne in mind that crime
would still remain a great evil even if there were no destitution and distress.
3. As a matter of fact easy circumstances have less influence on conduct than is generally believed; prosperity generates criminal inclinations as well as poverty, and on the whole the rich are just as much addicted to crime as the poor.
prosperity; poverty; (be) addicted to; progress of civilization; savage
tribes; a respect for person and property; eliminating crime; crime prevention; to reduce the risk; suspicious persons and activities.
Найдите в предложениях следующие грамматические явления:
1. Подлежащее и сказуемое; герундий (функция); придаточное
предложение.
2. Причастие I; модальный глагол; условное предложение.
3. Прилагательное в сравнительной степени; сказуемое в страдательном залоге; сравнительная конструкция.
4. Превосходная степень; причастие I (функция); причастие II
(функция); сказуемое в Present Perfect.
5. Герундий (функция); причастие II (функция); указательное местоимение.
6. Группа имен существительных; герундий (функция) инфинитив (функция).
7. Герундий (функция); группа имен существительных.
4. The progress of civilization will not destroy crime. Many savage
tribes living under the most primitive forms of social life present a
greater respect for person and property than the most cultivated classes
in Europe and America. All that civilization has hitherto done is to
change the form in which crime is perpetrated; in substance it remains
the same.
5. Primary Schools will not accomplish much in eliminating crime. The
merely intellectual training received in these institutions has little influence upon conduct.
6. Crime prevention is recognizing that a crime risk exists and taking
some corrective action to eliminate or reduce that risk.
7. Reporting suspicious persons and activities, locking unoccupied
rooms, securing doors and windows and being aware of your surroundings are all important risk reduction strategies.
Запомните следующие слова/словосочетания:
punishment; putting an end to crime; to a certain extent; delinquent
population; honest citizens; economic prosperity; extinguish crime;
evils; lack of food; to be borne in mind; destitution; circumstances;
4
5
Text 2
1. As to the best method of dealing with the actual criminal, the first
thing to be done is to know what sort of a person you are dealing with.
He must be carefully studied at first hand.
2. At present too much attention is paid to theoretical discussions respecting the various kinds of crime and punishment, while hardly any
account is taken of the persons who commit the crime and require the
punishment.
3. Yet this is the most important point of all; the other is trivial in comparison with it. If crime is to be dealt with in a rational manner and not
on mere a priori grounds, our minds must be enlightened on such questions as the following: What is the Criminal? What are the chief causes
which have made him such? How are these causes to be got rid of or
neutralized? What is the effect of this or that kind of punishment?
4. These are the momentous problems; in comparison with these, all the
definitions respecting the difference between one crime and another are
mere dust in the balance.
5. There can be little doubt that a neglect of those considerations on the
part of many magistrates and judges, is at the root of the capricious sentences so often passed upon criminals. The effects of this neglect result
in the passing of sentences of too great severity on first offenders and
the young; and of too much lenience on hardened and habitual criminals.
Запомните следующие слова/словосочетания:
deal with; criminal; punishment, commit; require; enlighten; cause (n);
definitions; a neglect of considerations; judge; capricious sentences;
(sentences) of too great severity; offenders; (sentences)of too much lenience; imprisonment; deterrent; purpose; liberty; convicted man; public vengeance; to transform the offender into a useful citizen.
Найти в предложениях следующие грамматические явления:
1. Превосходная степень; герундий (функция); инфинитив
(функция); модальный глагол.
2. Придаточное предложение; подлежащее и сказуемое в главном
и придаточном предложениях.
3. Условное предложение; модальные глаголы; инфинитив
(функция).
4. Конструкция there+be (перевод); причастие I (функция); сказуемое в страдательном залоге.
5. Конструкция there+be причастие II (функция).
6. Модальный глагол; инфинитив (функция).
7. Подлежащее и сказуемое; модальный глагол;
8. Придаточное предложение условия (тип)
6. When imprisonment has to be resorted to, it must be made a genuine
punishment if it is to exercise any effect as a deterrent. The moment a
prison is made a comfortable place to live in, it becomes useless as a
safeguard against the criminal classes. This is a fundamental principle.
7. But punishment, although an essential part of imprisonment, is not
its only purpose. Imprisonment should also be a preparation for liberty.
8. If a convicted man is as unfit for social life at the expiration of his
sentence as he was at the commencement of it, the prison has only accomplished half its work; it has satisfied the feeling of public vengeance, but it has failed to transform the offender into a useful citizen.
How to prepare the offender for liberty is a task of supreme difficulty;
in some cases it is an impossible task.
6
7
Text 3
1. It is only within the present century, and in some countries it is only
within the present generation, that the possibility has arisen of conducting the study of criminal problems on anything approaching an exact
and scientific basis.
2. Before the introduction of a system of criminal statistics—a step
taken by most people within the memory of men still living—it was
impossible for civilized communities to ascertain with absolute accuracy whether crime was increasing or decreasing, or what transformation it was passing through in consequence of the social, political, and
economic changes constantly taking place in all highly organized societies.
3. It was also equally impossible to appreciate the effect of punishment
for good or evil on the criminal population. Justice had little or no data
to go upon; prisoners were sentenced in batches to the total punishment,
but no inquiry was made as to the result of these punishments on the
criminal classes or on the progress of crime.
4. It was considered sufficient to catch and punish the offender; and the
more offences seemed to increase—there was no sure method to learn if
they increased or not—the more severe the punishment became.
Запомните следующие слова/словосочетания:
the present generation; exact and scientific basis; a system of criminal
statistics; civilized community; ascertain; in consequence of; appreciate; prisoners; (be) sentenced; total punishment; offender; justice; statute book; stealing property; temper the severity of the law; (be) exposed; (be) brought to trial for the commitment of crimes; offences;
(be) charged; the length of sentence.
Найдите в предложениях следующие грамматические явления:
1. Подлежащее и сказуемое в придаточном предложении; герундий (функция).
2. Причастие II (функция); инфинитив (функция).
3. Инфинитив (функция); сказуемое в страдательном залоге; местоимение no (перевод).
4. Сравнительная конструкция the…the; сложное подлежащее.
5. Подлежащее и сказуемое; модальный глагол (значение); герундий (функция).
6. Условное предложение; модальный глагол (значение); герундий
(функция).
7. Сказуемое в страдательном залоге; причастие (функция).
5. Justice worked in the dark, and was surrounded by the terrors of
darkness. What followed is easy to imagine; the criminal law of England reached a pitch of unparalleled barbarity, and within living memory laws were on the statute book by which a man might be hanged for
stealing property above the value of a shilling.
6. If a fairly accurate system of criminal statistics had existed, the data
contained in them would have reassured the nation and tempered the
severity of the law. Of criminal statistics it may be said in the first
place, that they act as an annual register for tabulating the amount of
danger to which society is exposed by the operations of lawless persons.
7. We are informed of the number of persons brought to trial for the
commitment of these crimes; of the nature of the offences with which
incriminated persons are charged, and of the length of sentence imposed on those who are sent to prison.
8
9
Text 4
1. One important point must be mentioned on which criminal statistics
are almost entirely silent. The great sources of crime are the personal,
the social, and the economic conditions of the individuals who commit it.
2. Criminal statistics, to be exhaustive, ought to include not only the
amount of crime and the degrees of punishment awarded to offenders;
these statistics should also be considered in connection with the sources
from which crime undoubtedly springs. In this respect, our information,
so far as it comes to us through ordinary channels, is rather deficient.
3. This information is confined to data respecting the age, sex, and occupation of the offender. These data are very interesting, and very useful, as affording a glimpse of the sources from which the dark river of
delinquency takes its rise. But they are too fragmentary. They require to
be completed by the personal and social history of the criminal.
4. Crime is not necessarily a disease, but it resembles disease in this respect, that it will be impossible to wipe it out till an accurate diagnosis
has been made of the causes which produce it.
5. To punish crime is all very well; but punishment is not an absolute
remedy; its deterrent action is limited, and other methods besides punishment must be adopted if society wishes to gain the control over the
criminal population. What those methods should be can only be ascertained after the most searching preliminary inquiries into the main factors of crime.
6. It ought, therefore, to be a weighty part of the business of criminal
statistics to offer as full information as possible, not only respecting
crimes and punishments, but much more in regard of criminals. Every
criminal has a life history; that history is very frequently the explanation of his sinister career; it ought, therefore, to be classified, so that it
may be seen how far his descent and his surroundings have contributed
to make him what he is.
7. In the case of children sent to Reformatory Schools, the previous history of the child is always tabulated. Enquiries are made and registered
respecting the parents of the child; what country they belong to, what
sort of character they bear, whether they are honest and sober, whether
they have ever been in prison, what wages they earn, and whether the
child is legitimate or not.
10
Запомните следующие слова/словосочетания:
source of crime; commit; punishment; offender; be considered in connection; deficient; delinquency; fragmentary; disease; accurate diagnosis; causes; not an absolute remedy; deterrent; to gain the control; ascertain; in regard of; to be classified; previous history; legitimate.
Найдите в предложениях следующие грамматические явления:
1. Придаточное определительное предложение; функция слова
one; модальный глагол.
2. Причастие II (функция); модальные глаголы; наречия.
3. Причастие I (функция); инфинитив (функция).
4. Подлежащее и сказуемое; придаточные предложения; прилагательное с отрицательным префиксом.
5. Инфинитив (функция); придаточное предложение условия;
превосходная степень прилагательного.
6. Сравнительный оборот as…as; инфинитив (функция); модальные глаголы.
7. Причастие II (функция); подлежащее и сказуемое; причастие I
(функция).
11
Text 5
1. We shall now inquire into the possibility of establishing some system
of International Statistics, whereby the volume of crime in one country
may be compared with that in another. At the present time it is extremely difficult to make any such comparison, and it is questionable if
it can ever be properly done.
2. The criminal law is different in different countries, and an act which
is perfectly harmless when committed in one part of Europe, is considered in another as a contravention of the law. Each country has also a
nomenclature of crime and methods of criminal procedure peculiar to
itself.
3. In each country the police are organized on a different principle, and
act in the execution of their duty on a different code of rules. In all
cases, for instance, of mendicancy, drunkenness, brawling, and disorder, the initiative rests practically with the police, and it depends almost
entirely on the instructions issued to the police whether such offences
shall figure largely or not in the statistics of crime.
4. A proof of this fact may be seen in the Report of the Commissioner
of Police of the Metropolis, for the year 1888. In the year 1886, the
number of persons convicted in the Metropolis of «Annoying male persons for the purpose of prostitution» was 3.233; in 1888, the number
was only 1.475. This enormous decrease in the course of two years may
not be due to a diminution of the offence, but to a change in the attitude
of the police.
7. These examples will be sufficient to show what an immense power
the police have in regulating the volume of certain classes of offences.
In some countries they are called upon to exercise this power in the direction of stringency; in other countries it is exercised in the direction
of leniency and in the same country its exercise varies according to the
views of those who control the action of the police.
Запомните следующие слова/словосочетания:
inquire; volume of crime; comparison; harmless; commit; contravention
of the law; criminal procedure; in the execution of their duty; mendicancy; drunkenness; brawling; disorder; depend on; convict; a change
in the attitude; under the provisions of; obvious; rogues, beggars, vagrants; stringency; statement; stringency; leniency.
Найдите в предложениях следующие грамматические явления:
1. Герундий (функция); модальный глагол; it (функция), that
(функция).
2. Отрицательное местоимение no (перевод); прилагательное
с отрицательным суффиксом; возвратное местоимение.
3. Существительные, образованные при помощи суффиксов;
причастие II (функция); наречия.
4. Модальный глагол; подлежащее и сказуемое; причастие II
(функция).
5. Функция слова it; причастие II (функция); причастие I (функция).
6. Конструкция there+be; причастие II (функция).
7. Герундий (функция); инфинитив (функция), пассивный залог.
5. Again, in the year 1887, the Metropolitan police arrested 4,556 persons under the provisions of the Vagrant and Poor Law Acts; but in the
year 1888, the number arrested by the same body under the same acts
amounted to 7,052. It is perfectly obvious that this vast increase of arrested people number was not owing to a corresponding increase in the
number of rogues, beggars, and vagrants; it was principally owing to
the increased stringency with which the Metropolitan police carried out
the provisions of the Vagrant and Poor Law Acts.
6. An absolute proof of the correctness of this statement is the fact that
throughout the whole of England there was a decrease in the number of
persons proceeded against in accordance with these acts.
12
13
Text 6
1. In the case of the more serious offences against person and property,
the initiative of putting the law in motion rests chiefly with the injured
individual. The action of the individual in this respect depends to a
large extent on the customs of the country.
2. In some countries the injured person, instead of putting the law in
motion against an offender, takes the matter in his own hands, and administers the wild justice of revenge. Great differences of opinion also
exist among different nations as to the gravity of certain offences.
3. Among some people there is a far greater reluctance than there is
among others to appeal to the law. Murder is perhaps the only crime on
which there exists a consensus of opinion among civilized communities; and even with regard to this offence it is impossible to overcome
all the judicial and statistical difficulties which stand in the way of an
international comparison.
4. In spite, however, of the fact that the amount of crime committed in
civilized countries cannot be subjected to exact comparison, there are
various points on which the international statistics of crime are able to
render valuable service. It is important, for instance, to see in what relation crime in different communities stands to age, sex, climate, temperature, race, education, religion, occupation, home and social surroundings.
5. If we find, for example, an abnormal development of crime taking
place in a given country at a certain period of life, or in certain social
circumstances, and if we do not discover the same abnormal development taking place in other countries at a similar period of life, or in a
similar social stratum, we ought at once to come to the conclusion that
there is some extraordinary cause at work peculiar to the country which
is producing an unusually high total of crime.
6. If, on the other hand, we find that certain kinds of crime are increasing
or decreasing in all countries at the same time, we may be perfectly sure
that the increase or decrease is brought about by the same set of causes.
7. And whether those causes are war, political movements, commercial
prosperity, or depression, the community which first escapes from them
will also be the first to show it in the annual statistics of crime. In these
and many other ways international statistics are of the greatest utility.
14
Запомните следующие слова/словосочетания:
offence; putting the law in motion; injured individual; offender; wild
justice of revenge; the gravity of certain offences; reluctance; appeal to
the law; consensus of opinion; civilized communities; overcome; be
subjected; comparison; to render valuable service; social surroundings;
an abnormal development of crime; social circumstances; to come to
the conclusion; set of causes; commercial prosperity; (be) of the greatest utility.
Найдите в предложениях следующие грамматические явления:
1. Сравнительная степень прилагательного; герундий (функция);
наречие; причастие II (функция).
2. Герундиальный оборот; причастие II (функция); значение as.
3. Конструкция there+be; сравнительная степень; инфинитив
(функция); причастие II (функция); прилагательные с суффиксом –
al.
4. Причастие II (функция); модальный глагол; заменитель модального глагола; инфинитив (функция).
5. Условные предложения; причастие I (функция); модальный глагол; сказуемое в Present Progressive.
6. Сказуемое в придаточном предложении (время, залог); модальный глагол.
7. Перевод слова whether; инфинитив (функция); функция it; превосходная степень имени прилагательного.
15
Text 7
1. The figures contained in criminal statistics cannot be used as a means
of ascertaining the position which belongs to each nation respectively
in the scale of morality. Nor is the moral progress of a nation to be
measured solely by an apparent decay of crime.
2. On the contrary, an increase in the amount of crime may be the direct
result of a moral advance in the average sentiments of the community.
The passing of the Elementary Education Act of 1870 and of the
Criminal Law Amendment Act of 1885 have added considerably to the
number of persons brought before the criminal courts and eventually
committed to prison.
3. But an increase of the prison population due to these causes is no
proof that the country is deteriorating morally. It will be regarded by
many persons as a proof that the country has improved, for it is now
demanding a higher standard of conduct from the ordinary citizen than
it demanded twenty years ago.
4. On the other hand, a decrease in the official statistics of crime may
be a proof that the moral sentiments of a nation are degenerating. It
may be a proof that the laws are ceasing to be an effective protection to
the citizen, and that society becomes a victim of the forces of anarchy
and crime.
5. It is, therefore, impossible by looking only at the bare figures contained in criminal statistics, to say whether a community is growing
better or worse. Before any conclusions can be formed on these matters,
either one way or the other, we must go behind the figures, and look at
them in the light of the social, political and industrial developments taking place in the society to which these figures refer.
that legislative assemblies are becoming more and more inclined to
pass such laws; so long as this is the case it is vain to hope for a decrease in the annual amount of crime.
Запомните следующие слова/словосочетания:
criminal statistics; ascertaining the position; the scale of morality;
committed to prison; deteriorate morally; a higher standard of conduct;
a proof; degenerate; an effective protection to the citizen; forces of anarchy; refer; be amiss to point out; legislation; coercive; coercion; (be)
confined; come into operation; volume of crime; prisons; pass such
laws.
Найдите в предложениях следующие грамматические явления:
1. Причастный оборот; модальный глагол; герундий (функция);
инфинитив (функция).
2. Конверсия; отглагольное существительное; причастный оборот;
наречие.
3. Сказуемые в придаточных предложениях (время, залог); группа
существительных.
4. Модальные глаголы; сказуемое в Present Progressive.
5. Причастие I(функция); причастие II (функция); сравнительная
степень наречий; найти главное и придаточные предложения.
6. Инфинитив (функция); придаточное предложение; подлежащие
и сказуемые.
7. Причастие I (функция); сравнительная степень; инфинитив
(функция).
6. In this connection, it may not be amiss to point out that the present
tendency of legislation is bound to produce more crime. All law is by
its nature coercive, but so long as the coercion is confined within a limited area, or can only come into operation at rare intervals, it produces
comparatively little effect on the whole volume of crime.
7. When, however, a law is passed affecting every member of the
community every day of his life, such a law is certain to increase the
population of our prisons. A marked characteristic of the present time is
16
17
Text 8
1. A man, for instance, goes to prison for breaking some municipal bylaw; he comes out of it as a friend and associate of habitual criminals;
and the ultimate result of the bylaw is to transform a comparatively
harmless member of society into a dangerous thief or house-breaker.
2. One person of this character is a greater menace to society than a
hundred offenders against municipal regulations, and the present system of law-making undoubtedly helps to multiply this class of men.
3. One of the leading principles of all wise legislation should be keeping the population out of prison; but the direct result of many recent enactments, both in this country and abroad, is to drive them into it; and it
may be taken as an axiom that the more the functions of Government
are extended, the greater will be the amount of crime.
4. What is called «the movement» of crime? Is its total volume increasing or decreasing in the principal civilized countries of the world? On
this point there is some diversity of view, but most of the principal authorities in Europe and America are of opinion that crime is on the increase.
5. In the United States, crime is steadily increasing, and it is increasing
faster than the growth of the population. Nearly all the chief statisticians abroad tell the same tale with respect to the growth of crime on
the Continent.
Запомните следующие слова/словосочетания:
break a municipal bylaw; habitual criminals; harmless member of society; thief; house-breaker; menace; multiply; legislation; enactments; extend; diversity of view; convicted; somber; formidable; perplexing;
draw a picture; vex; to the same extent.
Найдите в предложениях следующие грамматические явления:
1. Герундий (функция); инфинитив (функция); прилагательное
с отрицательным суффиксом; наречие.
2. Сравнительная конструкция; инфинитив (функция).
3. Герундий (функция); причастие I (функция); инфинитив (функция); модальный глагол; союз both…and; сравнительная конструкция the…the.
4. Сказуемое в Present Progressive; неопределенное местоимение;
most (перевод).
5. Подлежащие и сказуемые; сравнительная степень имени прилагательного.
6. Сказуемое в Present Perfect Passive; сравнительная конструкция
as…as; сказуемое в Present Progressive.
7. Причастие I (функция); сравнительная степень; конструкция
as…as.
6. Dr. Mischler of Vienna, and Professor von Liszt of Marburg draw a
deplorable picture of the increase of crime in Germany. They say that
fifteen million persons have been convicted by the German criminal
courts within the last ten years; and the outlook for the future is sombre
in the last degree. In France, the criminal problem is just as formidable
and perplexing as it is in Germany. Crime has increased 133 % within
the last half century, and is still steadily rising.
7. In Australia, we find that even in the Antipodes, which are not vexed
to the same extent as Europe with social and economic difficulties,
crime is persistently raising its head, and although it does not increase
quite as rapidly as the population, it is nevertheless a more menacing
danger among the Victorian colonists than it is at home.
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19
Text 9
1. The decrease in the daily average of persons in prison may be accounted for in two ways. It may be shown that although the number of
people committed to prison is on the increase, the nature of the offences
for which these people are convicted is not so grave.
2. Or, in the second place, it may be shown that, although the crimes
committed now are equally serious with those committed twenty years
ago, the magistrates and judges are adopting a more lenient line of action, and are inflicting shorter sentences after a conviction. Let us for a
moment consider the proposition that crime is not so grave now as it
was twenty years ago.
3. In order to arrive at a fairly accurate conclusion on this matter, we
have only to look at the number of offences of a serious nature reported
to the police. Comparing the number of cases of murder, attempts to
murder, manslaughter, shooting at, stabbing and wounding, and adding
to these offences the crimes of burglary, housebreaking, robbery, and
arson—comparing all these cases reported to the police for the five
years 1870–1874, with offences of a like character reported in the five
years 1884–1888, we find that the proportion of grave offences to the
population was, in many cases, as great in the latter period as in the
former.
4. This shows clearly that crime, while it is increasing in extent, is not
materially decreasing in seriousness; and the chief reason the prison
population exhibits a smaller daily average is to be found in the fact
that judges are now pronouncing shorter sentences than was the custom
twenty years ago.
5. We are not left in the dark upon this point; the judges themselves
frequently inform the public that they have taken to shortening the
terms of imprisonment. The extent to which sentences have been shortened within the last twenty years can easily be ascertained the statistics.
7. If it is a serious offence, or if the criminal be a habitual offender, he
now receives eighteen months' imprisonment, whereas he used to receive five years' penal servitude. As far as most judges and magistrates
are concerned, sentences of imprisonment have decreased in recent
years more than twenty-six percent.
Запомните следующие слова/словосочетания:
average; (be) accounted for; (be) on the increase; crimes committed;
magistrates; judges; more lenient line of action; inflict (a sentence after
a conviction); grave; to arrive at a fairly accurate conclusion; offences;
murder; manslaughter; shooting; stabbing; wounding; burglary; housebreaking; robbery; arson; offences of a like character; (be) not left in
the dark; the terms of imprisonment; penal servitude;
Найдите в предложениях следующие грамматические явления:
1. Подлежащее и сказуемое; причастие II (функция); придаточное предложение.
2. Функция those; сравнительная степень; сказуемое в Present
Progressive.
3. Инфинитив (функция); модальный глагол; причастия I II
(функция).
4. Модальный глагол; придаточные предложения; группа существительных.
5. Герундий (функция); модальный глагол; придаточное определительное предложение.
6. Подлежащее и сказуемое; придаточное предложение дополнение.
7. Условное предложение; сравнительная степень; страдательный
залог.
6. A comparison between these two periods shows that the length of
imprisonment has decreased twenty-six percent. In other words,
whereas a man used to receive a sentence of twelve months' imprisonment, he now receives a sentence of nine months; and whereas he used
to get a sentence of one month, he now gets twenty-one days.
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21
Text 10
1. We have now arrived at the conclusion that crime is just as serious in
its character as it was twenty years ago, and that it is growing in dimensions year by year; the next point to be considered is, the relation in
which crime stands to the population. Crime may be increasing, but the
population may be multiplying faster than the growth of crime.
2. Is this the condition of things in England at the present day? We have
seen that the criminal classes are increasing much faster than the
growth of population in France and the United States. Is England in a
better position in this respect than these two countries?
3. Nowadays there is one conviction to about every fifty inhabitants,
and the proportion of convictions to the population was very much the
same twenty years ago.
4. If we had no Industrial and Reformatory institutions for the detention
of criminal and quasi-criminal offenders among the young, England, as
well as other countries, would have to make the admission that crime
was not only increasing in the midst, but that it was increasing faster
than the growth of population.
5. The number of juveniles in these institutions has more than trebled
since 1868 and it is unquestionable that if these youthful offenders were
not confined there, a large proportion of them would immediately begin
to swell the ranks of crime. That crime in England is not making more
rapid strides than the growth of population, is almost entirely to be attributed to the action of these schools.
6. We shall now look at another aspect of the criminal question, and
that is its cost. Crime is not merely a danger to the community; it is
likewise a vast expense; and there is no country in Europe where it does
not constitute a tremendous drain upon the national resources. Owing to
the federal system of government in America, it is almost impossible to
estimate how much is spent in the prevention and punishment of crime
in the United States.
more than seven and a half million sterling. The exact amount of this
loss it is impossible to estimate, but, according to the figures in the police reports, it can reach a million per year.
Запомните следующие слова/словосочетания:
arrive at the conclusion; growing in dimensions; multiply; conviction;
inhabitants; detention; criminal and quasi-criminal offenders; make the
admission; juveniles; treble; offenders; (be) confined; swell the ranks of
crime; (be) attributed to; cost; danger to the community; vast expense;
constitute; a tremendous drain upon the national resources; estimate;
prevention and punishment of crime; criminal prosecutions, salaries of
stipendiary; magistrates; judge; trial and prosecution of delinquents;
expenditure.
Найдите в предложениях следующие грамматические явления:
1. Подлежащее и сказуемое; инфинитив (функция); сравнительная
конструкция as…as; сравнительная степень.
2. Подлежащее и сказуемое; сравнительная степень прилагательного.
3. Функция one; сказуемое (время, залог).
4. Условное предложение; модальный глагол.
5. Сказуемое (время, залог); условное предложение; инфинитив
(функция).
6. Причастный оборот; инфинитив (функция); конструкция
there+be.
7. Причастие II (функция); инфинитив (функция); модальный
глагол.
7. The cost of criminal prosecutions, the salaries of stipendiary and
other paid magistrates, a portion of the salaries of judges, and all other
expenses connected with the trial and prosecution of delinquents, and
an annual total of expenditure is reached for the United Kingdom of
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23
Text 11
society; the individual factors are a class of attributes inherent in the individual, such as descent, sex, age, bodily and mental characteristics.
1. Apart from its danger to the community, the annual loss of money
which the existence of crime entails is a most serious consideration. It
is equal to a tenth of the national expenditure, and every few years
amounts to as much as the cost of a big European war.
2. It is tempting to speculate on the admirable uses to which the capital
consumed by crime might be devoted, if it were free for beneficent purposes. How easy it would be for many schemes, which is now in the region of dreamland, to be immediately realized.
3. Unhappily, it is almost as vain to look forward to the abolition of
crime as it is to look forward to the cessation of war. At the present
moment the latter event, however improbable, is more likely to happen
than the former.
4. War has ceased to be a normal condition of things in the comity of
nations; it has become a transitory incident; but crime, which means
war within the nation, is still far from being a passing incident; on the
contrary, a conflict between the forces of moral order and social anarchy is going on continually; and, at present, there is not the faintest
prospect of its coming to an end.
5. What is the cause of this state of warfare within society? Which of
the combatants is to blame? Or is the blame to be laid equally on the
shoulders of both? In other words, are the conditions in which men live
together in society of such a nature that crime is certain to flow from
them; and is crime simply a reaction against the iniquity of existing social arrangements?
Запомните следующие слова/словосочетания:
community; annual loss of money; existence; entail; expenditure;
speculate; beneficent purposes; (be ) realized; to look forward to; abolition of crime; cessation of war; the latter; the former; the comity of nations; transitory incident; on the contrary; the forces of moral order and
social anarchy; cause; blame; a reaction against the iniquity of existing
social arrangements; be answered off-hand, complicated; true solution;
divisible; cosmical factors of crime; inherent; descent, bodily and mental characteristics.
Найдите в предложениях следующие грамматические явления:
1. Сравнительная конструкция as…as; порядковое числительное;
превосходная степень.
2. Функция it; инфинитив (функция); модальный глагол; причастие II (функция); сослагательное наклонение.
3. Значение as; сложное подлежащее; инфинитив (функция).
4. Подлежащее и сказуемое; герундий (функция); превосходная
степень прилагательного.
5. Модальный глагол; причастие I (функция); сложное подлежащее.
6. Значение these, модальный глагол; причастие II (функция);
функция it; суффиксы прилагательных.
7. Придаточное определительное предложение; подлежащее и сказуемое.
6. Or, on the other hand, does crime spring from the individual and his
surroundings; and is it the product of forces over which society has little or no control? These are questions which cannot be answered offhand, they involve considerations of a most complicated character, and
it is only after a careful examination of all the factors responsible for
crime that a true solution can possibly be arrived at.
7. These factors are divisible into three great categories—cosmical, social, and individual. The cosmical factors of crime are climate and the
variations of temperature; the social factors are the political, economic
and moral conditions in the midst of which man lives as a member of
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25
Text 12
1. In testing the opinions respecting the influence of climate upon
crime, we are obliged, to some extent, to have recourse to international
statistics. But these statistics, as has already been pointed out, owing to
the diversity of customs, laws, criminal procedure, and so on, do not
easily admit of comparison.
2. So much is this the case that we shall not make the attempt as far as
these statistics have reference to crimes against property. In this field
no satisfactory result can be obtained. The same remark holds good in
relation to all offences against the person, with the exception of homicide.
3. This, undoubtedly, is an important exception; and it arises from the
fact that there is a greater consensus of opinions among civilized communities respecting the gravity of homicide than exists with regard to
any other form of crime. Murder in all its degrees is a crime which immediately causes a profound commotion; it is easy to recognize; it is more
likely than any other offence to come to the ears of the authorities.
4. For these reasons this crime lends itself most readily to international
comparison; nevertheless, differences of judicial procedure, legal nomenclature, and different methods of classification stand in the way of
making the comparison absolutely accurate. The results of such a comparison are of exceptional value, and go a long way to determine the
question of the effect of climate upon crimes of blood.
Запомните следующие слова/словосочетания:
Opinion; (be) obliged, to some extent, have recourse to international
statistics; point out; diversity of customs; make the attempt; crimes
against property; consensus of opinions; civilized communities; the
gravity of homicide; murder; profound commotion; judicial procedure;
legal nomenclature; wilful murder; manslaughter; infanticide; ordinary
circumstances; composition of the population; inhabitant.
Найдите в предложениях следующие грамматические явления:
1. Герундий (функция); подлежащее и сказуемое; причастие I
(функция); наречие.
2. Модальный глагол; as far as (перевод); определительное придаточное предложение.
3. Функция this; конструкция there+be; сравнительная конструкция; инфинитив (функция); сложное дополнение.
4. Возвратное местоимение; герундий (функция); наречие; инфинитив (функция).
5. Причастия I (функции); сказуемое в придаточном предложении; сослагательное наклонение.
6. Модальный глагол; определить придаточное предложение;
сравнительная степень.
5. Assuming, then, with these reservations, that such a comparison can
be instituted, let us see to what extent murder including wilful murder,
manslaughter, and infanticide, prevails in the various countries of
Europe. In ordinary circumstances this task would be a laborious one,
entailing a minute and careful examination of the criminal statistics and
procedure of many nations.
6. According to Dr. Bosco: «As the composition of the population, with
respect to age, varies in different countries, and as it has to be remembered that all the population under ten years of age has no share, at least
under normal conditions, in the crime of murder, it has seemed to me a
more exact method to calculate the proportion of murders to the inhabitants who are over ten years of age, than to include the total population.”
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27
Text 13
convictions absolutely prove that the machinery of the criminal law is
more effective in the one country than in the other.
1. Italy, Spain and Hungary head the list in the proportion of murders to
the population. In Italy, out of every 100,000 persons over ten years of
age, eleven are annually convicted of murder in one or other of its
forms; in Spain eight are convicted of the same offence, and in Hungary
five are convicted.
7. To take another instance, more persons are annually tried for murder
in Ireland than in France; but more cases of conviction are recorded in
France than in Ireland. These contrasts show that, while the French are
less addicted to this grave offence than the Irish, they are more anxious
to secure its detection, and that a greater body of public opinion is on
the side of law in France than in Ireland.
2. These three countries are conspicuously ahead of all the others to
which our table refers. Austria and Belgium follow at a long distance
with two convictions in round numbers to every 100,000 inhabitants
over ten. France, Ireland and Germany come next with one conviction
and a considerable fraction to every 100,000 persons over ten; England,
Scotland and Holland stand at the bottom of the list with between seven
and eight persons convicted of murder to every one million of inhabitants over ten.
3. In order to understand the full meaning of these figures we must take
one more stop and compare the numbers convicted with the numbers
tried. In some countries very few convictions may take place in proportion to the number accused, while in other countries the proportion may
be very considerable.
4. In other words, in order to arrive at an approximate estimate of the
amount of murders perpetrated in a country, we must consider how
many cases of murder have been tried in the course of the year. It very
seldom happens that a person is tried for this offence when no murder
has been committed; and it may, therefore, be assumed that the crime
has taken place when a man stands his trial for it.
5. Estimating then the prevalence of murder in the various countries by
trials, rather than convictions, it will be found that Germany, with a
much larger percentage of convictions than England, has just as few
cases of murder for trial. And the reason the number of convictions, as
between the two nations, differs, arises from the fact that a prisoner's
chance of acquittal in England is a hundred per cent greater than it is in
Germany.
Запомните следующие слова/словосочетания:
head (v); (be) convicted; offence; conviction; fraction; murder; inhabitants; figure; try; accused; to arrive at an approximate estimate; murders
perpetrated in a country; commit; trial; prevalence; acquittal; assume;
try for murder; record; (be) addicted to; anxious; detection.
Найдите в предложениях следующие грамматические явления:
1. Сказуемое (время, залог); наречие.
2. Наречие; придаточное определительное предложение; суффикс
прилагательного.
3. Инфинитив (функция); модальный глагол; причастие II (функция).
4. Инфинитив (функция); модальный глагол; определить придаточное предложение; сказуемое в придаточном предложении (время, залог).
5. Причастие I (функция); значение it; Future Simple; сравнительная степень; бессоюзное придаточное предложение; притяжательный падеж.
6. Инфинитив (функция); придаточные предложения; сказуемые
(время, залог).
7. Значение these; страдательный залог; сравнительная степень
имени прилагательного.
6. It is not, therefore, accurate to assume that a greater number of murders are committed in Germany than in England because a greater
number of persons are annually convicted of this crime; all that these
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29
Text 14
1. While thus showing that the number of trials for murder is the best
test of the prevalence of this offence, it is not meant that the test is in all
respects indisputable. At most it is merely approximate.
2. One obstacle in the way of its entire accuracy consists in the circumstance that the proportion of persons tried, as compared with the
amount of crime committed, is in no two countries precisely the same.
In France, for instance, more murders are perpetrated, for which no one is
ultimately tried, than in Italy or in England; that is to say, a murderer runs
more risk of being placed in the dock in this country than in France.
3. But the difference between the two countries is again to a great extent adjusted by the fact that once a man is placed in the dock in France
he has far less chance of being acquitted than if he were tried according
to English law.
4. On the whole, therefore, it may be assumed that the international statistics of trials, corrected when necessary by the international statistics
of convictions, present a tolerably accurate idea of the extent to which
the crime of murder prevails among the nationalities of Europe. In any
case these figures will go some way towards helping us to see whether
climatic conditions have any influence upon the amount of crime. This
we shall now inquire into this.
5. On looking at the isotherms for the year it will be observed that the
average temperature of Italy and Spain is ten degrees higher than the
average temperature of England. On the other hand, the average temperature of Hungary is very much the same as the average temperature
of this country; but Hungary is at the same time exposed too much
greater extremes of climate than England.
7. In Italy murders are, at least, ten times as numerous as in England; in
Spain they are seven times as numerous; the chief cause of this condition of things is said to be the serious difference of temperature. In the
United States of America there are more crimes of blood in the South
than in the North; the main explanation of this difference is said to be
that the climate of the South is much hotter than the climate of the
North.
Запомните следующие слова/словосочетания:
murder; prevalence; indisputable; offence; approximate; obstacle; accuracy; proportion of persons tried; precisely the same; to a great extent;
adjusted; (be) acquitted; convictions; prevail; average temperature; direct effect of climate; contend; (be) exposed; fourfold; violent oscillations of temperature; numerous;
Найдите в предложениях следующие грамматические явления:
1. Причастие I (функция); превосходная степень; прилагательное с
отрицательным префиксом.
2. Герундий (функция); наречие; сказуемое в страдательном залоге.
3. Условное предложение; герундий (функция); сравнительная
степень.
4. Значение it; модальный глагол; причастие II (функция); неопределенное местоимение.
5. Герундий (функция); сказуемое (время, залог); сравнительная
степень.
6. Сравнительная конструкция; модальный глагол; придаточные
предложения.
7. Сложное дополнение; сравнительная конструкция.
6. In winter it is nearly ten degrees colder than England, while in summer it is as hot as Spain. The advocates of the direct effect of climate
upon crime contend that account must be taken not merely of the degree of temperature, but also of the variations of temperature to which a
region is exposed. According to this theory one of the principal reasons
the crime of murder is, at least, fourfold higher in Hungary than in England, is to be found in the violent oscillations of temperature in Hungary as compared with England.
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Text 15
relationships; economic inequality; access to firearms; poor parental
supervision.
1. Escalating levels of crime and violence are a serious threat to human
development, democratic institutions and good governance throughout
much of the world, including southern Africa.
2. Criminal justice and law enforcement solutions – rather than a
greater emphasis on prevention – are the most typical national response
for a host of reasons.
3. The causal complexities of crime are a disincentive to adopt prevention policies because impact and attribution can be difficult to measure
and because real improvement may not be felt during short terms in political office.
Найдите в предложениях следующие грамматические явления:
1. Подлежащее и сказуемое; причастие I (функция).
2. Сравнительная и превосходная степени имени прилагательного.
3. Главное и придаточное предложение (тип); инфинитив (функция).
4. Превосходная степень имени прилагательного.
5. Герундий (функция); причастие II (функция).
6. Главное и придаточное предложение (тип).
7. Прилагательное с суффиксом –al.
4. Additionally, the necessary coordination necessary for effective
crime prevention is difficult to achieve even in the best of circumstances.
5. Such organizations as OSISA Law Program and Crime and Violence
Prevention Initiative believe that the criminal justice system alone cannot overcome crime and violence and that addressing these issues requires an integrated, long-term approach that addresses the root causes
of crime, in addition to traditional law enforcement and criminal justice
sanctions.
6. For example, the Violence Prevention Alliance Plan of 2012-2020
tells us that while a professional, well-trained and effective police force
and a fair and efficient criminal justice system are crucial to preventing
violence.
7. The evidence from high-income countries and low-and middleincome countries shows strong relationships between levels of violence
and such factors such as economic inequality; access to firearms; harmful use of alcohol; and poor parental supervision of children.
Запомните следующие слова/словосочетания:
escalating levels; threat to human development; criminal justice; law
enforcement; prevention; complexities of crime; disincentive; difficult
to measure; coordination; effective crime prevention; overcome crime;
violence; integrated, long-term approach; root causes of crime; criminal
justice sanctions; police force; crucial; high-income countries; strong
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33
Text 16
nile, be confined, cost(n), community, expense, constitute(v), estimate(v).
1. We have now arrived at the conclusion that crime is just as serious in
its character as it was twenty years ago, and that it is growing in dimensions year by year; the next point to be considered is, the relation in
which crime stands to the population. Crime may be increasing, but the
population may be multiplying faster than the growth of crime.
2. We have seen that the criminal classes are increasing much faster
than the growth of population in France and the United States. Is England in a better position in this respect than these two countries?
3. At present there is one conviction to about every fifty inhabitants,
and the proportion of convictions to the population was very much the
same twenty years ago. If we remember the immense development that
has taken place in the industrial school system within the last twenty
years, we`ll arrive at the conclusion that the criminal classes in this
country still keep pace with the annual growth of population.
Найдите в предложениях следующие грамматические явления:
1. Сказуемое (время, залог); инфинитив (функция).
2. Причастие I (функция); сравнительная степень имени прилагательного.
3. Условное придаточное предложение (тип)
4. Условное придаточное предложение (тип); причастие I (функция); модальный глагол.
5. Условное придаточное предложение (тип)ж сказуемое в страдательном залоге;
6. Инфинитив (функция); превосходная степень имени прилагательного;
7. Инфинитив (функция); наречие (функция).
4. If we had no Industrial and Reformatory institutions for the detention
of criminal and quasi-criminal offenders among the young, England
would have to make the admission that crime was not only increasing,
but that it was increasing faster than the growth of population.
5. The number of juveniles in these institutions has more than trebled
since 1868, and if these youthful offenders were not confined there, a
large proportion of them would immediately begin to swell the ranks of
crime.
6. There is another aspect of the criminal question to be taken into consideration, and that is its cost. Crime is not merely a danger to the
community; it is likewise a considerable expense; and there is no country in Europe where it does not constitute the biggest drain upon the national resources.
7. To estimate how much is spent in the prevention and punishment of
crime is almost impossible, but the police force alone costs the country
10 million pounds annually.
Запомните следующие слова/словосочетания:
(to) arrive at the conclusion; crime, population, conviction, inhabitant,
annual growth of population; detention, quasi-criminal offenders, juve34
35
Text 17
1. We perceive at once that Italy, Spain and Hungary head the list in
the proportion of murders to the population. In Italy, out of every
100,000 persons over ten years of age, eleven in round numbers are annually convicted of murder in one or other of its forms; in Spain eight
are convicted of the same offence, and in Hungary five are convicted.
2. These three countries are conspicuously ahead of all the others to
which our table refers. England, Scotland and Holland stand at the bottom of the list with between seven and eight persons convicted of murder to every one million of inhabitants over ten.
Найдите в предложениях следующие грамматические явления:
1. Сказуемое в страдательном залоге;
2. Наречие (функция); причастие II (функция)
3. Модальный глагол; инфинитив (функция); причастие II (функция).
4. Инфинитив (функция).
5. Время Future Simple страдательный залог; сравнительная степень имени прилагательного.
6. Сравнительная степень имени прилагательного; инфинитив
(функция).
7. Структура предложения.
3. In order to understand the full meaning of these figures we must
compare the numbers convicted with the numbers tried. In some countries very few convictions may take place in proportion to the number
accused, while in other countries the proportion may be very considerable.
4. In other words, in order to arrive at an approximate estimate of the
amount of murders perpetrated in a country, we must consider how
many cases of murder have been tried in the course of the year.
5. Estimating then the prevalence of murder in various countries by trials, rather than convictions, it will be found that Germany, with a much
larger percentage of convictions than England, has just as few cases of
murder for trial.
6. And the reason the number of convictions, as between the two nations, differs, arises from the fact that a prisoner's chance of acquittal in
England is a hundred % greater than it is in Germany. It is not, therefore, accurate to assume that a greater number of murders are committed in Germany than in England because a greater number of persons
are annually convicted of this crime.
7. All that these convictions absolutely prove is that the machinery of
the criminal law is more effective in one country than in another.
Запомните следующие слова/словосочетания:
population; convict; refer; inhabitant; considerable; estimate (n); perpetrate (v); prevalence; prisoner; acquittal; assume; conviction.
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Text 18
1. Roman law is the legal system of ancient Rome, including Roman
Military Jurisdiction and the legal developments spanning over a thousand years of jurisprudence, from the 12 Tables (c. 449 BC), to the
Corpus Juris Civilis (AD 529) ordered by Eastern Roman emperor
Justinian I.
2. The historical importance of Roman law is reflected by the continued
use of Latin legal terminology in legal systems influenced by it.
3. After the dissolution of the Western Roman Empire, the Justinian
Code remained in effect in the Eastern Empire known in the modern era
as the Byzantine Empire (331–1453). From the 7th century onward, the
legal language in the East was Greek.
4. «Roman law» also denotes the legal system applied in most of
Western Europe until the end of the 18th century.
5. In Germany, Roman law practice remained in place longer under the
Holy Roman Empire (963–1806). Roman law thus served as a basis for
legal practice throughout Western continental Europe, as well as in
most former colonies of these European nations, including Latin America, and also in Ethiopia.
Stare decisis (лат.) – придерживаться решенных вещей или принципов;
принцип обычного права, согласно которому суды неохотно идут против
прецедентов, установленных предыдущими судебными решениями (прецедент является ведущим фактором при принятии решения).
Запомните следующие слова/словосочетания:
ancient Rome; Military Jurisdiction; to be reflected; Latin legal terminology; dissolution of the Western Roman Empire; to be in effect; the
Byzantine Empire; denote; former colonies; common law; jurisprudence; medieval; Byzantine legal system.
Найдите в предложениях следующие грамматические явления:
1. Причастие I (функция); причастие II (функция);
2. Сказуемое (время, залог)
3. Причастие II (функция); сказуемое (время, залог).
4. Причастие II (функция); сказуемое (время, залог).
5. Сказуемое (время, залог); сравнительная степень имени прилагательного.
6. Сказуемое (время, залог)
7. Наречие (функция); сказуемое (время, залог); структура предложения.
6. English and North American common law were influenced also by
Roman law, notably in their Latinate legal glossary (for example, stare
decisis).
7. Eastern Europe was also influenced by the jurisprudence of the Corpus Juris Civilis, especially in countries such as medieval Romania
which created a new system, a mixture of Roman and local law. Also,
Eastern European law was influenced by the «Farmer's Law» of the
medieval Byzantine legal system.
Notes:
The Law of 12 Tables – Законы двенадцати таблиц (лат. Leges duodecim
tabularum; 451–450 год до н. э.) — кодификация государственного закона от
народа (lex publica) в Древнем Риме.
Corpus iuris civilis — современное название свода римского гражданского
права, составленного в 529–534 при византийском императоре Юстиниане
Великом. Известен также под названиями «Свод Юстиниана» или «Кодификация Юстиниана».
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Text 19
1. The Government sent a confidential letter to 300 chief executives
and security chiefs at banks, accountants and legal firms. China is
openly accused of carrying out state-sponsored espionage against vital
parts of Britain’s economy, including the computer systems of big
banks and financial services firms.
2. Chief executives and security chiefs at banks, accountants and legal
firms this week were warned that they were under attack from “Chinese
state organizations”.
3. It is believed to be the first time that the Government has directly accused China of involvement in web-based espionage. Such a blunt and
explicit warning could have serious diplomatic consequences and cast a
shadow over Prime Minister Gordon Brown’s first official visit to
China.
4. The Government is concerned with the possible damage to UK business resulting from electronic attack sponsored by Chinese state organizations, and the fact that the attacks are designed to defeat best-practice
IT security systems.
Запомните следующие слова/словосочетания:
confidential, chief executives, to be accused, state-sponsored espionage,
to warn, to be under attack, involvement, damage to business, to defeat
IT security systems, to be aware of, the risks involved, to leak, to be
targeted by, allegations, embassy, to deal with.
Найдите в предложениях следующие грамматические явления:
1. Страдательный залог; герундий (функция); причастие I и II
(функция).
2. Страдательный залог.
3. Оборот Complex Subject; время Present Perfect; модальный глагол.
4. Причастие I (функция); инфинитив (функция).
5. Причастие II (функция); инфинитив (функция).
6. Сказуемое (время и залог).
7. Косвенная речь.
8. Сказуемое (время и залог); причастие I и II (функция).
5. The UK Government acknowledges the strong economic and commercial reasons to do business with China but is aware of the necessity
to ensure management of British firms of the risks involved.
6. It has been leaked that British companies doing business in China are
being targeted by the Chinese Army, which is using the internet to steal
confidential commercial information.
7. Nevertheless, a spokesman for the Chinese Embassy in London said
he was unaware of the allegations and that the embassy had not received any complaints from the British authorities.
8. The attacks have not been limited to large firms based in the City of
London. Law firms and other businesses in the regions dealing even
with small parts of Chinese-linked trade are being probed as potential
weak spots.
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Text 20
1. The O. J. Simpson murder case was a criminal trial held at the Los
Angeles County Superior Court in California, the trial spanning from
the jury's swearing-in on November 2, 1994, to opening statements on
January 24, 1995, to a verdict on October 3, 1995.
2. The former professional football star and actor O. J. Simpson was
tried on two counts of murder after the deaths of his ex-wife, Nicole
Brown Simpson, and waiter Ronald Lyle Goldman, in June 1994. The
case has been described as the most publicized criminal trial in American history.
Найдите в предложениях следующие грамматические явления:
1. Причастный оборот (функция).
2. Сказуемое (время, залог).
3. Структура предложения; инфинитивный оборот; слово «one»
(функция), причастие I (функция).
4. .Причастие II (функция); сказуемое (время, залог).
5. Притяжательный падеж; сказуемое (время, залог).
6. Группа имен существительных; инфинитив (функция).
3. Simpson was acquitted after a trial that had lasted more than eight
months. Simpson hired a high-profile defense team. Los Angeles
County believed Simpson`s case to be a solid prosecution one. Nevertheless, the lawyers were able to persuade the jurors that there was a
reasonable doubt about the DNA evidence (a relatively new form of
evidence in trials at the time) including that the blood-sample evidence
had allegedly been mishandled by lab scientists and technicians – and
about the circumstances surrounding other exhibits.
4. The defense team also alleged other misconduct by the Los Angeles
Police Department. Simpson's celebrity and the lengthy televised trial
riveted national attention on the so-called «Trial of the Century«.
5. By the end of the criminal trial, national surveys showed the most
dramatic differences in the assessment of Simpson's guilt between black
and white Americans.
6. Later, both the Brown and Goldman families sued Simpson for damages in a civil trial that came to a total of $40 million. On February 6,
1997, a jury unanimously found there was an evidence preponderance
to hold Simpson liable for damages in the wrongful death of Goldman
and battery of Brown.
Запомните следующие слова/словосочетания:
verdict; counts of murder; case; criminal trial; (be) acquitted; highprofile defense team; prosecution; the jurors; DNA evidence; allegedly;
misconduct; celebrity; rivet; assessment; guilt; sue; unanimously; preponderance of evidence; liable for damages; battery.
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Text 21
1. Industrial relations is a multidisciplinary field that studies the
employment relationship. Industrial relations is increasingly being
called employment relations or employee relations because of the importance of non-industrial employment relationships; this move is
sometimes seen as further broadening of the human resource management trend.
2. Indeed, some authors now define human resource management as
synonymous with employee relations. Other authors see employee relations as dealing only with non-unionized workers, whereas labor relations is seen as dealing with unionized workers.
взаимосвязи; в состоянии упадка; в сопоставлении; профсоюз;
этический, производственные отношения, высококачественные исследования.
Найдите в предложениях следующие грамматические явления:
1. Сказуемое (время, залог); группа имен существительных.
2. Причастие II (функции).
3. Группа имен существительных; ed- формы.
4. Причастие I (функция)/
5. Абсолютный причастный оборот.
6. Герундий (функция)
7. Инфинитив (функция)
3. Industrial relations studies examine various employment situations,
not just ones with a unionized workforce. However, according to Bruce
E. Kaufman «To a large degree, most scholars regard trade unionism,
collective bargaining and labor-management relations, and the national
labor policy and labor law within which they are embedded, as the core
subjects of the field.»
4. Initiated in the United States at end of the 19th century, it took off as
a field in conjunction with the New Deal. However, it is generally a
separate field of study only in English-speaking countries having no direct equivalent in continental Europe.
5. In recent times, the industrial relations term has been in decline as a
field, in correlation with the decline in importance of trade unions,
business schools for the human resource management being regarded as
preferable.
6. The industrial relations term has three faces: science building, problem solving, and ethical. In the science building phase, industrial relations is part of the social sciences, and it seeks to understand the employment relationship and its institutions through high-quality research.
Найдите анлийские эквиваленты следующих слов/словосочетаний:
мультидисциплинарная область; трудовые отношения; расширение; управление кадрами; работники, не состоящие в профсоюзе;
ученые; политика занятости населения; ключевые предметы; во
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Text 22
1. A construction lawyer is an attorney specializing in construction litigation and construction contract disputes. Most lawyers working in
construction litigation have a law degree and advanced education related to engineering, construction and building defects. This type of attorney may work in the private sector or public sector representing individuals, companies or insurers.
2. Representing the client and filing pleadings with the court including
answers and complaints of the construction lawyer’s duties are regarded
to be the major activities of the construction lawyer. Some of the
documents the attorney may review in a construction case are blueprints, contracts, floor plans and inspection reports.
3. Another aspect of a construction lawyer’s job is handling injury
claims relating to construction accidents. Often, these accidents will result in both a worker’s compensation claim and a civil lawsuit. Usually
the insured’s insurance company will expect the lawyer to represent the
worker and evaluate liability and damages.
Запомните следующие слова/словосочетания:
litigation, advanced education, insurers, attorney, injury claims, civil
lawsuit, to settle the case, to mediate the claim, negotiate,
subcontractors, general contractors, project deadlines, contract disagreements.
Найдите в предложениях следующие грамматические явления:
1. Причастие I (функция); причастие II (функция) модальный глагол.
2. Герундий (функция); инфинитивный оборот Complex Subject;
модальный глагол
3. Герундий (функция); причастие I (функция); инфинитивный
оборот Complex Subject.
4. Условное придаточное (тип); модальный глагол; причастие I
(функция)
5. Модальный глагол
6. Инфинитивный оборот Complex Subjectю
4. If the attorney does not settle the case with the employee or legal
representative, he will need to mediate the claim or go to court. Construction attorneys sometimes have to retain accident recreation experts
specializing in construction accidents to assist the attorney on the case
and provide an expert opinion.
5. In addition to accidents and construction defects, construction lawyers also negotiate disputes between subcontractors and general contractors. These incidents may involve one general contractor and several subcontractors and could be about payment, work conditions, project deadlines or contract disagreements.
6. If a project goes over the deadline for completion, the owner is likely
to impose penalties upon the general contractor who then may try to
withhold payment from the subcontractors. The attorney may consult
with the owner, project manager, general contractor and subcontractors
to resolve the dispute.
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Text 23
1. Active labour market policies are government programs that intervene in the labour market to help the unemployed find work. Many of
these programs grew out of earlier public works projects designed to
combat widespread unemployment in the developed world during the
interwar period. Today, academic analysis of these programs is associated with economists such as Lars Calmfors and Richard Layard.
2. Labour market policy and institutional reform has undoubtedly been
attached a prominent role within the context of European economic
strategies aiming at increasing employment and reviving growth, as
well as facilitating adjustment of the European economic and social
model to deep-going changes in economic exchange, social organization and politics.
3. Nevertheless, an increase in European trend growth rates has not
been achieved, the recent economic upturn being attributed to mere cyclical factors. 4. At the same time, labour market performance has not
much improved and rates of unemployment have remained high, especially in the big continental economies.
Запомните следующие слова/словосочетания:
intervene; unemployed; institutional reform; deep-going changes; economic upturn; cyclical factors; rates of unemployment; implementation;
labour market performance; convincingly; distort; supply and demand;
economic restructuring; impact.
Найдите в предложениях следующие грамматические явления:
1. Неличные формы глагола (функции).
2. Сказуемое (время, залог); причастие I (функция)
3. Абсолютный причастный оборот
4. Сказуемое (время, залог)
5. Модальный глагол; причастие I и II (функция)
6. Инфинитив (функция)
7. Герундий (функция)
8. Структура предложения; сказуемое (время, залог)
5. One may suggest that implementation of labour market reform has
been poorly conceived and inadequately implemented, thereby making
adjustment of the European economic and social model hard to realize.
6. Admittedly, economic research has failed to establish robust causal
links between any particular design of labour market institutions and
labour market performance.
7. However, it has convincingly demonstrated that heavily regulated labour markets distort the matching of labour supply and demand, disrupt
adjustment to trade and technology shocks, delaying economic restructuring and prolong and amplify the impact of cyclical swings in economic activity.
8. While falling short from advocating wholesale deregulation of the
labour market, economic research has nonetheless shown that labour
market reform should be comprehensive and coordinated with product
market reforms, social policies and macroeconomic policy.
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Text 24
the shell company, which deposits it into its accounts. The company
then creates fake invoices and receipts to account for the cash.
1. In October 2005, U.S. congressman Tom DeLay was indicted on
money laundering charges, forcing him to step down as House Majority
Leader. Money laundering is a serious charge – in 2001, U.S. prosecutors obtained almost 900 money-laundering convictions with an average prison sentence of six years.
2. The rise of global financial markets makes money laundering easier
than ever – countries with bank-secrecy laws are directly connected to
countries with bank-reporting laws, making it possible to anonymously
deposit «dirty» money in one country and then have it transferred to
any other country for use.
3. Money laundering happens in almost every country in the world, and
a single scheme typically involves transferring money through several
countries in order to obscure its origins.
4. In this article, we'll learn exactly what money laundering is and why
it's necessary, who launders money and how they do it and what steps
the authorities are taking to try to foil money-laundering operations.
5. Money laundering, at its simplest, is the act of making money that
comes from Source A look like it comes from Source B. In practice,
criminals are trying to disguise the origins of money obtained through
illegal activities so it looks like it was obtained from legal sources. Otherwise, they can't use the money because it would connect them to the
criminal activity, and law-enforcement officials would seize it.
Запомните следующие слова/словосочетания:
(be) indicted on money laundering charges; an average prison sentence
of six years; bank-secrecy laws; anonymously; deposit; involve; transferring money; obscure; origins; authorities; foil; obtained through illegal activities; obtained from legal sources; law-enforcement officials;
tax evasion; false accounting; common types; shell companies; holding
companies; offshore accounts; assets; perform operations; purport; pay
with cash; anonymity of customers; trace the initial recipient of the
dirty money; fake invoices; receipts to account for the cash; transactions.
Найдите в предложениях следующие грамматические явления:
1. Cказуемое в страдательном залоге; объектный инфинитивный
оборот.
2. Сравнительная степень имени прилагательного
3. Герундий и инфинитив (функции).
4. Структура предложения
5. Неличные формы глагола (функции).
6. Ed- форма (функция)
7. Инфинитив (функция)
8. Неличные формы глагола (функции).
6. Tax evasion and false accounting practices constitute common types
of money laundering. Often, criminals achieve these objectives through
the use of shell companies, holding companies, and offshore accounts.
A shell company is an incorporated company that possesses no significant assets and does not perform any significant operations.
7. To launder money, the shell company purports to perform some service that would reasonably require its customers to often pay with cash.
Cash transactions increase the anonymity of customers and therefore
decrease the government’s ability to trace the initial recipient of the
dirty money.
8. Money launderers commonly select beauty salons and plumbing services as shell companies. The launderer then deposits the money with
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Text 25
1. The economic downturn over the past several years has led to an explosion of federal criminal prosecutions for fraud and other types of
economic crimes.
2. Just because someone loses money in a business, this does not mean
that a federal crime took place. However, we come across more and
more situations where a person involved in a failing business not only
loses his or her money, he (or she) is likely to have a criminal charge in
federal court.
3. The federal criminal code contains a number of provisions that
prosecutors utilize in federal criminal cases involving economic crimes
or fraud.
4. For examples, federal statutes have been utilized to bring federal
prosecutions for alleged accounting fraud, bank fraud, mail and wire
fraud, false or fraudulent statements in connection with a bankruptcy
proceeding, fraudulent acts while using a computer, credit card fraud,
forgery, defrauding a government agency, health care fraud, mortgage
fraud, public corruption, securities fraud, and tax fraud.
Запомните следующие слова/словосочетания:
downturn; criminal prosecutions; fraud; failing business; criminal
charge; criminal code; provisions; prosecutors; For examples, federal
statutes; alleged accounting fraud; federal statutes; alleged accounting
fraud; «intent to defraud»; contest; investigations; mortgage-fraud
prosecutions; veritable; (be) brought against.
Найдите в предложениях следующие грамматические явления:
1. Cказуемое (время, залог).
2. Неличные формы глагола (функции); субъектный инфинитивный оборот.
3. Структура предложения.
4. Cказуемое (время, залог); группа имен существительных.
5. Модальный глагол; пассивный залог.
6. Неличные формы глагола (функции).
7. Причастие I (функция); субъектный инфинитивный оборот.
5. In each of these scenarios, however, the Government must prove that
an individual acted with «intent to defraud.» Perhaps more than any
other element, the element of «intent» is often strongly contested in
federal fraud prosecutions.
6. In the past several years, federal prosecutors have begun to focus
heavily on certain types of alleged fraud and supposed economic
crimes. For example, the downturn in the banking industry here in
Georgia and other states has resulted in many investigations focusing
on bankers and those in other financial industries.
7. The collapse of the real estate market generated a series of mortgagefraud prosecutions. The high cost of medical care has resulted in a veritable explosion of criminal cases being brought against doctors and
other medical professionals who are alleged to have committed health
care fraud in some aspect of their practice.
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ДЛЯ ЗАПИСЕЙ
Учебное издание
АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК
Учебно-методическое пособие № 148
Составители: Дубовская Наталия Евгеньевна,
Лаппо Тамара Васильевна
Компьютерная верстка И. А. Яблоковой
Подписано к печати 11.06.15. Формат 6080 1/16. Бум. офсетная.
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Санкт-Петербургский государственный архитектурно-строительный университет.
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Отпечатано на ризографе. 190005, Санкт-Петербург, 2-я Красноармейская ул., д. 5.
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