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Л. Р. ДАНИЛОВА, Е. А. ГОРБАРЕНКО
АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК
Министерство образования и науки
Российской Федерации
Санкт-Петербургский государственный
архитектурно-строительный университет
Л. Р. ДАНИЛОВА, Е. А. ГОРБАРЕНКО
АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК
Учебное пособие
Санкт-Петербург
2017
1
УДК 811.111:656 (075.8)
Unit 1
Рецензенты:
канд. филол. наук, доцент Н. В. Антоненко (СПбГАСУ);
канд. филол. наук, доцент Е. А. Рудая (Санкт-Петербургский государственный университет аэрокосмического приборостроения)
Grammar:
Tenses;
Parts of Speech.
Данилова Л. Р.
Английский язык: учеб. пособие / под ред. Л. Р. Даниловой;
Л. Р. Данилова, Е. А. Горбаренко; СПбГАСУ. – СПб., 2017. – 136 с.
ISBN 978-5-9227-0748-0
Предназначено для аудиторного чтения для студентов II курса по специальности 23.05.01 «Наземные транспортно-технологические средства».
Цель пособия – развитие у студентов знаний и навыков, необходимых
для обмена информацией в сфере их профессиональной деятельности. Задачи
пособия:
– выработка навыков фонологически правильной речи;
– овладение словарным минимумом по специальности;
– овладение грамматикой английского языка, необходимой для перевода и коммуникативной деятельности по специальности;
– выработка навыков коммуникации в сфере профессиональной деятельности.
Помимо учебных заданий пособие включает описание знаков транскрипции, словарь, поурочный список грамматических тем и грамматический
справочник.
Exercise 1. Work out the following sounds:
[ ] have, pallet, tank, cab, gas, carriage, attachment, axle, battery, application, dashboard
[ ] machine, wheel, lever, diesel, being, means
[ ] mast, large, part, guard, cast
Exercise 2. Match the transcription to the words given below
and define their meanings:
1.[
2. [
3. [
4. [
5. [
6. [
7. [
8. [
9. [
10. [
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
1. iron
2. utilize
3. industrialized
4. protrude
5. component
6. pneumatic
7. external
8. engage
9. purpose
10. weld
1. внешний
2. выдвигаться
3. железо
4. цель
5. пневматический
6. использовать
7. промышленный
8. зацеплять
9. компонент
10. сваривать
Text A
FORKLIFT TRUCK
ISBN 978-5-9227-0748-0
© Л. Р. Данилова, Е. А. Горбаренко, 2017
© Санкт-Петербургский государственный
архитектурно-строительный университет, 2017
2
Forklift trucks are basically small trucks that are utilized for the
lifting and moving of heavy loads, using an extended attachment. This
attachment protrudes outwards from the front or the side. These vehicles
are designed for particular loads and applications and have specific design characteristics, components, and similar controls and performance.
These trucks are extensively used in the construction industry, ware3
houses, and industrialized units for loading and shifting tasks. To shift
loads, the prongs are inserted below the pallet and then raised by a mast.
Forklifts may be powered hydraulically, electrically, or with internal
combustion engines. These trucks are designed for indoor or external
applications. The truck has a specified lifting capacity that should not be
exceeded. It has either solid or pneumatic tires. To ensure protection,
safety rails and revolving turntables are normally fitted for the counterbalance and prevention of tilting. The forklift truck is now considered
essential equipment for a large number of applications. The main components of a forklift are:
The Truck Frame is the base of the machine to which the mast, axles, wheels, counterweight, overhead guard and power source are attached. The frame may have fuel and hydraulic fluid tanks constructed
as part of the frame assembly.
The Counterweight is a heavy cast iron mass attached to the rear of
the forklift truck frame. The purpose of the counterweight is to counterbalance the load being lifted. In an electric forklift the large lead acid
battery itself may serve as part of the counterweight.
The Cab is the area that contains a seat for the operator along with
the control pedals, steering wheel, levers, switches and a dashboard. The
cab area may be open air or enclosed, but it is covered by the cage-like
overhead guard assembly.
The Overhead Guard is a metal roof supported by posts at each
corner of the cab. It helps to protect the operator from any falling objects. On some forklifts, the overhead guard is an integrated part of the
frame assembly.
The Power Source may consist of an internal combustion engine
that can be powered by gas, gasoline or diesel fuel. Electric forklifts are
powered by either a battery or fuel cells that provide power to the electric motors. The electric motors used on a forklift may be either DC or
AC types.
The Tilt Cylinders are hydraulic cylinders that are mounted to the
truck frame and the mast. The tilt cylinders pivot the mast to assist in
engaging a load.
The Mast is the vertical assembly that does the work of raising and
lowering the load. It is made up of interlocking rails that also provide
lateral stability. The interlocking rails may either have rollers or bushings as guides. The mast is either hydraulically operated by one or more
hydraulic cylinders or it may be chain operated with a hydraulic motor
4
providing motive power. It may be mounted to the front axle or the
frame of the forklift.
The Carriage is the component to which the forks or other attachments are mounted. It is mounted into and moves up and down the mast
rails by means of chains or by being directly attached to the hydraulic
cylinder. Like the mast, the carriage may have either rollers or bushings
to guide it in the interlocking mast rails.
The Load Back Rest is a rack-like extension that is either bolted or
welded to the carriage in order to prevent the load from shifting backward when the carriage is lifted to full height.
Exercise 3. Answer the following questions:
1. Where are forklift trucks used?
2. How may forklifts be powered?
3. What main components of a forklift do you know?
4. What is the purpose of the counterweight?
5. What may the power source consist of?
6. What component does the work of raising and lowering the load?
Exercise 4. Translate the following words and word combinations into Russian:
Word combinations: forklift truck; fuel tank; construction industry; extended attachment; load back rest; truck frame; сast iron mass;
steering wheel; overhead guard; power source; tilt cylinder; lead-acid
battery; internal combustion engine; indoor application; pneumatic tires;
revolving turntables; nouns: vehicle; warehouse; application; lever; motor; roller; rails; prong; pallet; mast; equipment; axle; assembly; counterweight; cab; dashboard; gasoline; fuel cells; guides; chain; carriage;
adjectives: particular; essential; electric; internal; hydraulic; full; verbs:
weld; load; rest; shift; tilt; prevent; utilize; protrude; operate; mount; lift;
exceed; attach; cover; support; raise; design; construct.
Exercise 5. Translate from Russian into English:
Вилочный погрузчик; строительная промышленность; топливные элементы; сваривать; нагрузка; неотъемлемый; склад; зу5
бец, вилы; поддон; мачта; двигатель внутреннего сгорания; наружное применение; направляющие; приборная доска; пневматические
шины; поворотная площадка, поворотный стол; оборудование; ось;
внутренний; противовес; чугунная масса; задний стабилизатор; дополнительное приспособление; кабина; особенный, специфический;
транспортное средство; верхнее ограждение; опрокидывающие цилиндры; сборка, конструкция; источник энергии; рулевое колесо;
свинцовая батарея; бензин; топливный бак; цепь; рама погрузчика;
сдвигать; шасси, рама, несущее устройство; опрокидывать; опора,
стойка; предотвращать; использовать.
Exercise 6. Match the following words (A) with their definitions
8. the covered compartment of a heavy vehicle or machine, such as a
truck or locomotive, in which the operator or driver sits
9. to keep from being damaged, attacked, stolen, or injured
10. a thing used for transporting people or goods on land
Exercise 7. Define the part of speech of the following words:
Attachment, basically, outwards, application, specific, similar, extensively, construction, internal, capacity, particular, hydraulically,
pneumatic, essential, equipment, operator, electrically, combustion, external, prevention, balance, lateral, stability, different, extension, carriage, backward, stability, various, structure, replaceable.
(B):
Exercise 8. Define the tense of the predicates and translate the
following sentences:
«A»
1. forklift truck
2. counterweight
3. tank
4. equipment
5. vehicle
6. cab
7. assembly
8. lift
9. dashboard
10.protect
«B»
1. a large container for storing liquid or gas
2. the panel of instruments and controls facing the driver of a vehicle
3. the items needed for a particular purpose
4. a vehicle with a pronged device in front for lifting and carrying
heavy loads
5. the putting together of manufactured parts to make a completed
product, such as a machine
6. to direct or carry from a lower to a higher position
7. a weight used as a counterbalance
6
1. Forklift trucks are designed for different applications.
2. Warehouses needed more efficient equipment.
3. The machine was operated according to the rules which had been
specified by the manufacturer.
4. During World War I different types of material handling equipment
were being developed.
5. Forklift trucks employment will be expanded by adding new attachments.
6. Forklift trucks will tilt when a specified lifting capacity has been exceeded.
7. The cab contains a seat for the operator.
8. The carriage is moving up and down the mast rails.
9. By 1967 Toyota had introduced its forklift truck both in Japan and in
the USA.
10.Installation of rails has ensured operator’s protection.
11.While working the operator is being protected by the overhead guard.
12.Through the 1920s and 1930s different companies were developing
forklift trucks.
7
Exercise 9. Translate Text B without a dictionary:
Text B
FORKLIFT DEVELOPMENT
The middle 19th century through the early 20th century saw the
developments that led to today's modern forklifts. The Pennsylvania
Railroad in 1906 introduced battery powered platform trucks for moving
luggage at their Altoona, Pennsylvania train station. World War I saw
the development of different types of material handling equipment in the
United Kingdom by Ransomes, Sims and Jeffries of Ipswich. This was
in part due to the labour shortages caused by the war. In 1917 Clark in
the United States began developing and using powered tractor and powered lift tractors in their factories. In 1919 the Towmotor Company and
Yale & Towne Manufacturing in 1920 entered the lift truck market in
the United States.
Constant development and expanded use of the forklift continued
through the 1920s and 1930s. World War II, like World War I before,
accelerated the use of forklift trucks in the war events. Following the
war, more efficient methods for storing products in warehouses were being applied. Warehouses needed more maneuverable forklift trucks that
could reach greater heights. New forklift models were made to meet this
need. In 1956 Toyota introduced its first lift truck model, the Model LA,
in Japan and sold its first forklift in the United States in 1967.
Notes:
luggage – багаж
labour shortage – нехватка рабочей силы
store – хранить
Exercise 10. Read text C, answer the questions, and retell the
text in Russian:
Text C
1. Transporting facilities: crawlers and wheel –mounted tractors,
trucks, general and special-purpose trailers and semi-trailers.
2. Materials handling equipment: winches, cranes, hoists, conveyors, air-operated equipment, loading and unloading machines.
3. Machines for earthwork: bulldozers, scrapers, elevating graders,
towed graders, revolving shovels, hydraulic equipment and compactors.
4. Machines for preparing and placing concrete mixes: mixers,
vibrators and vacuum plants.
5. Machines for laying stabilized pavements: bitumen storage
equipment, machines for preparing asphalt-concrete mixes, for placing
and compacting asphalt-concrete, machines manufacturing reinforced
concrete products, machines placing reinforced concrete slabs, etc.
All of the above machines can be classified by the working process
(continuous action or intermittent action), the prime mover (driven by
electric motors or by internal combustion engines), mobility (stationary
or mobile).
All machines are also characterized by definite parameters. Thus,
the main parameter of a power shovel or a scraper is the capacity of the
bucket, for cranes the main parameter is the maximum load-lifting capacity, for a bulldozer – the pulling effort, etc.
Among the main parameters of a machine there are capacity,
weight, engine, power, overall dimensions, working and travelling
speeds, etc.
For most machines per hour capacity is determined by the volume
or weight of scooped material.
1. How can the machines be classified according to their purpose?
2. What equipment is applied for handling materials?
3. What types of machines for earthwork do you know?
4. What machines are used for preparing and placing concrete mixes?
5. What is the main parameter for a power shovel?
6. How can cranes be characterized?
7. What are the important parameters of a machine?
8. How is the per hour capacity of a machine determined?
GENERAL CLASSIFICATION OF MACHINES
Machines employed for construction and road making can be classified according to their purpose as follows:
8
9
Unit 2
Grammar:
Modal verbs;
Conversion.
Exercise 1. Work out the following sounds:
] rotation, pole, roll, open, load, close, below
hydraulic, device, slide, aisle, type
allow, around, without, warehouse
Exercise 2. Match the transcription to the words given below
and define their meanings:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
1. carton
2. harness
3. jaw
4. attachment
5. aisle
6. load
7. edge
8. insert
9. multipurpose
10. squeeze
1. захват
2. вставлять
3. край
4. универсальный
5. груз
6. сжимать
7. проход
8. крепления
9. ремень
10. картонная коробка
Text A
FORKLIFT ATTACHMENTS
Different types of material handling attachments are available. Below is a list of common forklift attachments:
Sideshifter is a hydraulic attachment that allows the operator to
move the forks and backrest laterally. This allows easier placement of a
load without having to reposition the truck.
10
Rotator is used to aid the handling of skids that may have become
excessively tilted. For some other specialty material handling needs forklifts are fitted with this attachment that allows the forks to be rotated.
This type of attachment may also be used for dumping containers
for quick unloading.
Fork Positioner is a hydraulic attachment that moves the forks together or apart. This eliminates the need for the operator to manually adjust the forks for different sizes of loads.
Roll and Barrel Clamp Attachment is a mechanical or hydraulic attachment used to squeeze the item to be moved. It is used for handling
barrels, kegs, or paper rolls. This type of attachment may also have a rotation function. The rotation function helps an operator to insert a vertically
stored paper into the horizontal intake of a printing press for example.
Pole Attachments are used instead of forks to lift carpet rolls. Similar devices, though much larger, are used to pick up metal coils.
Carton and Multipurpose Clamp Attachments are hydraulic attachments that allow the operator to open and close around a load,
squeezing it to pick it up. Products like cartons, boxes and bales can be
moved with this type of attachment. With these attachments in use, the
forklift truck is sometimes referred to as a clamp truck.
Slip Sheet Attachment (Push – Pull) is a hydraulic attachment that
reaches forward, clamps onto a slip sheet and draws the slip sheet onto
wide and thin metal forks for transport. The attachment will push the
slip sheet and load off the forks for placement.
Drum Handler Attachment is a mechanical attachment that slides
onto the forks. It usually has a spring loaded jaw that grips the top lip
edge of a drum for transport. Another type grabs around the drum in a
manner similar to the roll or barrel attachments.
Man Basket is a lift platform that slides onto the forks and is meant
for hoisting workers. The man basket has railings to keep the person
from falling and brackets for attaching a safety harness. Also, a staple or
chain is used to attach the man basket to the carriage of the forklift.
Telescopic Forks are hydraulic attachments that allow the operator
to operate in warehouse design for “double-deep stacking”, which means
that two pallet shelves are placed behind each other without any aisle between them.
11
Exercise 3. Answer the following questions:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
What attachment allows the operator to move the forks?
How can round items be handled?
What is used for dumping containers?
How does the slip sheet attachment work?
How is the safety of workers ensured?
How are the most forklift attachments powered?
4. available
5. excessively
6. forks
7. adjust
8. grab
9. device
10. allow
«B»
Exercise 4. Translate the following words and word combinations into Russian:
Word combinations: handling attachment; dumping container;
roll and barrel clamp attachment; fork positioner; pole attachment; drum
handler attachment; safety harness; telescopic forks; nouns: sideshifter;
load; rotation; coil; carton; bale; placement; edge; railing; warehouse;
aisle; pole; spring; skid; verbs: fit with; adjust; eliminate; pick up;
squeeze; refer to; push; slide; attach; pull; adjectives: hydraulic; similar;
wide; mechanical.
Exercise 5. Translate from Russian into English:
Позицонер вил, приспособление для погрузочно-разгрузочных
работ, телескопический вилочный захват, захват для рулонов и бочек, опрокидывающийся контейнер, относиться к, столб, кромка,
оснастка опор, картонная коробка, оборудовать чем-либо, размещение, склад, исключать, тюк, бочкоопрокидыватель, механизм выноса, нагрузка, пружина, толкать, вращение, катушка, ограждение,
направляющая рейка, сжимать, регулировать, скользить, поднимать, прикреплять, похожий, гидравлический.
Exercise 6. Match the following words (A) with their definitions
(B):
«A»
1. rotator
2. staple
3. safety harness
12
1. a mechanical device for clutching
2. a tool that gives a rotary or rolling motion
3. able to be used or obtained
4. to permit
5. a U-shaped metal bar or piece of wire with pointed ends for driving
into, securing, or fastening together various materials
6. an instrument with two or more prongs used for digging, lifting, etc.
7. more than is necessary, normal, or desirable
8. a form of protective equipment designed to protect a person, animal,
or object from injury or damage
9. put in the correct order or position, regulate
10. a thing made or adapted for a particular purpose
Exercise 7. Translate the following sentences paying attention
to modal verbs:
1. A telescopic boom can extend forwards and upwards from the vehicle.
2. This type of attachment may also have a rotation function.
3. The forklift and load must be considered a unit with one varying centre of gravity.
4. Using a sideshifter the operator doesn’t have to reposition the truck.
5. The operator should take into account the weight, boom angle and
height.
6. The manufacturer is to provide load specifications.
7. Labour shortages caused by war could be compensated by using
powered tractors.
8. The operator is allowed to move the forks laterally.
13
9. With fork positioner the operator will be able to manually adjust the
forks for different sizes of loads.
Exercise 8. Translate the following sentences paying attention
to the italicized words:
1. Here is the list of necessary equipment.
2. Can you list the main components of a forklift?
3. This hydraulic attachment loads the drums.
4. Forklift trucks are designed for particular loads.
5. Rigid chassis design has become more popular.
6. For some handling needs forklifts are fitted with a rotator.
7. A loader needs some counterweight for better stability.
8. Two pallet shelves are placed behind each other.
9. There is no place for larger equipment.
10. With these attachments in use, the forklift truck is sometimes called
a clamp truck.
11. Most forklift trucks used have load capacities between one to five
tons.
Exercise 4. Translate Text B without a dictionary:
situations, it differs from a driver’s traditional experience with other
wheeled vehicles. While steering, as there is no caster action, it is unnecessary to apply steering force to maintain a constant rate of turn.
Another critical characteristic of the forklift is its instability. The
forklift and load must be considered a unit with a continually varying
centre of gravity with every movement of the load. A forklift is not normally designed for turning at a high speed when moving with a load that
is raised. In such a state, the gravitational and the centrifugal forces can
combine to produce a tip-over accident. The forklifts are designed with a
load limit for the forks which is decreased with fork elevation and undercutting of the load. A loading plate for loading reference is usually
located on the forklift. A forklift should not be used as a personnel lift
without the fitting of specific safety equipment, such as a cage.
Notes:
tine – зубец
tight – тесный
cage – клеть
Exercise 5. Translate Text C with a dictionary and make its
grammar analysis:
Text C
Text B
FORKLIFT TRUCK OPERATION
Forklift trucks are available in many variations and load capacities.
In a typical warehouse most forklifts used have load capacities between
one to five tons. Larger machines, up to 50 tons lift capacity are used for
lifting heavier loads. In addition to a control to raise and lower the forks
(also known as blades or tines), the operator can tilt the mast to compensate for a load's tendency to move the blades toward the ground and risk
slipping off the forks. Tilt also provides a limited ability to operate on
non-level ground.
Forklifts are rated for loads at a specified maximum weight and a
specified forward centre of gravity. This information is located on a
nameplate provided by the manufacturer, and loads must not exceed
these specifications.
An important aspect of forklift operation is that most have rearwheel steering. While this increases maneuverability in tight cornering
14
TELESCOPIC HANDLER
1. A telescopic handler, or telehandler, is a machine widely used in
agriculture and industry.
2. It is similar in appearance and function to a forklift, but it is
more a crane than a forklift, with the increased versatility of a single telescopic boom that can extend forwards and upwards from the vehicle.
3. On the end of the boom the operator can fit one of several attachments, such as a bucket, pallet forks, a muck grab, or a lift table.
4. The most common attachment for a telehandler is pallet forks
and the most common application is to move loads to and from places
unreachable for a conventional forklift.
5. For example, telehandlers have the ability to remove palletized
cargo from within a trailer and to place loads on rooftops and other high
places.
15
6. The latter application would otherwise require a crane, which is
not always practical or time-efficient.
7. The advantage of the telehandler is also its biggest limitation: as
the boom extends or rises while bearing a load, it acts as a lever and
causes the vehicle to become increasingly unstable, despite counterweights in the rear.
8. This means that the lifting capacity quickly decreases as the
working radius (distance between the front of the wheels and the centre
of the load) increases.
9. A vehicle with a 5,000lb capacity with the boom retracted may
be able to safely lift as little as 400lb with it fully extended at a low
boom angle.
10. The same machine with a 5,000lb lift capacity (with the boom
retracted) may be able to support as much as 10,000lb with the boom
raised to 70°.
11. The operator is equipped with a load chart which helps him to
determine whether a given task is possible, taking into account weight,
boom angle and height.
12. Failing this, most telehandlers utilize a computer which uses
sensors to monitor the vehicle, and will warn the operator and/or cut off
further control input if the limits of the vehicle are exceeded.
13. Some machines are also equipped with front outriggers and can
be called mobile cranes, which extends the equipment’s lifting capacity
when used stationary.
14. Telehandlers were pioneered by the Matbro company at Horley
in Surrey, England who developed them from their articulated cross
country forestry forklifts.
15. At first they had a centrally mounted boom on the front section,
with the driver's cab on the rear section, as in the Teleram 40, but the
rigid chassis design with a rear mounted boom and cab to the side has
become more popular.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8. Meaning of “as”; main and subordinate clauses.
9. Modal verbs; participle II (function); noun group.
10. Participle II (function).
11. Subjects and predicates; participles I, II (function).
12. Predicates; degree of comparison; infinitives (function); participle
I (function).
13. Meaning of “s”: participle II.
14. Ed-forms.
15. Possessive case; meaning of “have”.
Function of “be”; adverb with suffix.
Nouns with suffixes; comparative degree; modal verb.
Noun groups.
Degree of comparison; adjectives with suffixes.
Infinitives (function).
Function of “would”.
Degree of comparison; infinitive (function); participle I (function).
16
17
Unit 3
Grammar:
Degrees of Сomparison.
Exercise 1. Work out the following sounds:
[ ] place, wait, bale, container, base
[ ] boom, scoop, move, removable, tool
[ ] dig, system, heavy, distance, chip, risk
Exercise 2. Match the transcription to the words given below
and define their meanings:
1. [
2. [
3. [
4. [
5. [
6. [
7. [
8. [
9. [
10. [
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
1. debris
2. locomotive
3. equipment
4. pivot
5. steer
6. earthmoving
7. recycle
8. scraper
9. bucket
10. snowplow
1. землеройный
2. снегоочиститель
3. управлять
4. скрепер
5. перерабатывать
6. оборудование
7. ковш
8. строительный мусор
9. локомотив
10. ось вращения
Text A
LOADERS
Part I
A loader is a heavy equipment machine (often used in construction) that is primarily used to load material (asphalt, demolition debris,
dirt, gravel, logs, raw minerals, recycled material, rock, sand, wood
chips, etc.) into or onto another type of machinery (dump truck, conveyor belt, feed-hopper, rail-car, etc.).
18
A front loader is a type of tractor, usually wheeled, sometimes on
tracks, that has a front mounted square wide bucket connected to the end
of two booms (arms) to scoop up loose material from the ground, such
as dirt, sand or gravel, and move it from one place to another without
pushing the material across the ground. A loader is commonly used to
move a stockpiled material from the ground level and deposit it into an
awaiting dump truck or into an open trench excavation.
The loader assembly may be a removable or permanently mounted
attachment. Often the bucket can be replaced with other devices or tools.
For example, many can mount forks to lift heavy pallets or shipping
containers. A hydraulically-opening clamshell bucket allows a loader to
act as a light dozer or scraper. The bucket can also be fitted with such
devices as a bale grappler for handling large bales.
Large loaders, such as the Kawasaki 95ZV-2, John Deere 844K,
Caterpillar 950H, Volvo L120E, Case 921E, or Hitachi ZW310 usually
have only a front bucket and are called front loaders, whereas small
loader tractors are often also equipped with a small backhoe and are
called backhoe loaders or loader backhoes.
The largest loader in the world is LeTourneau L-2350. Currently
these large loaders are in production in the Longview, Texas facility.
The L-2350 uses a diesel electric propulsion system similar to that used
in a locomotive. Each rubber tired wheel is driven by its own independent electric motor.
Part II
Loaders are used not only for loading materials into trucks, but for
laying pipes, clearing rubble, and digging. A loader is not the most efficient machine for digging as it cannot dig very deep below the level of
its wheels, like a backhoe can. Their deep bucket can usually store about
3-6 cubic metres (exact number varies with the model) of earth. The
front loader’s bucket capacity is much bigger than that of a backhoe
loader. Loaders are not classified as earthmoving machinery, as their
primary purpose is other than earthmoving.
Unlike most bulldozers, most loaders are wheeled and not tracked,
although track loaders are common. They are successful where sharp
edged materials in construction debris would damage rubber wheels, or
where the ground is soft and muddy. Wheels provide better mobility and
speed and do not damage paved roads as much as tracks, but provide
19
less traction. In construction areas loaders are also used to transport
building materials – such as bricks, pipes, metal bars, and digging tools –
over short distances. Loaders are also used for snow removal, using their
bucket or a snowbasket, but usually using a snowplow attachment. They
clear snow from streets, highways and parking lots. They sometimes
load snow into dump trucks for transport.
High-tip buckets are suitable for light materials such as chip, peat
and light gravel and when the bucket is emptied from a height.
Unlike backhoes or standard tractors fitted with a front bucket,
many large loaders do not use automotive steering mechanisms. Instead,
they steer by a hydraulically actuated pivot point set exactly between the
front and rear axles. This is referred to as “articulated steering” and allows the front axle to be solid, allowing it to carry greater weight. Articulated steering provides better maneuverability for a given wheelbase.
Since the front wheels and the attachment rotate on the same axis, the
operator is able to “steer” his load in an arc after positioning the machine, which can be useful. When the machine is “twisted” to one side
and a heavy load is lifted high, it has a greater risk of turning over to the
“wide” side. Front loaders gained popularity during the last two decades,
especially in urban engineering projects and small earthmoving works.
Many heavy equipment manufacturers offer a wide range of loaders, the
most known are those of John Deere, Caterpillar, Case, Volvo, Komatsu,
Liebherr, JCB and Kawasaki.
Exercise 3. Answer the following questions:
1. What is the loader primarily used for?
2. What devices or tools can the bucket be replaced with?
3. What loader is called a backhoe?
4. Where is the largest loader produced?
5. What propulsion system does the L-2350 use?
6. What other jobs are loaders used for?
7. What machine is better for digging, a loader or a backhoe?
8. What running gear is the most common for loaders?
9. What does the articulated steering provide?
10. Where did front loaders gain the greatest popularity?
20
Exercise 4. Translate the following words and word combinations into Russian:
Word combinations: raw minerals; dump truck; conveyor belt;
stockpiled material; clamshell bucket; parking lot; backhoe loader; propulsion system; earthmoving machinery; snowplow attachment; nouns:
tool; scraper; backhoe; track; pipe; axle; gravel; damage; adjectives:
loose; removable; rear; urban; primary; common; verbs: mount; provide; steer; offer; deposit; equip with; remove; turn.
Exercise 5. Translate from Russian into English:
Автостоянка, снегоочистительное приспособление, погрузчик
с обратной лопатой, минеральное сырье, самосвал, конвейерная
лента, землеройное оборудование, грейферный ковш, складированный материалы, двигательная система, обратная лопата, труба, передвижной, городской, скрепер, инструмент, ось, задний, рыхлый,
поворачивать, оборудовать чем-либо, повреждение, устанавливать,
управлять, помещать, первоначальный, обеспечивать, удалять,
предлагать, обычный, гравий, гусеничный ход.
Exercise 6. Match the following words (A) with their definitions
(B):
«A»
1. demolition
2. pallet
3. tool
4. earthmoving
5. loose
6. axle
7. recycle
8. capacity
9. mobility
10. range
21
«B»
1. designed to move large quantities of earth or rubble for civil engineering or building purposes
2. any device or implement used to carry out mechanical functions
whether manually or by a machine
3. to put used objects or materials through a special process, so that
they can be used again
4. volume, content, size
5. the act of pulling down, or destroying a pile or structure
6. not compact or dense
7. the ability to move easily
8. a portable platform for transporting and storing loads
9. a series of things in a line
10. the pin on which a wheel revolves
Exercise 7. a) Read Text A (part II) and find the adjectives in
the comparative and the superlative degrees.
b) Give the comparative and the superlative degree of the following adjectives from Text A:
Heavy, wide, light, large, small, independent, deep, successful,
sharp, soft, much, short, many, solid, useful, popular, compact, traditional, similar, available, simple, quick.
Exercise 8. Translate the following sentences:
1. Warehouses needed more maneuverable forklift trucks than the
equipment used earlier.
2. The sideshifter allows an easier placement of a load.
3. Loading should be carried out as quickly as possible.
4. The larger machines are used, the heavier loads are lifted.
5. A telescopic handler is more a crane than a forklift.
6. The advantage of the telehandler is also its biggest limitation.
7. The more the working radius increases, the more quickly the lifting
capacity decreases.
8. Most telehandlers utilize a computer which will warn the operator
and stop further work if necessary.
22
9. A front loader is more often a wheeled tractor than a track mounted one.
10. Loaders are not so efficient for digging as backhoes.
11. Wheels provide better mobility than tracks.
Exercise 9. Translate Text B without a dictionary:
Text B
COMPACT UTILITY TRACTORS
Popular additions to compact utility tractors and farm tractors are
Front End Loaders, also referred to as a FEL. Compact Utility Tractors,
also called CUTs are small tractors, typically with 18 to 50 horsepower
(37 kW) and used primarily for grounds maintenance and landscape
work. There are 2 primary designs of compact tractor FELs, the traditional designed style and the curved arm style.
John Deere Tractor manufactures a semi-curved loader design that
does not feature the one piece curved arm, but also is not of the traditional two piece design. New Holland AG introduced a compact loader
with a single piece curved arm on its compact utility tractors. Similar
one piece curved arm loaders are now available on compact tractors on
many brands including Case/Farmall, and some Montana and Kioti tractors. Kubota markets traditional loader designs on most of its compact
tractors but now features a semi-curved loader design similar to the John
Deere loader design on several of its small tractors.
While front end loaders on CUT size tractors are capable of many
tasks, given their relatively small size and low capacities when compared to commercial loaders, the compact loaders can be made more
useful with some simple options. A toothed bar is commonly added to
the front edge of a loader bucket to aid with digging. Some loaders are
equipped with a quick coupler, otherwise known as a Quick Attach (QA)
system, the QA system allows the bucket to be removed easily and other
tools to be added in its place. Common additions include a set of Pallet
Forks for lifting pallets of goods.
Notes:
utility – утилитарный, практичный, простой
semi- – полуcoupler – соединительная муфта, зажим
23
Exercise 10. Translate Text C in written form:
Unit 4
Text C
Grammar:
POWER MACHINES
If one looked around a machine shop, he could see two types of
machines: driven machines and driving or power machines.
Power machines are connected with driven machines by several
methods. In the older workshops, belts and pulleys were much used but
they are gradually disappearing. It is an electric motor that is used to
drive most machines in modern workshops. Power is transmitted to the
motor from the electric generators by means of insulated electric cables.
Power may also come from a steam or gasoline engine.
Selection of power for a given operation is one of the first problems that must be solved in planning a new construction job. Whether
the power is built into the machine, as in a tractor, or must be supplied
separately, as with a pile driver, it is necessary to know what the manufacture’s rating of power is in terms of performance. Too much power
means spending too much money. Too little power means that the job
cannot be performed. Moreover, as machine wears with time and use,
power may be lost or wasted. A knowledge of fundamentals of power
finds application during operation as well as in planning.
Power may be defined as the rate of producing work. Its most
commonly employed unit of measurement is the horsepower. The equivalent of 1 hp is 33,000 ft-lb per minute or 746 watts (w).
Functions of "to be" and "to have";
ed – forms.
Exercise 1. Work out the following sounds:
useful, numerous, reduce, utilized, value
diesel, increase, extremely, machine, speed, wheel
gear, appearance, clearance, rear
Exercise 2. Match the transcription to the words given below
and define their meanings:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
1. auger
2. generate
3. effort
4. counterweight
5. hindrance
6. grapple
7. bore
8. spacious
9. impart
10. undercarriage
1. придавать
2. сверлить
3. шасси, ходовая часть
4. просторный
5. сверло
6. попытка
7. производить
8. противовес
9. помеха
10. грейфер
Text A
EXCAVATORS
An excavator is in a list of extremely useful machines utilized in
the construction industry, and other useful applications. It has increased
the speed of work to a great extent. Efforts have to be made to reduce
the excavator weight, and make it a quiet function. It consists of an undercarriage that has wheels or tracks for the provision of mobility. Active research is being constantly conducted to improve the excavator
characteristics, namely more ground clearance, less noise, and improvement in ride.
24
25
The older excavators had an extended counterweight that was suspended at the machine rear. It was to provide additional lifting capability
and the force for digging. The modern excavators have been designed so
that the counterweight remains inside the track width during swinging.
Thus the movement is safe and the maneuverability of the excavator increases during operation in restricted areas.
The common excavators are fitted with diesel engines that generate
hydraulic pressure for the numerous excavator operations. In modern
excavators there are electric motors that obtain power by fuel cells. The
fuel cells are efficient and environmentally friendly. Furthermore, the
fuel cells are much lighter and smaller than a diesel engine. The operator
cabin is being made more spacious and comfortable.
The fundamental mechanism of an excavator consists of the undercarriage that includes the tracks, track frame, blade and the final drive.
The final drive has a hydraulic motor and gears that provide drive to the
tracks. The operator’s cabin, engine, counterweights, hydraulic and fuel
tanks are to be attached to the undercarriage to enable the excavator to
swing 360° without any hindrance. The main function of the excavator
engine is to drive the hydraulic pumps that provide oil at a high pressure
to the slew motor, rams, track motors, and several accessories. Mostly,
the boom can move only up and down, or in addition also shift towards
the left and right of the machine. An arm is attached to the boom end
that imparts the force for digging into the ground. A bucket is fixed at
the arm end for carrying the soil. In addition, there are numerous other
categories of attachments with the excavator that are used for boring,
crushing, lifting and ripping.
In recent years, hydraulic excavator capabilities have expanded far
beyond excavation tasks with buckets. The range of attachments had to
be enlarged to make this possible. With the appearance of hydraulic
powered attachments such as a breaker, a grapple or an auger, the excavator is frequently used in many applications other than excavation.
Exercise 3. Answer the following questions:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
How has an excavator influenced the speed of work?
What does an excavator consist of?
What excavator characteristics need improvement?
Why are modern excavators equipped with fuel cells?
What components does the undercarriage include?
How can the boom move?
What attachments have expanded excavator applications?
26
Exercise 4. Translate the following words and word combinations into Russian:
Word combinations: final drive; construction industry; diesel engines; fuel cells; hydraulic pump; restricted area; track frame; ground
clearance; nouns: capability; blade; extent; boom; soil; breaker; grapple;
auger; pressure; gear; force; provision; adjectives: numerous; fundamental; modern; useful; spacious ; verbs: consist of; obtain; design; attach;
provide; expand; reduce; improve; remain; increase; drive; move; fix.
Exercise 5. Translate from Russian into English:
Строительная промышленность; топливный элемент; главная
передача; ограниченное пространство; дизельный двигатель; гусеничная рама; гидравлический насос; дорожный просвет; лезвие;
стрела; бурав; грейфер; возможность; шестерня, привод; степень;
обеспечение; сила; грунт; давление; дробилка; современный; просторный; основной; полезный; получать, давать; обеспечивать;
оставаться; повышать; состоять из; проектировать; сокращать; расширять; оставаться; крепить; двигать.
Exercise 6. Match the following words (A) with their definitions
(B):
«A»
1. counterweight
2. blade
3. auger
4. soil
5. fuel tank
6. undercarriage
7. fundamental
8. spacious
9. fix
10. crush
27
«B»
1. a tool for boring holes in the ground
2. covering a large area; roomy
3. a weight equal to another; counterbalance
4. make firm or stable; fasten, secure
5. serving as a base or foundation, essential, primary, original
6. the flat part of something that forms the cutting edge
7. the supporting frame of a vehicle
8. the upper layer of earth in which plants grow
9. a safe container for flammable liquids and typically part of an engine
system in which the fuel is stored and propelled or released into an engine
10. compress with force or violence, so as to break, smash or crunch
Exercise 7. Read Text A and define the functions of the underlined verbs “to be” and “to have”.
Exercise 8. Translate the following sentences and define the
functions of ed-forms:
1. Powered machines have increased the speed of work to a great extent.
2. Quick-attach systems simplified attachments mounting.
3. A bucket is fixed at the arm end.
4. The machine could not swing when used in tight turn areas.
5. Modern excavators are fitted with electric motors.
6. The counterweight provided additional lifting capacity.
7. Machines are more environmentally friendly if fitted with fuel cells.
8. Hydraulic devices have expanded excavator applications.
9. A loader is a machine employed in construction.
Exercise 4. Translate Text B without a dictionary:
x wood removal in forests
x normal grading work and landscaping
x demolition of structures, and removal of debris
x mining industry
x dredging of rivers
x installation of piles in foundations
x digging of foundations, holes and trenches
x handling of heavy materials
x laying of heavy pipes
Many excavators feature quick-attach mounting systems for simplified attachment mounting, dramatically increasing the machine’s utilization on the jobsite. Excavators are usually employed together with
loaders and bulldozers. Most wheeled versions, and smaller, compact
excavators have a small backfill (or dozer-) blade. This is a horizontal
bulldozer-like blade attached to the undercarriage and is used for pushing removed material back into a hole. Prior to the 1990s, all excavators
had a hang over, or conventional counterweight that hang off the rear of
the machine to provide more digging force and lifting capacity. This became a hindrance in tight turn areas – the machine could not swing the
second half of its cycle due to restricted turn radius. In the early 1990s
The Komatsu Engineering Company launched a new concept excavator
line that did away with the conventional counterweight design, and so
started building the world’s fist tight tail swing excavators (PC128,
PC138, PC228, PC308). These machines are now widely used throughout the world.
Notes:
debris – обломки, строительный мусор
dredge – углублять
hang – вешать
Exercise 10. Read text C, answer the questions, and retell the
text in English:
Text C
Text B
EXCAVATOR APPLICATION
Excavators are used extensively in numerous fields, including the
following:
28
MECHANICAL HANDLING
At present plants, factories and building sites are equipped with
various mechanisms and machinery that do the job of loading and unloading, lifting and positioning materials in place. Depending on its pur29
pose materials handling equipment consists of the following three main
groups:
1. Hoisting equipment: winches, jacks, hoists and cranes for intermittent operation.
2. Conveying equipment: intermittently acting (rope-and-bucket)
and continuously acting conveyors (belt, bucket, screw, vibration type,
etc.), cableways, air-operated equipment.
3. Loading equipment for intermittent and continuous operation.
Load handling equipment includes rail-mounted cranes, fork lift trucks
and mobile cranes.
Loads are now handled at greater speeds and at smaller costs, possible damage has been brought to the minimum. Most materials loaded
and unloaded are palletized. Pallets are handled by fork lift trucks. Fork
lift machines are used in ever increasing numbers to carry loads. Loads
that cannot be palletized are handled by cranes.
The lifting appliances include stationary and mobile cranes. Much
work is done by quay cranes. In the last few years, quay cranes have
been greatly improved.
Although quay cranes have become larger and more efficient it is
the mobile cranes and particularly the fork lift trucks that revolutionized
the handling methods. The fork lift truck is now used to lift, convey and
stack loads.
Mechanization of handling materials ensures growth of speed of
loading and unloading operations.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
What are factories and building plants equipped with now?
What kind of work do various mechanisms perform?
How many groups of materials handling equipment are there?
What machines does hoisting equipment include?
What kinds of conveying equipment do you know?
What machines does load handling equipment include?
How are most materials handled?
What machines are pallets handled by?
What loads are handled by cranes?
30
Unit 5
Grammar:
Ing – forms.
Exercise 1. Work out the following sounds:
excavator, assembly, connect, when, trench, independent
] via, idler, hydraulic, diameter, supply, drive
component, narrow, rotation, associate, over
Exercise 2. Match the transcription to the words given below
and define their meanings:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
1. valve
2. cylinder
3. versatile
4. vehicle
5. diameter
6. idler
7. fluid
8. slew
9. through
10.pivot
1. жидкость
2. вращать
3. диаметр
4. поворотный
5. широкого применения
6. клапан
7. цилиндр
8. через
9. транспортное средство
10. ролик
Text A
COMPACT EXCAVATOR
Excavators come in a wide variety of sizes. The smaller ones are
called mini-excavators or compact excavators.
A compact hydraulic excavator or mini excavator is a tracked or
wheeled vehicle with an approximate operating weight from 0.7 to 7.5
tonnes. It generally includes a standard backfill blade and features independent boom swing. The compact hydraulic excavator is also referred
to as a mini excavator.
31
The compact hydraulic excavator is somewhat different from other
construction equipment in that all movements and functions of the machine are accomplished through the transfer of hydraulic fluid. The
compact excavator’s workgroup and blade are activated by hydraulic
fluid acting upon hydraulic cylinders. The excavator’s slew (rotation)
and travel functions are also activated by hydraulic fluid powering hydraulic motors. Most compact hydraulic excavators have three distinct
assemblies: house, undercarriage and workgroup.
The house structure contains the operator’s compartment, engine
compartment, hydraulic pump and distribution components. The house
structure is attached to the top of the undercarriage via a swing bearing.
The house, along with the workgroup, is able to rotate or slew upon the undercarriage without limit due to a hydraulic distribution valve
supplying oil to the undercarriage components.
Slewing refers to rotating the excavator’s house assembly. Unlike a
conventional backhoe, the operator can slew the entire house and
workgroup upon the undercarriage for spoil placement.
The undercarriage consists of rubber or steel tracks, drive sprockets, rollers, idlers and associated components/structures. The undercarriage supports the house structure and the workgroup.
The workgroup of a compact hydraulic excavator consists of the
boom, dipper or arm, and attachment (e.g. auger, bucket or breaker). It is
connected to the front of the excavator’s house structure via a swing
frame allowing the workgroup to be hydraulically pivoted left or right to
achieve offset digging for trenching parallel with the tracks.
The primary purpose of boom swing is for offset digging around
obstacles or along foundations, walls or forms. A secondary use is cycling in areas too narrow for cab rotation. Independent boom swing is
one of the major advantages of a compact excavator over other excavation equipment.
The backfill blade is used for grading, levelling, backfilling,
trenching, and general dozer work. The blade can be used to increase
dump height and digging depth depending on its position in relation to
the excavator’s workgroup, this makes it very versatile.
There are two distinct classes of compact excavators, conventional
tail swing units that have a rear counterweight that will extend beyond
the tracks when the house rotates, and zero-tail swing units with a house
whose diameter stays within the width of the tracks through full rotation.
Zero-tail swing units allow the operator to focus on digging and
not watching where he or she is swinging.
32
Exercise 3. Answer the following questions:
1. What does a compact excavator include and feature?
2. How does hydraulic excavator differ from some other construction
equipment?
3. How is the house structure attached to the top of the undercarriage?
4. What is one of the major advantages of a compact excavator?
5. What is the backfill blade used for?
6. How many and what classes of compact excavators are there?
Exercise 4. Translate the following words and word combinations into Russian:
Word combinations: wheeled vehicle; operating weight; construction equipment; operator`s compartment; swing frame; backfill
blade; offset digging; travel function; drive sprockets; nouns:
workgroup; house; valve; dipper; purpose; leveling; dump; assembly;
adjectives: major; distinct; steel; versatile; approximate; verbs: include;
contain; attach to; slew; support; connect; increase; allow; depend on.
Exercise 5. Translate from Russian into English:
Рабочий вес; кабина водителя; лезвие отвала; функция хода;
ведущие колеса; смещенное рытье; строительная техника; поворачивающаяся рама; колесное транспортное средство; корпус; цель;
клапан; сборка; рабочая группа; ковш; отвал; выравнивание; стальной; многофункциональный; приблизительный; главный; отчетливый; поддерживать; соединять; увеличивать; зависеть от; прикреплять к; включать; содержать; позволять.
Exercise 6. Match the following words (A) with their definitions
(B):
«A»
1.
2.
3.
4.
operating weight
rubber
pump
distribution
33
5. assembly
6. advantage
7. valve
8. approximate
9. obstacle
10. achieve
«B»
1. the act of dividing among several or many
2. a beneficial feature; a favourable circumstance
3. the basic weight of a vehicle or machine, including the driver/operator and fuel
4. a device for controlling the passage of fluid through a pipe etc., esp.
an automatic device allowing movement in one direction only
5. the process of putting the parts of products together
6. a tough elastic polymeric substance made from the latex of plants or
synthetically
7. fairly correct or accurate; near to the actual
8. any of various machines that force a liquid or gas into or through, or
draw it out of, something, as by suction or pressure
9. successfully finish or do something, especially after a lot of effort
10. something that stands in the way, or opposes; anything that hinders
progress
6. The function of a battery powered platform truck introduced in 1906
was moving the luggage.
7. During World War I different types of material handling equipment
were being developed.
8. In 1917 Clark in the USA began developing and using powered
tractors.
9. Allowing the operator to move forks the sideshifter provides easier
positioning of a load.
10. A loader can move stockpiled building materials from the ground
level.
Exercise 9. Translate Text B without a dictionary:
Text B
DRAGLINE HISTORY
1. Lifting and moving of heavy loads is accomplished by using a forklift
truck.
2. Safety rails and revolving turntables are normally fitted for the prevention of tilting.
3. A counterweight is utilized for balancing the load being lifted.
4. The mast does the work of raising and lowering a load.
5. The interlocking rails may either have rollers or bushings as guides.
The dragline was invented in 1904 by John W. Page of Page
Schnable Contracting for digging the Chicago Canal. In 1912 it became
the Page Engineering Company, and a walking mechanism was developed a few years later, providing draglines with mobility. Page also invented the arched dragline bucket; a design still commonly used today
by draglines from many other manufacturers, and in the 1960s pioneered
an archless bucket design.
In 1910 Bucyrus International entered the dragline market with the
purchase of manufacturing rights for the Heyworth-Newman dragline
excavator. Their "Class 14" dragline was introduced in 1911 as the first
crawler mounted dragline. In 1912 Bucyrus began to use electricity as a
power source for large stripping shovels and draglines used in mining.
In 1914 Harnischfeger Corporation, (established as P&H Mining in
1884 by Alonzo Pawling and Henry Harnischfeger), introduced the
world's first gasoline engine-powered dragline. An Italian company,
Fiorentini, from 1919 produced dragline excavators licensed by
Bucyrus.
In 1939 the Marion Steam Shovel Dredge Company (established in
1880) built its first walking dragline. The company changed its name to
the Marion Power Shovel Company in 1946 and was acquired by
Bucyrus in 1997. In 1988 Page was acquired by the Harnischfeger
Corp., makers of the P&H line of shovels, draglines, and cranes.
34
35
Exercise 7. Read Text A and define the part of speech and the
function of the underlined words.
Exercise 8. Translate the following sentences and define the
functions of ing-forms:
Draglines, unlike most equipment used in earth-moving, have remained relatively unchanged in design and control systems for almost
100 years. Over the last few years, some advances in dragline systems
and methodologies have occurred.
UDD stands for Universal-Dig-Dump. It represents the first fundamental change to draglines for almost a century. Instead of using two
ropes (the hoist rope and the drag rope) to manipulate the bucket, a UDD
machine uses three ropes, two hoists and one drag. This allows the dragline operator to have much greater selectivity in when to pick up the
bucket, and in how the bucket may be dumped. UDD machines generally have higher productivity than a standard dragline. The improvements
justify their costs.
Notes:
arch – арка, дуга; изгибать дугой
purchase – покупка
strip – полоса; снимать слой
acquire – приобретать
Unit 6
Grammar:
Infinitive;
Infinitive constructions.
Exercise 1. Work out the following sounds:
surface, overburden, further
] dragline, angle, back, access, land
vicinity, lift, involve, extremely, limitation, capital
Exercise 2. Match the transcription to the words given below
and define their meanings:
Exercise 10. Translate Text C in written form:
Text C
LOAD HANDLING DEVICES
Loads are lifted by means of simple solid hooks. To handle small
loads (up to 3 tons in weight) a hook may be attached directly to the free
end of the rope. Overhead travelling cranes employ multiple pulley systems in which two ropes run onto a drum symmetrically reducing thus
the swinging of the load carried by a travelling crane.
Jacks, winches and hoists are widely used as hoisting equipment. A
jack is the simplest load lifting appliance for raising a load to a small
height. There are mechanical and hydraulic jacks, the latter ones have
the advantage of easy operation and high capacity. Winches are widespread in the construction industry and are available in variety of designs. A hoist is a simple suspension type mechanism of small size. It is
used mainly for assembling machines. There are hand-operated and electric hoists. They can handle from 0.25 to 10 tons of load. The height to
which the hook of a travelling electric hoist can be raised ranges from 6
to 18 metres, the travelling speed being 20 m/min.
36
1.
2.
3.
4.
5. [
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
1. primary
2. sideway
3. mining
4. inefficiently
5. require
6. cause
7. dragline
8. depth
9. shovel
10. manoeuvre
1. причина
2. маневр
3. глубина
4. главный
5. в сторону
6. требовать
7. горное дело
8. неэффективно
9. ковш
10. драглайн
Text A
DRAGLINE EXCAVATOR
Dragline excavation systems are heavy equipment used in civil engineering and surface mining. In civil engineering the smaller types are
used for road and port construction. The larger types are used in stripmining operations to move overburden (soil layers) above coal. Draglines are amongst the largest mobile equipment, and weigh in the vicinity of 2000 metric tonnes, though specimens weighing up to 13,000 metric tonnes have also been constructed.
37
A dragline bucket system consists of a large bucket which is suspended from a boom (a large truss-like structure) with wire ropes. The
bucket is manoeuvred by means of a number of ropes and chains. The
hoist rope, powered by large diesel or electric motors, supports the
bucket and hoist coupler assembly from the boom. The drag rope is used
to draw the bucket assembly horizontally. By skillful manoeuvre of the
hoist and the drag ropes the bucket is controlled for various operations.
In a typical cycle of excavation, the bucket is positioned above the
material to be excavated. The bucket is then lowered and the drag rope is
then drawn so that the bucket is dragged along the surface of the material. The bucket is then lifted by using the hoist rope. A swing operation is
then performed to move the bucket to the place where the material is to
be dumped. The drag rope is then released causing the bucket to tilt and
empty. This is called a dump operation.
The bucket can also be ‘thrown’ by winding up to the jib and then
releasing a clutch on the drag cable. This would then swing the bucket
like a pendulum. Once the bucket had passed the vertical, the hoist cable
would be released thus throwing the bucket. On smaller draglines, a
skilled operator could make the bucket land about one-half the length of
the jib further away than if it had just been dropped. On larger draglines,
only a few extra metres may be reached.
Draglines have different cutting sequences. The first is the side
cast method using offset benches*; this involves throwing the overburden sideways onto blasted material to make a bench. The second is a key
pass. This pass cuts at the toe of the new high wall and also shifts the
bench further towards the low wall. This may also require a chop pass if
the wall is blocky. A chop pass involves the bucket being dropped down
onto an angled highwall to scale the surface. The next sequence is the
slowest operation. However, this pass moves most of the material. It involves the access to bottom of the material to lift it up to an elevated
bench level.
The final cut if required is a pull back, pulling material back further to the low-wall side. The primary limitations of draglines are their
boom height and boom length, which limit where the dragline can dump
the waste material. Another primary limitation is their dig depth, which
is limited by the length of rope the dragline can utilize. A dragline is
most efficient excavating material below the level of its base. While a
dragline can dig above itself, it does so inefficiently and is not suitable
to load piled up material (as a rope shovel can).
38
Despite their limitations, and their extremely high capital cost,
draglines remain popular with many mines, due to their reliability, and
extremely low waste removal cost.
*bench – терраса, уступ
Exercise 3. Answer the following questions:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
What types of draglines are used for road construction?
What does a dragline bucket system consist of?
What means is the bucket manoeuvred by?
How is the typical cycle of excavation performed?
How many cutting sequences do draglines have?
What are the primary limitations of draglines?
Why do draglines remain popular?
Exercise 4. Translate the following words and word combinations into Russian:
Word combinations: civil engineering; port construction; surface
mining; mobile equipment; wire rope; skilled operator; low waste removal cost; nouns: vicinity; clutch; jib; sequences; mine; limitation; toe;
bottom; access; adjectives: suitable; typical; various; verbs: power by;
support; position; release; remain; pass; drop; perform; reach; dump.
Exercise 5. Translate from Russian into English:
Проволочный трос; портовое строительство; квалифицированный водитель; низкая стоимость вывоза отходов; гражданское
строительство; открытые горные работы; самоходная техника; близость; последовательность; шахта; ограничение; стрела крана; дно;
подножие; доступ; захват; типичный; различный; пригодный; поддерживать; помещать; приводить в движение; освобождать; проходить; ронять; достигать; сваливать.
39
(B):
Exercise 6. Match the following words (A) with their definitions
«A»
1. specimen
2. skilled
3. throw
4. surface
5. extra
6. dump
7. cable
8. civil engineering
9. cost
10. coal
4. The tilt provides an ability to operate on non-level ground.
5. While steering, it is unnecessary to apply steering force to maintain a
constant rate of turn.
6. To combine the gravitational and centrifugal forces means to produce
a tip-over accident.
7. A forklift should not be used as a personnel lift.
8. The most common task of a telescopic handler is to move the loads.
Exercise 8. Translate the following sentences paying attention
to the infinitive constructions:
«B»
1. turn or move quickly or suddenly
2. more, larger, or better than is expected
3. an individual or part taken as an example of a class or whole
4. shoot or deposit rubbish etc.
5. the work of designing, building, and repairing large public structures
such as roads, bridges, water systems, and airports
6. having the ability and experience to do something well
7. the outside part or uppermost layer of something
8. a hard black mineral which is dug out of the ground and burnt to produce heat
9. a thick rope of wire
10. the amount or equivalent paid or charged for something
1. This attachment enables the operator to move the forks.
2. As the boom extends it causes the vehicle to become increasingly unstable.
3. A loader is known to be a heavy equipment machine often used in
construction.
4. Draglines are considered to be the largest mobile equipment.
5. UDD is claimed to represent the first fundamental change to draglines for almost a century.
6. Two hoist and one drag ropes permit the operator to have better control.
Exercise 9. Translate Text B without a dictionary:
Text B
DRAGLINE EXAMPLES
1. The frame may have fuel and hydraulic fluid tanks.
2. The overhead guard helps to protect the operator from falling objects.
3. Pole attachments are used to lift rolls.
The coal mining dragline known as Big Muskie, owned by the
Central Ohio Coal Company (a division of American Electric Power),
was the world's largest mobile earth-moving machine, weighing nearly
13,000 metric tons and standing nearly 22 stories tall. It operated in
Guernsey County, in the US state of Ohio from 1969 to 1991, and was
powered by 13,800 volts of electricity.
The British firm of Ransomes & Rapier produced a few large
(1400–1800 ton) excavators, the largest in Europe at the time (1960s).
Power was from internal combustion engines driving electric generators.
One, named Sundew, was used in a quarry from 1957 to 1974. After its
working life at the first site in Rutland was finished it walked 13 miles to
a new life at Corby; the walk took 9 weeks.
40
41
Exercise 7. Read Text A. Define the forms and functions of the
underlined infinitives. Explain the cases when the infinitives are
used without particle “to”.
Exercise 8. Translate the following sentences paying attention
to the infinitives:
Smaller draglines were also commonly used before hydraulic excavators came into common use, the smaller draglines are now rarely
used other than on river and gravel pit works. The small machines were
of a mechanical drive with clutches. Firms such as Ruston and Bucyrus
made models such as the RB10 which were popular for small building
works and drainage work. Several of these can still be seen in the English Fens of Cambridgeshire, Lincolnshire and parts of Norfolk. Ruston's
is a company also associated with drainage pumping engines. Electric
drive systems were only used on the larger mining machines, most modern machines use a diesel-hydraulic drive, as machines are seldom in
one location long enough to justify the cost of installing a substation and
supply cables.
Notes:
pit – яма, шахта, карьер
justify – оправдывать
substation – подстанция
Exercise 10. Translate Text C with a dictionary and make its
grammar analysis:
Text C
DRAGLINES IN MINING
1. A large dragline system used in the open pit mining industry
costs approximately US$50-100 million.
2. A typical bucket has a volume ranging from 30 to 60 cubic
metres, though extremely large buckets have ranged up to 168 cubic
metres.
3. The length of the boom ranges from 45 to 100 metres.
4. In a single cycle it can move up to 450 metric tonnes of material.
5. Most mining draglines are not diesel-powered like most other
mining equipment.
6. Their power consumption is so great that they have a direct connection to the high-voltage grid at voltages of between 6.6 to 22 kV.
7.A typical dragline, with a 55 cubic metre bucket, can use up to 6
megawatts during normal digging operations.
42
8. Because of this, many stories have been told about the blackout* causing effects of mining draglines.
9. For instance, there is a long-lived story that, back in the 1970s,
if all seven draglines at Peak Downs Mine (a very large BHP coal mine
in central Queensland, Australia) turned simultaneously, they would
black-out all of North Queensland.
10. However even now, if they have been shut down they are always restarted one at a time due to the immense power requirements of
start up.
11. In all but the smallest of draglines, movement is accomplished
by "walking" using feet or pontoons, as caterpillar tracks place too much
pressure on the ground, and have great difficulty under the immense
weight of the dragline.
12. Maximum speed is only at most a few metres per minute since
the feet must be repositioned for each step.
13. If travelling medium distances, (about 30–100 km), a special
dragline carrier can be brought in to transport the dragline.
14. Above this distance, disassembly is generally required.
15. But mining draglines due to their reach can work a large area
from one position and do not need to constantly move along the face like
smaller machines.
*block-out – временное отсутствие электрического освещения
1. Subject and predicate; participle II (function); ing-form.
2. Meaning of “have”.
3. Predicate.
4. Modal verb; meaning of “it”.
5. Meaning of “like”; superlative degree.
6. Noun groups.
7. Ing-forms.
8. Subject and predicate.
9. Translation of “there is”; conditional sentence.
10. Superlative degree; gerund (function); meaning of “as”.
11. Meaning of “since”; modal verb.
12. Infinitives (function).
13. Participle II (function).
14. Subject and predicate; infinitives (function); comparative degree.
43
Unit 7
Grammar:
Complex Sentences.
Exercise 1. Work out the following sounds:
through, smooth, remove, include
] tunnel, cut, front, pump, number, double
method, through, earthworm, length
Exercise 2. Match the transcription to the words given below
and define their meanings:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5. [
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
1. tunnel
2. dirt
3. circular
4. undisturbed
5. applicable
6. line
7. stratum
8. advancement
9. surround
10. mechanism
1. пласт, слой
2. окружать
3. продвижение
4. механизм
5. тоннель
6. грязь
7. круглый
8. непотревоженный
9. облицовывать
10. применимый
16 metres to date. Tunnels of less than a metre or so in diameter are typically done by horizontal directional drilling rather than TBMs.
Tunnel boring machines are used as an alternative to drilling and
blasting (D&B) methods. The reason of this is that a TBM has the advantages of limiting the disturbance to the surrounding ground and producing a smooth tunnel wall. This significantly reduces the cost of lining
the tunnel, and makes TBM suitable to use in heavily urbanized areas.
The major disadvantage is that TBMs are expensive to construct, difficult to transport and require significant infrastructure. The biggest is
built by Herrenknecht AG of Schwanau, Germany to dig the 57 km
Gotthard Base Tunnel. It has a diameter of 9.58 meters.
Tunnel boring machines have one or two large metal cylinders
(shields) mounted on a trailing support mechanism. The front of the
shield has a rotating cutting wheel. Following the cutting wheel there is
a chamber where the excavated material (sand, rock, or any soil mix) is
either mixed with water to make a slurry or left as it is. A system to remove the excavated material completes the tunnel boring machine.
In basic terms, the TBMs work like an earthworm with cycles of
digging forward and dragging the rear end afterwards. A series of hydraulic systems pushes the TBM forward (excavating the soil) while the
rear end of it is braced against the tunnel wall. When the TBM head has
excavated at its maximum length (this depends on many variables including TBM type, soil type, etc.) the front end of the TBM is braced
against tunnel wall and the rear end is pulled forward. These cycles continue until the complete tunnel has been excavated.
Part II
Text A
TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
Part I
A tunnel boring machine (TBM) is a specially designed machine
which is used to excavate tunnels with a circular cross section through
a variety of soil and rock strata. That they can bore through hard rock,
sand, and almost anything in between is one of their advantages. Tunnel
diameters can range from a metre (done with micro-TBMs) to almost
44
Behind the shield, inside the finished part of the tunnel, several
support mechanisms which are part of the TBM are located: dirt removal, slurry pipelines if they are applicable, control rooms, and rails for
transport of the precast segments. The cutting wheel will typically rotate
at 1 to 10 rpm (depending on the size and stratum), cutting the rock face
into chips or excavating soil (muck). Depending on the type of TBM, the
muck will fall onto a conveyor belt system and be carried out of the tunnel, or be mixed with slurry and pumped back to the tunnel entrance.
Depending on rock strata and tunnel requirements, the tunnel may be
cased, lined, or left unlined. This may be done by bringing in precast
concrete sections that are jacked into place as the TBM moves forward,
45
by assembling concrete forms, or in some hard rock strata, leaving the
tunnel unlined and relying on the surrounding rock to handle and distribute the load. While the use of a TBM eliminates the need for large
numbers of workers at increased pressure, a caisson system is sometimes formed at the cutting head. Workers entering this space for inspection, maintenance and repair need to be medically “fit to dive” and
trained in the operation of the locks.
Modern TBMs typically have an integrated shield. What type of
TBM, a single or double shielded, will be chosen depends on the type of
rock strata and the excavation speed required.
Double shielded TBMs are normally used in unstable rock strata,
or where a high rate of advancement is required. Single shielded TBMs,
which are less expensive, are more suitable to hard rock strata.
In urban tunneling it is required that the ground surface should be
undisturbed. This means that ground falling must be avoided. The normal method of doing this is to maintain the soil pressures during and after the tunnel construction. There is some difficulty in doing so, particularly in varied rock strata (e.g., boring through a region where the upper
portion of the tunnel face is wet sand and the lower portion is hard
rock).
TBMs with positive face control are used in such situations. There
are three common types: Earth pressure balance (EPB), Bentonite slurry
(BS), and compressed air (CA). The compressed air method is the oldest, although it is falling out of application due to the difficult working
conditions it imposes. Both types (EPB and BS) are clearly preferred
over open face methods in urban environments as they offer far superior
ground control.
Exercise 3. Answer the following questions:
1. What materials can TBMs bore through?
2. Why are the TBMs used as an alternative to drilling and blasting
methods?
3. What main components does a TBM have?
4. What cycles does the TBM’s work consist of?
5. How may the tunnel be finished?
6. Where are double shielded TBMs normally used?
7. What requirements should be met in urban tunneling?
8. Why are EPB and BS types preferred in urban environment?
46
Exercise 4. Translate the following words and word combinations into Russian:
Word combinations: tunnel boring machine; cross section; horizontal directional drilling; trailing support mechanism; cutting wheel;
urban tunneling; caisson system; earth pressure balance; rock strata;
nouns: blast; chamber; concrete; slurry; shield; earthworm; pressure;
brace; environment; adjectives: variable; precast; applicable; superior;
expensive; verbs: drill; bore; line; integrate; prefer; depend on; reduce;
carry out; maintain; fall out.
Exercise 5. Translate from Russian into English:
Продольный опорный механизм; горизонтально-направленное
бурение; поперечное сечение; буровая тоннелепроходческая машина; строительство городского тоннеля; режущий диск; компенсация
давления горных пород; кессонная система; горные слои; взрыв;
жидкая глина; щит, экран; земляной червь; скоба; окружающая
среда; камера; переменная; давление; бетонный; применимый; дорогой; предварительно отлитый; лучший; поддерживать; объединять; бурить; предпочитать; зависеть от; сокращать; выходить из
употребления; сверлить; предпочитать; облицовывать; выполнять.
Exercise 6. Match the following words (A) with their definitions
(B):
«A»
1. cylinder
2. jack
3. muck
4. slurry
5. expensive
6. repair
7. smooth
8. cycle
9. segment
10. tunnel
47
«B»
1. dirt or rubbish
2. one of the parts into which any body naturally separates or is divided
3. a recurrent round or period
4. an artificial underground passage through a hill or under a road or
river
5. any tube like device
6. having no roughness or projections that can be seen or felt
7. a device for lifting heavy objects
8. a semi liquid mixture, especially of fine particles of cement, or coal
and water
9. to put back in good condition after damage
10. costing a lot of money
Exercise 7. Read Text A. Analyze the italicized subordinate
clauses, define their types and the forms of their predicates.
Exercise 8. Translate the following sentences paying attention
to attributive clauses:
a) without a conjunction:
1. A system the excavated material is removed with completes the
TBM.
2. The purpose the counterweight is used for is to balance the load.
3. The speed the cutting wheel rotates with depends on the size.
4. The air the piston compresses is heated to the point of ignition.
b) with different meanings of “which”:
1. The carriage is the component to which the forks are mounted.
2. To put the load on high places requires a crane, which is not always
practical or time-efficient.
3. Most telehandlers utilize a computer which uses sensors to monitor
the vehicle.
4. Some machines are equipped with outriggers, which extend the lifting capability.
5. The operator is able to “steer” the load, which can be useful.
48
6. The house is able to rotate without limit due to a hydraulic distribution valve which supplies oil to the undercarriage components.
7. The weight is raised, which may involve the use of hydraulics.
Exercise 9. Read text B and translate it without a dictionary:
Text B
TBMs INVENTION
The first successful tunneling shield was developed by Sir Marc
Brunel
to excavate the Thames Tunnel in 1825. However, this was only the invention of the shield concept and did not involve the construction of a
complete tunnel boring machine, the digging still having to be accomplished by the standard excavation methods.
The very first boring machine ever reported to have been built was
Henri-Joseph Maus’ Mountain Slicer. Commissioned by the King of
Sardinia in 1845 to dig the Frejus Rail Tunnel between France and Italy
through the Alps, Maus had it built in 1846 in an arms factory near Turin. It basically consisted of more than 100 percussion drills mounted in
the front of a locomotive-sized machine, mechanically power-driven
from the entrance of the tunnel. Unfortunately, the Revolutions of 1848
affected the financing of the project and the tunnel was not completed
until 10 years later, by using also innovative but rather less expensive
methods such as pneumatic drills.
In the United States, the first boring machine to have been built
was used in 1853 during the construction of the Hoosac Tunnel. Made of
cast iron, it was known as Wilson’s Patented Stone-Cutting Machine, after its inventor Charles Wilson. It drilled 10 feet into the rock before
breaking down. The tunnel was eventually completed more than 20
years later, and as with the Frejus Rail Tunnel, by using less ambitious
methods. In the early 1950s, F.K. Mitry won a diversion dam contract
for the Oahe Dam in Pierre, South Dakota , and consulted with James S.
Robbins to dig through what was the most difficult shale to excavate at
that time, the Pierre Shale. Robbins built a machine that was able to cut
160 feet in 24 hours in the shale, which was ten times faster than any
other digging speed at that time.
The breakthrough that made tunnel boring machines efficient and
reliable was the invention of the rotating head, conceptually based on the
49
same principle as the percussion drill head of the Mountain Slicer of
Henri-Joseph Maus. But its efficiency was improved by reducing the
number of grinding elements while making them to spin as a whole
against the soil front. Initially, Robbins’ tunnel boring machine used
strong spikes rotating in a circular motion to dig out of the excavation
front, but he quickly discovered that these spikes, no matter how strong
they were, had to be changed frequently as they broke or tore off. By replacing these grinding spikes with longer lasting cutting wheels this
problem was significantly reduced. Since then, all successful modern
tunnel boring machines have rotating grinding heads with cutting
wheels.
Notes:
concept – идея
percussion drill – ударный бур
diversion dam – отводная плотина
shale – сланец, сланцевая глина
ing large monolithic columns was practically abandoned in favour of using several column drums.
Although the exact circumstances of the shift from the ramp to the
crane technology remain unclear, it has been argued that the unstable social and political conditions of Greece were more suitable to the employment of small, professional construction teams than of large groups
of unskilled workers, making the crane more preferable to the Greek cities than the more labour-intensive ramp which had been the norm in the
autocratic societies of Egypt or Assyria.
The first literary evidence for the existence of the compound pulley
system appears in the Mechanical Problems attributed to Aristotle (384322 BC), but perhaps composed at a slightly later date. Around the same
time, block sizes at Greek temples began to match their archaic predecessors again, indicating that the more sophisticated compound pulley
must have found its way to Greek construction sites by then.
Exercise 9. Read text C and translate it in written form:
Text C
CRANES IN ANCIENT GREECE
The crane for lifting heavy loads was invented by the ancient
Greeks in the late 6th century BC. The archaeological record shows that
no later than about 515 BC distinctive cuttings for lifting tongs begin to
appear on stone blocks of Greek temples. Since these holes point at the
use of a lifting device, and since they are to be found either above the
center of gravity of the block, or in pairs at the equal distance from a
point over the center of gravity, they are regarded by archaeologists as
the positive evidence required for the existence of the crane.
The introduction of the winch and pulley hoist soon led to a widespread replacement of ramps as the main means of vertical motion. For
the next two hundred years, Greek building sites witnessed a sharp drop
in the weights handled, as the new lifting technique made the use of several smaller stones more practical than of fewer larger ones. In contrast
to the archaic period with its tendency to ever-increasing block sizes,
Greek temples of the classical age like the Parthenon invariably featured
stone blocks weighing less than 15–20 tons. Also, the practice of erect50
51
Unit 8
Grammar:
Functions of "that" and "one".
Exercise 1. Work out the following sounds:
that, other, there, this
] install, draw, falling, force, portion, shoring
design, pile, vibratory, line, site, price, specified
Exercise 2. Match the transcription to the words given below
and define their meanings:
1.
2.
3.
1. ignite
2. pollutant
3. hammer
4.
5. [
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
4. clearance
5. guide
6. auxiliary
7. perforator
8. manual
9. fasten
10. crew
1. прикреплять
2. бригада
3. направляющее приспособление
4. ручной
5. зажигать
6. бурав
7. загрязнитель
8. молот
9. клиренс
10. вспомогательный
Text A
One traditional type of pile driver includes a heavy weight placed
between guides so that it is able to freely slide up and down in a single
line. It is placed upon a pile. The weight is raised, which may involve
the use of hydraulics, steam, diesel, or manual labour. When the weight
reaches its highest point, it is then released and smashes on to the pile in
order to drive it into the ground.
Ancient pile driving equipment used manual or animal labour to
lift heavy weights, usually by means of pulleys, to drop the weight onto
the end of the pile. Modern pile driving equipment uses various methods
to raise the weight and guide the pile.
There are several types of pile driving equipment.
Diesel hammer. A modern diesel pile hammer is a very large twostroke diesel engine. The weight is the piston, and the apparatus which
connects to the top of the pile is the cylinder. Piledriving is started by
having the weight raised by auxiliary means – usually a cable from the
crane holding the pile driver – which draws air into the cylinder. The
weight is dropped, using a quick-release. The weight of the piston compresses the air, heating it to the ignition point of diesel fuel. Diesel fuel
is added/injected into the cylinder. The mixture ignites, transferring the
energy of the falling weight to the pile head, and driving the weight back
up. The rising weight draws in more fuel-air mixture, and the cycle starts
over until the fuel runs out or is stopped by the pile crew.
Hydraulic hammer. A hydraulic hammer is a modern type of piling hammer used in place of diesel and air hammers for driving steel
pipe, precast concrete, and timber piles. Hydraulic hammers are more
environmentally acceptable than the older, less efficient ones as they
generate less noise and pollutants.
Part II
PILE DRIVER
Part I
A pile driver is a mechanical device that is used to drive piles into
soil to provide foundation support for buildings or other structures. That
term is also used in reference to members of the construction crew that
work with pile driving rigs.
52
Hydraulic Press-in. Specialty equipment which installs piles using hydraulic rams to press piles into the ground. This system is preferred where vibration is a concern. There are press attachments that can
adapt to conventional pile driving rigs to press two pairs of sheet piles at
a time. Additional types of press equipment sit on top of existing sheet
piles and grip onto previously driven piles. This system allows for greater press-in and extraction force to be used since more reaction force is
developed. The reaction based machines operate at only 69dB at 23ft
53
noise and vibration sensitive areas where traditional methods may
threaten the stability of existing structures.
Such equipment and methods are specified into portions of the internal drainage system in the New Orleans area after Hurricane Katrina
as well as many projects around the world where noise, vibrations and
limited access are a concern during the engineering, design and construction phases of the project.
Vibratory Pile Driver/Extractor. Vibratory pile hammers contain
a system of counter-rotating eccentric weights, powered by hydraulic
motors, and designed in such a way that horizontal vibrations cancel out,
while vertical vibrations are transmitted into the pile. The pile driving
machine is lifted and positioned over the pile by the power of an excavator or that of a crane, and is fastened to the pile by a clamp and/or bolts.
Vibratory hammers can either drive in or extract a pile; extraction is
commonly used to recover steel “H” piles used in temporary foundation
shoring*. Hydraulic fluid is typically supplied to the driver by a diesel
engine powered pump mounted in a trailer or van and connected to the
driver head through a set of long hoses. When the pile driver is connected to an excavator, it is powered by the excavator’s own diesel engine.
Vibratory pile drivers are often chosen to reduce noise, as when the construction is very close to residence or office buildings, or when there is
not enough vertical clearance above the foundation to permit use of a
conventional pile hammer (for example when fitting additional piles to a
bridge column or abutment footing). Hammers are available with several
different vibration rates, ranging from about 1200 vibrations per minute
to about 2400 vpm; the vibration rate chosen is influenced by soil conditions at the site and other factors such as power requirements and purchase price of the equipment.
* shoring – установка временных (монтажных) опорных стоек
Exercise 3. Answer the following questions:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
What do piles provide?
How does a pile driver work?
What is the weight in a diesel pile hammer?
Why are hydraulic hammers more environmentally friendly?
Where are hydraulic press-in systems preferred?
When are vibratory pile drivers the most suitable?
54
Exercise 4. Translate the following words and word combinations into Russian:
Word combinations: pile driver; manual labour; diesel hammer;
two-stroke diesel engine; ignition point; hydraulic hammer; precast concrete; timber pile; hydraulic press-in; drainage system; vibration rate;
nouns: pulley; noise; concern; extraction; force; proximity; rate; hose;
foundation; van; adjectives: single; various; conventional; additional;
existing; internal; available; verbs: slide; raise; generate; extract; supply; position.
Exercise 5. Translate from Russian into English:
Ручной труд; двухтактный дизельный двигатель; гидравлический пресс; виброскорость; точка воспламенения; деревянная свая;
свайный копер; дизельный свайный копер; гидравлический молот;
сборный железобетон; система канализации; ролик, шкив; проблема; сила; шум; извлечение; рукав, шланг; основание; фургон; схожесть; различный; дополнительный; существующий; доступный;
внутренний; единственный; поднимать; извлекать; скользить; генерировать; помещать; снабжать.
Exercise 6. Match the following words (A) with their definitions
(B):
«A»
1. hammer
2. crew
3. pollutant
4. pile
5. mixture
6. piston
7. reduce
8. foundation
9. clamp
10. purchase price
55
«B»
Exercise 9. Read text B and translate it without a dictionary.
1. any substance, as certain chemicals or waste products, that renders
the air, soil, water, or other natural resource harmful or unsuitable for a
specific purpose
2. a disc or short cylinder fitting closely inside a tube in which it moves
up and down against a liquid or gas, used to derive or impart motion in
an internal combustion engine or pump
3. a tool consisting of a heavy metal head mounted at the end of a handle, used for breaking things and driving in nails
4. a brace, band, or clasp for strengthening or holding things together
5. the price that has to be paid for something
6. a basis upon which something stands or is supported
7. a group of people working together
8. to make smaller
9. a combination of different things in which the components are individually distinct
10. heavy beam driven vertically into ground as support for bridge etc.
Exercise 7. Read Text A and analyze the functions of the underlined words.
Exercise 8. Translate the following sentences paying attention
to the functions of “one’ and “that”:
1. The cab is the area that contains a seat for the operator.
2. The truck is powered by the energy of the internal combustion engines or by that of electric motors.
3. The mast is operated by one or two hydraulic cylinders.
4. That type of attachment will speed the loading.
5. The L-2350 uses a diesel electric propulsion system similar to that
used in a locomotive.
6. The front loader’s bucket capacity is much bigger than that of a
backhoe.
7. One can’t classify loaders as earthmoving machines.
8. Excavators are produced in a wide variety of sizes. The smaller ones
are called compact excavators.
9. That vibratory hammers can either drive in or extract a pile make
them more widely used.
10. It is known that hydraulic hammers generate less noise.
56
Text B
FROM A MANUAL ON PILE DRIVING HAMMERS
The initial start up of the hammer requires the piston (ram) to be
raised to a point where the trip automatically releases the piston, allowing it to fall by gravity. As the piston falls, it activates the fuel pump,
which discharges a metered amount of fuel into the ball pan of the impact block. The falling piston also blocks the exhaust ports, and compression of fuel trapped in the cylinder begins. The compressed air exerts a pre-load force (approx. 44,000 lb or 20,000 kg) to hold the impact
block firmly against the drive cap and pile. At the bottom of the compression stroke, the piston strikes the impact block, atomizing the fuel
and starting the pile on its downward movement. In the instant after the
piston strikes, the atomized fuel ignites, and the resulting explosion exerts an even greater force on the already moving pile, driving it further
into the ground. The reaction of the explosion rebounding from the resistance of the pile drives the piston upward. As the piston rises, the exhaust ports open, releasing the gases and force of the explosion into the
atmosphere. After the piston stops its upward movement, it again falls
by gravity to start another cycle.
Notes:
pan – лоток, поддон
exert -оказывать, вызывать
impact – удар
rebounding – отскок, отдача
Exercise 10. Read text C, write 10 questions to the text, then
retell it in English:
Text C
ROMAN CRANES
The Romans adopted the Greek crane and developed it further. We
are relatively well informed about their lifting techniques thanks to rather lengthy accounts by the engineers Vitruvius and Heron of Alexandria . There are also two surviving beliefs of Roman treadwheel cranes
57
offering pictorial evidence, with the Haterii tombstone from the late first
century AD being particularly detailed.
The simplest Roman crane, the Trispastos, consisted of a singlebeam jib, a winch, a rope, and a block containing three pulleys. Having
thus a mechanical advantage of 3:1, it has been calculated that a single
man working the winch could raise 150 kg (3 pulleys x 50 kg = 150), assuming that 50 kg represent the maximum effort a man can exert over a
longer time period. Heavier crane types featured five pulleys (Pentaspastos) or, in case of the largest one, a set of three by five pulleys
(Polyspastos) and came with two, three or four masts, depending on the
maximum load. The Polyspastos, when worked by four men at both
sides of the winch, could already lift 3000 kg (3 ropes x 5 pulleys x 4
men x 50 kg = 3000 kg). In case the winch was replaced by a treadwheel, the maximum load even doubled to 6000 kg at only half the
crew, since the treadwheel possesses a much bigger mechanical advantage due to its larger diameter. This meant that, in comparison to the
construction of the Egyptian Pyramids, where about 50 men were needed to move a 2.5 ton stone block up the ramp (50 kg per person), the lifting capability of the Roman Polyspastos proved to be 60 times higher
(3000 kg per person).
However, numerous Roman buildings which feature much heavier
stone blocks than those handled by the Polyspastos indicate that the
overall lifting capability of the Romans went far beyond that of any single crane.
Roman engineers accomplished lifting extraordinary weights by
two measures: First, a lifting tower was set up, whose four masts were
arranged in the shape of a quadrangle with parallel sides with the column in the middle of the structure. Second, a multitude of capstans were
placed on the ground around the tower, for, although having a lower leverage ratio than treadwheels, capstans could be set up in higher numbers
and run by more men (and, moreover, by draught animals).
Notes:
adopt – заимствовать
assume – предполагать, допускать
effort – усилия
exert – напрягать(силы), осуществлять
crew – бригада
ramp – скат, наклонная плоскость
capstan – кабестан, ворот
58
Unit 9
Grammar:
Conditional Clauses;
Polysemantic words.
Exercise 1. Work out the following sounds:
bulldozer, push,
] farm, large, demand, pass, arm, draftsman
claw, more, before, automate, important
Exercise 2. Match the transcription to the words given below
and define their meanings:
1.
1. raise
2.
3.
4.
5. [
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
2. acceptance
3. bulldozer
4. contractor
5. reliable
6. pavement
7. automate
8. precise
9. civil
10. truck
1. тротуар, мощеная дорога
2. гражданский
3. надежный
4. точный
5. автоматизировать
6. грузовик
7. принятие
8. бульдозер
9. подрядчик
10. поднимать
Text A
BULLDOZERS
The first bulldozers were adapted from farm tractors. Their versatility in soft ground for logging and road building led directly to their
becoming the tank in World War I.
In 1923, a young farmer named James Cummings and a draftsman
named J. Earl McLeod made the first designs for a bulldozer. A replica
is on display at the city park in Morrowville, Kansas where the two built
59
the first bulldozer. By the 1920s, tracked vehicles became common, particularly the Caterpillar 60. To dig canals, raise earth dams, and do other
earthmoving jobs, these tractors were equipped with a large thick metal
plate in front. This metal plate (it got its curved shape later) is called a
“blade”. The blade peels layers of soil and pushes it forward as the tractor advances. Several specialized blades have been developed: blades for
high volume loads such as coal, rakes to remove only larger boulders, or
blades with razor sharp edges to cut tree stumps. In some early models
the driver sat on top in the open without a cabin. These attachments,
home built or by small equipment manufacturers of attachments for
wheeled and crawler tractors and trucks, appeared by 1929. Widespread
acceptance of the bull-grader does not seem to appear before the mid1930s. It had become the preferred excavation machine for large and
small contractors by the 1940s, by which time the term “bulldozer” referred to the entire machine and not just the attachment.
Over the years, bulldozers got bigger and more powerful to meet
the demand for equipment suited for ever larger earthworks. Firms like
Caterpillar, Komatsu, Fiat-Allis, John Deere, International Harvester,
Case, Liebherr, Terex and JCB manufactured large tracked-type earthmoving machines.
Bulldozers grew more complex as time passed. Important improvements include more powerful engines, more reliable drive trains,
better tracks, raised cabins, and hydraulic (instead of early models’ cable
operated) arms that enable more precise manipulation of the blade and
automated controls. As an option, bulldozers can be equipped with rear
ripper claw(s) to loosen rocky soils or to break up pavement (roads).
Amore recent innovation is outfitting of bulldozers with GPS technology, such as manufactured by Topcon Positioning Systems, Inc., Trimble
Inc, or Mikrofyn for precise grade control.
The best known maker of bulldozers is probably Caterpillar which
earned its reputation for making durable reliable machines. There are
however other manufacturers of bulldozers for instance Fiat, Komatsu or
Allis Chalmers. Although these machines began as modified farm tractors, they became the mainstay for big civil construction projects, and
found their way into use by military construction units world-wide.
Their best known model is the Caterpillar D9.
60
Exercise 3. Answer the following questions:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
When were the first bulldozer designs made?
What were those machines equipped with to do earthmoving jobs?
What specialized blades have been developed?
What bulldozer manufactures do you know?
What do bulldozer improvements include?
Why is Caterpillar the best known maker of bulldozers?
Exercise 4. Translate the following words and word combinations into Russian:
Word combinations: farm tractor; road building; tracked vehicle;
wheeled tractor; earthmoving machine; rocky soil; earn reputation;
nouns: tank; blade; edge; contractor; demand; claw; cabin; adjectives:
common; sharp; powerful; recent; complex; durable; military; verbs:
design; peel; adapt; remove; refer; suit for; include; loosen; break up;
appear.
Exercise 5. Translate from Russian into English:
Дорожное строительство; скалистый грунт; завоевать репутацию; землеройная машина; недавний; долговечный; кабина; появиться; удалять; кромка; колесный трактор; снимать, счищать; относиться; проектировать; ломать; подрядчик; сельскохозяйственный трактор; гусеничная машина; острый; отвечать требованиям;
зубец; приспособить; сложный.
Exercise 6. Match the following words (A) with their definitions
(B):
«A»
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
durable
blade
earthmoving
tank
precise
loosen
61
7. claw
8. pavement
9. choice
10. layer
Exercise 8. Translate the following sentences, paying attention
to the underlined words:
«B»
1. a closed container for liquids or gases
2. something lasting for a long time, even if it is used a lot
3. a sharp, hooked nail, as of a beast or bird
4. asphalted path for pedestrians at the side of a road
5. a flat cutting part of a tool or weapon
6. a sheet or thickness of material, typically one of several, covering a
surface
7. strictly defined; definite
8. act of choosing, thing or person chosen
9. designed to move large quantities of earth or rubble for civil engineering or building purposes
10. to make less dense or compact
1. The machine provided with a powerful engine will give much energy
for work.
2. The friction force is directly proportional to the speed provided the
latter is not too high.
3. Bulldozers are very versatile provided they are used with numerous
attachments.
4. If a tractor is equipped with a blade it can peel layers of soil and push
it forward.
5. It is always necessary to determine if the stress is not too high for a
given structure.
6. The work is more efficient if the building site is provided with all
necessary equipment.
7. The builders wanted to know if the equipment would be delivered to
the site in time.
Exercise 9. Read text B and translate it without a dictionary.
Exercise 7. Translate the following sentences, paying attention
to the Conditional Clauses:
Text B
1. If bulldozers had not become bigger and more powerful they
wouldn’t be able to do large earth work.
2. Machines are used provided there are heavy and numerous operations.
3. If one uses bulldozers with GPS technology, grade control will be
more precise.
4. People had not been able to build modern houses unless they had
created powerful machines.
5. If the machine were more versatile, it would be more useful.
6. This crane could be used provided its lifting capacity was larger.
7. They wouldn’t have used this tractor unless it had suited their needs.
8. Had they more modern equipment, their work would be more efficient.
The first road rollers were horse-drawn, and were probably just
borrowed farm implements.
Since the effectiveness of a roller depends to a large extent on its
weight, self-powered vehicles replaced horse-drawn rollers from the mid
1800s. The first such vehicles were steam rollers. Double-cylinder designs were preferred. Single-cylinder steam rollers were uncommon and
unpopular, as the power impulses from the steam engine would produce
slight waves in the road. Some road companies in the United States used
steamrollers through the 1950s, and in the UK, some remained in commercial service until the early 1970s.
As internal combustion engine technology improved during the
20th century, kerosene-, gasoline- (petrol), and diesel-powered rollers
gradually replaced their steam-powered counterparts. The first internalcombustion powered road rollers were very similar to the steam rollers
they replaced. They used similar mechanisms to transmit power from the
engine to the wheels, typically large, exposed spur gears. Some compa-
62
63
ROAD ROLLERS
nies did not like to employ them as the engines of the era were typically
difficult to start, particularly the kerosene-powered ones.
In fact, all road rollers in commercial use now use diesel power.
Initial compaction of the substrate is done using a pneumatic-tyred
roller, with two rows (front and back) of pneumatic tyres. The flexibility
of the tyres, with a certain amount of vertical movement of the wheels,
enables the roller to operate effectively on uneven ground.
Notes:
borrow – заимствовать
implement – инструмент, прибор
slight – легкий
counterpart – копия, двойник
spur gear – цилиндрическая шестерня
Exercise 10. Read text C and translate it in written form:
Text C
CRANES IN MIDDLE AGES
During the High Middle Ages, the treadwheel crane was reintroduced on a large scale after the technology had fallen into disuse in
western Europe. The earliest reference to a treadwheel reappears in archival literature in France about 1225.
Generally, vertical transportation was done safer and cheaper by
cranes than by customary methods. Newly introduced machines like
treadwheels or wheelbarrows did not completely replace more labourintensive methods like ladders, hods and handbarrows. Rather, old and
new machinery continued to coexist on medieval construction sites and
harbours.
The exact process by which the treadwheel crane was reintroduced
is not recorded, although its return to construction sites has undoubtedly
to be viewed in close connection with the simultaneous rise of Gothic
architecture. The reappearance of the treadwheel crane may have resulted from a technological development of the windlass from which the
treadwheel structurally and mechanically evolved.
The medieval treadwheel was a large wooden wheel turning around a
central shaft with a treadway wide enough for two workers walking side
64
by side. While the earlier 'compass-arm' wheel had spokes directly driven
into the central shaft, the more advanced 'clasp-arm' type featured arms arranged as chords to the wheel rim, giving the possibility of using a thinner
shaft and providing thus a greater mechanical advantage.
Contrary to a popularly held belief, cranes on medieval building
sites were neither placed on the extremely lightweight scaffolding used
at the time nor on the thin walls of the Gothic churches which were incapable of supporting the weight of both hoisting machine and load. Rather, cranes were placed in the initial stages of construction on the
ground, often within the building. When a new floor was completed, and
massive tie beams of the roof connected the walls, the crane was dismantled and reassembled on the roof beams from where it was moved
from bay to bay during construction of the vaults. Thus, the crane ‘grew’
and ‘wandered’ with the building with the result that today all extant
construction cranes in England are found in church towers above the
vaulting and below the roof, where they remained after building construction for bringing material for repairs aloft.
Less frequently, medieval cranes were mounted on the outside of
walls with the stand of the machine secured to putlogs.
In contrast to modern cranes, medieval cranes and hoists – much
like their counterparts in Greece and Rome- were primarily capable of a
vertical lift, and not used to move loads for a considerable distance horizontally as well. Slewing cranes which allowed a rotation of the load
and were thus particularly suited for dockside work appeared as early as
1340. While ashlar blocks were directly lifted by sling, lewis or devil's
clamp, other objects were placed before in containers like pallets, baskets, wooden boxes or barrels.
It is noteworthy that medieval cranes rarely featured ratchets or
brakes to forestall the load from running backward. This curious absence is
explained by the high friction force exercised by medieval treadwheels
which normally prevented the wheel from accelerating beyond control.
Notes:
barrow – тачка, тележка
hod – приспособление для подноски на спине кирпича
windlass – лебедка, ворот
extant – сохранившийся
aloft – наверх, наверху
putlog – палец строительных лесов
ashlar – тесаный камень
ratchet – храповик, храповый механизм
65
Unit 10
Grammar:
Gerund;
Ing-forms.
Exercise 1. Work out the following sounds:
dump, truck, such, front, accomplish, rough, sudden
rapid, equip, specific, typically, clinker
between, wheelbase, leaving
Exercise 2. Match the transcription to the words given below
and define their meanings:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
1. intermediate
2. steering
3. row
4. sheave
5. terrain
6. asphalt
7. pivot
8. height
9. via
10. chassis
1. рама, ходовая часть
2. местность
3. асфальт
4. ось вращения
5. управление
6. промежуточный
7. шкив, ролик
8. ряд
9. высота
10. через
Text A
DUMP TRUCK
A dump truck is a truck used for transporting loose material (such
as sand or gravel) for construction. A typical dump truck is equipped
with a hydraulically operated open-box bed hinged at the rear, the front
of which can be lifted up to allow the contents to be emptied on the
ground behind the truck at the site of delivery.
The dump truck was first made in Saint John, New Brunswick
when Robert T. Mawhinney attached a dump box to a flat bed truck in
66
1920. The lifting device was a winch attached to a cable that ran over a
sheave (pulley) mounted on a mast behind the cab. The cable was connected to the lower front end of the wooden dump box which was attached by a pivot at the back of the truck frame. The operator turned a
crank to raise and lower the box. Today, virtually all dump trucks operate
by hydraulics and they come in a variety of configurations each designed
to accomplish a specific task in the construction material supply chain.
A standard dump truck is a full truck chassis with a dump body
mounted to the frame. The dump body is raised by a hydraulic ram
mounted between the truck cab (traction unit) and the dump body (semitrailer).
A standard dump truck has one front axle, and one or more rear axles which typically have dual wheels on each side. The largest of the
standard dump trucks has seven axles. The rear two axles are powered
and the front axle is the steering axle. The intermediate axles are present
to support the weight over the length of the chassis and sometimes to
provide additional braking power. The short wheelbase of a standard
dump truck makes it more maneuverable than the higher capacity semitrailer dump trucks.
An articulated dump truck has a hinge between the cab and the
dump box. Steering is accomplished via hydraulic rams that pivot the
entire cab. This vehicle is highly adaptable to rough terrain.
A transfer dump is a standard dump truck which pulls a separate
trailer which can also be loaded with aggregate (gravel, sand, asphalt,
clinker, snow, wood chips, etc.). Transfer dump trucks typically haul between 26 and 27 tons of aggregate per load.
A semi bottom dump is a 3-axle tractor pulling a 2-axle trailer with
a clam shell type dump gate in the bottom of the trailer. The key advantage of a semi bottom dump is its ability to lay material in a row. In
addition, a semi bottom dump is maneuverable in reverse.
Double and triple bottom dumps consist of a 2-axle tractor pulling
one single- axle semi-trailer and an additional full trailer (or two full
trailers in the case of triples). These dump trucks allow the driver to lay
material in rows without leaving the cab or stopping the truck. The main
disadvantage is the difficulty in backing double and triple units.
A side dump truck has hydraulic rams which tilt the dump body
onto its side, spilling the material to either the left or right side of the
trailer. The key advantages of the side dump are that it allows rapid unloading and can carry more weight.
67
Dump trucks are normally built for some amount of off-road or
construction site driving; as the driver is protected by the chassis and
height of the driver’s seat, bumpers are either placed high or omitted for
added ground clearance. Another safety consideration is levelling of the
truck before unloading. If the truck is not parked on a relatively horizontal ground, the sudden change of weight and balance due to lifting of the
skip and dumping of the material can cause the truck to slide, or even –
in some light dump trucks – to turn over.
Exercise 3. Answer the following questions:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
What is a dump truck used for?
What is a dump truck equipped with
When was the first dump truck made?
How is the dump truck body raised?
What are the advantages of a bottom dump?
How does a side dump truck empty its body?
How is the driver protected?
Why is levelling of the truck before unloading necessary?
Exercise 4. Translate the following words and word combinations into Russian:
Word combinations: dump truck; loose materials; lifting device;
steering axle; rough terrain; key advantage; supply chain; nouns: site;
crank; pulley; semi-trailer; wheelbase; clinker adjectives: hydraulic;
maneuverable; entire; rapid; intermediate; adaptable; verbs: lift; attach;
turn; lower; mount; provide; accomplish; slide.
Exercise 5. Translate from Russian into English:
Поднимать; колесная база; полный, целый; самосвал; подъемный механизм; быстрый; маневренный; поворачивать; устанавливать; легко приспосабливаемый; главное преимущество; система
снабжения; неровная местность; обеспечивать; гидравлический;
опускать; сыпучие материалы; завершать; рукоятка, рычаг; шкив;
скользить; полуприцеп; шлак; ось управления поворотом.
68
Exercise 6. Match the following words (A) with their definitions
(B):
«A»
1. dump truck
2. aggregate
3. unloading
4. advantage
5. reverse
6. tilt
7. sudden
8. ground clearance
9. adaptable
10.wheelbase
«B»
1. any condition, circumstance, opportunity, or means, particularly favorable to success, or to any desired end
2. broken stone etc. used in making concrete; mass of particles or minerals
3. to move into a sloping position
4. the vertical distance between level ground and the lowest fixed item
on a vehicle
5. the distance between the front and rear axles of a vehicle
6. a vehicle whose carrying part can be tipped backwards so that the
load falls out
7. able to adjust to or be modified for new conditions or uses
8. to turn back; to cause to face in a contrary direction
9. happening or coming unexpectedly
10.act of discharging a cargo
Exercise 7. Define the functions of Gerund and translate the
following sentences:
1. A dump truck is used for transporting loose materials.
2. Steering is accomplished via hydraulic rams.
69
3. Double and triple bottom dumps allow laying the material without
driver’s leaving the cab or stopping the truck.
4. The main disadvantage is the difficulty in backing double and triple
units.
5. Another safety consideration is levelling of the truck before unloading.
6. A side dump truck allows rapid unloading.
7. Engineers have various devices for testing building materials.
8. A more recent innovation is outfitting bulldozers with GPS technology.
9. Earthmoving is an important part of every road building.
10.Specialized blades allow using a bulldozer for high volume loads.
Exercise 8. Translate the following sentences, paying attention
to ing-forms (define the part of speech and function):
1. Wide tracks help to distribute the vehicle’s weight over a large area,
thus preventing it from sinking in sandy or muddy ground.
2. Cranes are used for the construction of tall buildings.
3. The first mechanical power was supplied by steam engines, the earliest steam crane being introduced in the 19-th century.
4. Loader tractors were created by removing the blade and substituting
a large volume bucket, thus making it useful for scooping up earth and
loading it into trucks.
5. Modifications to the original bulldozer include making it smaller.
6. At present, most equipment uses hydraulics as a primary source of
transferring power.
7. The use of heavy equipment has a long interesting history.
8. A bulldozer is used to push large quantities of material during construction work.
9. Light transportation of building materials, digging holes, breaking
asphalt and paving roads are some of the jobs accomplished by backhoe
loaders.
10.Potentially flying goods must be covered to prevent loose materials
from flying outside the bed while the truck is moving.
70
Exercise 9. Read the text and translate it without a dictionary.
Text B
SPECIALIZED DUMP TRUCKS
Dump trucks speed up unloading operations and require the services of only few helpers. Dump trucks have proved highly efficient
when large quantities of bulk load have to be conveyed over short distances, a feature typical of any construction site.
Dump trucks are always emptied by means of hydraulic hoists.
Hydraulic hoists may be provided with one or two cylinders arranged, as
a rule, under the body. The cylinders may be arranged vertically, horizontally or in an inclined plane. The cylinders may raise the body directly or through lever type system.
When the trucks follow in a continuous stream, side dumping allows the use of trailers or semi-trailers with self-dumping bodies. Side
dumpers are discharged by telescopic hydraulic cylinders. Telescopic
cylinders are also very convenient in three-side dumpers.
Dump trucks are designed with special bodies. Practical experience
shows that all-metal bodies with the rear open are most durable.
Notes:
bulk – объемный
prove – доказывать, оказываться
arrange – приводить в порядок, располагать
inclined – наклонный
discharge – разгружать
71
Unit 11
Grammar:
Polysementic Words;
Functions of “one” and “that”
Exercise 1. Work out the following sounds:
[ ] century, natural, combustion, chain, attachment, manufacturing
[ ] machine, ancient, ship, sheave
[ ] although, with, these
Exercise 2. Match the transcription to the words given below
and define their meanings:
1. [ ]
2. [
3. [
4. [
5. [
6. [
7. [
8. [
9. [
10. [
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
1. ancient
2. industrial
3. lumber
4. concrete
5. convertible
6. sheave
7. versatility
8. variety
9. harbour
10. beyond
1. порт
2. за пределами
3. разнообразие
4. универсальность
5. бревна, пиломатериалы
6. изменяемый
7. направляющий ролик
8. промышленный
9. бетон
10. древний
Text A
CRANE
A crane is a lifting machine equipped with a winder, wire ropes or
chains and sheaves that can be used both to lift and lower materials and
to move them horizontally. It uses one or more simple machines to create mechanical advantage and thus move loads beyond the normal capability of a human. Cranes are commonly employed in the transport industry for the loading and unloading of weights; in the construction industry for the movement of materials; and in the manufacturing industry
for the assembling of heavy equipment.
72
It is a very old construction equipment and one of the most useful
on the building site.
The first cranes were invented by the ancient Greeks and were
powered by men or animals, such as donkeys. These cranes were used
for the construction of tall buildings. Larger cranes were later developed,
employing the use of treadwheels*, permitting the lifting of heavier
weights. In the High Middle Ages, harbour cranes were introduced to
load and unload ships and assist with their construction – some were
built into stone towers for extra strength and stability. The earliest cranes
were constructed from wood, but cast iron and steel replaced it with the
coming of the Industrial Revolution.
For many centuries, power was supplied by the physical force of
men or animals, although hoists in watermills and windmills could be
driven by the harnessed natural power. The first ‘mechanical’ power was
provided by steam engines, the earliest steam crane being introduced in
the 18th or 19th century, with many remaining in use well into the late
20th century. Modern cranes usually use internal combustion engines or
electric motors and hydraulic systems to provide a much greater lifting
capability than was previously possible, although manual cranes are still
used where the provision of power would be uneconomic.
Cranes exist in an enormous variety of forms – each adapted to a
specific use. Sizes range from the smallest jib cranes, used inside workshops, to the tallest tower cranes, used for constructing high buildings.
In using cranes we concentrate building operations on a single site,
increase the speed of construction and save the building costs.
Modern cranes are used for many purposes. Most of them are
convertible. Versatility is added to the crane by different attachments
and devices to be hooked to the end of the hoist line to handle materials. These devices are: buckets for loose bulk material and concrete,
hooks and grapples for lumber, pipes and drums.
*treadwheel – a large wheel powered by animals or men walking on a
circular belt or climbing steps
Exercise 3. Answer the following questions:
1. How were the first cranes powered?
2. What materials were the cranes made of?
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3.
4.
5.
6.
What power sources for cranes do you know?
Why are different crane attachments and devices used?
What type of engine do modern cranes usually have?
What can be done using cranes?
Exercise 4. Translate the following words and word combinations into Russian:
Word combinations: lifting machine; transport industry; manufacturing industry; High Middle Ages; Industrial Revolution; harbour
crane; manual crane; nouns: strength; movement; stability; windmill;
workshop; purpose; hoist; site; adjectives: tall; earliest; previous; uneconomic; verbs: employ; invent; replace; construct; hook; add; remain;
develop.
Exercise 5. Translate from Russian into English:
Использовать; раннее средневековье; строительная площадка;
подъемная лебедка; промышленная революция; цель; цех; высокий;
самый ранний; оставаться; ветряная мельница; подъемное оборудование; портовый кран; перемещение; прочность; цеплять; изобретать; разрабатывать; нерентабельный; кран с ручным управлением;
устойчивость; заменять; добавлять; транспортная система; обрабатывающая промышленность; высокий.
Exercise 6. Match the following words (A) with their definitions
(B):
«A»
1. cast iron
2. grapple
3. assist
4. exist
5. concrete
6. pipe
7. watermill
8. winder
9. High Middle Ages
10.bucket
«B»
1. to have objective reality or being
2. to help somebody or help with something
3. the period of European history in the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries
4. a hard alloy of iron and carbon which can be readily cast in a mould
5. a scoop on a waterwheel, dredger, digger, etc.
6. a millstone that is propelled by water
7. a device or mechanism for winding something
8. a building material made from gravel, sand, cement, and water, hardening when dry into a stone like mass
9. a tube used to convey water, gas, oil, etc.
10.an instrument, usually with hinged claws, for seizing and holding fast
to an object
Exercise 7. Define the functions of “one” and “that” and translate the following sentences:
1. A standard dump truck has one front axle.
2. The first internal-combustion powered road rollers were very similar
to the steam-powered ones that they replaced.
3. One can lift heavy loads by means of different types of cranes.
4. That lifting operations with the old crane are uneconomical is taken
into consideration.
5. The speed of operation of new cranes should be higher than that of
old ones.
6. The simple machine that was used in old times for lifting weights
was an inclined plane.
7. All of those machines are useful.
8. We know that we always lose some useful energy when machines are
used.
Exercise 8. Translate the following sentences, paying attention
to the underlined words:
1. As an option, bulldozers can be equipped with ripper claws.
2. Bulldozers grew more complex as time passed.
3. Bulldozers are very powerful tractors and have excellent ground
hold, as their main tasks are to push or drag things.
74
75
4. Superdumps can be rated as high as 80,000 pounds.
5. Because of their large volume buckets loader tractors are very useful.
6. A bulldozer can push soil because it has a blade.
7. Backhoe loaders can be used for a wide variety of tasks.
8. For many years loaders have been further modified.
9. Hydraulic arms (instead of cable operated) are preferred for they enable more precise manipulation.
10.Steam cranes have been used since the 18-th century.
11.Since the effectiveness of a roller depends on its weight selfpropelled vehicles replaced horse-drawn rollers.
12.Widespread use of the bull-graders does not seem to appear before
the mid-1930s.
13.The cranes had been constructed from wood before cast iron and
steel replaced it.
Exercise 9. Read text B and translate it without a dictionary.
Answer the questions, and retell the text in English:
Text B
by the number of lengths of cable passing between the two blocks. This
number is the mechanical advantage.
The hydraulic cylinder. This can be used directly to lift the load or
indirectly to move the jib or beam that carries another lifting device.
Cranes, like all machines, obey the principle of conservation of energy. This means that the energy delivered to the load cannot exceed the
energy put into the machine. For example, if a pulley system multiplies
the applied force by ten, then the load moves only one tenth as far as the
applied force. Since energy is proportional to force multiplied by distance, the output energy is kept roughly equal to the input energy (in
practice slightly less, because some energy is lost to friction and other
inefficiencies).
Cranes can mount several utensils to be able to pick up several objects.
Cranes can be controlled by remote control from the ground.
In order for a crane to be stable, the sum of all moments about any
point such as the base of the crane must equate to zero. In practice, the
magnitude of load that is permitted to be lifted (called the "rated load")
is some value less than the load that will cause the crane to tip.
CRANES DESIGN
There are two major considerations that are taken into account in
the design of cranes. The first is that the crane must be able to lift a load
of a specified weight and the second is that the crane must remain stable
and not tip over when the load is lifted and moved to another position.
Cranes illustrate the use of one or more simple machines to create
mechanical advantage.
The lever. A balance crane contains a horizontal beam (the lever)
pivoted about a point called the fulcrum. The principle of the lever allows a heavy load attached to the shorter end of the beam to be lifted by
a smaller force applied in the opposite direction to the longer end of the
beam. The ratio of the load's weight to the applied force is equal to the
ratio of the lengths of the longer arm and the shorter arm, and is called
the mechanical advantage.
The pulley. A jib crane contains a tilted strut (the jib) that supports
a fixed pulley block. Cables are wrapped multiple times round the fixed
block and round another block attached to the load. When the free end of
the cable is pulled by hand or by a winding machine, the pulley system
delivers a force to the load that is equal to the applied force multiplied
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1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
What considerations are taken into account in the design of cranes?
What kinds of simple machines does the use of cranes illustrate?
What does the principle of the lever allow to do?
How does the pulley system increase the applied force?
What does the principle of energy conservation mean?
How can cranes be controlled from the ground?
How is the crane stability provided?
77
Unit 12
Grammar:
Infinitive;
Polysemantic and Auxiliary Words.
Exercise 1. Work out the following sounds:
] hammerhead, racking, transport, cantilever, platform
] movement, boom, through, including, scoop
luffing, structure, conjunction, under
Exercise 2. Match the transcription to the words given below
and define their meanings:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5. [
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
1. motion
2. alter
3. stabilize
4. hour
5. rough
6. determine
7. strength
8. demolition
9. eliminate
10. advantage
1. прочность
2. стабилизировать
3. разрушение, снос
4. преимущество
5. определять
6. устранять
7. грубый, неровный
8. час
9. изменяться
10. движение, ход
Text A
TYPES OF CRANES
Part I
Different types of cranes are used for maintenance work, recovery
operations and weight loading.
Mobile Crane
The most basic type of a mobile crane consists of a steel truss or
telescopic boom mounted on a mobile platform, which may be a rail,
78
wheeled (including “truck” carriers) or caterpillar tracks. The boom is
hinged at the bottom, and can be raised and lowered by cables or by hydraulic cylinders. A hook is suspended from the top of the boom by wire
rope and sheaves. The wire ropes are operated by whatever prime movers the designers have available, operating through a variety of transmissions. Steam engines, electric motors and internal combustion engines
(IC) have all been used.
To increase the horizontal reach of the hoist, the boom may be extended by adding a jib to the top. The jib can be fixed or, in more complex cranes, luffing (that is, able to be raised and lowered).
Telescopic Crane
A telescopic crane has a boom that consists of a number of tubes
fitted one inside the other. A hydraulic or other powered mechanism extends or retracts the tubes to increase or decrease the total length of the
boom. These types of booms are often used for short term construction
projects. The relative compactness of telescopic booms makes them
adaptable for many mobile applications.
Tower Crane
The tower crane is a modern form of a balance crane. Fixed to the
ground (or “jacked up” and supported by the structure as the structure is
being built), tower cranes often give the best combination of height and
lifting capacity and are used in the construction of tall buildings. To save
space and to provide stability the vertical part of the crane is often
mounted on large beams, braced onto the completed structure, being lifted from one floor to the next as the structure grows. The jib (colloquially, the ‘boom’) and counter-jib are mounted to the turntable, where the
slewing bearing and slewing machinery are located. The counter-jib carries a counterweight of concrete blocks, and the jib suspends the load
from the trolley. The hoist motor and transmissions are located on the
mechanical deck on the counter-jib, while the trolley motor is located on
the jib. The crane operator either sits in a cabin at the top of the tower or
(rarely seen) controls the crane by radio remote control from the ground.
In the first case the operator’s cabin is most usually located at the top of
the tower attached to the turntable, but can be mounted on the jib, or
partway down the tower. The lifting hook is operated by using electric
motors to manipulate wire rope cables through a system of sheaves.
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Part II
Giant Cantilever Crane
The “hammerhead” or giant cantilever crane is a fixed-jib crane
consisting of a steel-braced tower on which revolves a large, horizontal,
double cantilever; the forward part of this cantilever or jib carries the
lifting trolley, the jib is extended backwards in order to form a support
for the machinery and counter- balancing weight. In addition to the motions of lifting and revolving, there is provided a so-called “racking”
motion, by which the lifting trolley, with the load suspended, can be
moved in and out along the jib without altering the level of the load.
Such horizontal movement of the load is a marked feature of later crane
design. These cranes are generally constructed in large sizes, up to 350
tons.
Truck Crane
A crane mounted on a truck carrier provides the mobility for this
type of crane. Generally, these cranes are designed to be able to travel
on streets and highways, eliminating the need for special equipment to
transport a crane to the jobsite. When working on the jobsite, outriggers
are extended horizontally from the chassis then down vertically to level
and stabilize the crane while stationary and hoisting. Many truck cranes
possess limited slow-travelling capability (just a few miles per hour)
while suspending a load. Great care must be taken not to swing the load
sideways from the direction of travel, as most of the anti- tipping stability then lies in the strength and stiffness of the chassis suspension. Most
cranes of this type also have moving counterweights for stabilization beyond that of the outriggers. Loads suspended directly over the rear remain more stable, as most of the weight of the truck crane itself then
acts as a counterweight to the load. Factory-calculated charts (or electronic safeguards) are used by the crane operator to determine the maximum safe loads for stationary (outriggered) work as well as loads and
travelling speeds.
Rough Terrain Crane
A crane mounted on an undercarriage with four rubber tires that is
designed for pick-and-carry operations and for off-road and “rough terrain” applications. Outriggers that extend horizontally and vertically are
used to level and stabilize the crane for hoisting.
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These telescopic cranes are single-engine machines where the
same engine is used for powering the undercarriage as is used for powering the crane, similar to a crawler crane. However, in a rough terrain
crane, the engine is usually mounted in the undercarriage rather than in
the upper, like the crawler crane. It is a mobile crane which has the necessary equipment to travel with high speed on public roads/highways
and on the job site in rough terrain with all wheels and crab steering.
Crawler crane
A crawler is a crane mounted on an undercarriage with a set of
tracks (also called crawlers) that provide for the stability and mobility
of the crane. Crawler cranes have both advantages and disadvantages
depending on their intended use. The main advantage of a crawler is
that it can move on site and perform lifts remaining stable on its tracks
with no outriggers. In addition, a crawler crane is capable of travelling
with a load. The main disadvantage of crawler cranes is that they are
very heavy, and cannot easily be moved from one job site to the next
without significant expense. Typically, a large crawler must be disassembled and moved by trucks, rail cars or ships to be transported to its
next location. Crawler cranes range in lifting capacity from about 40
tons to 3500 tons.
Exercise 3. Answer the following questions:
1. What does the most basic type of a crane consist of?
2. What power installations have been used in cranes?
3. What features of a telescopic crane do you know?
4. How does the crane operator control the crane?
5. How is a tower crane dismantled?
6. What does a cantilever crane consist of?
7. What motion can a cantilever crane perform in addition to the lifting
and revolving motions?
8. Where are truck cranes able to travel?
9. What is the main feature of a rough terrain crane undercarriage?
10.What is the main advantage of a crawler crane?
11.How can a crawler crane be moved from one job site to another?
81
Exercise 4. Translate the following words and word combinations into Russian:
Word combinations: mobile crane; caterpillar tracks; wire rope;
telescopic crane; tower crane; lifting hook; cantilever crane; counterbalancing weight; lifting trolley; truck crane; rough terrain crane; rubber
tires; single-engine machine; crawler crane; maintenance work; nouns:
feature; mobility; direction; undercarriage; highway; tube; consideration;
adjectives: hydrostatic; total; special; similar; public; heavy; verbs: revolve; suspend; design; eliminate; increase; consist of.
Exercise 5. Translate from Russian into English:
Общий; машина с одним двигателем; вездеходный кран; работа по техническому обслуживанию; гусеничный кран; подобный;
маневренность, мобильность; грузоподъемный крюк; направление;
противовес; черта, характеристика; передвижной, мобильный кран;
резиновые шины; ходовая часть; гидростатический; вращать; проволочный трос; консольный кран; грузоподъемная тележка; устранять; проектировать; автомагистраль; трубка; увеличивать; подвешивать; автомобильный кран; башенный кран.
Exercise 6. Match the following words (A) with their definitions
(B):
«A»
1. maintenance
2. decrease
3. stiffness
4. significant
5. off-road
6. compactness
7. effectiveness
8. tower crane
9. location
10.crawler crane
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«B»
1. important, weighty, momentous
2. the physical property of being inflexible and hard to bend
3. closely and neatly packed together; dense
4. the process of keeping something in good condition by regularly
checking it and repairing
5. a crane mounted on a tall, lattice tower, used in the erection of multistorey buildings
6. a particular place or position
7. designed to be used on rough ground as well as on roads
8. a vehicle (as a crane) that travels on endless chain belts
9. the quality of being successful in achieving what is wanted
10.make or become smaller or fewer in size, amount, intensity, or degree
Exercise 7. Translate the following sentences, paying attention
to the Infinitive:
1. A crane must not tip over when the load is lifted.
2. The lever allows a heavy load to be lifted by a smaller force.
3. The main tasks of bulldozers are to push or drag things.
4. Bulldozers have been further modified to evolve into new machines.
5. A large fraction of the tower cranes in the world is claimed to be
used in Dubai.
6. In order to hook and unhook the loads the operator works together
with a signaller.
7. The crane’s ability to lift heavy weights is useful for installing large
pieces.
8. The Caterpillar 9 can easily tow tanks that weigh more than 70 tons.
9. Sometimes a bulldozer is used to push another piece of earthmoving
equipment known as a scraper.
10.Subcompact tractors help to perform minor excavation projects.
11.To deliver a high tractive effort at slow speeds is the main design
characteristic of a tractor.
12.The crane to lift heavy loads was invented by ancient Greeks.
83
Exercise 8. Translate the following sentences, paying attention
to the underlined words:
1. Heavy bulldozers are mainly employed to level the ground to prepare
it for construction.
2. It was the steam engine that provided the first mechanical power.
3. It has been calculated that a single man working the winch could
raise 150kg.
4. Due to its small size and versatility, a backhoe loader is very common in small construction projects.
5. All material handling equipment is either intermittent or continuous
action.
6. A side dump truck spills the material to either side of the trailer.
7. The only practical and economical means of lifting loads at building
sites is hoisting equipment.
8. Experience shows that only all-metal truck bodies with the rear open
are durable enough.
9. In spite of hard conditions the work has been finished in time.
10.By means of applying new mechanisms we increase the speed of
construction.
11.According to the work the cranes are to perform they are provided
with different attachments.
Exercise 9. Read text B and translate it without a dictionary.
Text B
TYPES OF CRANES (PART III)
Gantry crane A gantry crane has a hoist in a trolley which runs
horizontally along gantry rails, usually fitted underneath a beam spanning between uprights which themselves have wheels so that the whole
crane can move at right angles to the direction of the gantry rails. These
cranes come in all sizes, and some can move very heavy loads.
Overhead crane Also known as a “suspended crane”, this type of
crane works in the same way as a gantry crane but without uprights. The
hoist is on a trolley which moves in one direction along one or two
beams, which move at right angles to that direction along elevated
tracks, often mounted along the side walls of an assembly area in a factory. Some of them can lift very heavy loads.
84
Floating crane Floating cranes are used mainly in bridge building
and port construction, but they are also used for occasional loading and
unloading of especially heavy or awkward loads on and off ships. Some
floating cranes are mounted on a pontoon, others are specialized crane
barges with a lifting capacity exceeding 10,000 tons and have been used
to transport entire bridge sections.
Aerial crane Aerial cranes usually extend from helicopters to lift
large loads. Helicopters are able to travel to and lift in areas that are
more difficult to reach by a conventional crane. Aerial helicopter cranes
are most commonly used to lift units/loads onto shopping centers, multistorey buildings, etc. However, they can lift basically anything within
their lifting capacity, (i.e. cars, boats, swimming pools, etc.).
Jib crane A jib crane is a type of crane where a horizontal member
(jib or boom), supporting a moveable hoist, is fixed to a wall or to a
floor-mounted pillar. Jib cranes are used in industrial premises and on
military vehicles. The jib may swing through an arc, to give additional
lateral movement, or be fixed.
Loader crane A loader crane is a hydraulically-powered articulated
arm fitted to a truck or trailer, and is used for loading/unloading the vehicle. The numerous jointed sections can be folded into a small space
when the crane is not in use. One or more of the sections may be telescopic. Often the crane will have a degree of automation and be able to
unload or fold itself without an operator’s instruction. Unlike most
cranes, the operator must move around the vehicle to be able to view his
load; hence modern cranes may be fitted with a portable cabled or radiolinked control system to supplement the crane-mounted hydraulic control levers.
Stacker crane This crane with a forklift type mechanism is used in
automated (computer controlled) warehouses storage. The crane moves
on a track in an aisle of the warehouse. The fork can be raised or lowered to any of the levels of a storage rack and can be extended into the
rack to store and retrieve product.
Notes:
span – перекрывать
upright – подпорка, стойка
float – плавать
awkward – неудобный
helicopter – вертолет
85
conventional – обычный, стандартный
fold – складывать
supplement – пополнять, добавлять
warehouse – товарный склад
storage rack – стеллаж склада
retrieve – взять обратно
Additional Grammar Exercises
Exercise 1. Define the tense of the predicates and translate the
following sentences:
1. Tractors are mounted either on crawlers or on wheels.
2. Machines have been employed for construction purposes since early
times.
3. We need different machines.
4. They have been testing the new transporting facility for a month.
5. Special purpose trucks were used to deliver building materials.
6. Before they installed modern hoisting equipment, simple winches
had been used.
7. The builders are using vibrators to compact concrete mix.
8. Concrete slabs will be placed with a tower crane.
9. They will replace old conveyor system next month.
10.The new asphalt pavement will have been laid by the end of the week.
Exercise 2.Translate the following sentences paying attention
to the Emphatic Construction:
1. It is an electric motor that is used to drive most machines in modern
shops.
2. It was steam that first began to move machines.
3. It is the construction site where most of the cranes are used.
4. It will be in June when the development plan is carried out.
5. It is a mechanic engineer who designs new machines for our industry.
Exercise 3. Define the functions of Participles and translate the
following sentences:
1. There are driven machines and driving or power machines.
2. Palletized loads can be handled by cranes.
3. Machines are used to actuate the operating members employed to
change properties, condition, shape or position of the material being
handled.
4. Operating the crane the mechanic should be attentive.
5. The first bulldozers were adapted from farm tractors.
6. The conveyor system is positioned as required.
86
87
7. During the 20-th century diesel-powered rollers were gradually replacing their steam-powered counterparts.
8. Initial compaction is done using pneumatic-tyred rollers.
9. Self-powered rollers have replaced horse-drawn ones.
Exercise 4.Translate the following sentences, paying attention
to Absolute Participle Construction:
1. The engineer testing a new type of the bridge crane, the builders
helped him.
2. Prefabricated flooring is widely used, cranes being employed to lift
concrete slabs.
3. The oil being of high quality, the lubrication will be efficient.
4. Conveyors being driven by electric power, a motor is the main part
of the equipment.
5. All machines have some energy loss, that energy being converted into useless heat due to friction.
6. The lifting appliances include stationary and mobile cranes, some of
them being mounted on rubber-tyred wheels.
7. Cranes lifting great weights are usually operated by two motors, one
motor giving the lifting power and the other moving the crane itself.
8. The structure being very high, the builders used giant cranes.
Exercise 5. Translate the following sentences, paying attention
to Modal Verbs:
7. Backhoe loaders are to be used in urban engineering and small construction projects.
8. Agricultural implements may be towed behind or mounted on the
tractor, and the tractor may also provide a source of power.
9. The outriggers have to be retracted when the vehicle needs to change
its position.
10.For larger projects, a tracked excavator should be used.
Exercise 6. Translate the following sentences, paying attention
to Degrees of Comparison:
1. In older machine shops, belts and pulleys were much used.
2. Loads are now handled at greater speeds and at smaller costs.
3. Most materials loaded and unloaded are palletized.
4. Quay cranes have become larger and more efficient.
5. A crane is one of the most useful devices on the building site.
6. Lifting appliances include stationary and mobile cranes from the
smallest to the largest lifts.
7. Bulldozers grew more complex.
8. Important improvements include more powerful engine and more reliable drive train.
9. The most recent innovation is GPS technology.
10.The best known maker of bulldozers is probably Caterpillar.
11.The largest of the standard dump trucks has seven axles.
12.The output energy is in practice slightly less than the input energy.
1. The crane must be able to lift a load of specified weight and must
remain stable.
2. The hydraulic cylinder can be used directly to lift the load or indirectly to move the jib.
3. The energy delivered to the load cannot exceed the energy put into
the machine.
4. Cranes can mount several utensils to be able to pick up several objects.
5. In order for a crane to be stable, the sum of all moments about any
point must be equal to zero.
6. The front assembly of a loader may be a removable attachment or
permanently mounted.
Exercise 7. Translate the following sentences, paying attention
to the underlined words:
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1. Some buckets have a retractable bottom.
2. The operator of a truck crane drives the truck and operates the crane
at the same time.
3. In some cases conveyors are installed in a vertical position.
4. All cranes have mostly the same principle attachments.
5. Both vehicles are off-road haul trucks.
6. Both the Liebherr T28B and the Caterpillar 797B have the same payloads of 400 tons.
7. Like the larger agricultural tractors a CUT (Compact Utility Tractor)
will have a four wheel drive.
8. Some companies did not like to employ road rollers as the engines of
the time were difficult to start.
Exercise 8. Translate the following sentences, paying attention
to the verbs “to be” and “to have”:
1. A giant cantilever crane is a fixed-jib crane.
2. The jib is extended backwards in order to form a support.
3. Outriggers are to be used to level and stabilize the crane.
4. The operator’s cabin is most usually at the top of the tower.
5. When a truck crane is working on the job site, outriggers are extended horizontally from the chassis.
6. There are different types of a running gear.
7. Great care has to be taken not to swing the load.
8. Most truck cranes have moving counterweights.
9. In recent years, small compact tractors from the manufacturers such
as Kubota have become very popular.
КРАТКИЙ ГРАММАТИЧЕСКИЙ СПРАВОЧНИК
1. Parts of speech and parts of sentence
(Части речи и члены предложения)
Словарный состав языка делится на разряды, которые называются части речи.
Части речи в английском языке:
x Noun (Имя существительное)
x Adjective (Имя прилагательное)
x Numeral (Имя числительное)
x Pronoun (Местоимение)
x Verb (Глагол)
x Verbals (Неличные формы глагола):
x Infinitive (Неопределённо-личная форма)
x Participle (Причастие)
x Gerund (Герундий)
x Adverb (Наречие)
x Preposition (Предлог)
x Conjunction (Союз)
x Article (Артикль)
Слова выполняют в предложении различные функции. В зависимости от
функции, которую они выполняют, слова могут быть различными членами
предложения. Члены предложения в английском языке:
x Subject (Подлежащее)
x Predicate (Сказуемое)
x Object (Дополнение)
x Attribute (Определение)
x Adverbial Modifier (Обстоятельство)
2. Noun
(Имя существительное)
Существительное имеет следующие морфологические категории:
x исчисляемые существительные имеют единственное число (singular
number) и множественное число (plural number)
x одушевлённые существительные (и некоторые неодушевлённые) имеют две падежных формы: общий падеж (common case) и притяжательный падеж (genitive case)
2.1. Plural of nouns (множественное число существительных)
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Форма множественного числа существительного образуется с помощью
окончания s/es: alloy – alloys, load – loads, box – boxes.
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a) Некоторые существительных имеет нестандартные формы множественного числа: man – men, tooth – teeth, stratum – strata.
b) Правописание некоторых существительных во множественном числе
изменяется: country – countries, shelf – shelves.
c) Произношение окончания множественного числа s/es зависит от последнего звука существительного в форме единственного числа:
– после глухих согласных звуков окончание произносится – [s], например:
brick [br k] – bricks [br ks]
– после звонких согласных и гласных звуков окончание произносится – [z],
например: boom [b
] – boom [b
z]; car [ ] – cars [ z]
– после звуков [s], [z], [ ], [ ] окончание произносится – [ z], например:
size [s z] – sizes [sa z z].
2.2. Genitive case (Притяжательный падеж существительных)
Притяжательный падеж образуется при помощи окончания –’s (единственное
число) и апострофа ’ (множественное число): engineer’s plan – план инженера
engineers’ plan – план инженеров, day’s work – работа за день.
2.3. Noun group (Группа существительных)
Группа существительных – это два и более существительных, следующих
одно за другим без артиклей или местоимений внутри группы. Последнее
существительное является основным. Существительные, стоящие перед основным существительным, являются его определениями.
Определения могут переводиться на русский язык:
a) прилагательным:
construction industry – строительная промышленность
b) существительным в родительном падеже:
truck frame – рама грузовика
c) существительным с предлогом:
forklift truck – погрузчик с вилочным захватом
d) сочетанием перечисленных способов:
forklift truck design – конструкция погрузчика с вилочным захватом
3. Degrees of comparison of adjectives and adverbs
(Степени сравнения прилагательных и наречий)
Имена прилагательные и наречия имеют положительную (positive), сравнительную (comparative) и превосходную (superlative) степени. Сравнительная
и превосходная степени образуются двумя способами в зависимости от числа
слогов в прилагательном или наречии.
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Количество
слогов
один
Положительная
степень
big
Сравнительная
степень
bigger
Превосходная
степень
(the) biggest
два*
heavy
heavier
(the) heaviest
два и более
difficult
more difficult
(the)most difficult
*Сюда относятся прилагательные с ударением на первом слоге и окончанием
на согласную + y, и некоторые другие двусложные прилагательные, например: narrow, shallow, simple, clever.
Несколько прилагательных и наречий имеет нестандартные формы образования степеней сравнения:
Положительная
степень
good
well
bad
Сравнительная степень
better
Превосходная степень
(the) best
worse
(the) worst
badly
many, much
more
(the) most
little
less
(the) least
far
fаrther
(the) farthest
further
(the) furthest
При сравнении двух прилагательных или наречий могут употребляться:
a) союз than (чем), например:
Gears are more expensive than belts.
Шестерни дороже, чем ремни.
b) союз (not) as … as … (такой же …как …, так же … как …), например:
Наша квартира такая же большая,
Our flat is as big as their flat.
как их квартира.
c) союз not so … as … (не такой … как …, не так … как …), например:
Он не такой старый, как она.
He is not so old as she is.
d) союз the … the … (чем … тем …), например:
Чем мощнее двигатель, тем произThe more powerful the engine, the
водительнее машина.
more productive the machine is.
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b) номер страницы: 248 – two four eight
4. Numerals
(Числительные)
c) номер комнаты: 416 – four one six
4.1. Cardinals (Количественные числительные)
4.5. Fractions (Дробные числа)
1 – one
7 – seven
13 – thirteen
22 – twenty-two
1/2 – (a/one) half
2 – two
8 – eight
14 – fourteen
30 – thirty
1/3 – (a/one) third
3 – three
9 – nine
15 – fifteen
40 – forty
4 – four
10 – ten
16 – sixteen
50 – fifty
5 – five
11 – eleven
20 – twenty
60 – sixty
6 – six
12 – twelve
21 – twenty-one
100 – a hundred
101 – one hundred (and) one
1/4 – (a/one) quarter/one fourth
2⁄ 3 – two thirds
3⁄ 7 – three sevenths
0.5 – point five
5.127 – five point one two seven
121 – one hundred (and) twenty-one
5. Pronoun
(Местоимение)
1001 – one thousand (and) one
1121 – one thousand one hundred (and) twenty-one
121212 – one hundred twenty-one thousand two hundred (and) twelve
Местоимения указывают на предметы или их качества, не называя их.
4.2. Ordinals (Порядковые числительные)
5.1. Personal, possessive and reflexive pronouns (Личные, притяжательные
и возвратные местоимения)
the first
the fifth
the ninth
the thirteenth
the second
the sixth
the tenth
the twentieth
the third
the seventh
the eleventh
the twenty-first
the fourth
the eighth
the twelfth
the hundredth
4.3. Dates (Даты)
1800 – eighteen hundred
1991 – nineteen ninety-one
2005 – twenty-oh [qV]-five
24th April 1979 – the twenty-fourth of April, nineteen seventy-nine
April 24th 1979 – April the twenty-fourth nineteen seventy-nine
4.4. Phone, page, room numbers
(Номера телефонов, страниц, комнат и т.д.)
a) номер телефона: 575-05-21 – five seven five oh five two one
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Личные местоимения
именительобъектный
ный
падеж*
падеж
I
me
he
him
she
her
it
it
we
us
Притяжательные
местоимения
my
his
her
its
our
you
you
your
they
them
their
Возвратные местоимения
myself
himself
herself
itself
ourselves
yourself
yourselves (plural)
themselves
* В этой форме личные местоимения используются, когда не являются подлежащим предложения.
5.2. Indefinite pronouns (Неопределённые местоимения)
Неопределённые местоимения some, any указывают на неопределенного человека/людей или предмет/предметы.
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Местоимение some обычно используется в утвердительных предложениях и
переводится как несколько, некоторые, какой-то, немного:
There are some problems.
Есть несколько проблем.
We added some water.
Мы добавили (немного) воды.
Местоимение any используется в утвердительных, отрицательных и вопросительных предложениях. В зависимости от типа предложения оно переводится как любой, всякий, какой-либо, никакой или не переводится:
Beams can withstand any unit stress
Балки могут выдерживать любое
напряжение
Are there any damages?
Есть ли какие-либо повреждения?
There aren’t any damages.
Нет никаких повреждений.
There isn’t any water here.
Здесь нет воды.
…
5.3. Negative pronoun (Отрицательное местоимение)
Местоимение no используется в отрицательных предложениях и переводится
как не/нет … никакой, нет, ни один … не:
We have no results.
У нас нет никаких результатов.
There are no absolutely safe methods.
Нет абсолютно надёжных методов.
Местоимения some, any, no, а также определительное местоимение every
(каждый, всякий) образуют со словами thing, one, body, where сложные местоимения.
some
something
что-то,
что нибудь
someone
one
кто-то,
кто-нибудь
somebody
body кто-то,
кто-нибудь
somewhere
where где-то,
куда-то
thing
any
no
anything
всё, что-то,
что-нибудь
anyone
все, кто-то,
кто-нибудь
anybody
все, кто-то,
кто-нибудь
anywhere
везде,
где-нибудь
nothing
everything
ничто/ничего … не
всё
no one
everyone
никто … не
все
nobody
everybody
никто … не
все
nowhere
everywhere
везде, повсюду
нигде/никуда … не
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every
6. Verb
(Глагол)
Глагол обозначает действие или состояние. Глагол имеет личные и неличные
(инфинитив, причастие, герундий) формы. Основные формы глагола следующие:
x Infinitive (инфинитив)
x Past Simple (простое прошедшее время)
x Past Participle/Participle II (причастие прошедшего времени)
x Present Participle/Participle I (причастие настоящего времени)
Например: to play – played – played – playing
to write – wrote – written – writing
В зависимости от способа образования форм Past Simple и Past Participle глаголы делятся на две группы:
x regular verbs (правильные глаголы)
x irregular verbs (неправильные глаголы)
Ряд глаголов имеет особые характеристики, которые и рассматриваются отдельно. Это глагол to be (см. раздел 6.2.), глагол to have (см. раздел 6.3), глагол to do (см. раздел 6.4), модальные глаголы (см. раздел 6.6).
Формы Past Simple и Past Participle правильных глаголов образуются с помощью окончания ed/d. Например: add – added, stop – stopped, produce – produced.
x после глухих согласных звуков окончание произносится – [t], напри] – placed [
]
мер: place [
x после звонких согласных и гласных звуков окончание произносится –
например design [
– designed [
transfer [
– transferred [
]
например act
x после звуков [ и [ ,окончание произносится – [
– act [
grade [
– graded [
[
Формы Past Simple и Past Participle неправильных глаголов образуются различными способами и даются в списке неправильных глаголов (см. стр. 113).
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Глагол в личной форме характеризуется следующими грамматическими категориями:
x person (лицо): 1-е лицо, 2-е лицо, 3-е лицо
x number (число): singular (единственное число), plural (множественное
число)
x tense (время): present (настоящее), past (прошедшее) и future (будущее)
x aspect (вид): simple/indefinite, continuous/progressive, perfect, perfect continuous/perfect progressive
x voice (залог): active (действительный), passive (страдательный)
x mood (наклонение): indicative (изъявительное), imperative (повелительное), subjunctive (сослагательное)
6.2. Глагол to be
Формы глагола to be во временах Present Simple и Past Simple следующие:
Present Simple
I
am
he, she, it
is
we, you, they
are
Past Simple
I, he, she, it
we, you, they
was
were
Глагол to be имеет следующие функции:
1. сказуемое, смысловой глагол, который имеет значение быть, находиться, но в настоящем времени обычно не переводится, например:
He is there. Он – там. He was there. Он был там.
2. глагол-связка в именном составном сказуемом, который имеет значение быть, являться, но в настоящем времени обычно не переводится,
например:
He is a student. Он – студент. He was a student. Он был студентом.
3. вспомогательный глагол, который часто не переводится на русский
язык, например:
a) Continuous Tense: He is asking. Он спрашивает.
b) Passive Voice: He is asked. Его спрашивают.
4. модальный глагол, который имеет значение должен. В этой функции
после to be всегда следует инфинитив с частицей to.Например:
We are to go. Мы должны пойти.
Глагол be используется в обороте there + to be, который переводится на русский язык глаголами быть, находиться, иметься, существовать в соответ98
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ствующей временной форме. Перевод предложений с оборотом there + to be
надо начинать с обстоятельства места, обстоятельства времени или, если
они отсутствуют, со сказуемого. Например:
There will be a new bridge in our city.
В нашем городе будет новый мост.
There are different types of cranes.
Существуют различные типы кранов.
В вопросительном предложении глагол в личной форме ставится перед there.
Is there a tower crane there?
Там есть башенный кран?
6.3. Глагол to have
Глагол to have имеет следующие функции:
1. смысловой глагол со значением иметь, владеть
He has a book.
У него есть книга.
В этой функции глагола в вопросительном и отрицательном предложении
используется вспомогательный глагол do.
Do you have a book? I don’t have a book.
2. вспомогательный глагол (Perfect Tense), который не переводится на
русский язык
They have finished this work. Они закончили эту работу.
3. модальный глагол, который имеет значение должен. В этой функции
после to have всегда следует глагол с частицей to
We had to use a crane.
Мы должны были использовать кран.
В этой функции глагола в вопросительном и отрицательном предложении
используется вспомогательный глагол do.
Do we have to use a crane? We didn’t have to use a crane.
В этой функции глагола в вопросительном и отрицательном предложении
используется вспомогательный глагол do.
Do we have to use a crane? We didn’t have to use a crane.
6.4. Глагол to do
Глагол to do имеет следующие функции:
В отрицательной и вопросительной формах Present Simple и Past Simple используется вспомогательный глагол to do. Форма глагола to do зависит от лица и времени основного глагола, с которым он использован, например:
Тип предложения
Present Simple
1-е, 2-е лицо един.
3-е лицо
и множ. числа
Утвердительное
You (I, we, they) design.
He (she, it) designs.
Отрицательное
You do not (I, we,
they) design.
He does not (she, it)
design.
Вопросительное
Do you (I, we, they)
design?
Does he (she, it) design?
she, it, we, they)
design.
Did you (I, he, she,
it, we, they) design?
6.5. Passive Voice (Страдательный залог)
Страдательный залог используется тогда, когда подлежащее предложения не
выполняет действие, а подвергается ему.
Active Voice
Our company built this house.
Passive Voice
The house was built by our company.
Наша компания построила этот Дом был построен нашей компанией.
дом.
Формы страдательного залога образуются с помощью вспомогательного глагола to be. Смысловой глагол всегда стоит в форме Participle II.
Мы делали нашу работу хорошо.
2. вспомогательный глагол
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You (I, he, she, it,
we, they) designed.
You did not (I, he,
В отрицательных предложениях часто используются стяжённые формы
вспомогательного глагола и отрицательной частицы: don’t, doesn’t, didn’t.
1. смысловой глагол со значением делать
We did our work well.
Past Simple
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Видовременные формы глагола в страдательном залоге (PASSIVE VOICE)
Present
am
is
are
am
is
are
Past
written
was
written
were
being written
was
being written
were
have/has been written had been written
Future
will be written
6.7. Sequence of tenses (Согласование времён)
-
will have been written
Модальные глаголы в русском и английском языках обозначают не действие,
а отношение к нему говорящего. Само действие выражается смысловым глаголом в форме инфинитива (неопределённо-личной форме), который следует
после модальных глаголов.
Модальные глаголы являются недостаточными, потому что у них отсутствуют неличные формы.
can
may
must
Правило согласования времён действует тогда, когда сказуемое главного
предложения стоит в прошедшем времени. В таком случае время сказуемого
в придаточном дополнительном предложении тоже должно стоять в одном из
прошедших времён. Например:
1. I design buildings.
1a. He said he designed buildings.
Я проектирую здания.
Он сказал, что он проектирует здания.
2. I designed a building.
Я проектировал здание.
2a. He said he had designed a Он сказал, что он проектировал здание.
building.
6.6. Modal Verbs (Модальные глаголы)
Present Simple
x способность или возможность
1. Can – мочь, уметь, быть в состоянии, иметь возможность.
2. Be able to – мочь, уметь, быть в состоянии.
x разрешение или возможность
1. May – мочь, иметь возможность.
2. Be allowed to – позволять, разрешать.
Past Simple
could
might
-
Future Simple
-
Модальные глаголы выражают:
x необходимость действия:
1. Must – должен. Долженствование не имеет дополнительных оттенков
значения.
2. Have to – должен, пришлось, вынужден. Долженствование – следствие
внешних условий, обстоятельств.
3. Be to – должен, предстоит. Долженствование – следствие предварительной договорённости или плана.
4. Should – должен, следует, обязан. Выражает совет или моральный долг.
5. Ought to – должен, обязан. Выражает моральный долг.
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3. I will design a building.
Я спроектирую здание.
3a. He said he would design a Он сказал, что он спроектирует здание.
building.
6.8. Conditional sentences (Условные предложения)
Условные предложения II и III типа являются частным случаем использования сослагательного наклонения. Сослагательное наклонение характеризует
действие как желательное или возможное при определённых условиях.
В русском языке существует одна форма сослагательного наклонения, которая имеет в своем составе сочетание частицы бы с глаголом в прошедшем
времени. В английском языке таким показателем является вспомогательный
глагол would и глагол could в значении мог(ли) бы.
Условные предложения (сложноподчинённые предложения с придаточным
условия) выражают реальные, маловероятные и нереальные условия. В английском языке имеется три типа условных предложений. Они соответствуют двум типам условных предложений в русском языке.
Как и в русском языке условное предложение может не иметь союза. В этом
случае порядок слов в придаточном предложении – обратный.
Had they modern equipment, their work Имели бы они современное оборудоwould be more efficient.
вание, их работа была бы более эффективной.
Помимо союза if, в условных предложениях используются союзы:
unless – если … не …
in case – в случае если
provided (providing) – при условии если.
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Английский язык
Русский язык
Если машина будет более униIf the machine is more versaверсальной, она будет более поtile, it will be more useful.
лезна.
I
II
If the machine was more versatile, it would be more useful.
Если бы машина была более
If the machine had been more универсальной, она была бы боversatile, it would have been лее полезна.
more useful
His work is to design a new device.
Его работа – проектировать новое
устройство.
3. Дополнение
He decided to design a new device.
Он решил
устройство.
спроектировать
новое
4. Определение
На русский язык инфинитив в функции определения переводится придаточным предложением с союзом который(ая/ое/ые). Придаточное предложение
всегда имеет оттенок долженствования и будущности.
The device to be designed is a Устройство, которое нужно проектировать –
pump.
насос.
5. Обстоятельство цели
7. Verbals (Неличные формы глагола)
В этой функции инфинитив отвечает на вопрос: для чего, с какой целью.
Неличные формы глагола сочетают некоторые свойства глагола и других частей речи. К неличным формам глагола относятся инфинитив (Infinitive),
причастия (Participle I, II) и герундий (Gerund).
To lift the loads we utilize Чтобы поднимать грузы мы используем
cranes.
краны.
The rails were laid to mount a Рельсы были уложены для того, чтобы
crane on them.
установить на них кран.
7.1. Инфинитив (The Infinitive)
Инфинитив обладает свойствами глагола и существительного. Инфинитив
имеет несколько форм, которые приведены ниже в таблице.
Active
Passive
Simple / Indefinite
to write
to be written
Continuous
to be writing
Perfect
Perfect Continuous
to have written
to have been writing
–
to have been written
–
6. Инфинитивные обороты
Объектный инфинитивный оборот
В предложении с объектным инфинитивным оборотом (ОИО) инфинитив
стоит после существительного в общем падеже или местоимения в объектном падеже. Сказуемое всегда находится в действительном залоге.
Предложения с ОИО переводятся как сложноподчинённые. Дополнение и
инфинитив английского предложения становятся подлежащим и сказуемым
русского придаточного предложения с союзами что, чтобы, как.
We know the design to be ready.
Мы знаем, что проект готов.
We wanted him to come.
Мы хотели, чтобы он пришёл.
ОИО употребляется после глаголов:
Перевод инфинитива на русский язык зависит от той функции, которую он
выполняет в предложении.
Функции инфинитива:
1. Подлежащее
To design a new device is his task.
2. Часть сказуемого
He must design a new device.
Спроектировать новое устройство –
его задание.
Он должен спроектировать новое
устройство.
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want
suppose
expect
consider
prove
хотеть
полагать,
ожидать
считать, полагать
оказываться
believe
think
make
cause
allow
считать, полагать
думать, считать
заставлять
заставлять
позволять
и некоторых других.
После глаголов make, cause, allow ОИО не переводится развёрнутым придаточным предложением.
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This crane allowed them to build faster.
Этот кран позволил им строить быстрее.
После некоторых глаголов инфинитив употребляется без частицы to.
We didn’t see him enter the room.
Мы не видели, как он вошёл в комнату.
This let them work faster.
Это позволило им работать быстрее.
В предложении с субъектным инфинитивным оборотом (СИО) инфинитив
стоит после сказуемого, которое, как правило, стоит в страдательном залоге,
и обозначает действие, выполняемое подлежащим.
Предложения с СИО переводятся как сложноподчинённые. Сказуемое английского предложения переводится неопределённо-личным предложением.
Подлежащее и инфинитив английского предложения становятся подлежащим и сказуемым русского придаточного предложения с союзами что.
Machines are known to have been used Известно, что машины используют
since early times.
с древних времён.
These devices are considered to be very Считают, что эти устройства явefficient.
ляются очень эффективными.
СИО употребляется после глаголов:
говорить
знать
предполагать
expect
consider
believe
Participle I
Active
playing
Субъектный инфинитивный оборот
say
know
suppose
В английском языке существует два вида причастий: Participle I и Participle
II. Participle I имеет несколько форм. Participle II имеет одну форму, которая
является одной из основных форм глагола Перевод причастия на русский
язык зависит от той функции, которую оно выполняет в предложении.
ожидать
считать
полагать
и некоторых других.
Simple
Perfect
writing
Participle II
Passive
being played
being written
having played
having been played
having written
having been written
played
written
Функции Participle I
1. Часть сказуемого
В этой функции Participle I используется во всех временах Continuous действительного и страдательного залога и временах Perfect Continuous действительного залога и переводится в соответствии с правилами перевода этих видовременных форм.
They are installing the most modern Они устанавливают самое современequipment at their plant.
ное оборудование на своём заводе.
Large cranes are being produced at our Сейчас на нашем заводе производят
plant now.
большие краны.
2. Определение
Инфинитивный оборот for … to
Инфинитивный оборот for … to характеризуется сочетанием предлога for,
существительного или личного местоимения в косвенном падеже, и инфинитива с частицей to.
На русский язык оборот переводится придаточным предложением или неопределённо-личной формой глагола.
We waited for the crane to be installed.
Мы ждали, когда установят кран.
The problem was for them to discuss.
Обсудить проблему должны
были они.
7.2. The Participle (Причастие)
В этой функции Participle I отвечает на вопросы: какой, какая, какие и стоит
рядом с определяемым словом:
The moving piston opens the valves au- Движущийся поршень открывает
tomatically.
клапаны автоматически.
The piston moving in the cylinder opens Поршень, движущийся в цилиндре,
the valves automatically.
открывает клапаны автоматически.
3. Обстоятельство
В этой функции Participle I выражает действие одновременное с действием
сказуемого и соответствует русскому деепричастию несовершенного вида.
Причастие сочетает признаки глагола с признаками прилагательного или
наречия.
Steam enters one end of a cylinder Пар поступает в один конец цилинpushing the piston back.
дра толкая поршень назад.
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107
Перед Participle I в функции обстоятельства могут стоять союзы when (когда)
или while (когда, в то время как). Перфектные формы Participle I могут выполнять только функцию обстоятельства. При этом они выражают действие,
которое предшествует действию сказуемого и отвечают на вопрос что сделав.
Причастие вместе с относящимися к нему словами образует зависимый причастный оборот.
Having installed the giant crane they Установив гигантский кран, они
began to build a tall tower.
начали строить высокую башню.
Having installed the giant crane they Установив гигантский кран, они
began to build a tall tower.
начали строить высокую башню.
Функции Participle II
The piston moving in the cylinder opens Поршень, движущийся в цилиндре,
the valves automatically.
открывает клапаны автоматически.
1. Часть сказуемого
В функции части сказуемого Participle II используется во всех временах
Perfect и Perfect Continuous действительного залога и переводится в соответствии с правилами перевода этих видовременных форм.
Gears of different sizes are often used in Шестерни разных размеров часто
pairs.
используются парами.
People have used machines since early Люди используют машины с древних
times.
времён.
2. Определение
В этой функции Participle II отвечает на вопросы: какой, какая, какие и
может стоять перед определяемым словом:
The chosen equipment is very efficient.
Выбранное оборудование – очень эффективно.
и после определяемого слова:
The equipment chosen by them is very Оборудование, выбранное ими,– очень
efficient.
эффективно
3. Обстоятельство
В этой функции Participle II обычно сопровождается союзами when, if, though,
и др. и отвечает на вопросы: когда, при каком условии и т.д.
If specially designed belts and pul- Если ремни и шкивы специально спроекleys transmit power between two тированы, они передают энергию между
points.
двумя точками.
Когда блоки были подняты, они были
When lifted the blocks were posi- установлены.
tioned.
4. Причастные обороты
Зависимые причастные обороты
Независимые причастные обороты
Особенности независимого причастного оборота (НПО) следующие:
a) НПО имеет собственное подлежащее,
b) НПО всегда отделяется запятой.
Перевод НПО зависит от его места в предложении:
a) если оборот стоит в начале предложения, он переводится как придаточное с союзами когда, так как, после того как и т.д.
The structure being very high, the builders used giant cranes.
Так как здание было очень высоким, строители использовали гигантские краны.
The work being finished, they went home.
Когда работа была закончена, они пошли домой.
b) если оборот стоит в конце предложения, он переводится как сложносочинённое с союзами а, и, причём и т.д.
Steam was heated, its pressure becoming higher.
Пар нагрели, и его давление стало выше.
The piston goes forward, the wheel making half a turn.
Поршень движется вперёд, при этом колесо совершает половину
оборота.
7.3. The Gerund (Герундий)
Герундий сочетает признаки глагола и существительного. Обычно он обозначает процесс выполнения действия.
obtaining – получение
mixing – смешивание
Формы герундия идентичны формам Participle I, но он, в отличие от причастия, может выполнять в предложении практически любую функцию.
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109
Active
playing
being played
writing
being written
having played
having been played
having written
having been written
Simple
Perfect
Passive
Функции герундия
Герундий часто переводится существительным. Реже – неопределённоличной формой глагола, деепричастием или придаточным предложением.
1. Подлежащее
Fuel vapour and air mixing takes place Смешивание топливных паров и возin a carburetor.
духа происходит в карбюраторе.
2.Часть сказуемого
My hobby is reading.
Моё любимое занятие – чтение (или
читать).
3.Дополнение
The information given in the Информация, данная в отчёте, нуждается
report needs checking.
в проверке.
Показателями того, к какой части речи относится данное слово, являются
окончания; стоящие перед ним вспомогательные и модальные глаголы; артикль, указательные местоимения или другие сова, определяющие существительное; порядок слов в предложении.
8.2. Derivational Affixes (Словообразовательные аффиксы)
Словообразовательные аффиксы – это префиксы и суффиксы, которые используются для образования новых слов от существующей основы. Ниже
представлены некоторые часто встречающиеся аффиксы.
Словообразовательные аффиксы существительных
Аффикс
Исходное слово
Производное слово
-(t)ion
-sion
construct – строить
divide – разделять
construction – строительство
division – разделение
-er
-(i)or
build – строить
contract – заключать контракт
builder – строитель
contractor – подрядчик
-ment
move – двигаться
develop – развивать
movement – движение
development – развитие
-(i)ty
humid – влажный
capable – способный
humidity – влажность
capability – способность
-ness
light – лёгкий
weak – слабый
lightness – лёгкость
weakness – слабость
-ance
-ence
appear – появляться
exist – существовать
appearance – появление
existence – существование
re-
use – использование
union – союз
re-use – повторное использование
reunion – воссоединение
4.Определение
The principle of working of a
steam engine is simple.
Принцип работы парового двигателя является
простым.
5.Обстоятельство
В функции обстоятельства герундий всегда имеет перед собой предлог.
Before using the engine one
Перед использованием двигателя следует изуshould study the instructions.
чить инструкции.
8. Word Formation (Словообразование)
Словообразовательные аффиксы прилагательных
8.1. Conversion (Конверсия)
В английском языке в силу неразвитости специфических суффиксов и окончаний различных частей речи широкое распространение получил такой способ словообразования как конверсия – образование от существующего слова
нового, относящегося к другой части речи.
base n. – база, основа
base v. – закладывать основание
base adj. – низменный
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Аффикс
Исходное слово
Производное слово
-able
-ible
allow – разрешать
suit – годиться
allowable – допустимый
suitable – годный
- ous
continue – продолжать
vary – изменяться
continuous – непрерывный
various – различный
-ful
care – заботиться
careful – внимательный
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use – использовать
useful – полезный
-less
care – заботиться
use – использовать
careless – невнимательный
useless – бесполезный
-al
addition – дополнение
structure – структура
additional – дополнительный
structural – структурный
-ant
-ent
differ – различаться
resist – сопротивляться
different – различный
resistant – стойкий
unin-
suitable – пригодный
active – активный
unsuitable – непригодный
inactive – пассивный
Словообразовательные аффиксы глагола
Аффикс
Исходное слово
Производное слово
-ize
-ise
minimal – минимальный
standard – стандартный
minimize – сводить к минимуму
standardise – стандартизировать
re-
build – строить
place – помещать
rebuild – перестраивать
replace – заменять
pre-
stress – нагружать
cast – отливать
prestress – предварительно напрягать
precast – предварительно отливать
9.1. Word Order (Порядок слов)
Declarative Sentence (Утвердительное предложение)
В утвердительном предложении порядок слов – прямой:
подлежащее – сказуемое – дополнение
He was a student.
Он был студентом.
Interrogative Sentence (Вопросительное предложение)
В вопросительном предложении существует обратный порядок слов:
(вопросительное слово) – часть сказуемого I – подлежащее – часть сказуемого II – остальные члены предложения
Have they changed the plan?
Они изменили план?
When can you show the design?
Когда ты можешь показать проект?
Часть сказуемого I – это вспомогательный или модальный глагол.
Часть сказуемого II – это смысловой глагол.
Если вспомогательных глаголов несколько, на первое место ставится первый
из них.
Особым случаем является вопрос к подлежащему, в котором сохраняется
прямой порядок слов, например:
Who has changed the plan?
Кто изменил план?
What was built there?
Что было построено там?
Словообразовательный аффикс наречия
Аффикс
Исходное слово
Производное слово
-ly
quick – быстрый
efficient – эффективный
quickly – быстро
efficiently – эффективно
9. Sentence Structure (Структура предложения)
Для структуры английского предложения характерен строгий порядок слов
в предложении, что означает фиксированное положение членов предложения
относительно друг друга. Этот порядок слов зависит от типа предложения.
Характерной особенностью английского языка в отличие от русского является также отсутствие безличных и неопределённо-личных предложений. Поэтому в предложении всегда есть подлежащее. При отсутствии реального
подлежащего используются формальные подлежащие, например:
It is important to follow instructions.
Важно следовать инструкциям.
One must follow instructions.
Необходимо следовать инструкциям.
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9.2. The Complex Sentence (Сложноподчиненное предложение)
Сложноподчинённое предложение состоит из главного и одного или более
придаточных предложений, каждое из которых имеет собственные главные
члены – подлежащее и сказуемое. Придаточное предложение является зависимым от главного, так как представляет собой развёрнутый член главного
предложения. В зависимости от того, каким членом главного предложения
является придаточное, оно вводится различными союзами. Существуют следующие типы придаточных предложений:
x подлежащее
That the crane is one of the most useful То, что кран является одним из самых
полезных видов оборудования, – хороequipment is well known.
шо известно.
x часть именного составного сказуемого
The question was how to use the device.
113
Вопрос был в том, как использовать
устройство.
x дополнение
Усилительное слово DO
I don’t know what they have built.
Я не знаю, что они построили.
x определение
The truck that we use was bought last Грузовик, который мы используем,
year.
был куплен в прошлом году.
x обстоятельство
When they use the crane, they built
faster.
Когда они используют кран, они
строят быстрее.
Возможна бессоюзная связь главного и придаточного предложений (дополнительные, определительные), например:
He says he is a student.
Он говорит, что он студент.
The technique we’ll use has been introduced recently.
Технология, которую мы будем использовать, была внедрена недавно.
10. Appendix (Приложение)
10.1. Emphatic Constructions (Усилительные конструкции)
Усилительные конструкции и слова служат для усиления значения одного из
членов предложения и выделения его по сравнению с остальными членами
предложения.
Усилительная конструкция IT + TO BE … THAT/WHO
Усилительная конструкция it + to be … that/who служит для выделения и
усиления того члена предложения, который находится внутри неё. В русском
языке для передачи такого усиления используются:
x слова именно, как раз,
x порядок слов, при котором выделенный член предложения ставится в его конце
x сочетанием вышеназванных способов.
It is Gagarin who is the first cosmonaut.
Именно Гагарин является первым космонавтом.
или Первым космонавтом является (именно) Гагарин.
It was yesterday that that we saw him.
Как раз вчера мы видели его.
114
Усилительное слово do (does, did) в утвердительных предложениях служит
для выделения и усиления сказуемого. В русском языке для передачи такого
усиления используются слова действительно, безусловно.
This plan does require careful analysis.
Этот план действительно требует тщательного анализа.
10.2. Multifunctional Words (Многофункциональные слова)
1. Функции слова IT
x Когда it заменяет существительное в единственном числе, оно является
личным местоимением, которое переводится – он, она, оно или косвенными формами этих местоимений – ему, ей, его, её и т.д.
I have a book. It is interesting. I will read it.
У меня есть книга. Она интересная. Я буду читать её.
x
Когда it является формальным подлежащим, оно не переводится на русский язык.
It is cold.
It is necessary to study mathematics.
Холодно.
Нужно изучать математику.
2. Функции слова ONE
x числительное один
He has got one child.
У него один ребёнок.
x формальное подлежащее
One must be careful.
Нужно быть осторожным.
x слово-заменитель one, имеет форму множественного числа ones. На
русский язык one может a) переводиться существительным, которое оно
заменяет, b) переводиться то которое, те которые и т.д., c) не переводиться.
V-belts were invented later than flat V-образные ремни были изобретены
ones.
позже, чем плоские.
3. Функции слова THAT
x указательное местоимение тот, та, то (иногда этот, эта, это), имеет
форму множественного числа those – те (иногда эти) и обычно стоит
перед существительным.
He lives in that house.
Он живёт в том доме.
Те книги– интересные.
Those books are interesting.
115
x относительное местоимение который, которая, которое вводит определительные придаточные предложения и стоит после существительного.
The crane that was shown at the exhibi- Кран, который был показан на выtion is very efficient.
ставке, очень эффективный.
x союз что слово, вводит дополнительные придаточные предложения.
I’m sure that he will come in time.
Я уверен, что он придёт вовремя.
x союз то, что слово, вводит придаточные предложения, являющиеся
подлежащим или частью сказуемого.
That people used tools in ancient То, что люди использовали инструменты
times is proved by many facts.
в древние времена, доказывается многими фактами.
x слово-заменитель that/those заменяет существительное в единственном/множественном числе и переводится этим существительным или не
переводится.
The engine of a crane is more powerful Двигатель крана мощнее, чем двигатель грузовика.
than that of a truck .
10.3. Неправильные глаголы*
Infinitive
be [bi:]
bear [
]
become [
begin [
]
bend [
]
bind [
]
break [
]
bring [
]
build [
]
cast [
]
choose [
]
cost [
]
cut [ ]
dig [d
do [ ]
drive [
]
fall [ ]
find [
]
get [ ]
give [ ]
]
Past Simple
],
was [
were [ ]
bore [ ]
became [
]
began [
]
bent [
]
bound [
]
broke [
]
brought [
]
built [ ]
cast [
]
chose [
]
cost [
]
cut [ ]
g]
did [ ]
drove [
]
]
fell [ ]
found [
]
got [ ]
gave [
]
Past Participle
Перевод
been [
быть
]
borne [
]
become [
]
begun [
]
bent [
]
bound [
]
broken [
]
brought [
]
built [ ]
cast [
]
chosen [
]
cost [
]
cut [ ]
dug [d g]
done [
]
driven [
]
drawn [dr n]
fallen [
]
found [
]
got [ ]
given [
]
116
нести
становиться
начинать
сгибать
связать
ломать
приносить
строить
отливать
выбирать
стоить
резать
копать
делать
вбивать
тянуть
падать
находить
получать
давать
go [
]
hang [
]
have [
]
hold [
]
keep [
]
know [
]
lay [ ]
lead [ ]
leave [ ]
let [ ]
lie [ ]
lose [
]
make [
]
mean [
]
meet [
]
overcome
]
[
overhang
]
[
precast [
put [ ]
rise [
]
run [ ]
say [ ]
see [ ]
set [ ]
show [ ]
speak [
]
split [
]
spread [
]
stand [
]
swing [
]
take [
]
tell [ ]
think [
]
throw [
]
wear [
]
wind [
]
withstand
[
]
went [
]
hung [
]
had [
]
held [
]
kept [
]
knew [
]
laid [
]
led [ ]
left [ ]
let [ ]
lay [ ]
lost [
]
made [
]
meant [
]
met [
]
overcame
[
]
overhung
[
]
] precast [
put [ ]
rose [
]
ran [
]
said [ ]
saw [ ]
set [ ]
showed [
]
spoke [
]
split [
]
spread [
]
stood [
]
swung [
]
took [ ]
told [
]
thought [
]
threw [
]
wore [ ]
wound [
]
withstood
[
]
gone [
]
hung [
]
had [
]
held [
]
kept [
]
known [
]
laid [
]
led [ ]
left [ ]
let [ ]
lain [
]
lost [
]
made [
]
meant [
]
met [
]
overcome
[
]
overhung
[
]
] precast [
идти
висеть
иметь
держать
хранить
знать
класть
вести
уходить
позволять
лежать
терять
делать
значить
встречать
преодолевать
нависать
]
put [ ]
risen [
]
run [ ]
said [ ]
seen [ ]
set [ ]
shown [
]
spoken[
]
split [
]
spread [
]
stood [
]
swung [
]
taken [ ]
told [
]
thought [
]
thrown [
]
worn [
]
wound [
]
withstood
[
]
117
предварительно
отливать
класть
подниматься
бежать
сказать
видеть
видеть
показывать
говорить
расщепить
распространять
стоять
качаться
брать
рассказывать
думать
бросать
изнашиваться
наматывать
выдерживать
– нераскатистое, слабое р (кончик языка завернут назад)
– мягкое ш
– мягкое ж
–ч
– очень мягкое слитное дж
–к
–г
– произнесенный задней частью спинки языка звук н
– простой резкий выдох
– слабый звук й
Pronunciation Table
(Знаки фонетической транскрипции)
Vowels
(Гласные звуки)
– долгий и
– краткий, открытый и
– как э
– очень открытый э
– долгий, глубокий а
– краткий, открытый о
– долгий о
– краткий у
– долгий у
– краткий а
– как долгое ё
– безударный гласный
Diphthongs
(Двугласные звуки)
– эй
– эу
– ай
– ау
– ой
– иа
– эа
– уа
Consonants
(Согласные звуки)
–п
–б
–м
– звук напоминает русские звуки у/в, губы находятся в положении, как при
свисте
–ф
–в
– без голоса, кончик языка помещается между передними зубами
– с голосом, кончик языка помещается между передними зубами
–с
–з
– т, кончик языка касается не зубов, а десен
– д, кончик языка касается не зубов, а десен
– н, кончик языка касается не зубов, а десен
– л, кончик языка касается не зубов, а десен
118
119
СЛОВАРНЫЙ МИНИМУМ
A
acceleration force
] сила ускорения
acceptance [
] n. принятие
access [
] n. доступ
accessories [
] n. принадлежности
accommodate [
] v. приспосабливать; снабжать
accomplish
] v. выполнять,
осуществлять
account [
] n. счет, расчет
v. достигать, полуachieve
чать, обеспечивать
activate
v. приводить в
действие
] a. фактический, дейactual
ствительный
] v. приводить в
actuate
действие
] v. адаптировать, приadapt [
спосабливать
] v. приспосабливать,
adjust [
регулировать
advanced
a. передовой,
развитый
advantage
] n. преимущество
aerial [
] a. надземный
affect
] v. действовать (на чтол.)
aggregate [
] n. заполнитель
(бетона)
agitation [
] n. перемешивание
aisle [ ] n. проход
] v. выравнивать, регулиalign
ровать
alignment
] n. выравнивание
] n. делать возможным,
allow
обеспечивать
alloy
] n. сплав
alter
)] v. (из)менять(ся)
amount [
] n. количество,
сумма
appearance [
] n. появление;
внешний вид
appliance
] n. приспособление, устройство, оборудование
)] n. примеapplication
нение, приложение (силы); область
применения
] v. применять, приклаapply
дывать
approximate [
] a. приблизительный; [
]
v. приближаться
] n. щиток
apron [
arm
] n. рукоятка, стрела
arrangement
] n. механизм, устройство, конструкция
] a. шарнирarticulated [
ный
] n. асasphaltpaver [
фальтоукладчик
assembly
] n. агрегат, сборка
] v. содействовать, облегassist
чать, помогать
] v. крепить
attach
] n. дополниattachment
тельное навесное оборудование
auger [
] n. сверло, бурав
auxiliary
] a. вспомогательный
available [
] a. доступный,
имеющийся в распоряжении
avoid [
] v. избегать
axle
] n. ось
B
backfill [
n. засыпка (траншей)
backhoe
] n. экскаватор, обратная лопата
120
] n. брикет, прессованная
bale
кипа
ball joint шаровое соединение
barrel [
n. бочка
batch [
n. замес; отмеренная
порция, доза
] n балка
beam
bear
)] v. выдерживать
bearing
] n. подшипник
n. дно
bed
belt
n. ремень
bit
. сверло, режущая кромка
blade
n. лезвие, нож
blast
n. взрыв; v. взрывать
bobcat
компактная строительно-погрузочная техника
body
n. корпус
boiler
(r) n. котёл
boom
n. стрела, укосина
v. сверлить, бурить
bore
brace
n. скоба, связь;
v. связывать
n. сиbraking power
ла торможения
break
v. ломать, разрушать
breaker
n. брейкер, дробильщик
bucket
n. ковш
bulk
n. объём; большое количество
bulldozer
n. бульдозер,
трактор или тягач с отвалом
bushing
n. втулка, вкладыш
button
n. кнопка
bypass
v. обходить
C
n. канатная
cableway
дорога
cage
n. кожух, коробка; сепаратор
v. требовать
call for
cam
n. кулачок, эксцентрик
camshaft
n. распределительный вал
cantilever crane
n. кран-консоль, кран-укосина
n. емкость, проcapacity
изводительность, мощность
n. каркас, корпус
carcass
carriage
n. шасси, рама, несущее устройство
v. переносить, перевоcarry
зить
carry overloads выдерживать перегрузки
case
n. кожух; v. обшивать, покрывать
cast iron
] n. чугун
caterpillar
n.
гусеница, гусеничный ход
cause
v. быть причиной, вызывать
cell
n. элемент, батарея
chain
] n. цепь
chain trencher
n. цепной канавокопатель
chamber
n. камера
charge
v. загружать, наполнять
n. шасси, рама, ходовая
chassis
часть
n. лоток, желоб
chute
circular
)] a. круглый, круговой
claim
v. утверждать, заявлять,
требовать
n. зажим, хомут, скоба
clamp
clam-shell
n. грейфер
] v. сортировать,
classify
группировать
claw
] n. гвоздодер, клещи; зубец;
лапа
clearance
n. зазор, клиренс
clutch
] n. сцепление
n. манжета, кольцо, хоcollar
мут
121
] v. прессовать,
compact
трамбовать
compactor
n. уплотнитель
] n. отcompartment
деление, отсек, кабина
] v. завершать; a.
complete
полный, законченный
n. сложcomplexity
ность
component
] n. деталь,
компонент
compound
n. смесь, соединение
compress
] v. сдавливать
] n. сжаcompression
тие
compression stroke ход сжатия
] v. включать,
comprise
содержать
a. вогнутый
concave
] n. бетон
concrete
condition
] n. условие,
состояние
n. конус
cone
confine
] v. ограничивать
congestion
n. скопление
] n. соconjunction
единение, связь
conservation of energy закон сохранения энергии
consideration
n.
рассмотрение, соображение
consistent
a. стойкий
n. строconstruction
ительство
construction project строительный
объект
] n. расconsumption
ход, потребление
v. содержать
contain
a. непрерывcontinuous
ный
contractor
n. подрядчик
] v. управлять, регуcontrol
лировать
controls n. рычаги управления, пульт
управления
conventional
a.
обычный, традиционный
] v. превращать
convert
convertible
a. обратимый, изменяемый
conveyor/-er
n. конвейер
corner
n. угол
] n.
counter-current
противоток
n. проcounterweight
тивовес
)] n. сцепное, соедиcoupler
нительное устройство
n. сцепление, соcoupling
единительная муфта
crack
n. трещина
crankshaft
n. коленчатый вал
crawler
)] n. гусеничный
ход, гусеница
crawler track гусеничный ход, гусеница
create
v. создавать
creep (crept, crept)
v. ползти
n. бригада
crew
criss-cross
a. перекрёстный
cross section поперечное сечение
v. дробить, размельчать
crush
сrusher
] n. дробилка
n. изгиб, криcurvature
визна
curve
] n. кривая
сrusher
] n. дробилка
cut (cut, cut)
v. резать, срезать
cycle
] n. цикл, период, такт
D
damage
n. вред, ущерб
dangerous
] a. опасный
debris
] n. обрезки, мусор
122
decrease
] v. снижать, уменьшать
deliver
)] v. вырабатывать,
доставлять
] v. требовать,
demand
спрашивать
n. разруdemolition
шение, снос
a. плотный
dense
depend on
v. зависеть от
] v. класть
deposit
derrick
n. деррик-кран
design
] v. проектировать,
конструировать; n. проект, конструкция
v. определять
determine
] v. развивать, разраdevelop
батывать
device
] n. устройство, прибор
v. копать
dig
dimension
n. размер
dipper
n. ковш
direction
] n. направление
v. разгружать
discharge
distinct
a. отчётливый,
определённый
distinguish
v. различать,
характеризоват
] v. распредеdistribute
лять
distributing screed conveyor
n. распределительный шнек
disturbance
n.
нарушение, повреждение
n. ремонт
docking
downtime
n. простой,
вынужденное бездействие
dozer
)] n. бульдозер
drag
] v. тянуть, тащить
n. драглайн,
dragline
скребковый экскаватор
] n. дренаж, канаdrainage
лизация
draw
] v. волочить, тянуть
drill
v. бурить, сверлить
drilling rig
n. бурильное
устройство
drillstring (drillpipe)
n. бурильная колонна, бурильная труба
drive
n. привод, передача
driven gear ведомая шестерня
driver ведущий механизм
driving gear ведущая шестерня
drop
v. падать, ронять
dump truck самосвал
dumpcar
)] опрокидывающаяся тележка или вагонетка,
думпкар
a. прочный, долdurable
говечный
E
n. земляные раearthwork
боты
edge
n. край, кромка
] n. эффективность,
efficiency
производительность, кпд
n. усилие, попытка
effort
elasticity
] n. упругость,
гибкость
v. поднимать
elevate
eliminate
v. исключать,
устранять
emergency
a. аварийный
employ
] v. употреблять, применять, использовать
empty
] v. опорожнять, высыпать
encounter
,
v.
встретить, наталкиваться
engage
,
v. зацеплять, занимать
enhance
v. усиливать,
повышать
123
v. обеспечивать, гаensure
рантировать
enter
v. входить
entire
a. полный, целый
entrance
n. вход
environment
n.
окружение, окружающая среда
a. равный
equal
equip
] v. оснащать, оборудовать
equipment
] n. оборудование
v. выходить, просачиescape
ваться
a. точный
exact
excavate
v. выкапывать
exceed
] v. превышать
] v. прилагать
exert
exhaust stroke ход выпуска
exist
,
v. существовать
] v. расширять(ся),
expand
растягивать(ся), выдвигаться
v. тянуть(-ся), вытяextend
гивать(-ся)
n. наставка,
extension
удлинитель
extent
n. степень, мера
external
] a. внешний,
сторонний
extract
v. вытаскивать, извлекать
F
n. оборудование,
facility [
приспособление
n. авария, повреждеfailure
ние, отказ в работе
fan
n. вентилятор
fasten
v. прикреплять
feature
] n. особенность, характерная черта
feed (fed, fed)
v. питать, снабжать
n. питатель, загрузочное
feeder
устройство
final drive
n. главная
передача
планиfine grading
ровка (грунта), профилирование (покрытия)
a. крепкий (крепfirm (firmly)
ко)
fit
v. устанавливать, соответствовать, оснащать, монтировать, подходить
fix
v. устанавливать
a. плоский
flat
flat car безбортовой грузовикплатформа
a. гибкий
flexible
n. шнековый
flightfeeder
питатель
floating screed
плавающий трамбующий брус
v. течь; n. поток
flow
n. жидкость
fluid
flywheel
маховое колесо
fold
v. складывать
follow
v. следовать
follower
] n. ведомый механизм
n. сила
force
forklifttruck
n. погрузчик с вилочным захватом
adv. вперед
forward
n. основаfoundation
ние, фундамент
frame
n. рама
n. частотность,
frequency
частота
friction
n. трение
frontloader
n. фронтальный погрузчик
n. топливо
fuel
function
v. действовать,
работать
functional operation работа
124
G
gain
] v. получать, достигать
gantry crane
портальный или эстакадный кран, козловой кран
n. щель, зазор
gap
gear
n. шестерня, передаточный механизм, привод
передаточное
gear ratio
число, коэффициент передачи
generate
] v. производить, генерировать
generator
n. генератор
glue
n. клей; v. склеивать
v. выравнивать, профиgrade
лировать(дорогу)
grappler
n. грейфер, грузозахватное приспособление
n. гравий
gravel
grab
n. захват; v. захватывать
grill
n. решётка
grind (ground)
v. молоть,
растирать (в порошок)
grip
n. тиски, зажим, захват;
v. сжимать
n. желобок, паз
groove
groundclearance
n. клиренс
guard
n. предохранительное
приспособление
n. направляющее приспоguide
собление
gyrate
] v вращаться по
кругу
H
n. молот
hammer
handle
v. обращаться,
грузить, транспортировать
handle hæ l n. ручка, рукоятка
harden
] v. твердеть
hauler h l n. грузовой автомобиль
heat
n. теплота
heavy h
a. тяжелый
n. помеха,
hindrance h
препятствие
hinge h
v. прикреплять на петле;
висеть, вращаться на петле
n. ковш экскаватора
hoe
hoist h
n. подъемник
hold h
n. захват
hold (held, held) h
v. держать
hole h l n. отверстие, яма
hollow h l
a. полый, пустотелый
homogeneous h
a. однородный
hopper h
n. воронка, бункер
hose h
n. рукав, шланг
house h ] n. корпус; v. вмещать,
размещать
housing
n. корпус
hydraulic
a. гидравлический, водяной
I
idler
dl n. направляющий шкив,
ролик
a. теоретический
ideal
ignite
v. зажигать, воспламенять
n. удар, толчок,
impact
воздействие
impart
v. давать, придавать
impeller
l n. рабочее колесо,
ротор
implement
n. оборудоv.
вание, устройство;
выполнять, осуществлять
impose
] v. налагать
v. улучшать
improve
in combination
вместе, во взаимодействии
in conjunction with
во взаимосвязи с, совместно с
v. наклонять(ся)
incline
include
v. включать
incorporate
v. включать в состав, объединять
125
v. повышать(ся),
increase
возрастать
indexing
пошаговое перемещение
a. прирождёнinherent
ный, присущий
l n. впуск, вход
inlet
innovation
новаторские разработки
входное усиinput force
лие, усилие на рычаг
input gear
ведущая, первичная шестерня
insert
v. вставлять
v. устанавливать
install
intake stroke ход впуска
v. составлять цеintegrate
лое, объединять
v. намереваться,
intend
предназначать
interface
n. поверхность
контакта
interfere
v. мешать; служить препятствием
a. промеintermediate
жуточный
a. периintermittent
одический, циклический
internal combustion engine двигатель
внутреннего сгорания
invent
] v. изобретать
] v. включать, вовлеinvolve
кать
irrigation
n. ирригация,
орошение
item
n. предмет, деталь
J
n. домкрат
jack
jackhammer
] n отбойный молоток
n. захват, зажим
jaw
jet
] n. форсунка, сопло; струя
jib crane
кран-укосина
join
v. соединять
joint
n. место соединения, соединение
L
landscape
n. ландшафт
lane
n. полоса движения
lattice
n. решётка
lawnmower
n. газонокосилка
n. укладка
laydown
n. слой
layer
lead (led, led)
v. вести, приводить
n. утечка; протека
leak
length
n. длина, отрезок
level
] n. уровень
leveling arm
несущая
рама
lever
n. рычаг
n. крышка, колпак
lid
lift
v. поднимать
adv. подобно,
likewise
также
line
v. выложить, облицевать
liner
n. вкладыш
locate
v. определять место
linear motion
поступательное (прямолинейное)
движение
link
n. звено, связь, соединение;
v. соединять
n. груз; v. грузить
load
n. погрузчик, поloader
грузочное приспособление, транспортер
lock
v. запирать
loop
n. петля
a. рыхлый, сыпучий, неloose
упакованный
loss
n. потеря
lubricate
v. смазывать,
увлажнять
изменение вылета
luffing
стрелы
126
M
machine
n. механизм, машина
machine tool механический станок
machinery
n. машинное
оборудование
maintain
v. поддерживать, сохранять
maintenance
n.
эксплуатация, уход, текущий ремонт
manoeuvrable
a. маневренный
mantle
n. кожух, покрышка
] a. ручной; n. руmanual
ководство
) v.
manufacture
производить
mast
n. мачта
n. слой, покрытие
mat
match
v. подходить, соответствовать
material
n. груз, сырье,
товар
n. средство
means
mechanics
n. принцип
действия
n. мехаmechanism
низм, техника
the demands
meet
v. отвечать требованиям
mesh
n. сетка
n. зацепление, v. зацепmesh
лять
mill
v. молоть, измельчать
] n. горное дело, разmining
работка недр
miss
n. отсутствие; потеря
mixer
n. смеситель
a. подвижный, пеmobile
ремещаемый
mobile machinery
транспортное машинное
оборудование, транспортные средства
n. метод, способ; образ
mode
действия
modify
v. преобразовывать
monorail telpher
монорельсовый тельфер
n. движение
motion
mount
v. монтировать, устанавливать
v. двигать(ся), перемеmove
щать; n. шаг
movement
n. движение
n. движущая сила,
mover
двигатель
a. многочисленmultiple
ный, многократный
N
n. шум
noise
normal force нормальная сила, осевая
сила
n. сопло, впускное отnozzle
верстие
O
n. препятствие,
obstacle
помеха
objective
n. цель
] v. происходить; встреoccur
чаться
a. внедорожный
off-road
offset
] n. ответвление, отвод
operate
v. функционировать
operating cost стоимость эксплуатации
operating member исполнительный
орган (механизма), управляющий
элемент
operation
] n. действие,
цикл, работа
opposite
a. противоположный
option
n. выбор
oscillation
n. качание,
колебание
127
n. выходной канал
outlet
выходная, втоoutput gear
ричная шестерня
] n. аутригер, выoutrigger
носная опора
overhead crane
мостовой кран
P
pallet
n. паллет, грузовой
поддон
palletize
v. пакетировать
panmixer
n. бетоносмеситель с вертикальным барабаном
particle
n. частица
n. путь, траектория
path
pattern
n. образец, модель
] v. мостить
pave
pavement
] n. тротуар,
мощеная дорога
мощение, асфальтоpaving
вые работы
] a. навесной
pendent
penetrate
v. проникать
percussion
n. удар
perform
v. выполнять, совершать
performance
n. производительность, параметры; работа
permanent
a. постоянный
permit
v. допускать, давать
возможность
v. поднимать
pick up
n. 1. куча, груда; 2. свая
pile
piledriver
n. свайный
копер
piledriving
rig
n.
сваебойная установка, копер
pinion
n. шестерня, меньшее
зубчатое колесо пары
piston
n. поршень
n. яма, шахта
pit
pitman
n. центральный рычаг, шатун
pivot
n. точка вращения, ось;
вращаться
plane [
n. плоскость
plate [
n. плита
plow
n. плуг
pneumatic [
a. пневматический, воздушный
n. точка
point [
pole
] n. столб, шест
pollutant
] n. загрязнитель
polyurethane [
n.
пластик на основе полиуретана
a. портативный
portable
position
n. положение, место
принуpositive drive [
дительная передача, жестский привод
power [
v. приводить в действие, подавать питание; n. сила,
мощность
power installation ["
силовая установка
power machinery [
машинное оборудование
power shovel [
экскаватор
power stroke [
рабочий ход
power takeoff
] n. отбор
мощности; вал отбора мощности
power tool
механический инструмент
power transmission [
механическая передача
] a. предварительно
precast
отлитый, сборный
a. точный
precise
precision machine [
прецизионный (точный) механизм
a. преpredominant [
обладающий
v. предпочитать
prefer
pressure
n. давление
prestressed
р.р. предварительно напряжённый
128
v. предотвращать, raise
v. поднимать
prevent
препятствовать
n. подъемник, силовой циram
prime
a. исходный, главный, линдр
основной
n. ряд, диапазон; колеrange
] n. пус- баться в пределах
prime mover
ковой (основной) двигатель
n. норма, скорость
rate
a. основной, ratio
principal
n. отношение
главный
raw material
n. сырьё
v. подвергать (ка- reach
process
v. достигать
кому-либо техническому) процессу; realize
v. выполнять, осуобрабатывать
ществлять
produce
v. вырабатывать, rear
n.задняя сторона
производить
receive
v. получать
product
n. результат, про- reciprocate
v. двигаться
изведение (результат умножения)
возвратно-поступательно
n. зубец, вилы
prong
recognize
v. узнавать,
n. двигать вперед,
propel
признавать
приводить в движение
recovery
n. восстановлеproperty
n. свойство, каче- ние
ство
reduce
v. уменьшать
n. движе- refer
propulsion
v. иметь отношение; отние, работа двигателя
носиться
protection
] n. защита
] n. повышеrefinement
protrude
] v. выдвигать
ние качества, усовершенствование
proven
р.р. доказанный reinforced
p.p. усиленprovide
] v. обеспечивать,
ный, укреплённый
предусматривать
relation
n. отношение
n. снабжение, relative
provision
a. относительный
обеспеч
relative to
по отношении к,
pull
v. тянуть, тащить
относительно
pulley
n. шкив
release
v. освобождать, отпусpulley face боковая сторона шкив
кать
] n. насос
pump
reliable
] a. надежный
purpose
n. цель, назначение remain
v. оставаться
v. толкать
push
remote control
Q
дистанционный контроль
quarry
n. карьер
a. съемremovable
quay crane
портальный ный, сменный
кран
n. удаление
removal
a. тихий
quiet
remove
v. убирать, удалять
R
repair
n. ремонт
rack
v. перемещать при помощи replace
v. заменять
зубчатой рейки
reproduce
v. воспроизn. рельс
rail
водить
129
rubble
n. исследование
n. каменный лом,
research
щебень
v. требовать
require
v. работать, двигаться
requirement
n. требо- run
run out (ran, run)
v. истование, условие
n. сопротив- щаться
resistance
ходовая
running gear
ление
] a. ответ- часть
responsible
S
ственный
] n. безопасность
n. опора, подставка, стойка safety
rest
sample
n. образец; отбирать
v. ограничивать
restrict
retain
v. удерживать, сохра- образцы
save
v. экономить
нять
n. экономия
saving
v. сжиматься, соretract
schedule
n. расписание, гракращаться
n. задний или обрат- фик, режим
reverse
n. ножницы
scissor
ный ход
revolution
n. круговое scoop
n. ковш
вращение, полный оборот
scoop(up) v. черпать, подбирать
revolving shovel
scraper
n. скрепер (машина, предназначенная для послойной
ковш, вращающаяся лопата
rig
n. буровая установка, копер резки грунтов)
screed
n. разравнивающий
n. такелажник
rigger
rigid
a. жестский, недефор- брус
screen
v. просеивать, сортиромируемый
n. рыхлитель, риппер вать
ripper
n. винт
ripper shank
стойка рыхлите- screw
seat
n.
сидение
ля
a. вспомогаrise (rose, risen)
v. подниматься secondary
тельный, служебный
rockwheel
n. фрезерный
secure
a. безопасный, надёжтраншейный экскаватор
ный
rod
n. стержень
n. отрезок, часть;
segment
v. катить(ся)
roll
v. делить на части
roller
n. каток
n. отдеро- segregation
roller compactor
ление
ликовый пресс
n. выбор
selection
rope
n. веревка, канат
самоканатная ле- self- dumping
rope winch
опрокидывающийся
бедка
self-powered
a. самовращаться
rotate
ходный
rotational speed число оборотов
self- propelled
самоa. неровный, пересеченrough
ходный
ный (о местности)
sensor
n. датчик
] n. резина
rubber
130
] n. последоваsequence
тельность, следование
series
n. ряд, последовательное соединение
n. служба, обслужиservice
вание; v. обслуживать
] n. подземные комservices
муникации (трубопровод, кабель);
комплект, набор, группа
v. настраивать,
set up (set, set)
устанавливать
sewer
n. коллектор, сточная
труба
shaft
n. вал, ось
shape
n. форма
n. часть; разделять
share
a. острый
sharp
n. шкив, блок
sheave
n. щит, экран
shield
n. сдвиг; v. сдвигать
shift
ship
v. грузить, отправлять груз
shove
v. толкать, сдвигать
shovel
n. лопата
side
n. сторона
significant
a. важный
single
a. один; одиночный
single force
одиночное
усилие, единичная силa
sink (sank, sunk)
v. оседать,
опускать, погружаться
n. участок
site
n. размер
size
n. направляющая рейка
skid
(рельс)
skid steer
вилочный погрузчик, ковшовый погрузчик
a. квалифицированный
skilled
slat
n. перекладина, планка
slew
v. поворачивать(-ся), вращать(-ся)
v. скользить;
slide
n. скольжение
sliding distance
путь трения
граница
sliding interface
полосы скольжения
slim
a. тонкий
slip
v. скользить; n. скольжение
slip off v. соскальзывать
n. жидкая глина
slurry
smooth
a. плавный, ровный,
гладкий
n. почва, земля
soil
a. твердый, сплошной,
solid
целый
n. выход, решеsolution
ние
v. решать, устранять (проsolve
блему)
a. звуковой
sonic
n. источник
source
space
n. пространство, место
specific weight
удельный вес
n. образец, экspecimen
земпляр
скорость
speed
speed ratio передаточное отношение
v. разминать, расплюsquash
щивать
squeeze
] v. сжимать, сдавливать
stability
n. стабильность,
устойчивость
stable
n. стабильный, устойчивый
v. складывать, складироstack
вать
staple
n. скоба;
v. скреплять скобой
stationary
a. малоподвижный, стационарный
steam engine
паровой
двигатель
steel
n. сталь
a. крутой
steep
steer
v. управлять
131
] v. натыкать; присаstick (stuck)
сываться
stiffness
n. жесткость
stockpile
n. штабель;
v. накапливать, штабелировать
n. запас; v. хранить
store
straight
a. прямой; adv. прямо
stretch
v. растягивать
strip
n. полоса; v. снимать
(слой)
stroke
n. ход поршня
strut
n. стойка, подпорка
subdivide
v. подразделять(ся)
v. заменять,
substitute
использовать вместо
n. всасывание
suction
v. удовлетворять требоваsuit
ниям, подходить, годиться
supply
v. поставлять
support
v. поддерживать
surface
n. поверхность
suspension
n. подвеска
sustain
v. выдерживать
(нагрузку)
swing (swung, swung)
v. качаться, колебаться
switch
n. переключатель;
v. переключать
swivel
v. вращаться, поворачиваться
T
n. касательная
tangent
v. суживаться к концу
taper
n. цель
target
temporary
a. временный
tend to
v. иметь тенденцию к
tension
n. напряжение,
натяжение
n. термин
term
throw (threw, thrown)
v. бросать
v. наклонять, опрокидывать
tilt
timing
тактирование, распределение временных интервалов
timing belt ремень привода газораспределительного механизма
tip
v. наклонять(-ся), опрокидывать(-ся)
toggle
n. коленчатый рычаг,
кривошип
tool
n. инструмент
toothed
зубчатый
torque
n. крутящий момент,
скручивающее усилие
torque divider
раздаточная коробка, распределитель крутящего момента
touch
v. соприкасаться
v. тянуть, буксировать
tow
башенtower crane
ный кран
n. опорная точка
towpoint
track
n. гусеница (трактора)
tracked vehicle
гусеничное транспортное средство
trackless
a. безрельсовый
traction
n. тяга
traction engine трактор-тягач, тяговый
двигатель
n. прицеп
trailer
transfer
v. превращать,
преобразовывать
v. преобразоtransform
вывать, трансформировать, превращать
transmission
n. передача; трансмиссия, коробка передач
transmit
v. передавать
travel
v. двигаться, перемещаться; n. движение
tread
n. протектор, гусеничная
цепь
trench
n. ров, траншея
trencher
n. траншейный
экскаватор, канавокопатель
132
trolley
n. тележка, вагонетка,
контактный ролик
truck
n. грузовик
truss
n. ферма, связь
tungsten
n. вольфрам
turn
v. поворачивать(ся), вращать(ся)
n. поворотный
turntable
круг
twist
v. крутить, скручивать
tyre
n. шина
U
a. свободный,
unbound
несвязанный
n. хоundercarriage
довая часть, шасси
unobstructed
a. беспрепятственный, свободный
unsprung
a. неподрессоренный, не имеющий пружин
upset
v. нарушать
n. коммунальные
utilitie
сооружения
utilize
v. использовать
V
value
значение, величина
valve
n. клапан
van
n. фургон
variable
a. трансформируемый
variety
v. разнообразие
v. меняться, изменяться
vary
v-belt
клиновой ремень
n. транспортное
vehicle
средство
versatility
n. многосторонность, универсальность
] prep. через
via
volume
n. объем
W
шагаюwalking gear
щее ходовое оборудование
n. склад
warehouse
] n. отходы, пустая порода
waste
wear
n. износ,
v. изнашиваться
n. ткань
web
wedge
n. клин;
v. вклиниваться, врезаться
wedging action заклинивание
weight
n. вес
v. весить
weigh
v. сваривать, припаивать
weld
well
n. скважина, колодец
wheel
n. колесо
wheel trencher
роторный канавокопатель
n. лебедка, ворот
winch
wind (wound, wound)
v. наматывать, поднимать при помощи лебедки
windshield
n. ветровое
стекло
wiper
n. стеклоочиститель
проволочwirerope
ный канат
n. древесина
wood
133
Contents
Unit 1………………………………………………………………….. 4
Grammar: Tenses; Parts of Speech.
Text A. Forklift Truck…………………………………………………..4
Text B. Forklift Development…………………………………………...8
Text C. General Classification of Machines…………………………….8
Unit 2…………………………………………………………………..10
Grammar: Modal verbs; Conversion.
Text A. Forklift Attachments…………………………………………..10
Text B. Forklift Truck Operation………………………………………14
Text C. Telescopic handler…………………………………………….15
Unit 3…………………………………………………………………..18
Grammar: Degrees of Сomparison.
Text A. Loaders………………………………………………………..18
Text B. Compact Utility Tractor……………………………………….23
Text C. Power Machines……………………………………………….24
Unit 4…………………………………………………………………..25
Grammar: Functions of "to be" and "to have"; ed – forms.
Text A. Excavators…………………………………………………….25
Text B. Excavator Application………………………………………...28
Text C. Mechanical Handling………………………………………….29
Unit 5…………………………………………………………………..31
Grammar: Ing – forms.
Text A. Compact Excavator……………………………………………31
Text B. Dragline History………………………………………………35
Text C. Load Handling Devices……………………………………….36
Unit 8…………………………………………………………………..52
Grammar: Functions of "that" and "one".
Text A. Pile Driver……………………………………………………..52
Text B. From a Manual on Pile Driving Hammers………………….…57
Text C. Roman Cranes…………………………………………………57
Unit 9…………………………………………………………………..59
Grammar: Conditional Clauses; Polysemantic words.
Text A. Bulldozers……………………………………………………..59
Text B. Road Rollers…………………………………………………..63
Text C. Cranes in Middle Ages………………………………………..64
Unit 10…………………………………………………………………66
Grammar: Gerund; Ing-forms.
Text A. Dump Truck…………………………………………………...66
Text B. Specialized Dump Trucks……………………………………..71
Unit 11…………………………………………………………………72
Grammar: Polysementic Words; Functions of “one” and “that”
Text A. Crane…………………………………………………………..72
Text B. Cranes Design…………………………………………………76
Unit 12…………………………………………………………………78
Grammar: Infinitive; Polysemantic and Auxiliary Words.
Text A. Types of Cranes (part 1 and 2)………………………………..78
Text B. Types of Cranes (part 3)………………………………………84
Additional Grammar Exercises………………………………………...87
Краткий грамматический справочник……………………………….91
Словарный минимум.. ………………………………………………120
Unit 6…………………………………………………………………..37
Grammar: Infinitive; Infinitive constructions.
Text A. Dragline Excavator……………………………………………37
Text B. Dragline Examples…………………………………………….41
Text C. Draglines in Mining…………………………………………...42
Unit 7…………………………………………………………………..44
Grammar: Complex Sentences.
Text A. Tunnel Boring Machines………………………………………44
Text B. TBMs Invention……………………………………………….49
Text C. Cranes in Ancient Greece……………………………………..50
134
135
Учебное издание
Данилова Людмила Рафкатовна
Горбаренко Екатерина Алексеевна
АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК
Учебное пособие
Компьютерная верстка И. А. Яблоковой
Подписано к печати 29.08.2017. Формат 60u84 1/16. Бум. офсетная.
Усл. печ. л. 7,9. Тираж 100 экз. Заказ 72. «С» 53.
Санкт-Петербургский государственный архитектурно-строительный университет.
190005, Санкт-Петербург, 2-я Красноармейская ул., д. 4.
Отпечатано на ризографе. 190005, Санкт-Петербург, ул. Егорова, д. 5/8, лит. А.
136
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