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Proz Mark Dvor Zap Ermol Sahar Master Engl CH2 2017+

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Министерство образования и науки
Российской федерации
Санкт-Петербургский государственный
архитектурно-строительный университет
Часть 2
Учебное пособие
УДК 811.111
Рецензенты: канд. пед. наук, доцент Н. А. Кабанова (Гуманитарный
институт Санкт-Петербургского политехнического университета им. Петра
канд. филол. наук, доцент Н. В. Антоненко (СПбГАСУ)
Процуто, М. В.
Mastering English: учеб. пособие. В 2 ч. / М. В. Процуто, Л. П.
Маркушевская, Н. Г. Дворина, Ю. А. Цапаева, С. А. Ермолаева,
Т. Е. Сахарова; под ред. М. В. Процуто. Ч. 2; СПбГАСУ. – СПб.,
2017. – 84 с.
ISBN 978-5-9227-0661-2
ISBN 978-5-9227-0670-4
Данное пособие является первой частью учебно-методического комплекса “Mastering English”, направленного на развитие коммуникативных
умений различных видов речевой деятельности, а также аннотирование и реферирование научной литературы, составление презентаций и устных докладов на английском языке. Сборник содержит справочный материал, обучающий написанию и оформлению научных статей.
Учебное пособие состоит из двух глав. Первая глава включает ряд тематически связанных оригинальных текстов по указанной специальности,
а также комплекс упражнений, являющихся образцами коммуникативных ситуаций диалогической и монологической речи, отвечающих принципам современной коммуникативной методики. Во второй главе даны подробные
теоретические рекомендации по составлению презентаций и практические
задания для тренировки соответствующих навыков. Учебный материал по составлению аннотаций и научных докладов, подкрепленный практическими
заданиями, облегчит магистрантам написание научных статей и подготовку
выступлений на международных конференциях. В приложениях представлены наиболее употребительные сокращения, термины и словосочетания, характерные для английской и американской научно-технической литературы.
Предназначено для магистрантов технических специальностей.
Рекомендовано Редакционно-издательским советом СПбГАСУ в качестве учебного пособия.
ISBN 978-5-9227-0661-2
ISBN 978-5-9227-0670-4
© Коллектив авторов, 2017
© Санкт-Петербургский государственный
архитектурно-строительный университет, 2017
The study of speech communication will engage you in one of the
oldest academic subjects known “Rhetoric”, as the ancient Greeks called it.
Rhetoric – or the art of speaking persuasively – has been one of the
most important subjects on the Western European school curriculum
from classical times. Classical rhetoric covers all aspects of speaking in
public – choice and arrangement of material, style and delivery. In modern usage the term is now often used to describe practical skills and
strategies that public speakers and presenters use.
Success in many careers depends on good speech communication
skills. These include careers in administration, government, public relations, politics, education, sales, and private industry.
Very often in business we find ourselves presenting at conferences
and meetings. Some estimates say that over 30 million presentations are
given every day. Many of these presentations are given in English by
non-native speakers. Many are given badly as presenters often don’t
know how to go about structuring a presentation or how to use English
to maximum effect during a presentation. However, presentations are
more important than ever in the present market-oriented climate and are
an essential tool for anyone who needs to sell a business proposal, an
idea, or even themselves. In business the language is used as a vehicle
for the exchange of information and you need to develop certain basic
skills to participate successfully in this exchange.
The dictionary definition of presentation is “an event at which a
new product or idea is described and explained”.
Presentations are high-risk, high-visibility activities. Success and
failure, can have a significant effect on your career.
The ability to speak English is no guarantee that you can present in
Presenters need presentation skills and a level of professionalism.
There are many similarities between written and spoken presentations:
both are designed to communicate in an ordered way. But spoken
presentations carry additional risks, because speaking to an audience
takes place in real time. You cannot try different versions or go back and
correct something you do not like. You cannot afford to go blank. And
you have an audience there who will let you know if they do not like
what you are saying.
The common factors contributing to an unsatisfactory presentation
(presentational problems) are the following:
• Content inappropriate to audience (the audience know the content
already; the audience don’t want to know the content; the content
is so muddled that it is impossible to follow);
• Poor delivery (the speaker is inaudible; the speaker’s voice is a
hypnotic monotone);
• Poor visibility of visual aids (Power Point projections are illegible;
half the slides are upside down or out of order; the slides are overloading).
The possible list is almost endless, but the above are common faults.
This course is devoted to showing you what is necessary if you are to
avoid the risks presentations involve, and make the most of the opportunities that they offer. Although bad presentations abound, and you will
doubtless have sat through many, the basic principles of effective
presentation (presentational strengths) are remarkably simple:
• Clear structure
• Appropriate content
• Interesting delivery
• Good illustrations of points
• Audibility and visibility
• Keeping to time
By following these principles, you should be able to create a professional impression that will serve you well on your course and in your future
go blank = be suddenly unable to remember something;
muddled = not clear or effective;
pace = the speed at which something happens or is done;
inaudible = you cannot hear;
be within the reach = used for saying that someone can do something.
II. Analyzing your Audience
You should start preparing for your speech by looking at your future audience. Your job is to get as much information about your audience as you can. This information will help you to prepare a speech
which is relevant and interesting to your listeners.
Thinking about your audience is the key to good public speaking. If
you are preparing a presentation, start with the question: Who are these
people? It’s the key to success. Whether they are strangers or colleagues,
they have one thing in common: they expect you to impress them for the
next 15-20 minutes. And the best way to do so is to focus on their favourite subject – themselves. So begin by defining who these people are
and what they expect. Here are ten questions to ask yourself.
1. What kind of language do these people use?
If your audience is from a particular industry, what terminology does it
understand best? The audience dictates your choice of words, but, remember, you should always make your language clear and concise, especially if the language is not your mother tongue.
2. Why were you invited to make this presentation?
Your knowledge of their problems is probably why you were invited to
speak. They expect new insights, a different point of view, and ideas that
they can take away and use so that they feel their time was well spent
listening to you.
3. Can people hear you?
Speak loudly enough to make your voice carry to the furthest listener.
No one wants to listen to someone who mumbles and who does not
speak with conviction. As a presenter, the ability to pace your speech
and use your voice to create impact is the most important skill you need.
You will be more effective if you are in control of your voice by your
use of stress, pausing, intonation, volume, and silence.
4. How should you look at the audience?
Make direct eye contact. Try to convince your audience talking to them
personally. It also makes you feel that you have made contact with them
as individuals.
5. Should you use notes?
Yes, make an outline, perhaps on small cards, and consult them as you
speak. This forces you to organize your presentation in a logical, coherent way and not wander off the points.
6. Are they friends, colleagues, customers or total strangers?
Define who these people are. Define their essential features and motivations. What work do they do, what is their level of education, what kind
of language do they use, what problems and opportunities might they
have? Address their goals, their needs, their concerns.
7. Does the audience appreciate humour?
Don’t make a special effort to be funny. If you make a joke, don’t stop
and wait for laughs. What is funny in one culture may not be in another.
The subject of your presentation is probably serious and for some people, humour may be out of place. A light touch here and there is all right
but humour cannot replace good ideas.
8. Should you use any visual aids?
If they make your speech easier to understand, yes. But make them clear
and simple. Don’t laboriously read out aloud what is written on your
visuals. Make sure that everyone can see them, even from the back of
the room.
9. How long should the presentation be?
The best thing is to take only as much time as is necessary. The only
thing worse than being long and boring is being too short and not fully
10. What are the audience’s feelings and opinions toward the topic of
your speech?
For the purpose of persuasive speaking it will be necessary to learn as
much as possible about how they feel and why they feel that way in order to do a good job preparing your persuasive speech. You can expect
your listeners to feel one of three ways about the topic you choose for
your persuasive speech:
a) They Might Agree Completely.
If this is the case, you must choose a different topic for your persuasive
b) They Might Be Indifferent.
Your audience may have the attitude “Who cares?” If this is the case,
you must find out why they are indifferent or uninterested in the topic.
In your speech you will need to convince them:
• to be interested in the opinion you are presenting;
• that it is important to consider;
• that they should adopt your opinion.
If your audience are indifferent, they are indifferent because:
• They don’t think your topic is important.
• They don’t feel your topic affects them.
• They have never heard of your topic.
c) They Might Disagree Completely.
They have the opposite opinion from yours or one which is completely
different. If this is the case, you must find out their specific reasons for
disagreeing with your opinion. In your speech, you will need to convince them that their specific reasons for disagreeing with the claim you
are making are not good reasons. The following Survey of Opinions
Form can be used as a guide for audience analysis for the purpose of
persuasive speaking.
If several of your audience disagree with your opinion you will
find they probably disagree for different reasons. Ask them their specific
reasons for disagreement.
In order to persuade listeners with the “who cares” attitude, you
must get them interested in your topic. You must prove that your topic is
important to think about, or that it directly affects them in some way.
Example: Pretend that your persuasive speech is to convince the audience to buy water purification system for their homes. Listeners are likely to be uninterested in this topic because they don’t believe it is important. However, you could tell them that the newspaper ran a story
saying that the quality of water in your community is the worst in the
country. Expert doctors warn that drinking this water could increase the
risk of getting cancer. This type of information would certainly develop
interest in your topic and get people to consider your suggestion.
In order to persuade a “hostile” listener (the one who completely
disagrees with your opinion or belief), you must know the reasons of
disagreeing with you and convince them that their specific reasons for
disagreeing are not valid.
coherent = clear and sensible;
wander off = move a way;
laborious = long, difficult and boring;
purification = a process that removes the dirty or unwanted parts from
valid = reasonable and generally accepted.
III. Presentation Structure
Every public speech (presentation) needs a subject and a purpose. Before you can begin gathering and organizing information for your
speech, you must select a topic and clearly understand its purpose. For
example, your purpose might be to inform people about an unfamiliar
subject, or to persuade them to change their opinion about an issue. The
main purpose of speaking to inform is to present information to an audience so that they will understand and remember it.
Your goal in making an informative talk is to state your ideas as simply
and as clearly as possible. The major purpose of a persuasive speech is
to get others to change their feelings, beliefs, or behavior. Your goal in
making a persuasive speech is to convince your listeners to do what you
want them to do or to change their opinion about something to agree
with yours.
Presentations need to be very logical. It is important that you avoid
complex structures and focus on the need to explain and discuss your
work clearly. Think about how you will organize your content. Your
presentation should have a clear, coherent structure and cover the points
you wish to make in a logical order. Because an audience cannot turn
back the page and check what you wrote, it is very easy for them to lose
the thread of your spoken argument. Structure is therefore even more
important in presentations than it is in written reports, and needs to be
emphasized at frequent intervals.
An ideal structure for a presentation includes:
• a welcoming and informative introduction;
• a coherent series of main points presented in a logical sequence;
• a lucid and purposeful conclusion.
It is possible to break these three broad sections down further.
• a statement of the treatment to be applied to the topic (e.g. to com-
pare, contrast, evaluate, describe): “I’ll be comparing the four main
principles of …” (what)
• a statement of the outcomes of the presentation: “I hope this will
provide us with …” (why)
• a statement of what the audience will need to do (e.g. when they
can ask questions or whether or not they will need to take notes):
“I’ll pass round a handout that summarizes my presentation before
taking questions at the end”. (how)
Experts in communication say that the first three minutes of a presentation are the most important. They talk about “hooks” – simple techniques for getting, the immediate attention of the audience. Here’s how
the experts suggest you get the immediate attention of the audience:
1. Give them a problem to think about.
2. Begin your speech with some amazing facts.
3. Give them a story or personal anecdote.
4. Begin your speech with a well-known quotation.
5. Address the audience’s needs and concerns by telling them what
benefits they will gain from listening to you.
6. Ask something and then go on to answer it yourself.
The introduction is the point at which the presenter explains the
content and purpose of the presentation. This is vitally important part of
your talk as you will need to gain the audience’s interest and confidence.
Use the introduction to welcome your audience, explain your objectives,
introduce your topic/subject, indicate the main points you will be making and how you will structure these, provide guidelines on questions,
say how long you will be talking for.
Key elements of an effective introduction include:
• a positive start: “Good afternoon, my name is …” (who)
• a statement of what will be discussed: “I’m going to explore …” (why)
2. Main section (the body of your presentation)
Now that your listeners know exactly what you are going to talk
about or what your specific persuasive topic is it is time to present your
information or present support and evidence which will convince them
to agree with you. Be sure to present the main parts of your speech just
the way you said you would. The sequence of your main points should
be directly influenced by the purpose of your presentation.
After you have identified your main points, you should embellish
them with supporting information. For example, add clarity to your argument through the use of diagrams, illustrate a link between theory and
practice, or substantiate your claims with appropriate data.
Use the supporting information to add colour and interest to your
talk, but avoid detracting from the clarity of your main points by overburdening them with details. Make your presentation easy to comprehend by using sequence words (firstly, finally, etc.) Use them to connect
your ideas and give structure to the whole argument.
When presenting orally, you will need to give additional pointers
to internal structure within your main body. When you have finished
1. Introductory Section
dealing with one point, signal this by a brief summary of the point just
made, and then a short statement of the point you are about to start. You
can do this easily and effectively, using simple phrases as “signposts” to
help the audience find their way through your presentation. They can
help divide information up into subsections, link different aspects of
your talk and show progression through your topic. Importantly, transitions draw the audience’s attention to the process of the presentation as
well as the content.
3. Conclusion
The conclusion is an essential though frequently underdeveloped
section of a presentation. This is the stage at which you summarize your
key points and purpose of your talk, again using visual aids if appropriate, emphasize your recommendations or conclusion, thank your audience, and invite questions. The summary should not be too long as you
will lose your audience’s attention, but detailed enough to cover your
points. A good summary reminds your audience about what you said and
helps them to remember your information. After a summary, you are
ready to conclude with a statement that will leave your audience thinking about what you said. Never end abruptly or by saying “That’s all”.
The final words of your speech are the ones your audience will remember. Important elements of a conclusion are:
• A review of the topic and purpose of your presentation: “In this
presentation I wanted to explore ….”
• A statement of the conclusions or recommendations to be drawn
from your work: “I hope to have been able to show that the effect
of …”
• An indication of the next stages (what might be done to take this
work further?): “This highlights the need for further research in the
area of …”
• An instruction as to what happens next (questions, discussion or
group work): “I would now like to give you the opportunity to ask
questions …”
• A thank-you to the audience for their attention and participation:
“Thank you very much for listening”.
The techniques for concluding speeches are the same as those for beginning speeches.
4. Putting your speech together
The question is “which part of a speech do you prepare first?” You
should begin with the body of your speech. After the body is prepared,
you should write the conclusion, and finally the introduction.
Step one: Preparing the Body of Your Speech.
The body of your speech will contain the outline of the major ideas you
want to present. It will also have the evidence or information that supports and clarifies your ideas.
First: List the main headings or subtopics related to your subject.
Write down the main headings which might be included in your speech.
Write them as you think of them. Some ideas will be important, some
will be insignificant. At this time, just concentrate on writing all the ideas you can think of, that relate to the subject and purpose of your speech.
Second: Narrow down your list of main headings.
Your goal should be to come up with three of four main headings that
will develop the subject and purpose of your speech. The bad presentations are where people have tried to give too much information in too
much detail and taken too long over it.
Third: Order your main headings logically.
Try to organize your main headings so that each major point leads naturally into the next one.
Fourth: Develop Your Main Headings.
The main headings are the skeleton upon which your speech will be
built. You must develop and support them. If the main headings are
properly supported by factual information, logical proof, and visuals,
your audience will understand and remember your speech.
Step Two: Preparing the Conclusion of Your Speech.
When you have finished dealing with the main body, signal clearly that
you are now ready to finish your presentation. Make sure you give a
clear logical finish making your summary, giving your conclusion and
making your closing remarks. Your conclusion section should follow
naturally from your main body.
Step Three: Preparing the Introduction to Your Speech.
This is a crucial part of your presentation. It serves as a useful orientation to the reader.
5. Outlining
When you have gathered enough information to prepare the introduction, body and conclusion of your presentation, you are ready to organize it through the use of an outline – that is, a detailed plan of your
1. The purpose of an outline
• An outline assures that you have organized your ideas.
• An outline helps you remember all your information.
• An outline makes it easy for you to deliver your speech.
• An outline helps you to stick to the subject of your speech.
2. Preparing an outline
When you write an outline, you list very briefly and in the proper
order the ideas you wish to include in your presentation. Then, you write
the presentation following the outline. If your outline is well arranged,
your presentation will be well arranged.
The key to outlining is to identify main topics and break them down into
subtopics. A good outline meets three basic requirements:
• Each idea must relate to and help prove the main point.
• Each unit of the outline should contain only one idea.
Ideas should not be repeated or overlap each other (express the same
ideas). For topic division, use Roman numerals (I, II, III, and so forth).
For subdividing a topic, use capital letters, (A, B, C, and so forth, indenting them evenly. If you want to subdivide still more, use Arabic
numerals (1, 2, 3, and so forth) and indent again. For even more subdivision, indent again and use lower-case letters (a, b, c, and so forth). Place
a period after each number of a letter.
coherent = clear and sensible;
break down = become ineffective;
handout = a document that is given out at a meeting or other event;
embellish = make something more interesting by adding things to it;
signpost = indicate direction to;
negative = expressing the answer “no”;
narrow down = decrease;
lucid = describing things in a clear and simple way.
The form for an outline is as follows:
I ______________________
A ______
B ______
C ______
a __
b __
c __
IV. Exploiting Visual Aids
If you have a lot of complex information to explain, think about using some charts, diagrams, graphs on an overhead projector.
There are some things that can be conveyed far better visually than
by words alone. Relationships can be more clearly diagrammed, trends
clearly shown via graphs. If your presentation is a lengthy one, it is
worth varying your aids. You may wish to use a mix of diagrams: some
could be on prepared slides, others drawn on a board. Handouts that you
want people to look at while you talk, such as a detailed table that you
wish to discuss at length, can usually be distributed as people take their
seats. When you give a presentation in a foreign language, visuals are
essential for effective communication. It is therefore important for students if they wish to succeed in their careers to develop skills in interpreting information presented in visual aids.
1. Reasons to use Visuals
• Present specific information that can be readily understood and remembered.
• Emphasize important facts and figures.
• Present supporting data that are helpful in making analysis and
drawing conclusions.
• Reduce the amount of talking you have to do.
• Add interest to the material.
2. Guidelines about using visual aids to maximum effect.
• Your visual aids must be large enough for everyone to see.
• Keep charts, maps and graphs very simple. Don’t try to show too
many details in one visual aid. Let your visuals speak for themselves. A good visual is like a good newspaper headline-it should
make people want to find out more.
• Do not pass out objects or papers during your speech. If people are
looking at objects or reading papers, they will not be listening to
what you are saying.
• When describing very detailed visual aids don’t quote precise figures. Give approximate figures and point out the overall trends and
developments. Include precise figures and detailed descriptions in
a handout or report given out before or after your talk.
• Look at your audience – not at your visual aids. When you are
showing a picture, graph, etc., be sure to maintain eye contact with
your listeners.
• Never compete with your visuals. When showing a visual, keep
quiet and give people time to take it in, then make brief comments
• When you’ve finished using your visual aids, put them away or
switch off your projector.
• If you are giving a presentation with Power Point or something of
that nature, make the information on your screen very simple. The
rules of presentation are the same all the time. Five words per line,
five lines per slide, five slides per presentation is the target.
3. Using PowerPoint
Computers make it remarkably easy to produce impressive overheads, usually using PowerPoint. It offers a number of significant advantages, particularly professional appearance, and flexibility. You can
revise your presentation at the last minute, and easily tailor it to a particular audience. You can incorporate relevant tables and graphics. If you
are carrying your laptop anyway you do not need to carry anything additional. PowerPoint is a tool you can use to communicate your ideas effectively through visual aids that look professionally designed yet are
easy to make. You can produce slides for your presentation and room for
notes, at the press of a button print audience handouts, print an outline.
The ease of generating slides on a computer leads some presenters to use
far too many slides so that their audience retains nothing but a blurred
impression of an endless series of visuals which they have had no time
to absorb. Now that everyone can use PowerPoint, being expert in its use
is less impressive than once it might have been. Be selective and use
slides when you need to.
4. Comprehension of Visual presentations
Here we will consider tables and four different kinds of diagram:
pie charts, bar charts, Gantt charts and graphs.
a. Tables
A collection of figures can often best be communicated by means
of tables.
The table below shows the results of a survey to find out what
members of a city sports club think about the club’s activities, facilities
and opening hours.
Range of activiFemale members
Male members
Club facilities
Female members
Male members
Opening hours
Female members
Male members
Very satisfied
Not satisfied
b. Pie charts
Statistics that are reported in percentages are often presented in
what is called a pie chart, in which the complete “pie” represents 100
percent. The distinctions can be heightened by shading or colouring the
different segments of the pie. The pie chart shown below indicates Energy Consumption (%).
с. Bar charts
Another way of expressing data visually is by means of bar charts.
To show data in the form of bar charts, the bar charts are drawn to scale
and measured from the base line which may be horizontal or perpendicular. The following bar charts show the sales of the different product lines
of the company (Delta Food Products) over the past year.
Horizontal bars:
The perpendicular bar chart is also a “composite” bar chart because it
includes a breakdown of the individual products in each bar.
d. Gantt charts
A variation of the bar chart is the Gantt chart, used in connection
with the process of control in a business. It gives an instant visual comparison between expected and actual performance. Gantt charts can be
used for scheduling generic resources as well as for their use in project
management. They can also be used for scheduling production processes
and employee rostering. In the latter context, they may also be known as
timebar schedules. Gantt charts can be used to track shifts or tasks and
also vacations or other types of out-of-office time. Specialized employee
scheduling software may output schedules as a Gantt chart, or they may
be created through popular desktop publishing software.
e. Graphs
The most common form of visual presentation is the graph. Graphs
are two-dimensional. The x-axis records one dimension, usually the time
dimension. The y-axis records another range of data which changes in
relation to the time (or other) series. The unbroken line in the graph below shows the sales of Delta Food Products over the past six years. The
broken line shows the sales of one of Delta’s major competitors.
The benefit of all these diagrammatic representations is that they present
the data in an easily assimilable form. Those who are involved in the
business need to be able to interpret data presented to them in whatever
tailor = change or make something for a particular purpose
incorporate = to add or include
hazard = danger, risk
blurred = unclear
Suggestions for Delivering Your Presentations
Your speech is more than just the words you use.
HOW you say something is just as important as WHAT you say.
Good delivery involves several important aspects. The following
basic techniques for delivering a speech will help you to improve your
own individual style of public speaking.
1. Stage fright: First, let’s face one problem about speaking in public
which concerns most beginning students-nervousness. Most people
are nervous about public speaking. The good news is that you can
learn to control your nervousness rather than let it get you down.
How will you be able to reduce your nervousness? The best is to be
really well prepared. If you know that your topic is interesting, and
that your material is well organized, you have already reduced a major worry!
2. Eye contact: You should not look at the floor or out the window because this will give the audience the idea that you are not interested
in your topic or in them. The idea is to give the impression that you
are talking to each individual in your audience. You will find that if
you look directly at your audience, their nods, gestures, and smiles
will let you know that they understand you. This positive feedback
will make you feel better and less nervous.
3. Speak with enthusiasm: Enthusiasm is being lively and showing your
own personal concern for your subject and your audience. If you are
truly interested in your topic, your delivery is certain to be enthusiastic and lively.
4. Vary your speaking rate: Your words should not be too fast or too
slow. If you speak too slowly you will bore your audience. If you
speak too rapidly you will be difficult to understand. Adapt your rate
to the context of your speech. For example, if you are explaining
complex information, slow down. If you are enthusiastic, you should
speed up. This change of pace is very important.
5. Make it easy for people to understand: Speak clearly, without gabbling. Use short sentences. Use the sorts of words and phrases you
use for speaking, not those you would use in writing (the large difference between the two explains why it is so difficult to follow a
speaker who is reading).
6. Try to be interesting: Use visual aids to sustain interest, and vary
your pace. Relevant jokes can be effective if used sparingly. Avoid
jokes completely if you have any doubts about your skill in telling
7. Use detail sparingly: If detail is important, have a written handout for
distribution before or after (not during) your presentation. Handouts
distributed during your talk will lose you your audience.
8. Keep any notes brief: It is reassuring to have notes, especially if you
are nervous. But keep them brief, and number them clearly so that if
you do drop them in your anxiety, or they mysteriously rearrange
themselves, you can reorder them easily. Cards are easiest to handle.
Mark the point at which you will be using visual aids to what is appropriate. The ease of generating slides on a computer leads some
presenters to use far too many slides. There is a risk of giving a very
dull presentation, and talking to your computer screen rather than
your audience.
9. Avoid over-running the stated time. Audiences plan their time, and
do not like to have these plans disrupted.
10. Practice: You know now the basic principles of effective delivery
and should realize that the actual delivery of your presentation is just
as important as having a well-organized and developed speech. However, studying this information won’t guarantee an effective speech
presentation. You must rehearse and practice the speech you have
prepared. For best results, you should begin practicing days before
your actual presentation.
The sentence can be rewritten in the following way:
“If employees are to work efficiently, a manager must train them
get you down = make you feel unhappy;
gabble = talk very quickly in a way that is difficult for people to understand;
sustain = make something continue;
sparingly = using or giving only a little of something;
allotted = given officially for a particular purpose;
pace = the speed at which something happens or is done.
As already suggested, you should pay attention to the use of language in
your presentation in terms of the clarity of communication. Short words
and short sentences will almost certainly make your presentation clearer.
Look at the differences in style between the following two sentences.
Note how complicated abstract language can be replaced by simple
words so that the message is expressed more clearly.
“In order to improve the performance of employees and ensure that
their working practices are as efficient as is humanly possible, a manager needs to make sure that they have adequate and sufficient training to
undertake the tasks assigned to them”.
VI. Describing Graphs and Diagrams
These verbs are alternatives to the basic rise and fall vocabulary. One
benefit of using them is that sometimes they help you avoid repeating
too many numbers. If you have a strong verb, you don’t always have to
give the exact figure.
Up verbs
the price soared in December
it then rocketed to a high of 65 %
this figure leapt to 70,000 by the end of the period
the number of televisions sold in 2015 climbed
it then surged to a high of 75,000 units
• “Soar “and “rocket” are both very strong words that describe large
rises. “Rocket” is more sudden. You probably do not need to qualify
these verbs with adverbs.
• “Leap” shows a large and sudden rise. Again, you probably do not
need to qualify it with an adverb.
• “Climb” is a relatively neutral verb that can be used with the adverbs
Down verbs
it then plummeted to a low of 25 %
after that it sank to 70
this amount dropped by 35 % in the third quarter of the
slip back
only to slip back to 700 in June
the number of female doctors dipped in the last decade
• “Plummet” is the strongest word here. It means to fall very quickly
and a long way.
• “Drop” and “dip” are normally used for fairly small decreases.
• “Slip back” is used for falls that come after rises.
• “Drop” and “Dip” are also frequently used as nouns: e.g.: “a slight
dip” “a sudden drop”.
This is a selection of some of the most common adjectives and adverbs
used for trend language.
a spectacular
a dramatic rise
a substantial rise substantially
a significant fall significantly
fell significantly
a sudden fall
fell suddenly
a sharp decrease sharply
fell spectacularly
rose dramatically
rose substantially
sharply decreased
• “Sudden” and “sharp” can be used of relatively minor changes that
happen quickly.
• “Spectacular” and “dramatic” are very strong words used to big
Steady adjectives
a steady increase
consistent a consistent decrease consistently
a gradual increase
increased steadily
decreased consistently
increased gradually
Small adjectives
a modest increase
increased modestly
a slight rise
rose slightly
a marginal fall
fell marginally
• “Marginal” is a particularly useful word for describing very small
Adjectives and adverbs
Other useful adjectives
These adjectives can be used to describes more general trends
it is evident that the overall trend was consistently upwards
downward showed a downward trend throughout the period
this upward trend finished in 2009
• “Overall” can be used to describe changes in trend over the whole period: very useful in introductions and conclusions.
• “Upward” and “downward” are adjectives: the adverbs are “upwards”
and “downwards”.
VII. Practice Section
Exercise 1.
Speech Preparation Worksheet
Use the following worksheet in preparation of your speech.
The purpose of the above worksheet is to start you thinking about the
kind of information you will need and how you will organize material
for your speech. We expect that you will change the information on your
worksheet several times. That’s natural. After you are really pleased
with it, you are ready to prepare your working outline.
1. Decide on a possible topic that is relevant to your work, company, research or interests.
2. Divide your topic into two or three important points to discuss in the
main body of your speech.
Point 1:
Point 2:
3. Prepare your interesting attention-getting opening.
4. Prepare a preview of the main points you will talk about.
5. Main body
Point 1.
(write your supporting information for Point 1 below)
Point 2:
(write your supporting information for Point 2 below)
How to cope with nerves
Telling jokes
The most important moment/ main advice
Point 3:
(write your supporting information for Point 3 below)
6. Describe possible visual aids you could use to help the audience see
and experience what you are talking about.
7. Prepare a summary of the main points in the body of your speech.
8. Prepare a conclusion.
Exercise 2.
a) Read the advice about speaking in public given by Carol Stewart
from the communications training company Speakwell.
b) Write down key words.
c) What do you think is the most useful advice?
Tips for speaking in public
The key to being a good speaker
The presentation itself
First I’d say that the key to being a successful public speaker is to
put yourself in the position of the audience. When a presentation fails,
it’s often because the person speaking is thinking too much about him or
herself, not about the audience.
My main tips about the presentation itself would be: first, don’t
make your presentation too long. And keep to the agreed time: if it is
supposed to be 20 minutes, make sure it doesn’t go on for half an hour.
Secondly, don’t have more than four or five main points. People can’t
usually remember more than that anyway, so make four or five your
Thirdly, try to only use your normal vocabulary, words which
come naturally to you; don’t experiment with new words – you’ll probably mispronounce them.
And finally, write your notes out in very big writing so you can see
each page or paragraph at a glance.
Well, it’s impossible to completely overcome nerves when you are
speaking in public, but you can learn to cope with their effects. Remember the audience want you to succeed. They haven’t come to see you
As far as telling jokes is concerned. I’d say definitely use funny
anecdotes from your personal experience, stories, and things like that.
But be careful, for example, about making jokes about other people or
other nationalities. That can be offensive.
Moving on to the most important moment in a presentation, I’d say
the beginning is the most important. If you start badly the audience may
go to sleep, or even leave, so try to start your presentation strongly with
your main point, the main message you want to get across, and then give
specific examples.
Exercise 3. Compare the following presentations, discuss
a) what is wrong with the first one
b) in what ways the second one is better
Presentation 1.
Right. Good. Well, perhaps I’ll start, shall I? Can you hear me all right?
Good. Now … erm … probably the most important thing I’ve got to say
is that … well, the company’s results are looking pretty good this year.
Have you all seen the graph of sales figures? No? Well, I’ve got one
here. There you are. Can you see this all right at the back? No? Well,
you’ll have to take my word for it, then. Results are good. Yes. Very
good, actually. But, anyway, I’ll tell you a bit more about that in a minute. Now, where was I? Um … let’s start with what’s happening at the
moment. Would that be a good idea?
Presentation 2.
Good morning, ladies and gentlemen. I’m here today to tell you about
our company’s financial position. I’ve divided my presentation into four
parts. Firstly, I want to talk about the current financial situation. Secondly, I’d like to examine our performance over the past year. Thirdly, I’ll
look at our prospects for the next twelve months. Finally, I’ll make some
recommendations. I’ll be happy to answer questions at the end of my
Right. I’d like you to look at this graph …
Exercise 4. Read the second presentation again and answer these
1. What is the purpose of the presentation?
2. When will the presenter answer the questions?
3. Which of the phrases below does the presenter use to …
a) explain the purpose of the presentation (Why?)
b) describe the structure of the presentation (What?)
c) say when he’ll answer questions (How?)
Exercise 5. Write down a possible phrase or sentence for each of the
following. Use the words provided in brackets.
Example: You are a sales manager from the St. Petersburg office. Not
everyone knows you. How do you introduce yourself at the beginning of
a presentation? (I’m …) Hello. I’m Sergey Ivanov from the St. Petersburg office.
1. How can you greet the audience? (coming) … … … … … … …
2. You want to get everyone’s attention so that you can start your meeting. What can you say? (here/begin) … … … … … … …
3. You have handouts that you want to give people. What can you say?
(take) … … … … … … …
4. In your presentation, you plan to explain the problems of the old process and then present the new process. How can you explain what you
are going to do? (First/After that) … … … … … … …
5. How can you tell your listeners that there will be time for questions at
the end? (plan/leave) … … … … … … …
Exercise 6. Fill the gaps in the sentences below with a preposition:
on, at, on, by, for, in, into, through.
Thank you … coming.
I’d like to start … outlining the changes.
Then I’ll go … to highlight what I see as the main points.
I’ve tried to put our recent difficulties … some kind of perspective.
We can discuss any questions … the end.
I want to focus … the five-year-plan.
I’ll go … the main points on the handout.
Exercise 7. Rearrange these sentences to make a complete presentation. The first one has been done for you.
1. Now about our overseas stores. We have 4 large stores in France
and another 10 in other European countries.
2. And finally I’ll mention our future plans. I’ll be pleased to answer
any questions at the end of my talk.
3. I’m going to talk to you today about our company. First, I’ll give you
some basic information about Tara Fashions.
4. As far as career opportunities are concerned, we have opportunities
in all areas of our business.
5. Then I’ll talk about our overseas stores.
6. Let me start with some basic facts about Tara. We sell clothes for
men and women. We have 15 stores in Spain. All of the stores are
very profitable.
7. Good morning, everyone. Thanks for coming to my presentation. My
name’s Marta Rodriguez. I’m Personnel Director of Tara Fashions.
8. Next I’ll talk about career opportunities with Tara.
9. Finally, a few words about our new project. We are planning to open
a new store in New York next year.
10. Well, thanks very much for listening to my talk. Are there any questions?
Exercise 8. Use some of the phrases from the exercises to practice
starting two presentations, based on the notes below.
Presentation 1.
Presentation 2.
1. Greet audience
1. Greet audience
2. Purpose: talk about new work- 2. Purpose: talk about a new proding practices
3. Four parts:
3. Three parts:
a) Health and safety procedures
a) The product
b) Security measures
b) Advertising and promotion
c) The launch
c) Management meetings
d) Pay and conditions
4. Questions after the presentation
4. Questions during the presentation
Exercise 9. Complete the following introduction with appropriate
words from the box.
present/outline, let’s, glad/happy/pleased, have,
finally, like, First, know, here/ready, take,
then/next/after that, from, know, here
S: Well, if everyone’s (1) … (2) … start. It’s great to have Liu Wei here
(3) … the office in Beijing. As you (4) …, he is the Director of Marketing and has achieved excellent results.
L.W.: Good afternoon. Thank you Sam. I’m (5) … to be here today. Ok,
today. I’d (6) … to talk about the developments in the Beijing office. In
my presentation this afternoon I’d like to (7) … three main points. (8)
…, I’ll briefly outline our small beginnings two years ago; (9) … I’ll explain how we adapted the RB 409 range to suit our local market and (10)
… I’ll show our success. If you have any questions, there’ll be (11) … at
the end. Before I start, I (12) … a handout for you. Would you like to
(13) … one? Here you are.
II. Main Body
1. Signposting (transitions)
Exercise 10. Match the words and phrases with the different stages
of a presentation.
1. If you look at the pie chart …
2. Secondly, I’d like to look at…
3. I’d like now sum up the main points
4. I’m going to talk about …
5. Let’s now move on to a separate issue
which is …
6. First of all, let me welcome you to
Digital Enterprises …
a) Greeting the audience
b) Introducing the subject
c) Sequencing
d) Introducing a visual aid
e) Concluding
f) Digression
Exercise 11. Match the different parts of the presentation with the
1. I’d like to give you an example …
2. To move off the point for a moment
3. Let’s have a look at this chart which
4. What I want to make clear is this …
5. I’d just like to give you an overview
6. What I really want to stress is this …
a) a general idea
b) a visual aid
c) an example
d) digression represents
e) an important idea
f) a point of clarification
Exercise 12. Here are four phrases that you can use to link the sections of your presentation together, which phrase would you use.
… before the summary?
… before the conclusion?
… between any two points?
… to introduce visual aid?
a) Right. Let’s recap, then
b) Let’s move on, shall we?
c) I’d like you to have a look at this.
d) I’d like to conclude by saying this.
Exercise 13. Match the sentences with the different parts of the
a visual aid
a digression
an example
an important opinion
a) I’d like to give you an example.
b) What I’m getting at is this.
c) Let’s have a look at this.
d) To move off the point for a moment …
Exercise 14. Which of the above phrases would you use to introduce
each of the following four extracts?
Extract 1.
This is a graph of the company’s turn over during the past three months.
As you can see, sales rose slightly in April and May before falling sharply in June.
Extract 2.
The company’s sales of traditional English sausage have fallen by over
37% in its three largest supermarkets in the north of England during the
past six months.
Extract 3.
The company must change its product range and improve its image if it
wants to survive – that is why the right advertising targeted at the right
customer is so important.
Extract 4.
Frankly, the company’s attitude reminds me of something a journalist
once said to me, “You can never underestimate the intelligence of the
general public”.
Well, in this case, I think that’s what the company has done. But let me
get back to my main point.
Exercise 15. Complete the following signpost phrases and sentences.
Moving on/ question/ the US market.
Expand/ the figures/ last year.
Going back/ a moment/ the situation last year.
Let’s turn now/ our targets/ the next five year.
Go back/ the main reasons/ our collaboration/ the Germans.
I’d like/ conclude/ I may/ repeating what I said/ the beginning/ this
7. I’d like/ turn now/ our projections/ year 2005.
8. Let me expand/ some/ the main points/ our proposal.
9. Digress/ a moment, let’s consider/ alternatives.
10. I’d like/ recap/ the main points.
2. Developing an Argument
Exercise 16. Read the text of the presentation below and predict
where the speaker uses the linking words and expressions:
by and large therefore
in my opinion
Total Quality Assurance means meeting customer needs without error,
on time, every time. Our experience so far has … (1) been good … (2),
the message has not yet reached everybody in the company. … (3) the
number of projects and people involved has grown, they have not got as
fast as we would like. … (4) one of the key problems is how to express
the benefits of this programme in money terms. … (5) this problem is
particularly acute when accounting for the less tangible benefits of the
programme. At the shop floor level, people will tend to talk the language
of things, … (6) at the upper management, people talk the language of
money. Middle management, … (7) need to be bilingual to translate between the two.
Exercise 17. Which of the linking expressions actually used in the
speech could be replaced by those below?
a) consequently
b) to my mind
c) now
d) even so
e) on the whole
Exercise 18. Complete the text below using the correct form of the
words in brackets.
The effect of tourism
The explosion in the tourist industry can 1 … (explain) by more affordable transport and greater wealth among some of the world’s population.
It is true that tourism sometimes 2 … (result) in an improvement in the
standard of living of local people, as well as 3 … (contribute) to increased understanding of other cultures. However, many of the 4 … (effect) of tourism are negative. Atmospheric pollution 5 … (cause) by air
travel, while the building of hotels 6 … (lead) to shortage of resources
such as water. So tourism sometimes 7 … (cause) the destruction of the
very places that people want to visit.
Exercise 19. Rearrange these sentences to make a complete summary.
1. As far as cost is concerned, this option is clearly the best. It is much
cheaper to implement than the others and the financial risks are negligible.
2. Moving on to human resources, I feel that this is the option that will
be most acceptable to our workforce. There are several reasons for
this. First and foremost, this option will not involve any redundancies.
3. There are a number of reasons for choosing Option A. First and foremost, it is the most attractive option.
4. In short, it is exactly what this company needs.
5. Finally, there is the question of planning and the future direction of
this company.
6. By “attractive” I mean that it is the option which is the best for outcompany in all the areas of greatest concern.
7. In addition, it can be implemented almost immediately, and there will
be no need to obtain extra funding from the banks, which would be
the case with the other options.
8. I believe that Option A is the one which is most in true with both our
short-term and long-term plans. It is modern, progressive and has
great potential.
9. In particular, I suggest that there are three main areas to consider:
cost, human resources and future planning.
10. Secondly, a staff retraining programme will not be necessary and,
thirdly, we will be able to implement this option without introducing
shift work.
Go back and underline all the expressions used to connect ideas, for
Moving on …
Exercise 20. The following is an extract from a presentation given by
the Marketing Director of a company launching a new product.
Complete the extract using the following words and expressions:
furthermore, however, as far as, is concerned,
last but not least, to begin, with, for example, apart from this,
on the other hand, I’d like to start
1. … by outlining some of the advantages of our new product.
2. … it is the most advanced product of its type currently on the market.
3. … it is equipped with a number of features that are not to be found in
similar devices produced by our competitors.
4. …, it is guaranteed 100% waterproof.
5. Equivalent products produced by our competitors, … are waterresistant, not water-proof.
6. … obvious advantage, it is also shock-resistant and dust-proof.
7. … price …, I am sure that our product is the most competitive on the
8. It is not only price that makes this product attractive, … . It is also
guaranteed for no less than 20 years.
9. … we can offer retailers a substantial discount on bulk orders purchased direct from the factory.
3. Preparing Visual Aids
Exercise 21. Compare these two visual aids. Which do you think
would be more effective on a screen during a presentation? Think
about these points.
1. Which has more visual impact?
2. Which is easier to read?
3. Do you want people to read or to listen to you?
1. It is important that you know as
much as possible about your audience.
2. You should try to find out who
will be in the audience before
the presentation starts (Phone the
organizer or speak to the boss).
3. You should also try to find out
whatever you can about their interest. (You don’t want to make
jokes about soccer in a room full
of Americans!)
4. Make sure that you don’t give
them too much information or
much too long on a subject
which they find boring.
Who are they?
What are they interested in?
What do they want to know?
… You can see that the departments are listed across the top in the first
… If you look closely you’ll see that office staff did much better this
… It shows the results of the company language test.
… Take a look at this table.
… and the names of those who took the test are listed on the left in the
first column.
Exercise 24. Underline the correct words.
Exercise 22. a) Decide how you would present this as a visual aid in
a presentation. Write your own version.
When giving presentations it is important to keep things as simple as
possible. If you have got lots of detailed information, it is probably best
to put it in print and allow people to read it either before or after the
presentation. Presentations work best when they talk about ideas rather
than facts. They can also be good for motivating and inspiring people.
But, of course that very much depends on your personal qualities.
b) Compare your visual aid with those of others in the class.
Exercise 23. Put the following mini-presentations into correct order
by putting a number in the space on the left.
… The next is shopping.
… The third most popular is playing computer games.
… The pie chart presents the most popular activities for young people.
… As you can see, the most popular is going to nightclubs and bars.
… Therefore you can see that our product is well placed in the market.
… In the first quarter, sales of the Aztec range rose sharply.
… In the third quarter, sales leveled out.
… Let’s look at the figures more closely.
… But then sales took a dip in the second quarter.
There was a slightly/ slight rise in profits last month.
We rose /increased our profits slightly last month.
There was a sharp fall in/ of our sales last quarter.
Our sales fell by/ of 6 % last quarter.
Our share price hit/ beat a low last month.
Inflation is increasing slow/ slowly at the moment, in/by about 1% a
7. Operating profits went from 5 m to/ until 6 m.
8. This year we raised/ rose dividends to shareholders.
Exercise 25. Complete the following sentences using an appropriate
form of the given verb.
Exports … significantly between 2010–2012 (fall).
Since 2007 they … steadily, however (rise).
Overheads … sharply since last year (rise).
There … a gradual fall in the price of raw material between 2005–
2008 (be).
5. Domestic sales … steadily over the past 4 years (increase).
6. The workforce … by 10 % last year (grow).
7. Salary costs … sharply over the last few years (go up).
8. The price … considerably in 2002 (rise).
9. The workforce … by 25 % since 2000 (go down).
10. There … a slight fall in domestic sales this year (be).
Exercise 26. Fill in the gaps
1.Upward trends
climb, modest, overall, rocketed, steadily upwards
It is of note that the 1) … trend for the first six months of the year was 2)
… . After a 3) … increase of 10 units sold in February, this figure 4) …
to approximately 125 in March, and then continued to 5) … until it
reached nearly 200 by the end of June.
2. Downward trends
downward, dropped, slightly, slipping, spectacular
After starting the period at almost 150 units, sales 1) … to around 130 in
August. They then rose 2) … to 135 in September before 3) … back to
130 in October, a 4) … trend that continued in November. The period
ended with a 5) … fall to 60 units sold.
I. These are some expressions used in the presentation. Put them in
a logical order.
a) There will be time at the end for questions.
b) I will then look at some of the challenges
c) I’m here to talk about the “twines” market.
d) I’ll finish by looking at some case studies.
e) I will begin by outlining an overall profile.
f) To start off, let me ask you ...
g) Good morning, everyone.
h) I guess the best way to answer that question is ...
i) If you look at this graph, you’ll notice ...
j) My name is Janet Wilkins.
II Complete the following expressions using the correct preposition.
a) to b) on c) of d) off e) for f) back g) about h) up
a) To start … , then, …
b) To move … to my next point, … .
c) To go … to what I was saying, … .
d) To turn now … a different matter, … .
e) To say a bit more … that, … .
f) To give you an example ... what I mean, … .
g) To digress … a moment, … .
h) To sum … , then, … .
III. Which of the expressions above are used to:
a) … return to an important point?
d) … begin the presentation?
b) … repeat the main points?
e)… expand a point?
c) … talk about something unconf) … change the subject?
IV. Underline the correct words.
1. First of all/ after all, I’d like to thank you for inviting me here to
speak to you this morning.
2. I’ll be talking today about robotics, and anyway/ in particular their
commercial exploitation.
3. Especially/ Clearly there’s huge interest in the subject.
4. As far as the general public is concerned/ concerning the general public, Sony Corporation thinks that the best way place to launch the robot revolution is home entertainment.
5. Especially/ Furthermore home entertainment is likely to be the biggest market eventually/at last.
6. As a matter of fact/ Moving on to all the leading players are investing
tens of millions of dollars in the development of personal robots.
7. I mean/ As a result progress has been rapid.
8. On the other hand/ At the end, it’s clear that the development of “robo
sapiens” will take longer, a lot longer.
9. Nevertheless/ In general it’s clear that in terms of competition between countries Japan leads in robotics at the moment.
10. So, in fact/ to sum up, I’ve tried to show you how I believe we’re
entering a new age, the age of the robot, and it’s an age that’s full of
business opportunities.
Checklists for Preparation and Presentation
Checklist for Introduction
1. Welcome audience.
2. Introduce yourself (name, position/function).
3. State your topic.
4. Say why your topic is important for the audience.
5. Describe the structure of your talk (the main points and when you
will be cleaning with them).
6. Say how long the talk will be.
7. Say when you will answer questions.
8. Say whether there are handouts.
Checklist for the main part of a presentation
1. Briefly state your topic and objective(s).
2. Signal the beginning of each part.
3. Talk about your topic.
4. Signal the end of each part.
5. Highlight the main points.
6. Outline the main points. (Summarize the main ideas)
7. Signal the end of the main part.
Checklist for Conclusions
1. Signal the end of your talk.
2. Summarize the key points.
3. Highlight one important point.
4. Explain the significance.
5. Make your final statement.
6. Invite questions.
Checklist for using visuals
1. Start by telling your audience what the visual illustrates.
2. Explain it if necessary.
3. Highlight the key points.
4. Say why these points are important (and explain the cause and effect).
5. Use different verbs to express movement/development.
Phrase Bank
− Let me introduce myself. − As you know, I’m
I’m …
− Before I continue, let me − I’m in charge of …
tell you something about − I’m Senior Sales
− My name is …
− For those who don’t know
me, my name is … and I’m
the managing director.
− I’m responsible for …
why you are
Stating your
− I’ve been asked to speak to
you about …
− My purpose today is to …
− My objective today is to …
− Sam … asked me to present
my ideas …
− I promised to report the results of our survey to you.
− Today I’d like to talk about
− This morning I’m going to
be talking to you about …
This Phrase Bank provides key expressions for structuring presentations
effectively. These are organized by topic and purpose, reflecting the syllabus of the course. The phrase bank can be used as a study resource and
as a handy reference when making real presentations.
Getting Started
Welcoming a − I’d like to introduce …
− It’s good to have …
− I’d like to welcome …
− It’s a pleasure to welcome
− On behalf of …, may I
welcome to …
− Thank you for giving me − Thanks. It’s great to
this opportunity to speak to
be here.
you today.
− Thank you. I’m glad to be
− Good evening, ladies and − Morning everyone.
− Hello. Thank you all for − Hello. It’s good to
see you all here.
− Thanks for coming.
Getting peo-− Perhaps we should begin. − Ok, let’s get started.
ple’s attention
Fine. If we are all here, I’ll − Ok, let’s make a
− Right. If everyone’s ready,
let’s start.
Suppose …
How would you…
Statistics show that …
According to the latest
− I noticed in the news last
− On the way here, I
saw …
− A funny thing happened to me the
other day …
− You know, …
− When I think about
… I’m reminded of
− Did you know that
− How many of you
hate …? Raise you
hands. Thanks.
− What I want to do
this morning is …
− The reason we are
here today is to …
− What I am going to
do today is to review …
− There are some important issues I
want to go through
this morning …
Stating what − If you have any questions, − I’m happy to take
the audience
I’d be grateful if you could
need to do
leave them until the end.
− questions after that
− Please feel free to
− questions as we go
along ...
− Today I would like to give
you a general overview of
− Today I’m going to report
on the results of …
− Today I’ll be showing you
how to deal with …
− This afternoon we will be
exploring …
− In my presentation today
I’ll be outlining …
Outlining a − So, I’ll begin by filling you
in on the background to
(the project).
− … and then I’ll go on to
highlight what I see as the
main …
− I’m going to develop three
main points.
− First, … Second, …Third,
− I’ve divided my presentation into three main points.
I would like to begin with
− I would like to start by
bringing you up-to-date on
(with) the latest findings of
the study and then I’ll go
on to discuss in more depth
the implications of …
− So, I’ll be addressing three
main points and the first
point is going to be…
− The second point will be …
− And finally the last point is
− Perhaps we can leave any
questions you may have until the end of the presentation.
− If you have any questions
you’d like to ask, I’ll be
happy to answer them.
− Please feel free to interrupt
me at any time if you have
a question…
− I’ll pass round copies of my − Don’t worry about
slides so you can make
taking notes while I
notes as I go through the
talk. I have a
presentation …
handout with the
main points of my
− You don’t need to take
presentation, which
notes as we’ll be handing
I’ll give you after
out presentation booklets.
− I have copies of the statistics and tables. I’ll give − Before I start, I
have a handout for
these to you later.
− The figures are on a sheet
which you can have later.
− I want to start with
− And then … lastly
− First, I want to focus on …
− After that I …
− Finally, I want to
outline …
− Please save any
questions for the
end of the talk.
− I’m happy to answer any questions
as I talk.
− Don’t
there’ll be
− plenty of time left
over the questions
at the end.
− If you have any
feel free to stop me.
− Would you like to
take one? Here you
− Please feel free to
give me your feedback.
− You all have a copy of the − This won’t take me
handout with the graphs
more than …
and statistics.
− Here are some tables which
illustrate what I’m saying.
− I have copies of these and
the statistics I’ve mentioned on this handout.
Here you are.
− Please take one each and
pass them round.
− Did everyone get a copy?
− Would you like one of
− Would you like to take one
of these as I pass them
− Please take a leaflet.
− Help yourselves to a brochure.
− Please make comments as I
− The presentation should
last about five minutes.
− It will take about 20
minutes to cover these issues.
− My presentation will take
about 30 minutes.
− This will take about thirty
to forty minutes.
Main Section
Linking words
Firstly, … Secondly, … Finally, … First (of all)
… Then … Next …Finally/Lastly …
In general, ... On the whole, … Usually, … As a
rule, … Typically, … Basically, … Broadly
speaking, … Briefly, … To put it briefly, …
But, … However, … Nevertheless, … On the
other hand, … Still, … Yet, …
Even so, … Although, … Even though,
…Though, ... In spite of the fact that, … Despite
the fact that, … While, …
another In addition, … Moreover, … What is more, …
Furthermore, … Apart from this/that, … In addition (to this), … Besides (this), …
For example, … For instance, … Such as, ….
Like, … Particularly, … In particular, … Especially, ….
Either … or… Alternatively, … Instead of …
Real (surprising) In fact, … Actually, … As a matter of fact, …
In practice, … Indeed, …
Something is obvi- Clearly, … Obviously, … Of course, … Natuous
rally, … Needless to say, …
In other words, … That is today, … To put it
another way, …
and One advantage of … Another advantage of … A
further advantage of … The main advantage of
… The greatest advantage of … The benefits of
… One disadvantage of … Another disadvantage of … One of the drawbacks of … Pros
and cons of … The advantages and disadvantages of …
Expressing cause
Because of … Owing to (the fact that) … Due
to (the fact that) … Since … As … For this reason …
ef- Thus, … Therefore, … So, … As a result, … As
a consequence, … Consequently, …
With the purpose/intention of … In order to …
So that …
Personal opinion
In my opinion/view … As far as I am concerned
… I think that … To my mind …
true Up to a point, … To some extent, … To some
degree, … In a sense, … In a way, …
Expressing limited As far as I know … To the best of my
knowledge …
Referring to some According to … With reference to …
Similarly, … In the same way …
Briefly, … To put it briefly, … In short, …
On balance, … For the above mentioned reasons, … To sum up, … All things considered,
count/consideration, … In conclusion, … Taking all the above points into consideration
Signposting (transitions)
Making your next − Moving on to the question of …
point (changing
− Let me move on to the next question/issue
from one subjects − My next point is …
to another)
− As far as … is /are concerned …
− Now that we have explored the …
− I’d like to move on to …
− Let’s turn to the advantage of …
− I’d now like to change direction and talk about
− I’d like to turn to …
− Now, turning to …
Referring to an ear- − Let’s go back to the question of …
lier point
− Going back for a moment to the situation …
− To go back to the main reasons for …
− Let’s go back for a moment to what we were
discussing earlier …
− I said earlier that …
− In my last point, I mentioned that …
− As I’ve already explained …
− At the beginning of the talk I said …
Repeating the mean − I’d like to recap on the main points …
− So, let’s recap on that …
− Let me just recap what’s been said so far …
Giving a wider per- − I’d like to expand on that a little before we
spective (more demove on.
tails, new infor− Let me expand on some of the main points …
− To elaborate on that a little for those who
aren’t familiar with …
Moving away from − To digress for a moment, let’s consider …
the main subject
− To move off the point for a moment …
Emphasizing your
What’s especially important is …
I’d like to emphasize (stress)
The main thing is …
What I really want to stress is …
Explaining the
meaning of abbreviations
− WTO stands for World Trade Organization
Exploiting visuals
Asking listeners to − Have/take a look at this graph.
look at your visuals − The vertical axis shows … and the horizontal
axis represents …
− As you can see from the slide/graph/chart
− You can see from this slide that I’m going to
cover three main points.
− I’ll leave this up as I talk so that you can follow the points.
− This slide shows …
− From this graph you can see …
− Each line indicates …
− You can see from the key which line represents …
− For example, the dotted line shows …
− This table shows …
− The unbroken line shows …
− The broken line represents …
− The bar charts shown here indicate …
on − Look at the following pie-charts showing …
the content of a − I’d like to focus our attention on …
− This chart compares …
− I would like to concentrate on this green column …
− I’d like to draw your attention to …
− Looking at this graph it is interesting to note
− As you may have noticed …
− Looking at the trend in sales during that time,
you can see …
− The two diagrams give figures …
− If you look at it more closely, you’ll notice …
− Let’s move on now and look at the figures for
− Let’s move on to the statistics.
− I’d like to point out that …
− What is interesting/ important/ warring/ surprising/ of concern here is …
Making a final − As a final point, let me raise a general issue.
point (signal)
− As a final point, I’d like …
− So, that brings me to the end of my presentation …
− So, that completes our presentation.
− Well, that covers everything I want to say.
− To conclude, I’d like to introduce one final
Summarizing main − So, to sum up, first I outlined the problem that
we face and I gave three reasons for this problem. I then presented …
− Let me summarize what we’ve looked at.
− I’ll briefly summarize the main issues.
− I’d like to summarize.
− Let me just go over the key points again.
− To sum up …
− In this presentation I wanted to explore …
− To summarize, I’ll run through my three topics.
− I’ll briefly summarize the main issues.
− I’d like to conclude by strongly recommending …
− Following what I have said today, I recommend that …
− To quote a well-known business leader, …
− As Bill Gates once said, …
− I hope to have been able to show that the effect of …
− This does of course highlight the need for further research in the area of …
Closing remarks
Thank you for your attention.
Thank you for listening.
Many thanks for coming.
If you have any questions, I’d be happy to answer them.
− Are there any questions or comments?
− I’d welcome your comments.
− I’ll now hand out …
Telling people how − If you need to contact me, my email address
to contact you.
and work number are on the screen.
− Please feel free to contact me.
− It would be useful to have your feedback.
− You are welcome to get in touch.
− Please email me if you have any questions.
While working with technical literature Bachelors, Masters and
postgraduate students have to work with different sources of information. They usually read original literature such as books, journals, articles, monographies. One of their tasks is not only to read these numerous sources of information but to rework the original, compress it and
find the main ideas. When we speak about reworking the original technical information we mean secondary sources of information. They include: summaries, abstracts, reports, bibliographical descriptions.
Bibliographical descriptions are the shortest among the secondary sources of information. They are useful and applicable for descriptions of bibliographic resources in any type of catalogue. Bibliographical
descriptions analyze and structure details about the formal elements of
the materials, such as creator, title, dates, extent and contents, they also
facilitate the identification, management, and understanding of the work.
Here we will mainly focus on writing summaries and abstracts.
A summary is brief information of the original. Summaries are
quite short. They usually contain about 1/8 of the original information.
Summaries highlight the major points of the original sources. Be concise, using coordination and subordination to compress ideas. The purpose is to help readers to get the gist in a short period of time.
Writing an effective summary requires that a reader
− reads with the writer’s purpose in mind,
− underlines with summarizing in mind,
− writes, revises, and edits to ensure the accuracy and correctness of
the summary.
While writing a summary keep the following steps:
1. Read the article carefully, making no notes or marks and looking only
for what the writer is saying.
2. After you’re finished reading, write down in one sentence the point
that is made about the subject. Then look for the writer’s thesis and
underline it. Check if this thesis corresponds with the sentence you
wrote down? If not, adjust your sentence or reconsider the thesis you
3. Look at the article again and ask yourself if your view is slanted toward one of the essay’s minor points. If it is, adjust your sentence so
that it is slanted toward the writer’s major point.
4. Once you clearly understand the writer’s major point (or purpose) for
writing, read the article again. This time underline the major points
supporting the thesis; these should be words or phrases here and there
rather than complete sentences.
5. In addition, underline key transitional elements which show how parts
are connected. Omit specific details, examples, description, and unnecessary explanations. Note: you may need to go through the article
twice in order to pick up everything you need.
6. Write, revise, and edit your summary finally.
7. There are different kinds of summaries such as:
− Summary in nonfiction (Ознакомительная аннотация)
− Executive summary (Краткий обзор, резюме)
− Abstract (Aннотация, краткое изложение содержания)
Nonfiction summaries serve to familiarize the reader with the subject
matter of an entire work in a short space of time. They are written in a
balanced and objective way, mirroring the genre’s aim to show actual
events from the author’s point of view. Generally, nonfiction summaries
do not offer analysis or assessment. Summarizers use their own words to
write the shortened versions and draw on the original make-up of the
pieces to structure the distillations. They exclude superfluous examples,
descriptions and digressions. The opening sentence should introduce the
topic, and the final sentence should sum up the theme, taking into account the knowledge gained from the body of the text. In recent years, a
summarizing industry has sprung up. Leading firms focus mainly on
business literature. They adhere to the nonfiction guidelines mentioned
above, but also provide numerical ratings and evaluations of the titles
covered. Shorter, more concise nonfiction summaries are called abstracts. They are approximately five pages, thus longer than scientific
Executive summaries are used in business for a short document that
summarizes a longer report, proposal or group of related reports in such
a way that readers can rapidly become acquainted with a large body of
material without having to read it all. It will usually contain a brief
statement of the problem or proposal covered in the major document(s),
background information, concise analysis and main conclusions. It is intended as an aid to decision making by business managers.
An executive summary will usually
− be written in non-technical language,
− have a conclusion,
− make a recommendation,
− summarize more than one document.
Summaries give a list of the main features of a given topic, often used as
a rough draft or summary of the content of the original. A hierarchical
outline is a list arranged to show hierarchical relationships, and is a type
of tree structure. A lot of passive constructions are used in summaries.
They do not express your own opinion of the original but only highlight
the author’s opinion. Summaries usually give a recommendation for a
certain group of readers.
Key-expressions are usually used for writing summaries:
− The article deals with …
− As the title implies … the article describes ...
− The paper is concerned with…
− It is known that…
− It should be noted about…
− The fact that… is stressed in the text.
− A mention should be made about …
− It is spoken in detail about…
− It is reported that …
− The text gives valuable information on…
− Much attention is given to…
− It is shown that…
− The following conclusions are drawn…
− The paper looks at recent research dealing with…
− The main idea of the article is…
− It gives a detailed analysis of…
− It draws our attention to…
− It is stressed that…
− The article is of great help to …
− The article is of interest to …
− … is/are noted, examined, discussed in detail, stressed, reported,
Summary to the text “Modern building materials”.
1. The text deals with different types of modern building materials.
2. As the title implies “Modern building materials” the article describes some innovations in the field of building materials.
3. A mention should be made about modern cement composites.
4. Much attention is given to fiber-reinforced composites.
5. It should be noted that a lot of builders are interested in modern
building materials.
6. The text gives valuable information on/about different kinds of
7. The fact that the foamed glass is very popular nowadays is
stressed in the text.
8. A lot of recent data are given in the article.
9. Modern equipment is mentioned in the article.
10. The text is of interest to the wide circle of readers/to Masters.
11. The text is of great help to civil engineers.
therefore the abstract is a significant selling point for the reprint or electronic form of the full text.
Abstracts are protected under copyright law just as any other form of
written speech is protected. However, publishers of scientific articles invariably make abstracts publicly available, even when the article itself is
protected by a toll barrier. The abstract can convey the main results and
conclusions of a scientific article but the full text article must be consulted for details of the methodology, the full experimental results, and a
critical discussion of the interpretations and conclusions. An abstract allows one to sift through copious amounts of papers for ones in which the
researcher can have more confidence that they will be relevant to his research. Once papers are chosen based on the abstract, they must be read
carefully to be evaluated for relevance. It is commonly surmised that one
must not base reference citations on the abstract alone, but the entire
merits of a paper.
Purpose and limitations
Academic literature uses the abstract to analyze complex research.
An abstract may act as a stand-alone source instead of a full paper. As
such, an abstract is used by many organizations as the basis for selecting
research that is proposed for presentation in the form of a poster, platform/oral presentation or workshop presentation at an academic conference. Most literature database search engines index only abstracts rather
than providing the entire text of the paper. Full texts of scientific papers
must often be purchased because of copyright and/or publisher fees and
Usually abstracts have the following structure:
1) The background. It shows the content of the work. It has key words
set aside from your paper as the basis. 1-3 introduction sentences and
research questions are usually used here. We can use the following
− This article is motivated by …
− … is a fundamental question
− Previous research indicates …
− Previous research has shown …
− Previous research has focused on …
− The research focus (i.e. statement of the problem(s)/ research issue(s) addressed)
2) The aims. The purpose of research is usually given here.
− This article has the following goals …
− The article has the following goals …
− The article examines studies …
− The main purpose of the article is to …
3) The approach. This part shows the methods used in the research.
− We conducted the studies/ experiments on …
− We employed the following methods …
− The research explored …
− We tasted this hypothesis using …
An abstract is a brief summary of a research article, thesis, review,
conference proceeding or any in-depth analysis of a particular subject or
discipline, and is often used to help the reader quickly ascertain the paper's purpose. When used, an abstract always appears at the beginning of
a manuscript, acting as the point-of-entry for any given scientific paper
or patent application. Abstracting and indexing services for various academic disciplines are aimed at compiling a body of literature for that
particular subject. The terms précis or synopsis are used in some publications to refer to the same thing that other publications might call an
“abstract”. In management reports, an executive summary usually contains more information (and often more sensitive information) than the
abstract does.
4) The results. It shows the main findings.
− The findings support the prediction …
− The findings support the model …
− Theoretical contributions and practical implications are discussed/
presented … in detail.
5) The conclusion. It shows what research lead to.
− The findings of the research illustrate how …
abridgement can be true to the original work in terms of mood and tone,
capturing the parts the abridging author perceives to be most important,
or it could be a complete parody of the original. A written work may be
abridged to make it more accessible to a wider audience; for example, to
make an adaptation of it as an audio book or a television show, to make
a more convenient companion to an already established work, or to create a shorter reference version.
Abstract length varies by discipline and publisher requirements. Typical
length ranges from 100 to 500 words, but very rarely more than a page.
An abstract may or may not have the section title of “abstract” explicitly
listed as an antecedent to content.
Abstracts may also contain brief references although some publications’
standard style omits references from the abstract, reserving them for the
article body (which, by definition, treats the same topics but in more
This article is motivated by a series of experiments on the problems
between members in the educational group. The main purpose of the article is to describe the reasons for conflicts between its members. The article aims to show some aspects of the problem described. We conducted
the studies on type of conflicts arising in the group. The research explored how often the members had conflicts and the ways to avoid them.
Theoretical contributions and practical implications are discussed in detail. The findings of the research illustrate how to organize work in this
group and to make its members cooperate in a good way.
Graphical abstracts
During the late 2000s, due to the influence of computer storage and
retrieval systems such as the Internet, many scientific publications started including graphical abstracts alongside the text abstracts. The graphic
is intended to summarize or be an exemplar for the main thrust of the article. It is not intended to be as exhaustive a summary as the text abstract, rather it is supposed to indicate the type, scope, and technical
coverage of the article at a glance.
Model Summary
An example of a summary is provided on the following pages. The
example uses an article by David Suzuki to show you how a reading can
be marked up, outlined, and summarized. Ask yourself the following
questions to help you notice how this example follows the suggestions
made in this handout:
1. What different kinds of notations does the student use to mark up the
reading? How do the notations help uncover the meaning and main
points of the reading?
2. How closely does the outline follow the notations made on the reading?
3. What does the student who created this outline/summary do to show
exact wording that she/he copied?
4. In the summary, what method is used to make reference to the author
5. What are some of the differences between the outline and the summary? Why is the summary more useful than the outline to show the
main ideas in the Suzuki article?
6. Find some examples of how the student uses her/his own wording to
paraphrase Suzuki’s ideas. Do you think the student plagiarizes anywhere in her summary?
7. Do you think the summary matches each of the summary criteria listed
on the first page of this handout?
Abridgement or abridgment is a term defined as “shortening” or
“condensing” and is most commonly used in reference to the act of reducing a written work, typically a book, into a shorter form. The
Transporting food can cost the earth
By David Suzuki
When it comes to food, buying local has been the mantra of environmental groups for years. After all, it’s pretty easy to conclude that
transporting fruits and vegetables from one side of the globe to the other
isn’t very good for the planet. Now, a comprehensive new analysis of the
true costs of the way we produce, purchase and consume food has found
that while international transport of food does have an impact, when it
comes to environmental damage, the big culprit is domestic transportation.
Researchers in the United Kingdom used data from previous studies to estimate the hidden costs of conventional agriculture in that country. These costs include things like government subsidies; exhaust pollution from transport trucks, railroads and car travel; heat-trapping emissions that cause global warming; and infrastructure, such as roads. Their
results, published in the journal Food Policy, show that international
ship and air travel currently contribute a relatively miniscule amount to
the overall hidden costs of our food. By far, domestic transportation
from the farm to the retailer and then from the shop to the consumer’s
home has the greatest impact – accounting for nearly half of the hidden
costs. Raw distance, it turns out, is not always the deciding factor in determining the adverse effects of transportation. Shipping by water, researchers note, has lower impact than shipping by road. Transport by air,
on the other hand, has the greatest impact of all. Right now, hidden costs
for the international transport of food are relatively low because much of
this food is shipped by boat, or in the cargo holds of passenger planes. If
we start to ship food by air more often, these costs could increase dramatically.
But if domestic transportation costs in a country as small as the
U.K. are high, then the hidden costs of food transportation in Canada
may be much higher. Consider a box of cereal, for example, which may
start with wheat from the Prairies, transported to Ontario for processing
with other ingredients from all over the country, put into a box made in
Quebec and then transported to British Columbia for retail sales, where
it will be picked up by a consumer driving an SUV. Because of our reliance on fossil fuels for transportation needs, each of these stages has
hidden costs. In fact, even if we buy local food, but all of us drive to the
store to pick it up, there are increased hidden costs. So, does this mean
big-box chains that sell in huge quantities may unintentionally help the
environment by reducing the number of trips taken to purchase groceries? According to the research, that doesn’t appear to be the case. Consumers in the U.K. are actually making more grocery shopping trips and
driving greater distances to make them than they were 20 years ago – before the rise of the megamart. Another hidden cost of our food is taxpayer-funded government subsidies that prop up unsustainable agricultural
practices. Switching to organic agriculture, the researchers conclude,
would lead to big benefits in terms of overall costs to society. Of course,
the benefits of organic agriculture in terms of environmental impact are
greatly reduced if the food has to travel by road a great distance to reach
the consumer. So what food-shopping patterns will yield the most benefit to the environment and society? Looking at the data, walking, biking
or taking public transit to buy organic, locally grown (within 20 km)
food would be the best choice. Grocery delivery services also help a
great deal by reducing the overall number of vehicle trips. Even choosing a fuel-efficient vehicle and reducing the number of trips helps.
Unfortunately, suburban sprawl is rapidly eating up some of Canada’s best farmland – which also happens to be located near urban centers. For our food to be sustainable, governments at all levels must work
to curb sprawl and support local food systems.
1. Thesis:
Because local production and transport of food cause higher “hidden
costs” than moving food internationally, the local level is where significant changes need to be made.
2. Outline:
1) British Research shows:
a) International transportation of food adds very little to “hidden
b) Domestic transport = 50% of these costs,
c) Transportation by water costs the least; land transportation and
especially air transportation cost most.
d) In a vast nation like Canada, these costs are especially high.
2) Where are some of the “hidden costs”?
a) Many car trips to buy food: consumers make more trips farther
distances to get groceries at large “megamarts” than when they
shopped more locally.
b) Rather than supporting highly beneficial local organic farming,
Government subsidizes unsustainable farming practices, (the
benefit of organic farming much less if the food is transported
large distances over land).
3) What are some solutions?
a) Consumers should make fewer trips to grocery stores and use
less gasoline to make grocery trips (walk, bike, public transit,
smaller cars).
b) Government should stop urban sprawl because this uses up local
farm land and support local farming.
3. Summary:
In “Transporting Food Can Cost the Earth,” Suzuki argues that, because local production and transport of food cause higher “hidden costs”
than moving food internationally, the local level is where significant
changes need to be made. He summarizes British research which shows
that the international transport of agricultural products, much of which
happens by boat, does not significantly affect the “hidden costs” of moving food. In contrast, moving food products by land and especially by air
adds significantly to the costs. Suzuki suggests that, in a vast nation like
Canada, these costs are especially high because so much fossil fuel is
needed to transport food by land and air over large distances. Returning
to the research, Suzuki points out that a major cost is the way consumers
use fossil fuel to drive to and from stores. Another cost is government
support for “unsustainable agricultural practices.” Suzuki suggests that
consumers can lessen the environmental impact of grocery shopping by
choosing ways to go shopping that use no or little gasoline. Suzuki also
calls on governments to support local food production by limiting “urban
sprawl” because it takes over local farm land.
Writing good summaries requires accurate reading and the ability
to find the main idea and most important supporting evidence in a piece
of writing. Summaries are always quite a bit shorter than the original
texts, perhaps 75 percent shorter.
Sometimes, particularly for a book, the summary is much shorter
than the original, perhaps 99 percent shorter. When you write a summary, you give your readers an idea of the content of an article or book
and save them the time and trouble of reading the entire original.
To write a good summary, keep the following in mind:
1. Read the original carefully.
2. Mention the source and the author at the beginning of the summary.
3. State the author’s main idea without distorting those ideas or adding
your own.
4. State the author’s most important supporting evidence or subpoints
without distorting them. Do not include details.
5. Use your own wording. Occasionally, however, a phrase in the original may be especially striking, interesting, or controversial. In that
case, you may use the author’s exact words if you put quotation
marks around them.
6. Don’t include your own ideas or comments. The summary should include only the author’s ideas.
7. Periodically remind the reader that you are summarizing someone
else’s idea.
The following selection discusses the problems of staying up all night to
study for exams. Before you read, answer these questions:
1. What do you think of the idea of staying up all night to study for an
2. What do you think of using stimulants to help stay alert?
3. Do you think students usually recover well from staying up all night?
4. Have you ever stayed up all night studying for an exam?
5. How did you feel during the exam?
6. How did you feel the rest of the day?
7. How well did you do on the exam?
Read the text and get the main idea.
The Dangers of Cramming
by Keith Ablow
Midnight, and the spiral notebook is barely half full. The rest of its
pages, scribbled with organic chemistry equations, litter the dormroom
floor. Every few minutes the figure hunched over the desk tears away
another page, having memorized as much as he can, and passes it on to
his friend. And thus the two roommates continue all night, dropping the
pages to the carpet after each has absorbed his fill.
Welcome to the all-night cramming session, which most students
resort to at some desperate point in their college careers. Armed with the
energy of youth, they simply ignore their bodies’ cries for sleep, trying
to fend off fatigue with doses of coffee or, occasionally, drugs. Teachers
and parents have long argued that cramming does more harm than good
and the latest research into sleep needs and patterns suggests that they
are right.
For some people, disruptions in the regular sleep cycle can cause
temporary intellectual lapses and stimulants can set off severe side effects. Thus, for every student who manages to memorize the chemical
synthesis of bona-S-rubber at 5 a.m. and then triumphantly finds that
precise question on his test at 9, there are more than a few who lament
the “obvious” answers they blew on a multiple-choice exam because
they couldn’t focus.
The outcome of all-nighters is unpredictable because the impact of
sleep loss vanes so widely. “Some people are markedly impaired by
even a small decrease in sleep time,” says David Buchholtz, a neurologist and sleep therapist at The Johns Mopkins Hospital in Baltimore,
while others can go without sleep for a few nights without any demonstrable loss of performance. People also have vastly different minimum
requirements: a full night’s rest can range from 4 to 10 hours. It is critical, experts stress, for each person to know how much sleep he needs.
Heavy use of stimulants can compound the problem. Many students assume that large quantities of coffee or a few amphetamines will
increase alertness: they don’t. In fact, stimulants merely disguise briefly
a reduced capacity to grasp, return, and retrieve information. “Caffeine
does not correct the cognitive impairment caused by lost sleep,” Buchholtz says. “A person may be awake, but he’ll have to deal with an intellectual deficit, and his concentration won’t be there. He can actually
have “micro sleeps” and stare at the same word for five minutes.”
Nor are unpredictable naps the only penalty of substance abuse.
Coffee drinkers should watch out for Caffeine Intoxication Syndrome,
an onset of anxiety, panic, headaches and a frustrating inability to sleep.
Most people would have to drink about 10 cups to fall into this condition, but some are so sensitive that it can hit them after only 2 to 3 cups.
Speed [an amphetamine] is far more hazardous.
Overdoses can lead to auditory hallucinations and paranoia.
In addition, according to Larry Alessi, assistant professor of psychiatry at The Johns Hopkins Medical School, “if someone uses speed
for many weeks and then stops, he may “crash” into severe depression.”
Unless a person abuses his body with stimulants, he should be able
to snap back fairly quickly from an all-nighter. One full night of rest will
usually produce complete recovery from up to 48 hours of sleep deprivation; normal, healthy people have been known to stay awake for as long
as a week without lasting ill effects. On the second night, there is usually
an increase in REM (rapid eye movement) sleep, the phase in which
dreaming occurs. Normally, REM sleep is beneficial, but some people
report particularly graphic and disturbing nightmares associated with a
sudden increase in REM.
Then there are the problems of students who want to get a good
night’s sleep before an exam but just can’t. Stress often promotes insomnia. It may cause the reticular activating system, the structure in the
brain that is responsible for alertness, to stay on too long; this prevents
sleep-inducing mechanisms from doing their job. What do experts advise
a student who finds himself tossing and turning for a halt hour or so on
the eve of a test? He should get up and try an ordinarily relaxing activity,
like snacking or watching television, until he is tired. Some people find
that making notes about what’s worrying them can exercise those concerns until the morning. Sleeping too much, authorities agree, should not
worry most people.
Even after an extended night of “rebound” sleep, the brain arouses
itself when its needs have been fulfilled. Clinically depressed people do
often retreat into slumber to avoid the waking hours, but true clinical depression is accompanied by other noticeable symptoms such as loss of
appetite, decreased self-esteem and even thoughts of suicide. In the end,
the best formula to follow when finals arrive is one that students have
been taught for years-moderation. There will surely be times when excelling, or perhaps just passing, requires pushing bedtime back, but any major
changes in sleep patterns should be made cautiously. As Buchholtz suggests, “The key is keeping perspective and not ever overdoing it.”
Task 1. Now read the selection again and summarize it in one sentence
of not more than 25 words. As with most summaries, use the present
Task 2. Label each paragraph with a subheading indicating the subject
discussed in that paragraph. The first three paragraphs have been done
for you.
1. introduction – description of a cramming session
2. cramming, more harm than good
3. temporary mental lapses
2. In “The danger of Cramming” Keith Ablow indicates/ discusses/ explores the problems …
3. The article “The Dangers of Cramming” by Keith Ablow examines
the negative effects …
4. Cramming, according to Keith Ablow in his article “The Dangers of
Cramming,” can do more harm than good.
Continue the summary, using your list of subheadings and your groupings as a guide to help you remember the main points covered in the article. At least once in your summary, keep in mind that you are summarizing by using a phrase like the following:
The author goes on to say …
Ablow also reports that …
The article further states that …
Task 3. When you have finished, compare your subheadings with those
of your groupmates. If the headings for any paragraph are quite different
from one another, reread that paragraph and select the heading that best
states the subject of the paragraph.
Task 4. Which paragraph seems to state the main point the author wants
to make in this article? Write that main point or thesis here.
Task 5. Now look at your list of subheadings and group together headings that deal with similar subjects. Give each grouping a name. How
many paragraphs seem to make up the introduction? What are the other
groupings you formed?
Task 6. Now write a short summary (100 to 150 words) of this article.
Remember that the summary should be in the present tense. Begin by
mentioning the original source. Here are possible ways to include the
1. In the article entitled “The danger of Cramming” Keith Ablow informs us/ state/ claims / shows us that …
Exercise 3. Match the phrases (1–25) with functions (A–D)
A. Establishing why your topic is important.
B. Outlining the past-present history of the study of your topic (no direct
references to the literature).
C. Outlining the possible future of your topic.
D. Indicating the gap in knowledge and possible limitations.
Exercise 1. Find synonyms.
a) end
b) use
c) have
d) enough
e) show
f) help
prior to
due to the fact that
in a considerable number of cases
the vast majority of
during the time that
in close proximity to
a) near
b) most
c) when
d) often
e) before
f) because
Exercise 2. Insert the words below into the spaces.
addresses, aim, aimed at, aims to, continuation, feasibility study,
framework, propose, scope, targeted, this end, undertook
1. Our … is to provide a short, practical analysis of how this language is
2. This article … define the difference between a hazard and a danger.
3. This article is the result of a … investigating…
4. This work … the problems inherent in…
5. This work is a direct … of the work begun by Zappata [2014].
6. To … we have tried to…
7. We have … funding as being our main priority.
8. We … a new code for calculating the number of hours required.
9. We … this study to…
10. Within the … of these criteria, we propose to…
11. Defining P and Q falls outside the … of this article.
12. It is … students of engineering.
1. A neglected area in the field of analytical chemistry is …
2. Although this approach is interesting, it fails to take into account
three critical factors.
3. By 2025, computers will have become redundant.
4. Concerns have arisen which call into question the validity of …
5. Few researchers have addressed the issue of…
6. However, there has been little discussion on …
7. In the next few years Nigeria is likely to have become …
8. It is not yet known whether these problems will be solved in the near
9. Moreover, other approaches have failed to provide …
10. Most studies have only focused on China to the detriment of India.
11. Recent developments regarding the future of the Internet have led
to …
12. Roses are among the most well-known flowers on the planet.
13. The Indonesian economy has received much attention in the past
decade due to …
14. The last two years have witnessed a huge growth in the number of
studies on this topic.
15. The next decade is likely to see a considerable rise in unemployment.
16. There is little or no general agreement on …
17. There is still considerable controversy surrounding …
Exercise 4. In each sentence delete the one word/ phrase that is not
appropriate/ grammatical.
1. This paper outlines/ proposes/ describes/ discovers/ presents a new
approach to … .
2. This paper validates/ examines/ seeks to address/ focuses on/ discusses/ investigates how to solve … .
3. This paper is an overview of/ a review of/ a report on/ a preliminary attempt how bilinguals separate the two languages while
4. The aim of our work is to further/ extend/ widen/ broaden/ amplify
current knowledge of …
5. This paper takes a new look at/ re-examines/ revisits/ informs/
sheds new light on how politicians use their power.
6. Vitous [2015] has provided/ put forward/ put down/ proposed a
new definition of … , in which … .
7. In the literature there lacks of a general definition of …/ a general
definition of … is lacking/ there is no clear definition of … .
8. In their seminal/ groundbreaking/ cutting edge/ state-of-the-art
paper of 2012, Peters and Jones … .
9. Experiments on … were conducted/ carried on/ carried out/ performed on … in 2009 by a group of researchers from … .
10. More recent evidence shows/ suggests/ investigates/ highlights/ reveals/ proposes that.
11. He claims/ argues/ criticizes/ maintains/ suggests/ points out/ underlines that… .
12. Kamos’s [23] assumptions seem to be sensitive/ realistic/ wellfounded/ well-grounded/ plausible/ reasonable/ acceptable.
13. Many experts contend, however/ instead/ on the one hand, that this
evidence is not conclusive.
14. This has led authors as/ such as/ for example/ for instance Mithran
[32], Yasmin [34] and Hai [35] to investigate … .
Exercise 5. Insert the words below into the spaces.
approach, attention, claimed, critical issues, developed,
emphasis, failed, led, literature, pointed out, review paper,
was among the first, work, would support
1. In this … only the highlights of the last 4 years, with … on novel
techniques, will be discussed.
2. A recent review of the … on this topic found that … .
3. Much … on the potential of nanotechnology has been carried out, yet
there are still some … which need to be resolved.
4. In the traditional … , X is used to define Y.
5. In the last few years more … has been given to the pitfalls of monolingualism.
6. Doyle (2015) … to… .
7. As … by Wallwork, this will only occur if … .
8. He … that this is the consequence of mismanagement, but he … to
provide adequate proof of this finding.
9. This … Marchesi et al. to the following conclusion … and this … the
hypothesis that … .
10. Dee … a new method and concluded that … .
Exercise 6. Insert the words below into the spaces.
calls into question, compared, conducted, contend,
drawbacks, expected, findings, hypothesis, notes, observations,
raises many questions, shortcomings, underway
1. Spencer et al. … a similar experiment with dogs.
2. As might have been … , contradictory … were shown.
3. This … about whether live subjects should be used.
4. Smith and Jones … France and Italy, and found them to be … .
5. Their group … some past assumptions about the use of animal testing.
6. Many experts …, however, that his evidence is not conclusive.
7. A related … holds that the love of money is equal to evil, suggesting
that … .
8. Other … indicate that this explanation is insufficient … .
9. The … of this method have been clearly recognized and experimentation is … to provide … .
Exercise 7. Insert the words below into the spaces. They must have a
similar meaning to the other words in bold.
apparent, are presented, below, chart, details,
highlights, illustrated, indicate, note, summarizes
1. Table 1 compares/ lists/ details/ … the data on the progress of the
2. Table 2 proves/ shows/ demonstrates/ illustrates/ … that developed
countries create more than 3,000 times more toxic waste than most
developing countries.
3. Figure 1 presents/ reports/ shows/ … the data on the first set of
4. Figure 3 pinpoints/ … exactly where X meets Y.
5. As shown/ highlighted/ …/ detailed/ can be seen in Fig. 1, the value of … .
6. The results on … can be seen / are compared/ … in Fig. 1.
7. From the graph/ photo/ …/ histogram we can see / note that … .
8. It is clear/ … from Fig. 1 that … .
9. We observe/ … from Table 1 that … .
10. The graph to the left/ to the right/ above/ … shows that … .
Exercise 8. Insert the words below into the spaces.
can be illustrated, classic example, example, for example,
illustrates, illustration, include, including, such as
1. A … of this stereotype is that women have more difficulty reading
maps than men.
2. This is a yet another … of the in finite levels of greed of the financial
3. The graph in Figure 1 … this point clearly.
4. This fact … briefly by looking at … .
5. Those living in impoverished inner city areas may be prone to violence for a number of reasons. They may, …, have never been employed … .
6. Another … of what we mean is … .
7. Countries that have adopted this policy … Ecuador, Columbia and
8. This policy has been adopted by many countries … Ecuador, Columbia and Bolivia.
9. Several South American countries, … Ecuador and Bolivia, have
adopted this policy.
2. Рассматривается (проверяется его пригодность) a new method of
integrating the equations (Pr. Ind.).
3. Изучены blocking effects in the scattering of particles (Pr. Perf.).
4. Обсуждается the electron creation rate (Pr. Ind.).
5. Рассматривается (учитывается весь процесс) the role of the
changed conditions (Pr.Ind.).
6. Уже обсуждался (был проанализирован) the method of integrating
the equation (Pr.Perf.).
7. Обсуждалась a kinetic theory for an impurity center (Past. Ind.).
8. Подсчитывалась (был произведен аналитический расчет) the
thermoelectric power of antiferromagnetic metals (Past ind.).
9. Вычислен (с помощью вычислительной машины) the percolation
level for a twodimensional Gaussian potential (Pr. Perf.).
10. Определяется (путем оценки) the shift of the energy levels (Pr. Ind.).
11. Новый метод интегрирования рассматривается во всех подробностях (Pr. Ind.).
12. Подробно изучено влияние (effect) температуры на растворимость (solubility) (Pr.Perf.).
13. Некоторые породы (rocks) были внимательно проанализированы
(Past. Ind.).
Exercise 10. Translate the sentences from Russian into English.
Example: Рассматривается индуцированная генерация γ квантов.
The stimulated emission of γ rays is studied.
1. Изучалась (была проанализирована) the fine structure of muscles
(Past Ind.).
1. Исследовались фазовые переходы (the phase transitions) в поликристаллах.
2. Изучены высокоплотные формы (high-density forms) флюорита.
3. Рассматриваются (анализируются) некоторые современные методы определения возраста пород (rock age determination).
4. Были описаны электростатические свойства частиц (properties of
5. Рассмотрена (с учетом обстоятельств) возможность накачивания
(pumping) системы.
6. Измерена начальная магнитная проницаемость (initial permeability) ферритов.
7. Была вычислена (определена) температурная зависимость термоэдс (thermoelectric power).
8. Произведен расчет теплосопротивления (heat resistivity).
Exercise 9. Translate the predicates in the sentences below. Use
grammar tenses mentioned in brackets.
Example: Были изучены (проанализированы) evoked potentials in
anasthetized animals (Past Ind.). – Evoked potentials in anasthetized animals were analyzed.
9. Выделяются (с помощью компьютера) параметры компонент
кристаллического поля (crystal field).
10. Рассчитана формула решетки (the lattice).
11. Было изучено несколько новых типов транзисторов.
12. Рассматриваются различные формы материалов.
13. Изучался механизм переноса электронов (electron transfer).
14. Измерено теплосопротивление металлов (heat resistance).
Exercise 11. Translate predicates in the sentences. Use passive verbs
(for example “it is shown») when translating the second sentences in
each group.
1. (Описывается) a method for neutron activation analysis. (Показано)
that it can be used as gas chromotography technique.
2. (Измерялось) the ration of the thickness of elastic twin. (Было
обнаружено) that its length was small.
3. (Были проанализированы) the magnetic impurities. (Делается
вывод) that they can lead to resonance peaks.
4. (Изучались) the effects of ions on the mechanism for synergic solvent. (Исследование также проводилось) on the extraction of the Fe
III. (Найдено) that the effects were the same.
5. (Проводились измерения) of the Hall emf. (Показано) that the direction of the primary current and the measured emf were reversed, (а
также пришли к выводу) that the Hall field was of tensor nature.
Exercise 13. Translate into Russian.
A modified form of a compressor is described. The operation of the
compressor is given in detail. The design and performance are also discussed. Special emphasis is given to the application.
Exercise 14. Translate into English using the first text as an example.
Изготовлен новый усовершенствованный вид детектора. Подробно
изложены его конструкция и рабочие характеристики. Особое внимание обращается на его достоинства и недостатки (advantages and
disadvantages). Также обсуждается его работа.
Exercise 12. Translate the sentences from Russian into English.
1. Рассматривалась теория увлечения электронов (the theory of the
drag of electrons). Показано, что эта теория объясняет наблюдаемый эффект.
2. Проводились измерения ЭДС Холла (Hall emf), и было обнаружено, что холловское поле (the Hall field) имеет тензорный характер (be of tensor nature).
3. Обсуждается основная (basic) теория этого эффекта и показано, что
она в основном (substantionally) согласуется с экспериментом.
4. Особое внимание уделяется применению этого прибора (device).
5. Специально учитываются результаты измерений.
6. Обсуждается усовершенствованный вид оптического интерферометра (optical interferometer), причем особое внимание уделяется его конструкции и работе (operation).
N, №
2 1/3
(a-b)= a2-b2
plus/ and
minus/ take away
plus or minus
(is) multiplied by/ times
(is) divided by
is equal to/equals
is not equal to/ does not equal
is approximately equal
square brackets
curly brackets
is less than
is more than
is less than or equal to
is more than or equal to
per cent
degree (градус)
minute (of an arc)
second (of an arc)
approaches, tends to, corresponds to
empty set
one half, a half
one third
four sevenths
two and a third
nought point three, zero (nill, null) point three
two point four
a plus b equals c
a multiplied by b equals c
a divided by b is equal to c
the product of the sum and difference of two quantities
is equal to the difference of their squares
three is to nine, as four is to sixteen-proportion
f (x)
R (x)
min f (x)
max f (x)
dy / dx
(square) root;
the cube root of a
the fifth root of x
the nih root of a
x squared; 32 – tree squared или the second power of
x cubed; 53 – five cubed или the third power of five
x to the power four/to the forth; 54 – five to the power of
the logarithm of x to base b
natural logarithm to the base e
natural logarithm
right angle
is perpendicular
is parallel to
round, circle
radius of circle
pi r squared – formula for area of circle
belongs to
the element a is contained in the set A
the element a is not contained in the set A
A prime
B sub one
C sub b
function of x
R of x
minimum value of f (x) over allowed range of x
maximum value of f (x) over allowed range of x
differential of x
the first derivative of y with respect to x
integral from ... to ... of ... with respect to
limit as x approaches y
∇ f (x)
limit as x approaches y from above
limit as x approaches y from below
union of sets A and B (that is, the set of elements in A or
B of both)
intersection of sets A and B (that is, the set of elements
commonly contained in sets A and B)
gradient of the function of x
parallelogram cub
diagonal, sloping
квадрат (сущ.), квадратный (прилаг.)
прямоугольник (сущ.), прямоугольный (прилаг.)
треугольник (сущ.), треугольный (прилаг.)
круг (сущ.), круглый (прилаг.)
полукруг (сущ.), полукруглый(прилаг.)
овал (сущ.), овальный (прилаг.)
эллипс (сущ.)
эллиптический (прилаг.)
параллелограмм (сущ.)
куб (сущ.)
кубический (прилаг.)
выпуклый (прилаг.)
вогнутый (прилаг.)
перпендикулярная, напр.: АВ перпендикулярна CD - АВ is perpendicular to CD
- сплошная
- прерывистая
- пунктирная
− length
− width
− height
− depth
− thickness
− long
− wide
− high
− deep
− thick
емкость, вместительность
− capacity
1. Алексеева И. С. Профессиональный тренинг переводчика /
И. С. Алексеева. – СПб. : Изд-во «Союз», 2001.
2. Казакова Т. А. Практические основы перевода / Т. А. Казакова. –
СПб. : Лениздат, 2002.
3. Колодяжная Ж. А. Основные понятия об аннотировании и реферировании научных документов / Ж. А. Колодяжная // Источники науч.-техн.
информации и их аналитико-синтетическая обработка. – М., 2002.
4. Маркушевская Л. П. Курс грамматики английского языка. Теория
и практика / Л. П. Маркушевская, Н. В. Ермошина, Г. С. Германчук,
Т. Г. Некрасова. – СПб. : ЛИТОН, 2008.
5. Маркушевская Л. П. Неличные формы глагола. Тесты по английскому языку. Изд. 3-е. / Л. П. Маркушевская [и др.]. – СПб.: ЛИТОН, 2005.
6. Процуто М. В. Steps in Mastering Economics (Intermediate) /
М. В. Процуто, Л. П. Маркушевская, С. А. Ермолаева, Ю. А. Цапаева. ИТМО,
СПб., 2013.
7. Учебное пособие по английскому языку. – М. : Высшая школа,
8. Шахова Н. И. Learn to Read Science: Курс английского языка для
аспирантов и научных работников / Н. И. Шахова {и др.]. – М.: Наука, 1993.
9. Bonamy David. Technical English 4. Pearson Longman, 2011.
10. Borko H., Bernier Ch. Abstracting concepts and methods. – N.Y, 2007.
11. Caruzzo Patrizia. Flash on English for Construction. ELI publishing,
12. Erica J. Williams. Presentations in English. Macmillan Publishers Limited, 2012
13. Mark Powell, Dynamic Presentations. Cambridge University Press, 2011
14. N. Brieger, A. Pohl. Technical English Vocabulary and Grammar. Summertown Publishing, 2006.
Making Presentations ……………………………….
Checklists for Preparation and Presentation ………..
Phrase Bank …………………………………………
Working with secondary sources of information …...
Writing summaries ………………………………….
Vocabulary exercises ……………………………….
Appendix 1 Symbols and formulas ………………………………
Appendix 2 Shapes, Lines, Sizes ………………………………...
Appendix 3 Greek alphabet, English and Russian
transliteration ……………………………………….
Literature ……………………………………………
Part II
Учебное издание
Процуто Марина Владимировна
Маркушевская Лариса Петровна
Дворина Наталья Геннадьевна
Цапаева Юлия Александровна
Ермолаева Светлана Александровна
Сахарова Татьяна Евгеньевна
Часть 2
Учебное пособие
Компьютерная верстка И. А. Яблоковой
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