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Санкт-Петербургский государственный
архитектурно-строительный университет
Факультет экономики и управления
Кафедра иностранных языков
АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК
Учебно-методическое пособие № 153
Санкт-Петербург
2016
Министерство образования и науки
Российской Федерации
Санкт-Петербургский государственный
архитектурно-строительный университет
Факультет экономики и управления
Кафедра иностранных языков
АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК
Учебно-методическое пособие № 153
Санкт-Петербург
2016
0
1
УДК 811.111:378.6:62(075.8)
Рецензент канд. филол. наук, доц., доцент М. А. Сарян (СПбГАСУ)
Английский язык: учеб.-метод. пособие № 153 / сост. А. В. Потапчук; СПбГАСУ. – СПб., 2016. – 63 с.
Предназначено для аудиторного чтения и перевода текстов студентами
I–II курсов, специализирующихся в области прикладной математики и информатики. Учебно-методическое пособие способствует развитию навыков
технического перевода. Пособие составлено на материале оригинальных англоязычных текстов. Целью учебно-методического пособия является достижение уровня владения английским языком, позволяющего учащимся вести
профессиональную деятельность в соответствии со специальностью.
Рекомендовано для вузов, специализирующихся по направлениям подготовки: 010400.62 – прикладная математика и информатика, 231300.62 –
прикладная информатика.
 А. В. Потапчук, 2016
 Санкт-Петербургский государственный
архитектурно-строительный университет, 2016
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Unit 1
Conversion, Active and Passive Voice
Vocabulary
array[ə'reɪ]–массив (данных)
cause[kɔːz] (n.) –причина; (v.) – вызывать
chart[ʧɑːt] –диаграмма, график, схема, таблица
common['kɔmən] – общий, распространённый (здесь); in common – общее
convert[kɔn'vɜːt] – преобразовывать
edit['edɪt] – редактировать; editing – редактирование
execute['eksɪkjuːt] –выполнять, исполнять
feature['fiːʧə] (n.) – характерная черта, свойство; (v.) – являться
характерной чертой, отличительным признаком; характеризовать(ся)
gain[geɪn] – получать, приобретать
hierarchy['haɪərɑːkɪ]–иерархия
host application[həust ˌæplɪ'keɪʃ(ə)n] – ведущее приложение
however[hau'evə] – однако
implement['ɪmplɪmənt] – выполнять, осуществлять
include[ɪn'kluːd] – включать, содержать
line[laɪn] – строка
master['mɑːstə] (n.)–специалист, знаток своего дела; (v.) –
овладевать, усваивать
numerous['njuːm(ə)rəs] – многочисленный
performance[pə'fɔːmən(t)s] – работа, производительность
pivot table['pɪvət 'teɪbl] –сводная таблица
procedure[prə'siːʤə] – процесс, операция
purpose['pɜːpəs]– цель
range[reɪnʤ] –диапазон, линия и строка(здесь)
refer[rɪ'fɜː]– называться, относиться
result in[rɪ'zʌltɪn] – приводить к
result from [rɪ'zʌlt frɔm] – проистекать
stand-alone[stænd ə'ləun] – автономный, независимый
statement['steɪtmənt] – оператор языка программирования, команда
therefore['ðeəfɔː]– следовательно, поэтому
worksheet['wɜːkʃiːt] –(рабочий) лист в программе Excel
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3
Text 1
BASIC Background
Many programmers laugh at the idea of programming in BASIC. The
name itself (an acronym for Beginner’s All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) suggests that BASIC isn’t a professional language. In fact,
BASIC was first developed in the early 1960s as a way to teach programming techniques to college students.
BASIC has evolved and improved over the years. For example, in many
early implementations, BASIC was an interpreted language. Each line
was interpreted before it was executed, causing slow performance. Most
modern dialects of BASIC allow the code to be compiled– converted to
machine code – which results in faster and more efficient execution.
BASIC gained wide acceptance in 1991 when Microsoft released Visual
Basic for Windows. This product made it easy for the masses to develop
stand-alone applications for Windows. Visual Basic has very little in
common with early versions of BASIC, but Visual Basic is the foundation on which VBA was built.
VBA is best thought of as Microsoft’s common application scripting
language, and it’s included with most Office 2010 applications and even
in applications from other vendors. Therefore, if a programmer master
VBA by applying Excel, they will be able to write macros for other Microsoft (and some non-Microsoft) products.
The secret to using VBA with other applications lies in understanding
the object model for each application. However, VBA simply manipulates objects, and each product (Excel, Word, Access, PowerPoint, and
others) has its own unique object model. A skilled person can program
an application by using the objects that the application has. Excel’s object model, for example, includes several very powerful data analysis
objects, such as worksheets, charts, pivot tables, and numerous mathematical, financial, engineering, and general business functions. With
VBA, a user can work with these objects and develop automated procedures.
1. Discuss the following questions:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Why was BASIC developed in the early 1960s?
What was an interpreted language?
What disadvantage did any interpreted language have?
What do most modern dialects of BASIC allow?
4
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Why and when did BASIC gain wide acceptance?
What applications does BASIC include?
What advantages do users gain if they master VBA by applying
Excel?
What is the secret to using VBA with other applications?
Whatdata analysis objects does Excel’s object model include?
2. Findinthetextequivalents of the following words and collocations:
автоматизированный процесс, быть способным / уметь, в действительности (на самом деле), включать, вызывать, выполнение / исполнение (2 слова), законченное решение, медленная работа / производительность, многочисленный, например, независимое приложение, общее, однако, основа, поэтому / следовательно, приводить
к, развиваться, различные приложения, ранняя версия, свойство /
характерная черта, собственный, совершенствоваться, современный, способ, строка, управлять, эффективный.
3. Match the terms and their definitions
1. application (2)
a. convert (a program) into a machine-code or lower-level form in
which the program can be executed
2. compile
b. someone who sells products and
services
3. Excel
c. a data summarization tool in data
visualization programs
4. macros
d.a specific language for a particular environment; this is also known
as an extension language.
5.performance
e. a program or piece of software
designed to fulfill a particular purpose; practical use
6.pivot table
f. a spreadsheet application which
features calculations, graphic tools,
5
and pivot tables
7. scripting language
g. a single instruction that expands
automatically into a set of instructions to perform a particular task
8. vendor
h.functioning, working, capabilities
4.
Find the pairs of synonyms
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
Apply
can
common
different
evolve
get
lead to
make better
multiple
perform
procedure
quick / rapid
progressively
stimulate
translate
5.
Translate the following sentences. Pay attention to the Conversion.
1.
Double-clicking an item in the ListBox has the same result as
clicking the OK button.
Be careful if you use dates prior to 1752. Differences between the
historical American, British, Gregorian, and Julian calendars can
result ininaccurate computations.
2.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
i.
j.
k.
l.
m.
n.
o.
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be able to
cause
develop
execute
gain
general
gradually
fast
improve
interpret
numerous
process
result in
use
various
This procedure works with most data, but it has a flaw: It doesn’t
handle data that contains a comma. But commas which result from
formatting are handled correctly.
4. As a result, most of the code presented here won’t work with versions prior to Excel 2007.
5. For example, clicking a tab can cause the new page to push the
former page out of the way.
6. If the cause of a systematic error can be identified, then it can usually be eliminated.
7. The error may be caused by logical errors in your code or by passing incorrect arguments to the function.
8. If you are already an experienced Excel user, this book will make
you an Excel master.
9. The best way to master this topic is to record your actions within a
macro to find out its relevant objects, methods, and properties.
10. This message box was programmed to display at a particular time
of day.
11. Beginning with Excel 2007, new features made creating betterlooking spreadsheets a relatively easy task.
12. Excel 2010 features enhancements in pivot tables, conditional formatting, and image editing.
3.
Текст 2
The Basics of VBA
1. at disposal [æt dɪs'pəuz(ə)l] – в распоряжении
An operator performs actions in VBA by executing VBA code. He
writes or records VBA code, which is stored in a VBA module. VBA
modules are stored in an Excel workbook file, but an operator views or
edits a module by using the Visual Basic Editor (VBE).
A VBA module consists of procedures.A procedure is basically a unit of
computer code that performs some actions.VBA supports two types of
procedures: Sub procedures and Function procedures.
A Sub procedure consists of a series of statements and can be executed
in a number of ways.
7
A VBA module can also have Function procedures. A Function procedure returns a single value or possibly an array. A Function can be called
from another VBA procedure or used in a worksheet formula.
VBA manipulates objects contained in its host application. In this case,
Excel isthe host application. Excel provides with more than 100 classes
of objects to manipulate.Examples of objects include a workbook, a
worksheet, arange on a worksheet, achart, and a shape. Many more objects are at programmer’s disposal, and he can use VBA code tomanipulate them. Object classes are arranged in a hierarchy.
Objects also can act as containers for other objects. For example, Excel
is an object calledApplication, and it contains other objects, such as
Workbook objects. However the Workbookobject contains other objects,
such as Worksheet objects and Chart objects. The arrangement of these
objects is referred to as Excel’s object model.
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6.
7.
8.
9.
Discuss the following questions:
How does an operator perform actions in VBA?
Where are VBA codes and VBA modes stored?
How does an operator view and edit a module?
What is a procedure? What types of the procedures are there?
What does a Sub procedure consist of? How can it be executed?
How does a Function procedure return? How can it be called and
used?
What objects does VBA manipulate?
What examples of objects does Excel include?
How are object classes arranged?
7. Find in the text equivalents of the following words and collocations:
в основном, в этом случае, ведущее приложение, видеть модуль,
включать, выполнять (2 слова) некоторые действия, график / диаграмма,действовать / служить в качестве, единственное значение,
иерархия, массив, например, несколько / некоторое количество /
ряд способов, оператор языка программирования / команда,относиться к, писать код, поддерживать, предоставлять / обеспечивать, процесс / операция, рабочая книга, рабочий лист, располагаться, расположение, редактировать, редактор, содержать, управлять объектами, файл рабочей книги, форма.
8
8.
Find the opposites:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
1.
2.
array
common
complete
dependent
include
master
single
updated
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
numerous
stand-alone
individual
unfinished
uncorrected
single value
unskilled person
eliminate
Translate the sentences. Choose the right form of verbs (Passive or Active Voice) :
UserForms and VBA modules ________ with a workbook but are
invisible to the end user (store).
With a single command, you can ________ add-in files that bring
new features to Excel (create).
Some of Excel’s worksheet financial and statistical ________ in
terms of numerical accuracy last years (improve).
If you’re working with a chart using the Format dialog box, your
changes ________ immediately in the chart (reflect).
Most of Excel 2010’s updated object model is accessible in your
VBA code, but the VB Editor ________ in many versions yet
(change).
When you issues the command to execute the macro, the VBE
quickly _______ the code and ________ it (compile, execute).
In other words, each instruction ________, and Excel simply does
what it is told to do (evaluate).
Make sure that the code ________ within the proper context (execute).
Text3 (translate without a dictionary)
A. Objects, properties, and methods in VBA
property ['prɔpətɪ] – свойство
range object[reɪnʤ 'ɔbʤɪkt] – объект Range
The basic unit of Excel is a Workbook object. With Excel, you can add
workbooks and close workbooks, and the set of all the openworkbooks
is known as Workbooks (a collection of Workbook objects).
An Excel workbook is an object, but it also contains other objects, such
as worksheets, charts,VBA modules, and etc. However, each object in a
workbook can contain its own objects.
9
For example, a Worksheet object can contain Range objects, PivotTable
objects, Shape objects, and etc.
Excel objects have properties. For example, a Range object has properties such as Value and Name, and a Shape object has properties such as
Width and Height.
Besides properties, Excel’s objects also have methods, which perform
operations on objects. For example, the Clear Contents method erases
the contents of a Range object.
With Excel, methods sometimes change an object’s properties. The
ClearContents methodfor a Range object changes the Range Value
property. With VBA, you can write procedures to manipulate Excel’s
objects.
1.
2.
B. Comments
apostrophe [ə'pɔstrəfɪ] – надстрочная запятая
quotation marks[kwə'teɪʃ(ə)nmɑːks]– кавычки
A comment is a text built in your code and ignored by VBA. It’s a good
ideato use comments to describe what you’re doing because an instruction’s purpose isn’talways clear.
You can use a complete line for your comment, or you can insert a
comment afteran instructionon the same line. A comment is indicated by
an apostrophe. VBA ignores any text that follows an apostrophe – except when the apostrophe is contained within quotation marks – up until
theend of the line.
Using comments is definitely a good idea, but not all comments are
equally useful.
To be useful, comments should display information that’s not immediately understandable from reading the code.
Use comments to describe briefly the purpose of each procedure that
you write.
1.
Use comments to describe changes that you make to a procedure.
2.
Use comments to indicate that you’re using functions or constructs
in an unusual or nonstandard manner.
3.
Use comments to describe the purpose of actions so that you and
other people can decode cryptic name.
4. Write comments while you code rather than after.
10
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
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18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
Unit 2
Infinitive, ModalVerbs, Complex Object, Prefix‘re’
Vocabulary
add-in [ædɪn] (n.)–встраиваемое дополнительное устройство
although [ɔːl'ðəu] – хотя, несмотря на
arrange [ə'reɪnʤ] – располагать
associate [ə'səusɪeɪt]– связывать c
by default [baɪdɪ'fɔːlt] – поумолчанию
compare [kəm'peə] – сравнивать
customize ['kʌstəmaɪz] –настраивать, модифицировать
depending (on) [dɪ'pendɪŋ] – в зависимости от
drag [dræg] (v.)– перетаскивать
editor ['edɪtə] – редактор
expand [ɪk'spænd] – расширить, увеличить
individual [ˌɪndɪ'vɪʤuəl]–отдельный
insert ['ɪnsɜːt] (v.)– вставлять
immediate window[ɪ'miːdɪət 'wɪndəu] – окно Immediate (открывшееся окно)
import [ɪm'pɔːt] – вводить
item ['aɪtəm] – пункт, предмет
make sure [meɪk ʃuə] – убедиться; удостовериться
maximize button ['mæksɪmaɪz'bʌtn] – развертывающая кнопка
menu bar ['menjuː bɑː] – строка меню
particular [pə'tɪkjələ] –конкретный, отдельный, особый
Project Explorer window ['prɔʤekt ek'splɔːrə 'wɪndəu] – окно
проводника проекта
ribbon interface['rɪb(ə)n ˌɪntəfeɪs] – ленточный интерфейс
remove [rɪ'muːv] –удалить
run [rʌn] – запускать (программу)
separate ['sep(ə)rət] – отдельный
setting ['setɪŋ] – среда
shortcut key['ʃɔːtkʌtkiː] – клавиша быстрого вызова / быстрого
выбора команд
shortcut menu ['ʃɔːtkʌt'menjuː]–контекстное меню
title bar['taɪtl bɑː] –панель заголовка, строка заголовка
toolbar['tuːlbɑː] –панель инструментов
utilize ['juːtɪlaɪz] –использовать
view [vjuː] (v.) – видеть
visible ['vɪzəbl] –видимый
11
Text 1
VBA modules
Any VBA work is done in the Visual Basic Editor (VBE). The VBE is a
separate application that works with Excel. An operatorcan’t run VBE
separately; Excel must be run in order to start the VBE.
To add a new VBA module to a project, a programmer must select the
project’s name in the Project Explorer window. When a programmer
records a macro, Excel automatically inserts a VBA module to hold the
recorded code.
If an operator needs to remove a VBA module, a class module, or
aUserForm from a project, the module’s name should be selected in the
Project Explorer window.
An operator can save every object to be included in a project to a separate file. Saving an individual object in a project is calledexporting. Exporting and importing objects might be useful if a programmer wants to
utilize a particular object in a different project.
To export an object, it has tobe selected in the Project Explorer window.
If a user exports a UserFormobject, any code associated with the
UserFormis also exported.
To import a file into a project, the project’s nameshould be selected in
the Project Explorer window. An operator can import only a file that has
been exported by choosing the File→Export File command.
Depending on how many workbooks and add-ins are open, the VBE can
have lots of code windows. Code windows are much like worksheet
windows in Excel. A programmer can minimize them, maximize them,
rearrange them, and so on. To maximize a code window, an operator
should click the maximizebutton in its title bar or double-click its title
bar. Sometimes, a programmer may want to have two or more code windows visible. For example, he might want to compare the code in two
modules or copy code from one module to another. To view two or more
code windows at once, an operator must make sure that the active code
window isn’t maximized. Then the windows are dragged and resized to
view them. However the VBE doesn’t have a menu command to close a
workbook. A programmer must reactivate Excel and close it from there.
A single VBA module can store any number of Sub procedures and
Function procedures.
12
1. Discuss the following questions:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
What is VBE?
Which programs does VBE work with?
What does a programmer need to do for adding a new VBA module to a project?
How is a VBA module, a class module, or a UserForm removed
from a project?
How can a programmer save every object in a project and how is a
saving process called?
What cases exporting and importing objects are useful?
What does a programmer need to do for exporting a new object?
How many code windows can VBE have?
How can a code window be changed by a programmer?
What should an operator do to maximize a code window?
What cases may a programmer want to have two or more Code
windows visible?
How is a VBE workbook closed?
2. Find in the text equivalents of the following words and collocations:
в зависимости от, вставлять модуль, встраиваемое дополнительное
устройство, выбирать, для того, чтобы, запускать программу, изменять размер, конкретный / особый, любой код, окно проводника
проекта, отдельный файл, перетаскивать объект на экране, подобный / похожий, полезный, писать макрос, разворачивать (окно на
экране компьютера),располагать в новом порядке, сворачивать (окно на экране компьютера),связанный с, сохранить объект, строка
заголовка, сравнивать, убедиться, удалить пользовательскую форму
из проекта.
3. Match the terms and theirdefinitions:
1.
code
2.
command
a. a form used to interface with the
user and a program or a customized
dialog window
b. it allows a programmer to add
items to the project
13
3.
drag
4.
Project Explorer window
5.
title bar
6.
UserForm
c. a horizontal strip at the top of a
window, including the name of the
program and the currently active
documents
d.move an image or highlighted
text across a computer screen
e. a system of words, letters, figures, or symbols used to represent
others, especially for the purposes
of secrecy
f. an instruction or signal causing a
computer to perform one of its
basic functions
4. Translate the following words with prefix ‘re’:
Example: Restore button– кнопка восстановления
reactivate, rearrange, recreate, redesign, re-edit, re-enter, remake, remove, reprint, re-run, resize, re-sort, reusable, review
5.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Translate the sentences. Pay attention to the forms and the
functions of Infinitive:
Programming people typically use the word ‘procedure’to describe
an automated task.
Another way of making your code more readable is to use named
arguments.
Working in the VBE, each Excel workbook and add-in to be currently open is considered a project.
Any project consists of a collection of objects to be arranged as an
expandable tree.
To expand a project a programmer should click the plus sign (+) at
the left of the project’s name in the Project Explorer window.
If anoperator tries to expand a project protected with a password,
he should enter the password.
One approach to learn about a particular object is to look it up in
the Help System.
You can have noticed that the list of methods for the Comment object doesn’t include a methodto add a new comment.
14
6.
1.
Translate the sentences. Pay attention to Modal Verbs:
A single instruction inVBAcan be as long as a programmer needs
it to be.
2. For readability, however, a programmer may want to break a
lengthy instruction into two or more lines.
3. If an operator entered the code correctly, the procedure executes,
and he has to respond to a simple dialog box that displays the
username.
4. The dialog box is to appear when you type Comment and then
press F1.
5. A programmer was able to simplify this macro by deleting the extraneous code.
6. An operator should use the Help system to learn the relevant constants for a particular command.
7. Another method of getting code into a VBA module is to copy it
from another module.
8. Rather than re-enter the code, you have to open the workbook, activate the module, and use the clipboard copy-and-paste procedures
to copy it into your current VBA module.
9.
Inserting this command a programmer will be allowed to run an
additional application.
10. When you work with VBA, you ought to understand the concept
of objects and Excel’s object model.
Text 2
The VBE windows
The VBE has a number of parts. Some of the key components are the
following:
VBE menu bar: Although Excel has a new Ribbon Interface,VBE’s developers suppose the menu and toolbar to be widely used in the VBE.
The VBE menu bar works like every other menu bar. It contains commands. They let programmers work with the various components in the
VBE. Many of the menu commands enable an operator to apply shortcut
keys associated with them. For example, the View→Immediate Window
command has a shortcut key of Ctrl+G.
VBE toolbars: The Standard toolbar, which is directly under the menu
bar by default, is one of six VBE toolbars available. Programmers consider the menu barto be a toolbar. They can customize toolbars, move
them around, display other toolbars, etc.
15
Project Explorer window: The Project Explorer window displays a tree
diagram that consists of every workbook that is currently open in Excel
including add-ins and hidden workbooks. Each workbook is known as a
project.
Code window: A Code window also known as a Module window contains VBA code. Every item in a project’s tree has an associated code
window. To view a code window for an object, a programmer should
double-click the object in the Project Explorer window. For example, to
view the code window for the Sheet1 object, he has to double-click
Sheet1 in the Project Explorer window. Unless an operator has added
some VBA code, the Code window is empty.
Another way to view the Code window for an object is to select the object in the Project Explorer window and then click the View Code button
in the toolbar at the top of the Project Explorer window.
Immediate window: The developers believe the Immediate window to
be most useful for executing VBA statements directly, testing statements, and debugging code. This window may or may not bevisible. If
the immediate window isn’t visible, an operator should press Ctrl+G. To
close the Immediate window, an operator usually clicks the Close button
in its title bar (or right-click anywhere in the Immediate window and select Hide from the shortcut menu).
7.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
Discuss the following questions:
What are the key components of the VBE?
What components are widely used in the VBE?
What does the VBE menu bar contain?
What does an operator enable to apply shortcut keys?
Where is the Standard toolbar located?
Why do programmers consider the menu bar to be a toolbar?
What does the Project Explorer window display?
What does a tree diagram consist of?
What ways do you know to view the Code window?
Whatis the immediate window used for?
How is the immediate window closed?
не / пока не,код исправление ошибок,клавиша быстрого вызова /
быстрого выбора команд, команда (2 слова), ленточный интерфейс,настраивать / модифицировать,панель инструментов, передвигать / перемещать, по умолчанию, позволять / разрешать, полагать
(3 слова) / считать, полезный, применять, прямо / сразу / непосредственно, пункт / предмет, пустой, различный, связанный, скрыть /
спрятать, строка меню, содержать,хотя / несмотря на.
9.
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
Give the explanations for the following words:
by default
diagram
menu
shortcut
toolbar
workbook
10. Translate the sentences. Pay attention to the Complex Object:
1. A programmer wants this option to protect his formulas from being
overwritten or modified.
2. Worksheet functions enable you to perform calculations or operations that would otherwise be impossible.
3. VBA knows about which workbooks, worksheets, and cells are active and lets you refer to these active objects in a simplified manner.
4. This setting causes the windows toclose automatically when you
collapse a project in the Project window.
5. Over the years, most spreadsheets have enabled users to work with
simple flat database tables.
6. Many analysts expected a product to be more compatible with the
Windows product.
8. Find in the text equivalents of the following words and collocations:
в настоящее время / на данный момент, видеть, где-нибудь,давать
возможность, добавлять, доступный / имеющийся в наличии, если
Text3 (translate without a dictionary)
Using the Editor Format tab
1. align [ə'laɪn] – выравнивать
2. font [fɔnt] – шрифт
Code Colors option: The Code Colors option lets you set the text color
(foreground and background) and the indicator color displayed for various elements of VBA code.
16
17
Choosing these colors is largely a matter of individual preference. For a
user the default colors may be fine. But for a change of scenery, occasionally there is a possibility to play around with these settings.
Font option: The Font option lets you select the font that’s used in your
VBA modules. For best results, stick with a fixed-width font (monofont)
such as Courier New. In a fixed width font, all characters are exactly the
same width. Using fixed-width characters makes your code much more
readable because the characters are nicely aligned vertically and you can
easily distinguish multiple spaces.
Size setting: The Size setting specifies the size of the font in the VBA
modules. This setting is a matter of personal preference determined by
your video display resolution and your eyesight. The default size of 10
(points) works for me.
18
Unit 3
Infinitive, Complex Subject, Comparative Construction,
The functionsof the word ‘one’.
Vocabulary
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
alter ['ɔːltə] –изменять
Boolean value [bʊl'ɪən 'væljuːv] - логическое значение в булевой
алгебре переменные, константы и выражения могут принимать только значения "истина" и "ложь"
cache [kæʃ] – кэш-память
cell [sel]–ячейка
column header ['kɔləm'hedə] – заголовок столбца
constant ['kɔn(t)stənt] –постоянный
consider [kən'sɪdə] –считать
customizable ['kʌstəmaɪzəbl] – настраиваемый
designate ['dezɪgneɪt] – обозначать, определять
drawing layer ['drɔːɪŋ 'leɪə] – графический слой
embedded object [ɪm'bedɪd' ɔbʤɪkt] – встроенный объект
entirely [ɪn'taɪəlɪ] – полностью
expand [ɪk'spænd] – расширять
extension [ɪk'sten(t)ʃ(ə)n] –расширение
external [ɪk'stɜːn(ə)l] – внешний
handy ['hændɪ] – удобный
introduce [ˌɪntrə'djuːs] – вводить, включать
float [fləut] – свободно перемещаться
link [lɪŋk] (v.) – связывать, соединять
offer ['ɔfə] – предлагать
range [reɪnʤ] –ряд
rectangular [rek'tæŋgjələ] – прямоугольный
row [rəu] – ряд
shape [ʃeɪp] – форма, модель, образец, шаблон
simplified ['sɪmplɪfaɪd] –упрощенный
simplify ['sɪmplɪfaɪ] –упрощать
take place [teɪkpleɪs] – происходить
tool [tuːl] – инструмент
variety [və'raɪətɪ] – разнообразие
XLSX – файл с электронной таблицей в Microsoft Excel 2007
19
Text 1
Excel
Excel is considered to be the most commonly used application in the
world for creating charts. It can store charts on a chart sheet or float
them on a worksheet. There is a possibility to create pivot charts. A pivot chartis linked to a pivot table, and a user can view various graphical
summaries of data by using the same techniques used in a pivot table.
The most common Excel object is known to be a workbook. Everything
that a user does in Excel takes place in a workbook, which is stored in a
file that, by default, has an XLSX extension. An Excel workbook can
hold any number of sheets (limited only by memory).
A worksheet cell can hold a constant value or the result of a formula.
The value may be a number, a date, a Boolean value (True or False), or
text. Every worksheet also has an invisible drawing layer, which lets one
insert graphic objects, such as charts, shapes, SmartArt, UserForm controls, pictures, and other embedded objects.
Excel enables to easily draw a wide variety of geometric shapes directly
on a worksheet. The shapes appear to be highly customizable, and a user
can even add text and group objects into a single object, which is easier
to size or position.
A feature introduced in Office 2007 is SmartArt, which is used to create
a wide variety of customizable diagrams.
A rectangular range of data that contains column headers is stated to be
worksheet database. Using a table offers many advantages: an automatic
summary row at the bottom, easy filtering and sorting, auto-fill formulas
in columns, and simplified formatting.
Pivot tables are supposed to be Excel’s most powerful tools. A pivot table is capable of summarizing data in a handy table arranging it in many
ways. In addition, a user manipulates a pivot table entirely by VBA. Data for a pivot table comes from a worksheet database or an external database and is stored in a special cache, which enables Excel to recalculate rapidly after a pivot table is altered.
1. Discuss the following questions:
1.
2.
3.
What is the most commonly used application of Excel?
What the most common object of Excel do you know?
How many sheets can an Excel workbook hold?
20
4.
What elements does a worksheet consist of? What elements can
they hold?
5. What kinds of values are there in a worksheet?
6. What embedded objects does every worksheet have?
7. What feature was introduced in Office 2007? What is the purpose
of SmartArt?
8. What is considered to be worksheet database?
9. What advantages does a table offer?
10. What is the most powerful tool of Excel? What function does it
have?
2. Find in the text equivalents of the following words and collocations: автозаполнение формулы, автоматическое создание сводной строки, в дополнении, внешняя база данных, возможность, графическая
сводка данных, заголовок столбца, любое количество листов, множество преимуществ, настраиваемая диаграмма / график, невидимый графический слой, особенность / характерная черта, постоянное значение, по умолчанию, сводный график / таблица, считать /
думать / полагать (2 слова), широкое разнообразие, упрощенное
форматирование, удобная таблица, ячейка рабочего листа Excel.
3. Find the pairs of synonyms:
1. alter
a.
2.
chart
b.
built in
3.
connect
c.
change
4.
constant
d.
diagram
5.
directly
e.
happen
6.
embedded
f.
link
7.
item
g.
permanent
8.
let
h.
object
9.
take place
i.
watch
j.
straight
10. view
21
allow
4. Translate the sentences. Pay attention to “Complex Subject”:
1. Most copies of Excel are known to be a part of Microsoft Office –
a suite of products that includes a variety of other programs.
2. Users are believed to create a HTML document from an Excel
workbook. The HTML is very bulky, but it’s readableby Web
browsers.
3. Many users are found to ignore chart sheets, preferring to store
charts on the worksheet’s drawing layer.
4. Excel is stated to have manyuseful shortcut keys. For example, a
user can press Ctrl+D to copy a cell to selected cells below it.
5. Excel appears to have some useful auditing capabilities that help to
identify errors or track the logic in an unfamiliar spreadsheet.
6. Excel 2010 worksheets are supposed to have 16,384 columns and
1,048,576 rows.
7. The Quick Access toolbar is assumed to be a place for storing
commonly used commands.
8. Numeric formatting is considered to refer to how a number appears
in the cell.
9. An array formula turned out to perform individual operations on
each cell in a range.
10. The Excel 2010 default file format seems to be an XLSX workbookfile, the program can also openand save a wide variety of other file formats.
Text 2
Testing the application
Testing is one of the most crucial steps; it’snot uncommon to spend as
much time testing and debugging an application as you did creatingthe
application in the first place. After all, whether you’re writing a VBA
routine or creating formulas in aworksheet, you want to make sure that
the application is working the way it’s supposed to work.
Like standard compiled applications, spreadsheet applications that you
develop are prone tobugs. A bugcan be defined as something that does
happen but shouldn’t happen while a program(or application) is running.
In some cases, unfortunately, the problems aren’t entirely your fault.
Excel,too, has its problems.
You may think that a product like Excel, which is used by millions of
people throughout theworld, would be relatively free of bugs. Excel is
22
such a complex piece of softwarethat it is only natural to expect some
problems with it. And Excel doeshave some problems.
It’s commonly known that most major software vendors release their
products with fullknowledge that they contain bugs. Most bugs are considered insignificant enough to pay attention to.
Software companies could postpone their releases by a few months and
fix many of them, butsoftware, like everything else, is ruled by economics. Although Excel definitely has its share of bugs, my guessis that the
majority of Excel users never encounter one.
Some problems occur only with a particular version of Excel — and under aspecific configuration involving hardware and/or software. These
bugs are the worst ones of allbecause they aren’t easily reproducible.
Although you can’t conceivably test for all possibilities, your macros
should be able to handlecommon types of errors. When you gain experience, these types of issues become very familiar, and you account for
them without even thinking.
5.
Discuss the following questions:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
What should you do if you create the application in the first place?
What is the problem of any spreadsheet application?
How can a bug be defined?
Do problems appear only for a programmer’s faults?
What kind of bugs are the worst?
What elements of any program should handle common types of errors?
6. Find in the text equivalents of the following words and collocations:
вариант / редакция, включать / затрагивать / касаться, встречаться /
сталкиваться, дефект / ошибка, доля / часть, достаточно незначительный, думать /считать, запускать программу, исправление ошибок, конкретный / определенный, ожидать, определять, относительно, полностью, склонный / предрасположенный, пренебрегать /
не учитывать, происходить /случаться (2 слова), стандартная программа, решающий шаг, убедиться, управлять / справляться, хотя .
23
7.
Translate the sentences. Pay attention to the Comparative
Structures:
1.
To help make things as comfortable as possible, the VBE provides
quite a few customization options.
The shapes in the last versions are more customizable and they are
easier to size or position than the previous ones.
You can open or create as many workbooks as you like (each in its
own window), but at any given time, only one workbook is the active workbook.
Excel 2007 was perhaps more significant upgrade than the others.
I would like my VBA code to run as quickly as possible.
These items aren’t so useful as developers expected.
In addition to providing names for cells and ranges, you can give
more meaningful names to objects such as pivot tables and shapes.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Translate the sentences. Pay attention to the function of the
word ‘one’.
1.
One possibility is that the formula you entered is the cause of the
error.
One doesn’t be surprised if the project specifications change before
the application is completed. This occurrence is quite common.
Start with a new workbook and delete all the sheets except one.
This step creates a new workbook from an existing one, but gives a
different name to ensure that the old file is not overwritten.
Excel 2010 can still execute most XLM macros, and you can even
create new ones.
One can find that it’s much easier to view and manipulate data in a
spreadsheet than it is using normal database software.
When you undertake a new Excel project, one of your first steps is
to identify exactly what the end users require.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
1.
2.
3.
It’s interesting to stop and think about the actual size of a worksheet. Do
the arithmetic (16,384 × 1,048,576), and you’ll see that a worksheet has
17,179,869,184 cells. Remember that this is in just one worksheet. A
single workbook can hold more than one worksheet.
If you’re using a 1600 x 1200 video mode with the default row heights
and column widths, you can see 24 columns and 49 rows (or 1,176 cells)
at a time — which is about 0.0000068 percent of the entire worksheet.
In other words, more than 14.6 million screens of information reside
within a single worksheet.
If you entered a single digit into each cell at the relatively rapid clip of
one cell per second, it would take you over 500 years, nonstop, to fill up
a worksheet. To print the results of your efforts would require more than
36 million sheets of paper — a stack about 12,000 feet high. (That’s ten
Empire State Buildings stacked on top of each other.)
As you might think, filling an entire workbook with values is impossible. Even if you use the 64-bit version of Excel, you’d soon run out of
memory, and Excel would probably crash.
Rather, multiple worksheets enable you to organize your work better.
Back in the old days, when a file comprised a single worksheet, developers wasted a lot of time trying to organize the worksheet to hold their
information efficiently. Now you can store information on any number
of worksheets and still access it instantly by clicking a sheet tab.
Text 3 (translate without a dictionary)
How big is a worksheet?
clip [klɪp]– быстрое движение
reside [rɪ'zaɪd] – находиться, храниться
stack [stæk] – стопка
24
25
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
Unit 4
Participle, Absolute Participle Construction
Vocabulary
accessible [ək'sesəbl] – доступный
according to [ə'kɔːdɪŋtuː] – согласно
accurate ['ækjərət] – верный, правильный, точный
blank [blæŋk] – пустая ячейка
certain ['sɜːt(ə)n] –определенный
distinct [dɪ'stɪŋkt] – различный
duplicate ['djuːplɪkət] – идентичный, дублировать
entity integrity ['entɪtɪɪn'tegrətɪ] – логическая целостность данных
exist [ɪg'zɪst] – существовать
integrity [ɪn'tegrətɪ] – целостность данных
equate [ɪ'kweɪt] – приравнивать, считать равным
indicate ['ɪndɪkeɪt] –показывать, указывать
involve [ɪn'vɔlv] – состоять
join [ʤɔɪn] – операция слияния, объединения в реляционных
БД
means [miːnz] – средство, способ
missing ['mɪsɪŋ] – недостающий, отсутствующий
particular [pə'tɪkjələ] – определенный, особенный, отдельный
preceding [priː'siːdɪŋ] – предыдущий
present [prɪ'zent] – представлять
prevent [prɪ'vent] – предотвращать, препятствовать
primary key ['praɪm(ə)rɪkiː] – первичныйключ
query ['kwɪərɪ](n.)–запрос
relational database [rɪ'leɪʃ(ə)n(ə)l 'deɪtəbeɪs] – реляционная базаданных
retrieve [rɪ'triːv] – извлекать
null value [nʌl 'væljuː] – пустое значение в пустом поле, в которое не введено значение, пустое значение не участвует в вычислениях, а нулевое участвует
Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) ['ʤɑːvə 'deɪtəbeɪs kɒnektɪ̱ vəti] интерфейс для работы с базами данных
Structured Query Language (SQL) ['strʌktʃəd 'kwɪərɪ 'læŋgwɪʤ] –
язык структурированных запросов
26
Text 1
Database. Integrity Rules
A database is a means of storing information in such a way that information can be retrieved from it. In simplest terms, a relational database
is one that presents information in tables with rows and columns. A table
is referred to as a relation in the sense that it is a collection of objects of
the same type (rows). Data in a table can be related according to common keys or concepts, and the ability to retrieve related data from a table
is the basis for the term relational database. A Database Management
System (DBMS) handles the way data is stored, maintained, and retrieved. In the case of a relational database, a Relational Database Management System performs these tasks. In the case of a relational database, a Relational Database Management System (RDBMS) performs
these tasks. DBMS is a general term that includes RDBMS.
Relational tables follow certain integrity rules to ensure that the data
they contain stay accurate and are always accessible. First, the rows in a
relational table should all be distinct. If there are duplicate rows, there
can be problems resolving which of two possible selections is the correct
one. For most DBMSs, the user can specify that duplicate rows are not
allowed, and if that is done, the DBMS will prevent the addition of any
rows that duplicate an existing row.
A second integrity rule of the traditional relational model is that column
values must not be repeating groups or arrays. A third aspect of data integrity involves the concept of a null value. A database takes care of situations where data may not be available by using a null value to indicate
that a value is missing. It does not equate to a blank or zero. A blank is
considered equal to another blank, a zero is equal to another zero, but
two null values are not considered equal.
When each row in a table is different, it is possible to use one or more
columns to identify a particular row. This unique column or group of
columns is called a primary key. Any column that is part of a primary
key cannot be null; if it were, the primary key containing it would no
longer be a complete identifier. This rule is referred to as entity integrity.
27
5.
1. Discuss the following questions:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
What is the purpose of any database?
How does a relational database present information?
How can data in a table be related to?
What is the basis for the term relational database?
What tasks does a Relational Database Management System perform?
6. Why do relational tables follow certain integrity rules?
7. Why should the rows in a relational table be distinct?
8. What is the second integrity rule of the traditional relational model?
9. What is the point of the concept of a null value?
10. What possibilities are there if each row in a table is different?
11. What is the entity integrity’s rule?
2. Find in the text equivalents of the following words and collocations:
выполнять, добавление, допускать/разрешать, доступный, задача,
извлекать связанные данные, обеспечить, общий ключ, определенный ряд, определять, относиться к, первичный ключ, полный идентификатор, поддерживать/сохранять, правило целостности данных,
предотвращать, равный, разный (2 слова), реляционная база данных, следовать, способность, средство, существующий ряд, такой
же, указывать (обозначать), управлять
3. Translate the sentence. Pay attention to Participles and their
functions:
1. Structured Query Language (SQL) is a language designed to be
used with relational databases.
2. A distinguishing feature of relational databases is that it is possible
to get data from more than one table in what is called a join.
3. A SELECT statement, also called a query, is used to get information from a table.
4. Retrieving data from both tables a user should apply a join, an operation that aims to share common values.
28
6.
We have used only very simple queries in the examples, but as
long as the driver and DBMS support them, you can send very
complicated SQL queries using only the basic JDBC.
The rest of this article looks at how to use features that are more
advanced: prepared statements, stored procedures, and transactions.
4. Translate the sentences. Pay attention to Absolute Participle Construction:
1. SQL commandsare divided into categories, the two main ones being
Data Manipulation Language (DML) commands and Data Definition Language (DDL) commands.
2. A programmer proceeding to insert new values, the query hasn’t
been sent yet.
3. You can also create Web queries to bring in data stored on the Internet, such a query being refreshed, so the data updates as new information is posted.
4. Relational tables following certain integrity rules, the data stay accurate and are always accessible.
5. A worksheet outline is often an excellent way to work with hierarchical data such as budgets, Excel creating an outline (horizontal,
vertical, or both) automatically.
1.
Text 2
Database Management System (DBMS)
concurrency [kən'kʌr(ə)n(t)sɪ] – параллелизм одновременное
(параллельное) выполнение компьютером нескольких операций, совместное использование ресурсов.
A DBMS makes it possible for end users to create, read, update and delete data in a database. The DBMS essentially serves as an interface between the database and end users or application programs, ensuring that
data is consistently organized and remains easily accessible.
The DBMS manages three important things: the data, the database engine that allows data to be accessed, locked and modified – and the database schema, which defines the database’s logical structure. These three
foundational elements help provide concurrency, security,data integrity and uniform administration procedures.
29
The DBMS is perhaps most useful for providing a centralized view of
data that can be accessed by multiple users, from multiple locations, in a
controlled manner. A DBMS can limit what data the end user sees, as
well as how that end user can view the data, providing many views of a
single database schema. End users and software programs are free from
having to understand where the data is physically located or on what
type of storage media it resides because the DBMS handles all requests.
The DBMS can offer both logical and physical data independence. That
means it can protect users and applications from needing to know where
data is stored or having to be concerned about changes to the physical
structure of data (storage and hardware). As long as programs use the
application programming interface (API) for the database that is provided by the DBMS, developers won't have to modify programs just because changes have been made to the database.
One of the biggest advantages of using a DBMS is that it lets end users
and application programmers access and use the same data while managing data integrity. Data is better protected and maintained when it can be
shared using a DBMS instead of creating new iterations of the same data
stored in new files for every new application. The DBMS provides a
central store of data that can be accessed by multiple users in a controlled manner.
тельно,предлагать, преимущество, служить, справляться / управлять, так же как, целостность данных.
7. Give the definition of the following words:
a) access (noun)
b) database
c) hardware
d) interface
e) request
f)
uniform (adjective)
8.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
5. Discuss the following questions:
1. What does the DBMS make possible for end users?
2. What important things does the DBMS manage?
3. Why is the DBMS considered to be most useful for providing a centralized view of data?
4. What does the DBMS offer?
5. What is one of the biggest advantages of using a DBMS?
Translate the sentences. Pay attention to Participles:
After the original database creation, a new data category can be
added without requiring that all existing applications be modified.
Having obtained the required result, we were able to modify the
program.
Being obtained the results of the research were analyzed.
A relational database is a setof tables containing data fitted into
predefined categories.
The necessary data having been obtained, the programmers could
continue their experiment.
When creating a relational database, you can define the domain of
possible values in a data column and further constraints that may
apply to that data value.
6. Find in the text equivalents of the following words and collocations:
безопасность, беспокоиться, быть присущим / свойственным, вид,
вместо / взамен, запрос, обеспечивать, обновлять / дополнять, изменять, как …так, контролируемым образом /способом, легко доступный, местонахождение, многочисленные пользователи, носитель данных / запоминающая среда, ограничивать, одинаковый,
оставаться, параллелизм, повторение, получить доступ, последова-
Text 3 (translate without a dictionary) Join
Sometimes you need to use two or more tables to get the data you want.
For example, suppose the owner of The Coffee Break wants a list of the
coffees he buys from Acme, Inc. This involves information in the COFFEES table as well as the yet-to-be-created SUPPLIERS table. This is a
case where a joinis needed. A join is a database operation that relates
two or more tables by means of values that they share in common. In the
example database, the tables COFFEES and SUPPLIERS both have the
column SUP_ID, which can be used to join them.
Before we go any further, we need to create the table SUPPLIERS and
complete it with values. The following code creates the table SUPPLIERS.
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31
Now that we have the tables COFFEES and SUPPLIERS, we can proceed with the scenario where the owner wants to get a list of the coffees
he buys from a particular supplier. The names of the suppliers are in the
table SUPPLIERS, and the names of the coffees are in the table COFFEES. Since both tables have the column SUP_ID, this column can be
used in a join. It follows that you need some way to distinguish which
SUP_ID column you are referring to. This is done by preceding the column name with the table name, as in "COFFEES.SUP_ID" to indicate
that you mean the column SUP_ID in the table COFFEES. The following code, in which stmt is a Statement object, selects the coffees bought
from Acme, Inc.
Unit 5
Gerund, Phrasal Verbs
Vocabulary
1.accidental [ˌæksɪ'dent(ə)l] – случайный
2. alteration [ˌɔːlt(ə)'reɪʃ(ə)n] – изменение
3.approach [ə'prəuʧ] – подход
4. attribute ['ætrɪbjuːt] – атрибут, свойство
5.behind [bɪ'haɪnd] – в основе
6. both …and [bəuθ ænd] –как то, так и другое
7.call [kɔːl] – вызов (программы, функции, процедуры и т. п.)
8. data item ['deɪtə 'aɪtəm] – элемент данных
9. directly [dɪ'rektlɪ] –непосредственно
10. entity ['entɪtɪ] – логическая категория / логический объект
11. exactly [ɪg'zæktlɪ ]– точно
12. frequency ['friːkwən(t)sɪ] –частота
13. hide [haɪd] v–прятать, скрывать
14. increase [ɪn'kriːs] (v.) –возрастать, увеличивать
15. interact [ˌɪntər'ækt]–взаимодействовать
16. instance variables ['ɪn(t)stən(t)s'veərɪəbls] – данные об объекте /
объектные переменные
17. measure ['meʒə] (v.) – мера, мероприятие
18. member function ['membə 'fʌŋkʃ(ə)n] – метод, функция-член
19. mention ['menʃ(ə)n] – упоминать
20. provide [prə'vaɪd] – обеспечивать
21. refer to [rɪ'fɜː tuː] – относить(ся) к
22. return [rɪ'tɜːn] – возвращать
23. simplify ['sɪmplɪfaɪ] – упростить
24. value ['væljuː] – значение
25. Smalltalk [smɔːltɔːk] – первый объектно-ориентированный язык
сверхвысокого уровня. Характеризуется интерактивным графическим взаимодействием с пользователем.
Text1
The Object-Oriented Approach
The fundamental idea behind object-oriented languages is to combine
into a single unit both data and the functions that operate on that data.
Such a unit is called an object.
32
33
An object’s functions, called member functions in C++, typically provide the only way to access its data. If a user wants to read a data item in
an object, he/she calls a member function in the object. It will access the
data and return the value to a user. One can’t access the data directly.
The data is hidden, so it is safe from accidental alteration. Data and its
functions are said to be encapsulated into a single entity. Data encapsulation and data hiding are key terms in the description of object-oriented
languages.
If a user wants to modify the data in an object, it must be known exactly
what functions interact with it: the member functions in the object. No
other functions can access the data. This simplifies writing, debugging,
and maintaining the program.
A C++ program typically consists of a number of objects, which communicate with each other by calling one another’s member functions.
It should be mentioned that what are called member functions in C++
are called methods in some other object-oriented (OO) languages (such
as Smalltalk, one of the first OO languages). Also, data items are referred to as attributes or instance variables. Calling an object’s member
function is referred to as sending a message to the object. These terms
are not official C++ terminology, but they are used with increasing frequency, especially in object-oriented design.
1. Discuss the following questions:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
What are the elements combined in an object?
What is the purpose of a member function?
What is the safety strategy of the object-oriented languages?
What is a single entity?
Why should a user know what functions interact with data?
How do C++’s objects communicate with each other?
How can you explain calling an object’s member function in other
words?
2. Find in the text equivalents of the following words and collocations:
относить(ся) к, основная идея, свойство, случайный, соединяться,
сразу/непосредственно, поддерживать/сохранять, получать доступ,
ряд объектов, точно, упоминать, упрощать, частота, элемент данных.
3. Find the pairs of the words having similar meanings:
1. accidental
2. approach
3. attribute
4. increasing
5. interact
6. message
a. method
b. influence
c. casual
d. information
e. growth
f. feature
4. Translate the sentences. Pay attention to the forms and the functions of Gerund
1. C is a general-purpose language that can be used for writing any
sort of program.
2. Placing data and functions together into a single entity is the central idea of object–oriented programming
3. One of the benefits of objects is that they give the programmer a
convenient way of constructing new data types.
4. Our goal is to help you begin writing OOP programs as soon as
possible.
5. The instruction continues being done for a while after running the
program.
6. For appreciating what OOP does, we need to understand what
these limitations are and how they arose from traditional programming languages.
7. There are several benefits to be obtained from restricting access to
a data structure to a clearly declared list of functions.
8. The programmer admitted having made some logical mistakes in
the program.
взаимодействовать, возвращать, возрастать/увеличиватьединый логический объект, единственный способ, значение/величина, изменять, ключевой понятие (термин), метод, обеспечивать, объединять,
Text 2
Private and Public
The body of the class contains two main keywords: private and public.
A key feature of object – oriented programming is data hiding. This term
34
35
does not refer to the activities of particularly paranoid programmers; rather it means that data is concealed within a class, so that it cannot be
accessed mistakenly by functions outside the class. The primary mechanism for hiding data is to put it in a class and make it private. Private data or functions can only be accessed from within the class. Public data or
functions, on the other hand, are accessible from outside the class.
Don’t confuse data hiding with the security techniques used to protect
computer databases. For providing a security measure you might, for example, require a user to supply a password before granting access to a
database. The password is meant to keep unauthorized or malevolent users from altering (or often even reading) the data.
Data hiding, on the other hand, means hiding data from parts of the program that don’t need to access it. More specifically, one class’s data is
hidden from other classes. Data hiding is designed to protect well–
intentioned programmers from honest mistakes. Programmers who really want to can figure out a way to access private data, but they will find
it hard to do so by accident.
Usually the data within a class is private and the functions are public.
This is a result of how classes are used. The data is hidden so it will be
safe from accidental manipulation, while the functions that operate on
the data are public so they can be accessed from outside the class. However, there is no rule that data must be private and functions public; in
some circumstances you may find you’ll need to use private functions
and public data.
но, особенность / характерная черта, непреднамеренная ошибка,
приватный, скрывать / прятать (2 слова), со злым умыслом / преднамеренный, при некоторых условиях/ обстоятельствах, случайно /
непреднамеренно, случайный, технология обеспечения защиты ,
требовать.
7. Give the definition of the following words:
1. accidental
2. encapsulation
3. figure out
4. password
5. security measure
вычислить / понять, защищать, значить, неавторизованный / неразрешённый,меры безопасности, общедоступный /открытый, особен-
8. Translate the sentences. Pay attention to the meanings Phrasal
Verbs (carry out, go on, figure out, lead to, look for, result in,
break into).
1. A computer programmer figures out the process of designing, writing, testing, debugging and maintaining the source code of computer programs.
2. The central processing unit (CPU), also called a processor, is located inside the computer case on the motherboard. It is sometimes
called the brain of the computer, and its job is to carry out commands. 3. A programmer has tried to look for the shortest way of retrieving
the data many times.
4. The processing was going on to implement when power was off.
5. The question of who invented the computer cannot be answered
with a single name. Throughout history, many different people
have created devices that helped to lead to development of this
valuable machine.
6. The idea of breaking a program into functions can be further extended by grouping a number of functions together into a larger entity called a module, but the principle is similar: a grouping of
components that carries out specific tasks.
7. A change made in a global data item may result in rewriting all the
functions that access that item.
8. Usually a single instruction, which is written in a high-level language, when it is turned into machine code, results in several instructions.
36
37
5. Discuss the following questions:
1.What keywords does the body of the class contain?
2. Why is the data concealed within the class?
3. What is the primary mechanism for hiding data?
4. How can private data or functions be accessed?
5. How can public data or functions be accessed?
6. What is the purpose of using data hiding with the security techniques?
6. Find in the text equivalents of the following words and collocations:
Text 3 (translate without a dictionary)
What does a Computer Programmer do?
A computer programmer, or coder, is someone who writes computer
software. The term computer programmer can refer to a specialist in one
area of computer programming or to a generalist who writes code for
many kinds of software.
One who practices or professes a formal approach to programming may
also be known as a programmer analyst. The term programmer can be
used to refer to a software developer, software engineer, computer scientist, or software analyst. However, members of these professions typically possess other software engineering skills beyond programming.
The discipline differs from many other technical professions in that a
programmer, in general, does not need to be licensed or pass any standardized (or governmentally regulated) certification tests in order to call
themselves a "programmer" or even a "software engineer."
A computer programmer figures out the process of designing, writing,
testing, debugging/troubles hooting and maintaining the source code of
computer programs. This source code is written in a programming language so the computer can 'understand' it. The code may be a modification of an existing source or something completely new.
A programmer will also use libraries of basic code that can be modified
or customized for a specific application. This approach leads to more reliable and consistent programs and increases programmers' productivity
by eliminating some routine steps. The programmer will also be responsible for maintaining the program’s health.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
Unit 6
Subject and Predicate, -“ing”- ending
Vocabulary
according to [ə'kɔːdɪŋtuː] – в соответствии, согласно
approach [ə'prəuʧ] – подход
attempt [ə'tempt] (v.) – стремиться, пытаться
ability [ə'bɪlətɪ] – способность
correspond [ˌkɔrɪ'spɔnd] – соответствовать
emphasize ['emfəsaɪz] –подчёркивать, акцентировать(ся)
enhancement [ɪn'hɑːn(t)smənt] – модернизация, расширение
(возможностей программных средств)
essential [ɪ'sen(t)ʃ(ə)l] – важный, основной
executive [ɪg'zekjutɪv] – руководитель
extend [ɪk'stend] – расширять
fit [fɪt] (v.) – приспосабливать
fractional part ['frækʃ(ə)n(ə)l pɑːt] – дробная часть (числа)
generic [ʤɪ'nerɪk] –универсальный, типовой, стандартный
integer ['ɪntɪʤə] –целоечисло
involve [ɪn'vɔlv] –включать, содержать
merge [mɜːʤ] – соединять
registry ['reʤɪstrɪ] –реестр
represent[ˌreprɪ'zent] –представлять, показывать
salary ['sæl(ə)rɪ] –зарплата
string[strɪŋ] – ряд, последовательность
template['templeɪt] – шаблон, образец
unlike [ʌn'laɪk] – в отличие
whereas[weə'ræz] – тогда как; несмотря на то, что
Text 1
C++
C++ joins three separate programming traditions: the procedural language tradition, represented by C; the object-oriented language tradition,
represented by the class enhancements C++ adds to C; and generic programming, supported by C++ templates.
Unlike procedural programming, which emphasizes algorithms, OOP
emphasizes the data rather than tries to fit a problem to the procedural
approach of a language, OOP attempts to fit the language to the prob38
39
lem. The idea is to design data forms that correspond to the essential features of a problem.
In C++, a class is a specification describing such a new data form, and
an object is a particular data structure constructed according to that plan.
For example, a class could describe the general properties of a corporation executive (name, title, salary, unusual abilities, for example), while
an object would represent a specific executive (Guilford Sheepblat, vice
president, $325,000, knows how to restore the Windows registry). In
general, a class defines what data is used to represent an object and the
operations that can be performed on that data.
Generic programming is another programming paradigm supported by
C++. It shares with OOP the aim of making it simpler to reuse code and
the technique of abstracting general concepts.
But whereas OOP emphasizes the data aspect of programming, generic
programming emphasizes the algorithmic aspect. And its focus is different. OOP is a tool for managing large projects, whereas generic programming provides tools for performing common tasks, such as
sorting data or merging lists.
C++ data representations come in many types—integers, numbers with
fractional parts, characters, strings of characters, and user-defined compound structures of several types. If, for example, you wanted to sort data of these various types, you would normally have to create a
separate sorting function for each type. Generic programming involves
extending the language so that you can write a function for a generic
(that is, not specified) type once and use it for a variety of actual types.
C++ templates provide a mechanism for doing that.
1.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Discuss the following questions:
What programming traditions does C++ join?
What does OOP emphasize and attempt to do?
What are a class and an object in C++?
What does the C++’s class define?
What does generic programming share with OOP?
What aspect does generic programming emphasize unlike OOP?
What type of tasks does generic programming provide?
What type of data can be represented in C++?
What advantage does generic programming have over another programming technique?
40
2. Find the in the text equivalents of the following words and collocations:
включать в себя, дробная часть, в соответствии, зарплата, иметь
что-либо общее / объединять, инструмент, модернизация, несколько, общий (2 слова), основной / важный, слияние списка, описывать, особенный, отдельный / особый, поддерживать / обеспечивать
(2 слова), подход, присоединять / добавлять, приспосабливать,
представлять, разнообразие, расширение, ряд / последовательность,
свойство, символ, соответствовать, составной, типовой / универсальный, управлять, шаблон, целое число, цель
3. Find in the text the corresponding terms for following definitions:
1. A whole number that can be positive, negative, or zero.
2. A group of characters used in a computer program and treated as a
single unit.
3. This language has object-oriented and generic programming features,
while also providing facilities for low-level memory manipulation.
4. This approach permits writing common functions or types that differ
only in the set of types on which they operate, thus reducing duplication.
5. The basic unit of this programming language is a class, which encapsulates both the static attributes and dynamic behaviors within a
"box", and specifies the public interface for using these boxes.
6. A computer file that copies are made from because its basic form can
be used again and again (template).
7. An idea that is not related to real situation or practical experience.
4.
1.
2.
3.
Translate the sentences. Pay attention to Subject and Predicate
in each sentence.
Designing a useful, reliable class can be a difficult task.
If you can recompile the program without making changes and it
runs without a hitch, we say the program is portable.
C is able to produce compact, fast-running programs, along with
the ability to address hardware matters, such as managing communication ports and disk drives.
41
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
If you were developing acomputer drawing program capable of
drawing a rectangle, you could define a class to describe a rectangle.
Making the syntax uniform simplified template design.
More recently, the C Standard has been revised; the new standard,
often called C99, was adopted by the ISO in 1999 and ANSI in
2000.
The compiler is included in most Linux distributions, but it may
not always be installed.
As C++ has developed and grown in popularity, more and more
implementers have turned to creating C++ compilers that generate
object code directly from C++ source code.
Text 2
Like C, C++ began its life at Bell Labs, where Bjarne Stroustrup developed the language in theearly 1980s. In Stroustrup’s own words, “C++
was designed primarily so that my friends and Iwould not have to program in assembler, C, or various modern high-level languages. Its mainpurpose was to make writing good programs easier and more pleasant
for the individual programmer”. Stroustrup was more concerned with
making C++ useful than with enforcing particular programmingphilosophies or styles. Real programming needs are more important than theoreticalpurity in determining C++ language features. Stroustrup based
C++ on C because of C’sbrevity, its suitability to system programming,
its widespread availability, and its close ties to the Unix operating system. C++’s OOP aspect was inspired by a computer simulation languagecalled Simula67. Stroustrup added OOP features and generic programming support to C without significantly changing the C components. Thus C++ is a superset of C, meaning that anyvalid C program is
a valid C++ program, too. There are some minor discrepancies, but nothingcrucial. C++ programs can use existing C software libraries. Libraries
are collections of programmingmodules that you can call up from a program. They provide proven solutions to many common programming
problems, thus saving you much time and effort. This has helped the
spread of C++.
A computer program translates a real-life problem into a series of actions to be taken by acomputer. While the OOP aspect of C++ gives the
language the ability to relate to conceptsinvolved in the problem, the C
42
part of C++ gives the language the ability to get close to thehardware.
This combination of abilities has enabled the spread of C++. It may also
involve a mental shift of gears as you turn from one aspect of a program
to another.
5.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Discuss the following questions:
When was C++developed and who is the developer of C++?
What’s the primarily purpose of C++ designing?
What features of C program did Stroustrup use while developing
C++?
What did Stroustrup add to C language?
What are C++’s Libraries?
What do Libraries provide?
What does the OOP aspect of C++ give?
What does the C part of C++ give?
6. Find in the text equivalents of the following words and collocations:
безупречность, близкая связь, быть связанным, давать возможность, доступность, заниматься, значительно, значить, интересоваться, компьютерное моделирование, конкретный / особый, краткость, незначительный определение, осуществлять, отдельный,
первоначально / в основном, поддерживать, пригодность, проверенное решение, различный, распространение, расширенная версия,
собственный, современный, соответствие, способность, существующий, универсальное программирование, характерная черта, широко распространенный, экономить
7.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
Give the definitions of the following words:
enable
library
purity
solution
spread (noun)
43
8.
9.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Find the words that have similar meanings:
1. brevity
a. all-purpose
2. discrepancy
b. decision
3. inspire
c. difference
4. generic
d. efficient
5. minor
e. encourage
6. primarily
f. insignificant
7. solution
g. originally
8. valid
h. shortness
Translate the sentences. Pay attention to words with “ing”–
ending.
The CLR(Common Language Runtime) is a standardized environment for the execution of programs written in a wide range of
high-level languages including Visual Basic, C#, and C++.
An alternative to using template parameters is to apply template
member functions in conjunction with simple classes.
While you’re learning C++, you’ll be able to concentrate on the
language features without worrying about the environment in
which you’re operating.
Having a standardized type system for representing data allows
components written in different programming to handle data in a
uniform way and makes it possible to integrate components written
in different languages into a single application.
This means that while you are learning C++, you’ll be working
with programs that involve command line input and output.
Typically, you must create a project for a program and add to the
project the file or files constituting the program.
Attributes can affect how your code behaves at run time by modifying the way the code is compiled or by causing extra code to be
generated that supports additional capabilities.
All the objects that you have been using up to now have been destroyed automatically by the default destructor for the class.
er languages have evolved so that it’s easier to manage the programming
process. The C language incorporated features such as control structures
and functions to better control the flow of a program and to enable a
more structured, modular approach. To these tools C++ adds support for
object-oriented programming and generic programming. This enables
even more modularity and facilitates the creation of reusable code,
which saves time and increases program reliability.
The popularity of C++ has resulted in a large number of implementations for many computing platform.
The Standard establishes the features the language should have, the behavior the language should display, and a standard library of functions,
classes, and templates.
The Standard supports the goal of a portable language across different
computing platforms and different implementations of the language.
To create a C++ program, you create one or more source files containing
the program as expressed in the C++ language. These are text files that
must be compiled and linked to produce the machine-language files that
constitute executable programs. These tasks are often accomplished in
an IDE that provides a text editor for creating the source files, a compiler and a linker for producing executable files, and other resources, such
as project management and debugging capabilities.
Text 3 (translate without a dictionary)
Linker – компоновщик
As computers have grown more powerful, computer programs have become larger and more complex. In response to these conditions, comput44
45
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
Unit 7
Subjunctive Mood, Conditional Sentences
Vocabulary
achieve [ə'ʧiːv] –добиваться, достигать
attempt [ə'tempt] (v.) – пытаться; (n) – попытка
bytecode ['baɪtkəud] – байт-код (машинно-независимый код,
генерируемый Java-компилятором)
compatible [kəm'pætəbl] – совместимый, сочетаемый
derive [dɪ'raɪv] – происходить
descend [dɪ'send] – происходить
drive [draɪv] – побуждать, стимулировать
effort ['efət] – усилие, попытка
embed [ɪm'bed] – встраивать, вставлять
emerge [ɪ'mɜːʤ] – появляться; появление
encounter [ɪn'kauntə] – столкнуться
environment [ɪn'vaɪər(ə)nmənt] –окружение, среда
executable ['eksɪkjuːtəbl] – исполняемый, выполняемый
intermediate [ˌɪntə'miːdɪət] – промежуточный, вспомогательный
issue ['ɪsjuː] (n.) – проблема
mention ['menʃ(ə)n] – упоминать
originally [ə'rɪʤ(ə)n(ə)lɪ] – первоначально
pool [puːl] – ресурс (здесь)
portability [ˌpɔːtə'bɪlətɪ] – переносимость, мобильность, возможность использования на разных аппаратных платформах
prior ['praɪə] – предшествующий
sufficient [sə'fɪʃ(ə)nt] – достаточный
sufficiently [sə'fɪʃ(ə)ntlɪ] – достаточно; полностью, совершенно
target ['tɑːgɪt] (v.) – предназначать
tie [taɪ] (v.) – соединять, связывать
JMS (JavaMassageService) – интерфейс программного приложения, используемое для отправления сообщений
JVM (JavaVirtualMachine) – интерпретатор байтового кода java-программ
Sun Microsystems, Inc. is a wholly owned subsidiary of Oracle
Corporation. Oracle Corporation, an enterprise software company,
engages in the development, manufacture, distribution, servicing,
and marketing of database, and application software worldwide.
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Text 1
The Internet and Java Emerge
The next major advance in programming languages is Java. Work on Java, which was originally called Oak, began in 1991 at Sun Microsystems.
Java is a structured, object-oriented language with a syntax and philosophy derived from C++. The innovative aspects of Java were driven not
so much by advances in the art of programming, but rather by changes in
the computing environment. Prior to the Internet, most programs were
written, compiled, and targeted for a specific CPU and a specific operating system.
However, with the rise of the Internet, in which many different types of
CPUs and operating systems are connected, the old problem of portability reemerged. To solve the problem of portability, a new language was
needed, and this new language was Java.
In 1993, it became clear that the issues of cross-platform portability
found when creating code for embedded controllers are also encountered
when attempting to create code for the Internet.
Java achieved portability by translating a program’s source code into an
intermediate language called bytecode.This bytecode was then executed
by the Java Virtual Machine (JVM). Therefore, a Java program could
run in any environment for which a JVM was available.
Java’s use of bytecode differed radically from both C and C++, which
were nearly always compiled to executable machine code. Machine code
is tied to a specific CPU and operating system. Thus, if you wanted to
run a C/C++ program on a different system, it needed to be recompiled
to machine code specifically for that environment. Therefore, to create a
C/C++ program that would run in a variety of environments, several different executable versions of the program would be needed. Not only
was this impractical, it was expensive. Java’s use of an intermediate language was an elegant, cost-effective solution. As mentioned, Java is descended from C and C++. Its syntax is based on C, and its object model
is evolved from C++. Although Java code is neither upwardly nor
downwardly compatible with C or C++, its syntax is sufficiently similar
that the large pool of existing C/C++ programmers could move to Java
with very little effort.
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5.
1.
Discuss the following questions:
1.
2.
3.
What is Java?
What are its innovative aspects driven?
Why did the problem of portability reemerge with the rise of the
Internet?
How did Java achieve portability?
Where could a Java program run?
What is the disadvantage of C/C++ codes comparing to Java
bytecode?
What features do C, C++, Java codes have in common?
4.
5.
6.
7.
2. Find the equivalents of the following words and collocations:
вверху, внизу, встроенный регулятор, достаточно, достигать, достижение / продвижение, доступный, запускать (программу), исходный код, начало (появление), ни … ни …, компьютерная / вычислительная среда, однако, основное направление/ тенденция,
особый, отличаться, похожий / подобный, предназначать, нацеливать, прежний / предшествующий, прибыльное ресурс, проблема,
происходить (2 слова), процессор, развиваться, разнообразие, решение, решить проблему, совместимый / сочетаемый, совместимый
с несколькими операционными средами, сталкиваться / встречаться, существующий, упоминать, усилие, хотя / несмотря на.
6.
7.
8.
4.
1.
2.
3.
4.
3.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Find in the text corresponding terms for following definitions:
It is an abstract machine that enables a computer to run a Java
program.
It refers to the ability to run a program on different machines.
Programming code that, once compiled, is run through a virtual
machine instead of the computer's processor. By using this approach, source code can be run on any platform once it has been
compiled and run through the virtual machine.
It refers to the spelling and grammar of a programming language.
Computers are inflexible machines that understand what you type
only if you type it in the exact form that the computer expects. The
expected form is called …. .
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5.
6.
It is the brains of the computer where most calculations take place.
In terms of computing power, this unit is the most important element of a computer system.
Itperforms basic tasks, such as recognizing input from
the keyboard, sending outputto the display screen, keeping track of
files and directories on the disk, controlling peripheral devices
such as disk drives and printers.
A mechanism for information dissemination and a medium for collaboration and interaction between individuals and their computers
without regard for geographic location.
In computers, this term usually refers to the combination of hardware and software in a computer.
Translate the text. Pay attention to Subjunctive Mood.
Although earlier languages, such as C and C++, could be used to
access the Internet, the process was not as streamlined as most
programmers would like.
In a non-object-oriented language, you would be required to create
three different sets of stack routines, with each set using different
names.
Although the single most important aspect of Java is its ability to
create cross-platform, portable code, it is interesting to note that
the original impetus for Java was not the Internet, but rather the
need for a platform independent language that could be used to
create software for embedded controllers.
In practice, it would be better to make this operation more failsafe
by checking the JMS.
We assumed that JMS clients would communicate with each other
using established topics on which messages are asynchronously
produced and consumed.
However, if a message needs to be redelivered due to some failure,
it is possible that it could be delivered to another receiver.
Text 2
C#
C# is a general-purpose, type-safe, object-oriented programming language. The goal of the language is programmer productivity. The chief
architect of the language since its first version is Anders Hejlsberg (creator of Turbo Pascal and architect of Delphi).
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The C# language is platform-neutral, but it was written to work well
with the Microsoft .NET Framework.
C# is a rich implementation of the object-orientation paradigm, which
includes encapsulation, inheritance, and polymorphism. Encapsulation
means creating a boundary around an object, to separate its external
(public) behavior from its internal(private) implementation details. The
distinctive features of C# from an object oriented perspective are:
The fundamental building block in C# is an encapsulated unit of data
and functions called a type. C# has a unified type system, where all
types share a common base type. In a traditional object-oriented paradigm, the only kind of type is a class. In C#, there are several other kinds
of types, one of which is an interface. An interface is like a class, except
that it only describes members. Interfaces will be particularly useful if
multiple inheritances are required.
In the pure object-oriented paradigm, all functions are methods. In C#,
methods are only one kind of function member, which also includes
properties and events. Properties are function members that encapsulate
a piece of an object’s state, such as a button’s color or a label’s text.
Events are function members that simplify object state changes.
C# is primarily a type-safe language, meaning that instances of types can
interact only through protocols they define, thereby ensuring each type’s
internal consistency.
For instance, C# wouldn’t prevent you from interacting with a string
type if it wasn’t an integer type. More specifically, C# supports static
typing, meaning that the language enforces type safety at compile time.
This is in addition to type safety being enforced at runtime.
Static typing eliminates a large class of errors before a program is even
run. It shifts the burden away from runtime unit tests onto the compiler
to verify that all the types in a program fit together correctly. If C#
hadn’t implemented this, it wouldn’t have made large programs much
easier tomanage, more predictable, and more robust.
6. What features does interface have?
7. What does a function member include?
8. What is a type-safe language?
9. How does C# support static typing?
10. What are advantages of static typing?
6. Find the equivalents of the following words and collocations:
более конкретно, в дополнение к, внешний, внутренний, гарантировать / обеспечивать, граница, единообразный, запускать программу, значить / подразумевать, исключать, кнопка, кроме, за исключением, надежный, например, наследование, несколько, особенно полезный, осуществлять / выполнять (2 слова), определять,
отделять, отличительный, первоначально, поведение, поддерживать, подходить / соответствовать, предсказуемый, предотвращать /
препятствовать, признак / свойство (2 слова), проверять / контролировать, реализация / выполнение, смещать, событие, согласованность / соответствие, состояние, статический контроль типов, строковый тип данных, требовать / нуждаться, универсальный, упрощать, целочисленный тип (данных), цель, элемент /член, экземпляр
/ пример.
7. Find in the text words that have similar meanings to the following
word:
1. realization
2. specifically
3. remove
4.identify
5. reliable
6. aim
7. check
8. to make something easier to understand
8. Translate the sentences. Pay attention to Conditional Sentences:
5. Discuss the following questions:
1. What’s the goal of C#?
2. Who is its creator?
3. Which platform is it written to work well with?
4. What aspects does C# include?
5. What does encapsulation mean? What fundamental building block
does C# have?
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1.
2.
3.
If you wanted to display large amounts of text, you could use advanced document display features to improve readability.
If you had reduced the screen size, the button would have appeared
proportionately larger.
If you know Java, then many C# concepts will be familiar.
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4.
If once a block of code had been created, it would have become a
logical unit that could be used in any place of the program.
5. If you attempt to compile this code, you will see an error message.
6. C# is case-sensitive. Forgetting this can cause serious problems.
For example, if you accidentally type main instead of Main, or
writeline instead of WriteLine, the preceding program will be incorrect.
7. If you set the handled flag in both events, tooltips will no longer be
shown or hidden automatically.
8. If you typed something wrong, the compiler would report a syntax
error message while compiling your program.
9. If C#’s default type is not what you want for a literal, you can explicitly specify its type by including a suffix.
10. If its container hadn’t had enough room, part of the text box would
have been clipped.
guages, and routed through different protocols. And, of course, it has to
do this without losing money, which means preventing system
crashes and being highly available and secure. Enterprise applications
have to face change and complexity, and be robust. That’s precisely why
Java Enterprise Edition (Java EE) was created.
Text 3 (translate without a dictionary)
Java’s Creation
1. robust [rə'bʌst] – трудоемкий
In today’s business world, applications need to access data, apply business logic, add presentation layers, and communicate with external systems. That’s what companies are trying to achieve while minimizing
costs, using standard and robust technologies that can handle heavy
loads.
Enterprises today live in a global competitive world. They need applications to fulfill their business needs, which are getting more and more
complex. In this age of globalization, companies are distributed
over continents, they do business 24/7 over the Internet and across different countries, and their systems have to be internationalized and ready
to deal with different currencies and time zones. All that
while reducing their costs, lowering the response times of their services,
storing business data on reliable and safe storage, and offering several
graphical user interfaces to their customers, employees, and suppliers.
Most companies have to combine these innovative challenges with their
existing Enterprise Information Systems (EIS) while at the same time
developing business-to-business applications to communicate with partners. It is also not rare for a company to have to coordinate in-house data
stored in different locations, processed by multiple programming lan52
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1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
Unit 8
Predicate, Participle
Vocabulary
arbitrary ['ɑːbɪtr(ə)rɪ] – произвольный, случайный
authenticity [ˌɔːθen'tɪsətɪ] – подлинность
block cipher [blɔk 'saɪfə] – блочный шрифт
chunk [ʧʌŋk] – кусок программы, порция
credentials [krɪ'den(t)ʃ(ə)ls] – учетная запись с параметрами доступа пользователя
cryptography [krɪpˈtɒɡrəfi] – криптография , шифрование
decipher [dɪ'saɪfə] – расшифровывать
dictionary attac ['dɪkʃ(ə)n(ə)rɪ ə'tæʧ] –метод перебора по словарю
encipher [ɪn'saɪfə ] –кодировать, зашифровывать
encrypted [ɪn'k rɪptɪt] – зашифрованный
hashed version [hæʃt 'vɜːʃ(ə)n] – хешированная версия, т.е. информация разделена на части, которые при шифровании перепутаны между собой
incur [ɪn'kɜː] – подвергаться, вытекать
intercept [ˌɪntə'sept] – перехватывать
initialization vector [ɪˌnɪʃ(ə)laɪ'zeɪʃ(ə)n 'vektə] – инициализирующий вектор в криптографии – блок данных, длина которого
равна длине блока, выбранной для работы блочного шифра.
Инициализирующий вектор добавляется к первому блоку данных при шифровании в режиме сцепления блоков шифротекста
keystream [kiː striːm] – ключевой поток
one-time pad [wʌn taɪm pæd] – одноразовый код
output ['autput] (v.) – выводить данные; (n.) – выходные данные
plain text [pleɪn tekst] –нешифрованный текст
recipient [rɪ'sɪpɪənt] – получатель информации
sequential [sɪ'kwen(t)ʃ(ə)l] – последовательный
snag [snæg] – недостаток
stream cipher [striːm 'saɪfə] –поточный / потоковый шрифт
substitution [ˌsʌbstɪ'tjuːʃ(ə)n] – замена, замещение
substitution cipher [ˌsʌbstɪ'tjuːʃ(ə)n 'saɪfə] – подстановочный
шифр
straightforward [ˌstreɪt'fɔːwəd] – простой
tamper ['tæmpə] – подделывать
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27. unauthorized party [ʌn'ɔːθ(ə)raɪzd 'pɑːtɪ] – неавторизированная
сторона
28. validation [ˌvælɪ'deɪʃ(ə)n] – контроль, проверка данных
29. vulnerable ['vʌln(ə)rəbl] – уязвимый
30. XOR–логическая операция, по своему применению максимально приближенная к грамматической конструкции «либо…либо…»; алгоритм шифрования; шифровать
Text 1
Cryptography. Types of Algorithms
Part 1
Cryptography is the ancient art of encoding a message so that it cannot
be read by an unauthorized party. In its simplest form, a cryptographic
cipher could involve encoding a message by substituting one character
with another. If both the creator and the recipient of the enciphered message have an identical list of substitute characters (known as a “key”),
the message will easily be enciphered and deciphered. This methodology
is known as a substitution cipher, and was being used long before anybody ever dreamed of electricity, never mind computers.
Symmetric Encryption
This is the most common and straightforward type of encryption. Both
the creator and the recipient of a message share a secret key that they use
to encipher and decipher the message.
Common sense suggests that a simple plain-text key is vulnerable to dictionary attacks. One way of avoiding this vulnerability is to use a hashed
version of the key to encrypt and decrypt the message.
There are two kinds of symmetric algorithms; block ciphers and stream
ciphers. A block cipher will take, for example, a 256-bit block of plain
text and output a 256-bit block of encrypted text. The cipher works on
blocks of a fixed length, usually 64 or 128 bits at a time, depending on
the algorithm. If the unencrypted message is greater than the required
length, the algorithm will break it down into 64 or 128-bit chunks.
There is an obvious snag to this approach. If each chunk is XORed with
the previous chunk, then what will the first chunk be XORed with? An
initialization vector, commonly known as an IV, is an arbitrary chunk of
bytes that is used to XOR the first chunk of bytes in the unencrypted
message.
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A stream cipher, on the other hand, generates a pseudorandom “keystream”, similar in concept to the one-time pads used by intelligence officers during World War II. A stream cipher algorithm works on small
chunks of bits of indeterminate length, XORing them with bits from the
keystream instead of with previous chunks of the message.
From a security perspective, stream ciphers generally perform much
faster, and are less resource intensive than block ciphers, but are far
more vulnerable to attack.
3.
Find the pairs of the opposites:
1.
arbitrary
a.
cipher text
2.
encipher
b.
decrypted
3.
fixed
c.
intended
4.
indeterminate
d.
secure
1.
Discuss the following questions:
5.
plain text
e.
subsequent
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
What is cryptography?
What could a cryptographic cipher involve?
Describe a methodology known as a substitution cipher.
What is the most common and straightforward type of encryption?
What way of avoiding this vulnerability is mentioned in the text?
What kinds of symmetric algorithms do you know?
How does a block cipher work?
What is an obvious snag of a block cipher?
How does a stream cipher work?
What are advantages and disadvantages of a stream cipher?
6.
previous
f.
precise
7.
recipient
g.
sender
8.
vulnerable
h.
variable
4.
Translate the sentences. Pay attention to Predicates:
1.
Another popular use case for hashing is to validate the authenticity
of software downloads.
A cipher text is unreadable until it has been converted into plain
text with a key.
Of course, anybody who has a copy of the book and is able to intercept the message can simply try every key until one of them
works.
Therefore, we have to handle these arbitrary chunks ourselves.
He has created CryptoHelper as a static class that can encrypt/decrypt either strings or files using the symmetric or asymmetric algorithms.
Typically, a one-time key is derived from some peripheral factor
known to both parties, such as a sequential message number, or the
date on which the message was sent.
Broadly speaking, we will be dealing with three types of algorithms.
The intention of this article was to provide an introduction to the
world of Cryptography and remove some of the mystery surrounding it.
2.
2. Find in the text equivalents of the following words and collocations: Метод перебора по словарю, неавторизированный, незашифрованный криптографический ключ, одинаковый, одноразовый код, очевидный, перехватывать, подстановочный шифр, подобный, подход,
получатель информации, потоковый шрифт, предыдущий, псевдослучайный, расшифровывать (2 слова), произвольный / случайный,
с другой стороны, секретный ключ, сообщение, список символов,
требуемая длина, уязвимый, шифровать (2 слова), шифрование, хешированная версия.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
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57
Text 2
Types of Algorithms.
Part 2
Asymmetric Encryption
With a symmetric cipher, both parties share a common key. Asymmetric
encryption, on the other hand, requires two separate keys that are mathematically related. One of the keys is shared by both parties, and can be
made public. This is known, appropriately, as a public key. The other
key is kept secret by one of the two parties, and is therefore called a private key. The combination of public and private keyis described as a
“key pair”.
Consider the following example. Somebody (a creator) wants to send a
secure message to a recipient. He encrypts the message using recipient’s
public key. This means it must be decrypted using recipient’s private
key, which only the last person knows. The combination of recipient’s
public key and private key constitutes the key pair.
Conversely, it is also possible for the creator to encipher his message using his private key and the recipient has to know creator’s public key to
decipher. This is a less desirable approach from a security perspective,
as an attacker could intercept the enciphered message and, knowing that
a sender was the creator, decipher it using his public key.
The advantage of asymmetric encryption is that it does not require both
parties to share a key. The disadvantage is that it incurs a significant performance overhead, and is therefore recommended for use only with
short messages.
One-Way Hashing
As the name implies, a one-way hash is non-reversible. Hashes are generally used for information validation.
For instance, imagine that you have a database populated with user
passwords. You may not want to store them in plain text, but you still
need a way of authenticating a user who enters his credentials into a login form. So, you store the password in hashed format. When the user enters his password in plain text, you can hash it and compare the value to
the hashed password stored in the database.
As you can see, there is no key involved in creating a hashed value. A
hashing algorithm always generates the same value from a plain text input, but the original message can never be determined from a hash.
Another popular use case for hashing is to validate the authenticity of
software downloads. After a file is downloaded, the user generates a
hash of the file using an MD5 algorithm, and the hash is then compared
to a publicly available value to ensure that the file has not been tampered
with.
5. Discuss the following questions:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
What is the key feature of asymmetric encryption?
What are a private key and a public key?
What combination is described as a “key pair”?
Who is a recipient?
What are the main advantage and the disadvantage of asymmetric
encryption?
Why is one-way hashing called so?
What are hashes used for?
How does a hashed password work?
What cases are hashing applied in?
6. Find in the text equivalents of the following words and collocations:
база данных, быть связанным, взломать, гарантировать / обеспечивать, доступный, загружать / скачивать, закодированное (защищенное) сообщение, закодировать, значение, значительный, значение
хеш-функции, контроль / проверка данных, криптографическая пара, недостаток, незашифрованный текст, общий ключ, односторонний, открытый ключ, отправитель, параметры доступа / учетная запись, перехватить (сообщение), подделывать, подлинность, преимущество, расшифровывать, с точки зрения безопасности, секретный ключ, симметричныйшифр, следовательно, составлять, сравнивать, требовать, отдельный, хранить / сохранять.
7. Translate the sentences. Pay attention to the Participles’ Functions.
58
59
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Typically, a one-time key is derived from some peripheral factor
known to both parties, such as a sequential message number, or the
date on which the message was sent.
Of course, anybody having a copy of the book and wanting to intercept the message can simply try every key until one of them
works.
There is a strong argument to suggest that the evolution of modern
computing has been partly driven by the need of governments and
intelligence agencies to create, intercept, and decode enciphered
messages.
The most famous cryptography tale of all involved a mechanical
rotor machine called Enigma, which the Germans invented for the
generation of secure messages.
When deciding what kind of cipher to use in your application, you
must carefully weigh the sensitivity of the data you wish to protect
against the impact of performance degradation with more sophisticated encryption algorithms.
We have barely scratched the surface of Cryptography in this article, but thanks to the abstraction provided by .NET, the CryptoHelper class will suffice for about 95% of any developer’s cryptographic needs.
The same rule applies when decrypting, although the length of an
RSA-enciphered stream is always divisible by 128, which makes
life a little easier, since we don’t have to worry about the modular.
I chose the simplest approach for this exercise, auto-generating a
key pair using the framework’s default options. The key pair is
then saved to disk, where it can be reused.
end up with a weak key. This is exactly what happened to one of the early versions of the Netscape browser .
The measure for randomness is called entropy . Here’s the high-level
idea. If you have a 32-bit word that is completely random, it has 32 bits
of entropy. If the 32-bit word takes on only four different values, and
each value has a 25% chance of occurring, the word has 2 bits of entropy. Entropy does not measure how many bits are in a value, but how uncertain you are about the value. You can think of entropy as the average
number of bits you would need to specify the value if you could use an
ideal compression algorithm. Note that the entropy of a value depends
on how much you know. A random 32-bit word has 32 bits of entropy.
For example, you know that the value has exactly 18 bits that are 0 and
14 bits that are 1. There are about 228.8 values that satisfy these requirements, and the entropy is also limited to 28.8 bits. In other words,
the more you know about a value, the smaller its entropy is.
Text 3 (translate without a dictionary)
To generate key material, we need a random number generator, or rng.
Generating good randomness is a significant part of many cryptographic
operations. Generating good randomness is also a very difficult task.
A good informal definition is that random data is unpredictable to the attacker, even if he is taking active steps to defeat our randomness. Good
random number generators are necessary for many cryptographic functions. We assumed there to be a key known to both Alice and Bob. That
key has to be generated somewhere. Key management systems use random number generators to choose keys. If you get the rng wrong, you
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Библиографический список
1. Antonio Goncalves, Beginning Java™ EE 6 Platform with GlassFish™
3. – Apress, 2010
2. Herbert Schildt, C#4.0: The Complete Reference. – NY, 2010
3. IBM, High Level Assembler for z/OS & z/VM & z/VS, Language Reference, Release 6, 2008
4. John Walkenbach, Excell 2010 Power Programming with VBA. –Willey
Publishing, Inc, 2010
5. Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English. Longman Dictionaries,
Harlow, 2005.
6. Matthew MacDonald, Pro WPF 4.5 in C#, 4th Edition. – Apress, 2010
7. Oracle PL/SQL Language Pocket Reference, 2nd Edition – O'Reilly,
2003
8. Paul Anderson, Gail Anderson, Navigating C++ and Object-Oriented
Design. – Prentice Hall PTR, 2003.
9. Stanley B. Lippman, Essential C++ . – Addison Wesley, 2002
10. Stephen Prata, C++ Primer Plus (5th Ed.), 2004
11. http://www.codeproject.com/Articles/15280/Cryptography-for-the-NETFramework
12. http://www.oracle.com/webfolder/technetwork/tutorials/obe/jdev/obe11j
dev/ps1/databasedevelopment/obe_databasedevmt.htm
13. https://www.schneier.com/academic/paperfiles/fortuna.pdf
14. http://searchsqlserver.techtarget.com/definition/relational-database
Учебное издание
АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК
Учебно-методическое пособие № 153
Составитель Потапчук Аурика Витальевна
Компьютерная верстка И. А. Яблоковой
Подписано к печати 07.09.2016. Формат 6084 1/16. Бум. офсетная.
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190005, Санкт-Петербург, 2-я Красноармейская ул., д. 4.
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