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Sarjan Angl 138

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Санкт-Петербургский государственный
архитектурно-строительный университет
Общестроительный факультет
Кафедра иностранных языков
АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК
Учебно-методическое пособие № 138
Санкт-Петербург
2014
Министерство образования и науки
Российской Федерации
Санкт-Петербургский государственный
архитектурно-строительный университет
Общестроительный факультет
Кафедра иностранных языков
АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК
Учебно-методическое пособие № 138
Санкт-Петербург
2014
1
УДК 811.111:378.6:62(075.8)
ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ
Рецензенты: ст. преподаватель А. В. Потапчук (СПбГАСУ),
ст. преподаватель Т. H. Павлова (СПбГАСУ).
Сарян, М. А.
Английский язык: учеб.-метод. пособие № 138 / М. А. Сарян;
под ред. М. А. Сарян. СПбГАСУ. – СПб., 2014. – Ч. IV. – 99 с.
Данное учебно-методическое пособие является последней частью комплекса пособий из 4 частей (135–138), предназначенных для студентов, специализирующихся в области инженерно-экологических систем. Учебнометодическое пособие способствует развитию навыков чтения и перевода,
формированию умений использования активной лексики и грамматики
в специальной литературе. Данное пособие составлено на материале оригинальных англоязычных текстов. Целью учебно-методического пособия является достижение уровня владения английским языком, позволяющего учащимся вести профессиональную деятельность в соответствии со специальностью.
Предназначено для вузов, специализирующихся по направлениям подготовки: 140100.62 – Теплоэнергетика и теплотехника, 140400.62 – Электроэнергетика и электротехника, 270109 – Теплогазоснабжение и вентиляция,
270112 – Водоснабжение и водоотведение, 280700.62 – Техносферная безопасность.
Данное учебно-методическое пособие предназначено для студентов, обучающихся по направлениям подготовки: «Теплоэнергетика и теплотехника», «Электроэнергетика и электротехника», «Теплогазоснабжение и вентиляция», «Водоснабжение и водоотведение», «Техносферная безопасность». Цель учебно-методического
пособия – подготовить студентов к чтению специальной научнотехнической литературы для извлечения информации в условиях
будущей профессиональной деятельности. Учебно-методическое
пособие состоит из четырех частей. Каждая часть рассчитана на
один семестр обучения и содержит 10 уроков и словарный минимум терминов. В основе структуры каждого урока – два текста (основной текст А и вспомогательный текст В). Тексты уроков сопровождаются рядом упражнений на закрепление тематической и терминологической лексики, а также на развитие навыков чтения и перевода в рамках профессиональной тематики. Упражнения по
грамматике составлены на основе лексики предыдущих уроков.
Грамматические задания, построенные на повторении наиболее
частотных в технических текстах грамматических структур с неличными формами глаголов, условными предложениями различных типов, способствуют закреплению полученных ранее знаний
по грамматике английского языка. Тексты учебно-методического
пособия отобраны из оригинальных английских и американских
источников с учетом их информативности и соответствия научнотехническим достижениям, поэтому текстовый материал содержит
в равной степени ценную информацию лингвистического и профессионального характера.
 М. А. Сарян, 2014
 Санкт-Петербургский государственный
архитектурно-строительный университет, 2014
2
3
Урок 4.1
Текст A
SPLIT AIR-CONDITIONING SYSTEMS
Split type air conditioning systems are systems consisting of one
evaporator (fan coil) unit connected to an external condensing unit. Both
the indoor and outdoor units are connected through copper tubing and
electrical cabling. The indoor part (evaporator) pulls heat out from the
surrounding air while the outdoor condensing unit transfers the heat into
the environment. Advantages of using split air-conditioners: 1) low initial cost, less noise and ease of installation; 2) good alternative to ducted
systems; 3) each system is totally independent and has its own control.
Disadvantages: 1) there is limitation on the distance between the
indoor and outdoor unit i.e. refrigerant piping can’t exceed the limits
stipulated by the manufacturer (usually 100 to 150 ft) otherwise the performance will suffer; 2) maintenance (cleaning/change of filters) is
within the occupied space; 3) limited air throw which can lead to possible hot/cold spots; 4) impact on building aesthetics of large building because too many outdoor units will spoil the appearance of the building.
Multi-split systems A multi-type air conditioning system operates
on the same principles as a split type air- conditioning system however
in this case there are ‘multiple’ evaporator units connected to one external condensing unit. These simple systems were designed mainly for
small to medium commercial applications where the installation of
ductwork was either too expensive, or aesthetically unacceptable. The
small-bore refrigerant piping, which connects the indoor and outdoor
units requires much lower space and is easier to install than the metal
ducting. Each indoor unit has its own set of refrigerant pipe work connecting it to the outdoor unit. Advantages of multi-splits: 1) the fact that
one large condenser can be connected to multiple evaporators within the
building reduces and/or eliminates the need for ductwork installation
completely; 2) multi-splits are suitable for single thermal zone (defined
below) applications with very similar heat gains/losses.
Figure 4.1. Air-conditioning system
4
5
Упражнение 3. Сопоставьте слово (A) с его определением (B).
Ответьте на вопросы к тексту:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
What do split type air conditioning systems consists of?
How are the indoor and outdoor units connected?
How does the indoor part work?
How does the outdoor part work?
What are the advantages of using split air-conditioners?
What are the disadvantages?
How does a multi-type air conditioning system operate?
What were these simple systems mainly designed for?
What does the small-bore refrigerant piping require?
What are the advantages of multi-splits?
Упражнение 1. Переведите слова и словосочетания на русский язык:
split type air conditioning system; copper tubing; electrical cabling; indoor part; surrounding air; outdoor condensing unit; environment; advantage; low initial cost; totally independent; own control; refrigerant piping; occupied space; limited air throw; hot/cold spots;
commercial application; small-bore piping; metal ducting; pipe work;
single thermal zone; heat gains/losses; (n.)- evaporator; noise; ease; disadvantage; need; aesthetics; manufacturer; limitation; distance; performance; maintenance; impact; appearance; installation; application; (adj.)external; expensive; medium; unacceptable; suitable; similar; (adv.)usually; mainly; completely; aesthetically; (v.)- pull out; exceed; spoil;
operate; stipulate; connect; reduce; eliminate; define.
While; within; because; each; between; below; with; very; otherwise; which; however.
Упражнение 2. Переведите слова и словосочетания на английский язык:
вытягивать; компрессорно-конденсаторный агрегат, устанавливаемый на открытом воздухе; самостоятельный блок управления;
трубопровод хладагента; устанавливать, обуславливать; зона температурного максимума; участок недогрева; коммерческое применение; трубопровод малого диаметра; металлическая система воздуховодов; теплопотеря; мульти сплит-система.
(A)
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
(B)
a) a split system, containing two or more internal units;
b) extra electrical or electronic signals that are not part of the signal
that is being broadcast or transmitted and which may damage it;
c) the act of fixing equipment or furniture in position so that it can be
used;
d) unit, which is located outside;
e) the act of keeping something in good condition by checking or repairing it regularly.
Упражнение 4. Прочитайте и переведите текст. Выделите
группы существительных.
1. Найдите в тексте антонимы к следующим словам:
turn on; dependent; higher; advantages; partially; without;
unsuitable; ability; public; entire; indifferent; heating; dryness;
exclude.
2. Найдите в тексте синонимы к следующим словам:
the same; to work; to supply; to clear; demand; field; construction; to devote; to classify; promotional; to show; thereby;
entirely; involve; idea; to the extend.
3. Выделите главные и второстепенные члены подчеркнутого в тексте предложения.
4. Определите, к какой части относятся выделенные
курсивом слова.
6
installation;
noise;
multi-split system;
maintenance;
outdoor unit;
7
Упражнение 5. Задайте 5 вопросов различных типов к тексту А.
Multi-split systems
Drawbacks: 1) inability to provide individual control; 2) multi-split
systems turn off or on completely in response to a single thermostat/control station which operates the whole system. These systems are
therefore not suitable for areas/rooms with variable heat gain/loss characteristics. (Thermal zone: A thermal zone is referred to a space or
group of spaces within a building with similar heating and cooling requirements. Each thermal zone must be ‘separately controlled’ if conditions conducive to comfort are to be provided by an HVAC system.)
Any area that requires different temperature, humidity and filtration
needs shall be categorized as an independent zone and shall be controlled by dedicated control or HVAC system. Few examples below illustrate and clarify the zone concept (концепция зонирования):
• A conference room designed for 50 people occupancy shall experience lower temperatures when it is half or quarterly occupied. Thus,
the design should include a provision for a dedicated temperature controller for this zone;
• A smoking lounge of airport has different filtration, ventilation
(air changes) and pressure requirement compared to other areas; therefore, it is considered a separate zone;
• A hotel lobby area is different from the guest rooms or the restaurant area because of occupancy variations;
• In a commercial building, the space containing data processing
equipment such as servers, photocopiers, fax machines and printers are
exposed to much larger heat load than the other areas; and hence, it is a
different thermal zone;
• A hospital testing laboratory, isolation rooms and operation theatre demand different indoor conditions/pressure relationships than the
rest of areas; and thus, shall be treated as a separate zones;
• A control room or processing facility in industrial set up may require a high degree of cleanliness/positive pressure to prevent ingress
(проникновение извне) of dust/hazardous elements, and therefore, it
may be treated as separate zone.
Текст В
ROOM AIR CONDITIONERS
Room air conditioners provide cooling to rooms rather than the
building. These air conditioners provide cooling only when and where
needed and are less expensive to operate. These units are normally
mounted either in the window sill or through the wall. For rooms that do
not have external windows or walls, a split type room air conditioner can
be used. In the room air conditioners (Figure 4.2) (both window
mounted and split type), the cooling capacity is controlled by switching
the compressor on-and-off. Sometimes, in addition to the on-and-off, the
fan speed can also be regulated to have a modular control of capacity. It
is also possible to switch off the refrigeration system completely and run
only the blower for air circulation. Both the split type air conditioner and
room air conditioners are equally reliable but it is not possible to provide
fresh air in split air conditioners. Room air conditioners generally have
small damper for letting the fresh air in.
Figure 4.2. Room air conditioner
Room air conditioners are generally available in capacities varying
from about 0.5 TR to 3 TR. Note: TR stands for Ton of Refrigeration
and is defined as the ability of the air-conditioning equipment to extract
heat. 1TR is equal to heat extraction rate of 12,000 Btu/h. Each building
8
9
is different and the design conditions differ greatly between regions to
region.
Packaged air conditioning systems are available in capacities ranging from about 5 TR to up to about 100 TR. This type of system can be
used for providing air conditioning in a large room or it can cater (обслуживать) to several small rooms with suitable supply and return
ducts. It is also possible to house the entire refrigeration in a single
package and may also include heating coils along with the evaporator.
The condenser used in these systems could be either air cooled or water
cooled. Figure 4.3 shows a packaged air-conditioning water cooled unit
designed to operate with dual compressors.
and controls). Cost of the unit alone ranges from about $1,500 for a 2ton unit to around $2,000 for a 5-ton unit. High efficiency package units
(when available) cost about 10 % more than standard efficiency models.
Задания по тексту
1. Переведите текст.
2. Составьте план текста из 6–8 пунктов.
3. Пользуясь составленным Вами планом, кратко изложите
содержание текста на русском языке.
Figure 4.3. Packaged air conditioner units
Smaller room air conditioners (i.e., those drawing less than 7.5
amps of electricity) can be plugged into any 15- or 20-amp, 115-volt
household circuit that is not shared with any other major appliances.
Larger room air conditioners (i.e., those drawing more than 7.5 amps)
need their own dedicated 230-volt circuit. On hotter & humid regions
the cooling requirement may be as high as 150 sq-ft/TR and in cooler
places it could be as low as 500 sq-ft/TR. For comfort applications, it is
reasonable to assume a figure of 250 sq-ft/TR as a rough estimate in absence of heat load calculations. The overall cost for a packaged system
can be as low as $10 per square foot (installed cost, including ductwork
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11
Урок 4.2
Текст A
HVAC – DOMESTIC AND INDUSTRIAL VENTILATION
SYSTEMS
Ventilation can simply be described as the process of changing air
in the enclosed space. Fresh air is introduced and circulated throughout
the building and the vitiated or stale air is removed or diluted. Ventilation is necessary in: 1) preventing depletion of the oxygen content of the
air; 2) preventing undue accumulation of carbon dioxide and moisture;
3) preventing an undue concentration of body odours and other contaminants such as kitchen or tobacco smoke; 4) preventing an undue concentration of particles carrying bacteria; 5) removing body heat and heat
liberated by the operation of electrical, mechanical and process equipment (e.g. artificial lighting and machinery). The rate of ventilation,
measured in cubic feet per minute (CFM) or liters of air per second (lps)
must be sufficient to satisfy the following three requirements: 1) Sufficient air movement throughout the space to prevent the formation of
pockets of stale air. 2) Sufficient fresh air supply and foul air exhaust to
limit the level of air pollution from all sources in the building, including
humidity. 3) Reduction of air temperature, within the limits set by the
climate, by the removal of heat generated within the building or supplied
by the sun.
General purpose ventilation involves removing heat, odors, and/or
contaminated air from inside the building and replacing it with outside
air. It may be provided by natural draft, by exhaust fans, by supply fans
or by a combination of supply and exhaust fans. Although natural ventilation is often relied, its effects are uncertain, unreliable and difficult to
control. Mechanical ventilation systems using fans have become an essential part of good ventilating systems for the following reasons:
1. They operate irrespective of internal temperature and external
winds.
2. They can be more easily and accurately controlled.
3. They can often be used for either extract or intake, and therefore
cater for a wider variety of winter and summer conditions more easily.
4. On extract, much smaller inlet openings are necessary in building structures for air replacement, due to the greater suction pressure
provided by a fan.
5. On intake, they give positive air movement for relief from radiant heat; incorporate filters for use in dusty atmospheres, and act as
heaters (if required) during cold weather to augment the normal heating
system of the building.
General or dilution ventilation is not an adequate alternative to
containment of an impurity at source. This is done by local exhaust ventilation. However, it may be necessary to dilute the impurity to an acceptable level where complete control at source is not reasonably practical.
Ответьте на вопросы к тексту:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Упражнение 1. Переведите слова и словосочетания на русский язык:
enclosed space; fresh air; vitiated/stale air; carbon dioxide; process
equipment; artificial lighting; stale air; foul air; air pollution; natural
draft; exhaust fans; dilution ventilation; radiant heat; (n.)- intake; depletion; augment; intake; extract; supply; humidity; reduction; level; impurity; oxygen; suction; replacement; inlet; cater; effects; source; accumulation; content; moisture; concentration; requirements; odours; rate; purpose; contaminant; particle; relief; measure; reason; pressure; (adj.)- undue; removal; adequate; practical; internal; alternative; irrespective; sufficient; uncertain; dusty; external; essential; acceptable; unreliable;
12
What is ventilation?
Why is ventilation necessary?
What is the purpose of ventilation?
How may the contaminated air from inside the building be replaced
with outside air?
Why do mechanical ventilation systems using fans have become an
essential part of good ventilating systems?
Why are much smaller inlet openings necessary in building structures for air replacement?
How do mechanical ventilation systems act during cold weather?
In what case may general ventilation be necessary to dilute the impurity?
13
(adv.)- easily; accurately; reasonably; simply; (v.)- require; operate; rely;
replace; describe; involve; complete; act; generate; incorporate; introduce; circulate; include; remove; dilute; prevent; liberate; satisfy; limit.
Although; with; due to; therefore; as; throughout; within; outside;
where.
Упражнение 4. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на причастные обороты.
Упражнение 2. Переведите слова и словосочетания на английский язык:
тяжелый, испорченный воздух; затхлый, тяжелый воздух;
разжижать, разбавлять; уменьшение, истощение; чрезмерный; отделять, высвобождать; технологическое оборудование; искусственное освещение; отравленный воздух; естественная вентиляция, тяга; вытяжка, вытяжной вентилятор; лучистая теплота; пыльный, запыленный; усиление; общеобменная приточная вентиляция.
Упражнение 3. Сопоставьте слово (A) с его определением (B).
(A)
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
to ventilate;
mechanical ventilation system;
artificial lightning;
fan;
air;
1.
The condenser used in these systems could be either air cooled or
water cooled.
2. The small-bore refrigerant piping connecting the indoor and outdoor
units requires much lower space.
3. Split type air conditioning systems are one-to-one systems consisting of one evaporator (fan coil) unit.
4. One large condenser connected to multiple evaporators reduces
and/or eliminates the need for ductwork installation completely.
5. Fresh air is introduced and circulated throughout the building, the
vitiated or stale air being removed or diluted.
6. A conference room designed for 50 people occupancy shall experience lower temperatures when it is half or quarterly occupied.
7. Being considered a separate zone, a smoking lounge of airport has
different filtration, ventilation (air changes) and pressure requirement.
8. The greater suction pressure being provided by a fan, on extract,
much smaller inlet openings are necessary in building structures for
air replacement.
9. Any area requiring different temperature, humidity, filtration needs
shall be categorized as an independent zone.
10. Being used for extract or intake, mechanical ventilation system cater
for a wider variety of winter and summer conditions more easily.
(B)
Упражнение 5. Задайте 5 вопросов различных типов к тексту А.
a) the mixture of oxygen, nitrogen and other gasses that are consistently present around us;
b) to allow fresh air to enter and move around a room, building, etc;
c) the heart of the system, creating movement of air to shift the contaminants;
d) any source of light besides sunlight or moonlight;
e) system that enhances air quality by providing fresh air to structures.
Текст B
FACTORS AFFECTING VENTILATION RATES
The need for fresh air in the workplace is influenced by a number
of factors; in particular the space available per occupant, the work activity, the habits of the occupants (e.g. smoking) and the presence of other
sources of airborne contaminants such as process plant, heaters, etc.
Quantity and Distribution of Air: The fresh air supply is required
to maintain an acceptably non-odorous atmosphere (by diluting body
14
15
odors and tobacco smoke) and to dilute the carbon dioxide exhaled (выделяемый). The quantity may be quoted per person and is related to the
occupation density and activity within the space. The proportion of fresh
air introduced into a building may be varied to achieve economical operation. When the fresh air can provide a useful cooling effect, the quantity is controlled to balance the cooling demand. However, when the air
is too cool, the quantity is reduced to a minimum to limit the heating
load. Similarly, when the air is too warm or humid, the quantity is reduced to minimum to reduce the cooling load.
Transfer of heat/moisture: Air circulation is required to transfer
the heat and humidity generated within the building. In simple systems,
the heat generated by the occupants, solar heat, and heat from electrical
and mechanical equipment may be removed by the introduction and extraction of large quantities of fresh air. In more elaborate systems air
may be recirculated through conditioning equipment to maintain the desired temperature and humidity. The air circulation rates are decided in
relation to the thermal or moisture loads and the practical cooling or
heating range of the air.
Air movement: Air movement is desirable, as it contributes a feeling of freshness, although excessive movement should be avoided as this
leads to complaints of draughts. The speed of an air current becomes
more noticeable as the air temperature falls, owing to its increased cooling effect. The design of the air-distribution system, therefore has a controlling effect on the quantity and temperature of the air that can be introduced into the space. The quantity of fresh air should not be increased
solely to create air movement; this should be affected by air recirculation within the space or inducing movement with the ventilation air
stream.
Задания по тексту
1. Переведите текст.
2. Составьте план текста из 6–8 пунктов.
3. Пользуясь составленным Вами планом, кратко изложите
содержание текста на русском языке.
Упражнение 6. Сгруппируйте синонимы из приведенных ниже слов:
To need; design; noticeable; draughts; distribution; project; drop;
only; to induce; to influence; undue; to introduce into; flow; fall; due to;
speed; carefully designed; draft force; ratio; to vary; moisture; excessive; to affect; humidity; to generate; owing to; to limit; get into; current;
to produce; restrict; especially; quantity; to demand; to generate; number; solely; to cause; perceptible; velocity; elaborate; allocation; in relation to; in particular; with regard to; to produce; proportion; to change.
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Ответьте на вопросы к тексту:
Урок 4.3
Текст A
AIR MOVEMENT
Air-flows within the building should be controlled to minimize
transfer of fumes and smells, e.g. from kitchens to restaurants and the
like. This is achieved by creating air pressure gradients within the building, by varying the balance between the fans introducing fresh air and
those extracting the stale air. For example, the pressure should be reduced in a kitchen below that of the adjacent restaurant. Care should be
taken, however, to avoid excessive pressure differences that can cause
difficulty in opening doors or cause them to slam. In other cases, such as
computer rooms, the area may be pressurized to minimize the introduction of dust from adjacent areas.
Fire and smoke control: Air circulation system may be designed to
extract smoke in the event of a fire, to assist in the fire-fighting operations and to introduce fresh air to pressurized escape routes. Air purity
and filtration: A ventilation or air-condition system installed in a building should clean, freshen or condition the air within the space. Special
air filters may be required to remove contaminants or smells when air is
recirculated. Positions of air inlets and extracts to the system are most
important and care should be taken in their location. Inlets should not be
positioned near any flue outlets, dry cleaning or washing machine extraction outlets, kitchens, WC’s, etc. When possible, air inlets should be
at high level so as to induce air from as clean area as possible. If low
level intakes are used, it is necessary to control that they are positioned
well away from roadways and car parks.
Climatic conditions: ventilation systems must be considered for
three climatic conditions that occur during the year: winter, summer and
spring-fall. A high rate of ventilation is required in the summer to deal
with the build-up of heat from solar radiation, production processes, and
high internal heat loads; whereas, in winter a very low air change per
hour (ACH) is required to prevent vitiation of the air and to remove
odours and water vapor. (ACH is the number of air changes per hour,
the number of times one volume of air is replaced in the space per hour.)
This variation in requirements may range from 6–15 ACH in summer
and 2 ACH in winter.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Упражнение 1. Переведите слова и словосочетания на русский язык:
air pressure; fire-fighting operation; solar radiation; climatic conditions; dry cleaning; pressure gradient; production processes; air circulation; air inlet; water vapor; fresh air; air-flow; escape route; high rate;
heat loads; air extract; stale air; pressure difference; (n.)- fan; transfer;
time; volume; introduction; dust; contaminant; fume; difficulty; purity;
filtration; vitiation; space; build-up; variation; case; outlet; WC; level;
area; slam; smell; location; requirement; (v.)- to deal with; replace;
achieve; create; avoid; vary; recirculate; install; freshen; condition;
assist; introduce; require; prevent; range; remove; pressurize; minimize; consider; occur; design; extract; position; induce; cause; reduce; (adj.)- low; adjacent; excessive; internal.
Within; from; like; between; those; below; in; such as; other; that;
however; when; in the event; near; well away from; for; during; if; the
number of; any; so as; whereas; per hour.
Упражнение 2. Переведите слова и словосочетания на английский язык:
противопожарная работа; градиент давления; сильный удар;
герметизировать, поддерживать повышенное давление; поддерживать определенное состояние; впускной воздушный клапан; вытяжка; воздуховод; выпускной канал; водный столб; воздействовать,
побуждать; накопление; эвакуационный маршрут; порча; достаточно далеко от; в то время как; в том случае, если; в течение; так,
чтобы.
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Why should air-flows within the building be controlled?
How is this achieved?
What can excessive pressure differences cause?
What is the important thing in positions of air inlets and extracts to
the system?
When is a high rate of ventilation required?
19
Упражнение 3. Сопоставьте слово (A) с его определением (B).
(A)
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
heat load;
pressure gradient;
firefighting operations;
climatic condition;
air filters;
(B)
a) a physical quantity that describes which direction and at what rate
the pressure changes the most rapidly around a particular location;
b) amount of heat required to be removed within a certain period, usually 24 hours; usually measured in British thermal units (Btu) or
watts;
c) operations that include rescuing people, protecting property and
the environment, limiting damage and consequences;
d) are used to ensure adequate indoor air quality for users in rooms fitted with the ventilation system;
e) a measure of the average pattern of variation in temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind, precipitation, and other meteorological variables in a given region over long periods of time.
As the temperature difference between outside and inside air temperature, … the ventilation rate … . Regardless of how high the ventilation rate is in the summer, the inside air temperature during the day will
never be as low as the outside air temperature. The … air temperature
can at best approach outdoor ambient temperature at very high ventilation rates. But the … of increasing the ventilation rate is the increased
cost for fans and accessories, as well as … operating costs. If one is interested in maintaining an inside air temperature … outside air temperature, then evaporative cooling or some other means of refrigeration … .
Generally accepted ventilation rates for temperature control in the summer …. from one air change every three minutes to three air changes per
minute.
Упражнение 5. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на причастия.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Упражнение 4. Заполните пропуски в тексте, используя слова из приведенного ниже списка:
range; decreases; disadvantage; increased; below; must be used;
inside; increases; because.
5.
6.
7.
Summer Ventilation
The main purpose of a ventilation system during the summer is to
prevent the air temperature rising too high above the outside air temperature. The reason for the higher air temperature indoors may be … of
the large influx (приток) of solar radiation and large dissipation of heat
by power and process equipment.
8.
20
This is achieved by creating air pressure gradients within the building, by varying the balance between the fans introducing fresh air
and those extracting the stale air.
Ventilation installed in a building should clean, freshen or condition
the air within the space.
A high rate of ventilation required in the summer deals with the
build-up of heat from solar radiation, production processes, and
high internal heat loads.
The fresh air providing a useful cooling effect must be controlled to
balance the cooling demand.
In winter a very low air change per hour (ACH) preventing vitiation
of the air removes odours and water vapor.
Air circulation system may be designed to introduce fresh air to
pressurized escape routes.
In simple systems, the heat generated by the occupants, solar heat,
and heat from electrical and mechanical equipment may be removed
by the introduction and extraction of large quantities of fresh air.
The design of the air-distribution system has a controlling effect on
the quantity and temperature of the air.
21
Текст В
WINTER VENTILATION
A heating system with adequate capacity is needed in the winter to
maintain environmental conditions inside the building. Even during the
coldest part of the winter, when the heating system is running at full capacity, some ventilation is still required.
Fresh outside air must be introduced into the building to remove
the warm, moisture laden air. If moist air is not removed, high humidity
and excessive condensation will occur. Studies have shown that humidity over 90% foster rapid deterioration of structural components, as well
as dampness and uncomfortable environmental conditions.
Condensation occurs when warm humid air comes into contact
with cold surfaces, such as glass or structural members. The air in contact with the cold surface is cooled to the temperature of the surface. If
the surface temperature is below the dewpoint temperature of the air,
then water vapor in the air will condense onto the surface. For example,
condensation occurs if indoor air at 70 °F and 70 % relative humidity
comes in contact with a surface that is 60 °F or colder. This tendency is
increased with low ambient temperatures, high wind velocities and high
internal humidity.
Exhausting moist air and replacing it with heated outside air is effective in eliminating condensation and other problems resulting from
high humidity. Whenever ventilation rates are increased in the winter,
the heating requirements also increase. Consequently, it is necessary to
determine a ventilation rate that will maintain humidity below the damaging level and, at the same time, keep the heating requirements as low
as possible. Ventilation requirements in winter are generally on the order
of two to three air changes per hour. The higher the inside temperature,
the lower shall be the air exchange rate that is required to maintain humidity below the damaging level. Besides controlling humidity, this
minimum ventilation rate is required to remove any gases of combustion
that may be present as a result of leakages around the heater and ducting
when a direct-fired heating system is used.
To conserve energy in winter, the ventilation shall operate under
reduced flow to take advantage of increased air infiltration. The ventilation fans could be equipped with a flow controller such as a two-speed
fan. A manual switch or an indoor humidistat could be used to increase
flow for quick removal of odours, moisture and fumes. In addition, an
outdoor temperature controller could be installed to increase air flow in
mild weather.
Упражнение 6. Сгруппируйте синонимы из приведенных ниже слов:
control; in addition; save; increase; moisture; every time; requirement; harm; alteration; condensation; retain; replace; environmental;
change; ambient; growth; humidity; perspiration; under; substitute; demand; damage; fume; outside; rate; inspect; conserve; outdoor; inside;
exhausting; discharge; furthermore; below; whenever; indoor; keep; velocity; speed; deterioration; smoke; level; vitiation.
Упражнение 7. Найдите в тексте B антонимы к следующим
словам:
external; decrease; outdoor; above; exhaust air; ineffective; maximum; cold; inadequate; uninstall; automatic switch; dryness; whole.
Задания по тексту
1. Переведите текст.
2. Составьте план текста из 6–8 пунктов.
3. Пользуясь составленным Вами планом, кратко изложите
содержание текста на русском языке.
22
23
Урок 4.4
Текст A
TYPES OF VENTILATION SYSTEMS
The three common ventilation system designs are:
1. Mechanical ventilation, which can be further classified as the
extract system, intake supply system, and balanced ventilation system.
2. Displacement ventilation, which either uses the principle of
natural ventilation of supplying fresh air at lower levels and exhausting
at higher elevations, or mechanically introducing air at lower levels and
exhausting at higher elevations.
3. Natural ventilation using the principles of building stack effect.
In the interest of efficient use of energy, health & safety, and comfort of
the occupants, it is necessary all systems of ventilation to be considered
in relation to the thermal characteristics of the building.
Mechanical Ventilation There are three primary types of mechanical ventilation systems: 1) mechanical extract/natural supply system;
2) mechanical supply/natural extract system; 3) combined mechanical
supply/extract system or balanced ventilation system.
Mechanical extract/natural supply – or simply an “extract system”
(Figure 4.4) is designed to remove foul air, usually at high level, unless
the fumes are heavier than air, when extraction would take place near
floor level. This extraction creates an area of negative pressure causing
the fresher replacement air to flow into the room through doors, windows, or through suitably spaced low level intake grilles.
The simplest form of extract system comprises one or more fans
(usually of the propeller axial flow or mixed flow type) installed in outside walls or on the roof. The discharge usually terminates in louvers or
a cowl or a combination of both. Alternatively, the system may comprise
a range of ductwork arranged for general extraction of the vitiated air or
for extraction from localized sources of heat, moisture, odors, fumes and
dust. Such ductwork may be connected to centrifugal or axial flow fans
that discharge through the wall or roof, terminating in louvers or cowls
or a combination of both. The ductwork includes suitable extract points
and dampers. An exhaust ventilation system requires the replacement of
exhausted air by way of make-up air. Replacement air can be supplied
naturally by atmospheric pressure through open doors, windows, wall
louvers, and adjacent spaces (acceptable), through cracks in walls, windows, and beneath doors, and through roof vents (unacceptable). Makeup air can also be provided through air systems. The exhaust system reduces the potential for wall and roof moisture problems but it shouldn’t
be used if filtered air is required in the space, as it would not be possible
to filter all incoming air due to any uncontrolled leakage through cracks
around doors and windows. This system can increase the potential for
cold drafts due to its depressurization effect, and, unless exhaust pickups
are placed, tends to provide poor air distribution. An extract system can
also be regarded as a palliative (смягчающая) measure to meet the need
for ventilation in particularly crowded rooms, offices or restricted areas
in which local conditions are likely to prove objectionable; for example
in toilets, kitchens, plant rooms, workshops or laboratories, or where
there is a statutory requirement for exhaust ventilation.
Ответьте на вопросы к тексту:
Figure 4.4. Extract system
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
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What are the three common ventilation system designs?
What is mechanical ventilation?
What principle does displacement ventilation use?
What is necessary in the interest of efficient use of energy?
What are the three primary types of mechanical ventilation systems?
What is the function of the extract system?
What does the extraction create? What does it cause?
What does the extract system comprise?
What does the ductwork include?
25
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
What does the exhaust ventilation system require?
How can the replacement air be supplied?
How can the make-up air be provided?
What does the exhaust system reduce?
In what case the exhaust system shouldn’t be used?
Why wouldn’t it be possible to filter all incoming air?
Упражнение 1. Переведите слова и словосочетания на русский язык:
extract system, take place; vitiated air; make-up air; poor air distribution; negative pressure; axial flow; intake grille; adjacent space;
stack effect; foul air; intake supply system; (n.)- roof; discharge; range;
displacement; exhausting; elevation; combination; leakage; draft; depressurization; pickup; crack; vent; level; source; louver; cowl; odors;
dust; fume; area; replacement; (v.)- remove; space; create; regard; tend
to; cause; combine; prove; comprise; terminate; arrange; supply; (adj.)acceptable; unacceptable; dedicated; objectionable; (adv.)- naturally;
suitably; alternatively.
Which; either; unless; in relation to; near; due to; any; such; both;
usually; beneath; in particularly; through.
Упражнение 2. Переведите слова и словосочетания на английский язык:
вентиляционная решетка; дефлектор (дымовой или вытяжной
трубы), колпак; распределительная решетка на входе воздуха; отбор; пропеллер, воздушный винт; вентиляция вытесняющим потоком; осевой поток, осевая обдувка; смешанный поток, смешанное
течение; выпуск, сброс; завершать, заканчивать; свежий воздух; захватывающее устройство; выпускная система; вытяжная система;
неприемлемый, неприятный, вредный; обязательное требование;
эффект тяги; трещина, щель; винт, отверстие, вентиляционный клапан; специализированный, предназначенный; недостаточное распределение воздуха.
Упражнение 3. Сопоставьте слово (A) с его определением (B).
(A)
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
(B)
a) to release the pressure of the gas inside;
b) a person or thing that takes the place of another;
c) each of a set of angled slats or flat strips fixed or hung at regular intervals in a door, shutter, or screen to allow air or light to pass
through;
d) the action of moving something from its place or position;
e) to remove or take out, especially by effort or force.
Упражнение 4. Переведите группы существительных:
extract system; flow fan; cold draft; depressurization effect; exhaust
pickup; exhaust ventilation; intake supply system; displacement ventilation; foul air; replacement air; wind velocity; flow controller; ventilation
rate; air change; air distribution; refrigerant pipe work; heat gain; heat
loss; dust element; air movement.
Упражнение 5. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на модальные глаголы и их заменители.
1.
A split type room air conditioner can be used for rooms that do not
have external windows or walls.
2. Entire refrigeration in a single package may include heating coils
along with the evaporator.
3. Each thermal zone must be ‘separately controlled’ if conditions conducive to comfort are to be provided by an HVAC system.
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to depressurize;
displacement;
louver;
to extract;
replacement;
27
4. Although, these sources have huge investment cost and may not be
able to produce power 24 hours a day but they can be used to meet
up a small portion of our daily energy needs.
5. The system may comprise a range of ductwork arranged for general
extraction of the vitiated air.
6. Fresh outside air has to be introduced into the building to remove the
warm, moisture laden air.
7. Make-up air can also be provided through air systems.
3.
Упражнение 6. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на подчеркнутые слова.
7.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
It is also possible to make use of this energy for cooking purposes
and also for drying clothes.
These renewable sources of energy like solar, wind, geothermal,
hydropower are available in abundant and moreover they do not
cause any pollution.
Air control is achieved by creating air pressure gradients within the
building, by varying the balance between the fans introducing fresh
air and those extracting the stale air.
Any area that requires different temperature, humidity and filtration
needs shall be categorized as an independent zone.
In fact we have been using them at such a rate that it is predicted
that these fossil fuels will become extinct in another 40-50 years.
Larger room air conditioners (i.e., those drawing more than 7.5
amps) need their own dedicated 230-volt circuit.
These are the functions that dictate how the hydropower plant can
be operated.
4.
5.
6.
Heat load is the amount of heat to be removed within a certain period, usually 24 hours; usually measured in British thermal units
(Btu) or watts.
To conserve energy in winter, the ventilation shall operate under reduced flow to take advantage of increased air infiltration.
It is possible to house the entire refrigeration in a single package
and may also include heating coils along with the evaporator.
Although natural ventilation is often relied, its effects are uncertain,
unreliable and difficult to control.
The quantity of fresh air should not be increased solely to create air
movement; this should be affected by air recirculation within the
space or inducing movement with the ventilation air stream.
Текст В
INTAKE SYSTEM
Mechanical supply/natural extract system (Figure 4.5) This system
is similar in form to the extract system but arranged to deliver fresh air
into the enclosed space. Such a system necessitates provision for the discharge of vitiated air by natural means. Where there is a requirement for
the enclosed space to be at a slightly higher (positive) pressure than its
surroundings (to exclude dust or smoke, for example), the discharge may
be through natural leakage paths or balanced pressure relief valves.
Careful location and speed control of intake fans and evenly distributed air supply diffusers are necessary to prevent draughty conditions. Ducted supply systems can provide better control of air movement
and reasonable control of comfort conditions.
Упражнение 7. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание
на инфинитив.
1.
2.
It is also possible to switch off the refrigeration system completely
and run only the blower for air circulation.
Ton of Refrigeration is defined as the ability of the air-conditioning
equipment to extract heat.
Figure 4.5. Intake system
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A mechanical supply system is essential where area is to be maintained at positive pressure and/or if the filtered air is required. This system tends to pressurize the building interior and lower the neutral pressure level. (The neutral pressure level is a level in a building where the
interior and exterior pressures are equal). By lowering the neutral pressure level, it reduces both the envelope area subject to infiltration and
the inward pressures that drive infiltration airflow. However, the outward pressures and the envelope area subject to exfiltration are increased
which tends to increase the total exfiltration airflow. The serious disadvantage of this approach is its increased potential for driving moistureladen interior air into the wall and roof cavities, where it can condense
and cause problems such as mold growth, rot, and peeling paint. This
system should therefore be only used in a building with a very good air
barrier. In colder regions of the country, the fresh air supply duct may
require a duct heater to preheat the fresh air to prevent condensation on
the furnace heat exchanger and cold drafts on the building's occupants. If
the supply inlet is improperly located, sound can be transmitted into the
building through the ventilation system.
Упражнение 7. Найдите эквиваленты данных слов и словосочетаний в тексте:
закрытое пространство; канал естественной утечки; уравновешенный перепускной клапан; регулирование скорости; всасывающий вентилятор, приточный вентилятор; диффузор подающего
воздуховода; расположенный на сквозняке; уровень нейтрального
давления; направленное внутрь давление; эксфильтрация (через
стены и стыки); влажный внутренний воздух; образование плесени;
снимать краску; воздушный барьер.
Задания по тексту
1. Переведите текст.
2. Составьте план текста из 6–8 пунктов.
3. Пользуясь составленным Вами планом, кратко изложите
содержание текста на русском языке.
Урок 4.5
Текст А
FOSSIL FUELS
Fossil fuel (Figure 4.6) is a source of non-renewable energy. There
are many examples of fossil fuels which we use in our daily lives. In
fact, most of the energy that we consume is fossil fuels. Coal, petroleum,
natural gas, these are all considered as fossil fuels. The solid form is
coal. It is the most widely used form of fossil fuel in domestic purposes.
We all are using fossil fuels to meet up our daily energy needs. In fact
we have been using them at such a rate that it is predicted that these fossil fuels will become extinct in another 40–50 years. The two primary
reasons why we need clean energy sources are: these fossil fuels are
scarce resource and they cannot meet up demand for the generations to
come and secondly these fossil fuels when burnt cause lot of air pollution. Coal which is major form of fossil fuels is used in power plants for
creating electricity and also used by industries to make steel. Oil is used
by gasoline engine vehicles and natural gas is used by homeowners.
Among these three, coal and oil are the most severe ones as they pollute
the air and increase carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. The carbon dioxide is one the greenhouse gases solely responsible for increase in global
warming.
All the fossil fuels face dim future. They are being extracted and
used at a very steady rate. Everyday millions of barrel of oil are being
dug and used or transported to other countries. Due to population
growth, the energy demand has risen at an astonishing rate. The increased energy demand puts pressure on oil companies to extract more
oil and coal. While coal and oil are dangerous source of fossil fuels,
natural gas is still safe and produces less emission.
The increased extraction and usage of fossil fuels has resulted in
increased formation of carbon dioxide and other gases that are responsible for global warming. These gases form a layer in the atmosphere and
prevent sunlight from going back in to the space resulting in greenhouse
effect. The heat from sunlight and these gases when combined result in
global warming. The increased pollution in the atmosphere has further
deteriorated the health of human beings. Extraction of coal near wildlife
areas has changed the overall landscape and resulted in extinction of endangered species.
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31
With so many problems with fossil fuels, the world is looking
ahead to save this planet by using renewable sources of energy. These
renewable sources of energy like solar, wind, geothermal, hydropower
are available in abundant and moreover they do not cause any pollution.
Several renewable energy projects have been underway to make this
world at least partially free from fossil fuels. Countries like United
States, Germany, France and China have pumped in huge investments to
bring down the usage of coal to produce electricity. Although, these
sources have huge investment cost and may not be able to produce
power 24 hours a day but they can be used to meet up a small portion of
our daily energy needs.
10. How can the problem with fossil fuels be solved?
11. Why do some countries bring down the usage of coal to produce
electricity?
12. How can the renewable source of energy be used?
Упражнение 1. Переведите слова и словосочетания на русский язык:
greenhouse gas; endangered species; scarce resource; global warming; carbon dioxide; power plant; wildlife area; air pollution; daily energy need; fossil fuel; natural gas; non-renewable energy; (n.)- source;
atmosphere; landscape; extinction; growth; resource; emission; population; portion; purpose; coal; demand; generation; reason; rate; petroleum; (v.)- prevent; save; combine; dig; be underway; produce; face; increase; meet up; predict; consume; (adj.)- huge; abundant; safe; responsible; severe; major; domestic; primary; extinct; scarce; (adv.)- widely;
secondly; solely; partially; daily.
Упражнение 2. Переведите слова и словосочетания на английский язык:
Figure 4.6. Fossil fuels
Ответьте на вопросы к тексту:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
What source of fossil fuels do we use in our daily life?
What form of fossil fuel is widely used in domestic purposes?
Why will fossil fuels become extinct?
Where is coal used?
What fossil fuels are the most severe ones and why?
What gas is responsible for increase in global warming?
Why has energy demand risen at an astonishing rate?
What has the increased extraction and usage of fossil fuels resulted in?
What has further deteriorated the health of human beings?
газ, создающий парниковый эффект; заповедная зона, район
дикой природы; загрязнение воздуха; вымирающие виды; повседневная потребность в энергии; глобальное потепление; природный
газ; горючее полезное ископаемое, ископаемое топливо; смотреть
вперед, думать о будущем; производить электричество; на пути
реализации; в изобилии; диоксид углерода; ограниченные ресурсы;
малая толика/часть; возобновляемые источники энергии; извлекать;
предсказывать; предотвращать.
Упражнение 3. Сопоставьте слово (A) с его определением (B).
(A)
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
32
renewable energy;
global warming;
natural gas;
carbon dioxide;
fossil fuel;
33
(B)
Упражнение 5. Переведите прилагательные. Определите, от
каких слов они образованны:
a) flammable gas, consisting largely of methane and other hydrocarbons, occurring naturally underground (often in association with petroleum) and used as fuel;
b) a natural fuel such as coal or gas, formed in the geological past from
the remains of living organisms;
c) a gradual increase in the overall temperature of the earth’s atmosphere generally attributed to the greenhouse effect caused by increased levels of carbon dioxide, and other pollutants;
d) a colourless, odourless gas produced by burning carbon and organic
compounds and by respiration. It is naturally present in air (about
0.03 per cent) and is absorbed by plants in photosynthesis;
e) energy from a source that is not depleted when used, such as wind
or solar power.
Упражнение 4. Переведите предложения, определите степень
сравнения прилагательных.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
The simplest form of extract system comprises one or more fans installed in outside walls or on the roof.
Among these three, coal and oil are the most severe ones as they
pollute the air and increase carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.
In more elaborate systems air may be recirculated through conditioning equipment to maintain the desired temperature and humidity.
The increased energy demand puts pressure on oil companies to extract more oil and coal.
On extract, much smaller inlet openings are necessary in building
structures for air replacement, due to the greater suction pressure
provided by a fan.
This energy is then used to power the most of the homes and offices.
Positions of air inlets and extracts to the system are most important
and care should be taken in their location.
Mechanical ventilation systems can often be used for either extract
or intake, and therefore cater for a wider variety of winter and
summer conditions more easily.
unacceptable; electrical; productive; suitable; massive; variable;
reasonable; reliable; industrial; acceptable; dependent; noticeable; allowable; comfortable; mechanical; expensive; different; objectionable;.
Текст В
HOW FOSSIL FUELS WORK
Coal Coal is a form of fossil fuel that is formed due to decay of old
plants millions of years before. Coal is used extensively in thermal
power plants for generation of electricity and production of steel. When
coal is burnt, the chemical energy contained inside coal is converted to
heat or thermal energy. The heat or thermal energy gets converted to kinetic energy when steam is created. The steam is then used to move the
turbines of the plant (Figure 4.7). Here kinetic energy is converted to
mechanical energy for the rotation of turbines. The turbines activate the
generator and convert the mechanical energy to electrical energy. This
energy is then used to power most of the homes and offices. Till today,
coal is used as a major source of fossil fuel to supply power to millions
of homes across the world.
Oil The increasing pressure and heat inside the earth resulted in the
formation of oil that is lying deep beneath the rocks and available abundantly mostly in Middle Eastern countries. It is the decay of old animals
that lied under the earth for millions of years and finally paved its way
for the formation of oil. Every time when you go to nearest station to fill
your car’s tank, it’s the fossil fuel i.e. oil in its refined form, which is use
to power your vehicle. The engine of your car burns the fuel and release
energy in the form of heat. The heat energy then goes through various
processes before finally converting to mechanical energy. The mechanical energy is the used to drive the vehicle.
Natural Gas Natural gas is a byproduct of oil production. It is serving us as one of the major sources of energy for domestic gas supply.
When oil is extracted from the oil wells, it undergoes pressure reduction
process. These natural gases which mostly consist of methane and ethane are captured before they are released. The captured gases are then
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35
transported to various countries and to number of households through
pipelines. The gas which we use in our home is natural gas and is used
for cooking and heating purposes. It has no color and smell when it is
captured. Some chemicals are added to sense the leakage of this gas.
When we burn natural gas, the chemical energy is converted to heat energy. The heat energy is then used to cook the food. Natural gas is
highly inflammable and can cause wide destruction of life and property,
if it is leaked and catches fire.
Упражнение 6. Найдите эквиваленты данных слов и словосочетаний в тексте:
огнеопасный; разрушение, уничтожение; побочный продукт;
утечка; образование нефти; горные породы; превращать, преобразовывать; вращение; приводить в действие, активировать; снабжать
энергией; ближневосточные страны; нефтяная скважина; высвобождать/выделять энергию.
Упражнение 7. Найдите в тексте предложение с усилительной
конструкцией.
Задания по тексту
1. Переведите текст.
2. Составьте план текста из 6–8 пунктов.
3. Пользуясь составленным Вами планом, кратко изложите
содержание текста на русском языке.
Figure 4.7. Fuel energy
Ответьте на вопросы к тексту:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
How is fossil fuel formed?
Where is coal used?
How is energy converted to heat or thermal energy?
What is steam used for in the plants?
How do the turbines work?
What is used as a major source of fossil fuel to supply power?
What resulted in the formation of oil?
What do natural gases consist of?
When is the chemical energy converted to heat energy?
Why can natural gas cause wide destruction of life and property?
36
37
Урок 4.6
Текст А
HOW A COAL PLANT WORKS
Coal is transported to the site generally by truck or rail. The coal
goes through primary and secondary crushing before it is placed on a
conveyor and stored inside the plant in a coal silo. The silos hold a several hour supply of coal and can continue to supply coal to the boiler in
the event there is a problem downstream in the coal handling system.
Inside the plant, coal is dropped out of the silos into pulverisers.
Multiple pulverisers crush the coal into a powder which is blown into
the boiler by air. As the coal burns, it forms a fireball in the boiler. Radiation from this fireball heats water flowing up tubes in the sides of the
boiler. In a sub-critical boiler water is separated from the steam in these
tubes and is recirculated through the boiler. The steam created is further
superheated in tubes by the hot gases passing through the top of the
boiler. The superheated steam is then sent to the steam turbines. Heavier ash components from the burning coal drop to the bottom of the
boiler and are collected.
In a supercritical boiler, hot gases heat hot water at the top of the
boiler into the supercritical phase of water. This fluid has a temperature
of about 600 C and is at a pressure of about 25,000 kPa. This supercritical fluid is sent to the steam turbines. This high pressure fluid is diverted onto the blade of the turbine, forcing the turbine to spin. There
may be two or three steam turbines driving a generator. The generator
produces electricity at a modest voltage. A transformer is used to increase the voltage to allow the power to be put into the transmission system.
The low pressure steam exiting the low pressure steam turbine
must be condensed so the resulting liquid water can be recirculated back
to the boiler. Water from a cooling pond, lake, river or ocean flows
through the inlet canal into the condenser. This cool water condenses
the low pressure steam into water. The cooling water is diverted via the
outlet canal back to where it came from. The warm flue gas exiting the
boiler must be processed to remove harmful materials before the flue gas
is discharged into the air. The hot gases may be sent through a selective
catalytic reduction unit to remove NOx. SOx compounds may also be
removed in a flue gas desulfurization (FDG) unit. Mercury may be removed with activated carbon or by some other means. Finally, most of
the very fine ash particles are removed in a baghouse or an electrostatic
precipitator. This ash is collected and can be used for other industrial
purposes. The warm flue gas is composed mostly of nitrogen and steam
and contains about 15% carbon dioxide. The flue gas is blown up the
stack where it is dispersed high in the air.
Ответьте на вопросы к тексту:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
Упражнение 1. Переведите слова и словосочетания на русский язык:
coal silo; coal handling system; selective catalytic reduction unit;
flue gas; electrostatic precipitator; carbon dioxide; gas desulfurization
unit; (n.)- crushing; supply; mercury; nitrogen; mean; baghouse; SOx;
pulveriser; downstream; steam; event; stack; powder; fireball; ash; bot-
38
How is coal transported to the site?
Where is the coal placed after primary and secondary crushing?
How does the silo work?
What does coal form as the burns?
How is the steam superheated?
Where do heavier ash components from the burning coal drop to?
What temperature and pressure does the supercritical fluid have?
What forces the turbine to spin?
At what voltage does the generator produce electricity?
What is a transformer used for?
What flows through the inlet canal into the condenser?
How is the cooling water diverted?
Why must the warm flue gas exiting the boiler be processed?
Why are the hot gases sent through a selective catalytic reduction
unit?
How may mercury be removed?
Where are the very fine ash particles removed?
What is ash collected for?
What is the warm flue gas composed of?
How is the flue gas dispersed high in the air?
39
tom; voltage; blade; particle; (v.)- force; discharge; disperse; process;
produce; spin; store; divert; hold; crush; burn; separate; drop; (adj.)heavy; modest; harmful; fine.
e)
Упражнение 2. Переведите слова и словосочетания на английский язык:
Упражнение 4. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на время и залог сказуемого.
склад; котел сверхкритического давления; отводить; селективное каталитическое восстановление (оксидов азота в топке котла);
система снижения токсичности; блок сероочистки; ртуть, ртутный
столб; пылеуловительная камера с тканевыми фильтрами; электростатический фильтр, ловушка с электростатическим осаждением;
система топливоподачи; оксид серы.
1.
Упражнение 3. Сопоставьте слово (A) с его определением (B).
(A)
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
storage silos;
pulveriser;
turbine blade;
voltage;
coal preparation plant;
The crushed coal is placed on a conveyor and stored inside the plant
in a coal silo.
2. The coal will be dropped out of the silos into pulverisers.
3. Multiple pulverisers crush the coal into a powder.
4. The oil is being extracted from the oil wells.
5. The captured gases will have been transported to various countries.
6. The increasing pressure and heat inside the earth resulted in the
formation of oil.
7. The solid form of fossil fuel is coal.
8. Everyday millions of barrel of oil are being dug.
9. Make-up air will be provided through air systems.
10. The exhaust system had reduced the potential for wall and roof
moisture problems.
Упражнение 5. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на глагол to be.
(B)
a)
a facility that washes coal of soil and rock, crushes it into graded
sized chunks (sorting), stockpiles grades preparing it for transport to
market, also loads coal into rail cars, barges, or ships;
b) the individual component which makes up the turbine section of a
gas turbine;
c) cylindrical structure, typically 10 to 90 ft (4 to 30 m) in diameter
and 30 to 275 ft (10 to 84 m) in height; it is more commonly used
for bulk storage of grain, coal, cement, carbon black, etc.;
d) a mechanical device for the grinding of many different types of materials; for example, this device is used to pulverize coal for combustion in the steam-generating furnaces of fossil fuel power plants;
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
The supercritical fluid is sent to the steam turbines.
Ducted supply system is to provide better control of air movement.
It is necessary to minimize transfer of fumes and smells. The fluid
temperature is about 600 C .
The hot gases are passing through the top of the boiler.
The warm flue gas exiting the boiler is to be processed to remove
harmful materials.
The warm flue gas will be composed mostly of nitrogen and steam.
Упражнение 6. Образуйте существительные с помощью словообразовательных суффиксов и переведите их.
а) от следующих глаголов с помощью суффиксов -ion,- ment:
40
the electric potential difference between two points, or the difference in electric potential energy of a unit charge transported between two points.
41
limit; install; applicate; promote; construct; state; ventilate; isolate; relate; operate; circulate; extract; calculate; combine; reduce; concentrate;
accumulate; deplete; dilute; pollute; occupy; vary; allocate; distribute;
locate; vitiate; direct; precipitate; radiate; dissipate; condensate; deteriorate; depressurize; elevate; move; equip; require; replace; environ;
Ответьте на вопросы к тексту:
1.
2.
3.
b) от следующих прилагательных с помощью суффиксов
-ness, -(i)ty:
able; pure; active; dense; simple; dry; useful; clean; fresh; electric; humid.
4.
5.
6.
Текст В
7.
When does the fossil fuel create energy?
What causes molecules of carbon and hydrogen to react and produce large amount of energy?
When does hydrocarbon chain convert the heat energy contained in
the fossil fuel to electrical energy? Why?
How do fossil fuels vary?
What produces some harmful gases?
What produces large amount of carbon dioxide and sulphur dioxide?
What does it result in?
ENERGY PRODUCTION
Once fossil fuels are extracted and refined, they are ready for use
by common man. When combustion takes place, the hydrocarbons present in the fossil fuel creates energy. The heat that is used to burn fossil
fuels cause molecules of carbon and hydrogen to react and produce large
amount of energy. The formation of this new energy is used by us for
various purposes. For example: when you put fuel in your car, the engine burns the fuel and converts the energy produced by burning of fossil fuel to mechanical energy which results in movement of vehicle forward. When fossil fuels are burnt, it releases carbon and hydrogen molecules to react and produce high amount of energy and heat.
The chemicals present in the fossil fuel react only when they come
in contact with other heat sources. When they are exposed to heat, the
hydrocarbon chain converts the heat energy contained in the fossil fuel
to electrical energy to create electricity or mechanical energy to drive
the engines. Coal power stations uses similar feature. They burn large
amount of coal and used the heat produced by them to activate generators which in turn produce electricity.
Different types of fossil fuels vary in the quantity of hydrocarbons
that they contain and this is the reason that they differ in their burning
rates. Each fossil fuel contains a chain of hydrocarbons. This chain of
hydrocarbons is then used to create large amount of energy. Any fossil
fuel when burnt always releases energy and also produces some harmful
gases. Natural gas is one the fossil fuel that do not produce any harmful
gases as it burns completely. Coal and oil produce large amount of carbon dioxide and sulphur dioxide that pollutes the environment.
Упражнение 7. Найдите в тексте синонимы к следующим
словам:
kind; to contain; to vary; to drive; velocity; to transform; the same;
big; utilize; quantity; usual.
Задания по тексту
1. Переведите текст.
2. Составьте план текста из 6–8 пунктов.
3. Пользуясь составленным Вами планом, кратко изложите
содержание текста на русском языке.
42
43
Урок 4.7
Текст А
BEAUTY OF HYDROPOWER
The beauty of hydroelectric power is in its simplicity. It follows a
simple principle and procedure which takes place by the conversion of
forms of energy into one another and finally into work. The mechanism
is very easy which follow the laws of conservation of energy. About
15 % of world electricity needs are fulfilled by hydropower.
The basic principle of working of hydropower turbines (figure 4.8)
Mostly, the fast moving water (kinetic energy) strikes the turbines and
they start moving (mechanical energy) and then this energy is used to
run electric generators. The transference of energy takes place from one
form to another. Now instead of water wheels water falling from a vertical height is used which has stored potential energy in it due to its position and the water is then passed through the gate or vessels which take
the water to the turbines which convert potential energy into mechanical
energy, these vessels are called penstocks. There are four parts of a typical hydropower plant which are: dams, turbines, rotor and stator, transmission lines.
Dams The dam is made on a river to collect water. Whenever it
rains, the water is collected into the dam so it serves as a water reservoir.
The potential energy for further work is generated by the water level difference between the dams and the turbines because the water level in the
dams is very high. Dams also control the water flow through penstocks.
Turbines The next step is to convert this kinetic energy of water
into mechanical energy. The water flows from a height throw the penstocks which are the channeled vessels to the turbines which have
blades. The falling water has enough kinetic energy that when they
strike hard with the blades of the turbines, they start spinning which
means that the kinetic energy is converted into mechanical energy.
Generators The shafts of the turbines convert the mechanical energy into electric energy. Basically, the generators work on the principle
of magnets which is that when you pass a magnet near a conductor, electric current flows through it.
Rotor and stator The rotor having field pole rotates on a specific
speed. When it rotates it passes the field poles across the stator to make
sure that it has the same effect of electric field. The water should keep
on moving constantly to make sure that the amount of electricity produced is great. Static water cannot generate electricity.
Transmission lines The electricity via power lines is transferred to
substation which provides it to the consumers. So, the process is of great
importance.
Figure 4.8. Hydropower generation
Ответьте на вопросы к тексту:
1.
2.
3.
What is the working principle of hydroelectric power?
What lows does its mechanism follow?
How many percents of world electricity needs are fulfilled by hydropower?
4. What energy is used to run electric generators?
5. How is potential energy converted into mechanical energy?
6. What are the four parts of a typical hydropower plant?
7. Where and what for is the dam made?
8. How does it serve?
9. What is the penstock?
10. Why do the blades start spinning and what does it mean?
11. On what principle do the generators work?
44
45
12. Why does the rotor rotate on a specific speed?
13. Why should the water keep on moving constantly?
14. How do the transmission lines function?
3)
4)
5)
6)
Упражнение 1. Переведите слова и словосочетания на русский язык:
hydroelectric power; electric generators; potential energy; basic
principle; hydropower turbine; field pole; transmission lines; power line;
water level difference; electric current; world electricity; kinetic energy;
mechanical energy; water wheel; (n.)- consumer; magnet; conductor;
rotor; speed; spinning; amount; channel; shaft; substation; penstock;
dams; reservoir; rotor; stator; blade; position; transference; gate; vessel;
conversion; mechanism; conservation; need; (v.)- keep on; provide;
make sure; run; generate; be of great importance; convert; serve; collect;
fulfill; strike; store; (adj.)- vertical; further; (adv.)- mostly; finally; basically; constantly.
Due to; through; another; whenever; between; enough; via; instead of.
Упражнение 2. Переведите слова и словосочетания на английский язык:
линия электропередачи (2); подстанция; электрический ток;
передача; превращение; превращать; накопление; резервуар; электричество; шахта; потенциальная энергия; сосуд; направлять; лопасть; желоб; вращение; плотина, дамба; когда бы ни, всякий раз,
когда; турбина гидроэлектростанции; электрический генератор;
вращать; обеспечивать; дальнейший; убеждаться; собирать; происходить; производить; количество; проводник, проводящий материал; в основном; служить в качестве; потребитель.
Через (2); другой; который; между; вместо; достаточно; благодаря;
(B)
a)
b)
energy which a body possesses by virtue of being in motion;
a machine for producing continuous power in which a wheel or rotor, typically fitted with blades, is made to revolve by a fast-moving
flow of water, steam, gas, air, or other fluid;
c) the sum of potential energy and kinetic energy. It is the energy associated with the motion and position of an object;
d) the energy possessed by a body by virtue of its position relative to
others, stresses within itself, electric charge, and other factors;
e) a conductor or conductors designed to carry electricity or an electrical signal over large distances with minimum losses and distortion;
f) power derived from the energy of falling water and running water,
which may be harnessed for useful purposes.
Упражнение 4. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на герундий.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Упражнение 3. Сопоставьте слово (A) с его определением (B).
7.
(A)
8.
1) turbine;
2) hydropower;
9.
46
transmission line;
kinetic energy;
mechanical energy;
potential energy;
There are a lot of advantages of using split air-conditioners.
The capacity of air-conditioning system in the room is controlled by
switching the compressor on-and-off.
The basic principle of working of hydropower turbines is simple.
The turbine blades start spinning which means that the kinetic energy is converted into mechanical energy.
The water should keep on moving constantly to make sure that the
amount of electricity produced is great.
The engine burns the fuel and converts the energy produced by
burning of fossil fuel to mechanical energy.
The heat energy then goes through various processes before finally
converting to mechanical energy.
Ventilation can simply be described as the process of changing air
in the enclosed space.
Besides controlling humidity, this minimum ventilation rate is required to remove any gases of combustion.
47
10. Coal which is major form of fossil fuels is used in power plants for
creating electricity.
century of technology refinement. Figure 4.10 is a conceptual illustration of the cross section of a large hydroelectric plant that includes a
dam that impounds water. This illustration represents one among the
several plant configurations that are widely used for implementing hydropower, not all of which include a dam or a reservoir.
Упражнение 5. Переведите следующие предложения с усилительной конструкцией it is…that… .
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
It is the increase in the rate of evaporation that makes the body feels
cooler.
It is the evaporation that causes the skin to be cooled.
It is the breeze that makes you feel cooler.
It was the increase in the rate of evaporation that makes the body
feels cooler.
It is the cooling capacity that indicates the rate at which the cooling
tower can transfer heat.
Текст В
TECHNOLOGY CHARACTERIZATION
Water behind a hydropower dam contains potential energy that can
be converted to electricity in the hydropower plant. Potential energy is
converted to kinetic energy as the water passes from its source through a
penstock. The kinetic energy of the water is converted to mechanical energy as the water spins a turbine, which may be a simple waterwheel
(e.g., Pelton and crossflow turbines), a reaction turbine (Francis turbine),
a propeller-like device (e.g., simple Kaplan and bulb turbines), or a
complex turbine with blades that can be adjusted during operation (articulated Kaplan turbine). The turbine is mechanically connected to a
generator (see Figure 4.9), which converts the mechanical energy into
electrical energy.
Electricity produced in this way is commonly referred to as hydroelectricity. The capacity to produce hydroelectricity is dependent on
both the flow through the turbine (typically measured in cubic feet per
second or cubic meters per second) and the hydraulic “head.” Head is
the height measured in feet or meters; the headwater surface behind the
dam is above the tailwater surface immediately downstream of the dam.
The articulated (поворотная) Kaplan turbine illustrates the maturity of
hydropower technology. This modern 100 MW unit is the product of a
Figure 4.9. Typical hydropower turbine and generator
Figure 4.10. Cross section of a large hydroelectric plant
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49
Water storage enables a project to vary generation and dispatch
electricity to meet demand. In addition to electricity generation, storage
projects commonly serve other functions such as flood protection, domestic and irrigation water supply, recreation, navigation, and environmental protection. These functions often dictate how the hydropower
plant can be operated, resulting in less than optimal operation from an
electricity generation perspective.
Notes:
Pelton wheel – колесо Пельтона (рабочее колесо активной гидротурбины);
Francis turbine – турбина Френсиса (радиально-осевая гидротурбина);
Kaplan turbine – турбина Каплана (поворотно-лопастная гидротурбина);
bulb turbines – капсульная гидротурбина;
hydraulic “head” – гидравлический напор, пьезометрическая высота;
headwater – верхний бьеф; водосбор;
tailwater – нижний бьеф; сбросные воды.
Упражнение 6. Найдите в тексте синонимы к следующим
словам:
requirement; some; to control; to alter; usually; to involve; more;
holding capacity; transverse section; very common; to generate; plant.
Задания по тексту
1. Переведите текст.
2. Составьте план текста из 6–8 пунктов.
3. Пользуясь составленным Вами планом, кратко изложите
содержание текста на русском языке.
Урок 4.8
Текст А
POWER TRANSMISSION
Electric power transmission (Figure 4.11) is the technical name for
the movement of bulk electricity from power-generating locations to local subsystems. This designation separates it from electricity distribution, the name for the power as it moves from local subsystems to customers. There are several methods used to move power from one location to another, but overhead lines that are owned by a power distribution company are the most common. Since it is impossible to actually
store electricity for long periods, one of the key points for electric power
transmission is matching the supply of power to the demand for power.
In most cases, power lines that are used for electric power transmission are easy to spot. These are the power lines that are thicker and
higher than standard pole lines. An electric power transmission line is
often supported by a metal pole or metal grid work, rather than the standard wooden pole. These lines are occasionally buried underground, particularly in urban areas, but the relative expense and potential hazards of
underground lines limit this practice.
Overhead power lines used for electric power transmission are
built differently than standard power lines. The inner conductor is made
of aluminum rather than copper. This makes the line lighter and less expensive without sacrificing power conductivity. The conductive strands
are occasionally interwoven with steel wires to increase their strength,
but this is usually only done in areas where the line will be under constant stress. The wires are uninsulated, which is why they are placed so
high in the air.
The majority of electric power transmission is done using a threephase alternating current. This power transmission type works well for
shorter distances, but requires very expensive hardware. A single-phase
alternating current is common when the power is going directly to a consumer, such as an electrified transportation system, rather than a local
subsystem. Over long distances or when sending a cable through the water, high-voltage direct current is the preferred method.
The biggest point of concern for an electric power transmission
system is matching the supply and demand for power. All of the power
50
51
sent into the power grid needs to be used. If it isn’t, it can result in overloads and power outages at the weakest point within the distribution
chain. If the grid demands more power than is supplied, the results are
blackouts in high-usage areas. To combat this problem, most power
grids use several redundant electric power transmission methods. The
power has other grids it can jump to if needed, and there are several different locations that a local grid may draw power from. This means that
when one grid has too much or too little power, it can work with adjacent systems to equalize. If this system is overloaded, the results are often a large-scale blackout occasionally resulting in thousands, or even
millions, of people with no power.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
What are the difference between power lines and pole lines?
What is the inner conductor of electric power transmission line
made of?
What are the conductive strands occasionally interwoven with and
why?
Why are the wires placed so high in the air?
How is the majority of electric power transmission done?
When is a single-phase alternating current used?
What method is preferable over long distance?
What can result in overloads?
What can result in blackouts?
In what case can power work with adjacent systems and why?
Упражнение 1. Переведите слова и словосочетания на русский язык:
Figure 4.11. Electric power transmission
Ответьте на вопросы к тексту:
1.
2.
3.
4.
What is electric power transmission?
What is electricity distribution?
What are the most common power lines?
What is one of the key points for electric power transmission?
еlectric power transmission; movement; bulk electricity; powergenerating location; local subsystem; electricity distribution;
overhead line; long period; key point; electric power transmission;
power line; pole line; metal pole; metal grid work; wooden pole; urban
area; potential hazard; overhead power line; inner conductor; power
conductivity; steel wire; constant stress; three-phase alternating current;
electrified transportation system; to send a cable; high-voltage direct
current; high-usage area; power grid; power outage; redundant electric
power transmission method; adjacent system; large-scale; (n.)- designation; case; underground; practice; aluminum; copper; strand; strength;
majority; hardware; blackout; overload; (v.)- separate; store; match;
spot; support; bury; sacrifice; interweave; increase; place; equalize;
combat; (adj.)- impossible; thick; high; relative; light; uninsulated;
common; (adv.)- actually; occasionally; particularly; differently; directly.
Rather than; than; without; under; through; too.
Упражнение 2. Переведите слова и словосочетания на английский язык:
большая часть; воздушная линия электропередач на опорах;
металлическая решетчатая конструкция; сплетать, переплетаться;
52
53
отключение электропитания; область с высоким коэффициентом
загруженности; оказывать противодействие; дублирующий резервный; выполнять переход; передавать мощность; уравнивать, стабилизировать; терять, жертвовать; многожильный провод; магистральная сеть высокого напряжения, электроэнергетическая система;
отключение электроэнергии, прекращение электроснабжения; отделять; хранить; соответствовать; изредка; особенно; без; постоянный ток; переменный ток; стальные провода; уравновешивать.
3.
Упражнение 3. Сопоставьте слово (A) с его определением (B).
(A)
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
power transmission;
direct current;
alternate current;
conductor;
to equalize;
The extraction creates an area of negative pressure causing the
fresher replacement air to flow into the room through doors, windows etc.
4. The overall cost for a packaged system can be as low as $10 per
square foot including ductwork and controls.
5. Exhausting moist air and replacing it with heated outside air is effective in eliminating condensation and other problems resulting
from high humidity.
6. The increasing pressure and heat inside the earth resulted in the
formation of oil that is lying deep beneath the rocks.
7. Besides controlling humidity, the minimum ventilation rate is required to remove any gases of combustion.
8. Displacement ventilation uses the principle of natural ventilation of
supplying fresh air at lower levels and exhausting at higher elevations.
9. Carbon dioxide and other gases are responsible for global warming.
10. These gases form a layer in the atmosphere and prevent sunlight
from going back in to the space resulting in greenhouse effect.
(B)
Текст В
a) an electric current of which magnitude and direction vary;
b) to make two or more things uniform, corresponding, matching, the
same in size, value, amount etc.;
c) the bulk transfer of electrical energy, from generating power plants
to electrical substations located near demand centers;
d) an object or type of material that permits the flow of electric charges
in one or more directions;
e) the flow of electricity in a single direction, from the positive to the
negative terminals (potential, poles);
Упражнение 4. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание
на формы с окончанием – ing.
1.
2.
Copper makes the line lighter and less expensive without sacrificing
power conductivity.
A ventilation or air-condition system installed in a building should
clean, freshen or condition the air within the space.
ELECTRIC POWER PLANT
An electric power plant is a facility that exists for the purpose of
generating electric power and sending it toward wherever it is needed.
There are several different methods of generating electricity, but generally an electric power plant burns fossil fuels, such as coal, to heat water
and produce steam. This steam is pressurized and used to turn a turbine,
and electrical energy is gained from the mechanical energy of the rotating turbine through the use of a series of magnets. The interactions result
in electrons which are sent through power lines until they reach the
homes and businesses where they are needed.
Coal is the most commonly used fossil fuel for the generation of
electricity because of its high energy content and ready combustibility. It
does, however, produce a great deal of fossil fuel waste. Burning coal
releases massive quantities of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere and is
thought to contribute significantly to global warming and to the green-
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55
house effect. As such, scientists continually seek the cleanest and most
efficient method of generating energy at an electric power plant.
An electric power plant can come in many different forms, based
on the kind of fuel it uses and the methods used to convert that fuel to
electrical energy. For example, nuclear power plants utilize the heat
from nuclear reactors, and geothermal power plants use steam generated
by extremely hot rocks located deep underground. Usually, an electric
power plant will make use of steam turbines to provide the mechanical
energy to be transferred to electrical energy. Sometimes, however, a
plant will have a gas turbine that is directly turned by natural gas. Some
also make use of microturbines which are inexpensive and can make use
of a variety of different kinds of fuels.
Renewable forms of electrical energy generation are gaining
prominence as the expense and limited nature of fossil fuels become
strongly apparent. Energy can be gained from wind, using windmills
which directly use the power of the wind to turn turbines and generate
mechanical energy which can, in turn, be converted to electrical energy.
A solar thermal electric power plant uses the heat energy of the sun to
boil water and turn turbines. These methods of energy generation are renewable and clean, but tend to be less efficient at actually generating
electricity than fossil fuel plants are. The supply of fossil fuels will run
dry, but the Earth will still have plenty of wind and sunlight.
Задания по тексту
1. Переведите текст.
2. Составьте план текста из 6–8 пунктов.
3. Пользуясь составленным Вами планом, кратко изложите
содержание текста на русском языке.
Урок 4.9
Текст А
WIND POWER PLANT
Wind power plants, also known as wind farms, are large complexes of wind generating devices that convert wind energy into electricity, as well as into energy for pumping water or generating mechanical
power. The most common kind of wind power plant generates electricity
through wind turbines and distributes it through power lines and transformers. Some plants are connected to a large electric plant, while other
smaller ones provide electrical power to isolated residences or small
commercial buildings. The most productive plants regularly sell surplus
power to utility companies.
A wind power plant can be constructed as one large unit or in
smaller modular turbine structures. The smaller plant design includes
modules that can easily be rearranged, increased, or decreased depending on wind power availability and energy needs. While a medium size
wind farm can be physically constructed in less than six months, the related wind analysis and securing of construction and use permits normally extends the completed project time to around two years.
An open, unhindered windy piece of land is the first step of many
that are needed to build and operate a wind power plant. The velocity of
the wind is extremely important, as is the amount of wind regularly produced at the proposed location. Determining these factors involves intricate and relatively long-term testing to be accurate. Location is everything when determining the best place to build a wind power plant.
Wind speed and force can vary greatly from hour to hour on a daily basis, and even from season to season at different locations. Though not as
dramatic, wind can also vary on an annual basis. Forecasting methods
for predicting wind factors exist but are not highly reliable in attempting
to "schedule" it, as is done with other sources for electricity.
It is generally safe to assume that wind speed is faster at higher altitudes that are unobstructed and free of windbreaks. Based on these factors, preferred locations for wind farms are mountaintops, bare open
planes or shorelines, or the tops of rounded, rolling hills free of heavy
tree growth or foliage. Even in ideal geographic locations, actual wind
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speeds and continuity must be carefully measured, as simple perceptions
of wind can be misleading.
Wind energy is often touted as the best alternative to using fossil
fuels, which contain high levels of carbons and hydrocarbons, to produce electricity. It is promoted based on its lack of harmful emissions,
mass availability, and overall cleanliness. Opponents of wind power
plants cite the plants' negative aesthetic visual impacts and possible disruption to birds and other animals indigenous to the area.
construct; include; rearrange; depend on; extend; produce; determine;
involve; intricate; to be accurate; vary; mislead; (adj.)- productive; related; important; different; dramatic; unobstructed; actual; (adv.)- regularly; physically; normally; extremely; regularly; relatively; greatly;
carefully.
As; than; around; even; from; though; that; through; while; other.
Упражнение 2. Переведите слова и словосочетания на английский язык:
Ответьте на вопросы к тексту:
1.
2.
3.
4.
What is wind power plant?
How does the most common kind of wind power plant work?
What is the difference between large and small wind power plants?
How much time does it take to construct the wind farm of medium
size?
5. What factors are needed to build and operate a wind power plant?
6. Why are forecasting methods for predicting wind factors not highly
reliable in attempting to "schedule" it?
7. Where is the wind speed faster?
8. What are the preferred locations for wind farms?
9. Why must actual wind speeds and continuity be carefully measured?
10. Why is wind energy often touted as the best alternative to using fossil fuels?
11. What do opponents of wind power plants cite to?
Безветренный участок земли; возвышенность; свободный, ничем не заслоненный; посадка растений, защитное лесонасаждение;
лишенный растительности; открытая плоскость; береговая линия;
зеленная растительность; вводить в заблуждение, дезориентировать; рекламировать, предлагать; ссылаться, упоминать; разрушение, нарушение, дестабилизация; природный, свойственный, присущий; избыточная мощность, сверхмощность, перегрузочная
мощность; муниципальная компания, компания по коммунальному
обслуживанию; преобразовывать, перекомпоновывать; уровень
производительности; соответствующий, имеющий отношение, сопутствующий; обеспечение; разрешение на ввод в эксплуатацию;
сложный, замысловатый; на ежедневной основе; ощущение, представление; визуальное воздействие, зрительное воздействие, воздействие на ландшафт.
Упражнение 3. Сопоставьте слово (A) с его определением (B).
(A)
Упражнение 1. Переведите слова и словосочетания на русский язык:
wind power plant; modular turbine structure; plant design; power
line; surplus power; utility company; wind power availability; energy
need; medium size; use permit; completed project time; unhindered
windy piece of land; long-term testing; daily basis; an annual basis; high
altitude; bare open plane; (n.)- complex; transformer; securing; construction; velocity; amount; mountaintop; shoreline; hill; continuity; perception; windbreak; residence; (v.)- convert; distribute; connect; isolate;
1)
2)
3)
4)
(B)
a)
a group of wind turbines in the same location used to produce energy. A large wind farm may consist of several hundred individual wind
58
wind speed/velocity;
wind farm;
windbreak;
geographic location;
59
turbines and cover an extended area of hundreds of square miles, but the
land between the turbines may be used for agricultural or other purposes;
b)
this term is used to identify a point or an area on the Earth's surface or elsewhere. It generally implies a higher degree of certainty
(несомненный факт) than place, which often indicates an entity
(объект) with an ambiguous (неясный, неопределенный) boundary,
relying more on human/social attributes of place identity and sense of
place than on geometry;
c) a plantation usually made up of one or more rows of trees or
shrubs planted in such a manner as to provide shelter from the wind and
to protect soil from erosion. They are commonly planted around the
edges of fields on farms. If designed properly, around a home they can
reduce the cost of heating and cooling and save energy;
d)
a fundamental atmospheric rate. Wind speed is caused by air moving from high pressure to low pressure. Wind speed affects weather
forecasting, aircraft and maritime operations, construction projects,
growth and metabolism rate of many plant species, and countless other
implications.
7.
Упражнение 4. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на функцию инфинитива.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
An open, unhindered windy piece of land is the first step of many
that are needed to build and operate a wind power plant.
Location is everything when determining the best place to build a
wind power plant.
It is also possible to switch off the refrigeration system completely
and run only the blower for air circulation.
The system of ventilation to be considered in relation to the thermal
characteristics of the building uses the principles of building stacks
effect.
The next step is to convert this kinetic energy of water into mechanical energy.
To conserve energy in winter, the ventilation shall operate under reduced flow to take advantage of increased air infiltration.
These fossil fuels are scarce resource and they cannot meet up demand for the generations to come and secondly these fossil fuels
when burnt cause lot of air pollution.
8. Usually, an electric power plant will make use of steam turbines to
provide the mechanical energy to be transferred to electrical energy.
9. A transformer is used to increase the voltage to allow the power to
be put into the transmission system.
10. The amount of heat to be removed within a certain period, usually
24 hours measured in British thermal units (Btu) or watts.
Текст B
HOW WIND TURBINES WORK
Wind turbines (Figure 4.12) use the energy in the wind to turn a rotor, which drives a generator. The rotor either has a horizontal axis,
which is the most common type, or a vertical axis.
Horizontal axis turbines These often have three blades, although
this varies in some models. The blades are designed as aerofoils, which
use the wind to create lift and turn the rotor. They work in a similar way
to aeroplane wings. The turbine rotor is designed to face either directly
into or away from the wind. They are designed with a yawing mechanism which aligns them according to the wind direction.
Vertical axis turbines These rotate around a vertical axis, turning a
shaft which is in line with the mast or tower it is mounted on. The rotors
can harness wind from any direction. The generator can be located inside the top of the mast, or the shaft can pass down through the inside of
the mast to drive a generator located at the base. These turbines place
less stress on the tower and base, which means they can be better for
roof mounting.
Wind turbines are available at a wind range of scales. Micro-wind
turbines can be installed on rooftops or on poles in back gardens. Very
large turbines are used for onshore or offshore wind farms. Horizontal
axis wind turbines tend to be more common for all of these applications.
The electricity generated by a wind turbine increases with the wind
speed and the area of the rotor. The capacity of a wind turbine tends to
be quoted in terms of the peak rate of electricity generation. The wind
speed required to reach peak output varies for different types of turbines.
Most turbines will operate in wind speeds ranging from around 5m/s up
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to peak output at around 15m/s. The capacity factor is a simple way of
expressing the typical output from a wind turbine over the course of the
year, in relation to its rated peak capacity. It describes the output during
a year as a proportion of the theoretical maximum output if it was operating at its peak capacity all of the time. Common industry average
capacity factors are:
 30 per cent for large wind turbines in reasonable locations;
 five to 15 per cent for smaller wind turbines installed in urban areas
(as buildings and other tall structures affect wind speeds and directions).
Typical electricity output is expressed in terms of the number of
new semi-detached homes it could supply electricity to.
Wind speeds Wind speeds vary with location and weather conditions, so the output from a wind turbine is also variable. Unless the location being considered is very windy, average wind speeds will often be
less than the speed required to reach peak generating capacity. Wind
speeds also vary with height, so as well as having a bigger rotor area to
capture the wind, the larger turbines tend to have access to higher wind
speeds because they are taller.
Some turbines will not operate at all until a minimum wind speed
has been reached, and may have a small motor to get them to start turning before the wind takes over. Most turbines also have a braking
mechanism that stops them from turning when wind speeds are too high
to avoid damage.
Задания по тексту
1. Переведите текст.
2. Составьте план текста из 6–8 пунктов.
3. Пользуясь составленным Вами планом, кратко изложите
содержание текста на русском языке.
Figure 4.12. How wind turbine works
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Урок 4.10
Текст А
for heating up the inside of homes as well as office buildings. High temperatures will help in generating the electricity which is needed for everyday uses in homes and offices.
TYPES OF SOLAR ENERGY
Countries all over the world have decided to have solar power
plants installed. People all over the world have become more conscious
about saving the environment and this led them to understand the importance and usefulness of solar energy and its financial feasibility. There
are many different kinds of solar power plants which can be installed. It
is possible to make use of solar power plants in an active and passive
manner.
A solar power plant is used in an active manner when the energy
from the sun is converted directly into a useable form which can be used
for powering all kinds of appliances that are present in the house on a
normal basis. Passive use of solar energy takes place when houses and
buildings have been created in such a manner that they get the maximum
exposure to the rays of the sun.
There are many different kinds of solar power plants which are
constructed all over the world. They include the photovoltaic solar energy plant, solar thermal energy plant and concentrating power plant.
Photovoltaic solar energy plant (figure 4.13)This is the appropriate
substitute for the usual electrical energy which is used in houses for
powering electrical appliances. Photovoltaic cells will capture the energy which is generated from the sun and get it converted into electricity. The process of energy conversion is clean and simple and it does not
involve injecting any kind of smoke or harmful chemicals into the atmosphere. A lot of companies have decided to have grids containing
photovoltaic cells installed on their premises so that they can derive the
maximum amount of energy from them and also reduce their dependence on the traditional forms of electrical energy.
Solar Thermal energy plant A solar thermal energy plant will be
used for creating solar generated heaters which can be used for heating
water and also as an indoor heating system. Thermal cells will be used to
capture the energy which has been generated by the sun and then convert
it into heat energy. It is also possible to make use of this energy for
cooking purposes and also for drying clothes. Low temperatures can be
used for heating water as well as swimming pools. Medium heat is used
Figure 4.13. Photovoltaic system
Ответьте на вопросы к тексту:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Упражнение 1. Переведите слова и словосочетания на русский язык:
solar power plant; solar energy; financial feasibility; all over the
world; solar energy plant; thermal energy; photovoltaic cell; solar thermal energy plant; thermal cell; low temperature; medium heat; high
64
Why have countries all over the world decided to have solar power
plants installed?
In what manner is it possible to make use of solar power plants?
Where is photovoltaic solar energy plant used?
How do photovoltaic cells work?
Why do a lot of companies decide to install grids containing photovoltaic cells?
What will solar thermal energy plant be used for?
How do the thermal cells work?
Where can the solar thermal energy be used?
65
temperature; (n.)- ray; substitute; grid; dependence; purpose; conversion; appliance; usefulness; environment; importance; (v.)- install; save;
convert; create; exposure; construct; contain; reduce; involve; derive; include; concentrate; capture; generate; take place; inject; need; (adj.)appropriate; harmful; chemical; useable; photovoltaic; (adv.)- directly.
As well as; also; into; which; that; when.
Упражнение 4. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание
на неличные формы глагола и обороты с ними.
Упражнение 2. Переведите слова и словосочетания на английский язык:
фотоэлектрический элемент, фотоэлемент; луч; термоэлемент;
финансовая целесообразность; пригодный для использования, исправный, практичный; заменитель; содержать; зависимость; значимость; устанавливать; вредный; извлекать, получать; вовлекать;
создавать; превращать; практичность, целесообразность; вдувать,
впрыснуть, нагнетать.
Упражнение 3. Сопоставьте слово (A) с его определением (B).
(A)
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
photovoltaic element;
solar thermal energy;
electrical appliance;
install;
energy conversion;
1.
It is possible to make use of solar power plants in an active and passive manner.
2. The process of energy conversion is clean and simple and it does
not involve injecting any kind of smoke or harmful chemicals into
the atmosphere.
3. A solar thermal energy plant will be used for creating solar generated heaters.
4. Low temperatures can be used for heating water as well as swimming pools.
5. High temperatures will help in generating the electricity which is
needed for everyday uses in homes and offices.
6. Unless the location being considered is very windy, average wind
speeds will often be less than the speed required to reach peak generating capacity.
7. Most turbines will operate in wind speeds ranging from around 5m/s
up to peak output at around 15m/s.
8. A solar power plant being used in an active manner, the energy
from the sun is converted directly into a useable form.
9. The wind speed required to reach peak output varies for different
types of turbines.
10. The output from a wind being variable, wind speeds vary with location and weather conditions.
Упражнение 5. Прочитайте и переведите следующие сокращения:
(B)
a) runs on electricity. It takes the electricity and converts it into some
other useful form of energy;
b) a technology for harnessing solar energy for thermal energy (heat)
requirement in industries, residential sector and commercial setup;
c) thin silicon disk that converts sunlight into electricity;
d) the process of changing one form of energy to another. In physics,
the term energy describes the capacity to produce certain changes
within a system, without regard to limitations in transformation imposed;
e) place or fix (equipment or machinery) in position ready for use.
12,000 Btu/h, 100 MW unit, 70°F, 70 % humidity, 7.5 amps, 10 to
90 ft (4 to 30 m) in diameter, 30 to 275 ft (10 to 84 m) in height, 25,000
kPa, 230-volt circuit, 250 sq-ft/TR, 100 to 150 ft.
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Текст В
Задания по тексту
GEOTHERMAL ENERGY
The upper layer of Earth is called the crust. It is only a few miles
thick, and floats on a giant pool of liquid rock called the mantle. Over
years, water can seep down deep below the surface of the earth. When
this water comes into contact with magma welling up from the mantle, it
heats to extremely high temperatures. Geothermal power plants use this
hot water to produce electricity.
Geothermal Plants Geothermal power plants use steam to drive a
turbine, which turns a generator to produce electricity. The turbine is
like a large propeller. When the steam flows through it, it creates lift
along the edge of the blades, spinning the turbine. The turbine is attached to an electric generator, which is basically a spinning magnet surrounded by coils of wire. When the magnet spins, its magnetic field
moves through the wire. This creates a moving electric current in the
wire called alternating current, or AC. That electric current is then sent
out to power homes, businesses and other buildings.
Dry and Flash Steam Power Plants The oldest design in geothermal power plants is the dry steam plant, in which steam from deep underground runs up a tube to spin the turbine. Then the steam is either
cooled and pumped back underground or released. Flash steam power
plants are a newer and more sophisticated design. Deep underground
where the water is heated, the pressure is much higher. The water can
remain liquid at temperatures well above the normal boiling point. Dry
steam plants pump this pressurized water directly to the surface. Right
before it gets to the turbine, however, the pressure is reduced. The superheated water instantly turns to steam, creating a huge burst of pressure to drive the turbine. The water is then cooled and sent back into the
ground to start the process over again.
Binary Plants In binary geothermal plants, the subterranean water
doesn't actually drive the turbines. It is pressurized and pumped up
through a tube, as in a flash steam plant, to where it meets a secondary
tube. The secondary tube also has water in it, but at a lower pressure.
Heat from the first tube flows into the second tube, boiling the water to
drive the turbine. The water in the first tube is then pumped back down
into the earth to gather more heat.
1. Переведите текст.
2. Составьте план текста из 6–8 пунктов.
3. Пользуясь составленным Вами планом, кратко изложит
содержание текста на русском языке.
68
69
Словарный минимум
A
absorb (v.) поглощать 2.6а
absorption refrigeration абсорбционное охлаждение 3.6b
acceptance (n.) приемка (установки; работ; материалов,) одобрение
(проектов) 2.7b
accident prevention техника безопасности; предупреждение несчастных случаев 2.8b
accomplish (v.) совершать; выполнять; достигать; осуществлять
2.10b
acid copper chromate кислый хромат меди 3.8b
acidification of the environment закисление среды 2.4b
acknowledge (v.) подтверждать 2.8b
address (v.) обращать внимание; исследовать 2.8b
adequate (adj.) соответствующий; достаточный; отвечающий требованиям; пригодный 3.7a
adjacent (adj.) соседний, смежный 3.6а
adjust (v.) регулировать 3.8b
adversely (adv.) неблагоприятно, отрицательно 3.9b
advice (n.) рекомендация; заключение 2.8b
aesthetic visual impact визуальное воздействие, зрительное воздействие, воздействие на ландшафт 4.9а
air barrier воздушный барьер 4.4b
air changes воздухообмен, кратность воздухообмена 4.3b
air conditioning кондиционирование воздуха 1.1a
air extract вытяжка 4.3a
air handling unit блок подогрева и кондиционирования воздуха
3.6а
air inlet впускной воздушный клапан 4.3a
air intake temperature температура воздухозабора 3.7b
air throw дальнобойность воздушной струи 4.1а
air-cooled condenser конденсатор с водяным охлаждением 3.7b
air-type collector воздухосборник; воздушный коллектор 2.9а
alloying (n.) легирование; получение сплава 2.2b
altitude возвышенность 4.9а
ambient air окружающий воздух 3.7b
amount (n.) количество 1.1a
angle (n.) угол 1.1a
annulus (n.) кольцеобразная деталь; кольцевое пространство, между двумя концентричными поверхностями 1.3b
anticipate (v.) упреждать; опережать; предвидеть 2.7b
applicable (adj.) применимый; пригодный; соответствующий 2.8b
application (n.) область применения 3.8b
arc (n.) электрическая дуга; дуговой разряд 2.6а
artificial lighting искусственное освещение 4.2а
asphalt heater асфальторазогреватель (нагреватель битума) 1.10b
assemble (v.) собирать, монтировать 2.2b
assembly tolerance допуск на сборку ( монтажный допуск) 1.3a
assure (v.) уверять; убеждать; гарантировать 2.10b
at most по большей мере 2.6а
at noon в полдень 2.6а
atmosphere (n.) атмосфера 2.6а
attach (v.) прикреплять; присоединять 1.2b
attachment (n.) прикрепление; присоединение 1.8а
augment усиление 4.2а
automatic valve автоматическая задвижка; контрольный клапан 3.8а
availability загруженность, уровень производительности 4.9а
avoidable accidents предотвратимые происшествия 2.10а
axial flow осевой поток, осевая обдувка 4.4а
B
backup system резервная система 3.3b
baffle (n.) диафрагма, перегородка 1.2b
baghouse пылеуловительная камера с тканевыми фильтрами 4.6а
balanced pressure relief valve уравновешенный перепускной клапан
4.4b
bar (n.) бар, единица давления (Па) 2.1a
bare лишенный растительности 4.9а
base (v) основывать; базировать 1.1b
baseboard (n.) объединительная панель 3.3b
baseboard radiator радиатор плинтусного типа 3.6а
basic (adj.) основной 1.1a
basin curb бортик бассейна 3.8b
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71
below (v) снижать, понижать 1.1b
bent (v.) гнуть 1.4а
blackout отключение электропитания4.8а
blade лопасть 4.7а
bleed off слив воды, отвод утечек, регулирование на сливе 3.8а
blend in (v.) сочетаться, влиться 3.9а
blowdown (n.) продувание 3.8b
blower эжектор, воздуходувная машина 3.3а
boiler (n.) бойлер; котел 2.1a
breakage (n.) поломка; повреждение 2.2а
brief (v.) резюмировать; составлять краткое изложение 2.10b
brine ( n.) охлаждающий раствор солей 3.7а
British thermal unit британская тепловая единица (~1,06кДж) 3.8a
budget item бюджетная статья 3.1b
building (n.) здание; сооружение 1.1a
building envelope ограждающая конструкция, оболочка (здания)
3.8а
building volume объем строительства 3.1b
build-up накопление 4.3a
bulk (n.) масса; объем; навал 1.7b
bulk electricity большая часть 4.8а
bulk temperature средняя температура массы 1.7b
bundle construction моноблочная конструкция (состоящая из пучка
труб) 1.2a
burner (n.) форсунка; горелка 2.2а
by means of посредством; с помощью 1.1b
cater обслуживать 4.1а
central air-conditioning system центральная система кондиционирования воздуха 3.7а
centralized energy management централизованное управление
энергоупотребелением 3.6а
centrifugal compressor центробежный (ротационный)компрессор
3.7а
Cfm (cubic feet per minute) кубические футы в минуту 3.7b
channel направлять, канализировать 4.7а
chemical treatment химическая очистка; химическая обработка 3.9b
chiller (n) охладитель (охлаждающий теплообменник) 1.1b
chiller (n.) охладитель, охлаждающий теплообменник 3.6b
choice (n) выбор 1.1b
chrome copper arsenate хромированный арсенат меди 3.8b
circumvent (v.) окружать; обходить; охватывать 2.8а
cite ссылаться, упоминать 4.9а
classification (n) классификация 1.1a
classify (v.) классифицировать 1.1a
clogging (n.) засорение, закупорка 3.9b
coal handling system система топливоподачи 4.6а
coil surface поверхность змеевика 3.2а
cold forming изменение формы в холодном состоянии 2.2b
collector plate пластина коллектора 2.6а
combustion process процесс сгорания 2.5а
commercially available имеющийся в продаже 3.8b
common (adj.) распространенный 1.1b
competitively (adv.) на конкурентной основе, на рыночных условиях 1.3a
complaint жалоба, недостаток 4.2b
compose (v.) составлять (компоновать) 1.10b
compressed-air worker кессонный рабочий 3.5a
compression ratio коэффициент сжатия (уплотнения) 3.7а
comprise (v.) включать; содержать; заключать в себе 1.3a
condenser (n) конденсатор 1.1b
condenser unit конденсаторная установка 3.10а
conditionподдерживать определенное состояние 4.3a
conduct (v.) проводить; вести 2.8b
configuration (n.) конфигурация; очертание; форма 2.6
С
callback (n.) ответный звонок 3.10а
capability (n.) способность, возможность 3.3b
capture (v.) забирать 3.10в
capture (v.) захватывать; удерживать 2.7а
carbon (n.) углерод; уголь; сажа; слой нагара 2.2b
carbon dioxide углекислый газ 2.2b
carbon steel углеродистая сталь 2.2b
care should be taken необходимо проявлять осторожность 4.3a
catalyst (n.) катализатор; активатор химической реакции 1.6b
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conservation сохранение, накопление, резервирование 4.7а
consumption (n.) потребление 2.3а
contaminant (n.) загрязнитель, загрязняющая примесь 3.9b
content (n.) содержание; объем; вместимость; наполнение 2.8b
control measures меры по контролю 2.7b
control phase фаза управления 2.7b
conventional (adj.) общепринятый 2.8а
conversion превращение 4.7а
convert (v.) превращать; преобразовывать 2.9а
cool (adj.) прохладный (v.) охлаждать 1.1a
cooler (n) кулер, нулевая камера 1.1b
cooling effect охлаждающее действие 3.6b
cooling load расход холода, тепловая нагрузка (холодильного оборудования) 3.8а
cooling tower water вода, охлажденная в градирне (стояк) 3.7b
cooling tower градирня (охлаждающая башня) 3.8а
copper (n.) медь 2.10b
corrosion resistance коррозионная стойкость 3.8b
corrosion resistance коррозионная стойкость3.9а
cost-effective material экономичный материал 3.8b
counter flow встречное течение (противоток) 1.1a
couple together соединять, связывать 3.7а
cowl дефлектор (дымовой или вытяжной трубы), колпак 4.4 а
crack трещина, щель 4.4а
creep rupture strength предел длительной прочности; сопротивление ползучести 2.2а
creep strength предел ползучести 2.2а
cross flow поперечный поток 1.1a
cross-section (n.) поперечное сечение 1.8а
cyclic loadings периодические нагрузки 2.2а
cylindrical (adj.) цилиндрический 2.1а
debris (n.) дебрис; обломочный материал; продукты разложения
3.9b
decay (n.) гниение, разложение, разрушение 3.8b
dedicated специализированный, предназначенный 4.4а
dehumidify (v.) осушать 3.3b
demand (n.) спрос 1.1a
demountable (adj.) разборный, разъемный, съемный 1.3a
density (n.) плотность 2.1b
depend on (v.) зависеть от 1.1a
depletion уменьшение, истощение 4.2а
deposition (n.) отложение, осажденный слой 1.6b
derive извлекать, получать4.10а
design effort проектно-конструкторская работа 3.1b
design features детали конструкции 1.5а
designated authority специально уполномоченный орган 2.7b
designation code код маркировки 1.3a
desulfurization unit блок сероочистки 4.6а
desuperheat понижать температуру перегретого пара 3.7b
deterioration ухудшение, старение, износ 4.3b
deviation (n.) сдвиг; расхождение; отклонение 2.8а
device (n.) устройство 1.1a
dewpoint temperature температура конденсации, точка росы 4.3b
difference (n) разница, различие 1.1b
diffuse (v.) рассеивать 2.6b
dilute разжижать, разбавлять 4.2а
dilution ventilation общеобменная приточная вентиляция
dimensionless parameter закон подобия; безразмерный параметр
1.5b
diminish (v.) уменьшать, снижать, ослаблять 3.8b
direct component постоянная составляющая 2.7а
direct demand спрос на средства потребления 1.1b
direct expansion coils змеевик непосредственного охлаждения 3.7а
direct expansion непосредственное охлаждение 3.6а
direct radiation прямое излучение; направленное излучение 2.7а
direction (n.) направление 1.1a
directly (adv.) прямо, непосредственно 1.3a
discharge выпуск, сброс 4.4а
disguise (v.) изменять внешний вид 3.9а
D
daily basis на ежедневной основе 4.9а
damper (n.) вентиляционная решетка; вентиляционное отверстие
с клапаном 3.1а
dampness смачивание, влажность/ сырость среды 4.3b
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displacement ventilation вентиляция вытесняющим потоком 4.4а
disruption разрушение, нарушение, дестабилизация4.9а
distinct (adj.) отличный, отдельный 2.6
divert отводить 4.6а
double pipe heat exchangers двухтрубный теплообменник 1.1b
Douglas fir дугласовая пихта 3.8b
downcomer pipes спускная труба (циркуляционная труба) 2.1b
downflow нисходящий поток 3.10
draught тяга, тяговая сила 4.2b
draw power передавать мощность4.8а
drawback (n.) недостаток; препятствие 3.7а
drawback недостаток, изъян 3.8b
drift унос капель воды воздухом 3.8а
drift eliminator сепаратор капель 3.8а
drive (v.) управлять; приводить в действие 2.6а
Dry-Bulb Temperature температура сухого термометра 3.8а
duct труба, трубопровод 3.3а
ductile (adj.) эластичный; ковкий; податливый 2.10b
ductility (n.) пластичность 2.2а
ductwork system система каналов 3.3а
dump сбрасывать 3.10в
dusty пыльный , запыленный 4.2а
duty производительность, нагрузка (на установку), режим 3.8а
embed (v.) погружать 2.1а
emergency assistance неотложная помощь; чрезвычайная помощь
2.10b
emergency response реагирование на чрезвычайную ситуацию
2.10b
employee (n.) служащий 2.8b
enclose (v.) вмещать, помещать (в корпус); окружать 1.4а
encounter (v.) встречать; наталкиваться; сталкиваться 1.3b
energy source источник энергии 2.1b
engage (v.) участвовать; вовлекать 2.7b
enhance (v.); усиливать; увеличивать; повышать 2.9а
equal (adj.) равный 2.7а
equalize уравнивать, стабилизировать4.8а
equation (n.) равенство; уравнение 1.2b
escape route эвакуационный маршрут 4.3a
escort (n.) охрана; сопровождение 2.10b
etc. лат.(et cetera) и так далее 2.2а
euro (n.) евро; денежная единица 2.3а
evaporate испарять 3.3а
evaporating surface area область парообразующей поверхности
3.7а
evaporative cooling испарение охлаждением 3.6b
evaporator (n.) испаритель 1.1b
evolved into (v.) переходить; превращаться 2.1а
excavation (n.) выемка грунта 2.7b
exhaust fan вытяжка, вытяжной вентилятор4.2а
exhaust gas отработанный газ 3.3а
exhaust system выпускная система 4.4а
exhausted emissions отработанные выбросы 2.5а
exhausting откачка 4.3b
exhibit (v.) иллюстрировать; иметь 2.10b
expanding (n.) развальцовка 2.2b
expansion joint температурный трубный компенсатор (сильфонный
компенсатор) 1.2a
expansion valve расширительный клапан, регулирующий вентиль
3.6b
expose (v.) подвергать; воздействовать 2.2а
expose to подвергать 3.9b
E
ear plugs предохранительные наушники; защитные наушники 2.10b
EER (energy efficiency ratio) коэффициент энергоэффективности
3.7b
electric boiler электрический бойлер 2.1а
electric circuit control управление электрической цепью 3.6а
electric resistance heater электрический резистивный нагреватель3.6 а
electrochemical reaction электрохимическая реакция 3.9a
electrode (n.) электрод 2.1а
electrostatic precipitator электростатический фильтр; ловушка с
электростатическим осаждением 4.6а
eliminate (v.) устранять; ликвидировать 2.7b
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exposure (n.) воздействия внешних условий; облучение 2.10а
extended period продленный период 3.3b
extended static load увеличенная постоянная нагрузка 2.2а
extensive обширный 3.8b
extract system вытяжная система 4.4а
extraction отбор 4.4а
extreme pressure экстремальное (предельное, чрезвычайно высокое) давление 2.1a
firing method метод сжигания 2.1a
flame (n.) пламя 2.3а
flammable material горючий (сгораемый) материал 3.2b
flat absorber plate поглощающая пластины 2.6а
flat-plate collectors пластинчатый солнечный коллектор; плоский
коллектор 2.10b
flexibility (n.) гибкость применения, широкие возможности 1.5а
flooded shell-and-tube liquid cooler затопленный кожухотрубный
жидкостный охладитель3.7а
floor space площадь помещения 3.1b
flow controller регулятор потока (расхода жидкости или газа) 4.3в
flow fan осевой вентилятор 4.4а
flue gas дымовой газ (топочный газ) 2.4b
flue воздуховод 4.3a
fluid (n.) текучая среда (жидкость, газ) 1.1a
fluid path линия тока 1.3a
fly ash летучая зола; копоть 2.4b
fog (n.) густой туман 2.7а
foliage зеленная растительность 4.9а
footprint зона обслуживания 3.8b
forced circulation вынужденная циркуляция (насосная циркуляция)
2.1b
foremen (n.) производитель работ; мастер; бригадир 2.10а
formation (n.) формирование; образование 2.5а
fossil fuel горючее полезное ископаемое; ископаемое топливо 2.8а
foster способствовать 4.3b
foul air отравленный воздух 4.2а
foulant (n.) вещество (ухудшающее качество) 1.9а
fouling (n.) биологическое обрастание; засорение; образование
осадка 1.5a
fouling factor степень загрязнения 1.5а
fracture (n.) разлом (растрескивание) 2.2а
freon (n.) фреон, хладон 1.1b
fuel (n.) топливо, горючее 2.1a
fulfill the need удовлетворять требованиям 1.1a
fume дым, гарь, твердые частицы в воздухе 4.3a
fungal slime грибковое обрастание, грибковая слизь 3.9b
furnish (v.) снабжать; доставлять; загружать; предоставлять 2.10b
F
fall protections защита от падения 2.7b
fan coil unit вентиляторный теплообменник, блок катушки вентилятора 3.1а
fan тягодутьевое устройство 3.1а
fan тягодутьевое устройство 3.3а
fan тягодутьевое устройство, охлаждающий вентилятор 3.6b
farm pond фермерский пруд 3.3b
fatigue (n.) усталость материала 2.2а
fatigue life срок службы при нагрузках 2.2а
feed (n.) подача; (v.) подавать 3.7a
fiberglass стеклопластик, стекловолокно 3.8b
fiber-reinforced plastic (FRP) towers пластиковая башня армированная волокном 3.8b
field (n) область, поле 2.1а
field assembled собранный на месте/в эксплуатационных условиях
3.1а
field of application область применения 2.1a
field pole магнитный полюс 4.7а
field-erected монтируемый на месте 3.8b
financial feasibility финансовая целесообразность 4.10а
fine (n) мелкие частицы 1.1a
fire box топочная камера 3.3а
fire tube boiler дымогарный (жаротрубный) котел 2.1a
fired pressure vessel резервуар под давлением с огневым подводом
теплоты 2.2а
fire-retardant огнезащитный материал, огнезадерживающее средство 3.8b
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G
galvanized steel оцинкованная сталь 3.8b
gas turbine plant газотурбинная установка 1.1a
gaseous refrigerant газообразный хладагент 3.7b
gasoline engine vehicle транспортное средство с бензиновым двигателем 4.5а
gas-to-gas exchanger газо-газовый теплообменник 1.1a
gather (n.) складка 1.2b
generally (adv.) как правило, обычно 1.1a
geothermal (adj.) геотермальный 2.1b
get an idea составить представление, понимать 1.3b
glass cover plate стеклянная пластина 2.6а
government (n.) правительство 2.4b
government agency государственный орган 2.8b
gpm (gallons per minute) галлонов в минуту 3.8а
great care повышенная степень внимательности 1.4а
great influence большое влияние 1.4а
greenhouse effect парниковый эффект 2.6а
H
habitable жилой, пригодный для жилья 3.10а
hairpin construction U-образная конструкция 1.2a
handle регулировать, управлять, обращаться 3.9b
hard hat шлем-каска; предохранительный шлем 2.10b
hardness жесткость 3.9b
hazard analysis анализ степени риска (анализ эксплуатационной
безопасности) 2.7b
hazardous conditions опасные условия; опасное состояние 2.10b
haze (n.) сухой (легкий) туман 2.7а
header (n.) коллектор 2.1b
heat (n.) тепло 1.1a
heat absorber теплоприемник 2.6а
heat balance equation уравнение теплового баланса 1.4a
heat capacity теплоёмкость 1.4a
heat gain приток тепла 4.1а
heat loss тепловые потери; рассеяние тепла 2.6а
heat loss теплопотеря, теплоотдача 4.1а
heat rate удельный расход теплоты; тепловой коэффициент, тепловая мощность 1.4a
heat rejection отвод тепла 3.7b
heat transfer area поверхность теплопередачи 1.4а
heat transfer coefficient коэффициент теплопередачи 1.1a
heat transfer oil высокотемпературный теплоноситель; масляный
теплоноситель 2.9а
heat up (v.) нагревать; разогревать; накаливать 1.4a
heated absorber plate обогреваемая пластина поглотителя (солнечного коллектора) 2.6а
heating chamber камера подогрева 3.3а
heating requirement требуемое количество тепла 4.3b
height (n.)высота 2.1b
helium (n.) гелий 2.2b
helium-cooled reactor гелиевый реактор с охлаждением 1.1a
high-usage area область с высоким коэффициентом загруженности
combat оказывать противодействие 4.8а
horizon (n.) горизонт 2.6а
horizontally (adv.) горизонтально 1.1a
hot dip galvanized steel сталь горячего цинкования 3.8b
hot forming изменение формы в горячем состоянии 2.2b
hot spot зона температурного максимума 4.1а
hour (n.) час 2.3а
humidifier увлажнитель 3.3а
humidistat гигростат, регулятор влажности, влагорегулятор 4.3b
hydrocarbon (n.) гидрокарбон; углеводород 2.9а
hydrogen (n.) водород 2.2b
hydrogen-induced cracking растрескивание под воздействием водорода 2.2b
I
i.e лат. (id est) то есть (т.е.) 2.7а
impart придавать, наделять 3.6 b
implement (v.) снабжать, обеспечивать инструментами 1.2a
impurity загрязнение, примесь 3.9b
in advance заранее; заблаговременно; предварительно; досрочно
2.10а
in case of в случае 1.1a
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in summary в заключении; в итоге 2.8а
in the presence of при наличии, с участием 1.1b
incising накалывание 3.8b
indigenous природный, свойственный, присущий 4.9а
indoctrination (n.) внушение (принципов); инструктаж; подготовка
2.8b
induce (v.) вызывать, побуждать 2.2b
induce воздействовать, вызывать, побуждать 4.3a
industrial purposes промышленные цели 2.1a
industry standards отраслевые нормативы, промышленные стандарты 1.3a
inert inorganic material инертный неорганический материал 3.8b
infinite combination бесконечное сочетание 3.9b
inflammable (adj.)легковоспламеняющийся, огнеопасный, (n.) горючее вещество 4.5b
infrared (adj.) инфракрасный 2.6а
infrared portions спектр инфракрасного излучения 2.6а
inherently (adv.) по существу в своей основе; по определению 2.8а
inhibit предотвращать, препятствовать, подавлять 3.8b
inlet port впускное окно (входной канал) 1.2b
inner diameter внутренний диаметр 1.4а
insolate (v.) подвергать воздействию солнечных лучей 2.6a
insolation (n.) воздействие солнечного излучения 2.6а
instable (adj.) неустойчивый, нестабильный, изменчивый 2.5b
insufficient clearance недостаточный зазор 3.7b
insulate (v.) изолировать; защищать 2.9а
insulation (n.) изоляция; технология утепления 2.9a
intake fan всасывающий вентилятор, приточный вентилятор 4.4b
intake grille распределительная решетка на входе воздуха 4.4а
interact (v.) взаимодействовать 1.1a
interconnections электрическая разводка 3.6 а
interface контактная поверхность 3.8b
interior space внутреннее пространство 3.3b
interweave сплетать, переплетаться 4.8а
intimate contact непосредственный контакт 3.9b
intricate сложный, замысловатый 4.9а
intricate geometry сложная форма (конфигурация) 1.2b
involute скрученный, закрученный 3.7а
jump выполнять переход4.8а
K
kg/second (kilogram per second) килограмм в секунду 2.3а
km (kilometer) километр 2.3а
kW (kilowatt) киловатт 2.3а
L
lamellar cracking слоистое растрескивание 2.2b
latent heat скрытое тепло (потенциальное тепло фазового перехода)
2.1b
Latitude (n.) географическая широта 2.6а
leaching выщелачивание 3.8b
leakage (n.) протечка (негерметичность, прорыв) 2.4а
leaving temperature температура на выходе 3.7b
liberate отделять, высвобождать 4.2а
life expectancy ожидаемый срок службы 3.3а
life expectancy ожидаемый срок службы, прогнозируемый ресурс
стойкости 3.8b
life expectancy срок службы 2.10b
limited solubility ограниченная растворимость 3.9b
line pressure линейное давление; давление в трубопроводе 2.10b
liquid (n.) жидкость 1.1a
liquid-to-gas exchanger газо-жидкостный теплообменник 1.1a
liquid-to-liquid exchangers жидкостно-жидкостный теплообменник
1.1a
local heating source источник автономной системы отопления 3.6а
long-lived с длительным сроком службы 2.9а
louver вентиляционная решетка 4.4а
low (adj.) низкий 1.1a
low ambient temperature низкая температура окружающей среды
3.3b
lowermost самое нижнее положение 3.8b
M
m (metre) метр 2.3а
magnitude (n.) абсолютная величина; значение; размер 1.9a
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maintain (v.) сохранять; поддерживать; содержать; обслуживать;
эксплуатировать 2.10а
maintenance costs затраты на техническое обслуживание 1.9а
make decision принимать решение 1.1b
make up (v.) составлять 1.3a
makeup water подпиточная вода 3.8а
makeup water подпиточная вода; свежая вода 3.9b
manipulate обрабатывать 3.10в
manual (n.) руководство; справочник 2.8b
manufacturing consideration производственная разработка 2.2b
mechanical compression сжатие в компрессоре 3.6b
mechanical vapor-compression cycle цикл с механической компрессией пара 3.6b
media (n.) вещество 1.1a
melt down (v.) расплавиться 2.4а
melting point температура (точка) таяния (плавления, каплепадения) 1.7a
mention (v.) упоминать 1.1a
mercury ртуть; ртутный столб 4.6а
metal grid work металлическая решетчатая конструкция 4.8а
mislead вводить в заблуждение, дезориентировать 4.9а
mixed flow смешанный поток, смешанное течение 4.4а
moderate size средний размер 2.4b
moisture laden air увлажненный воздух, влагонесущий воздух 4.3b
moisture влажность, влагосодержание 3.3а
mold growth образование плесени 4.4b
multiple evaporator многоступенчатый испаритель 4.1а
MW (Mega Watt) мега ватт 2.3а
nonflammable негорючий, невоспламеняемый 3.10в
NOx оксид азота 2.5а
nozzle (n.) насадка; наконечник; патрубок; форсунка; распылитель;
горловина; фильтр 1.2a
nuclear boiler ядерный бойлер 2.1b
Number of Transfer Units число единиц переноса 1.5b
numbering (n.) нумерация, числовое кодирование 1.3
O
N
N (North) север 2.6а
natural convection естественная конвекция 3.3а
natural draft естественная вентиляция, тяга 4.2а
natural leakage path канал естественной утечки 4.4b
natural ventilation естественная вентиляция, аэрация 3.6b
night-setback понижение температуры на ночной период 3.6 а
nitrogen (n.) азот 2.5а
nominal условный, относительный, расчетный 3.8b
objectionable неприемлемый, неприятный, вредный 4.4а
obtainable (adj) допустимый, достижимый 1.1b
occurrence (n.) явление 2.7а
offset компенсировать, сбалансировать 3.1а
offshore wind farm морская ветряная электростанция 4.9b
oil well нефтяная скважина 4.5b
on the order of ориентировочно, примерно 4.3b
once-through boiler прямоточный бойлер 2.1b
once-through boilers прямоточный котел 2.1а
onshore wind farm наземная ветровая электростанция 4.9b
open plane открытая плоскость 4.9а
operate (v.) работать; управлять; производить операцию или ряд
операций 1.1a
operating costs эксплуатационные расходы 3.1b
operating efficiency эффективность эксплуатации 3.9b
operating principal принцип работы 1.9b
opposite (adj.) противоположный; встречный; обратный 1.1a
options (n) оборудование 1.1b
orientation angle угол ориентации 2.8а
otherwise иначе, в противном случае 4.1а
outer diameter внешний (наружный ) диаметр 1.4а
outlet port выходное отверстие (выпускной канал) 1.2b
outlet выпускной канал 4.3a
overhead (adv.) наверху; вверху; в зените 2.6а
oxidation (n.) оксидирование; окисление 2.5а
oxygen (n.) кислород 2.5а
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P
package unit компактная установка, блочное оборудование 4.1 b
package сборный 3.8b
parallel flow параллельный поток 1.1a
particular (adj.)особенный; специфический 2.7b
particulate (adj.) корпускулярный; в форме частиц 1.6b
partition wall перегородка, внутренняя стена 3.10а
pass through проходить через что-нибудь 3.10в
past (adv.) мимо; (prep.) за, мимо 1.1a
path (n.) канал, линия, дорожка, траектория 1.1a
pave a way проложить путь 4.5b
peak load максимальная/ предельная нагрузка, пиковое значение
нагрузки 3.1а
penstock желоб, подводящий рукав 4.7а
perception ощущение, представление 4.9а
person in charge прораб; руководитель проекта 2.10b
personal protective equipment средства индивидуальной защиты;
индивидуальное защитное оборудование 2.10b
pertinent (adj.) уместный; подходящий; соответствующий; применимый 2.8b
pertinent соответствующий, непосредственно связанный 2.1b
petroleum refining очистка нефти и нефтепродуктов 1.6b
pH value показатель кислотности 3.8b
pH концентрация ионов водорода 3.8b
photovoltaic cell фотоэлектрический элемент, фотоэлемент 4.10а
pickup захватывающее устройство 4.4а
pipe work трубопровод 4.4а
place (v.) размещать 1.1a
plastic cover plate пластиковая пластина 2.6а
pole line воздушная линия электропередач на опорах 4.8а
poor air distribution недостаточное распределение воздуха 4.4а
position (n.) должность 2.10b
potable water питьевая вода 2.6а
potential energy saving потенциальное энергосбережение 3.6а
power cycle air conditioner цикл перезагрузки (включения и выключения) установки для кондиционирования воздуха 2.6а
power grid магистральная сеть высокого напряжения, электроэнергетическая система 4.8а
power input потребляемая мощность 3.7а
power line линия электросети, линия электропередачи, линия высого напряжения 4.7а
power line силовая линия, линия энергоснабжения 4.7а
power outage отключение электроэнергии, прекращение электроснабжения 4.8а
power plant boiler энергетический котел 2.3а
power station электрическая станция 2.2b
precipitated hardness осажденные соли жесткости 3.9b
precipitation (n.) оседание, отложение 1.6b
preheater (n.) предварительный подогреватель 1.1a
preparatory (adj.) предварительный 2.7b
pressure (n.)давление 2.1 а
pressure gradient градиент давления 4.3a
pressure head механизм давления 3.8b
pressure parts элемент, работающий под давлением 2.2а
pressure treatment обработка под давлением, пропитка (древесины
антисептиками) под давлением 3.8b
pressurize герметизировать, поддерживать повышенное давление,
создавать избыточное давление 4.3a
prevent (v.) предотвращать; избегать 2.10а
preventive measures профилактические меры 4.1a
prior to (prep.)перед началом; прежде чем 2.7b
process equipment технологическое оборудование 4.2а
project operations проектные работы 2.7b
proliferation быстрое разрастание, заполнение 3.8b
propeller пропеллер, воздушный винт 4.4а
provision (n.) обеспечение; снабжение; положение; мера предосторожности; условие 2.8b
psychrometer психрометр (прибор для определения степени влажности воздуха) 3.8а
pultruded (FRP) одноосноориентированный (пластик) 3.8b
pultruded одноосноориентированный 3.9а
pumping head высота напора насоса 3.8а
purchasing costs затраты на приобретение 2.3а
purpose (n) цель 1.1b
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Q
quality practices обеспечение/контроль качества; 1.3a
R
radiant energy излучаемая энергия 2.6а
radiant floor heater радиационный обогреватель пола 3.3b
radiant heat лучистая теплота 4.2а
radiate (v.) излучать 2.6а
range (n.)диапазон; пределы; зона; ряд 2.2а
range of scale предел шкалы, диапазон шкалы 4.9b
rated capacity номинальная емкость 2.8а
ratio (n.), отношение, соотношение, коэффициент 2.5b
rear head задняя часть корпуса 1.3a
rearrange преобразовывать, перекомпоновывать 4.9а
reasonable temperature приемлемая (допустимая, умеренная) температура 1.5b
receive (v.) получать; принимать 2.6а
reciprocating compressor поршневой компрессор 3.7а
recirculation (n.) циркуляция по замкнутой траектории; рециркуляция (газов) 2.5b
recognize (v.) признавать, учитывать 1.3a
redundant дублирующий резервный4.8а
refinery нефтеперерабатывающее предприятие 3.8b
reflect (v.) отражать 2.6а
refrigerant (n) охлаждающее вещество, холодильный агент 1.1b
refrigerant gas газообразный хладагент 3.7а
regardless of безотносительно 3.3а
reheat cracking растрескивание при повторном нагреве 2.2b
relate to (v.) иметь отношение; относиться к 1.3a
related соответствующий, имеющий отношение, сопутствующий
4.9а
relation (v.) зависимость 1.4а
release rate мощность выброса 1.7b
relief valve клапан сброса давления; компенсационный клапан 3.10b
remainder (n.) остаток; оставшаяся часть 2.6а
removable (adj.) съемный 1.2a
replacement air свежий воздух 4.4а
representative (n.) представитель 2.7b
respond соответствовать 3.6а
responsible (adj.) ответственный (зд. обуславливающий, содействующий) 2.6
restriction (n.) ограничение 1.1a
retrieve (v.) восстанавливать; извлекать 1.5b
return air отработанный воздух 3.3а
return duct обратный канал 3.10а
reversible cycle обратимый цикл 3.3b
reversing valve реверсивный клапан 3.3b
right (adj.) правый 1.1a
rigid mounting прочное крепление; жесткий монтаж 2.10b
riser (n.) вертикальный трубопровод 2.1b
roof ( n.) крыша; покрытие здания 2.8а
rough idea грубое /приблизительное представление 1.4а
rule of thumb эмпирический метод (основанный на опыте) 2.8а
S
sacrifice терять, жертвовать4.8а
safe ( adj.) надежный; безопасный; безвредный 2.8b
safe working procedures безопасные методы производства 2.10b
saturated condensing temperature температура насыщенного пара
3.7b
saturated water насыщенная вода 2.1b
scaffold (n.) строительные леса; (scaffolding- возведение строительных лесов) 2.7
scale накипь 3.9b
scaling resistance окалиностойкость 2.2b
scaling образование накипи, окалины 3.9b
scatter (v.) рассеивать 2.6b
screw compressor винтовой компрессор 3.7а
scroll compressor спиральный компрессор 3.7а
scroll спираль 3.7а
scrub очищать 3.9b
seal (n.) изоляция; перемычка; сальник; прокладка 2.10b
securing обеспечение 4.9а
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sediment накипь, осаждение 3.8b
selective catalytic reduction селективное каталитическое восстановление (оксидов азота в топке котла); система снижения токсичности
4.6а
self-contained unit автономная установка, независимый блок 3.10а
self-contained замкнутый, автономный 3.6 а
sequence of parameters ряд параметров 1.3a
sequence of work последовательность работы 2.7b
service generator генератор испытательных сигналов 3.1a
service provider поставщик услуг 3.6а
sheet (n.) пластина 2.10b
shell boiler жаротрубный котел 2.1a
shell-and-tube heat exchangers кожухотрубчатый теплообменник
1.1b
shoreline береговая линия 4.9а
short duration малая продолжительность (кратковременный) 2.2а
shutdown (n.) остановка, простой 1.9a
shutdown выключение, остановка, неполадка 3.8b
silicone (n.) силикон 2.9а
silo склад 4.6а
single phase flow течение однородной жидкости 2.1b
site conditions условия площадки (рабочей) 2.7b
slam сильный удар 4.3a
slightly (adv.) слегка; незначительно 2.7а
small-bore piping трубопровод малого диаметра 4.1а
smell запах, зловоние 4.3a
smog ( n.) дымная мгла (смог) 2.4b
sodium (n.) натрий 2.2b
softened water смягченная вода 2.10b
solar (adj.) солнечный 2.6а
solar access поступление солнечной радиации 2.8а
solar constant солнечная константа 2.6а
solar time солнечное время суток (светлое время суток) 2.6а
soldering (n.) соединение; скрепление 2.10b
solidification cracking образование усадочных трещин 2.2b
sophisticated central control технически сложное центральное
управление 3.6а
SOx (sulfur oxide) оксид серы 4.6а
space cooling охлаждение помещений 2.7а
space heating отопление помещений 2.7а
split system раздельная система отопления и вентиляции, система с
раздельным управлением 3.10а
stack effect эффект тяги 4.4а
stainless steel нержавеющая сталь 3.8b
stale air затхлый, тяжелый воздух 4.2а
stand for (v.) означать, расшифровываться как 1.3a
standpoint точка зрения, позиция 3.8b
starting point отправная точка 1.1b
state (n.) состояние, (v) устанавливать определять; утверждать;
констатировать 1.1a
stationary head неподвижная головная часть 1.3a
statutory requirement обязательное требование 4.4а
steam (n.) пар 2.1а
steam drum разделительный паровой барабан 2.1а
steam plant паросиловая установка, теплоцентраль 1.1a
stipulate (v.) устанавливать, обуславливать 4.1а
strand многожильный провод 4.8а
subcontractor (n.) субподрядчик 2.7b
sub-cooled до вскипания 3.7b
subject (n.) предмет; тема 2.2а
subject (v.) подчинять; подвергать (воздействию) 4.1b
submerge погружать в воду 3.8b
submerged погруженный затопленный 3.8b
submit (v.) представлять; выдвигать 2.7b
substantial существенный, значительный 3.9а
substation подстанция 4.7а
such as такой как 1.1b
suction side сторона пониженного давления, сторона всасывания
3.7а
suffer (v.) претерпевать (подвергаться) 1.2a
supercritical boiler котел сверхкритического давления 4.6а
supercritical pressure сверхкритическое давление 2.1b
superfluous (adj.) излишний (ненужный) 1.2a
superheat перегрев, избыточное тепло 3.7а
supersaturation (n.) перенасыщение 1.6b
supplied air подаваемый воздух 2.5а
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supply diffuser диффузор подающего воздуховода 4.4b
supply ductwork канал подачи воздуха 3.10а
surface (n.) поверхность 1.1a
surface water поверхностные воды 3.7b
surplus power избыточная мощность, сверхмощность, перегрузочная мощность 4.9а
surrounding air окружающий воздух 3.7а
suspended solids взвесь, взвешенные твердые вещества 3.9b
time schedule календарный план 2.4b
tolerate (v.) выдерживать; вынести; допустить 2.10b
ton тонна 3.7b
total-surface полная поверхность 1.3а
toughness (n.) жесткость 2.2а
tout рекламировать, предлагать 4.9а
track (v.) следить; выслеживать 2.10b
track down (v.) исследовать (до конца) 2.4а
transference передача, перемещение 4.7а
transparent cover прозрачное защитное покрытие (солнечного элемента) 2.9а
treat (v.) обрабатывать; очищать 2.5а
Tropic of Cancer Северный тропик или тропик Рака 2.6а
tube length длина патрубка 1.3a
tube sheet трубная решётка 1.2b
Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association (TEMA) Ассоциация предприятий по производству трубчатых теплообменников 1.3a
two phase-mixtures двухфазная смесь 2.1b
type designation обозначение типа 1.3a
T
table (n.) таблица 1.3a
take into account принимать во внимание 1.1a
take place возникать; протекать (происходить) 2.5а
tangential (adj.) направленный по касательной 1.10b
technique (n.) технология; техника; метод; оборудование 2.5b
techniques (n.) оборудование; технологии 2.5b
technology (n.) технология; техника; метод; методика; оборудование; техническое решение 2.5b
temperature differences перепад температур (разница температур)
1.2a
terminate завершать, заканчивать 4.4а
thermal cell термоэлемент 4.10а
thermal conductivity теплопроводность 2.9а
thermal expansion термальное/термическое расширение 1.2a
thermal force температурные воздействия 1.2a
thermal stratification термальное расслоение 4.8b
thermal stresses температурные напряжения 2.1a
threaded rotor нарезной ротор(винт) 3.7а
throughout (prep.)на всем протяжении 2.7а
throughput (n.) количество материала, пропускаемого через систему; пропускная способность; выработка 1.6а
through-the-wall air conditioner внутристенной кондиционер 3.10а
throw пускать 3.10в
thrust out (v.) выбрасывать 2.4b
tilt (v.) наклоняться 2.7а
tilt angle угол наклона 2.7а
time consuming требующий больших затрат времени 1.10а
U
ultimate tensile strength максимальный предел прочности при растяжении 2.2а
ultraviolet radiation ультрафиолетовое излучение 2.6а
underground loop подземный трубопровод 3.3b
underway на пути реализации, в процессе изменений 4.5а
undue чрезмерный 4.2а
unhindered windy piece of land безветренный участок земли 4.9а
uniform (adj.) равномерный, однородный 2.5b
unobstructed свободный, ничем не заслоненный 4.9а
upflow восходящий поток 3.10а
upgrading наращивание ресурсов, повышение качества, усовершенствование 3.8b
use permit разрешение на ввод в эксплуатацию 4.9а
useable пригодный для использования, исправный, практичный
4.10а
U-shape U-образный 1.4а
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utility company муниципальная компания, компания по коммунальному обслуживанию 4.9а
way (n.) способ; путь 1.1a
WC (water column) водный столб, сантехнический узел 4.3a
weatherproofed защищенный от непогоды 2.10b
weathertight seals стойкий против атмосферных воздействий 2.10b
well water вода из скважины 3.7b
Wet Bulb Temperature температура влажного термометра 3.8а
windbreak ветрозащитная посадка растений, защитное лесонасаждение 4.9а
with respect to в отношении, что касается, относительно 3.6а
wood stove печь с дровяным отоплением 3.6а
work activity производственная деятельность; технологический
процесс 2.7b
work crew рабочая команда 2.7b
work environment производственная среда; рабочие условия; условия труда 2.8b
wrought iron pipe стальная сварная труба 1.2b
V
vapor-compression refrigeration system компрессионная холодильная установка 3.10в
vapour (n) пар, испарение 1.1b
vendor (n.) поставщик, торговец, разработчик 1.3a
vent винт, отверстие, вентиляционный клапан 4.4а
vent продувать, выпускать 3.3а
vertically (adv.) вертикально 1.1a
vessel (n.) сосуд, бак, котел 2.1a
via (prep.) через 2.b
vice versa напротив, наоборот, обратно 1.1a
virtually (adv.) фактически; практически; в сущности 2.6b
visible portion видимая часть радиационного спектра 2.6а
vitiated air тяжелый, испорченный воздух 4.2а
vitiation порча 4.3a
W
Y
yield strength технический предел текучести 2.2а
yielding (n.) деформация 2.2а
wall (n.) стена 1.10b
warm (adj.) теплый 1.1a
water automotive radiator водяной автомеханический радиатор
1.1a
water chemistry химический состав воды 3.9а
water chiller установка для охлаждения водой 3.6b
water droplet капля воды 3.8a
water impurity примеси воды; загрязнения, содержащиеся в воде
3.9b
water source heat pump тепловой насос, использующий воду в качестве источника тепла 2.9а
water tube boilers водотрубный котел 2.1a
water wheel рабочее колесо гидротурбины, водоподъемное колесо
4.7а
water-cooled condenser конденсатор с водяным охлаждением 3.7 b
wavelength (n.) длина волны 2.6а
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Распределение грамматических тем по урокам
Библиографический список
Урок 4.1 Повторение: группы существительных; части речи; члены предложения; вопросительные предложения.
Урок 4.2 Повторение: Participle I, Participle II и причастные обороты.
Урок 4.3 Повторение: Participle I, Participle II и причастные обороты.
Урок 4.4 Повторение: группы существительных; Инфинитив
и инфинитивные обороты; модальные глаголы и их заменители;
функции слов: this/that.
Урок 4.5 Повторение: суффиксы прилагательных; степени сравнения прилагательных; усилительная конструкция it+ to be …
that/who.
Урок 4.6 Повторение: времена глагола в действительном и страдательном залоге; функции глагола to be; суффиксы существительных.
Урок 4.7 Повторение: Gerund; усилительная конструкция it+ to
be … that/who.
Урок 4.8 Повторение: формы с окончанием –ing.
1. Mark Rossow, PhD, PE. Hydropower: The largest source of renewable
energy. – NY: continuing education and development, Inc, 2012.
2. A. Bhatia, PhD. HVAC – Domestic and Industrial Ventilation system.
NY: continuing education and development, Inc, 2012.
3. Michaela D. Platzer, US Wind Turbine manufacturing. – US: congressional research service, 2012.
4. J. Paul Guyer, P.E., R.A., Fellow ASCE, Fellow AEI Continuing Education. Introduction to Design of Heating and Cooling Distribution Systems. – NY:
continuing education and development, Inc, 2012.
5. Brian McCaffrey, P.E. Wind Turbine Technology overview. – NY: continuing education and development, Inc, 2010.
6. Steven Liescheidt, P.E., CCS, CCPR. Wind Energy Assessment. – NY:
continuing education and development, Inc, 2012.
7. A. Bhatia, PhD. Electrical Conductors. – NY: continuing education and
development, Inc, 2012.
8. Gilbert Gedeon, PhD, P.E. Electrical Distribution Systems. – NY: continuing education and development, Inc, 2012.
9. Mark Rossow, PhD, PE. Making Fuels from Algae. – NY: continuing
education and development, Inc, 2012.
10. J. Paul Guyer, P.E., R.A., Fellow ASCE, Fellow AEI. Introduction to
Design of Industrial Ventilation Systems. – NY: continuing education and development, Inc, 2012.
11. Мюллер В. К. Англо-русский словарь / В. К. Мюллер. – М.: Русский
язык, 1992.
12. Якимов М. В. Англо-русский политехнический словарь /
М. В. Якимов. – СПб.: Изд. дом «Литера», 2006.
13. Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English. Longman Dictionaries,
Harlow, 2005.
Урок 4.9 Повторение: инфинитив.
Урок 4.10 Повторение: неличные формы глагола; степени сравнения прилагательных; числительные.
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97
Оглавление
Предисловие…………………………………………………………..
Урок 4.1
A split-air conditioning system…………………………………………
Room air conditioners…………………………………………………..
Урок 4.2
A HAVAC-domestic and industrial ventilation system………………..
Factors affecting ventilation rates………………………………………
Урок 4.3
Air movement…………………………………………………………..
Winter ventilation………………………………………………………
Урок 4.4
Types of ventilation system……………………….……………………
Intake system…………………………………………………………..
Урок 4.5
Fossil fuels………..…………………………………….………………
How fossil fuel work……………………………………………………
Урок 4.6
How fossil fuels work …………..……………………………………..
Energy production………………………..…………………………….
Урок 4.7
Beauty of hydropower…………..………………………………………
Technology characterization……………………………………………
Урок 4.8
Power transmission……………………………………………………..
Electric power plant………………….……………….………………...
Урок 4.9
Wind power plant…………….………...………………………………
How wind turbines work……………………………………………….
Урок 4.10
Types of solar energy………..…………………………………………
Geothermal energy……………………………………………………..
Словарный минимум…………………………………………………
Распределение грамматических тем по урокам…………………….
Библиографический список…………………………………………
3
4
9
12
15
18
22
24
29
31
35
38
42
44
48
51
55
АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК
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Учебно-методическое пособие № 138
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Составитель: Сарян Марина Арташевна
Компьютерная верстка И. А. Яблоковой
Подписано к печати 22.08.14. Формат 60×80 1/16. Бум. офсетная.
Усл. печ. л. 5,8. Тираж 100 экз. Заказ 65. «С» 39.
Санкт-Петербургский государственный архитектурно-строительный университет.
190005, Санкт-Петербург, ул. 2-я Красноармейская ул., д. 4.
Отпечатано на ризографе. 190005, Санкт-Петербург, 2-я Красноармейская ул., д. 5.
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