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АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК ДЛЯ СТУДЕНТОВ-АРХИТЕКТОРОВ
Часть II
А. С. Глебовский
М. В. Процуто
АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК
ДЛЯ СТУДЕНТОВ-АРХИТЕКТОРОВ
Часть II
Ɇɢɧɢɫɬɟɪɫɬɜɨɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɧɢɹɢɧɚɭɤɢ
ɊɨɫɫɢɣɫɤɨɣɎɟɞɟɪɚɰɢɢ
ɋɚɧɤɬ-ɉɟɬɟɪɛɭɪɝɫɤɢɣɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣ
ɚɪɯɢɬɟɤɬɭɪɧɨ-ɫɬɪɨɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣɭɧɢɜɟɪɫɢɬɟɬ
Ⱥ ɋȽɅȿȻɈȼɋɄɂɃɆ ȼɉɊɈɐɍɌɈ
ȺɇȽɅɂɃɋɄɂɃəɁɕɄ
ɞɥɹɫɬɭɞɟɧɬɨɜ-ɚɪɯɢɬɟɤɬɨɪɨɜ
ɍɱɟɛɧɢɤ
ɑɚɫɬɶ,,
ɋɚɧɤɬ-ɉɟɬɟɪɛɭɪɝ
2018
0
1
Introduction
ɍȾɄ 811.111(075)+72
Ɋɟɰɟɧɡɟɧɬɵ: ɞ-ɪɩɟɞ. ɧɚɭɤɩɪɨɮɟɫɫɨɪ ɋȻɉɚɲɤɢɧɂɧɫɬɢɬɭɬɩɫɢɯɨɥɨɝɢɢ
ɊȽɉɍɢɦȺ ɂȽɟɪɰɟɧɚ),
ɞ-ɪɚɪɯɢɬ.ɞɨɰɟɧɬȽ ȿɊɭɫɚɧɨɜɋɉɛȽȺɋɍ
ȽɥɟɛɨɜɫɤɢɣȺɋ
Ⱥɧɝɥɢɣɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤɞɥɹɫɬɭɞɟɧɬɨɜ-ɚɪɯɢɬɟɤɬɨɪɨɜɭɱɟɛɧɢɤȼɱ/
Ⱥ ɋ Ƚɥɟɛɨɜɫɤɢɣ Ɇ ȼ ɉɪɨɰɭɬɨ ɋɉɛȽȺɋɍ – ɋɉɛ 2018. –
ɑII. – 367 ɫ
ISBN 978-5-9227-0789-3
ISBN 978-5-9227-0791-6
ɐɟɥɶɭɱɟɛɧɢɤɚ – ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɟɭɫɬɭɞɟɧɬɨɜɡɧɚɧɢɣɢɧɚɜɵɤɨɜɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɵɯ
ɞɥɹɨɛɦɟɧɚɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɟɣɜɫɮɟɪɟɢɯɩɪɨɮɟɫɫɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɣɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢɁɚɞɚɱɢ
ɭɱɟɛɧɢɤɚ
x ɜɵɪɚɛɨɬɤɚɧɚɜɵɤɨɜɮɨɧɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɩɪɚɜɢɥɶɧɨɣɪɟɱɢ;
x ɨɜɥɚɞɟɧɢɟɫɥɨɜɚɪɧɵɦɦɢɧɢɦɭɦɨɦɩɨɫɩɟɰɢɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ;
x ɨɜɥɚɞɟɧɢɟɝɪɚɦɦɚɬɢɤɨɣɚɧɝɥɢɣɫɤɨɝɨɹɡɵɤɚɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨɣɞɥɹɩɟɪɟ
ɜɨɞɚɢɤɨɦɦɭɧɢɤɚɬɢɜɧɨɣɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢɩɨɫɩɟɰɢɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ
x ɜɵɪɚɛɨɬɤɚ ɧɚɜɵɤɨɜ ɤɨɦɦɭɧɢɤɚɰɢɢ ɜ ɫɮɟɪɟ ɩɪɨɮɟɫɫɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɞɟɹ
ɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ
ɉɨɦɢɦɨ ɭɱɟɛɧɵɯ ɡɚɞɚɧɢɣ ɭɱɟɛɧɢɤ ɜɤɥɸɱɚɟɬ ɨɩɢɫɚɧɢɟ ɡɧɚɤɨɜ ɬɪɚɧ
ɫɤɪɢɩɰɢɢɫɥɨɜɚɪɶɝɥɨɫɫɚɪɢɣɩɨɭɪɨɱɧɵɣɫɩɢɫɨɤɝɪɚɦɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯɬɟɦɝɪɚɦ
ɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɣɫɩɪɚɜɨɱɧɢɤɢɫɩɢɫɨɤɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɧɨɣɥɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɵ
ɉɪɟɞɧɚɡɧɚɱɟɧɞɥɹɚɭɞɢɬɨɪɧɨɝɨɱɬɟɧɢɹɞɥɹɫɬɭɞɟɧɬɨɜ II ɤɭɪɫɚɨɫɟɧɧɢɣ
ɫɟɦɟɫɬɪ ɩɨ ɫɩɟɰɢɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɹɦ 270100 ©Ⱥɪɯɢɬɟɤɬɭɪɚ», 270900 ©Ƚɪɚɞɨɫɬɪɨɢɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɨ», 270300 ©Ⱦɢɡɚɣɧ ɚɪɯɢɬɟɤɬɭɪɧɨɣ ɫɪɟɞɵ», 270200 ©Ɋɟɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɹ
ɢɪɟɫɬɚɜɪɚɰɢɹɚɪɯɢɬɟɤɬɭɪɧɨɝɨɧɚɫɥɟɞɢɹª, 271101 ©ɋɬɪɨɢɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɨɭɧɢɤɚɥɶɧɵɯ
ɡɞɚɧɢɣɢɫɨɨɪɭɠɟɧɢɣ»ɋɨɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɧɚɨɫɧɨɜɟɨɪɢɝɢɧɚɥɶɧɵɯɚɧɝɥɨɹɡɵɱɧɵɯɬɟɤ
ɫɬɨɜɩɨɜɨɩɪɨɫɚɦɚɪɯɢɬɟɤɬɭɪы
ISBN 978-5-9227-0789-3
ISBN 978-5-9227-0791-6
© ɋɚɧɤɬ-ɉɟɬɟɪɛɭɪɝɫɤɢɣɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣ
ɚɪɯɢɬɟɤɬɭɪɧɨ-ɫɬɪɨɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣɭɧɢɜɟɪɫɢɬɟɬ 2018
© ȺɋȽɥɟɛɨɜɫɤɢɣɆ ȼɉɪɨɰɭɬɨ2018
2
ɍȼȺɀȺȿɆɕȿɉɊȿɉɈȾȺȼȺɌȿɅɂɂɋɌɍȾȿɇɌɕ
ɉɪɟɞɥɚɝɚɟɦɵɣ ɭɱɟɛɧɢɤ ɚɧɝɥɢɣɫɤɨɝɨ ɹɡɵɤɚ ɩɪɟɞɧɚɡɧɚɱɟɧ ɞɥɹ
ɫɬɭɞɟɧɬɨɜɨɛɭɱɚɸɳɢɯɫɹɩɨɫɩɟɰɢɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɹɦ©Ⱥɪɯɢɬɟɤɬɭɪɚª
©Ƚɪɚɞɨɫɬɪɨɢɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɨª ©Ⱦɢɡɚɣɧ ɚɪɯɢɬɟɤɬɭɪɧɨɣ
ɫɪɟɞɵª ©Ɋɟɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɹ ɢ ɪɟɫɬɚɜɪɚɰɢɹ ɚɪɯɢɬɟɤɬɭɪɧɨɝɨ
ɧɚɫɥɟɞɢɹª, ©ɋɬɪɨɢɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɨ ɭɧɢɤɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɡɞɚɧɢɣ ɢ ɫɨɨɪɭɠɟ
ɧɢɣª ɚɧɝɥɢɣɫɤɨɦɭ ɹɡɵɤɭ ɢ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɟɬ ɬɪɟɛɨɜɚɧɢɹɦ Ɏɟɞɟɪɚɥɶ
ɧɨɝɨ ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɫɬɚɧɞɚɪɬɚ ɜɵɫɲɟɝɨ ɩɪɨ
ɮɟɫɫɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɝɨɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ
ɍɱɟɛɧɢɤɪɚɫɫɱɢɬɚɧɧɚɨɛɭɱɟɧɢɟɜɬɟɱɟɧɢɟɱɟɬɵɪɟɯɫɟɦɟɫɬɪɨɜ
ɜɨɛɴɟɦɟɚɭɞɢɬɨɪɧɵɯɡɚɧɹɬɢɣ, ɚɬɚɤɠɟ ɜɧɟɚɭɞɢɬɨɪɧɨɣ ɫɚɦɨɫɬɨɹ
ɬɟɥɶɧɨɣɪɚɛɨɬɵɫɬɭɞɟɧɬɨɜɢɫɨɫɬɨɢɬɢɡɱɟɬɵɪɟɯɱɚɫɬɟɣɩɨɨɞɧɨɣɧɚ
ɤɚɠɞɵɣɫɟɦɟɫɬɪɨɛɭɱɟɧɢɹɢɩɪɢɥɨɠɟɧɢɣ.
Ʉɚɠɞɚɹɱɚɫɬɶɫɨɫɬɨɢɬɢɡɭɪɨɤɨɜɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɜɤɥɸɱɚɸɬ ɜɫɟɛɹ
ɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɟɪɚɡɞɟɥɵ:
x ɪɚɡɞɟɥAɤɥɚɫɫɧɵɣɬɟɤɫɬɨɛɴɟɦɨɦ–ɩɟɱɡɧɨɛɴɟɦ
ɬɟɤɫɬɨɜɜɨɡɪɚɫɬɚɟɬɩɨɦɟɪɟɨɫɜɨɟɧɢɹɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɚɭɱɟɛɧɢɤɚɫɮɨɧɟɬɢ
ɱɟɫɤɢɦɢɝɪɚɦɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɢɢɥɟɤɫɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɢɭɩɪɚɠɧɟɧɢɹɦɢ;
x ɪɚɡɞɟɥ B ɬɟɤɫɬ ɞɥɹ ɨɡɧɚɤɨɦɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɱɬɟɧɢɹ ɨɛɴɟɦɨɦ
1000–ɩɟɱɡɧɫɝɪɚɦɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɢɢɥɟɤɫɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɢɡɚɞɚɧɢɹɦɢ.
ȼɤɚɠɞɨɦɢ-ɦɭɪɨɤɟɢɦɟɟɬɫɹɪɚɡɞɟɥCɬɟɤɫɬɵɞɥɹɫɚɦɨ
ɫɬɨɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɝɨɱɬɟɧɢɹɨɛɴɟɦɨɦ–ɩɟɱɡɧɫɡɚɞɚɧɢɹɦɢɧɚɩɪɨ
ɜɟɪɤɭ ɩɨɧɢɦɚɧɢɹ ɩɪɨɱɢɬɚɧɧɨɝɨ ɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɚ Ʉɪɨɦɟ ɬɨɝɨ ɩɨɫɥɟ ɭɤɚ
ɡɚɧɧɵɯɭɪɨɤɨɜɢɦɟɸɬɫɹɬɟɫɬɵɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɩɪɟɞɧɚɡɧɚɱɟɧɵɞɥɹɩɪɨɦɟ
ɠɭɬɨɱɧɨɝɨɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɹɨɜɥɚɞɟɧɢɹɫɬɭɞɟɧɬɚɦɢɩɪɨɣɞɟɧɧɨɝɨɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɚ
ɇɢɠɟɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɚɬɟɦɚɬɢɤɚɱɚɫɬɟɣɭɱɟɛɧɢɤɚ
ɑɚɫɬɶ,ɂɫɬɨɪɢɹɚɪɯɢɬɟɤɬɭɪɵ.
ɑɚɫɬɶ,,Ƚɪɚɞɨɫɬɪɨɢɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɨ.
ɑɚɫɬɶ,,,Ⱥɪɯɢɬɟɤɬɭɪɚɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯɡɞɚɧɢɣ
ɑɚɫɬɶ,9Ⱥɪɯɢɬɟɤɬɭɪɚɠɢɥɵɯɢɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯɡɞɚɧɢɣ.
ɉɪɢɥɨɠɟɧɢɹ ɜɤɥɸɱɚɸɬ
x ɤɪɚɬɤɢɣɮɨɧɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɣɫɩɪɚɜɨɱɧɢɤ;
x ɤɪɚɬɤɢɣɝɪɚɦɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɣɫɩɪɚɜɨɱɧɢɤ;
x ɫɩɢɫɨɤɪɚɫɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɹɝɪɚɦɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯɬɟɦɩɨɭɪɨɤɚɦ;
x ɫɥɨɜɧɢɤ ɭɱɟɛɧɢɤɚ ɨɛɴɺɦɨɦ ɩɪɢɛɥɢɡɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɫɥɨɜɚɪ
ɧɵɯɫɬɚɬɟɣɫɬɪɚɧɫɤɪɢɩɰɢɟɣɢɩɟɪɟɜɨɞɨɦɜɤɥɸɱɚɹɫɨɤɪɚɳɟɧɢɹɯɚ
ɪɚɤɬɟɪɧɵɟɞɥɹɬɟɤɫɬɨɜɚɪɯɢɬɟɤɬɭɪɧɨɣɬɟɦɚɬɢɤɢ
3
ȼɫɩɢɫɤɟɥɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɵɭɤɚɡɚɧɵɚɧɝɥɨɹɡɵɱɧɵɟɢɫɬɨɱɧɢɤɢɦɨɧɨ
ɝɪɚɮɢɢɢɠɭɪɧɚɥɵɢɡɤɨɬɨɪɵɯɛɵɥɢɨɬɨɛɪɚɧɵɬɟɤɫɬɵɭɱɟɛɧɢɤɚ
Ɏɨɧɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɚɹɡɚɞɚɱɚ ɭɱɟɛɧɢɤɚ– ɜɵɪɚɛɨɬɤɚɧɚɜɵɤɨɜɮɨɧɨ
ɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢ ɩɪɚɜɢɥɶɧɨɣ ɪɟɱɢ ɱɬɨ ɩɨɞɪɚɡɭɦɟɜɚɟɬ ɡɧɚɧɢɟ ɮɨɧɟɬɢɱɟ
ɫɤɨɣɬɪɚɧɫɤɪɢɩɰɢɢɢɧɚɜɵɤɢɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹɫɥɨɜɚɪɺɦ
Ʌɟɤɫɢɱɟɫɤɚɹɡɚɞɚɱɚ ɭɱɟɛɧɢɤɚ– ɨɜɥɚɞɟɧɢɟɦɢɧɢɦɚɥɶɧɨ-ɧɟɨɛ
ɯɨɞɢɦɵɦɧɚɛɨɪɨɦɨɛɳɟɭɩɨɬɪɟɛɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɣɢɬɟɪɦɢɧɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɥɟɤ
ɫɢɤɢɩɨɫɩɟɰɢɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ
ɍɱɟɛɧɢɤɩɨɫɬɪɨɟɧɧɚɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɟɱɚɫɬɨɬɧɨ-ɞɟɬɟɪɦɢɧɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɨɝɨ
ɨɬɛɨɪɚɥɟɤɫɢɤɢɇɚɨɫɧɨɜɟɱɚɫɬɨɬɧɨɣɞɢɮɮɟɪɟɧɰɢɚɰɢɢɥɟɤɫɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ
ɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɚ ɬɟɤɫɬɨɜ ɛɵɥ ɜɵɞɟɥɟɧ ɫɩɢɫɨɤ ɜɵɫɨɤɨɱɚɫɬɨɬɧɨɣ ɥɟɤɫɢɤɢ
ɢɫɩɢɫɨɤɧɢɡɤɨɱɚɫɬɨɬɧɨɣɥɟɤɫɢɤɢȼɵɫɨɤɨɱɚɫɬɨɬɧɚɹɥɟɤɫɢɤɚɲɢɪɨɤɨ
ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɚɜɨɜɫɟɯɬɢɩɚɯɬɪɟɧɢɪɨɜɨɱɧɵɯɢɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɶɧɵɯɡɚɞɚɧɢɣ
ɇɢɡɤɨɱɚɫɬɨɬɧɚɹɥɟɤɫɢɤɚ-ɭɩɨɬɪɟɛɥɟɧɢɹɧɚɜɟɫɶɬɟɤɫɬɨɜɨɣɦɚɬɟ
ɪɢɚɥɞɚɧɚɜɜɢɞɟɩɪɢɦɟɱɚɧɢɹ ɤɬɟɤɫɬɭɫɩɟɪɟɜɨɞɨɦɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤ
ȼɭɩɪɚɠɧɟɧɢɹɯɢɡɚɞɚɧɢɹɯɨɧɚɬɚɤɠɟɞɚɺɬɫɹɫɩɟɪɟɜɨɞɨɦɂɫɤɥɸɱɟ
ɧɢɟɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɬɬɨɥɶɤɨɮɨɧɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɟɭɩɪɚɠɧɟɧɢɹ
ɇɨɜɚɹɥɟɤɫɢɤɚɩɨɬɟɤɫɬɚɦȺ ɢȼ ɞɚɟɬɫɹɜɥɟɤɫɢɱɟɫɤɨɦɭɩɪɚɠɧɟ
ɧɢɢʋɤɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɸɳɟɦɭɬɟɤɫɬɭɇɨɜɚɹ ɥɟɤɫɢɤɚɩɨɬɟɤɫɬɚɦɋ
ɜɨɫɧɨɜɧɨɦɫɨɞɟɪɠɢɬɫɹɜɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɦɡɚɧɢɦɡɚɞɚɧɢɢɅɟɤɫɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ
ɫɨɫɬɚɜɭɩɪɚɠɧɟɧɢɣɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɟɬɫɹɬɨɣɢɬɨɥɶɤɨɬɨɣɥɟɤɫɢɤɨɣɤɨ
ɬɨɪɚɹ ɭɠɟ ɛɵɥɚ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɚ ɜ ɢɡɭɱɟɧɧɵɯ ɧɚ ɞɚɧɧɵɣ ɦɨɦɟɧɬ
ɬɟɤɫɬɚɯ
ȼɫɹɥɟɤɫɢɤɚɞɚɧɚɜɋɥɨɜɧɢɤɟ ɫɭɤɚɡɚɧɢɟɦɬɟɤɫɬɚɜɤɨɬɨɪɨɦɨɧɚ
ɜɩɟɪɜɵɟɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɚ
Ƚɪɚɦɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɡɚɞɚɱɚ ɭɱɟɛɧɢɤɚ – ɨɜɥɚɞɟɧɢɟ ɡɧɚɧɢɹɦɢ
ɝɪɚɦɦɚɬɢɤɢɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɵɦɢɞɥɹɩɟɪɟɜɨɞɚɬɟɤɫɬɨɜɩɨɫɩɟɰɢɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ
ɛɟɫɟɞɵ-ɞɢɚɥɨɝɚ ɜ ɮɨɪɦɟ ɜɨɩɪɨɫɨɜ ɢ ɨɬɜɟɬɨɜ, ɢ ɭɫɬɧɨɝɨ ɢɡɥɨɠɟɧɢɹ
ɩɪɨɮɟɫɫɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɣɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɢ
ȼɚɠɧɟɣɲɢɦɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɨɦɪɚɛɨɬɵɫɝɪɚɦɦɚɬɢɤɨɣɧɚɩɟɪɜɨɦɤɭɪɫɟ
ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɟ ɩɨɜɵɲɟɧɢɟ ɫɥɨɠɧɨɫɬɢ ɝɪɚɦɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ
ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɳɟɣ ɬɟɤɫɬɨɜ Ɍɟɤɫɬɵ ɩɟɪɜɨɣ ɢ ɜɬɨɪɨɣ ɱɚɫɬɟɣ ɭɱɟɛɧɢɤɚ
ɩɨɞɜɟɪɝɚɥɢɫɶɨɛɪɚɛɨɬɤɟɫɰɟɥɶɸɫɧɹɬɢɹɬɪɭɞɧɨɫɬɟɣɜɵɡɜɚɧɧɵɯɧɟ
ɡɧɚɧɢɟɦɬɟɯɩɪɚɜɢɥɝɪɚɦɦɚɬɢɤɢɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɛɭɞɭɬɨɬɪɚɛɚɬɵɜɚɬɶɫɹɜɩɨ
ɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɯɭɪɨɤɚɯ
ȼɝɪɚɦɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯɭɩɪɚɠɧɟɧɢɹɯɨɬɪɚɛɚɬɵɜɚɸɬɫɹɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɢ
ɩɪɢɫɭɳɢɟɧɚɭɱɧɨ-ɬɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɥɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɟɇɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɢɡɧɢɯɧɟɯɚ
ɪɚɤɬɟɪɧɵɞɥɹɞɪɭɝɢɯɫɮɟɪɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹɹɡɵɤɚɧɨɢɯɡɧɚɧɢɟɧɟɨɛ
ɯɨɞɢɦɨɞɥɹɩɨɧɢɦɚɧɢɹɥɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɵɩɨɫɩɟɰɢɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ
Ʉɨɦɦɭɧɢɤɚɬɢɜɧɚɹ ɡɚɞɚɱɚ ɭɱɟɛɧɢɤɚ – ɜɵɪɚɛɨɬɤɚ ɧɚɜɵɤɨɜ
ɤɨɦɦɭɧɢɤɚɰɢɢ ɜ ɫɮɟɪɟ ɩɪɨɮɟɫɫɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ
ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɢɜɚɸɬɮɨɧɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɩɨɧɹɬɧɵɣɥɟɤɫɢɱɟɫɤɢɬɨɱɧɵɣɢɝɪɚɦ
ɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɩɪɚɜɢɥɶɧɵɣɨɛɦɟɧɧɚɭɱɧɨ-ɬɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɟɣ
Ɋɚɡɞɟɥɵ Phonetic exercise ɢ Communication exercises ɧɚɩɢ
ɫɚɧɵ ɜ ɫɨɚɜɬɨɪɫɬɜɟ ɫ ɡɚɜɟɞɭɸɳɟɣ ɤɚɮɟɞɪɨɣ ɢɧɨɫɬɪɚɧɧɵɯ ɹɡɵɤɨɜ
ɋɉɛȽȺɋɍɤɚɧɞɢɞɚɬɨɦɩɟɞɚɝɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯɧɚɭɤɞɨɰɟɧɬɨɦɆȼɉɪɨɰɭɬɨ
4
5
Ⱥ. ɋ. Ƚɥɟɛɨɜɫɤɢɣ
Partௗ. Civil Architecture
Unit 3.1
Phonetic exercise
ɉɪɨɱɢɬɚɣɬɟɬɪɚɧɫɤɪɢɩɰɢɸɜɫɩɢɫɤɟAɫɨɨɬɧɟɫɢɬɟɟɺɫɫɨɨɬɜɟɬ
ɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɦɫɥɨɜɨɦɢɡɫɩɢɫɤɚB ɢɩɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɫɥɨɜɨɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤ
ɍɱɬɢɬɟɱɬɨɧɟɜɫɟɫɥɨɜɚɫɩɢɫɤɚȼɞɚɧɵɜɫɩɢɫɤɟȺ
A
['fIksCq]; [jH'naIt]; [trq'vWs]; ['xgrIgIt]; ['skaIlIt];
['pWmqnqnt]; [pq'vIljqn]; [trxnz'vWs]; ['jHnItI]; ['skaIlaIt]
B
traverse n
permanent skylit
feature
traverse v
unite
aggregate n aggregate v scarlet
pavilion
transverse
unity
skylight
fixture
unit
Ɍɟɤɫɬ Ⱥ
Abteiberg Municipal Museum, Mönchengladbach, Germany
The Abteiberg Museum was designed by Hans Hollein and completed in 1982.
It was a complex commission, made more difficult by the need for
the museum to serve urban as well as aesthetic ends. Hollein has linked
Mönchengladbach’s town centre on the heights with the medieval Ettal
Abbey on the slopes below, assembling a multi-tiered museum from a
series of discrete elements of different sizes and shapes that provide a series of delightfully varied indoor and outdoor rooms. Distributing the individual volumes in space rather than containing them within a monolithic
whole allowed him to maintain the picturesque scale of the town; at the
subterranean level the disparate sections are united.
6
From the town, one enters the museum precinct via an elevated
walkway that leads to a stone-faced platform on which is set a tower containing administrative offices; a cubic, top-lighted undivided volume for
temporary displays; the shedroofed, zinc-clad “cloverleaf” pavilion for
the permanent collection; and the entrance temple. The platform also covers museum spaces excavated into the hill, and from it, one can descend
gradually to curving terraces, decorated with sculpture, that border the
gardens of the former abbey; beneath a portion of the terraces are additional exhibition areas.
Upstairs and downstairs, under- and above-ground, the variously
shaped galleries illuminated by manifold means – daylight through windows and skylights and artificial light via incandescent, neon, and fluorescent fixtures – permit individual works of art to be perceived in the
setting most sympathetic to the artists’ intentions. The most organized part
of the display areas comprises what Hollein calls the “cloverleaf” –
a group of seven “kissing squares” that are traversed at the corners. Set
under saw-toothed skylights, these rooms are ideal for big pieces of art.
There are also curved rooms, some with undulating walls that are positively Baroque in character; double-height spaces and circular steps add
further drama.
Although marble clads some of the surfaces, it is combined with less
elevated masonry materials like brick and sandstone. Reflective as well
as transparent glass appears; zinc is placed beside chromium and steel.
One side of the temple-like pavilion that forms the main entrance sports
graffiti in red paint, matching the color of some of the railings.
Notes:
abbey ['xbI] n ɚɛɛɚɬɫɬɜɨ, ɦɨɧɚɫɬɵɪɶ
assemble [q'sembql] v ɫɨɛɢɪɚɬɶ, ɦɨɧɬɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ
Baroque [bq'rPk / bq'qVk] a ɜ ɫɬɢɥɟ ɛɚɪɨɤɤɨ
chromium ['krqVmIqm] n ɯɪɨɦ
cloverleaf ['klqVvqlJf] n ɤɥɟɜɟɪɧɵɣ ɥɢɫɬ, ɮɨɪɦɚ ɤɥɟɜɟɪɧɨɝɨ ɥɢɫɬɚ
delightfully [dI'laItfqlI] ɫɦ. delight
distribute [dI'strIbjHt] v ɪɚɫɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɬɶ
downstairs ["daVn'steqz] adv ɜɧɢɡɭɧɚ ɧɢɠɧɟɦɷɬɚɠɟ
excavate ['ekskqveIt] v ɜɵɤɚɩɵɜɚɬɶɡɚɤɚɩɵɜɚɬɶ
graffiti [grx'fJtI] n ɧɚɞɩɢɫɶ ɧɚ ɫɬɟɧɟ, ɝɪɚɮɮɢɬɢ
incandescent ["Inkxn'desqnt] n ɥɚɦɩɚ ɧɚɤɚɥɢɜɚɧɢɹ
kissing ['kIsIN] a ɰɟɥɭɸɳɢɣɫɹ, ɫɨɩɪɢɤɚɫɚɸɳɢɣɫɹ
7
multi-tiered ["mAltI'taIqd] a ɦɧɨɝɨɹɪɭɫɧɵɣ
municipal [mjH'nIsIpql] a ɦɭɧɢɰɢɩɚɥɶɧɵɣ, ɝɨɪɨɞɫɤɨɣ
neon ['nJPn] a ɧɟɨɧɨɜɵɣ
reflective [rI'flektIv] a ɨɬɪɚɠɚɸɳɢɣ
shedroofed ['Sed"rHft] a ɫ ɨɞɧɨɫɤɚɬɧɨɣ ɤɪɵɲɟɣ
subterranean ["sAbtq'reInIqn] a ɩɨɞɡɟɦɧɵɣ
temporary ['tempqrqrI] a ɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɣ
upstairs ["Ap'steqz] adv ɧɚɜɟɪɯɭ, ɧɚ ɜɟɪɯɧɟɦ ɷɬɚɠɟ
zinc [zINk] n ɰɢɧɤ
Answer the following questions
1. Who was the Abteiberg Museum designed by?
2. Why was it a complex commission?
3. How did Hans Hollein? unite the disparate sections of the multi-tiered
museum?
4. What is there upstairs?
5. What is there downstairs?
6. How is the interior illuminated?
7. What does Hollein call the “cloverleaf”?
8. What is the building clad with?
Vocabulary exercises
ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤɩɪɢɜɟɞɟɧɧɵɟɧɢɠɟɫɥɨɜɚɢɫɥɨ
ɜɨɫɨɱɟɬɚɧɢɹɄɚɤɢɟɢɡɩɟɪɟɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɵɯɫɥɨɜɦɨɝɭɬɛɵɬɶɞɪɭɝɢɦɢɱɚ
ɫɬɹɦɢɪɟɱɢ"Ʉɚɤɢɦɢɢɦɟɧɧɨ"Ʉɚɤ ɨɧɢ ɜ ɷɬɨɦ ɫɥɭɱɚɟ ɩɟɪɟɜɨɞɹɬɫɹ ɧɚ
ɪɭɫɫɤɢɣ ɹɡɵɤ?
artificial (a), artificiality (n), border (n, v), clad (v), daylight (n), descend
(v), discrete (a), exhibition (n), fixture (n), fluorescent (a), indoor (a), intention (n), match (v), monolithic (a), pavilion (n), permanent (a), railings
(n), skylight (n), sport (n, v), sympathetic (a), transparent (a), traverse (v),
unite (v), via (prep), walkway (n).
ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟ ɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɟ ɫɥɨɜɚ ɢ ɫɥɨɜɨɫɨɱɟɬɚɧɢɹ ɧɚ ɚɧɝɥɢɣ
ɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤ
ɛɥɢɡɤɢɣɩɨɞɭɯɭɜɧɭɬɪɟɧɧɢɣɤɪɵɬɵɣ ɜɵɫɬɚɜɤɚɜɵɫɬɚɜɥɹɬɶɧɚɩɨ
ɤɚɡ ɳɟɝɨɥɹɬɶ ɱɟɦ-ɥ); ɝɪɚɧɢɱɢɬɶ ɨɤɚɣɦɥɹɬɶ ɞɨɩɨɥɧɹɬɶ ɟɞɢɧɵɣ
8
ɟɫɬɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɟɨɫɜɟɳɟɧɢɟ ɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣ ɧɚɦɟɪɟ
ɧɢɟ ɩɥɚɧɵ ɨɛɥɢɰɨɜɵɜɚɬɶ ɩɨɤɪɵɜɚɬɶ ɨɛɴɟɞɢɧɹɬɶ ɫɨɟɞɢɧɹɬɶ ɨɬ
ɞɟɥɶɧɵɣ (ɜɵɫɬɚɜɨɱɧɵɣ ɩɚɜɢɥɶɨɧ ɱɚɫɬɶ ɡɞɚɧɢɹ ɩɟɪɟɫɟɤɚɬɶ ɩɟ
ɪɢɥɚ ɩɟɲɟɯɨɞɧɚɹ ɞɨɪɨɠɤɚ ɩɨɫɬɨɹɧɧɵɣ ɩɪɢɛɨɪ ɩɪɨɡɪɚɱɧɵɣ
ɫɟɫɬɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɦɨɫɜɟɳɟɧɢɟɦɫɜɟɬɨɜɨɣɮɨɧɚɪɶɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɨɜɚɬɶɫɨ
ɱɟɬɚɬɶɫɹ ɫɩɭɫɤɚɬɶɫɹ ɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɚɫɩɨɫɨɛɮɥɭɨɪɟɫɰɟɧɬɧɵɣ ɱɟɪɟɡɫɩɨ
ɦɨɳɶɸɩɨɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɨɦ
ɉɟɪɟɱɢɫɥɢɬɟ ɭɩɨɦɹɧɭɬɵɟ ɜ ɬɟɤɫɬɟ ɚɪɯɢɬɟɤɬɭɪɧɵɟ ɬɟɪɦɢɧɵ
ɢɩɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɢɯɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤ.
Ʉɚɤɢɟɢɡɭɤɚɡɚɧɧɵɯɩɟɪɟɜɨɞɨɜɫɥɨɜɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹɨɲɢɛɨɱɧɵɦɢ
ɍɤɚɠɢɬɟɩɪɚɜɢɥɶɧɵɣɩɟɪɟɜɨɞ.
barren lack ɱɚɫɬɢɱɧɨɟɨɬɫɭɬɫɬɜɢɟ
border ɨɤɚɣɦɥɹɬɶ
contain ɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɬɶ
distinct ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɣɪɚɡɧɵɣ
existence ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɨɜɚɧɢɟ
front ɜɵɯɨɞɢɬɶɧɚ
outdoor ɜɧɟɲɧɢɣ
reflection ɪɚɡɦɵɲɥɟɧɢɟ
select ɩɨɞɛɢɪɚɬɶ
sport ɳɟɝɨɥɹɬɶ
through ɱɟɪɟɡ
volume ɨɛɴɟɦ
5. Ⱦɚɣɬɟ ɫɢɧɨɧɢɦɵ ɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɯ ɫɥɨɜ:
clad, discrete, indoor, match, permanent, select, unite, walkway.
ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɟɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹɨɛɪɚɳɚɹɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟɧɚ
ɮɭɧɤɰɢɢɢɧɮɢɧɢɬɢɜɚɢɢɧɮɢɧɢɬɢɜɧɵɟɨɛɨɪɨɬɵ
1. The interiors are designed to be as light as possible to enhance the
space.
2. One of the key aims with the project was to take advantage of the surrounding natural environment.
3. For the walls to be decorative, they, even when of granite, were generally covered with a fine plaster, in which were executed low reliefs,
treated with bright color.
4. Private individuals and companies want to enhance the overall historic
environment of a community.
9
5. The square cleverly uses the slope of the land to create a multi-functional space surrounded by sculptures.
6. Birmingham plans to create other new squares endowed with sculpture
and enclosed by decorated façades.
7. It was a complex commission, made more difficult by the need for the
museum to serve urban as well as aesthetic ends.
8. Distributing the individual volumes in space rather than containing
them within a monolithic whole allowed him to maintain the picturesque scale of the town
ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹɨɛɪɚɳɚɹɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟɧɚ
ɜɢɞɨ-ɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɭɸɮɨɪɦɭɫɤɚɡɭɟɦɨɝɨ
1. When Christian church was officially accepted house churches were
replaced, sometimes on the same site, by buildings based on the Roman basilica.
2. Instead of copying the classical Greek temple, the Romans started to
erect arches in masonry and to combine them into domes.
3. Transformation and change in cities have been, for the most part, advancing, occurring gradually over long periods of time.
4. Lynch was interested in the way in which the city is perceived.
5. As projects become more numerous, so also are they getting bigger –
often dealing with whole neighbourhoods or parts of cities.
6. The animal sculptures, which dominate the main street and the square,
continue to please the residents
7. While such collective elements as windows, staircases, heating equipment and kitchen were unified, they were left with flexible (ɝɢɛɤɢɣ),
open space which the dwellers have used in all sorts of individual
ways.
8. There are vany examples of the urban spaces which have done much
to re-establish the pleasure of walking along streets.
9. As the world is changing so is the architecture.
3. Ɉɩɪɟɞɟɥɢɬɟɤɤɚɤɨɣɱɚɫɬɢɪɟɱɢɨɬɧɨɫɹɬɫɹɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɟɫɥɨɜɚ
ɨɬɤɚɤɢɯɫɥɨɜɢɫɩɨɦɨɳɶɸɤɚɤɢɯɫɭɮɮɢɤɫɨɜɨɧɢɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɧɵɉɟɪɟ
ɜɟɞɢɬɟ ɧɚ ɪɭɫɫɤɢɣ ɹɡɵɤ ɢɫɯɨɞɧɵɟ ɢ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɧɵɟ ɫɥɨɜɚ.
acceptable, admirable, artful, attractive, central, colourful, constructive,
creative, cylindrical, decorative, delightful, directional, environmental,
European, functional, Georgian, identifiable, Italian, recognizable, relative, Roman, skillful, useful.
10
4. ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟ ɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɟ ɫɥɨɜɨɫɨɱɟɬɚɧɢɹ.
animal sculpture, city building, city square, corner site, corner treatment,
danger source, design skill, double-height space, entrance temple, exhibition area, location advantage, museum precinct, street furniture, street
junction, town centre, unity lack, water feature.
Ɍɟɤɫɬ ȼ
The Neues Museum was the second of five museums to be built on
Berlin’s Museum Island, now a world heritage site. It was completed in
1855 but was severely damaged in the Second World War and lay derelict
for many years. After five years of rigorous work the Museum reopened
in 2009.
The task was defined by the architects as one of repair rather than
restoration. The interiors were highly decorated and any remaining fragments of the surviving fabric have been conserved. Large lost sections of
the building have been infilled with new construction using precast concrete to distinguish it from the existing.
The most dramatic interventions inevitably occur where wartime
damage was greatest such as in the Egyptian Courtyard where sculptures
will be displayed beneath a flood of natural light. Only two walls of the
courtyard are original and the other two have been constructed in reclaimed brick to match. The glass courtyard roof has a lattice structure of
concrete beams supported on ten extremely slender 24-metre high concrete columns. A free-standing platform divides the space in two vertically sheltering a 9-metre high gallery beneath.
The columns and beams have been sandblasted so they have a matt,
stone-like surface. In contrast, the floor is paved with the same concrete
but with a polished finish so the stone aggregate is much more apparent.
Around the platform laminated glass balustrades extend up three
metres to define a more intimate space within the larger volume. The
edges of the glass are protected with bronze T-sections that frame each
side of the space.
The warm colour of the concrete tones with the buff brick walls,
softening the light and making a serene centrepiece to the Egyptian collection.
11
Notes:
buff brick ɫɦ brick
derelict ['derIlIkt] a ɡɚɛɪɨɲɟɧɧɵɣ
matt [mxt] a ɦɚɬɨɜɵɣ
reopen [rI'qVpqn] ɫɦ. resandblast ['sxndblRst] v ɨɱɢɳɚɬɶ ɩɟɫɤɨɫɬɪɭɣɧɵɦ ɚɩɩɚɪɚɬɨɦ
Grammar exercises
Ʉɚɤɢɟ ɜɢɞɨ-ɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɟ ɮɨɪɦɵ ɝɥɚɝɨɥɚ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɵ
ɜɬɟɤɫɬɟ"
2. ɇɚɣɞɢɬɟɜɬɟɤɫɬɟɢɧɮɢɧɢɬɢɜɵɈɩɪɟɞɟɥɢɬɟɢɯɮɭɧɤɰɢɢɢɩɟ
ɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɢɯɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤ
ɇɚɣɞɢɬɟɜɬɟɤɫɬɟɝɪɭɩɩɵɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɯɢɩɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɢɯ
ɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤ
ɉɪɨɚɧɚɥɢɡɢɪɭɣɬɟɩɨɞɱɺɪɤɧɭɬɨɟɜɬɟɤɫɬɟɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɟɜɵɞɟ
ɥɢɬɟɜɧɺɦɩɨɞɥɟɠɚɳɟɟɫɤɚɡɭɟɦɨɟɢɜɬɨɪɨɫɬɟɩɟɧɧɵɟɱɥɟɧɵ ɢɭɤɚ
ɠɢɬɟɱɚɫɬɶɪɟɱɢɤɨɬɨɪɨɣɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹɷɬɢɱɥɟɧɵɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹ
A
ɱɚɫɬɶ
ɫɩɨɤɨɣɧɵɣ
ɫɨɯɪɚɧɹɬɶ
ɫɥɨɢɫɬɵɣ
ɫɤɪɭɩɭɥɺɡɧɵɣ
ɫɛɨɪɧɵɣɛɟɬɨɧ
ɪɟɲɺɬɱɚɬɚɹ
ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɹ
ɪɟɫɬɚɜɪɚɰɢɹ
B
aggregate
conserve
fragment
heritage
infill
intervention
intimate
laminated
A
ɩɨɥɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɣ
ɧɚɫɥɟɞɢɟ
ɤɚɦɟɪɧɵɣ
ɡɚɩɨɥɧɹɬɶ
ɡɚɩɨɥɧɢɬɟɥɶ
ɡɚɞɚɱɚ
ɝɚɪɦɨɧɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ
ɜɦɟɲɚɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɨ
3. ɇɚɩɢɲɢɬɟ ɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹ ɫ ɤɚɠɞɵɦ ɢɡ ɩɟɪɟɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɵɯ ɧɢɠɟ
ɫɥɨɜ
conserve – conservation
respond – response
Pair work
ɋɬɭɞɟɧɬ&Ɂɚɞɚɣɬɟ5 ɜɨɩɪɨɫɨɜɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɯɬɢɩɨɜɤɬɟɤɫɬɭB.
ɋɬɭɞɟɧɬ'Ɉɬɜɟɬɶɬɟɧɚɜɨɩɪɨɫɵɤɬɟɤɫɬɭɫɬɭɞɟɧɬɚ&
ɋɬɭɞɟɧɬɵ&ɢ'ɉɨɦɟɧɹɣɬɟɫɶɪɨɥɹɦɢ
Vocabulary exercises
ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤɩɪɢɜɟɞɺɧɧɵɟɧɢɠɟɫɥɨɜɚȿɫɥɢ
ȼɵɧɟɡɧɚɟɬɟɫɥɨɜɨɧɚɣɞɢɬɟɟɝɨɜɫɥɨɜɚɪɟȼɵɩɢɲɢɬɟɢɡɫɥɨɜɚɪɹɬɨ
ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟɫɥɨɜɚɜɤɨɬɨɪɨɦɨɧɨɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɨɜɬɟɤɫɬɟ
aggregate (n), centrepiece (n), conserve (v), fragment (n), world heritage
site, infill (n), intervention (n), intimate (a), island (n), laminated glass,
lattice (n), polished (a), precast concrete, restoration (n), rigorous (a), serene (a), soften (v), task (n), tone (v), wartime (n).
2. ɇɚɣɞɢɬɟɩɟɪɟɜɨɞɫɥɨɜɫɩɢɫɤɚȺɜɫɩɢɫɤɟȼ
12
B
lattice structure
polished
precast
concrete
restoration
rigorous
serene
task
tone
13
Unit 3.2
Phonetic exercise
ɉɪɨɱɢɬɚɣɬɟɬɪɚɧɫɤɪɢɩɰɢɸɜɫɩɢɫɤɟAɫɨɨɬɧɟɫɢɬɟɟɺɫɫɨɨɬɜɟɬ
ɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɦɫɥɨɜɨɦɢɡɫɩɢɫɤɚB ɢɩɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɫɥɨɜɨɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤ
ɍɱɬɢɬɟɱɬɨɧɟɜɫɟɫɥɨɜɚɫɩɢɫɤɚȼɞɚɧɵɜɫɩɢɫɤɟȺ
A
[rI'fleksIv]; ["sWkjV'leISqn]; ["elI'veISqn]; ['peISqnt]; ['saIzqbql];
['teksCq]; [kqn'sWv]; [sI'rJn]; [Ik'stIqrIq]; ["prJ'kRst].
B
circulation
conserve
elation
exterior
patent
precast
reflective
seizable
serene
texture
circulatory
sizable
reflexive
patient
elevation
The interior was organised so that it seemed a gentle and withdrawn
inner courtyard protected by the forms of the building. The only internal
“corridor” forms an additional insulating barrier between the exterior and
the medical departments on both levels. The flowing form of the building
is like a soft white armour with a double curve, composed of panels that
bring new architectural qualities and brightness to an area dominated by
the strong linear character of the roads that cross it. For the pedestrians,
the momentary views toward the interior between the curved panels, the
low vegetation surrounding the centre and the coloured glass openings of
the most sizable panel are factors that give the building a human scale.
The entrance is emphasised by an alteration in the facade and by the creation of vertical panels made of materials with strong textures and colours.
The use of these materials at the front emphasises the warmth of the interior, in contrast with the solid protective nature of the facade, and the
building becomes welcoming.
The organisation of the internal circulation is one of the basic elements that must be taken into account so that the patients can understand
it easily. The project was thus devised with the intention that the sequence
“entrance-reception-waiting room-outpatients” was obvious and one-directional, without the labyrinth of corridors that often disorient users. On
the other hand, the departments of general medicine and the care wards
were planned so that they made full use of the space for circulation and
movement.
Ɍɟɤɫɬ Ⱥ
Doctors’ Surgery in West London
This clinic was designed with a strong and reflexive form in order
to offer the occupants protection from the noise and pollution generated
by the nearby Hammersmith roundabout and flyover. The facade is broken down into curved overlapping panels that leave a free space between
them framing the views of the exterior.
The south elevation of the building is entirely glazed, and looks over
a peaceful closed courtyard that can only be seen from the interior. The
privacy is maintained with the curve and, in spite of the glass, from this
courtyard there are no direct views toward any of the rooms.
14
FIGURE 1 Section of the clinic
(from Architectural Design Magazine “New health facilities” [3])
15
Notes:
armour ['Rmq] n ɤɨɥɶɱɭɝɚ, ɞɨɫɩɟɯɢ
barrier ['bxrIq] n (ɢɡɨɥɢɪɭɸɳɢɣ) ɫɥɨɣ
brightness ['braItnIs] n ɹɪɤɨɫɬɶ, ɛɥɟɫɤ
clinic ['klInIk] n ɤɥɢɧɢɤɚ, ɥɟɱɟɛɧɢɰɚ
disorient [dIs'LrIqnt] v ɞɟɡɨɪɢɟɧɬɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ, ɫɛɢɜɚɬɶ ɫ ɬɨɥɤɭ
flyover ['flaIqVvq] n ɷɫɬɚɤɚɞɚ, ɩɭɬɟɩɪɨɜɨɞ
general medicine ['Genqrql 'medsqn@ɨɛɳɚɹɬɟɪɚɩɢɹ
momentary ['mqVmqntqrI] a ɤɪɚɬɤɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɣ, ɦɨɦɟɧɬɚɥɶɧɵɣ
reflexive [rI'fleksIv] a ɢɡɨɝɧɭɬɵɣ
surgery ['sWGqrI] n ɯɢɪɭɪɝɢɹ
waiting room ['weItIN "rHm] n ɩɪɢɺɦɧɚɹ (ɜɪɚɱɚ)
withdrawn [wID'drLn] a ɭɟɞɢɧɺɧɧɵɣ, ɢɡɨɥɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɣ
Answer the following questions
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
What was the purpose of the strong and reflexive form of the clinic?
How is the facade treated?
What does the glazing of the south elevation provide?
How does the interior design add to the protection from the exterior?
What gives the building a human scale?
How is the entrance emphasised?
Why is the organisation of the internal circulation so important?
How were the departments of general medicine and the care wards
planned?
Vocabulary exercises
ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤɩɪɢɜɟɞɟɧɧɵɟɧɢɠɟɫɥɨɜɚɢɫɥɨ
ɜɨɫɨɱɟɬɚɧɢɹɄɚɤɢɟɢɡɩɟɪɟɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɵɯɫɥɨɜɦɨɝɭɬɛɵɬɶɞɪɭɝɢɦɢɱɚ
ɫɬɹɦɢɪɟɱɢ"Ʉɚɤɢɦɢɢɦɟɧɧɨ"Ʉɚɤ ɨɧɢ ɜ ɷɬɨɦ ɫɥɭɱɚɟ ɩɟɪɟɜɨɞɹɬɫɹ ɧɚ
ɪɭɫɫɤɢɣ ɹɡɵɤ?
care ward, circulation (n), department (n), elevation (n), in spite of (adv),
insulating (a), labyrinth (n), medical (a), nearby (a), occupant (n), organisation (n), outpatients (n), patient (n), peaceful (a), privacy (n), protection
(n), protective reception (n), roundabout (n), sizable (a), soft (a), texture
(n), warmth (n).
16
ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟ ɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɟ ɫɥɨɜɚ ɢ ɫɥɨɜɨɫɨɱɟɬɚɧɢɹ ɧɚ ɚɧɝɥɢɣ
ɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤ
ɚɦɛɭɥɚɬɨɪɧɨɟɨɬɞɟɥɟɧɢɟɛɥɢɡɥɟɠɚɳɢɣɡɚɳɢɬɚɡɚɳɢɬɧɵɣɨɝɪɚɞɢ
ɬɟɥɶɧɵɣ ɢɡɨɥɹɰɢɨɧɧɵɣ ɥɚɛɢɪɢɧɬ ɦɟɞɢɰɢɧɫɤɢɣ ɦɹɝɤɢɣ ɝɢɛɤɢɣ
ɧɟɫɦɨɬɪɹɧɚɨɛɢɬɚɬɟɥɶɨɬɞɟɥɟɧɢɟɛɨɥɶɧɢɰɵ); ɩɚɥɚɬɚɩɚɰɢɟɧɬɩɟ
ɪɟɦɟɳɟɧɢɟɩɨɬɨɤɢɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɹɩɟɲɟɯɨɞɩɥɨɳɚɞɶɫɤɪɭɝɨɜɵɦɞɜɢɠɟ
ɧɢɟɦ ɩɨɞɯɨɞɹɳɟɝɨ ɪɚɡɦɟɪɚ ɩɨɞɱɟɪɤɢɜɚɬɶ ɜɵɞɟɥɹɬɶ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɨɜɚ
ɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɶɩɪɢɺɦɧɚɹɪɟɝɢɫɬɪɚɬɭɪɚɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɬɶɜɨɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟɫɩɨɤɨɣ
ɧɵɣɬɟɤɫɬɭɪɚɮɚɤɬɭɪɚɬɟɩɥɨɭɟɞɢɧɟɧɢɟɭɟɞɢɧɺɧɧɨɫɬɶɮɚɫɚɞ
ɉɟɪɟɱɢɫɥɢɬɟɭɩɨɦɹɧɭɬɵɟɜɬɟɤɫɬɟɚɪɯɢɬɟɤɬɭɪɧɵɟɬɟɪɦɢɧɵɢ
ɩɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɢɯɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤ
Ʉɚɤɢɟɢɡɭɤɚɡɚɧɧɵɯɩɟɪɟɜɨɞɨɜɫɥɨɜɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹɨɲɢɛɨɱɧɵɦɢ
ɍɤɚɠɢɬɟɩɪɚɜɢɥɶɧɵɣɩɟɪɟɜɨɞ
glazed ɫɬɟɤɥɹɧɧɵɣ
heritage ɧɚɫɥɟɞɢɟ
intervention ɜɦɟɲɚɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɨ
lattice ɥɨɬɨɫ
maintain ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɢɜɚɬɶ
nearby ɫɨɫɟɞɧɢɣ
pedestrian ɩɟɲɟɯɨɞ
rigorous ɫɤɪɭɩɭɥɺɡɧɵɣ
serene ɛɟɡɦɹɬɟɠɧɵɣ
tone ɝɚɪɦɨɧɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ
vegetation ɪɚɫɬɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɶ
welcoming ɞɨɛɪɨɠɟɥɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɣ
5Ɂɚɩɨɥɧɢɬɟɩɪɨɩɭɫɤɢɜɬɟɤɫɬɟɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɹɫɥɨɜɚɢɡɩɪɢɜɟɞɺɧ
ɧɨɝɨɧɢɠɟɫɩɢɫɤɚȾɜɚ ɫɥɨɜɚ ɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɥɢɲɧɢɦɢ.
around
as
between
daylight
despite
for
in addition
limit
particular
that
through
views
The Kensington Creative and Performing Arts High School
Since the site is located (1) … two very different neighbourhoods of
Fishtown (rapidly developing) and South Kensington (industrial), one
goal of the project was to create a school to help unify these communities.
It was critical (2) … the school be a welcoming, and transparent structure,
17
engaging the exterior space (3) … it. (4) …, the site and building were
designed to encourage community use, showing green design principles
important for this (5) …. neighbourhood.
Site difficulties included the EL (ɧɚɞɡɟɦɧɚɹɠɟɥɟɡɧɚɹɞɨɪɨɝɚ) (6)
… the elevated railway and station create a significant visual presence.
The school design developed spatial, acoustic (ɡɜɭɤɨɩɨɝɥɨɳɚɸɳɢɣ) and
daylight concepts to function well (7) … the EL. The U-shaped school
building allows (8) … to reach far into each classroom, decreasing lighting loads (ɧɚɝɪɭɡɤɢ). Acoustic needs of classrooms are met by placing
them away from noise sources. The building’s central part creates a compact, easy to find your way school building, offering (9) … to landscaped
courtyards, green roofs and site amenities. The U-shape also surrounds a
small, protected garden area (10) … classes.
Grammar exercises
1. ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɟɬɟɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɟɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹɨɛɪɚɳɚɹɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟɧɚ
ɨɛɨɪɨɬthere + to be.
1. Though there is now a deliberate and conscientious effort to preserve
the historic culture of the country the architectural design of the city is
yet to emerge.
2. .In Birmingham there has been a major effort to revive the city centre.
3. The Zeil in Frankfurt is a pedestrian shopping centre where there has
been an attempt to make whole the city centre through the use of utilitarian street furniture, sculpture and trees.
4. There seem to be two main ways in which hillside development can be
successfully treated.
5. There have been other times, when the corner was not celebrated.
6. There are curved rooms, some with undulating walls that are positively
Baroque in character The privacy is maintained with the curve and,
despite the glass, from this courtyard there are no direct views toward
any of the rooms.
7. There was no guarantee (ɝɚɪɚɧɬɢɹ) that the plan would be efficient or
that its architectural audacity, careful scale, and sense of balance will
be respected.
8. The building height in the historic core of Tavira is generally two storeys, about 8 metres high, though there are both single and three-storey
buildings.
18
2. ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɟɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹɨɛɪɚɳɚɹɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟɧɚ
ɤɨɧɜɟɪɫɢɸ
1. The 16th Street Mall in Denver, Colorado, also illustrates the use of a
decorated environment to enrich and bring life back to a downtown.
2. A river out of control is an awesome sight, a source of great danger.
3. the treatment of the corner is often a sign of the quality and mastery of
the designer.
4. The building rests on a grey limestone plinth
5. The interiors were highly decorated and any remaining fragments of
the surviving fabric have been conserved.
6. Large lost sections of the building have been infilled with new construction using precast concrete to distinguish it from the existing.
7. The glass courtyard roof has a lattice structure of concrete beams supported on ten extremely slender 24-metre high concrete columns.
8. one can descend gradually to curving terraces, decorated with sculpture, that border the gardens of the former church.
9. One side of the temple-like pavilion that forms the main entrance
sports graffiti in red paint, matching the color of some of the railings.
10. High ceilings, modern windows, and large basement spaces provide
current occupants the opportunity to reduce energy costs associated
with heating.
3. ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹɨɛɪɚɳɚɹɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟɧɚɩɪɢɱɚɫɬɢɟ,,
1. The Abteiberg Museum was designed by Hans Hollein and completed
in 1982.
2. After Wren’s plan for London after the Great Fire was rejected, the
area immediately surrounding St Paul’s was planned as a series of
small-scale, linked spaces with an arcade at ground- floor level.
3. From the town, one enters the museum precinct via an elevated walkway that leads to a stone-faced platform
4. The frame of a Greek temple, made of columns and lintels, was based
on the weight carried by the columns and the strength of the stone
5. The most organized part of the display areas comprises a group of
seven squares that are traversed at the corners.
6. Two walls of the courtyard are original and the other two have been
constructed in reclaimed brick to match.
19
7. The flowing form of the building is like a soft white shell with a double
curve, composed of panels that bring new architectural qualities and
brightness to an area dominated by the strong linear character of the
roads that cross it.
8. Each column possesses its own corresponding pilaster attached to the
curved temple wall.
9. The strong asymmetry (ɚɫɢɦɦɟɬɪɢɱɧɨɫɬɶ), based on a simple local
model, seems strange at first.
10. The chief sub-interest of the design is the arched opening of the centre of the first floor with the clock and supporting figures.
The dwelling is enclosed by two glass wings, the first of which, at a
height of 3 metres, forms the volume containing the four bedrooms and
their respective bathrooms. This module comprises one of the sides of a
completely enclosed garden, which has a square lawn lying over a border
of black gravel.
The glass volume which houses the sitting room is the tallest, thus
highlighting the steel sheet which comprises the floating roof. The main
space enjoys breathtaking views across the lake to the west, toward the
island, as much a focal point by night as by day.
4. ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɩɪɢɜɟɞɟɧɧɵɟɧɢɠɟɫɥɨɜɚɈɛɪɚɡɭɣɬɟɨɬɧɢɯɫɭ
ɳɟɫɬɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɟ ɫ ɩɨɦɨɳɶɸ ɢɡɭɱɟɧɧɵɯ ɫɭɮɮɢɤɫɨɜ. ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟ ɧɚ
ɪɭɫɫɤɢɣ ɹɡɵɤ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɧɵɟ ɫɥɨɜɚ.
active, adjust, admit, aware, base, create, define, elevate, embellish, employ, equal, exact, expand, extend, govern, horizontal, illuminate, intersect, move, organize, possible, reduce, reflect, rich, safe, similar, strange,
transform, transit, use, ventilate.
Ɍɟɤɫɬ ȼ
Skywood House, Middlessex, UK
This home's plot, carved into a densely populated zone, was subject
to zoning laws which restricted the surface area available for construction
to 250 sqm. The architect set out to create a “glass box” in the forest, a
structure whose boundaries between interior and exterior would be
blurred, where water would play a leading role.
The house, lying before the shores of a lake, is reached via a black
gravel walkway which winds around the house, ending at the main patio
at the back. The building rests on a grey limestone plinth, its bare, undecorated surface highlighting its simple shapes. Frameless glass doors covered by a pergola, a design echoed in the entrance to the garage, form the
main entryway. A noteworthy element in the exterior space is the main
chimney, which hides the drainage system, the pipes and the ventilation
system within a single unit. The dwelling is unified by long, 3-metre-high
walls which reach beyond the enclosed spaces toward the lake and surrounding terrain, thus defining footpaths. This minimalist expression contrasts with the wealth of the landscape, creating a serene, yet wonderful,
experience.
20
FIGURE 2 Site plan of the house
(from Architectural Design Magazine “New Country Houses” [3])
Notes:
be subject to ['sAbGIkt] ɩɨɞɩɚɞɚɬɶ ɩɨɞ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟ
blur [blW] v ɫɬɢɪɚɬɶ, ɢɡɝɥɚɠɢɜɚɬɶ
drainage system ['dreInIG "sIstqm] ɫɢɫɬɟɦɚ ɜɧɭɬɪɢɞɨɦɨɜɨɣ ɤɚɧɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɢ
frameless ['freImlIs] a ɛɟɫɤɚɪɤɚɫɧɵɣ
highlight ['haIlaIt] v ɜɵɞɟɥɹɬɶ, ɨɫɨɛɨ ɩɨɞɱɺɪɤɢɜɚɬɶ
Middlessex [mIdl'esIks] n Ɇɢɞɥɫɟɤɫ (ɝɪɚɮɫɬɜɨ ɜ Ⱥɧɝɥɢɢ)
minimalist ['mInImqlIst] a ɦɢɧɢɦɚɥɢɫɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ
pipe [paIp] n ɬɪɭɛɨɩɪɨɜɨɞ
sqm (square metre) [skweq'mJtq] ɤɜɚɞɪɚɬɧɵɣ ɦɟɬɪ
UK ["jH 'keI] n ȼɟɥɢɤɨɛɪɢɬɚɧɢɹ
zoning law ['zqVnIN "lL@ɡɚɤɨɧɨɞɚɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɨɩɨɜɨɩɪɨɫɚɦɮɭɧɤɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɝɨɡɨ
ɧɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹɝɨɪɨɞɫɤɨɣɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ)
21
Grammar exercises
ɇɚɣɞɢɬɟɜɬɟɤɫɬɟɩɪɢɱɚɫɬɢɹ,,ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɢɬɟɢɯɮɭɧɤɰɢɸɢɩɟ
ɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤ
ɇɚɣɞɢɬɟɜɬɟɤɫɬɟ ɩɪɢɦɟɪɵɤɨɧɜɟɪɫɢɢ ɢ ɩɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɧɚɪɭɫ
ɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤ
Pair work
Unit 3.3
ɋɬɭɞɟɧɬ&Ɂɚɞɚɣɬɟ5 ɜɨɩɪɨɫɨɜɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɯɬɢɩɨɜɤɬɟɤɫɬɭB.
ɋɬɭɞɟɧɬ'Ɉɬɜɟɬɶɬɟɧɚɜɨɩɪɨɫɵɤɬɟɤɫɬɭɫɬɭɞɟɧɬɚ&
ɋɬɭɞɟɧɬɵ&ɢ'ɉɨɦɟɧɹɣɬɟɫɶɪɨɥɹɦɢ
Vocabulary exercises
ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤɩɪɢɜɟɞɺɧɧɵɟɧɢɠɟɫɥɨɜɚȿɫɥɢ
ȼɵɧɟɡɧɚɟɬɟɫɥɨɜɨɧɚɣɞɢɬɟɟɝɨɜɫɥɨɜɚɪɟȼɵɩɢɲɢɬɟɢɡɫɥɨɜɚɪɹɬɨ
ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟɫɥɨɜɚɜɤɨɬɨɪɨɦɨɧɨɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɨɜɬɟɤɫɬɟ
available (a), breathtaking (a), chimney (n), echo (v), enjoy (v), entryway
(n), floating roof, gravel (n), grey (a), module (n), patio (n), pergola (n),
plot (n), respective (a), restrict (v), sheet (n), shore (n), wealth (n), wind
(v), wing (n).
2. ɇɚɣɞɢɬɟɩɟɪɟɜɨɞɫɥɨɜɫɩɢɫɤɚȺɜɫɩɢɫɤɟȼ
A
B
A
B
ɭɱɚɫɬɨɤ
available
ɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɢɜɚɬɶ
floating
ɬɪɭɛɚ
beyond
ɨɝɢɛɚɬɶ
module
ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɣ patio
ɨɛɥɚɞɚɬɶ
plot
ɫɟɤɰɢɹ
boundary
ɥɢɫɬ
respective
ɫɜɨɛɨɞɧɵɣ
breathtaking
ɢɡɭɦɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣ restrict
ɩɨɡɚɞɢ
chimney
ɞɜɨɪɢɤ
sheet
ɩɨɜɬɨɪɹɬɶɫɹ
echo
ɝɪɚɧɢɰɚ
wealth
ɩɥɚɜɚɸɳɢɣ
enjoy
ɛɨɝɚɬɫɬɜɨ
wind
3. ɇɚɩɢɲɢɬɟɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹɫɤɚɠɞɵɦɢɡɩɟɪɟɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɵɯɧɢɠɟɫɥɨɜ
respective – respectively
warm – warmth
22
Phonetic exercise
ɉɪɨɱɢɬɚɣɬɟɬɪɚɧɫɤɪɢɩɰɢɸɜɫɩɢɫɤɟAɫɨɨɬɧɟɫɢɬɟɟɺɫɫɨɨɬɜɟɬ
ɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɦɫɥɨɜɨɦɢɡɫɩɢɫɤɚB ɢɩɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɫɥɨɜɨɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤ
ɍɱɬɢɬɟɱɬɨɧɟɜɫɟɫɥɨɜɚɫɩɢɫɤɚȼɞɚɧɵɜɫɩɢɫɤɟȺ
A
['qVvqhxN]; [Im'perqtIv]; [drRft]; [trxn'spxrqnsI]; ['TWmql];
["kxlkjV'leISqn]; ['Genqrqs]; ["InsjV'leISqn]; [wInd]; [hIt].
B
isolation
drought
hit
wind n
generous
transparency heat
insulation
thermal
calculation
draught
imperative
overhang
generic
wind v
Ɍɟɤɫɬ Ⱥ
Dockland Building in Hamburg
Since 2007, there is a new building in the fishing harbour of Hamburg. The building was designed by BRT Bothe Richter Teherani Architects of Hamburg. The building is designed as an office building and was
erected on a wharf facility.
On account of its ship-like silhouette, the impression results in the
building being a cruise liner moored length-wise at the wharf. The “bow”
overhangs by 40 m across the Elbe river, the “stern” and the roof are publicly accessible via the staircase. The “ship” was not allowed to interrupt
23
the clear view from the nearby “Alton Balcon” and so the building envelope had to be designed as transparently as possible. For this reason, an
indoor climate and façade concept had to be developed that provided for
energy-efficient operation under the conditions of high building envelope
transparency and extra comfort requirement.
For generous glazing of office buildings, an optimum level of winter
and summer heat insulation is imperative. Further, the building needs to
be capable of being ventilated for as long a time period as possible via
opening wings. On account of the prevailing windy conditions a doubleskin façade was designed, which offers the advantage of an exterior solar
protection device even at high wind speeds. Through this, cooling load in
office rooms, at maximum façade transparency, can be nearly halved in
comparison to an inside solar protection and this means that thermal comfort is greatly increased. In addition, the support structure was integrated
into the double-skin façade, which means that it is afforded protection
from the extreme climatic conditions at the site. The outer façade skin
consists of room-high and anti-collapse, line-wise arranged laminated
safety glass and is permanently ventilated. The inside glazing, which is
also at room-height, contains additional, simple, narrow and room-high
pivot windows that allow for low-draught natural ventilation.
On the inclined west side, facing the water, a single-leaf façade was
used since solar radiation calculations had shown that during the hot summer months no direct sunlight would be hitting the inside of the rooms
due to the inclined arrangement of the façade.
cruise liner ["krHz 'laInq@ɤɪɭɢɡɧɵɣɥɚɣɧɟɪ
dockland ['dPklqnd] n ɪɚɣɨɧ ɞɨɤɨɜ
fishing harbour ['fISIN "hRbq] ɪɵɛɧɚɹ ɝɚɜɚɧɶ
Hamburg ['hxmbWg] n ɝȽɚɦɛɭɪɝ
moored [mVqd] a ɩɪɢɲɜɚɪɬɨɜɚɧɧɵɣ
pivot window ["pIvqt'wIndqV] ɩɨɜɨɪɨɬɧɨɟ ɨɤɧɨ
radiation ["reIdI'eISqn] n ɢɡɥɭɱɟɧɢɟ
speed [spJd] n ɫɤɨɪɨɫɬɶ
stern [stWn] n ɤɨɪɦɚ
wharf [wLf] n ɩɪɢɱɚɥ
windy ɫɦ. wind n
Answer the following questions
1. When was the office building erected?
2. What impression does the building results in?
3. How far does the “bow” of the building overhang the Elbe river?
4. Why was the building envelope designed as transparently as possible?
5. How was it achieved?
6. Why is an optimum level of the building insulation imperative?
7. What does a double-skin façade provide?
8. What was integrated into the double-skin façade?
9. What do the outer and inside façade skins consist of?
10. Why was a single-leaf façade used on the west side?
Vocabulary exercises
ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤɩɪɢɜɟɞɟɧɧɵɟɧɢɠɟɫɥɨɜɚɢɫɥɨ
ɜɨɫɨɱɟɬɚɧɢɹɄɚɤɢɟɢɡɩɟɪɟɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɵɯɫɥɨɜɦɨɝɭɬɛɵɬɶɞɪɭɝɢɦɢɱɚ
ɫɬɹɦɢɪɟɱɢ"Ʉɚɤɢɦɢɢɦɟɧɧɨ"Ʉɚɤ ɨɧɢ ɜ ɷɬɨɦ ɫɥɭɱɚɟ ɩɟɪɟɜɨɞɹɬɫɹ ɧɚ
ɪɭɫɫɤɢɣ ɹɡɵɤ?
FIGURE 3 Cross section of the Dockland Building
(from “Green Building– Guidebook for Sustainable Architecture” [5])
Notes:
anti-collapse [xntIkq'lxps] a ɨɝɪɚɠɞɚɸɳɢɣ
bow [baV] n ɧɨɫ ɤɨɪɚɛɥɹ
calculation ["kxlkjV'leISqn] n ɩɨɞɫɱɺɬ, ɪɚɫɱɺɬ
capable ['keIpqbql] be capable of v ɞɨɩɭɫɤɚɬɶ, ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɬɶ
comparison [kqm'pxrIsqn] n ɫɪɚɜɧɟɧɢɟ
24
climatic (a), cooling (n), draught (n), envelope (n), extra (a), generous (a),
hit (v), insulation (n), load (n), overhang (v), publicly accessible, laminated safety glass, skin (n), solar (n, a), sunlight (n), thermal (a), transparency (n), ventilate (v), wind (n), -wise (suffix).
ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟ ɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɟ ɫɥɨɜɚ ɢ ɫɥɨɜɨɫɨɱɟɬɚɧɢɹ ɧɚ ɚɧɝɥɢɣ
ɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤ
ɛɟɪɟɝ ɜɫɥɟɞɫɬɜɢɟ ɜɵɞɚɜɚɬɶɫɹ ɞɨɩɨɥɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣ ɞɨɫɬɢɝɚɬɶ ɡɚɫɥɨ
ɧɹɬɶɧɚɝɪɭɡɤɚɧɚɤɥɨɧɹɬɶɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɵɣɧɟɫɦɨɬɪɹɧɚɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɢɜɚɬɶ
25
ɨɛɨɥɨɱɤɚɨɛɲɢɜɤɚɨɛɲɢɪɧɵɣɨɡɧɚɱɚɬɶ ɨɯɥɚɠɞɟɧɢɟɩɨ-ɥɢɧɟɣɧɨ
ɩɨɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɨɦɩɪɢɱɢɧɚɩɪɨɜɟɬɪɢɜɚɬɶɩɪɨɡɪɚɱɧɨɫɬɶ ɫɨɥɧɟɱɧɵɣɫɜɟɬ
ɫɨɥɧɟɱɧɵɣ ɫɨɨɪɭɠɚɬɶɬɟɩɥɨɜɨɣ ɬɪɢɩɥɟɤɫ ɬɹɝɚɜɨɡɞɭɯɚ
8. a square, oblong or polygonal in shape vertical structural member
which bears a load – arches, architraves or vaults.
9. put a limit on; keep under control; not allow of doing something
ɉɟɪɟɱɢɫɥɢɬɟ ɭɩɨɦɹɧɭɬɵɟ ɜ ɬɟɤɫɬɟ ɚɪɯɢɬɟɤɬɭɪɧɵɟ ɬɟɪɦɢɧɵ
ɢɩɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɢɯɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤ
Grammar exercises
Ʉɚɤɢɟɢɡɭɤɚɡɚɧɧɵɯɩɟɪɟɜɨɞɨɜɫɥɨɜɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹɨɲɢɛɨɱɧɵɦɢ
ɍɤɚɠɢɬɟɩɪɚɜɢɥɶɧɵɣɩɟɪɟɜɨɞ
skin ɨɛɲɢɜɤɚ
reality ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɶ
pave ɦɨɫɬɢɬɶ
genius ɝɟɧɢɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɶ
generous ɝɟɧɟɪɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ
fairly ɜɟɫɶɦɚ
embellishment ɭɤɪɚɲɟɧɢɟ
draught ɬɹɝɚɜɨɡɞɭɯɚ
daring ɞɟɪɡɤɢɣ
cliff ɨɬɜɟɫɧɚɹɫɤɚɥɚ
amplitude ɦɚɫɲɬɚɛɧɨɫɬɶ
DELOLW\ɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɨɫɬɶ
ɇɚɣɞɢɬɟɬɨɥɤɨɜɚɧɢɹɫɥɨɜɫɩɢɫɤɚȺɜɫɩɢɫɤɟȼɈɞɧɨ ɬɨɥɤɨ
ɜɚɧɢɟ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɥɢɲɧɢɦ.
A
pilaster, pillar, restrict, pier, groined vault, elegance, buttress, basilica.
ȼ
1. an early Christian or medieval church of the type built esp. in Italy,
characterised by a plan including a nave, two or four side aisles, a semicircular apse, a narthex (ɩɪɢɬɜɨɪ), a clearstory, and often other features.
2. a pilaster, pier, or body of masonry projecting beyond the main face of
the wall and intended to strengthen the wall at particular points.
3. artistic richness of design or ornamentation.
4. two barrel vaults intersecting at right angles.
5. a curved member supporting a vault or defining its form
6. a heavy column, usually square, used to support weight, as at the end
of an arch; a reinforcing part built out from the surface of a wall.
7. a vertical architectural member right-angled in plan, constructionally
a pier, but architecturally a column, having capital, shaft, and base
similar to those of the columns of the same order. In most cases the
projection from the wall is one third of its width, or less.
26
1. ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟ ɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹ ɨɛɪɚɳɚɹ ɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟ ɧɚ ɫɨɝɥɚɫɨɜɚ
ɧɢɟɜɪɟɦɺɧɜɚɧɝɥɢɣɫɤɨɦɹɡɵɤɟ
1. A 2012 study showed that redevelopment of an old building to make
it 30 % more energy-efficient was more sustainable than building a
new one with the same energy use.
2. Von Ellrichshausen said that he had wanted different expressions for
living and working space.
3. In the last decades it was thought that shopping streets were a model
arrangement for a lifestyle which was dependent upon high levels of
mobility (ɦɨɛɢɥɶɧɨɫɬɶ).
4. The local government considered that Kentucky contained a large
number of significant historic sites and landscapes.
5. The history of architecture claimed that correctness in the reproduction
of old Roman forms had come in time to be considered as one of the
chief of architectural virtues
6. Jun Xia said that Shanghai Tower would serve as an impressive representation of China’s (ɤɢɬɚɣɫɤɢɣ) past, present and future.
7. The architect said that one of the key aims of his project was to take
advantage of the surrounding natural environment.
8. Vitruvius showed that there was no feature, no ornament, nor even any
principle of design which the Greek architects had employed, that
could be said to have now become obsolete.
9. Conrad Gargett Lyons specified that his goal would be to create design
solutions that benefit both the client and the community.
10. Reilly said that the dynamic yet elegant design created by the architect for the city center fitted perfectly into the fabric of the community.
2. ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹɫɦɨɞɚɥɶɧɵɦɢɝɥɚɝɨɥɚɦɢ ɢ ɢɯɡɚ
ɦɟɧɢɬɟɥɹɦɢ.
1. The analysis of the street form can be in terms of scale, proportion,
contrast, rhythm or connections to other streets and squares.
27
2. The organisation of the internal circulation is one of the basic elements
that must be taken into account.
3. An indoor climate and façade concept had to be developed that provided for energy-efficient operation under the conditions of high
building envelope transparency and extra comfort requirement.
4. The focus should not be only on housing but should also be centred
strongly on other aspects of the built environment, for instance, civic,
cultural, leisure (ɞɨɫɭɝɨɜɵɣ), industrial, and other uses and types.
5. The complex was to incorporate the highest environmentally sustainable practices.
6. The new system of arches and vaulting could also make better use of
unskilled labor (ɧɟɤɜɚɥɢɮɢɰɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɚɹɪɚɛɨɱɚɹɫɢɥɚ).
7. The increase in the amount of green space as a part of total city land is
to be performed in combination with any activities to increase the density of the city population.
8. Salt carried up a survey among his workers. From this he was able to
understand the various housing needs for different family sizes.
3. ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɟɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹɨɛɪɚɳɚɹɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟɧɚ
ɮɭɧɤɰɢɢɩɪɢɱɚɫɬɢɹ,
8. Among the rural castles of the nobility (ɚɪɢɫɬɨɤɪɚɬɢɹ) Bury, La
Rochefoucauld, Bournazel, and especially Azay-le-Rideau (1520) may
be named, all displaying that love of rural pleasure, which so distinguish the French from the Italian Renaissance.
9. On the inclined west side, facing the water, a single-leaf façade was
used.
10. This module comprises one of the sides of a completely enclosed
garden, which has a square lawn lying over a border of black gravel.
4. Ɉɛɪɚɡɭɣɬɟ ɨɬ ɞɚɧɧɵɯ ɩɪɢɥɚɝɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɧɚɪɟɱɢɹ ɫ ɩɨɦɨɳɶɸ
ɫɭɮɮɢɤɫɚ –ly. ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟ ɩɪɢɥɚɝɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɟ ɢ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɧɧɵɟ ɨɬ ɧɢɯ
ɧɚɪɟɱɢɹ.
approximate, artificial, calm, certain, cultural, discreet, essential, exceptional, gradual, habitual, informal, neat, obvious, permanent, positive, radial, reasonable, respective, social, spatial, traditional, transparent, ultimate, unique.
Ɍɟɤɫɬ ȼ
La Muralla Roja
1. The warm colour of the concrete tones with the brick walls, softening
the light and making a serene centrepiece to the Egyptian collection.
2. Internally the palace at Blois, begun in 1528 by Gilles Le Breton, was
at that time the most splendid in France, the gallery of Francis I. being
especially noteworthy.
3. From the town, one enters the museum precinct via an elevated walkway that leads to a stone-faced platform on which is set a tower containing administrative offices.
4. The new style, reaching, and in time overcoming, the conservatism
(ɤɨɧɫɟɪɜɚɬɢɡɦ) of the Church, overrode the old basilica traditions.:
5. On account of its ship-like silhouette, the impression results in the
building being a cruise liner moored length-wise at the wharf.
6. The facade is broken down into curved overlapping panels that leave a
free space between them framing the views of the exterior.
7. The dwelling is unified by long, 3-metre-high walls reaching beyond
the enclosed spaces toward the lake and surrounding terrain, thus defining footpaths.
The Muralla Roja, or Red Wall, forms part of the large tourist complex on the Costa Blanca near Alicante, in Catalonia. Its a building in the
complex designed by Ricardo Bofill. In the latter cases. Bofill tried to
incorporate regional elements, but in La Muralla Roja. he claimed to be
breaking with the post-Renaissance tradition of the separation of the private and public “divisions in living quarters and to be reviving the Mediterranean tradition of the Casbah”. There is, however, more to this project
than that, and this is what sets it apart from the rest of the complex and
gives it special distinction.
This building expresses a strangeness that is great and even possibly
ultimately destroying. Its effect is to increase oneཚVawareness of the artificiality and, indeed, absurdity of architecture and, by extension, of the
functions that take place within it. In the Muralla Roja, colour plays the
most important role in creating this effect. Here, in contrast to those buildings which are inspired by “popular, native” forms, Bofill applied bright
shades of red to the exterior, thus accentuating its contrast with the landscape. He then used different mixes of blue for the interior, such as indigo,
28
29
violet and pink, because of the imaginary fusion that they form with the
sky. The route through the building was designed to heighten the sense of
unreality. As one walks through its patios, one has the additional “sensation of crossing a labyrinth” – which is simply an assemblage of concave
and convex volumes generated by a geometrical spatial structure'.
The Muralla Roja is one of the rare, and certainly most successful,
examples of the application of paint to architecture in Europe since the
Second World War.
Notes:
absurdity [qb'sWdItI] n ɚɛɫɭɪɞɧɨɫɬɶ
artificiality ɫɦ. artificial
fusion ['fjHZqn] n ɫɨɱɟɬɚɧɢɟ, ɫɥɢɹɧɢɟ
indigo ['IndIgqV] n ɢɧɞɢɝɨ (ɬɺɦɧɨ-ɫɢɧɢɣ ɰɜɟɬ)
native ['neItIv] a ɦɟɫɬɧɵɣ
separation ɫɦ. separate
strangeness ɫɦ. strange
try [traI] v ɩɵɬɚɬɶɫɹ, ɫɬɚɪɚɬɶɫɹ
violet ['vaIqlqt] n ɮɢɨɥɟɬɨɜɵɣɥɢɥɨɜɵɣɰɜɟɬ
Grammar exercises
ɇɚɣɞɢɬɟɜɬɟɤɫɬɟɩɪɢɱɚɫɬɢɹ,ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɢɬɟɢɯɮɭɧɤɰɢɸɢɩɟ
ɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤ
ɇɚɣɞɢɬɟ ɜ ɬɟɤɫɬɟ ɧɚɪɟɱɢɹ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɧɧɵɟ ɫ ɩɨɦɨɳɶɸ ɫɭɮ
ɮɢɤɫɚ –ly ɧɚɡɨɜɢɬɟ ɩɪɢɞɚɝɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɟ ɨɬ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɨɧɢ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɧɵ
ɢɩɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤ
accentuate (v), bright (a), concave (a), express (v), heighten (v), imaginary
(a), incorporate (v), living quarters, Mediterranean (a), pink (n), regional
(a), sensation (n), shade (n).
2. ɇɚɣɞɢɬɟɩɟɪɟɜɨɞɫɥɨɜɫɩɢɫɤɚȺɜɫɩɢɫɤɟȼ
A
B
A
B
ɹɪɤɢɣ
incorporate
accentuate ɨɳɭɳɟɧɢɟ
ɭɫɢɥɢɜɚɬɶ
latter
awareness ɨɬɪɚɠɚɬɶ
ɬɨɧ
living quarters
ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ
bright
ɪɨɡɨɜɵɣɰɜɟɬ
pink
ɨɛɴɟɞɢɧɹɬɶ
concave
ɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣ distinction ɦɟɫɬɧɵɣ
regional
ɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɢɣ
ɠɢɥɨɟɩɨɦɟɳɟɧɢɟ sensation
express
ɩɨɧɢɦɚɧɢɟ
shade
ɜɨɨɛɪɚɠɚɟɦɵɣ
heighten
ɩɨɞɱɟɪɤɢɜɚɬɶ
spatial
imaginary ɜɨɝɧɭɬɵɣ
3. ɇɚɩɢɲɢɬɟ ɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹ ɫ ɤɚɠɞɵɦ ɢɡ ɩɟɪɟɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɵɯ ɧɢɠɟ
ɫɥɨɜ
image – imaginary
shade – shading
Pair work
ɋɬɭɞɟɧɬ&Ɂɚɞɚɣɬɟ5 ɜɨɩɪɨɫɨɜɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɯɬɢɩɨɜɤɬɟɤɫɬɭB.
ɋɬɭɞɟɧɬ'Ɉɬɜɟɬɶɬɟɧɚɜɨɩɪɨɫɵɤɬɟɤɫɬɭɫɬɭɞɟɧɬɚ&
ɋɬɭɞɟɧɬɵ&ɢ'ɉɨɦɟɧɹɣɬɟɫɶɪɨɥɹɦɢ
Vocabulary exercises
ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤɩɪɢɜɟɞɺɧɧɵɟɧɢɠɟɫɥɨɜɚȿɫɥɢ
ȼɵɧɟɡɧɚɟɬɟɫɥɨɜɨɧɚɣɞɢɬɟɟɝɨɜɫɥɨɜɚɪɟȼɵɩɢɲɢɬɟɢɡɫɥɨɜɚɪɹɬɨ
ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟɫɥɨɜɚɜɤɨɬɨɪɨɦɨɧɨɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɨɜɬɟɤɫɬɟ
30
31
Unit 3.4
Phonetic exercise
ɉɪɨɱɢɬɚɣɬɟɬɪɚɧɫɤɪɢɩɰɢɸɜɫɩɢɫɤɟAɫɨɨɬɧɟɫɢɬɟɟɺɫɫɨɨɬɜɟɬ
ɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɦɫɥɨɜɨɦɢɡɫɩɢɫɤɚB ɢɩɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɫɥɨɜɨɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤ
ɍɱɬɢɬɟɱɬɨɧɟɜɫɟɫɥɨɜɚɫɩɢɫɤɚȼɞɚɧɵɜɫɩɢɫɤɟȺ
A
[mq'SJn]; [prq'pqVz]; [prI'dIkt]; [q'nxlqGI]; ['premIsIz];
[qk'senCVeIt]; [sen'seISqn]; ['rJGqnql]; [In'xnImIt]; ["kPn'keIv];
B
rational
purpose
predict
regional
unanimity
analogy
propose
machine
predicate
premises
analogue
concave
accentuate
sensation
inanimate
Machines are fixed, static objects, amenable to scientific assessment. Buildings are part of a complex interaction between people, the
buildings them-selves, the climate and the environment. The view that
buildings are fixed also fits well with certain types of scientific analysis,
of daylight factors, energy flows, U-values, mechanical ventilation and
etc. But this mechanical view finds the more dynamic parts of the system
(temperature, natural ventilation, passive cooling and all the variety of
human interactions) very difficult to model and, therefore, to understand.
In houses it is often these “difficult” parts of the system that change a
house into a home, and the building into a delight.
Buildings have their own thermal life beyond what we can see. If
we could see heat, as the thermal imagining camera does, we would probably treat a building very differently. We would know precisely where we
need to put a bit more insulation or place a sun shade, which sun shade to
use or which corner of the room is cold and needs a little attention.
We have to design for the invisible as well as the visible and so how
is this to be done? Buildings have been traditionally designed using accepted premises (proposals that are adopted after reasoning) as well as on
premises (the building and extensions set forth at the beginning of a building process). Three principles on which all building should be based are:
1 design for a climate
2 design for the physical and social environment
3 design for time, be it day or night, a season or the lifetime of a
building and design a building that will adapt over time.
Notes:
Ɍɟɤɫɬ Ⱥ
The Form of the House: The Building as an Analogy
20th-century architecture was influenced by a single analogy devised by the great French architect, Le Corbusier. He proposed that “the
building is a machine for living in”. This is very far from the truth. The
error is that a machine is an inanimate object that can be turned on and off
and operates only at the wish of its controller. A building is very different
because, although it is true that it can be controlled by its occupants, the
driving force that acts upon the building to create comfort and shelter is
the climate and its weather, neither of which can be controlled, predicted
or turned on and off.
32
amenable [q'mJnqbql] a ɩɨɞɥɟɠɚɳɢɣ
assessment [q'sesmqnt] n ɨɰɟɧɤɚ
controller ɫɦ. control
inanimate [In'xnImIt] a ɧɟɠɢɜɨɣ
invisible [In'vIzIbql] n ɧɟɡɪɢɦɵɣ, ɧɟɡɚɦɟɬɧɵɣ
thermal imagining camera ɫɦ. thermal
truth [trHT] n ɢɫɬɢɧɚ, ɩɪɚɜɞɚ
U-value ['jH"vxljH] n ɤɨɷɮɮɢɰɢɟɧɬ ɬɟɩɥɨɩɟɪɟɞɚɱɢ
Answer the following questions
1.
2.
3.
4.
What was the 20th-century architecture influenced by?
Is Le Corbusier’s analogy true?
Why is it not true?
What are buildings part of?
33
5. What would we be able to do if we could see heat?
6. How have buildings been traditionally designed?
7. What are the three principles which all building should be based on?
Vocabulary exercises
ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤɩɪɢɜɟɞɟɧɧɵɟɧɢɠɟɫɥɨɜɚɢɫɥɨ
ɜɨɫɨɱɟɬɚɧɢɹɄɚɤɢɟɢɡɩɟɪɟɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɵɯɫɥɨɜɦɨɝɭɬɛɵɬɶɞɪɭɝɢɦɢɱɚ
ɫɬɹɦɢɪɟɱɢ"Ʉɚɤɢɦɢɢɦɟɧɧɨ"Ʉɚɤ ɨɧɢ ɜ ɷɬɨɦ ɫɥɭɱɚɟ ɩɟɪɟɜɨɞɹɬɫɹ ɧɚ
ɪɭɫɫɤɢɣ ɹɡɵɤ?
analogy (n), a bit (adv), fix (v), force (n), lifetime (n), machine (n), operate
(v), passive (a), predict (v), premises (n), propose (v), put (v), season (n),
static (a), wish (n, v).
ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟ ɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɟ ɫɥɨɜɚ ɢ ɫɥɨɜɨɫɨɱɟɬɚɧɢɹ ɧɚ ɚɧɝɥɢɣ
ɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤ
ɜɡɚɢɦɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɝɨɞɚ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɜɵɲɟɢɡɥɨɠɟɧ
ɧɨɟɩɪɟɞɩɨɫɵɥɤɚɠɟɥɚɧɢɟ ɡɚɤɪɟɩɥɹɬɶɮɢɤɫɢɪɨɜɚɬɶɢɡɦɟɧɹɬɶɫɹ);
ɢɫɬɨɱɧɢɤ ɧɚɫɥɚɠɞɟɧɢɹ ɤɥɚɫɬɶ ɫɬɚɜɢɬɶ ɤɪɨɜ ɩɪɢɫɬɚɧɢɳɟ ɦɟɯɚ
ɧɢɡɦ ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɚ ɧɚɭɱɧɵɣ ɧɟɦɧɨɝɨ ɱɭɬɶ-ɱɭɬɶ ɧɟɩɨɞɜɢɠɧɵɣ
ɨɲɢɛɤɚɩɚɫɫɢɜɧɵɣɩɪɟɞɫɤɚɡɵɜɚɬɶɩɪɨɜɨɡɝɥɚɲɚɬɶɪɚɛɨɬɚɬɶ ɮɭɧɤ
ɰɢɨɧɢɪɨɜɚɬɶɪɚɡɪɚɛɚɬɵɜɚɬɶɫɜɨɣɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣɫɢɥɚɭɫɢɥɢɟɫɨɜɩɚ
ɞɚɬɶɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɨɜɚɬɶɫɪɚɜɧɟɧɢɟɫɪɟɞɚɨɤɪɭɠɚɸɳɢɟɭɫɥɨɜɢɹ ɫɪɟ
ɞɢɡɟɦɧɨɦɨɪɫɤɢɣ ɬɚɤ ɠɟ ɤɚɤ ɢ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɹ ɬɨɱɧɨ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɺɧɧɨ
ɬɪɚɤɬɨɜɚɬɶɪɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɬɶ
ɉɟɪɟɱɢɫɥɢɬɟɭɩɨɦɹɧɭɬɵɟɜɬɟɤɫɬɟɚɪɯɢɬɟɤɬɭɪɧɵɟɬɟɪɦɢɧɵɢ
ɩɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɢɯɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤ
Ʉɚɤɢɟɢɡɭɤɚɡɚɧɧɵɯɩɟɪɟɜɨɞɨɜɫɥɨɜɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹɨɲɢɛɨɱɧɵɦɢ
ɍɤɚɠɢɬɟɩɪɚɜɢɥɶɧɵɣɩɟɪɟɜɨɞ
accentuate ɩɨɞɱɟɪɤɢɜɚɬɶ
concave ɜɨɝɧɭɬɵɣ
accumulate ɧɚɤɚɩɥɢɜɚɬɶ
inherent ɧɟɨɬɴɟɦɥɟɦɵɣ
interlock ɫɨɟɞɢɧɹɬɶɫɹ
resolution ɪɟɲɢɦɨɫɬɶ
stiff ɠɺɫɬɤɢɣ
subordinate ɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨɫɬɶ
substance ɫɭɳɧɨɫɬɶ
version ɜɚɪɢɚɧɬ
whether ɩɨɝɨɞɚ
wind ɜɢɬɶɫɹ
34
ɇɚɣɞɢɬɟ ɜ ɢɧɬɟɪɧɟɬɟ ɩɟɪɟɜɨɞ ɩɟɪɟɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɵɯ ɧɢɠɟ ɫɥɨɜ
ɢɫɥɨɜɨɫɨɱɟɬɚɧɢɣɢɞɚɣɬɟɢɯɫɢɧɨɧɢɦɵɢɡɬɨɣɥɟɤɫɢɤɢɤɨɬɨɪɚɹɢɫ
ɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɚɜɞɚɧɧɨɦɭɱɟɛɧɢɤɟ
penetrate
robust
spot
update
utilize
contamination
formidable
in spite of
obstacle
painstaking
Grammar exercises
ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟ ɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹ ɨɛɪɚɳɚɹ ɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟ ɧɚ ɨɛɴɟɤɬɧɵɣ
ɢɧɮɢɧɢɬɢɜɧɵɣɨɛɨɪɨɬɢɧɟɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɵɣɩɪɢɱɚɫɬɧɵɣɨɛɨɪɨɬɛɟɡɩɪɢ
ɱɚɫɬɢɹ.
1. The building was never conceived as an edifice, although we certainly
wanted it to have a strong presence in the community.
2. The most important temples had columns on the flanks as well as at
the front and rear, the sacred cell within them.
3. This mechanical view finds the more dynamic parts of the system very
difficult to model and, therefore, to understand.
4. The date 1495 carved above the main entrance of the Cancelleria palace proves it can’t be attributed to Bramante, as we known him to have
come to Rome in 1503.
5. Externally two storeys of the Corinthian order appear, the upper storey
merely a screen to hide the clearstory and its buttresses.
6. Residents believe vehicular traffic to damage the health of the people
RI1RWWLQJKDPDQGKDUPɩɪɢɱɢɧɹɬɶɜɪɟɞWKHFLW\¶VHQYLURQPHQW
7. A study of the problem, followed by logical analysis of all possible
solutions will result in the best solution to be chosen to solve the
problem.
8. Zucker considers the height of the sky above a closed square to be seen
as three or four times the height of the tallest building on the square.
9. The building is set within its own landscape, individuality evident due
to sculptural shapes.
10. The winding streets make the passenger at every step discover a new
structure.
35
2. ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟ ɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹ ɨɛɪɚɳɚɹ ɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟ ɧɚ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɢ
ɫɥɨɜɚ it.
1. Is it possible that instead of a gradual development taking place from
the historical tradition, new technical factors will create a completely
new form.
2. The quarter is a town within a town, and as such it should have a balance of land uses reflecting the balance in the city as a whole.
3. To recognise the importance of a corner site and give it significance is
to enrich the visual environment and the urban townscape.
4. Large lost sections of the building have been infilled with new construction using precast concrete to distinguish it from the existing.
5. It is certain that new purposes must result in new methods of construction, and lead to new forms.
6. It is the quarter and not the street block, which is the main means of
ensuring a balanced distribution of land uses throughout the city.
7. A building is very different because, although it is true that it can be
controlled by its occupants, the driving force that acts upon the building to create comfort and shelter is the climate and its weather, neither
of which can be controlled, predicted or turned on and off.
8. It is generally a matter of creating living spaces or interior spaces, and
thus for technical and commercial reasons there is a preference
ɩɪɟɞɩɨɱɬɟɧɢɟIRUVWUDLJKWOLQHVDQGSODQHVDVZHOODVIRUWKHYHUWLFDO
and horizontal directions.
9. It is generally a matter of creating living spaces or interior spaces, and
thus for technical and commercial reasons there is a preference
ɩɪɟɞɩɨɱɬɟɧɢɟIRUVWUDLJKWOLQHVDQGSODQHVDVZHOODVIRUWKHYHUWLFDO
and horizontal directions.
10. It is now denied by many investigators (ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɢ) that either
the Cancelleria or the Giraud palace is Bramante’s work, or any one
of two or three smaller houses in Rome showing a somewhat similar
architectural treatment.
3. ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹɨɛɪɚɳɚɹɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟɧɚɫɨɫɥɚɝɚɬɟɥɶ
ɧɨɟɧɚɤɥɨɧɟɧɢɟ
1. It could be, and has been, reasoned that clearly defined city quarters
DERXWNLORPHWUHVDFURVVZLOOEHDPDMRUSUHRFFXSDWLRQɡɚɛɨɬɚRI
urban designers in the coming decade.
36
2. If we could see heat, we would probably treat a building very differently.
3. The Opera House at Vienna is rectangular in its mass, and but for a
certain triviality (ɬɪɢɜɢɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɶ) of detail would rank among the
most successful buildings of its kind.
4. We would not have been able to obtain this type of information had
the survey been done in a typical survey way.
5. The architect set out to create a “glass box” in the forest, a structure
whose boundaries between interior and exterior would be blurred
(ɫɬɺɪɬɵ), where water would play a leading role.
6. Could we see the great theatre of Athens as it was when perfect, we
should probably find that as an interior it was exceptional, both for
convenience and for beauty.
7. A more ornamental design for a capital could hardly (ɜɪɹɞ ɥɢ) be
adopted than that of Lysicrates at Athens.
8. Some little forecourt of green surrounded by buildings and led up to
by an avenue of trees would achieve the necessary effect.
Ɍɟɤɫɬ ȼ
The Form of the House: The Building as an Analogy (continued)
Humans have been building on these premises for millennia and
have evolved house types around the world that are well suited to particular climates, environments and societies. This was done by learning from
experience, and with the benefit of repetitive tools and processes that help
designers and builders through the complex range of tasks necessary to
actually put a building together.
One tool of the imagination that is often used when starting a design
is the analogy. An analogy is used where two forms may not look alike
but they function in the same way, just as Le Corbusier described a building as a “machine for living in”. Let’s start by considering building form,
on which the most powerful influence in design should be the climate.
THE THIRD SKIN
Buildings are our third skin. To survive we need shelter from the
elements using three skins. The first is provided by our own skin, the second by a layer of clothes and the third is the building. In some climates it
37
is only with all three skins that we can provide sufficient shelter to survive, in others the first skin is enough. The more extreme the climate, the
more we have to rely on the building to protect us from the elements. Just
as we take off and put on clothes as the weather and the climate changes
so we can shed skins.
THE HEAT EXCHANGER
The greater the volume of the building the more surface area it has
to lose, or gain, heat from. Different plan forms can have more or less wall
area for the same plan area. The surface area: volume ratio is very important in conserving heat transfer into and out of a building. To conserve
heat or cold the building must be designed with a compact form to reduce
the effectiveness of the building as a heat exchanger.
2. ɇɚɣɞɢɬɟɩɟɪɟɜɨɞɫɥɨɜɫɩɢɫɤɚȺɜɫɩɢɫɤɟȼ
A
ɪɚɡɜɢɜɚɬɶ
ɩɨɥɭɱɚɬɶ
ɩɨɞɨɛɧɨɬɨɦɭɤɚɤ
ɩɨɜɬɨɪɹɸɳɢɣɫɹ
ɨɞɢɧɚɤɨɜɨ
ɦɨɳɧɵɣ
ɥɸɞɢ
ɜɵɠɢɬɶ
B
complex
conserve
evolve
gain
humans
in the same way
just as
layer
A
ɬɵɫɹɱɟɥɟɬɢɟ
ɫɪɟɞɫɬɜo
ɫɩɟɰɢɮɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ
ɫɨɯɪɚɧɹɬɶ
ɫɨɤɪɚɳɚɬɶ
ɫɥɨɣ
ɫɥɨɠɧɵɣ
ɫɟɪɢɹ
B
millennium
particular
powerful
range
reduce
repetitive
survive
tool
3. ɇɚɩɢɲɢɬɟ ɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹ ɫ ɤɚɠɞɵɦ ɢɡ ɩɟɪɟɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɵɯ ɧɢɠɟ
ɫɥɨɜ
Notes:
heat exchanger ['hJt Ik'sCeInGq] ɬɟɩɥɨɨɛɦɟɧɧɢɤ
volume ratio ['vPljHm 'reISIqV] ɨɛɴɟɦɧɨɟ ɫɨɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɟ
well suited [wql'sjHtId] a (ɯɨɪɨɲɨ) ɩɨɞɯɨɞɹɳɢɣ
Grammar exercises
ɇɚɣɞɢɬɟɜɬɟɤɫɬɟɷɦɮɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɭɸɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɸ ɢɩɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟ
ɟɺɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤ
ɇɚɣɞɢɬɟɜɬɟɤɫɬɟɫɪɚɜɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɟɨɛɨɪɨɬɵ ɢɩɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɢɯɧɚ
ɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤ
Ɉɩɪɟɞɟɥɢɬɟɮɭɧɤɰɢɢɫɥɨɜɚ it ɜɬɟɤɫɬɟ
Pair work
ɋɬɭɞɟɧɬ&Ɂɚɞɚɣɬɟ5 ɜɨɩɪɨɫɨɜɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɯɬɢɩɨɜɤɬɟɤɫɬɭB.
ɋɬɭɞɟɧɬ'Ɉɬɜɟɬɶɬɟɧɚɜɨɩɪɨɫɵɤɬɟɤɫɬɭɫɬɭɞɟɧɬɚ&
ɋɬɭɞɟɧɬɵ&ɢ'ɉɨɦɟɧɹɣɬɟɫɶɪɨɥɹɦɢ
Vocabulary exercises
1. ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤɩɪɢɜɟɞɺɧɧɵɟɧɢɠɟɫɥɨɜɚȿɫɥɢ
ȼɵɧɟɡɧɚɟɬɟɫɥɨɜɨɧɚɣɞɢɬɟɟɝɨɜɫɥɨɜɚɪɟȼɵɩɢɲɢɬɟɢɡɫɥɨɜɚɪɹɬɨ
ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟɫɥɨɜɚɜɤɨɬɨɪɨɦɨɧɨɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɨɜɬɟɤɫɬɟ
clothes (n), gain (n), just (adv), powerful (a).
38
fix – fixed – fixation
power – powerful
Ɍɟɤɫɬ C
The Form of the House: The Building as an Analogy (continued)
The Building as a Periscope
Buildings can be periscopes, aimed to catch the light, a view, the
wind or the sun. If you design them for any of these functions they must
face in the correct direction.
Outside the tropics the best orientation for solar gain, for light and
heat, is towards the equator. In the tropics it is best to hide from the sun
under a large hat or a roof. If a building faces 15° to the east or west of
the solar orientation, it will make very little difference to the amount of
energy that can be obtained from the sun. Simply by facing the living
rooms of a house towards the sun it is possible to save up to 30 percent on
the annual heating bills of a typical house in a temperate climate. Even in
the most difficult sites, with careful thought and sometimes inspired design it is possible to capture the light and heat of the sun. Even if the site
has a difficult orientation it is possible to catch the sun with the use of
periscopes projecting from the building in the form of upper-floor clearstory windows, bay and dormer windows and roof lights.
39
The most difficult orientation is west, because the low western sun
coincides with the hottest time of day (mid-afternoon), making overheating of west-facing spaces a possibility in summer, with the exception of
the high latitudes. A western orientation should be avoided if possible,
particularly with sun spaces, because of their potential for overheating.
Care should be taken to think about what each room in a house will be
used for and what type of light and heat it will require from the sun.
A Cool-Core Building
Just as the ice-houses used to store cold from the winter months for
use in summer, the thermal mass of a building can be used to store the
cool of the night winds to lower internal temperatures during the day. This
is well shown in Jimmy Lim’s case study where he has built a modern
version of a traditional Malaysian house, with its verandas and balconies
around the high-mass core of a pre-existing building. The thermal mass
of the inner walls is completely shaded all year and cooled by the air
movement over them at night. This is a good example of a cool-core building. It is simple and works well and, in fact, could be compared to the old
colonial bungalows with their surrounding verandas.
An Air Lock to Keep the Cold Out
In temperate or cold regions all outer doors should have a buffer
space, or air lock. This acts in five ways:
x to keep the wind away from the door and the biting draughts out
of the house
x to modify the air temperature, rather as in an air lock, where the
air in the buffer space is usually somewhere half way between inside and outside temperature. This is splendid air to use to ventilate the house inside in winter as it is not freezing. Small, openable, windows should be built between the buffer porch or sunny
space and the house to provide natural pre-heat ventilation
x as a place to leave wet clothes outside the house so removing
moisture from inside
x as a security and privacy feature so people can be heard or seen
before they enter the house
x to protect the floor construction around the inside of the main
house door from becoming too cold. In houses without buffer
spaces, every time the door opens and cold air comes into the
house, heat is drawn out of the floor and walls next to the door.
The floor is often constructed with a slab of concrete, making the
floor area around the door much cooler than it would be if the door
had a porch.
40
Notes:
bill [bIl] n ɫɱɟɬ
biting ['baItIN] a ɪɟɡɤɢɣ, ɩɪɨɧɢɡɵɜɚɸɳɢɣ
buffer ['bAfq] n ɛɭɮɟɪ
bungalow ['bANgqlqV] n ɛɭɧɝɚɥɨ (ɨɞɧɨɷɬɚɠɧɵɣ ɞɨɦ ɫ ɜɟɪɚɧɞɨɣ)
coincide ["kqVIn'saId] v ɫɨɜɩɚɞɚɬɶɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɨɜɚɬɶ
colonial [kq'lqVnIql] a ɤɨɥɨɧɢɚɥɶɧɵɣ (ɨɫɬɢɥɟɚɪɯɢɬɟɤɬɭɪɵ)
dormer (window) ['dLmq('wIndqV)] n ɫɥɭɯɨɜɨɟɦɚɧɫɚɪɞɧɨɟɨɤɧɨ
equator [I'kweItq] n ɷɤɜɚɬɨɪ
freeze [frJz] v ɦɨɪɨɡɢɬɶ ɥɟɞɟɧɟɬɶ
hear [hIq] v ɫɥɵɲɚɬɶɭɫɥɵɲɚɬɶ
ice-house ['aIshaVs] n ɥɟɞɧɢɤɥɶɞɨɯɪɚɧɢɥɢɳɟ
latitude ['lxtItjHd] n ɲɢɪɨɬɚ
Malaysian [mq'leISqn / mq'leIZqn] a ɦɚɥɚɡɢɣɫɤɢɣ
moisture ['mOIsCq] n ɜɥɚɠɧɨɫɬɶɜɥɚɝɚ
openable ['qVpqnqbql] a ɨɬɤɪɵɜɚɸɳɢɣɫɹ
periscope ['perIskqVp] n ɩɟɪɢɫɤɨɩ
thought [TLt] n ɪɚɡɦɵɲɥɟɧɢɟ
tropics ['trPpIks] n ɬɪɨɩɢɤɢ
wet [wet] a ɦɨɤɪɵɣ, ɫɵɪɨɣ
Answer the following questions.
1. Why must buildings face in the correct direction?
2. What is the best orientation outside and in the tropics?
3. Why is west the most difficult orientation?
4. How can the thermal mass of a building be used to store the cool of the
night winds to lower internal temperatures during the day?
5. Whose case study shows it?
6. What should be done to keep the cold out in temperate and cold regions?
7. How does an air lock act?
Communication exercise
ɍɱɟɛɧɚɹ ɝɪɭɩɩɚ ɪɚɡɛɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɧɚ ɞɜɟ ɩɨɞɝɪɭɩɩɵ ȼ ɨɞɧɨɣ ɩɨɞ
ɝɪɭɩɩɟɧɚɚɧɝɥɢɣɫɤɨɦ ɹɡɵɤɟɨɛɫɭɠɞɚɟɬɫɹɪɟɲɟɧɢɟɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɷɧɟɪɝɨ
ɫɛɟɪɟɠɟɧɢɹɜɤɨɧɤɪɟɬɧɵɯɚɪɯɢɬɟɤɬɭɪɧɵɯɩɪɨɟɤɬɚɯɊɨɫɫɢɢɜɞɪɭɝɨɣ–
ɪɟɲɟɧɢɟɭɤɚɡɚɧɧɵɯɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɜɤɨɧɤɪɟɬɧɵɯɚɪɯɢɬɟɤɬɭɪɧɵɯɩɪɨɟɤɬɚɯ
ɜɸɠɧɵɯɪɟɝɢɨɧɚɯɦɢɪɚɐɟɥɶɨɛɫɭɠɞɟɧɢɹ– ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɟɫɨɨɛɳɟɧɢɹ
ɨɛɴɺɦɨɦ–ɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɣ
41
ɉɨ ɨɤɨɧɱɚɧɢɢ ɨɛɫɭɠɞɟɧɢɹ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɢɬɟɥɶ ɤɚɠɞɨɣ ɩɨɞɝɪɭɩɩɵ
ɞɟɥɚɟɬɫɨɨɛɳɟɧɢɟɞɥɹɭɱɚɫɬɧɢɤɨɜɞɪɭɝɨɣɩɨɞɝɪɭɩɩɵɚɡɚɬɟɦɨɬɜɟ
ɱɚɟɬɧɚɢɯɜɨɩɪɨɫɵɩɨɬɟɦɟ
Vocabulary exercise
ȼ ɫɩɢɫɤɟ Ⱥ ɞɚɧɵ ɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɫɥɨɜɚ ɢ ɜɵɪɚɠɟɧɢɹ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɢɫ
ɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɵɜɬɟɤɫɬɟɞɥɹɞɨɦɚɲɧɟɝɨɱɬɟɧɢɹ ɇɚɣɞɢɬɟɢɯɩɟɪɟɜɨɞɜ
ɫɩɢɫɤɟȼ
Ⱥ
aim
annual
avoid
because of
capture
compare
cool
correct
difference
face
feature
half way between
inspired
just as
modify
orientation
B
ɷɥɟɦɟɧɬ
ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɬɶ
ɮɨɧɚɪɶɜɟɪɯɧɟɝɨ
ɫɜɟɬɚ
ɭɱɚɫɬɨɤ
ɭɫɬɪɚɧɹɬɶ
ɭɦɟɪɟɧɧɵɣ
ɬɟɪɪɚɫɚ
ɫɬɪɟɦɢɬɶɫɹ
ɫɪɚɜɧɢɜɚɬɶ
ɫɨɯɪɚɧɹɬɶ
ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɣ
ɪɚɫɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɟ
ɪɚɡ
ɩɪɨɰɟɧɬ
ɩɨɞɨɛɧɨɬɨɦɭɤɚɤ
ɩɨɝɥɨɳɚɬɶ
Ⱥ
overheating
particularly
percent
rather
remove
require
roof light
save
security
site
store
temperate
time
towards
veranda
version
B
ɩɟɪɟɝɪɟɜ
ɨɯɥɚɠɞɚɬɶ
ɨɬɱɚɫɬɢ
ɨɬɥɢɱɢɟ
ɧɭɠɞɚɬɶɫɹ
ɧɟɞɨɩɭɫɤɚɬɶ
ɢɡɦɟɧɹɬɶ
ɟɠɟɝɨɞɧɵɣ
ɝɟɧɢɚɥɶɧɵɣ
ɜɫɥɟɞɫɬɜɢɟ
ɜɚɪɢɚɧɬ
ɜɫɬɨɪɨɧɭ
ɜɫɟɪɟɞɢɧɟ
ɜɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ
ɛɵɬɶɨɛɪɚɳɺɧɧɵɦɤ
ɛɟɡɨɩɚɫɧɨɫɬɶ
TEST 7
Part I – Vocabulary
Ɂɚɞɚɧɢɟ Ⱥ ȼɵɛɟɪɢɬɟɩɹɬɶɩɚɪɚɧɝɥɢɣɫɤɢɯɫɥɨɜɫɥɨɜɨɫɨɱɟɬɚ
ɧɢɣɢɢɯɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɣɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɨɦɹɡɵɤɟɢɡɩɪɢɜɟɞɺɧɧɨɝɨɧɢɠɟɫɩɢɫɤɚ
as
ɬɚɤ ɤɚɤ ɜ for
ɩɟɪɟɞɞɨ
ɬɟɱɟɧɢɟ
as well as
ɤɜɫɬɨɪɨɧɭ
before
ɬɚɤɠɟɤɚɤɢ
beneath
ɧɚɞɜɵɲɟ
still
ɬɚɤɤɚɤɤɨɝɞɚ
beyond
ɞɨɬɨɝɨɤɚɤ
since
ɬɚɤɤɚɤɫɬɟɯɩɨɪɤɚɤ
42
1. –
2. –
3. –
4. –
5. –
Ɂɚɞɚɧɢɟ B. Ɂɚɩɨɥɧɢɬɟ ɩɪɨɩɭɫɤɢ ɜ ɬɟɤɫɬɟ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɹ ɫɥɨɜɚ ɢɡ
ɩɪɢɜɟɞɺɧɧɨɝɨɧɢɠɟɫɩɢɫɤɚȾɜɚɫɥɨɜɚɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹɥɢɲɧɢɦɢ
hillside
latter
major
pattern
landscape
link
out
6. –
7. –
8. –
9. –
10. –
These three single-family modules stand (6) … from the architecture
of the area due to their special design and arrangement. Three similar
dwellings located on a (7) … with a view of the lake give form to a single
complex. The different modules share their foundations in kind of pedestal (ɰɨɤɨɥɶ) that determines part of their architectural character, enhancing their role in the (8) …. The dwellings create a compositional rhythm
in which the (9) … geometry of the floors is the square, while in the elevations it is the rectangle. This rhythm is determined by a linear sequence
of “solids” and “voids” (ɩɭɫɬɨɬɚ) in which the former act as private
spaces while the (10) … are used for the common living areas.
ɁɚɞɚɧɢɟC. Ⱦɚɣɬɟɩɟɪɟɜɨɞɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɯɫɥɨɜ ɢɫɥɨɜɨɫɨɱɟɬɚɧɢɣ ɧɚ
ɚɧɝɥɢɣɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤ
11. ɜɨɝɧɭɬɵɣ – …
12. ɞɟɥɚɬɶɚɤɰɟɧɬɧɚ – …
13. ɩɪɨɡɪɚɱɧɨɫɬɶ – …
14. ɬɨɱɟɱɧɚɹɡɚɫɬɪɨɣɤɚ – …
15. ɮɚɤɬɭɪɚ – …
Part II – Grammar
ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɟɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹ
16. It was for Marylebone that Buchanan developed the concept of
the environmental area, a district of about 4,500 ft2.
17. Aesthetically pleasing and ensuring uninterrupted views, glass
has the added advantage of being easy to maintain.
43
18. To achieve the requirements of functionality and flexibility,
there has been been close cooperation (ɫɨɬɪɭɞɧɢɱɟɫɬɜɨ) between all those concerned from the start.
19. Architects are aware of (ɨɫɨɡɧɚɜɚɬɶ) a changing perception
among consumers towards the long-term value sustainable
housing offers.
20. 0DGHUQD¶VHORQJDWLRQɭɞɥɢɧɟɧɢɟRIWKHQDYHLQSHUVSHFtive
means the dome appears to sit bare on the roof without drum
intervention.
Unit 3.5
Part III – Reading
Phonetic exercise
ɉɪɨɱɢɬɚɣɬɟ ɬɟɤɫɬ ɋɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɸɬ ɥɢ ɩɪɢɜɟɞɺɧɧɵɟ ɧɢɠɟ
ɜɵɫɤɚɡɵɜɚɧɢɹ ɟɝɨ ɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɸ ȼɵɛɟɪɢɬɟ ɨɞɢɧ ɢɡ ɜɚɪɢɚɧɬɨɜ ɨɬ
ɜɟɬɚ a) ɜɟɪɧɨbɧɟɜɟɪɧɨcɧɟɫɤɚɡɚɧɨ
Housing Complex (Voitsberg, Austria)
The site lies at the bottom of a valley so the housing takes a linear
form. Apart from the extreme end ones, which are cut to the angle of the
VLWH DOO GZHOOLQJV DUH RUWKRJRQDOO\ ɨɪɬɨɝɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɣ SODQQHG EXW GL
vided into a series of blocks at changing angles to follow the river bank.
The dwellings are flats that vary in size, those on upper floors being
reached by two kinds of external staircase. One type is a stair set in the
JDSVɩɪɨɦɟɠɭɬɨɤEHWZHHQWKHEORFNVZKHUHWKH\FKDnge angle, therefore not only responding to the site but also taking advantage of the suggested curve. These stairs lead to entrances at both upper levels of the
block. The other kind of stair occurs within the block, placed in a narrow
gap between two units.
The complex and intricate external profile develops from the access
stairs and generous number of balconies, which are both projected out.
7KHRXWHUFODGGLQJɨɛɥɢɰɨɜɤɚLVPDLQO\SODVWHURQORDG-bearing
blocks, but corner kitchens are clad in sheet metal. Translucent
ɫɜɟɬɨɩɪɨɧɢɰɚɟɦɵɣEXWQRWWUDQVSDUHQW3URILOLWJODVVSDQHOVDUHXVHGIRU
the living-rooms. This provides much daylight with the view restricted to
the central opening doors, so the dwellers are not excessively exposed on
the public side. At night the rooms, lit from within, turn into bright towers.
ɉɪɨɱɢɬɚɣɬɟɬɪɚɧɫɤɪɢɩɰɢɸɜɫɩɢɫɤɟAɫɨɨɬɧɟɫɢɬɟɟɺɫɫɨɨɬɜɟɬ
ɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɦɫɥɨɜɨɦɢɡɫɩɢɫɤɚB ɢɩɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɫɥɨɜɨɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤ
ɍɱɬɢɬɟɱɬɨɧɟɜɫɟɫɥɨɜɚɫɩɢɫɤɚȼɞɚɧɵɜɫɩɢɫɤɟȺ
A
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
The form of the housing is defind by its location.
The site is situated on a river bank.
The dwellings are three stories high.
Two kinds of cladding were used.
All the glazing is done of Profilit glass panels.
44
[vent]; [q'semblI]; [Ik'spqVz]; [pq'sent]; ['tempqrIt];
["LrIqn'teISqn]; [els'weq]; [q'Gendq]; ['mInImaIz]; [pq'rIfqrql].
B
temperate
elsewhere
agenda
went
patient
assembly
orientation
exposure
percent
minimise
peripheral
template
vent
assemble
expose
Ɍɟɤɫɬ Ⱥ
London City Hall
The big, shiny, steel-and-glass egg looks as if the dome of Berlin’s
Reichstag (which Foster also designed) had landed on the banks of the
Thames with such force that its tip was buried in the earth.
On closer examination, the Greater London Authority (GLA), as the
building is also known, is even stranger – curved inward toward the top
on one side, stepped out and upward on the other, a bit flat-topped from
some perspectives, pointed like the back of a cat’s ear from others. Its
shape was devised to minimise the surface area exposed to direct sunlight
while still admitting daylight. The southern overhangs allow each floor to
shade the one beneath it but make the structure seem a bit tipsy. Inclined
45
peripheral steel columns, which appear straight on each level but bend
inside the floor plates, keep it erect.
On the north side, transparent triangular panels open the Assembly
chamber to the river. On the east, west, and south, where the offices are
located, the skin is composed of a banded grid of triple-glazed panels with
fritting, solar blinds, and operable vents. Offices are cooled by ceilingmounted chilled beams fed by the water table 427 feet below London; by
winter that water warms up enough to be used for literally heating. Together, these features reduce the energy load of the building by 75 percent,
compared to similar-size office buildings elsewhere in London.
The obviously high-tech building symbolizes a new progressive
agenda, and energy savings are an important part of that, though that isn’t
apparent directly. There are no natural materials, stony thermal masses,
secondary outer shells, or other key features of sustainable design. What
is obvious is that the glass skin, like that of Berlin’s Reichstag dome, allows government to be quite transparent – visible to the citizenry.
Once inside, you find a generous circular atrium with a huge model
of the city to survey. A gently stepped ramp, similar to the one that surrounds the inside of the Reichstag dome (which is the size of this entire
building) but more functional, encircles the structure, providing views
into the Assembly chamber on one side and government offices on the
other. You can really see government at work, at close range. On the north
are vistas of the City, London and Tower bridges, and the Tower of London, looking like icons of a different millennium, which they are.
1. Main entrance
2. Exhibition space
3. Physical plant
4. Ramp
5. Assembly chamber
6. Offices
7. Elevator/core
8. London’s Living Room
46
FIGURE 4 Cross section of the London City Hall
(from Architectural Record 2003-02 [4])
Notes:
agenda [q'Gendq] n ɩɪɨɝɪɚɦɦɚ
banded ['bxndId] a ɪɹɞɧɵɣ, ɪɚɫɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɧɵɣ ɪɹɞɚɦɢ
blinds [blaInds] n ɠɚɥɸɡɢ, ɫɬɚɜɧɢ
citizenry ['sItIzqnrI] n ɝɪɚɠɞɚɧɟ
feed [fJd] v ɫɧɚɛɠɚɬɶ, ɩɢɬɚɬɶ
high-tech ["haI'tek] a ɜɵɫɨɤɨɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɱɧɵɣ
icon ['aIkPn] n ɫɢɦɜɨɥɡɧɚɤɨɜɵɣɨɛɪɚɡ
operable ['Ppqrqbql] a ɪɟɝɭɥɢɪɭɟɦɵɣ
shiny ['SaInI] a ɛɥɟɫɬɹɳɢɣ, ɫɢɹɸɳɢɣ
stony ['stqVnI] a ɤɚɦɟɧɧɵɣɯɨɥɨɞɧɵɣ
tipsy ['tIpsI] a ɩɨɞɜɵɩɢɜɲɢɣɧɚɜɟɫɟɥɟ
Answer the following questions
1. What similarities are there between Berlin’s Reichstag and the Greater
London Authority?
2. What make the structure seem a bit tipsy?
3. How is the energy load of the building reduced?
4. Why is sustainable design not apparent directly?
5. What is there inside the building?
47
Vocabulary exercises
ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤɩɪɢɜɟɞɟɧɧɵɟɧɢɠɟɫɥɨɜɚɢɫɥɨ
ɜɨɫɨɱɟɬɚɧɢɹɄɚɤɢɟɢɡɩɟɪɟɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɵɯɫɥɨɜɦɨɝɭɬɛɵɬɶɞɪɭɝɢɦɢɱɚ
ɫɬɹɦɢɪɟɱɢ"Ʉɚɤɢɦɢɢɦɟɧɧɨ"Ʉɚɤ ɨɧɢ ɜ ɷɬɨɦ ɫɥɭɱɚɟ ɩɟɪɟɜɨɞɹɬɫɹ ɧɚ
ɪɭɫɫɤɢɣ ɹɡɵɤ?
assembly (n), Assembly chamber, Authority (n), bridge (n, v), bury (v),
chill (v), chilled beam, earth (n), elsewhere (adv), expose (v), frit (v), fritting (n), minimise (v), mount (v), peripheral (a), plate (n), progressive (a),
stepped ramp, saving (n), Thames (n), tip (n), vent (n), water table.
ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟ ɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɟ ɫɥɨɜɚ ɢ ɫɥɨɜɨɫɨɱɟɬɚɧɢɹ ɧɚ ɚɧɝɥɢɣ
ɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤ
ɚɞɦɢɧɢɫɬɪɚɰɢɹɛɚɥɤɚɫɩɚɫɫɢɜɧɵɦɨɯɥɚɠɞɟɧɢɟɦɛɟɡɭɫɥɨɜɧɨɜɟɧ
ɬɢɥɹɰɢɨɧɧɨɟ ɨɬɜɟɪɫɬɢɟ ɜɫɩɨɦɨɝɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɣ ɝɞɟ-ɬɨ ɜ ɞɪɭɝɨɦ ɦɟɫɬɟ
ɝɪɭɧɬ ɡɚɪɵɜɚɬɶ ɜ ɡɟɦɥɸ ɤɨɧɟɰ ɦɨɫɬ ɧɚ ɧɟɛɨɥɶɲɨɦ ɪɚɫɫɬɨɹɧɢɢ
ɛɥɢɡɤɨ ɧɚɝɪɟɜɚɬɶɫɹ ɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɢɬɶ ɩɚɥɚɬɚ ɡɚɫɟɞɚɧɢɣ ɩɟɪɟɞɨɜɨɣ
ɩɥɢɬɚ ɩɟɪɟɤɪɵɬɢɹ ɩɨɞɜɟɪɝɚɬɶ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɸ ɫɨɥɧɰɚ ɢ ɬ ɩ); ɩɪɢɱɚɥɢ
ɜɚɬɶ ɩɪɹɦɨɣ; ɫɩɟɤɚɬɶ ɫɩɥɚɜɥɹɬɶ; ɫɬɭɩɟɧɱɚɬɵɣ ɩɚɧɞɭɫ; ɭɪɨɜɟɧɶ
ɝɪɭɧɬɨɜɵɯɜɨɞ; ɭɫɬɚɧɚɜɥɢɜɚɬɶ; ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɹɫɛɟɪɟɠɟɧɢɟ.
ɉɟɪɟɱɢɫɥɢɬɟ ɭɩɨɦɹɧɭɬɵɟ ɜ ɬɟɤɫɬɟ ɚɪɯɢɬɟɤɬɭɪɧɵɟ ɬɟɪɦɢɧɵ
ɢɩɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɢɯɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤ
Ʉɚɤɢɟɢɡɭɤɚɡɚɧɧɵɯɩɟɪɟɜɨɞɨɜɫɥɨɜɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹɨɲɢɛɨɱɧɵɦɢ
ɍɤɚɠɢɬɟɩɪɚɜɢɥɶɧɵɣɩɟɪɟɜɨɞ
FDUYLQJɪɟɡɶɛɚ
compare ɫɪɚɜɧɢɜɚɬɶ
difference ɪɚɡɥɢɱɢɟ
enjoy ɨɛɥɚɞɚɬɶ
gain ɭɜɟɥɢɱɟɧɢɟ
gray ɫɟɪɵɣ
layer ɫɥɨɣ
range ɞɢɚɩɚɡɨɧ
save ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɬɶ
store ɯɪɚɧɢɬɶ
survive ɭɰɟɥɟɬɶ
temperate ɬɟɦɩɟɪɚɬɭɪɧɵɣ
5Ɉɩɪɟɞɟɥɢɬɟɤɤɚɤɢɦɫɥɨɜɚɦɢɡɭɱɟɧɧɵɦȼɚɦɢɜɞɚɧɧɨɦɭɱɟɛ
ɧɢɤɟɨɬɧɨɫɹɬɫɹɩɟɪɟɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɵɟɧɢɠɟɬɨɥɤɨɜɚɧɢɹ
48
1. make suitable (ɩɪɢɝɨɞɧɵɣ) for a new use or purpose.
2. the state of wanting to know about something or someone
3. any of the possible ways in which an idea, problem, etc. may be
regarded
4. the start or first part of an event, story, period of time etc
5. to repeat in sound
6. an idea or opinion that is wrong
Grammar exercises
1. ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɟɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹɨɛɪɚɳɚɹɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟɧɚ
ɮɭɧɤɰɢɢɫɥɨɜɚ that.
1. The edges of the glass are protected with bronze T-sections that frame
each side of the space.
2. It is not only the public squares of the old towns that merit study but
also the configuration of their streets.
3. In all cases successful perspective is achieved without having deeper
space, so that according to Sitte, the facade of the building could be
viewed as the setting to a stage.
4. It seems that in the sustainable city of the future there will be a range
of city street blocks varying from single-use blocks to those of multiuse in varying proportions and with varying combinations of uses.
5. Steps may be made in the rear section of the main upper hall, by which
that apartment may be reached.
6. It seems that in the sustainable city of the future there will be a range
of city street blocks varying from single-use blocks to those of multiuse in varying proportions and with varying combinations of uses.
7. That no feature of the house in a southern climate can better express
easy, comfortable enjoyment (ɧɚɫɥɚɠɞɟɧɢɟ) than a spacious veranda
is evident.
8. We know that all we can see and know is relationship, that we can
only understand one object in terms of another thing.
9. Height goes far beyond human needs and it is that which affects the
soul (ɞɭɲɚ) of the observer with pleasant and imposing effects.
10. The new main floor opens onto multiple outdoor spaces that provide
a variety of opportunities for the dwellers to enjoy the light and the
beautiful views.
49
2. ȼɵɞɟɥɢɬɟɝɥɚɜɧɨɟɢɩɪɢɞɚɬɨɱɧɨɟɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟ
ɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤ
1. For a long time, we believed nature’s art was written in the language
of mathematics.
2. The house that lies before the lake is reached via a black gravel walkway which winds around the house.
3. If we use the principle that node points should always be visible along
street axis ensures that there will be a point from where the important
landmarks can be seen.
4. The quality of the construction and the harmony of the proportions of
the Temple of Concord show how Greek architects repeated conventional forms rather than devise new ones.
5. There is, however, more to this project than that, and this is what sets
it apart from the rest of the complex and gives it special distinction.
6. He then used different mixes of blue for the interior because of the
imaginary combinations they form with the sky.
7. The Anjou family held important positions in the area around Naples,
where French builders erected important churches
8. The date of this temple is not known, but we think it was erected in III century.
9. Strong trade (ɬɨɪɝɨɜɵɣ) connections with Byzantine Empire explain
why the Venetians could borrow from Byzantine churches such as
Saint John the Evangelist at Ephesus.
10. The health centre was designed by Fernand Pouillon just after the
war when he was reconstructing the northern side of the Vieux Port.
3. ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹɨɛɪɚɳɚɹɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟɧɚɨɬɪɢɰɚɬɟɥɶ
ɧɵɟɦɟɫɬɨɢɦɟɧɢɹ.
1. There can be no doubt (ɫɨɦɧɟɧɢɟ) that the Assyrians had practice in
the use of the arch.
2. The demands of position, construction, and beauty should be completely in balance, so that none of these elements dominates the other.
3. There are no direct views toward any of the rooms from this closed
courtyard.
4. Our modern time has, like none earlier, produced the greatest number
of new methods of construction.
50
5. We have now still very few works of the art of pure form, that is, formal
creations that are nothing and that express nothing, but that have a direct effect on us, like the tones of music (ɡɜɭɤɢ ɦɭɡɵɤɢ).
6. There is no roof now, so one has to imagine the space lit only by the
windows that line the taller central aisle.
7. All imitation or device which may lead to an idea that it may be other
than what it really is, is nothing less than a fraud (ɨɛɦɚɧ) upon good
taste and architectural truth.
8. No particular instructions (ɢɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɢ) can be given for the way in
which a residential unit should be embellished in its trees and planting.
4. ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟ ɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹ ɨɛɪɚɳɚɹ ɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟ ɧɚ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɢ
ɫɪɚɜɧɟɧɢɹɩɪɢɥɚɝɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɯɢɧɚɪɟɱɢɣ
1. Although marble clads some of the surfaces, it is combined with less
elevated masonry materials like brick and sandstone.
2. Streets that are visually enclosed provide a better setting for the architecture.
3. There is a more or less substantial doubt (ɫɨɦɧɟɧɢɟ) about the authenticity (ɚɭɬɟɧɬɢɱɧɨɫɬɶ) of many of the works attributed to Bramante.
4. Rhythm employs the fundamental principle of repetition, of which the
simplest form is linear.
5. The worst effects of imposed geometry, which have no functional or
aesthetic advantage, should be avoided.
6. The town’s decorative skyline is the natural profile of the hillside
while the outline of the buildings takes on the lesser significance.
Pair work
ɋɬɭɞɟɧɬ&ɁɚɞɚɣɬɟɜɨɩɪɨɫɨɜɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɯɬɢɩɨɜɤɬɟɤɫɬɭA.
ɋɬɭɞɟɧɬ'Ɉɬɜɟɬɶɬɟɧɚɜɨɩɪɨɫɵɤɬɟɤɫɬɭɫɬɭɞɟɧɬɚ&
ɋɬɭɞɟɧɬɵ&ɢ'ɉɨɦɟɧɹɣɬɟɫɶɪɨɥɹɦɢ
Ɍɟɤɫɬ ȼ
York University’s Computer Science Building
The Computer Science Building (CSB) at York University, in Toronto, Canada does not offer the architectural sight that the Greater Lon51
don Authority Headquarters possess. A low-lying structure tucked discreetly into a campus, the York building lacks the landmark presence in
an urban cityscape that distinguishes GLA. However, in the Toronto climate of harsh winters and hot summers, the York facility provides one of
the best examples of North American institutional architecture that fully
integrates environmentally sustainable features into an intelligent design.
The three-storey structure is composed primarily of three volumes:
a bar of laboratories and offices extending the length of the building’s
western edge, a courtyard at the northeast corner surrounded mostly by
offices, and a volume with a lecture hall and the main entrance at the
southeast corner.
The building’s efficient envelope includes a sawtooth-patterned facade clad in copper on the top two floors of the east and west sides. The
orientation of the east sawtooth allows for winter solar gain and summer
shading, and the west wall is orientated for northern light. The lecture hall
features a planted green roof for rainwater retention and thermal reflection.
A glass wall faces the campus walkway to the south and has an integrated glass canopy. From the walkway, visitors enter into an entry hall
with full southern view. The entry hall’s ceiling, covered with a mapleveneer acoustic panel, slopes down to a maple bench. The main lecture
hall, accessible to the entry lobby, has seating that steps up and over the
lobby. The back wall of the hall has glazing facing south, with fabriccovered-wood and floor-to-ceiling louvered sunscreens.
Notes:
bench [benC] n ɬɟɪɪɚɫɚ
Canada ['kxnqdq] n Ʉɚɧɚɞɚ
Computer Science [kqm'pjHtq"saIqns] ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɬɢɤɚ, ɤɨɦɩɶɸɬɟɪɧɚɹ ɧɚɭɤɚ
copper ['kPpq] n ɦɟɞɧɨɟ ɩɨɤɪɵɬɢɟ
intelligent [In'telIGqnt] a ɢɧɬɟɥɥɟɤɬɭɚɥɶɧɵɣ, ɩɪɨɞɭɦɚɧɧɵɣ
laboratory [lq'bPrqtrI] n ɥɚɛɨɪɚɬɨɪɢɹ
retention [rI'tenSqn] n ɭɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɟ, ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɟ
sawtooth ['sLtHT] n ɨɫɬɪɨɤɨɧɟɱɧɨɫɬɶɨɫɬɪɨɤɨɧɟɱɧɵɣɮɚɫɚɞ a ɨɫɬɪɨɤɨɧɟɱ
ɧɵɣ
southeast ["saVT'Jst] a ɸɝɨ-ɜɨɫɬɨɱɧɵɣ
sunscreen ['sAnskrJn] n ɫɨɥɧɰɟɡɚɳɢɬɧɵɣɤɨɡɵɪɺɤɷɤɪɚɧ
Toronto [tq'rPntqV] n ɝɌɨɪɨɧɬɨ
52
First floor
Third floor
Second floor
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
Entry
Lobby
Lecture theater
Offices
Grad offices
Computer labs
VGR laboratory
West atrium
East atrium
Library
Faculty lounge
Seminar room
Planted roof
Exterior deck
FIGURE 5 Floor plans of the CSB at York University
(from “Architectural Record 2003-02” [4])
Answer the following questions
1. How does the Computer Science Building compare to the Greater London Authority Headquarters?
2. What is the reason for that?
3. Why is it still qualities noteworthy?
4. What are the three volumes of the structure?
5. What features make the building environmentally sustainable?
6. What is the volume relationship of the? main lecture hall and the entry
lobby?
53
Text work
1. ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɬɟɤɫɬ
2. ɋɨɫɬɚɜɶɬɟɩɥɚɧɬɟɤɫɬɚɢɡ–ɩɭɧɤɬɨɜ
Grammar exercises
ɇɚɣɞɢɬɟ ɜ ɬɟɤɫɬɟ ɩɪɟɜɨɫɯɨɞɧɭɸ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɶ ɩɪɢɥɚɝɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɝɨ
ɢɩɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤ
ɇɚɣɞɢɬɟɜɬɟɤɫɬɟɫɥɨɜɨthat, ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɢɬɟɤɚɤɭɸɮɭɧɤɰɢɸɨɧɨ
ɜɵɩɨɥɧɹɟɬɜɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɢɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɟɝɨɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤ
Vocabulary exercises
ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤɩɪɢɜɟɞɺɧɧɵɟɧɢɠɟɫɥɨɜɚȿɫɥɢ
ȼɵɧɟɡɧɚɟɬɟɫɥɨɜɨɧɚɣɞɢɬɟɟɝɨɜɫɥɨɜɚɪɟȼɵɩɢɲɢɬɟɢɡɫɥɨɜɚɪɹɬɨ
ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟɫɥɨɜɚɜɤɨɬɨɪɨɦɨɧɨɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɨɜɬɟɤɫɬɟ
acoustic (n), campus (n), canopy (n), cityscape (n), harsh (a), headquarters
(n), institutional (a), institutional architecture, lecture hall, lobby (n), louver (n), maple (n), northeast (n, a), rainwater (n), tuck (v).
2. ɇɚɣɞɢɬɟɩɟɪɟɜɨɞɫɥɨɜɫɩɢɫɤɚȺɜɫɩɢɫɤɟȼ
A
c ɠɚɥɸɡɢ
ɜɢɞ
ɜɤɥɸɱɚɬɶ
ɜɧɟɲɧɢɣɜɢɞ
ɝɥɚɜɧɵɦɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ
ɡɚɫɚɠɢɜɚɬɶ
ɡɚɬɟɧɟɧɢɟ
ɢɦɟɬɶɧɚɤɥɨɧ
A
ɢɦɟɸɳɢɣɞɨɫɬɭɩ
ɧɚɜɟɫ
ɧɟɢɦɟɬɶ
ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɬɶ
ɩɨɬɨɥɨɤ
ɩɪɹɬɚɬɶ
ɫɨɨɪɭɠɟɧɢɟ
ɫɭɪɨɜɵɣ
B
accessible
allow
canopy
ceiling
facility
harsh
integrate
lack
B
louvered
mostly
plant
presence
shading
sight
slope
tuck
3. ɇɚɩɢɲɢɬɟ ɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹ ɫ ɤɚɠɞɵɦ ɢɡ ɩɟɪɟɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɵɯ ɧɢɠɟ
ɫɥɨɜ
louver – louvered
vent – ventilate – ventilation
54
Unit 3.6
Phonetic exercise
ɉɪɨɱɢɬɚɣɬɟɬɪɚɧɫɤɪɢɩɰɢɸɜɫɩɢɫɤɟAɫɨɨɬɧɟɫɢɬɟɟɺɫɫɨɨɬɜɟɬ
ɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɦɫɥɨɜɨɦɢɡɫɩɢɫɤɚB ɢɩɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɫɥɨɜɨɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤ
ɍɱɬɢɬɟɱɬɨɧɟɜɫɟɫɥɨɜɚɫɩɢɫɤɚȼɞɚɧɵɜɫɩɢɫɤɟȺ
A
[hRS]; ["RtI'zxn]; ['eIkq]; ['reIdIqs]; [L'TentIk]; [In'sWt];
['txktaIl]; [swJt]; ['senSVql]; ['lHvq].
ache
esthetic
radius
hush
lower
acre
B
authentic
insert n
tactile
harsh
suite
louver
sensual
artisan
insert v
Ɍɟɤɫɬ Ⱥ
Hotel in Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India
Set in the heart of the walled city of Jodhpur, Rajasthan, RAAS is a
1.5-acre property uniquely located at the base of the Mehrangarh Fort.
The architect was to create a luxury boutique hotel with 39 rooms in the
context of the Old city quarter of Jodhpur. This has been translated into a
project where there is a dialogue between the old and the new. Luxury
was about being authentic both in terms of materials and workmanship,
and in providing visitors a tactile and sensual experience within the historical context of the old city of Jodhpur without imitating the old. The
property has three beautiful structures (17–18th century) which have been
painstakingly restored with traditional craftsman in the original materials
such as lime mortar and Jodhpur sandstone.
55
36 rooms have been created, spread over 3 contemporary buildings,
(using the same materials and skills as the traditional buildings) inserted
into the site in a manner that they frame the visual and spatial relationship
among the old buildings creating a dialogue between the old and the new.
Inspired by the age old double skinned structures of the region, (the
traditional stone latticed jharokha forms of Rajasthani architecture –
which perform multiple functions of passive cooling and offering privacy
to the user) these buildings act as lanterns framing the site. The drama of
the stone (lattice) is heightened by the fact that these panels can be folded
away by each user to reveal uninterrupted views of the fort, or can be
closed for privacy and to keep the harsh Jodhpur sun out.
Crafted by over a hundred regional artisans and master-craftsmen,
the development – building and interiors – is conceived and executed using the fundamentals of sustainable architecture. 70 % of the materials
used on site have been sourced locally, most within a 30 km radius. Every
element is handcrafted with a focus on simplicity, and function – beauty
being the skill and care of the craftsman that has gone in to creating the
piece.
The large central courtyard houses the three restored heritage buildings. These become nodes, shared spaces such as dining areas, a spa,
break away spaces, to be enjoyed by all the guests. These also house 3
heritage suites. All the services have been planned with Green methods
and technologies.
Notes:
artisan ["RtI'zxn] n ɦɚɫɬɟɪ, ɭɦɟɥɟɰ, ɢɫɤɭɫɧɵɣ ɦɚɫɬɟɪ
crafted ['krRftId] a ɫɞɟɥɚɧɧɵɣɜɪɭɱɧɭɸɤɭɫɬɚɪɧɵɦɫɩɨɫɨɛɨɦ
craftsman ['krRftsmqn] n ɭɦɟɥɟɰɯɭɞɨɠɧɢɤɦɚɫɬɟɪ
fort [fLt] n ɮɨɪɬɤɪɟɩɨɫɬɶ
handcrafted ['hxnd"krRftId] a ɫɞɟɥɚɧɧɵɣɜɪɭɱɧɭɸɹɜɥɹɸɳɢɣɫɹɚɜɬɨɪɫɤɢɦ
ɢɡɞɟɥɢɟɦ
jharokha [Ghq'rqVkq@ɞɠɯɚɪɨɤɚɷɪɤɟɪɡɚɫɬɟɤɥɟɧɧɵɣɜɵɫɬɭɩɧɚɮɚɫɚɞɟɜ
ɢɧɞɢɣɫɤɨɣɚɪɯɢɬɟɤɬɭɪɟ)
km (kilometre) ['kIlq"mJtq] n ɤɢɥɨɦɟɬɪ
lime mortar ['laIm "mLtq] ɢɡɜɟɫɬɤɨɜɵɣ ɪɚɫɬɜɨɪ
master-craftsman ['mRstq 'krRftsmqn] n ɜɵɫɨɤɨɤɜɚɥɢɮɢɰɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɣ ɯɭɞɨɠ
ɧɢɤ/ɦɚɫɬɟɪ
painstakingly ['peInz"teIkINlI] adv ɬɳɚɬɟɥɶɧɨ, ɫɤɪɭɩɭɥɺɡɧɨ
spa [spR] n ɫɩɨɪɬɢɜɧɨ-ɨɡɞɨɪɨɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣɤɨɦɩɥɟɤɫ
56
Answer the following questions
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
What was the architect to create?
How was a dialogue between the old and the new achieved?
What was the architect’s design inspired by?
How are the fundamentals of sustainable architecture executed?
What are the nodes of this architectural project?
Vocabulary exercises
ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤɩɪɢɜɟɞɟɧɧɵɟɧɢɠɟɫɥɨɜɚɢɫɥɨ
ɜɨɫɨɱɟɬɚɧɢɹɄɚɤɢɟɢɡɩɟɪɟɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɵɯɫɥɨɜɦɨɝɭɬɛɵɬɶɞɪɭɝɢɦɢɱɚ
ɫɬɹɦɢɪɟɱɢ"Ʉɚɤɢɦɢɢɦɟɧɧɨ"Ʉɚɤ ɨɧɢ ɜ ɷɬɨɦ ɫɥɭɱɚɟ ɩɟɪɟɜɨɞɹɬɫɹ ɧɚ
ɪɭɫɫɤɢɣ ɹɡɵɤ?
acre (n), authentic (a), dining (n), dining area, fold (v), fold away (v),
guest (n), India (n), insert (v), multiple(a), radius (n), restore (v), sensual
(a), suite (n), tactile (a), translate (v).
ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟ ɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɟ ɫɥɨɜɚ ɢ ɫɥɨɜɨɫɨɱɟɬɚɧɢɹ ɧɚ ɚɧɝɥɢɣ
ɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤ
ɚɤɪɚɩɚɪɬɚɦɟɧɬɵ ɜɜɨɞɢɬɶ ɜɩɢɫɵɜɚɬɶ ɜɡɚɢɦɨɫɜɹɡɶɫɜɹɡɶɞɨɫɬɨɜɟɪ
ɧɵɣ ɡɚɞɭɦɵɜɚɬɶ ɡɚɦɵɲɥɹɬɶ ɡɨɧɚ ɩɢɬɚɧɢɹ ɢɡɜɟɱɧɵɣ ɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɨɧ
ɧɵɣɫɬɚɪɨɞɚɜɧɢɣɤɚɫɚɬɶɫɹɢɦɟɬɶɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɟɤɥɺɧɦɟɫɬɧɵɣɨɫɭ
ɳɟɫɬɜɥɹɬɶɩɪɟɬɜɨɪɹɬɶɜɠɢɡɧɶɨɫɹɡɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɣɬɚɤɬɢɥɶɧɵɣɩɢɬɚɧɢɟ
ɩɪɢɺɦɩɢɳɢɩɨɞɧɨɠɢɟɩɨɥɭɱɚɬɶɩɪɢɨɛɪɟɬɚɬɶɩɨɫɟɬɢɬɟɥɶɩɪɨɟɤɬ
ɡɚɫɬɪɨɣɤɢɪɚɞɢɭɫɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɣɪɚɡɧɵɣɪɚɣɨɧɱɚɫɬɶɝɨɪɨɞɚɪɟɫɬɚ
ɜɪɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ ɜɨɫɫɬɚɧɚɜɥɢɜɚɬɶ ɫɤɥɚɞɵɜɚɬɶ ɫɝɢɛɚɬɶ ɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɣ
ɭɛɢɪɚɬɶɨɬɨɞɜɢɝɚɬɶɭɡɥɨɜɚɹɬɨɱɤɚɭɫɢɥɢɜɚɬɶɩɨɜɵɲɚɬɶɰɟɜɨɱɧɨɟ
ɤɨɥɟɫɨɱɭɜɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣɫɟɧɫɭɚɥɶɧɵɣɷɤɫɤɥɸɡɢɜɧɵɣ
ɉɟɪɟɱɢɫɥɢɬɟɭɩɨɦɹɧɭɬɵɟɜɬɟɤɫɬɟɚɪɯɢɬɟɤɬɭɪɧɵɟɬɟɪɦɢɧɵɢ
ɩɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɢɯɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤ
Ɂɚɩɨɥɧɢɬɟɩɪɨɩɭɫɤɢɜɬɟɤɫɬɟɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɹɫɥɨɜɚɢɡɩɪɢɜɟɞɺɧ
ɧɨɝɨɧɢɠɟɫɩɢɫɤɚȾɜɚɫɥɨɜɚɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹɥɢɲɧɢɦɢ
busy
concept
containing
grows
impact
inside
located
static
the
57
three
visitors
will
Helsinki Central Library
(1)… in the heart of Helsinki, the 16,000 square meter library building will consist almost entirely of public spaces and (2)… offer a wide
selection of services. It will serve as the new central point for the city’s
impressive public library network.
The project is based on (3)… idea of dividing the functions of the
library into three distinctive levels: a dynamic ground floor, a calm upper
floor, and an enclosed in-between volume (4)… the more specific functions. This (5)…. has been developed into an arching form that invites
people to use the spaces and services below, (6)… and on top of it.
The design (7)… from the dynamic between the site and the goals
of the library program. The interplay (ɜɡɚɢɦɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟ) between the
building’s (8)… individual floors is the key concept of the project. The
public plaza in front of the building will continue inside. The ground floor
will be a powerful, (9)… and frequently changed space appropriate for
quick visits and walk-throughs. The dynamic public spaces will be visible,
attractive, understandable and welcoming to all (10)….
ɩɪɨɞɨɥɠɟɧɢɟɬɟɤɫɬɚɜɭɩɪɚɠɧɟɧɢɢ4 ɭɪɨɤɚ10 ɫɬɪ99)
ɇɚɣɞɢɬɟɜɩɪɢɦɟɱɚɧɢɹɯɤɬɟɤɫɬɚɦɭɪɨɤɨɜ– ɩɟɪɟɜɨɞɧɚ
ɚɧɝɥɢɣɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɯɫɥɨɜ
ɚɛɫɭɪɞɧɨɫɬɶ ɜɥɚɠɧɨɫɬɶ ɜɥɚɝɚ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɣ ɜɵɤɚɩɵɜɚɬɶ ɠɚɥɸɡɢ
ɫɬɚɜɧɢɡɚɛɪɨɲɟɧɧɵɣɢɡɨɝɧɭɬɵɣɦɟɫɬɧɵɣɨɫɬɪɨɤɨɧɟɱɧɵɣɨɬɤɪɵ
ɜɚɸɳɢɣɫɹɨɰɟɧɤɚɩɨɞɫɱɺɬɩɭɬɟɩɪɨɜɨɞɪɟɝɭɥɢɪɭɟɦɵɣɫɨɞɧɨɫɤɚɬ
ɧɨɣɤɪɵɲɟɣɫɢɦɜɨɥɡɧɚɤɨɜɵɣɨɛɪɚɡɫɨɛɢɪɚɬɶɦɨɧɬɢɪɨɜɚɬɶɫɨɨɬ
ɜɟɬɫɬɜɨɜɚɬɶ ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɟ ɫɨɱɟɬɚɧɢɟ ɫɥɢɹɧɢɟ ɫɪɚɜɧɟɧɢɟ ɫɬɢɪɚɬɶ
ɢɡɝɥɚɠɢɜɚɬɶɮɢɨɥɟɬɨɜɵɣ ɹɪɤɨɫɬɶɛɥɟɫɤ
Grammar exercises
1. ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟ ɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹ ɨɛɪɚɳɚɹ ɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟ ɧɚ ɮɨɪɦɵ
ɫ ɫɭɮɮɢɤɫɨɦ -ing Ɉɩɪɟɞɟɥɢɬɟ ɤ ɤɚɤɨɣ ɱɚɫɬɢ ɪɟɱɢ ɨɧɢ ɨɬɧɨɫɹɬɫɹ
ɢɤɚɤɭɸɮɭɧɤɰɢɸɜɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɢɜɵɩɨɥɧɹɸɬ
1. Combining a classical Greek temple with a more Roman-appearing
rotunda (ɪɨɬɨɧɞɚ) was the aim of the architect for the Pantheon in
Rome.
58
2. M. Aymonino and Aldo Rossi’s interest in the history of the city could
not prevent them from expressing their belief (ɜɟɪɚ) in the “modern”
project, as it was opposed to the “traditional” city
3. In the eighth century B.C., the Greek city-states began sending settlers
(ɩɨɫɟɥɟɧɰɵ) to Italy as far north as Naples and Cuma.
4. The intention of the design was to achieve complexity and variety using a standard element.
5. Architecture is constantly changing to meet social conditions, besides
developing new methods of construction.
6. After having developed for more than a century the Greeks had a brilliant Classical Age (480-323 B.C.).
7. The building contains many fine sculptures, a feature, which is repeated in the surrounding streets.
8. The dwelling is unified by long, 3-metre-high walls which reach beyond the enclosed spaces toward the lake and surrounding terrain, thus
defining footpaths.
9. The most notable work of this period is the Royal Palace at Caserta,
by Van Vitelli (1752), an architect of considerable taste (ɜɤɭɫ), considering his time.
10. When regarding recent buildings in the USA, we see that the height
of the base storeys, with many floors over, admits of mezzanine treatments for which no similar precedent (ɩɪɟɰɟɞɟɧɬ) exists.
2. ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɟɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹɨɛɪɚɳɚɹɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟɧɚ
ɮɭɧɤɰɢɢɝɥɚɝɨɥɨɜhave ɢbe.
1. The project was to accommodate a university hospital, medical facilities and housing for the staff (ɩɟɪɫɨɧɚɥ).
2. It is true to say that by now the sustainable house has improved, like
everything else.
3. We have to design sustainable dwellings but quite often we don’t know
how this is to be done.
4. There is no need for any relationship between the way a building is
built and how it will look.
5. Design by computer has become one of the icons (ɫɢɦɜɨɥɵ) of modern architecture.
6. Although the internal organization of the building has been thought
out in great detail, its external form seems to have been left to develop
spontaneously (ɫɩɨɧɬɚɧɧɨ) out of internal concerns.
59
7. Its U-shaped bearing elements (ɧɟɫɭɳɢɟ ɷɥɟɦɟɧɬɵ) are standard in
shape and size, which is specified by a standard grid; their only freedom is in their orientation, the direction their open side faces.
8. The building does not correspond (ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɨɜɚɬɶ) to its surroundings which, one has to tell, do not have any character.
9. As long as the processes of making architecture and building civilization are related to one another, there will be a reason for some modest
XUEDQRSWLPLVPɨɩɬɢɦɢɡɦHYHQIRUWKRVHRIXVZKRDUHDUFKLWHFWV
10. When the atrium became larger, and the roof had to be supported by
columns, it was called a cavaedium (ɤɚɜɟɞɢɣ, ɜɧɭɬɪɟɧɧɢɣ ɞɜɨɪ).
3. ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟ ɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɟ ɫɥɨɜɨɫɨɱɟɬɚɧɢɹ
1.5-acre property, air movement, campus walkway, clearstory window,
community use, design principle, double-skin façade, energy load, entry
hall ceiling, extra comfort requirement, façade transparency, 30 km radius, floor construction, glass courtyard roof, building envelope transparency, house door, landmark presence, limestone plinth, low-draught ventilation, noise source, overheating potential, similar-size office building,
single-leaf façade, 3-metre-high wall, solar protection device, summer
heat insulation, support structure, surface area, ventilation system.
Pair work
ɋɬɭɞɟɧɬ&ɁɚɞɚɣɬɟɜɨɩɪɨɫɨɜɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɯɬɢɩɨɜɤɬɟɤɫɬɭA.
ɋɬɭɞɟɧɬ'Ɉɬɜɟɬɶɬɟɧɚɜɨɩɪɨɫɵɤɬɟɤɫɬɭɫɬɭɞɟɧɬɚ&
ɋɬɭɞɟɧɬɵ&ɢ'ɉɨɦɟɧɹɣɬɟɫɶɪɨɥɹɦɢ
Ɍɟɤɫɬ ȼ
Siobhan Davies Dance Centre Southwark, London
Five twisting ribbons of sky-blue GRP (glass reinforced plastic)
make up the roof of a new dance studio for the Siobhan Davies Dance
Company. The studio has been built on top of a London Board school
building from 1898.
A steel structure has been built across the top of the two-storey
building to provide an unobstructed 190 square metre space for rehearsal
and performance. Pairs of steel portals span 11.5 metres across the space
at 3.4 metre centres. One portal in the pair is a mirror image of the other
60
about their centreline and they are bolted 500 mm apart. Steel purlins span
between the portals defining the twisting shape of the roof.
The roof finish is a shell of GRP panels, made off-site by laying
glass fibre sheets over a mould and coating them with resin. The final
mould is itself made from GRP from an original bent plywood mould
made up by joiners. A moulding process was suggested by the roof’s complex two-directional curves and because each panel could be repeated several times. Ridges on the rear and a downstand on all sides mean the panels only require intermediate support at joint lines above the purlins. Once
fixed in place the GRP panels were sprayed with insulating foam on the
inside to weaken the noise of rainfall. Further acoustic insulation is provided by a 5 mm thick acoustic membrane laid over mineral wool. The
roof soffit is finished in birch-faced plywood strips fixed to timber battens
behind.
Glazing is fixed in aluminium channels between the ribbons of the
roof. Strips of fluorescent lighting are concealed above and below the
rooflight windows to avoid a harsh transition from day to night. The billowing roof achieves the client’s apparently opposing desires for an introspective space in which to dance under the sky.
Notes:
batten ['bxtn] n ɪɟɣɤɚ, ɩɥɚɧɤɚ
billowing ['bIlqVIN] a ɜɡɞɵɦɚɸɳɢɣɫɹ ɜɨɥɧɚɦɢ
birch [bWC] n ɛɟɪɺɡɚ
bolt [bqVlt] v ɡɚɤɪɟɩɥɹɬɶ ɛɨɥɬɚɦɢ
centreline ['sentqlaIn] n ɨɫɟɜɚɹ ɥɢɧɢɹ
downstand ['daVnstxnd] n ɜɵɫɬɭɩ ɛɚɥɤɢ ɩɟɪɟɤɪɵɬɢɹ
foam [fqVm] n ɩɟɧɨɩɥɚɫɬ, ɩɟɧɨɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥ
glass reinforced plastic ['glRs"rJIn"fLst'plxstIk] n ɫɬɟɤɥɨɩɥɚɫɬɢɤ
introspective ["Intrq'spektIv] a ɡɚɦɤɧɭɬɵɣɜɫɟɛɟɨɛɪɚɳɟɧɧɵɣɜɨɜɧɭɬɪɶ
joiner ['GOInq] n ɫɬɨɥɹɪɩɥɨɬɧɢɤ
mineral wool ["mInqrql 'wVl] ɦɢɧɟɪɚɥɶɧɚɹ ɜɚɬɚ
purlin ['pWlIn] n ɩɪɨɝɨɧ (ɤɪɵɲɢ)
rainfall ['reInfLl] n ɞɨɠɞɶ, ɥɢɜɟɧɶ
ribbon ['rIbqn] n ɩɨɥɨɫɚ, ɥɟɧɬɚ
rooflight ['rHflaIt] n ɡɟɧɢɬɧɵɣ ɮɨɧɚɪɶ
soffit ['sPfIt] n ɫɨɮɢɬɧɢɠɧɹɹɩɨɜɟɪɯɧɨɫɬɶɫɜɨɞɚ)
spray [spreI] v ɪɚɫɩɵɥɹɬɶ, ɪɚɡɛɪɵɡɝɢɜɚɬɶ
61
2. ɇɚɣɞɢɬɟɩɟɪɟɜɨɞɫɥɨɜɫɩɢɫɤɚȺɜɫɩɢɫɤɟȼ
Answer the following questions
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
What makes up the roof of the building?
Where was it erected?
What is the steel structure made of?
What is the roof finish?
Why was the moulding process suggested?
What is the acoustic insulation provided by?
Where is the glazing fixed?
Why are the strips of fluorescent lighting concealed above and below
the rooflight windows?
Text work
ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɬɟɤɫɬ
ɋɨɫɬɚɜɶɬɟɩɥɚɧɬɟɤɫɬɚɢɡ-ɩɭɧɤɬɨɜ
Grammar exercises
1. ɇɚɣɞɢɬɟɜɬɟɤɫɬɟɝɥɚɝɨɥɵhave ɢbeɈɩɪɟɞɟɥɢɬɟɢɯɮɭɧɤɰɢɢ
ɢɩɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤ
2. ɇɚɣɞɢɬɟɜ ɬɟɤɫɬɟɝɪɭɩɩɵɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɯɢɩɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɢɯ
ɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤ
ɇɚɣɞɢɬɟɜɬɟɤɫɬɟɮɨɪɦɵɫɫɭɮɮɢɤɫɨɦ-ingɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɢɬɟɤɤɚ
ɤɨɣ ɱɚɫɬɢ ɪɟɱɢ ɨɧɢ ɨɬɧɨɫɹɬɫɹ ɢ ɤɚɤɭɸ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɸ ɨɧɢ ɜɵɩɨɥɧɹɸɬ
ɜɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɢɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɢɯɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤ
A
ɜɨɥɨɤɧɨ
ɞɨɩɨɥɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣ
ɞɪɭɝɨɬɞɪɭɝɚ
ɡɚɞɧɹɹɱɚɫɬɶ
ɢɡɝɢɛ
ɤɥɚɫɬɶ
ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɬɶ
ɩɟɪɟɤɪɵɜɚɬɶ
(ɩɪɨɥɺɬ)
A
ɩɨɜɟɪɯɧɨɫɬɶ
ɩɨɤɪɵɜɚɬɶ
ɩɪɨɦɟɠɭɬɨɱɧɵɣ
ɪɟɩɟɬɢɰɢɹ
ɫɜɨɛɨɞɧɵɣ
ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɬɶ
ɫɬɵɤ
ɮɨɪɦɨɜɚɬɶ
B
apart
coat
curve
define
fibre
finish
further
intermediate
3. ɇɚɩɢɲɢɬɟ ɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹ ɫ ɤɚɠɞɵɦ ɢɡ ɩɟɪɟɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɵɯ ɧɢɠɟ
ɫɥɨɜ
restore – restoration
sensual– sensitive
Vocabulary exercises
ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤɩɪɢɜɟɞɺɧɧɵɟɧɢɠɟɫɥɨɜɚȿɫɥɢ
ȼɵɧɟɡɧɚɟɬɟɫɥɨɜɨɧɚɣɞɢɬɟɟɝɨɜɫɥɨɜɚɪɟȼɵɩɢɲɢɬɟɢɡɫɥɨɜɚɪɹɬɨ
ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟɫɥɨɜɚɜɤɨɬɨɪɨɦɨɧɨɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɨɜɬɟɤɫɬɟ
aluminium (n), behind (adv, prep), client (n), fibre joint (n), membrane
(n), mm (n), oppose (v), pair (n), performance (n), plywood (n), rehearsal
(n), resin (n), studio (n), twist (v), unobstructed (a).
62
B
joint
lay
make up
mould
rear
rehearsal
span
unobstructed
63
Unit 3.7
Ɍɟɤɫɬ Ⱥ
vault and bound to each other using poured-in-place concrete, the whole
made possible by the use of movable metal scaffolding. The final phase
of construction required joining the roof shells to the poured-in-place
piers. This was achieved via the on-site pouring of reinforced-concrete rib
beams. They spanned from pier to pier and were poured within the upper
and lower ends of the roof section.
The Exhibition Hall is an architectural and structural marvel of the
postwar era. Its means of construction bear witness to the power of invention in the act of building.
Notes:
Exhibition Hall, Turin
The Exhibition Hall of Turin (1949–1950) represents a significant
achievement in the building arts of the 20th century. It was designed, engineered, and built by Italian engineer Pier Luigi Nervi. Widely known
for its innovative use of new building materials and construction techniques, the Exhibition Hall is an impressive example of the use of reinforced concrete and ferro-cement. The large, unobstructed spans of the
main hall and the abundant elegance of its articulated roof structure were
made possible by the pioneering efforts and structural mastery of its
builder.
The complex was built in two stages, the first structure being completed in 1949 and the second a year later. The initial building, Salone B,
was spatially, materially, and structurally the more extravagant of the two.
It comprised two interconnected spaces, the main hall a rectangular barrel-vaulted enclosure measuring 328 by 262 ft and the smaller hall an apsidal room, with a half-dome 130 ft in diameter attached to one end of the
main hall. With respect to the cross section, the height at the centre of the
main hall rose to over 60 ft, and 25 ft wide mezzanines were built at the
base of the two rows of supporting piers. The second building, Salone C,
measured 213 by 230 ft and was also roofed with a concrete vault of both
precast and poured-in-place elements.
The main structural supports of Salone B were built using pouredin-place reinforced concrete. Once the main structural piers and floors
were in place, the installation of the roofing members started. The individual roof sections, measuring 8 by 13 ft and folded in the profile of a
sinusoidal wave, were aligned and arched into the desired profile of the
64
bind [baInd] – bound – bound [baVnd] v ɫɜɹɡɵɜɚɬɶ, ɫɤɪɟɩɥɹɬɶ
extravagant [Ik'strxvqgqnt] a ɜɵɱɭɪɧɵɣ, ɩɪɢɱɭɞɥɢɜɵɣ, ɞɨɪɨɝɨɫɬɨɹɳɢɣ
ferro-cement ["ferqV'sI'ment] n ɫɬɚɥɟɮɢɛɪɨɛɟɬɨɧɦɟɥɤɨɡɟɪɧɢɫɬɵɣɛɟɬɨɧ
ɚɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɣɫɟɬɤɚɦɢɢɡɬɨɧɤɨɣɫɬɚɥɶɧɨɣɩɪɨɜɨɥɨɤɢ)
invention [In'venSqn] n ɢɡɨɛɪɟɬɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɶɫɨɡɞɚɧɢɟɧɨɜɨɝɨ
pioneering ["paIq'nIqrIN] a ɧɨɜɚɬɨɪɫɤɢɣ
Salone ['sxlPn] ɢɬɚɥ n ɫɚɥɨɧɜɵɫɬɚɜɨɱɧɵɣɡɚɥ
scaffolding ['skxfqldIN] n ɫɬɪɨɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɟɥɟɫɚɩɨɞɦɨɫɬɢ
sinusoidal ["saInq'sOIdl] a ɫɢɧɭɫɨɢɞɚɥɶɧɵɣ
Turin [tjVq'rIn] n ɝɌɭɪɢɧ
Answer the following questions
Why does the Exhibition Hall represent a significant achievement in
the building arts?
1. What does the complex consist of?
2. What does the initial building feature?
3. What does the second building feature?
4. What did the final phase of construction require?
Phonetic exercise
ɇɚɣɞɢɬɟɜɬɟɤɫɬɟɫɥɨɜɚɬɪɚɧɫɤɪɢɩɰɢɹɤɨɬɨɪɵɯɞɚɧɚɧɢɠɟɢɩɟ
ɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɢɯɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤ
[GOIn]; ['InqvqtIv]; [I'nISql]; [R'tIkjVleIt]; [pL]; ['meZq];
['speISqlI]; ['xpsIdql].
65
Vocabulary exercises
ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤɩɪɢɜɟɞɟɧɧɵɟɧɢɠɟɫɥɨɜɚɢɫɥɨ
ɜɨɫɨɱɟɬɚɧɢɹɄɚɤɢɟɢɡɩɟɪɟɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɵɯɫɥɨɜɦɨɝɭɬɛɵɬɶɞɪɭɝɢɦɢɱɚ
ɫɬɹɦɢɪɟɱɢ"Ʉɚɤɢɦɢɢɦɟɧɧɨ"Ʉɚɤ ɨɧɢ ɜ ɷɬɨɦ ɫɥɭɱɚɟ ɩɟɪɟɜɨɞɹɬɫɹ ɧɚ
ɪɭɫɫɤɢɣ ɹɡɵɤ?
abundant (n), articulate (v), era (n), ft (n), initial (a), innovative (a), installation (n), Italian (a), join (v), metal (n, a), mezzanine (n), movable (a),
phase (n), postwar (a), pour (v), pouring (n), wave (n, a).
ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟ ɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɟ ɫɥɨɜɚ ɢ ɫɥɨɜɨɫɨɱɟɬɚɧɢɹ ɧɚ ɚɧɝɥɢɣ
ɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤ
ɜɮɨɪɦɟɚɩɫɢɞɵɜɤɥɸɱɚɬɶɫɨɫɬɨɹɬɶɢɡɜɨɥɧɚ ɡɚɤɚɧɱɢɜɚɬɶɡɚɜɟɪ
ɲɚɬɶ ɡɚɤɪɵɬɨɟ ɫɨɨɪɭɠɟɧɢɟ ɢɡɹɳɟɫɬɜɨ ɢɡɵɫɤɚɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɢɦɟɬɶ ɪɚɡ
ɦɟɪɤɚɤɬɨɥɶɤɨɦɚɫɬɟɪɫɬɜɨɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɨɦɨɧɨɥɢɬɧɵɣɨɬɥɢɬɵɣɧɚɦɟ
ɫɬɟ ɦɨɧɬɚɠ ɫɨɨɪɭɠɟɧɢɟ ɨɛɢɥɶɧɵɣ ɢɡɨɛɢɥɶɧɵɣ ɨɥɢɰɟɬɜɨɪɹɬɶ
ɫɢɦɜɨɥɢɡɢɪɨɜɚɬɶɨɩɨɪɚɩɟɪɜɨɧɚɱɚɥɶɧɵɣɩɨɩɟɪɟɱɧɨɟ ɫɟɱɟɧɢɟɩɪɢ
ɤɪɟɩɥɹɬɶ ɩɪɢɫɨɟɞɢɧɹɬɶ ɩɪɨɞɨɥɶɧɚɹ ɛɚɥɤɚ ɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ ɩɪɹ
ɦɨɭɝɨɥɶɧɵɣ ɪɹɞ ɥɢɧɢɹ ɫ ɩɨɦɨɳɶɸ ɩɨɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɨɦ ɫɜɢɞɟɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɨ
ɜɚɬɶɩɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɬɶɫɜɨɞɫɨɟɞɢɧɹɬɶɩɪɢɫɨɟɞɢɧɹɬɶɫɨɡɞɚɜɚɬɶɩɪɨɟɤ
ɬɢɪɨɜɚɬɶɭɞɢɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣɮɟɧɨɦɟɧɰɟɥɨɟɱɬɨɤɚɫɚɟɬɫɹɷɬɚɩ
ɉɟɪɟɱɢɫɥɢɬɟ ɭɩɨɦɹɧɭɬɵɟ ɜ ɬɟɤɫɬɟ ɚɪɯɢɬɟɤɬɭɪɧɵɟ ɬɟɪɦɢɧɵ
ɢɩɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɢɯɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤ
4ɇɚɣɞɢɬɟɬɨɥɤɨɜɚɧɢɹɫɥɨɜɫɩɢɫɤɚȺɜɫɩɢɫɤɟȼɈɞɧɨɬɨɥɤɨ
ɜɚɧɢɟɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹɥɢɲɧɢɦ
A
moulding, landscape, identity, gable, draught, aisle, peristyle, nave.
B
1. a lateral division of a building, separated from the middle part, called
the nave, by a row of columns or piers, which support the roof or an
upper wall containing windows, called the clearstory wall.
2. a current (ɩɨɬɨɤ) of cool air in a room or confined space
3. the triangular upper part of a wall at the end of a ridged roof.
4. the characteristics determining the fact of being what a thing is.
5. an expanse of natural scenery considered in terms of its visual effect.
66
6. a strip of plaster or wood along the top of a wall or round a door, which
has been made into an ornamental shape or decorated with a pattern.
7. that part of a church that is between the side aisles and extends from
the chancel (ɚɥɬɚɪɶ) to the principal entrance, forming the main part
of the building.
8. a low ceilinged storey between two main stories in a building, usually
LPPHGLDWHO\ ɧɟɩɨɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ DERYH WKH JURXQG IORRU DQG LQ WKH
form of a balcony…
9. a line of columns that surrounds an outdoor space such as a garden
inside a building, or the space surrounded by these columns.
ɇɚɣɞɢɬɟɜɬɟɤɫɬɟɥɟɤɫɢɱɟɫɤɢɯɨɲɢɛɨɤ
Because to determine the type and quantity (ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɨ) of housing
required for the town, Salt carried up a survey among his workers. From
this he was able to understand the various housing needs for different family sizes. This was the first time that it had occurred to anyone that a workman with 10 children needed more rooms than a workman with one child.
The variety in house type in the programme gave to his architects the poverty of articulating the long street elevations. Large houses were placed at
the ends of terraces or at strategic points below the length where emphasis
ɜɵɪɚɡɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɶ was required. Long street frontages stepping down
the outline were appropriately broken up with pavilions of larger houses
which accommodated the change in roofline in a millennium controlled way.
Grammar exercises
1. ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɟɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹɨɛɪɚɳɚɹɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟɧɚ
ɮɭɧɤɰɢɢɩɪɢɱɚɫɬɢɹ,,.
1. Portmeirion, designed and developed by Clough Williams-Ellis is a
village near Portmadoc in North Wales.
2. Under-and above-ground, the variously shaped galleries illuminated
by manifold means permit individual works of art to be perceived in
the setting most sympathetic to the artists’ intentions.
3. The main element used in this effort to revive the centre is a combination of an attractive pavement (ɞɨɪɨɠɧɨɟ ɩɨɤɪɵɬɢɟ), carefully selected street furniture and civic sculpture.
4. The outer façade skin consists of room-high, line-wise arranged laminated safety glass and is permanently ventilated.
67
5. When faced with the treatment of facades the designer chose
(ɜɵɛɢɪɚɬɶ) the traditional solution.
6. When, where, and how attained unknown, all the monuments of Indian
architecture show a fully developed style.
7. In this beautiful edifice the façade consists of a light and slender arcade
supporting a wall pierced with four windows, and covered with elaborate arabesques (ɚɪɚɛɟɫɤɢ).
8. The glass courtyard roof has a lattice structure of concrete beams supported on ten extremely slender 24-metre high concrete columns.
9. People don't want the home next door or across the street demolished
(ɫɧɨɫɢɬɶ) and replaced with a concrete block house
10. The building was designed with a strong form in order to offer the
occupants protection from the noise and pollution generated by the
nearby roundabout.
2. ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɟɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹɨɛɪɚɳɚɹɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟɧɚ
ɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɵɟɢɧɟɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɵɟɩɪɢɱɚɫɬɧɵɟɨɛɨɪɨɬɵ
1. The rules for composing elevations for buildings of one storey being
similar to those followed for buildings of two or more storeys, as far
DVOHQJWKJRHVWKH\GLIIHUɪɚɡɥɢɱɚɬɶɫɹE\WKHWUHDWPHQWRIWKHUHSHW
itive unit.
2. The magnificently worked granite and stones of Egypt give place to
brick for the material of the walls, a far larger space covered with
buildings by a given number of men in a given time.
3. The flat roofs of the Italian Renaissance influenced the treatment of
roofs during the whole period of the Renaissance in Europe, the
crowning cornice forming the most striking termination to a facade.
4. Having considered some of the major elements in the design of elevations, the architect deals with the analysis and treatment of wall surfaces.
5. Rome, having achieved a population of one million or more, was the
example of the new type of city.
6. The optical effect of overhang is controlled by treating each storey in
receding planes, another method being to bend the whole wall slightly
inwards.
7. The dome, which is of stone throughout, has three shells, the intermediate shell serving to support the heavy stone lantern.
68
8. A flat site not having any significance as a natural form, any visual
interest depends upon the objects placed upon it.
9. Principles of visual order, allowing variety without monotony and
providing spatial character and continuity, are useful goals in the design of city spaces.
10. Each unique and individual site having its effect upon the skyline,
the relationship of skyline and topography is nevertheless both direct
and easily recognisable.
3. ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɟɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹ ɨɛɪɚɳɚɹɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟɧɚ
ɫɤɚɡɭɟɦɵɟɜɫɬɪɚɞɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɦɡɚɥɨɝɟ
1. The development of civilization has always been accompanied by the
appearance (ɩɨɹɜɥɟɧɢɟ) of cities, that is, by large, relatively dense
settlements of people.
2. In both learning and practice, attention is being increasingly paid to
what has been described as designing without boundaries, or rethinking the organization and task of the design professions.
3. The Bauhaus (ȻDɭɯɚɭɫ, ɭɱɟɛɧɨɟ ɡɚɜɟɞɟɧɢɟ ɢ ɚɪɯɢɬɟɤɬɭɪɧɨɯɭɞɨɠɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɟ ɨɛɴɟɞɢɧɟɧɢɟ ɜ Ƚɟɪɦɚɧɢɢ 1919—1933) remains
the most prominent design school of all time, some of whose ideas
were still being treated in Britain as new fifty years after the school
was closed down.
4. The bell-tower which might have been developed into a very interesting form of tower, does not seem to have been imitated.
5. A bell-tower was always treated as a structure distinct from the church,
and was built of brick upon a square plan, rising with little or no architectural decoration to a height usually of a hundred feet or more.
6. The increasing skill of American architects in monumental design was
further shown in the buildings of the Columbian Exposition at Chicago
in 1893.
7. Many new towns have been built and old cities reconstructed in the
USSR and Eastern Europe.
8. Various gallery spaces that had been inserted within the courtyards
during the 1950s and 60s were dismantled (ɞɟɦɨɧɬɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ) to liberate these spaces.
69
4. ɇɚɡɨɜɢɬɟɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɟɢɩɨɪɹɞɤɨɜɵɟɱɢɫɥɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɟɫɥɟ
ɞɭɸɳɢɯɰɢɮɪɧɚɚɧɝɥɢɣɫɤɨɦɹɡɵɤɟ
5, 7, 10, 18, 21, 23, 32, 45, 51, 54.
Pair work
ɋɬɭɞɟɧɬ&ɁɚɞɚɣɬɟɜɨɩɪɨɫɨɜɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɯɬɢɩɨɜɤɬɟɤɫɬɭA.
ɋɬɭɞɟɧɬ'Ɉɬɜɟɬɶɬɟɧɚɜɨɩɪɨɫɵɤɬɟɤɫɬɭɫɬɭɞɟɧɬɚ&
ɋɬɭɞɟɧɬɵ&ɢ'ɉɨɦɟɧɹɣɬɟɫɶɪɨɥɹɦɢ
Ɍɟɤɫɬ ȼ
Notes:
accessibility [qk"sesq'bIlItI] n ɞɨɫɬɭɩɧɨɫɬɶ
asset ['xset] n ɞɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɟɞɨɫɬɨɢɧɫɬɜɨ
book page ['bVk"peIG@ɤɧɢɠɧɚɹɫɬɪɚɧɢɰɚ
constructability [kqn"strAktq'bIlItI] n ɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɱɧɨɫɬɶɫɬɪɨɢɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɚ)
initiate [I'nISIeIt] v ɧɚɱɢɧɚɬɶɩɪɟɞɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɬɶ
interoperability ["Intq"Ppqrq'bIlItI] n ɜɡɚɢɦɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟɫɨɜɦɟɫɬɢɦɨɫɬɶ
Korea [kq'rIq] n Ʉɨɪɟɹ
seminar ['semInR] n ɫɟɦɢɧɚɪ
simulation ["sImjV'leISqn] n ɢɦɢɬɚɰɢɨɧɧɨɟ ɦɨɞɟɥɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ
Answer the following questions
National Library of Sejong City
The National Library of Sejong City is the first branch facility of the
National Library of Korea and is planned to be built in the Multi-functional Administrative City of Korea. Designed by Samoo Architects &
Engineers with the motif of a book page being turned over, a simple geometry of a gently curved paper forms the basis of the design and creates
a unique outline that is easily recognisable as one of the landmark buildings of the city.
Inside the library, an expansive open space with a splendid view of
the lake provides an ultimate atmosphere for library users while a central
pedestrian plaza forms an open space welcoming visitors inside the building. The expansive open spaces provide spatial connectivity throughout
the library. Reading areas are located mainly on the 1st and 2nd floor with
open layouts and easy accessibilities. Seminar rooms & conference facilities are located on the 3rd floor while the upper-most floors provide dining facilities & roof-top terraces with open view of the surroundings.
Due to the unique shape and geometry of the building, the project
was initiated with BIM (Building Information Modeling) from the beginning. Major structural elements such as slab, columns, and cores were
modeled with BIM in order to maintain the viability of the required programmes as well as constructability. BIM provided solutions to pre-construction simulations of interoperability among various disciplines and
manufacturing of unique panels and curtain wall systems that was fundamental to the unique geometries of this project.
As a unique landmark facility, the library will become an important
asset to the city providing a platform for cultural activities & interactions.
70
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Where is the National Library planned to be built?
What is the motif of the design?
Why is the National Library one of the landmark buildings of the city?
What does the expansive open space inside provide?
What does each floor of the building provide?
Why was the project initiated with BIM?
Why were curtain wall systems used?
Text work
ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɬɟɤɫɬ
2. ɋɨɫɬɚɜɶɬɟɩɥɚɧɬɟɤɫɬɚɢɡ–ɩɭɧɤɬɨɜ
Grammar exercises
1. ɇɚɣɞɢɬɟɜɬɟɤɫɬɟɩɪɢɱɚɫɬɢɹIIɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɢɬɟɤɚɤɭɸɮɭɧɤɰɢɸɨɧɢ
ɜɵɩɨɥɧɹɸɬɜɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɢɢɩɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɢɯɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤ
2. ɇɚɣɞɢɬɟɜɬɟɤɫɬɟɩɪɢɱɚɫɬɧɵɟɨɛɨɪɨɬɵɢɩɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɢɯɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɢɣ
ɹɡɵɤ
3. ɇɚɣɞɢɬɟɜɬɟɤɫɬɟɫɤɚɡɭɟɦɵɟɜɫɬɪɚɞɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɦɡɚɥɨɝɟɢɩɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟ
ɢɯɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤ
Vocabulary exercises
ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤɩɪɢɜɟɞɺɧɧɵɟɧɢɠɟɫɥɨɜɚȿɫɥɢ
ȼɵɧɟɡɧɚɟɬɟɫɥɨɜɨɧɚɣɞɢɬɟɟɝɨɜɫɥɨɜɚɪɟȼɵɩɢɲɢɬɟɢɡɫɥɨɜɚɪɹɬɨ
ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟɫɥɨɜɚɜɤɨɬɨɪɨɦɨɧɨɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɨɜɬɟɤɫɬɟ
71
atmosphere (n), branch (n), conference (n), connectivity (n), curtain (n),
curtain wall, expansive (a), manufacturing (n), programme (n), surroundings (n).
2. ɇɚɣɞɢɬɟɩɟɪɟɜɨɞɫɥɨɜɫɩɢɫɤɚȺɜɫɩɢɫɤɟȼ
A
ɜɟɯɚ
ɧɟɧɟɫɭɳɚɹɫɬɟɧɚ
ɨɱɟɪɬɚɧɢɟ
ɩɟɪɜɢɱɧɵɣ
ɩɟɲɟɯɨɞɧɵɣ
ɩɥɚɧɢɪɨɜɤɚ
ɩɪɢɜɟɬɫɬɜɨɜɚɬɶ
ɩɪɨɫɬɨɪɧɵɣ
B
branch
core
create
curtain wall
expansive
gently
landmark
layout
A
ɪɟɲɟɧɢɟ
ɫɥɟɝɤɚ
ɫɨɡɞɚɜɚɬɶ
ɭɞɢɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣ
ɮɢɥɢɚɥ
ɷɥɟɦɟɧɬ
ɨɪɧɚɦɟɧɬɚ
ɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɶ
ɹɞɪɨ ɠɺɫɬɤɨɫɬɢ
B
motif
outline
pedestrian
solution
ultimate
unique
viability
welcome
3. ɇɚɩɢɲɢɬɟ ɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹ ɫ ɤɚɠɞɵɦ ɢɡ ɩɟɪɟɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɵɯ ɧɢɠɟ
ɫɥɨɜ
move – movable
surround – surroundings
72
Unit 3.8
Ɍɟɤɫɬ Ⱥ
Solar City Tower
Swiss architects RAFAA design a green project ‘Solar City Tower’
for the 2016 summer games in Rio, which is seeking to be the first zerocarbon footprint games. The project under consideration should be located
in the bay of the city of Rio de Janeiro on the Cotonduba Island, and will
comprise a vertical structure which will seek to become a symbol for those
arriving in Rio. The challenge was in designing an observation tower
which will become a symbol welcoming all those who visit Rio de
Janeiro, whether they arrive by air or sea.
The project consists of a solar power plant that by day produces energy for the city respectively the Olympic village. Excessive energy will
be pumped as seawater into a tower. By night, the water can be released
again; with the help of turbines, it generates electricity for the night. The
electricity produced can be used for the lighting of the tower or for the
city. On special occasions, this “machine building” turns into an impressive wonder of nature: an urban waterfall, a symbol for the forces of nature. At the same time, it will be the image of a collective awareness of
the city towards its great surrounding landscape. Via an urban plaza located 60 meters over sea level one can gain access to the building.
Through the amphitheatre, one can reach the entrance situated on the
ground floor.
Both entrance area and amphitheatre can serve as a place for social
gatherings and events. The public spaces are also accessible from this
point on. The cafeteria and the shop are situated beneath the waterfall and
offer a breathtaking view. The public elevator takes the visitor to the observation decks and the urban balcony. The administration offices can be
73
reached directly from the foyer. Its inner circulation is organized by an
own entrance and the elevator. The semi-public spaces are located in the
back area of the building; thus, they can be used separately. A retractable
platform for bungee jumping is located on level +90.5. Long distance observation can be done from the observation deck on level +98.0. The urban balcony is situated at the top of the tower 105 meters above sea level.
Here the visitor has a 360° view of the landscape and can experience the
waterfall while walking over the glass skywalk.
Notes:
bungee jumping ['bAnGI "GAmpIN] ɩɪɵɠɤɢ ɫ ɬɚɪɡɚɧɤɨɣ (ɪɟɡɢɧɨɜɵɦ ɬɪɨɫɨɦ
ɞɥɹ ɩɪɵɠɤɨɜ ɫ ɜɵɫɨɬɵ)
collective [kq'lektIv] a ɨɛɳɢɣ, ɤɨɥɥɟɤɬɢɜɧɵɣ
occasion [q'keIZqn] n ɫɥɭɱɚɣ
Olympic village [q'lImpIk 'vIlIG] Ɉɥɢɦɩɢɣɫɤɚɹ ɞɟɪɟɜɧɹ
pump [pAmp] v ɡɚɤɚɱɢɜɚɬɶɩɨɞɚɜɚɬɶɧɚɫɨɫɨɦ
retractable [rI'trxktqbql] a ɜɵɞɜɢɠɧɨɣɭɛɢɪɚɸɳɢɣɫɹ
seawater ['sJwLtq] n ɦɨɪɫɤɚɹɜɨɞɚ
skywalk ['skaI"wLk] n ɤɪɵɬɵɣɩɟɪɟɯɨɞ
Swiss [swIs] a ɲɜɟɣɰɚɪɫɤɢɣ
turbine ['tWbaIn] n ɬɭɪɛɢɧɚ
waterfall ['wLtqfLl] n ɜɨɞɨɩɚɞ, ɤɚɫɤɚɞ
wonder ['wAndq] n ɱɭɞɨ
zero-carbon ['zIqrqV'kRbqn] a «ɡɟɥɟɧɵɣ» (ɧɟ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɹɳɢɣ ɜɵɛɪɨɫɨɜ ɜ ɚɬɦɨ
ɫɮɟɪɭ ɭɝɥɟɤɢɫɥɨɝɨ ɝɚɡɚ)
Answer the following questions
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
What was the challenge of the project?
What does the project consist of?
Where can access to the building be gained?
What facilities does the building provide?
Where is the observation deck?
Phonetic exercise
ɇɚɣɞɢɬɟɜɬɟɤɫɬɟɫɥɨɜɚɬɪɚɧɫɤɪɢɩɰɢɹɤɨɬɨɪɵɯɞɚɧɚɧɢɠɟɢɩɟ
ɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɢɯɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤ
['sICVeIt]; ['CxlqnG]; ["sWkjV'leISqn]; [q'weqnqs]; ['vWtIkql];
Vocabulary exercises
ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤɩɪɢɜɟɞɟɧɧɵɟɧɢɠɟɫɥɨɜɚɢɫɥɨ
ɜɨɫɨɱɟɬɚɧɢɹɄɚɤɢɟɢɡɩɟɪɟɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɵɯɫɥɨɜɦɨɝɭɬɛɵɬɶɞɪɭɝɢɦɢɱɚ
ɫɬɹɦɢɪɟɱɢ"Ʉɚɤɢɦɢɢɦɟɧɧɨ"Ʉɚɤ ɨɧɢ ɜ ɷɬɨɦ ɫɥɭɱɚɟ ɩɟɪɟɜɨɞɹɬɫɹ ɧɚ
ɪɭɫɫɤɢɣ ɹɡɵɤ?
administration (n), arrive (v), cafeteria (n), challenge (n, v), deck (n), observation deck, footprint (n), foyer (n), release (v), semi-public (a), situate (v).
ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟ ɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɟ ɫɥɨɜɚ ɢ ɫɥɨɜɨɫɨɱɟɬɚɧɢɹ ɧɚ ɚɧɝɥɢɣ
ɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤ
ɛɭɯɬɚɡɚɥɢɜɜɫɬɪɟɱɚ ɫɨɛɪɚɧɢɟ ɜɵɩɭɫɤɚɬɶɫɩɭɫɤɚɬɶɢɡɭɦɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣ
ɩɨɪɚɡɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣ ɨɛɪɚɡ ɨɬɪɚɠɟɧɢɟ ɨɫɜɟɳɟɧɢɟ ɨɫɨɡɧɚɧɢɟ ɩɨɧɢɦɚ
ɧɢɟ ɨɬɞɟɥɶɧɨ ɨɛɨɫɨɛɥɟɧɧɨ ɩɟɪɟɦɟɳɟɧɢɟ ɩɨɞ ɩɨɥɭɱɢɬɶ ɞɨɫɬɭɩ
ɩɨɱɭɜɫɬɜɨɜɚɬɶ ɢɡɜɟɞɚɬɶ ɩɪɟɜɪɚɳɚɬɶɫɹ ɫɬɚɧɨɜɢɬɶɫɹ ɩɪɢɛɵɜɚɬɶ
ɩɪɢɟɡɠɚɬɶ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɢɬɶ ɪɚɡɦɟɫɬɢɬɶɫɹ ɪɚɫɩɨɥɚɝɚɬɶɫɹ ɪɚɫɫɦɚɬ
ɪɢɜɚɟɦɵɣɨɛɫɭɠɞɚɟɦɵɣɪɭɤɨɜɨɞɫɬɜɨɫɦɟɲɚɧɧɵɣɫɦɨɬɪɨɜɚɹɩɥɨ
ɳɚɞɤɚ ɫɨɛɵɬɢɟ ɦɟɪɨɩɪɢɹɬɢɟ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ ɫɬɪɟɦɢɬɶɫɹ ɩɵ
ɬɚɬɶɫɹ ɬɪɭɞɧɨɫɬɶ ɫɥɨɠɧɨɫɬɶ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɚ ɱɪɟɡɦɟɪɧɵɣ ɢɡɥɢɲɧɢɣ
ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɷɥɟɤɬɪɨɫɬɚɧɰɢɹ
ɉɟɪɟɱɢɫɥɢɬɟ ɭɩɨɦɹɧɭɬɵɟ ɜ ɬɟɤɫɬɟ ɚɪɯɢɬɟɤɬɭɪɧɵɟ ɬɟɪɦɢɧɵ
ɢɩɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɢɯɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤ
Ʉɚɤɢɟɢɡɭɤɚɡɚɧɧɵɯɩɟɪɟɜɨɞɨɜɫɥɨɜɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹɨɲɢɛɨɱɧɵɦɢ
ɍɤɚɠɢɬɟɩɪɚɜɢɥɶɧɵɣɩɟɪɟɜɨɞ
barren ɩɭɫɬɵɧɧɵɣ
capture ɩɨɝɥɨɳɚɬɶ
circumstance ɭɫɥɨɜɢɟ
GHVFULSWLRQɨɩɢɫɚɧɢɟ
else ɟɳɺ
entertain ɪɚɡɜɥɟɤɚɬɶ
lavish ɧɟɩɪɟɥɨɠɧɵɣ
masterpiece ɲɟɞɟɜɪ
modify ɢɡɦɟɧɹɬɶ
ornate ɢɡɵɫɤɚɧɧɨɭɤɪɚɲɟɧɧɵɣ
pursue ɞɨɛɢɜɚɬɶɫɹ
specify ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɡɨɜɚɬɶ
[Ik'sesIv]; ['fOIeI]; ['xmfI"TIqtq].
ɇɚɣɞɢɬɟ ɜ ɢɧɬɟɪɧɟɬɟ ɩɟɪɟɜɨɞ ɩɟɪɟɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɵɯ ɧɢɠɟ ɫɥɨɜ
ɢɫɥɨɜɨɫɨɱɟɬɚɧɢɣɢɞɚɣɬɟɢɯɫɢɧɨɧɢɦɵɢɡɬɨɣɥɟɤɫɢɤɢɤɨɬɨɪɚɹɢɫ
ɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɚɜɞɚɧɧɨɦɭɱɟɛɧɢɤɟ
74
75
abundance
active
expressive
majestic
obtainable
retrofit
shield v
suitable
supplement
thorough
Grammar exercises
1. ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɮɪɚɡɨɜɵɟɝɥɚɝɨɥɵɢɫɨɫɬɚɜɶɬɟɫɤɚɠɞɵɦɢɡɧɢɯ
ɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɟ ɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹ. ɉɨɥɶɡɭɹɫɶ ɢɧɬɟɪɧɟɬɨɦ ɧɚɣɞɢɬɟ ɞɪɭɝɢɟ
ɫɨɱɟɬɚɧɢɹɛɚɡɨɜɵɯɝɥɚɝɨɥɨɜbreak, bring, cut draw set.
cut out
draw back
draw from
set out
set up
break (down) into
break with
bring back
bring forward
cut off
2. ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɟɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹɨɛɪɚɳɚɹɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟɧɚ
ɤɨɧɜɟɪɫɢɸ
1. The Renaissance, starting in Florence by 1420, established Italy as the
conceptual (ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɭɚɥɶɧɵɣ) centre of art and architecture for almost four centuries.
2. Fluorescent fixtures – permit individual works of art to be perceived
in the setting most sympathetic to the artists’ intentions.
3. The redesigned square uses sculpture, water and a changing ground
plane to create a richly decorated multi-functional civic area.
4. While the Greeks bequeathed to posterity the most perfect models of
form in literary and plastic art, the Romans work out the applications
of these to every-day material life.
5. The house, lying before a lake, is reached via a black gravel walkway
which winds around the house, ending at the main patio at the back.
6. An important factor of architectural design has been the development
of new constructive methods, especially in the use of iron and steel.
7. An analogy is used where two forms may not look alike but they function in the same way.
76
8. The city street block, however, with great benefit for the environment,
may house a mix of activities, including such uses as residential, shopping, office accommodation and a small nursery school.
9. The block is not centred in the garden precinct; rather, it is located in
the northeastern half on axis with the main entrance that pierces the
outer wall.
10. When form was considered the product of function and technology,
then the street block varied in size according to function and to the
limits set by technological feasibility (ɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɢ
ɦɨɫɬɶ).
Ɉɩɪɟɞɟɥɢɬɟɤɤɚɤɨɣɱɚɫɬɢɪɟɱɢɨɬɧɨɫɹɬɫɹɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɟɫɥɨɜɚ
ɨɬɤɚɤɢɯɫɥɨɜɢɫɩɨɦɨɳɶɸɤɚɤɢɯɫɭɮɮɢɤɫɨɜɨɧɢɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɧɵɉɟɪɟ
ɜɟɞɢɬɟ ɧɚ ɪɭɫɫɤɢɣ ɹɡɵɤ ɢɫɯɨɞɧɵɟ ɢ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɧɵɟ ɫɥɨɜɚ.
additional, creative, critical, European, expansive, geometrical, impressive, innovative, institutional, Italian, movable, navigable, ornamental,
peaceful, peripheral, powerful, progressive, protective, sensitive, sensual,
sizable, structural, successful, sustainable, thermal.
4. ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɟɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɢɬɟɮɭɧɤɰɢɸ
ɫɥɨɜɚone.
1. An heuristic (ɷɜɪɢɫɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ) method is one in which carefulness
comes second to speed in order to find the best possible answer rapidly
2. The organisation of the internal circulation is one of the basic elements
that must be taken into account.
3. Daytime areas are located in south direction, nighttime ones to the
north, as a result of winds dominant direction.
4. The main area of the house is the interior two-floors open space that
creates a microclimate by its interior gardening and also joins both
houses into one.
5. An heuristic (ɷɜɪɢɫɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ) method is one in which carefulness
comes second to speed in order to find the best possible answer rapidly
6. A gently stepped ramp is similar to the one that surrounds the inside
of the Reichstag dome
7. From the town, one enters the museum precinct via an elevated walkway that leads to a stone-faced platform
77
8. The early 21st century is certainly one of the most exciting times
school architecture has ever seen.
9. The southern overhangs allow each floor to shade the one beneath it.
10. Our built environment might finally be one that protects our future as
a species (ɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɜɢɞ).
Pair work
ɋɬɭɞɟɧɬ&ɁɚɞɚɣɬɟɜɨɩɪɨɫɨɜɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɯɬɢɩɨɜɤɬɟɤɫɬɭA.
ɋɬɭɞɟɧɬ'Ɉɬɜɟɬɶɬɟɧɚɜɨɩɪɨɫɵɤɬɟɤɫɬɭɫɬɭɞɟɧɬɚ&
ɋɬɭɞɟɧɬɵ&ɢ'ɉɨɦɟɧɹɣɬɟɫɶɪɨɥɹɦɢ
Ɍɟɤɫɬ ȼ
area and kitchen, the dining and living rooms, a guest bedroom and a studio with a study, bedroom, dressing and bathroom. In the upper volume
we find two distinct areas, also set off from the staircase: a bedroom with
a bathroom and the master bedroom with its own bathroom and dressing.
Notes:
intermediary ["Intq'mJdIqrI] a ɩɪɨɦɟɠɭɬɨɱɧɵɣ, ɩɟɪɟɯɨɞɧɵɣ
loggia ['lPGIq] n ɚɪɤɚɞɚ
revolve [rI'vPlv] v ɢɞɬɢ ɩɨ ɤɪɭɝɭ, ɜɪɚɳɚɬɶɫɹ
trunk [trANk] n ɫɬɜɨɥ, ɫɬɟɪɠɟɧɶ
volumetric ["vPljV'metrIk] a ɨɛɴɺɦɧɵɣ
Answer the following questions
A House in a Forest
The design attempts to catch as many views of the forest as possible.
At the same time, the house seeks to protect the forest by going around
the trees as the construction spreads out across the terrain. This expansion
into multiple directions is compensated on the inside, where the design
truly becomes “whole” again around the interior staircase.
Cut out from the terrain with the aid of supporting walls, the built
volume is detached from the ground, leaving its concrete structural pillars
uncovered and sheltering the garage platform. Like the crown of the tree
rising up towards the sun, the house’s levels become leaves overlapping,
floating platforms progressively opening up, from the bottom to the top,
in terraces that are increasingly more exposed to light, a setting that allows
to remove the main spaces from the ground level which is inevitably
shaded. Each living area opens up towards the woods, and each access is
mediated either by an open or closed terrace, or by a loggia.
From a functional point of view, the spaces are grouped into easily
identifiable volumetric areas, always revolving around the trunk – the vertical hollow reaching up the full height of the three storeys, home to the
interior staircase. Thus, the staircase is the central functional element and
the ordering principle of the living areas that are kept separate only to fall
back in line again at mid-section according to hierarchical criteria. It is at
the same time the element that requires the diagonals on the facade. In the
volume situated directly on the ground floor we find the technical spaces.
The intermediary volume comprises of three distinct areas: the main day
78
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
What does the design attempt?
How is the expansion into multiple directions compensated?
How is the built volume detached from the ground?
What is each access mediated by?
What are the volumetric areas revolving around?
What is there inside the vertical hollow?
Why does the facade require the diagonals?
What functional areas does each floor of the building comprise?
Text work
ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɬɟɤɫɬ
ɋɨɫɬɚɜɶɬɟɩɥɚɧɬɟɤɫɬɚɢɡ–ɩɭɧɤɬɨɜ
Grammar exercises
ɇɚɣɞɢɬɟɜɬɟɤɫɬɟɮɪɚɡɨɜɵɟɝɥɚɝɨɥɵ ɢɩɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɢɯɧɚɪɭɫ
ɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤ
2. ɇɚɣɞɢɬɟɜɬɟɤɫɬɟɩɪɢɥɚɝɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɟɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɧɧɵɟɫɩɨɦɨɳɶɸ
ɫɥɨɜɨɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɯɫɭɮɮɢɤɫɨɜ ɢɩɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɢɯɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤ
Vocabulary exercises
ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤɩɪɢɜɟɞɺɧɧɵɟɧɢɠɟɫɥɨɜɚȿɫɥɢ
ȼɵɧɟɡɧɚɟɬɟɫɥɨɜɨɧɚɣɞɢɬɟɟɝɨɜɫɥɨɜɚɪɟȼɵɩɢɲɢɬɟɢɡɫɥɨɜɚɪɹɬɨ
ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟɫɥɨɜɚɜɤɨɬɨɪɨɦɨɧɨɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɨɜɬɟɤɫɬɟ
79
diagonal (n, a), expansion (n), hollow (n, a), master bedroom, mediate (v),
uncover (v), uncovered (a).
The design of the National Library combines four universal archetypes across space and time into a new national symbol: the circle, the
rotunda, the arch and the yurt are fused into the form of a Möbius strip.
The clarity of the circle, the courtyard of the rotunda, the gateway of the
arch and the soft silhouette of the yurt are combined to create a new national monument appearing local and universal, contemporary and timeless, unique and archetypal at the same time.
The two interlocking structures: the perfect circle and the public spiral, create a building that transforms from a horizontal organization where
library, museum and support functions are placed next to each other, to a
vertical organization where they are stacked on top of each other through
a diagonal organization combining vertical hierarchy, horizontal connectivity and diagonal view lines. By wrapping the transforming composition
of spaces with a continuous skin a Möbius strip volume is created where
the facades move from inside to outside and back again.
An inner circular core contains the Presidential Library. The cylinder’s three main decks are, in principle, one integrated space with internal
circulation allowing for continuous and intuitive access to all the stored
media. On all sides, inside and outside, the circular archive intersects with
the reading rooms, study rooms, auditoriums, museum and administration
making the library the programmatic as well as spatial heart of the institution. A continuous spiral loop of supporting and additional functions
orbits the circular core.
A public path is running off the looping spiral all the way from the
bottom to the top of the building confining the cylindrical core inside-out
– transforming the void of the double façade system into a continuous
atrium visually and spatially connecting all levels. The orbiting structure
provides a public pathway with a prominent view of the city and the surrounding park. Visitors can take a walk of the orbiting pathway without
using the additional facilities. A free entrance to the pathway turns the
library atrium and foyer into a prominent public interior space directly
connected to the park area and embankment outside.
A protective skin wraps the whole structure, creating a mediating
space between inside and outside. The facade wrapping the entire structure is conceived as a double Möbius strip going from vertical to horizontal and back again. The complex skin is, in fact, a ruled surface structured
in a very simple and repetitive way using straight sections and triangulated
lattices. Photovoltaic tiles on the façade absorb energy from the sun while
also providing passive shading.
Structure
The spiral portion of the library is rectangular in section, made from
transverse steel frames. The frames are arranged radially around the spiral, and are linked by longitudinal beams at every corner. Where the cantilevered sections of spiral move past each other, they are linked by another braced frame to provide shear strength, creating a stiff radial slice.
Longitudinal beams span between the radial frames. The steel decking and concrete then form the composite floor slabs. Five concrete cores,
spaced evenly around the spiral, provide lateral stability and reduce the
length of the cantilevers. The three frames are tied together by a parallelogram-shaped frame. These radial frames are then linked together by diagonal beams to form the diagrid façade.
80
81
2. ɇɚɣɞɢɬɟɩɟɪɟɜɨɞɫɥɨɜɫɩɢɫɤɚȺɜɫɩɢɫɤɟȼ
A
ɛɵɬɶɫɜɹɡɭɸɳɢɦ
ɡɜɟɧɨɦ
ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ
ɡɚɳɢɳɚɬɶ
ɥɟɝɤɨɪɚɡɥɢɱɢɦɵɣ
ɥɟɫɬɧɢɰɚ
ɨɩɨɪɚ
ɨɬɞɟɥɶɧɵɣ
ɨɬɤɪɵɬɵɣ
A
ɩɨɥɨɫɬɶ
ɩɨɦɨɳɶ
attempt
ɩɪɢɤɪɵɜɚɬɶ
detached
ɩɵɬɚɬɶɫɹ
expansion ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɣ
hollow
ɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɢɟ
identifiable ɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɹɬɶɫɹ
mediate
ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɹ
multiple
B
aid
B
pillar
protect
shelter
spread
staircase
terrain
truly
uncovered
3. ɇɚɩɢɲɢɬɟ ɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹ ɫ ɤɚɠɞɵɦ ɢɡ ɩɟɪɟɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɵɯ ɧɢɠɟ
ɫɥɨɜ
expand – expanse – expansion
mediate – mediating
Ɍɟɤɫɬ C
The Kazakh National Library
6. What is the aim of the public path?
7. What makes the protective complex skin a ruled surface?
8. What is the structure of the building made of?
9. How many cores are there?
10.How are they spaced?
Communication exercise
FIGURE 6 Kazakh National Library
(from http://nbmcw.com. [19])
Notes:
absorb [qb'sLb] v ɩɨɝɥɨɳɚɬɶ
archetypal ['RkItaIpql] a ɩɟɪɜɢɱɧɵɣ, ɢɫɤɨɧɧɵɣ
archetype ['RkItaIp] n ɩɪɨɬɨɬɢɩ, ɚɪɯɟɬɢɩ
archive ['RkaIv] n ɯɪɚɧɢɥɢɳɟ, ɚɪɯɢɜ
braced frame ɫɦ. frame
clarity ['klxrItI] n ɱɺɬɤɨɫɬɶ
diagrid ['daIqgrJd] n ɩɟɪɟɤɪɵɬɢɟ ɢɡ ɞɢɚɝɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɩɟɪɟɤɪɺɫɬɧɵɯ ɷɥɟɦɟɧɬɨɜ
embankment [Im'bxNkmqnt] n ɧɚɛɟɪɟɠɧɚɹ
evenly ['JvqnlI] adv ɪɚɜɧɨɦɟɪɧɨ
hierarchy ['haIrRkI] n ɢɟɪɚɪɯɢɹ
intuitive [In'tjHItIv] a ɭɞɨɛɧɵɣɫɚɦɨɨɱɟɜɢɞɧɵɣ
Möbius strip ['mWbIqs strIp] ɥɟɧɬɚ Ɇɺɛɢɭɫɚ
orbit ['LbIt] v ɨɩɨɹɫɵɜɚɬɶ
parallelogram ["pxrq'lelqgrxm] n ɩɚɪɚɥɥɟɥɨɝɪɚɦɦ
photovoltaic ["fqVtqVvPl'teIIk] a ɮɨɬɨɝɚɥɶɜɚɧɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ
Presidential Library ["prezI'denSql 'laIbrqrI] ɩɪɟɡɢɞɟɧɬɫɤɚɹ ɛɢɛɥɢɨɬɟɤɚ
rotunda [rqV'tAndq] n ɪɨɬɨɧɞɚɤɪɭɝɥɵɣɡɚɥɫɤɭɩɨɥɨɨɛɪɚɡɧɵɦ ɩɨɬɨɥɤɨɦ)
shear strength ["SIq 'streƾș@ɩɪɨɱɧɨɫɬɶɧɚɫɞɜɢɝɫɪɟɡ
slice [slaIs] n ɫɪɟɡ
timeless ['taImlqs] a ɜɟɱɧɵɣ, ɩɨɫɬɨɹɧɧɵɣ
yurt [jVqt] n ɸɪɬɚ
Answer the following questions.
1. What are the four universal archetypes the design of the National Library combines?
2. What do these archetypes achieve?
3. How does the building transform?
4. How is a Möbius strip volume created?
5. What does the inner circular core provide?
82
ɍɱɟɛɧɚɹ ɝɪɭɩɩɚ ɪɚɡɛɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɧɚ ɞɜɟ ɩɨɞɝɪɭɩɩɵ Ʉɚɠɞɚɹ ɩɨɞ
ɝɪɭɩɩɚ ɜɵɛɢɪɚɟɬ ɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɟ ɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɟ ɡɞɚɧɢɟ ɩɨɫɬɪɨɟɧɧɨɟ
ɜɊɨɫɫɢɢɡɞɚɧɢɹɧɟɞɨɥɠɧɵɫɨɜɩɚɞɚɬɶ) ɢɨɛɫɭɠɞɚɟɬɟɝɨɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨ
ɫɬɢɞɨɫɬɨɢɧɫɬɜɚɢɧɟɞɨɫɬɚɬɤɢ ɐɟɥɶɨɛɫɭɠɞɟɧɢɹ– ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɟɫɨ
ɨɛɳɟɧɢɹɨɛɴɺɦɨɦ5–20 ɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɣ
ɉɨ ɨɤɨɧɱɚɧɢɢ ɨɛɫɭɠɞɟɧɢɹ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɢɬɟɥɶ ɤɚɠɞɨɣ ɩɨɞɝɪɭɩɩɵ
ɞɟɥɚɟɬɫɨɨɛɳɟɧɢɟɞɥɹɭɱɚɫɬɧɢɤɨɜɞɪɭɝɨɣɩɨɞɝɪɭɩɩɵɚɡɚɬɟɦ ɨɬɜɟ
ɱɚɟɬɧɚɢɯɜɨɩɪɨɫɵɩɨɬɟɦɟ
Vocabulary exercise
ȼ ɫɩɢɫɤɟ Ⱥ ɞɚɧɵ ɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɫɥɨɜɚ ɢ ɜɵɪɚɠɟɧɢɹ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɢɫ
ɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɵ ɜ ɬɟɤɫɬɟ ɞɥɹ ɞɨɦɚɲɧɟɝɨ ɱɬɟɧɢɹ ɇɚɣɞɢɬɟ ɢɯ ɩɟɪɟɜɨɞ
ɜɫɩɢɫɤɟȼ
appear
cantilever
circle
combine
composite
conceive
connectivity
contemporary
continuous
decking
entire
fuse
gateway
heart
interlock
intersect
ɜɟɫɶ
ɜɢɡɭɚɥɶɧɨ
ɜɨɪɨɬɚ
ɜɵɝɥɹɞɟɬɶ
ɞɨɪɨɠɤɚ
ɡɚɞɭɦɵɜɚɬɶ
ɡɚɦɟɬɧɵɣ
ɤɨɧɫɨɥɶ
ɤɪɭɝ
ɦɢɦɨ
ɧɚɫɬɢɥɩɟɪɟɤɪɵɬɢɹ
ɨɛɴɟɞɢɧɹɬɶ
ɨɯɜɚɬɵɜɚɬɶ
ɩɟɪɟɫɟɤɚɬɶɫɹ
ɩɟɬɥɹ
ɩɥɢɬɤɚ
lattice
longitudinal
loop
next
past
path
prominent
reduce
soft
stack
tie
tile
universal
visually
void
wrap
83
ɩɨɥɨɝɢɣ
ɩɪɨɞɨɥɶɧɵɣ
ɩɭɫɬɨɬɚ
ɪɹɞɨɦɫ
ɫɜɹɡɚɧɧɨɫɬɶ
ɫɟɬɤɚ
ɫɤɥɚɞɵɜɚɬɶ
ɫɦɵɤɚɬɶɫɹ
ɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɣ
ɫɨɟɞɢɧɹɬɶ
ɫɨɟɞɢɧɹɬɶ
ɫɨɤɪɚɳɚɬɶ
ɫɨɫɬɚɜɧɨɣ
ɫɩɥɨɲɧɨɣ
ɭɧɢɜɟɪɫɚɥɶɧɵɣ
ɰɟɧɬɪ
eling, and ceramic tile. These choices, though, almost read as the background (9) … the interior of the library, whose light maple ceilings seem
to push out (10) … the windows and become part of the exterior.
TEST 8
Part I – Vocabulary
Ɂɚɞɚɧɢɟ Ⱥ ɋɨɫɬɚɜɶɬɟ ɢɡ ɩɪɢɜɟɞɺɧɧɵɯ ɧɢɠɟ ɫɥɨɜ ɩɹɬɶ ɩɚɪ
ɥɢɛɨɫɢɧɨɧɢɦɨɜɥɢɛɨɚɧɬɨɧɢɦɨɜɍɱɬɢɬɟɱɬɨɧɟɫɤɨɥɶɤɨɫɥɨɜɹɜɥɹ
ɸɬɫɹɥɢɲɧɢɦɢ
complexity disparate fuse
constant
evoke
generate
contribute expansive hollow
1. … – …
2. … – …
3. … – …
4. … – …
5. … – …
loop
permanent
prevent
separate
stack
unified
Ɂɚɞɚɧɢɟ B. Ɂɚɩɨɥɧɢɬɟ ɩɪɨɩɭɫɤɢ ɜ ɬɟɤɫɬɟ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɹ ɫɥɨɜɚ ɢɡ
ɩɪɢɜɟɞɺɧɧɨɝɨɧɢɠɟɫɩɢɫɤɚɌɪɢ ɫɥɨɜɚɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹɥɢɲɧɢɦɢ
about
along
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
by
for
off
through
under
with
ɁɚɞɚɧɢɟC. ȼɵɛɟɪɢɬɟɢɡɫɩɢɫɤɚB ɬɨɥɤɨɜɚɧɢɟɤɨɬɨɪɨɟɫɨɨɬ
ɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɟɬɬɟɪɦɢɧɭɜɫɩɢɫɤɟA. Ɍɪɢ ɬɨɥɤɨɜɚɧɢɹɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹɥɢɲɧɢɦɢ
A
11. authentic, 12. fail, 13. fold, 14. joint, 15. ornate
B
a) Arranged in or extending along a straight line.
b) Be unable to meet the requirements.
c) %HQGRUSUHVVɧɚɠɢɦɚɬɶVRPHWKLQJVRWKDWRQHSDUWLVRYHUDQRWKHU
d) Combine or be combined to form a whole.
e) Elaborately or highly decorated.
f) Having the origin supported by unquestionable evidence.
g) Lacking in quantity (ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɨ) or quality, deficient in quantity or
quality, or without fullness or richness.
h) Place or part where two things or parts are joined.
11.
–
12.
–
13.
–
14.
–
15.
–
Part II – Grammar
–
–
–
–
–
Public Library
The architects inserted a 35-foot-high central core (6) … the length
of the structure and put clerestory windows on either side to bring light
all the way through the core of the 175-foot-long building. Comfortable,
overhanging reading rooms are surrounded (7) … sun screened windows,
which provide sun and heat protection as well as a bit of privacy.
To follow the forest setting, the architects surfaced the facade (8) …
a natural palette (ɩɚɥɢɬɪɚ) of stone veneer, wood-veneer composite pan-
84
ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɟɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹ
16. The narrow pedestrian city street with continuous enclosing walls
slightly higher than street width are most successful for their purpose as well as being an attractive place.
17. The shading elements that frame the ends of the facade will provide distinct urban markers.
18. It was established that the development should be of a high quality
building featuring a contemporary design that links well to the existing Melbourne Airport.
19. If the owner could start again he would orientate the house 15 degrees more to the north.
20. Where demolition is necessary building elements such as doors,
windows, etc, or any other material having reuse potential should
be salvaged (ɫɩɚɫɚɬɶ).
85
Part III – Reading
ɉɪɨɱɢɬɚɣɬɟ ɬɟɤɫɬ ɋɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɸɬ ɥɢ ɩɪɢɜɟɞɺɧɧɵɟ ɧɢɠɟ
ɜɵɫɤɚɡɵɜɚɧɢɹ ɟɝɨ ɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɸ ȼɵɛɟɪɢɬɟ ɨɞɢɧ ɢɡ ɜɚɪɢɚɧɬɨɜ ɨɬ
ɜɟɬɚ a) ɜɟɪɧɨbɧɟɜɟɪɧɨcɧɟɫɤɚɡɚɧɨ
Figueiredo House is a fine example of Alvaro Siza’s mastery in
composing volumes and geometries of great simplicity. The architect’s
skill lies in the way that he fits them together, creating new forms and
physical relationship that enhance the quality of the interior spaces and
the development of the visual perspectives of the exterior.
This dwelling is located on a small level plot on one side of the valley. It is arranged on two levels in a symmetric composition based on the
LQWHUDFWLRQRIWZRVLPSOHILJXUHVDUHFWDQJOHɩɪɹɦɨɭɝɨɥɶɧɢɤZKHUHWKH
JUHDWHUSDUWRIWKHOD\RXWLVGHYHORSHGDQGDQRFWDJRQɜɨɫɶɦɢɭɝɨɥɶɧɢɤ
which establishes a basic structural difference between the two storeys.
The ground floor is ordered by the axis of the corridor, around which
various rooms are distributed. Here, the upper level octagon can only be
distinguished by the support columns. The building extends in the form
of a ship’s prow (ɧɨɫ ɤɨɪɚɛɥɹ), opened to the landscape through wide
windows.
The octagon plays a dominant role on the upper level. The bedrooms
orientate toward it and the volumetric (ɨɛɴɟɦɧɵɣ) imbalance that it creates between the levels allowed for a terrace facing the gentle landscape
of the valley.
The difference in volumes is also reflected in the facades in the contrast between the curvature on the lower level and the more severe geometry of the upper level.
21. Alvaro Siza is an American architect.
22. His mastery lies in enhancing the quality of the dwelling interior
and exterior.
23. The location of Figueiredo House is hilly.
24. Each floor of the dwelling is based on different geometric figures.
25. The volumetric differences specify only the dwelling interior.
86
Unit 3.9
Ɍɟɤɫɬ Ⱥ
AT&T Building
As probably the first Postmodern building designed on a monumental, commercial scale, the AT&T Building presses directly against the site
line along the entire block of Madison Avenue and introduces a newer
type of urban amenity: a glass-canopied atrium with retail establishments.
There are several similarities to the Seagram Building in the deeply recessed ground-storey lobbies, overall floor plans, and steel construction.
In fact, the plan is typical of postwar high-rise office buildings, comprising a sizable service core of elevators, emergency stairwells, and rest
rooms, with narrow office spaces as the result. Its two central Postmodern
features are the selection of a masonry enclosure, a light pink granite, and
the addition of a crowning broken pediment.
Originally, the ground level of the tower comprised open arcades
around the small entrance lobby and service core. The unenclosed public
space beneath the tower was intended to mitigate the intense use of the
site and to compensate the absence of setbacks in the tower. At the rear of
the site, a glass-canopied gallery contains a three-storey row of shops.
A quarter of a barrel vault, the canopy is supported by quarter-round arches.
Concentric diamond and chevron patterns animate the granite floors.
The most tactile experience occurs at the street level, where the
flame-finished pale pink Stony Creek granite cladding meets the ground.
Above substantial square column bases rise piers with reentrant corners,
and quarter pyramids mark this articulation. Following the rhythm of
openings established at the ground level, uninterrupted vertical bays contain granite mullions between piers, anchored underneath to steel tubes
and originally intended to be round sectioned.
87
At the main entrance, a suppressed glazed entrance arch, with an
oculus above, echoes the narrow 116-foot central arch. Lavish detailing
of the material includes a diamond pattern, or opus reticulatum, in the
apron around the openings and fully three dimensional articulated moldings around the arch and in corners. Capped with a gilded cross vault that
springs from corner brackets, the compact but well-proportioned 65-foottall lobby has a black-and-white marble floor pattern.
Notes:
absence ['xbsqns] n ɨɬɫɭɬɫɬɜɢɟ
apron ['eIprqn] n ɩɨɞɨɤɨɧɧɚɹ ɫɬɟɧɤɚ
broken pediment ɫɦ. break
cap [kxp] v ɭɜɟɧɱɢɜɚɬɶ, ɡɚɜɟɪɲɚɬɶ
concentric [kqn'sentrIk] a ɤɨɧɰɟɧɬɪɢɱɟɫɤɢɣɢɦɟɸɳɢɣɨɛɳɢɣɰɟɧɬɪ)
mullion ['mAljqn] n ɩɪɨɫɬɟɧɨɤɱɚɫɬɶɫɬɟɧɵɦɟɠɞɭɨɤɨɧɧɵɦɢɩɪɨɟɦɚɦɢ)
opus reticulatum ['qVpqs rI'tIkjVleItqm@ɪɟɬɢɤɭɥɚɬɨɛɥɢɰɨɜɤɚɛɟɬɨɧɧɵɯɫɬɟɧ
ɤɚɦɟɧɧɵɦɢɛɥɨɤɚɦɢɢɦɟɸɳɚɹɪɢɫɭɧɨɤɩɪɚɜɢɥɶɧɨɣɫɟɬɤɢɹɱɟɣɤɢɤɨɬɨɪɨɣ
ɧɚɯɨɞɹɬɫɹɩɨɞɭɝɥɨɦɤɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɢɸɫɬɟɧɵ)
Postmodern ["pqVst'mPdn] n ɩɨɫɬɦɨɞɟɪɧ
reentrant [rJ'entrqnt] a ɨɛɪɚɬɧɵɣɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɧɵɣɜɧɭɬɪɶɭɝɨɥ)
setback ['setbxk] n ɧɢɲɚ ɭɫɬɭɩɮɚɫɚɞɚ
similarity ɫɦ similar
stairwell ['steqwel] n ɥɟɫɬɧɢɱɧɚɹɤɥɟɬɤɚɜɟɪɬɢɤɚɥɶɧɵɣɩɪɨɟɦɜɩɟɪɟɤɪɵɬɢɹɯ
ɡɞɚɧɢɹɩɪɟɞɧɚɡɧɚɱɟɧɧɵɣɞɥɹɦɨɧɬɚɠɚɥɟɫɬɧɢɱɧɵɯ ɦɚɪɲɟɣ)
Stony Creek granite ["stqVnI 'krJk 'grxnIt@ɤɪɭɩɧɨɡɟɪɧɢɫɬɵɣɪɨɡɨɜɵɣɝɪɚɧɢɬ
ɞɨɛɵɜɚɟɦɵɣɜɲɬɚɬɟɄɨɧɧɟɤɬɢɤɭɬ ɋɒȺ
Answer the following questions
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
What is the typical plan of postwar high-rise office buildings?
What are the central Postmodern features of the AT&T Building?
What is there at the rear of the site?
Where does the most tactile experience occur and why?
What does the main entrance feature?
[R"tIkjV'leISqn]; ['xNkq]; ['daIqmqnd]; [I'mWGqnsI]; ['mItIgeIt];
["Andq'nJT]; [sqb'stxnSql]; ["mPnjV'mentql].
Vocabulary exercises
ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤɩɪɢɜɟɞɟɧɧɵɟɧɢɠɟɫɥɨɜɚɢɫɥɨ
ɜɨɫɨɱɟɬɚɧɢɹɄɚɤɢɟɢɡɩɟɪɟɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɵɯɫɥɨɜɦɨɝɭɬɛɵɬɶɞɪɭɝɢɦɢɱɚ
ɫɬɹɦɢɪɟɱɢ"Ʉɚɤɢɦɢɢɦɟɧɧɨ"Ʉɚɤ ɨɧɢ ɜ ɷɬɨɦ ɫɥɭɱɚɟ ɩɟɪɟɜɨɞɹɬɫɹ ɧɚ
ɪɭɫɫɤɢɣ ɹɡɵɤ?
anchor (v), animate (v), articulation (n), bracket (n), chevron (n), cladding
(n), diamond (n, a), diamond pattern, emergency (a), mitigate (v), moulding (n), overall (a), pale (a), press (v), tube (n), underneath (adv, prep).
ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟ ɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɟ ɫɥɨɜɚ ɢ ɫɥɨɜɨɫɨɱɟɬɚɧɢɹ ɧɚ ɚɧɝɥɢɣ
ɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤ
ɦɟɫɬɨ ɫɨɱɥɟɧɟɧɢɹɫɨɟɞɢɧɟɧɢɹ; ɚɜɚɪɢɣɧɵɣ ɡɚɩɚɫɧɨɣ; ɛɥɺɤɥɵɣ
ɫɜɟɬɥɨ- (ɨɰɜɟɬɟ); ɜɞɨɥɶɩɨɩɨ; ɜɟɫɶ; ɜɤɥɸɱɚɬɶɫɨɫɬɨɹɬɶɢɡ; ɜɧɢɡɭ
ɫɧɢɡɭ; ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɞɨɥɠɧɨɛɵɬɶ; ɡɚɤɪɟɩɥɹɬɶɤɪɟɩɢɬɶ; ɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ
ɪɚɡɦɟɪɨɜ; ɤɨɧɫɨɥɶɩɨɞɩɨɪɤɚ; ɥɟɩɧɢɧɚɥɟɩɧɨɟɭɤɪɚɲɟɧɢɟ; ɧɚɛɨɪ; ɨɛ
ɲɢɜɤɚ ɨɛɥɢɰɨɜɤɚ; ɨɛɳɢɣ ɩɨɥɧɵɣ; ɨɠɢɜɥɹɬɶ; ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɯɚɪɚɤ
ɬɟɪɧɚɹɱɟɪɬɚ; ɨɫɹɡɚɟɦɵɣɨɳɭɬɢɦɵɣ; ɨɯɜɚɬɪɚɡɦɚɯ; ɩɪɟɞɧɚɡɧɚɱɚɬɶ;
ɩɪɹɦɨɧɟɩɨɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ; ɪɨɡɧɢɱɧɚɹɬɨɪɝɨɜɥɹ; ɪɨɦɛɨɜɢɞɧɵɣ; ɫɤɪɵ
ɜɚɬɶɡɚɬɟɧɹɬɶ; ɬɪɭɛɚɬɪɭɛɤɚ; ɭɞɨɛɫɬɜɨɤɨɦɮɨɪɬ; ɭɦɟɧɶɲɚɬɶɨɛɥɟɝ
ɱɚɬɶ; ɭɩɢɪɚɬɶɫɹ ɜɨɱɬɨ-ɥɢɛɨ; ɭɬɨɩɥɟɧɧɵɣɭɝɥɭɛɥɟɧɧɵɣ; ɰɟɧɬɪɚɥɶ
ɧɵɣɫɬɜɨɥɜɵɫɨɬɧɨɝɨɡɞɚɧɢɹ); ɲɟɜɪɨɧ.
ɉɟɪɟɱɢɫɥɢɬɟ ɭɩɨɦɹɧɭɬɵɟ ɜ ɬɟɤɫɬɟ ɚɪɯɢɬɟɤɬɭɪɧɵɟ ɬɟɪɦɢɧɵ
ɢɩɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɢɯɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤ
ɇɚɣɞɢɬɟɜɬɟɤɫɬɟɥɟɤɫɢɱɟɫɤɢɯɨɲɢɛɨɤ
ɇɚɣɞɢɬɟɜɬɟɤɫɬɟɫɥɨɜɚɬɪɚɧɫɤɪɢɩɰɢɹɤɨɬɨɪɵɯɞɚɧɚɧɢɠɟɢɩɟ
ɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɢɯɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤ
If the classic style was late to major in England, its final impact was
complete and long-lasting (ɩɪɨɞɨɥɠɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣ). It was Inigo Jones which
first introduced the correct and monumental style of the Italian classic architecture. He seems to have entertained a sort of worship for Palladio,
88
89
Phonetic exercise
and the villa which he designed at Chiswick was a reduced copy of Palladio’s Villa Capra, approximately Vicenza. This and other works of his
show that he failed to appreciate the unsuitability (ɧɟɩɪɢɝɨɞɧɨɫɬɶ) of
Italian concepts to the climate and traditions of Great Britain; his efforts
to make popular classic architecture, without Palladio’s decorative sculpture and painting, were due to not always happy in their results.
His greatest work was the design for a new Palace at Whitehall, London. Of this colossal scheme, which, if completed, would have ranked as
the grandest palace of the time, only the Banqueting Hall was ever built.
It is an effective composition in two stories, adorned of columns and pilasters, and contains a fine vaulted hall in three aisles.
5. Ⱦɚɣɬɟ ɚɧɬɨɧɢɦɵ ɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɯ ɫɥɨɜ:
disappear
expose
intricate
primary
provide
random
rapid
unite
vacant
Grammar exercises
1. ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹɨɛɪɚɳɚɹɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟɧɚɩɪɢɱɚɫɬɢɟ,,
1. Programs have been established to support heritage sites and revive
rural landscapes.
2. Introduced not long ago the cars are transforming the urban experience.
3. In order to fully understand why Newport’s property values went up
so much in the districts described, one should look at the local and
staWHSROLFLHVGHVLJQHGWRSUHVHUYHɨɛɟɪɟɝɚɬɶKLVWRULFUHVRXUFHV
4. The columns are single and self-contained, the piers multiple and tied
into the whole three-storey elevation.
5. Where possible the city is being remodelled in order to create a human
and decorated environment, which has the approval (ɨɞɨɛɪɟɧɢɟ) of
the general public.
6. The conservation of inner cities’ character was also based on planning
principles meant to retain the basic street layout.
7. Contrasted by the arched central opening, the columns spring from a
common entablature.
90
8. Too often, the future is seen as another place, separated from the present by some kind of gap.
2. ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɟɬɟɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɟɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹɨɛɪɚɳɚɹɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟɧɚ
ɨɛɨɪɨɬthere + to be.
1. There will be single-use street blocks in the city of the future; that is,
street blocks given over to, or almost entirely to, residential, commercial, industrial or some other single land use.
2. There is, however, more to this project than that, and this is what sets
it apart from the rest of the complex and gives it special distinction.
3. There was to be an access from the inside of the house to the garage.
4. There are no natural materials, stony thermal masses, secondary outer
shells, or other key features of sustainable design.
5. There has been a slight transfer away from the conventional materials
of timber or iron work, both of which are fairly heavy.
6. There should be no ornament, not even fluting (ɫɢɫɬɟɦɚɤɚɧɧɟɥɸɪ)
on the columns, and instead of marble, the columns must be metal.
7. The aim was to bring all activities under one roof so that there could
be more interchange between departments and greater transparency,
obtained through the open-plan office layout.
8. There had to be at least one large picture window in the living area and
the bedrooms were to be light and airy with similarly large windows.
9. The pilasters flanking the door are fluted (ɤɚɧɧɟɥɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɣ), but
there is no capital, only a large cornice.
10. There has been no attempt to imitate any classical detailing or motifs
on this facade.
3. ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɟɬɟɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɟɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹɨɛɪɚɳɚɹɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟɧɚ
ɫɥɨɜɚɫɨɬɪɢɰɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɦɢɩɪɢɫɬɚɜɤɚɦɢdis-, im-, in-, ir-, mis-, un-.
1. Potential impacts to the site itself, which are impossible to avoid during the act of construction, together with negative off-site impacts
should be taken into account.
2. On a steeply sloping site groupings of buildings tend to become informal particularly if the outlines are respected.
3. What appears in most environmental settings today is unshaped space.
91
4. Many towns or parts of towns that have developed on flat sites often
exhibit irregularities in layout.
5. The route through the building was designed to heighten the sense of
unreality.
6. Spatial disorientation should be avoided in building design.
7. On a steeply sloping site groupings of buildings tend to become informal particularly if the outlines are respected.
8. Development in Nottingham during these years illustrates a misdirection of urban structure.
9. The building rests on a grey limestone plinth, its bare, undecorated
surface emphasising its simple shapes.
10. The animal sculptures which dominate the main street and the
square continue to please the residents long after their novelty has disappeared.
Pair work
ɋɬɭɞɟɧɬ&ɁɚɞɚɣɬɟɜɨɩɪɨɫɨɜɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɯɬɢɩɨɜɤɬɟɤɫɬɭA.
ɋɬɭɞɟɧɬ'Ɉɬɜɟɬɶɬɟɧɚɜɨɩɪɨɫɵɤɬɟɤɫɬɭɫɬɭɞɟɧɬɚ&
ɋɬɭɞɟɧɬɵ&ɢ'ɉɨɦɟɧɹɣɬɟɫɶɪɨɥɹɦɢ
Ɍɟɤɫɬ ȼ
7 More London Riverside
Located in the south on the bank of River Thames in London, a 10storeys 7 More London Riverside, is the final and largest building within
the More London masterplan. It covers a 13-acre site and houses a City
Hall, a hotel, office buildings and extensive landscaped public space, including an open amphitheatre.
Visible from all sides, the building does not have an obvious ‘front’
or ‘back’, so particular consideration has been given to the façade in assuming a distinctive presence within the masterplan. The zig-zag facades
screen the interiors but allow daylight to get into the office floors. A sequence of external louvers animate the glazed facades, capturing and projecting light and colors inside and creating a sparkling effect on the building’s outer skin.
To further maximize daylight and views, the building’s symmetrical
wings open towards the river to reveal the open circular drum at its core.
Three curved bridges, at levels 2, 5 and 8, connect the two wings, while
92
the southern elevation drops to 7 storeys to respect the height of the buildings along Tooley Street.
A triple height internal atrium functions as a central plaza for the
building’s occupants – a space where the potential for art and the arrangement of lifts and bridges mirrors the external life of More London.
Escalators ascend to a mezzanine level with client meeting rooms
and entertaining facilities, while a bank of lifts transport staff directly
from ground level to the office floors. Two skylights illuminate the space
and provide a focus for the circular landscaped terrace above, which forms
one of several roof gardens. As well as a green roof on the lower southern
elevation, the building incorporates a rubble roof to imitate a habitat that
attracted birds during wartime London, but has since been displaced by
modern development.
Notes:
ascend [q'send] v ɩɨɞɧɢɦɚɬɶɫɹ
assume [q'sjHm] v ɞɨɫɬɢɝɚɬɶ, ɨɛɪɟɬɚɬɶ
habitat ['hxbItxt] n ɫɪɟɞɚ ɨɛɢɬɚɧɢɹ
masterplan ['mRstq"plxn] n ɝɟɧɟɪɚɥɶɧɵɣ ɩɥɚɧ
rubble roof ['rAbql"rHf] ɳɟɛɺɧɨɱɧɚɹ ɤɪɵɲɚ
sparkling ['spRklIN] a ɫɜɟɪɤɚɸɳɢɣ, ɛɥɟɫɬɹɳɢɣ
zig-zag ['zIgzxg] a ɡɢɝɡɚɝɨɨɛɪɚɡɧɵɣ
Answer the following questions
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Where is the building located?
What does it house?
Why has particular consideration been given to the façade?
What is achieved by a sequence of external louvers?
What is the view of the building from the river?
Why does the southern elevation drop to 7 storeys?
How does a triple height internal atrium function?
What is vertical circulation provided by?
What is the purpose of the two skylights?
Text work
1. ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɬɟɤɫɬ
2. ɋɨɫɬɚɜɶɬɟɩɥɚɧɬɟɤɫɬɚɢɡ–ɩɭɧɤɬɨɜ
93
3. ɉɨɥɶɡɭɹɫɶɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɧɵɦȼɚɦɢɩɥɚɧɨɦɤɪɚɬɤɨɢɡɥɨɠɢɬɟɫɨɞɟɪɠɚ
ɧɢɟɬɟɤɫɬɚɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɨɦɹɡɵɤɟ
Grammar exercise
ɇɚɣɞɢɬɟɜɬɟɤɫɬɟParticiple IIɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɢɬɟɟɝɨ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɸɢɩɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟ
ɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤ
Unit 3.10
Vocabulary exercises
ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤɩɪɢɜɟɞɺɧɧɵɟɧɢɠɟɫɥɨɜɚȿɫɥɢ
ȼɵɧɟɡɧɚɟɬɟɫɥɨɜɨɧɚɣɞɢɬɟɟɝɨɜɫɥɨɜɚɪɟȼɵɩɢɲɢɬɟɢɡɫɥɨɜɚɪɹɬɨ
ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟɫɥɨɜɚɜɤɨɬɨɪɨɦɨɧɨɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɨɜɬɟɤɫɬɟ
escalator (n), extensive (a), get (v), get into (v), lift (n), staff (n).
2. ɇɚɣɞɢɬɟɩɟɪɟɜɨɞɫɥɨɜɫɩɢɫɤɚȺɜɫɩɢɫɤɟȼ
A
ɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟ
ɠɚɥɸɡɢ
ɤɪɵɥɨɡɞɚɧɢɹ)
ɧɚɪɭɠɧɵɣ
ɨɛɨɥɨɱɤɚ
ɨɛɲɢɪɧɵɣ
ɨɝɨɪɚɠɢɜɚɬɶ
ɨɡɟɥɟɧɟɧɧɵɣ
B
capture
consideration
distinctive
elevation
extensive
external
get into
landscaped
A
ɨɬɤɪɵɜɚɬɶ
ɨɬɥɢɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣ
ɩɟɪɫɨɧɚɥ
ɩɪɨɧɢɤɚɬɶ
ɪɹɞ
ɭɥɚɜɥɢɜɚɬɶ
ɮɚɫɚɞ
ɹɜɧɵɣ
B
louver
obvious
reveal
screen
sequence
skin
staff
wing
3. ɇɚɩɢɲɢɬɟ ɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹ ɫ ɤɚɠɞɵɦ ɢɡ ɩɟɪɟɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɵɯ ɧɢɠɟ
ɫɥɨɜ
articulate – articulation
extension – extensive
94
Ɍɟɤɫɬ Ⱥ
Designing for Yourself
For their own house and office in Chile, the husband-and-wife team
of Mauricio Pezo and Sofia von Ellrichshausen challenged themselves to
create variety out of repetition. Starting with 12 identical square modules
(11 indoors and one on the roof), they used perpendicular walls to divide
the spaces in different ways, then arranged or stacked them to add another
layer of variety. In the process, they designed a place that is both intellectually rigorous and spatially playful.
Set on a hill overlooking Concepción, the poured-concrete structure
rises seven storeys to capture views of the city. The narrow lot constrained
the 4,625-square-foot building’s footprint but not its height. So the architects took advantage of those conditions and gave the project a strong
sculptural presence to “stand up to the sunsets and the views”. To emphasise the building’s monolithic character, the architects used concrete with
large aggregate and had workers get its outer layer off so the surface is
textured but uniform.
Pezo and von Ellrichshausen created a sense of tension and balance
by placing the project’s tower off its base, or podium. They placed three
studios for art projects in enfilade on the lowest floor, then did the same
with the living, dining, and kitchen spaces on the second floor. Bedrooms
occupy the beginning of the tower on the third and fourth floors, while the
office is located in the top three floors. The firm employs four to six people, in addition to the partners. “We wanted different expressions for living and working,” says von Ellrichshausen, “so we made one horizontal
and the other vertical.” Separate cypress wood staircases serve the house
and the office. The architects clad interior walls with 2-inch-wide planks
of pine, but painted those in the house white and those in the office gray.
95
In the living spaces, they installed eucalyptus floors to add warmth and
separated the rooms by single steps to give each a different character.
Designing their own home and studio was a great experience, states
von Ellrichshausen. But the couple had been thinking about their own
house for years, so they had too many ideas at the start. “The biggest challenge was focusing on the most important ones,” she says.
Notes:
cypress ['saIprqs] n ɤɢɩɚɪɢɫ
eucalyptus ["jHkq'lIptqs] n ɷɜɤɚɥɢɩɬ
identical [aI'dentIkql] a ɨɞɢɧɚɤɨɜɵɣ
intellectually ["IntI'lekCVqlI] adv ɪɚɫɫɭɞɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ
playful ['pleIfql] a ɢɝɪɢɜɵɣ, ɜɟɫɺɥɵɣ
sunset ['sAnset] n ɡɚɯɨɞ ɫɨɥɧɰɚ, ɡɚɤɚɬ
Answer the following questions
1. What did the husband-and-wife team start with in designing their own
house and office?
2. What influenced the height of the building?
3. How is the office and living space distributed within the building?
4. How is the interior decorated?
5. What was the biggest challenge of the project?
Phonetic exercise
ɇɚɣɞɢɬɟɜɬɟɤɫɬɟɫɥɨɜɚɬɪɚɧɫɤɪɢɩɰɢɹɤɨɬɨɪɵɯɞɚɧɚɧɢɠɟɢɩɟ
ɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɢɯɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤ
[In'stLl]; [kqn'streIn]; ['jHnIfLm]; ['tenSqn]; [vq'raIqtI];
["pWpqn'dIkjVlq]; ['teksCq]; [In'tIqrIq].
Vocabulary exercises
ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤɩɪɢɜɟɞɟɧɧɵɟɧɢɠɟɫɥɨɜɚɢɫɥɨ
ɜɨɫɨɱɟɬɚɧɢɹɄɚɤɢɟɢɡɩɟɪɟɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɵɯɫɥɨɜɦɨɝɭɬɛɵɬɶɞɪɭɝɢɦɢɱɚ
ɫɬɹɦɢɪɟɱɢ" Ʉɚɤɢɦɢɢɦɟɧɧɨ"Ʉɚɤ ɨɧɢ ɜ ɷɬɨɦ ɫɥɭɱɚɟ ɩɟɪɟɜɨɞɹɬɫɹ ɧɚ
ɪɭɫɫɤɢɣ ɹɡɵɤ?
Chile (n), constrain (v), couple (n), enfilade (n), firm (n), gray (a), install (v),
lot (n), partner (n), pine(n), plank (n), team (n), tension (n), uniform (a).
96
ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟ ɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɟ ɫɥɨɜɚ ɢ ɫɥɨɜɨɫɨɱɟɬɚɧɢɹ ɧɚ ɚɧɝɥɢɣ
ɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤ
ɛɵɬɶɧɚɜɵɫɨɬɟɧɟɭɫɬɭɩɚɬɶ ɜɧɟɲɧɢɣɜɢɞɜɵɪɚɡɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɶɝɪɭɩɩɚ
ɤɨɦɚɧɞɚ ɞɨɫɤɚɩɥɚɧɤɚɡɚɧɢɦɚɬɶɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɨ); ɡɚɩɨɥɧɢɬɟɥɶɡɚ
ɹɜɥɹɬɶɭɬɜɟɪɠɞɚɬɶ ɢɡɧɚɱɚɥɶɧɨɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɬɶɩɪɟɢɦɭɳɟɫɬɜɚɧɚɧɢ
ɦɚɬɶɧɚɩɪɹɠɟɧɢɟ ɞɪɚɦɚɬɢɡɦ ɨɛɥɢɰɨɜɵɜɚɬɶɩɨɤɪɵɜɚɬɶɨɛɪɚɡɞɟɣ
ɫɬɜɢɹ ɫɩɨɫɨɛ ɨɛɴɺɦɧɵɣ ɪɟɥɶɟɮɧɵɣ ɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɢɜɚɬɶ ɨɞɧɨɪɨɞɧɵɣ
ɟɞɢɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɧɵɣ ɨɬɞɟɥɹɬɶ ɪɚɡɴɟɞɢɧɹɬɶ ɩɟɪɩɟɧɞɢɤɭɥɹɪɧɵɣ ɩɨɜɬɨ
ɪɟɧɢɟ ɩɨɦɟɳɚɬɶɪɚɡɦɟɳɚɬɶ; ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɣɪɚɡɧɵɣ; ɪɚɡɦɟɳɚɬɶɪɚɫɩɨ
ɥɚɝɚɬɶ; ɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɟ ɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɧɨɫɬɶ; ɫɟɦɟɣɧɚɹ ɩɚɪɚ; ɫɥɨɣ ɪɹɞ;
ɫɥɭɠɢɬɶ ɞɥɹ ɱɟɝɨ-ɥ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɬɶɫɹ; ɫɧɢɦɚɬɶ ɭɞɚɥɹɬɶ; ɫɬɚɜɢɬɶ
(ɞɪɭɝɧɚɞɪɭɝɚ); ɫɨɫɧɚ ɫɬɚɜɢɬɶɚɦɛɢɰɢɨɡɧɵɟɡɚɞɚɱɢ; ɫɬɪɨɝɢɣ; ɬɨɠɟ
ɫɚɦɨɟɨɞɧɨɢɬɨɠɟ; ɭɫɬɚɧɚɜɥɢɜɚɬɶɦɨɧɬɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ; ɭɱɚɫɬɨɤɡɚɫɬɪɨɣɤɢ;
ɷɬɚɠ.
ɉɟɪɟɱɢɫɥɢɬɟ ɭɩɨɦɹɧɭɬɵɟ ɜ ɬɟɤɫɬɟ ɚɪɯɢɬɟɤɬɭɪɧɵɟ ɬɟɪɦɢɧɵ
ɢɩɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɢɯɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤ
Ɂɚɩɨɥɧɢɬɟɩɪɨɩɭɫɤɢɜɬɟɤɫɬɟɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɹɫɥɨɜɚɢɡɩɪɢɜɟɞɺɧ
ɧɨɝɨɧɢɠɟɫɩɢɫɤɚȾɜɚ ɫɥɨɜɚ ɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɥɢɲɧɢɦɢ.
as
be
ceiling
curving
frequent
height
more
one
points
these
to
unobstructed
Helsinki Central Library
ɉɪɨɞɨɥɠɟɧɢɟɇɚɱɚɥɨɜɭɩɪɚɠɧɟɧɢɢɭɪɨɤɚɫɬɪ
The traditional, serene library atmosphere can (1) … found on the
top floor. This will be a calm area for working, floating above the busy
central Helsinki. It will offer (2) …, marvelous views to the surrounding
park and cityscape. (3) … two contrasting spaces that perfectly complement each other are created by an arching wooden volume. The spaces
inside the volume will be enclosed and (4) … intimate. The wooden volume is stretched (ɜɵɬɹɝɢɜɚɬɶ) vertically (5) …. create connections to the
open main floors below and above.
97
Soft, curved shapes will be present all around the building. The
curved (6) … covering the ground floor, the undivided flowing spaces on
the middle level, as well as the (7) … floor surface of the top floor are all
defined in the timber-clad mass, which is as functional (8) … it is impressive. There will be three public entrance (9) … in the building: one in the
south for the main pedestrian flow from the direction of the Central Railway Station, one next to the public plaza to the west of the building protected by an overhanging canopy, as well as a secondary (10) … in the
northeastern corner.
Ɉɩɪɟɞɟɥɢɬɟɤɤɚɤɢɦɫɥɨɜɚɦɢɡɭɱɟɧɧɵɦȼɚɦɢɜɞɚɧɧɨɦɭɱɟɛ
ɧɢɤɟɨɬɧɨɫɹɬɫɹɩɟɪɟɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɵɟɧɢɠɟɬɨɥɤɨɜɚɧɢɹ
1. surroundings, especially those behind something and providing harmony or contrast
2. thought of as perfect or as a perfect model
3. acting, DUULYLQJ RU WDNLQJ SODFH DIWHU WKH SURSHU ɧɚɞɥɟɠɚɳɢɣ RU
usual time
4. to make use of
5. to tower (ɜɨɡɜɵɲɚɬɶɫɹ) over other things; rise high above the surroundings, etc.
6. a window area that projects outwards (ɧɚɪɭɠɭ) from a wall.
Grammar exercises
1. ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɮɪɚɡɨɜɵɟɝɥɚɝɨɥɵɢɫɨɫɬɚɜɶɬɟɫɤɚɠɞɵɦɢɡɧɢɯ
ɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɟ ɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹ ɉɨɥɶɡɭɹɫɶ ɢɧɬɟɪɧɟɬɨɦ ɧɚɣɞɢɬɟ ɞɪɭɝɢɟ
ɫɨɱɟɬɚɧɢɹɛɚɡɨɜɵɯɝɥɚɝɨɥɨɜ give, hold, keep, set, stand, turn.
give off
give over
give up
hold together
hold up
keep away from
keep out
set apart from
set back
set forth
stand out
stand up to
turn inside out
turn into smth
turn off
2. The designs and buildings Jeanneret produced between 1912 and 1917
carried out the synthesis (ɫɢɧɬɟɡ) of ideas gathered from Pcrret, Cingria and others.
3. Policies in local governments need to be employed to regulate new
developments.
4. By demolishing older housing and replacing it with newer housing,
housing will stop to be a problem.
5. The challenge for urban architects is to apply all of these approaches
together to generate a sense of purpose through a combination of new
technology and city design.
6. Dividing the nave into square bays and the side aisles into squares a
quarter as large offered an advance in regularity. However, this process of achieving perfection of the plan did not develop in chronological order.
7. It is critical to find out the reasons that cause rents (ɚɪɟɧɞɧɚɹɩɥɚɬɚ)
to increase or decrease across cities.
8. The city of Akgragas founded in the sixth century B.C., may have had
as many as 70,000 people with another 130,000 in the surrounding
area.
9. Brunelleschi found the solution to building the Dome of Santa Maria
del Fiore in Florence, 1420-1436, by studying antique Roman and
Byzantine examples.
10. After the Second World War destruction (ɪɚɡɪɭɲɟɧɢɟ) provided
planners with open urban space and the opportunity to develop and
realise theories of rebuilding cities in the twentieth century.
3. ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɟɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹɨɛɪɚɳɚɹɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟɧɚ
ɮɭɧɤɰɢɢɫɥɨɜɚ that.
1. An intricate process of dividing a basilica into bays had been started
in northern Italy in the Po Valley.
1. Leading the Western world, Italy was developing a new visual sense
(central linear perspective) that led to new spatial concepts in architecture
2. What is of great importance for such buildings is that they achieve
their full effect only when they can be viewed from a sufficient distance.
3. By winter that water warms up enough to be used for literally heating.
4. Such façades as that of S. Bernardino at Perugia and of the Frati di S.
Spirito at Bologna are among the most delightful products of the decorative fashion of the 15th century.
98
99
2. ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɟɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹɨɛɪɚɳɚɹ ɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟɧɚ
ɧɟɥɢɱɧɵɟɮɨɪɦɵɝɥɚɝɨɥɚ
5. Today, there is a danger that squares become traffic concourses at a
cost to their value as social amenities.
6. Nowhere else in Europe at that time was there such an active life, or
such free course for individual genius as that in Florence.
7. The position of the observer of a major building and the relationship
between the size of the public square and that of its buildings is important.
8. What is obvious is that the glass skin, like that of Berlin’s Reichstag
dome, allows government to be quite transparent.
9. It is not only the public squares of the old towns that merit study but
also the configuration of their streets.
There was a shared sense with the client that big living rooms would
help to bring all the residents together but in practice that occurs rarely.
Pair work
ɋɬɭɞɟɧɬ&ɁɚɞɚɣɬɟɜɨɩɪɨɫɨɜɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɯɬɢɩɨɜɤɬɟɤɫɬɭA.
ɋɬɭɞɟɧɬ'Ɉɬɜɟɬɶɬɟɧɚɜɨɩɪɨɫɵɤɬɟɤɫɬɭɫɬɭɞɟɧɬɚ&
ɋɬɭɞɟɧɬɵ&ɢ'ɉɨɦɟɧɹɣɬɟɫɶɪɨɥɹɦɢ
Ɍɟɤɫɬ ȼ
Mach House, Dessau-Mosigkau, Germany
The building is designed as a single-family home with an integrated
fully separate apartment. It has a total residential floor area of approximately 170 m2 and is based on an ecological energy-use concept making
it almost autonomous in terms of external power needs. A rural building
approach has been adopted, but treating it as a technically innovative residential building which exercises a pilot function in its present configuration.
The facade presents itself to an approaching observer as a decorative
concrete wall with a large wooden gate behind which an arrangement of
interior yards, separate for the residential parties, divide the access wall
and the actual building. As a result, the house retains a discreet presence
when viewed from the road, remaining concealed behind trees and opening itself to the visitor via a sequence of paths that takes him across a
variety of squares and yards.
The inner building core is formed by two load-bearing concrete
walls with stiffening function which present themselves as decorative
100
concrete surfaces. Comprised between them is the central corridor on the
ground floor and the central technical room arranged on the upper level,
the building lacking a basement.
The exterior building front consists of a structure of glue laminated
timber uprights with Betoplan (epoxy-coated plywood) panel bracing.
The panels are fixed, with reddish shadow joints for contrast, or provided
in the form movable wooden shutters in front of the windows.
The single-pitch roof slopes towards the west and consists entirely
of double-web Macrolon panels with wooden hinged slats. The roof slat
position is selected to ensure that the low winter sun will heat the air above
the collector chamber to provide room heating via a heat exchange process.
Notes:
autonomous [L'tPnqmqs] a ɚɜɬɨɧɨɦɧɵɣ, ɧɟɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɵɣ
Betoplan panel bracing ['betqnplxn "pxnl 'breIsIN] ɨɛɲɢɜɤɚ ɨɛɥɢɰɨɜɨɱɧɵɦɢ
ɩɚɧɟɥɹɦɢ Ȼɟɬɨɩɥɚɧ
ecological ["Jkq'lPGIkql] a ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ
party ['pRtI] n ɨɫɨɛɚ, ɱɟɥɨɜɟɤ
pilot ['paIlqt] a ɩɪɨɛɧɵɣɷɤɫɩɟɪɢɦɟɧɬɚɥɶɧɵɣ
reddish ['redIS] a ɤɪɚɫɧɨɜɚɬɵɣ
shutters ['SAtqz] n pl ɫɬɚɜɧɢɠɚɥɸɡɢ
slat [slxt] n ɫɬɜɨɪɤɚɠɚɥɸɡɢ
upright ['ApraIt] n ɜɟɪɬɢɤɚɥɶɧɚɹɫɬɨɣɤɚ
Answer the following questions
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
What kind of building is it?
What concept is it based on?
How does the facade present itself?
Why does the house retain a discreet presence when viewed from the
road?
What is the inner building core formed by?
What is there between load-bearing concrete walls?
How is the exterior building front decorated?
What does the roof feature?
Text work
1. ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɬɟɤɫɬ
2. ɋɨɫɬɚɜɶɬɟɩɥɚɧɬɟɤɫɬɚɢɡ–ɩɭɧɤɬɨɜ
3. ɉɨɥɶɡɭɹɫɶɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɧɵɦȼɚɦɢɩɥɚɧɨɦɤɪɚɬɤɨɢɡɥɨɠɢɬɟɫɨɞɟɪɠɚ
ɧɢɟɬɟɤɫɬɚɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɨɦɹɡɵɤɟ
101
Grammar exercises
1. ɇɚɣɞɢɬɟɜɬɟɤɫɬɟɧɟɥɢɱɧɵɟɮɨɪɦɵɝɥɚɝɨɥɚɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɢɬɟɢɯɮɭɧɤ
ɰɢɸɢɩɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤ
2. ɇɚɣɞɢɬɟɜɬɟɤɫɬɟthat ɢɩɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤ
Vocabulary exercises
ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤɩɪɢɜɟɞɺɧɧɵɟɧɢɠɟɫɥɨɜɚȿɫɥɢ
ȼɵɧɟɡɧɚɟɬɟɫɥɨɜɨɧɚɣɞɢɬɟɟɝɨɜɫɥɨɜɚɪɟȼɵɩɢɲɢɬɟɢɡɫɥɨɜɚɪɹɬɨ
ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟɫɥɨɜɚɜɤɨɬɨɪɨɦɨɧɨɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɨɜɬɟɤɫɬɟ
collector (n), collector chamber, epoxy (n), exercise (n, v), glue laminated
(a), hinge (v), hinged (a), m2 (n), retain (v), rural (a), stiffen (v).
2. ɇɚɣɞɢɬɟɩɟɪɟɜɨɞɫɥɨɜɫɩɢɫɤɚȺɜɫɩɢɫɤɟȼ
A
ɷɩɨɤɫɢɞɧɚɹɫɦɨɥɚ
ɱɟɪɟɡ
ɭɫɢɥɢɜɚɬɶ
ɫɬɜɨɪɱɚɬɵɣ
ɫɨɯɪɚɧɹɬɶ
ɫɤɪɵɜɚɬɶ
ɫɢɫɬɟɦɚ
ɪɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɬɶ
B
approximately
arrangement
conceal
concept
epoxy
exercise
hinged
integrated
A
ɩɪɨɯɨɠɢɣ
ɩɪɢɛɥɢɡɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ
ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɬɶ
ɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɥɹɬɶ
ɢɞɟɹ
ɠɢɥɨɣ
ɟɞɢɧɵɣ
ɞɟɪɟɜɟɧɫɤɢɣ
B
observer
present
residential
retain
rural
stiffen
treat
via
3. ɇɚɩɢɲɢɬɟ ɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹ ɫ ɤɚɠɞɵɦ ɢɡ ɩɟɪɟɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɵɯ ɧɢɠɟ
ɫɥɨɜ
install – installation
stiff – stiffen
102
Unit 3.11
Ɍɟɤɫɬ Ⱥ
La Place des Terreaux, Lyon, France
On an aerial photograph Place des Terreaux seems to interrupt the
urban web of Lyon. It is a kind of gap connecting the Rhone with the
Saone. It is the beginning of the whole city determining its two main axes:
the east-west axis of urban growth and the north-south axis of the rivers.
Located at the crossroads of both, the Place des Terreaux seems to be the
city’s major articulation. On a symbolic level it connects four powers: the
city (city hall), the Church (Palais Saint-Pierre), the bourgeoisie (Massif
des Terreaux) and the people (frontage of the Croix-Rousse quarter).
These four elements are grouped around the Berthold fountain.
The architects wished to make it clear that Place des Terreaux is the
hub of the city. They therefore based their design on the four sides of the
square. First they moved the Berthold fountain to the front of the north
side of the square. The construction of an underground car park gave the
push for this, and it was decided not to move anything back. The new
position of the fountain exposes the beautiful facade of the Massif des
Terreaux, which had disappeared behind it. The impressive facade of the
city hall, Palais Saint-Pierre and Massif des Terreaux, are now set off from
the common north side of the square. The architecture of the plain residential buildings recedes more into the background. Having the king, the
priest and the bourgeois on three of its sides and the people on the fourth,
the square recounts the social history of France. One could even say that
the fountain now expresses the idea of democracy: the sculpture of the
victorious quadriga virtually extends from the hill of the Lyon silk weavers and heads south. The fountain thus corresponds to the geography, be103
cause the Rhone and the Saone flow from the mountains in the north towards the sea in the south. The horses, straining in all directions, also address the city hall and the buildings in the Terreaux quarter.
The square’s grid is derived from the facade of the Palais SaintPierre. The 5.90-metre distance between the columns became the fundamental unit of the square grid traced in granite over the square, which thus
appears considerably larger than it was. Cars drive only on the periphery
of the square.
recount [rI'kaVnt] v ɪɚɫɫɤɚɡɵɜɚɬɶɢɡɥɚɝɚɬɶɫɨɛɵɬɢɹ
silk weaver ['sIlk"wJvq] ɩɪɹɞɢɥɶɳɢɤ ɲɺɥɤɚ
victorious [vIk'tLrIqs] a ɩɨɛɟɞɧɵɣ
Answer the following questions
1. Why is Place des Terreaux the beginning of the whole city?
2. What did the architects base their design on?
3. What did the transfer of the Berthold fountain to the front of the north
side of the square result in?
4. Why does the square recount the social history of France.?
5. What is the square’s grid derived from?
Phonetic exercise
ɇɚɣɞɢɬɟɜɬɟɤɫɬɟɫɥɨɜɚɬɪɚɧɫɤɪɢɩɰɢɹɤɨɬɨɪɵɯɞɚɧɚɧɢɠɟɢɩɟ
ɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɢɯɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤ
[pq'rIfqrI]; [rI'sJd]; ['eqrIql]; ["rezI'denSql]; ["fAndq'mentl];
['xksIs]; [CWC]; ['bVqZwR].
Vocabulary exercises
ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤɩɪɢɜɟɞɟɧɧɵɟɧɢɠɟɫɥɨɜɚɢɫɥɨ
ɜɨɫɨɱɟɬɚɧɢɹɄɚɤɢɟɢɡɩɟɪɟɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɵɯɫɥɨɜɦɨɝɭɬɛɵɬɶɞɪɭɝɢɦɢɱɚ
ɫɬɹɦɢɪɟɱɢ"Ʉɚɤɢɦɢɢɦɟɧɧɨ"Ʉɚɤɨɧɢɜɷɬɨɦɫɥɭɱɚɟɩɟɪɟɜɨɞɹɬɫɹɧɚ
ɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤ"
FIGURE 7 General plan
(from Architectural Design Magazine “Urbanism” [3])
Notes:
address [q'dres] v ɭɤɚɡɵɜɚɬɶɧɚɨɛɪɚɳɚɬɶɫɹɤ
aerial photograph ['eqrIql 'fqVtqgrRf@ɚɷɪɨɮɨɬɨɫɧɢɦɨɤ
bourgeois ['bVqZwR] n ɛɭɪɠɭɚ
bourgeoisie ["bVqZwR'zJ] n ɛɭɪɠɭɚɡɢɹ
crossroads ['krPsrqVdz] ɫɦ. cross
democracy [dI'mPkrqsI] n ɞɟɦɨɤɪɚɬɢɹ
hub [hAb] n ɰɟɧɬɪ, «ɫɟɪɞɰɟ»
priest [prJst] n ɫɜɹɳɟɧɧɢɤ
quadriga [kwq'drJgq] n ɤɜɚɞɪɢғɝɚɞɜɭɯɤɨɥɺɫɧɚɹɤɨɥɟɫɧɢɰɚɡɚɩɪɹɠɺɧɧɚɹɱɟɬ
ɜɺɪɤɨɣɥɨɲɚɞɟɣ)
104
correspond (v), gap (n), mountain (n), periphery (n), recede (v), underground (a).
ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟ ɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɟ ɫɥɨɜɚ ɢ ɫɥɨɜɨɫɨɱɟɬɚɧɢɹ ɧɚ ɚɧɝɥɢɣ
ɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤ
(ɦɟɫɬɨ ɫɨɱɥɟɧɟɧɢɹ ɜɩɟɱɚɬɥɹɸɳɢɣ ɜɵɪɚɡɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣ ɜɵɞɟɥɹɬɶ
ɨɛɨɫɨɛɥɹɬɶɜɵɱɟɪɱɢɜɚɬɶɝɥɚɜɧɵɣɨɫɧɨɜɧɨɣ (2); ɝɨɪɚɞɚɠɟɡɚɞɧɢɣ
ɩɥɚɧ ɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɤɪɚɣ ɜɧɟɲɧɹɹ ɝɪɚɧɢɰɚ ɦɟɲɚɬɶ ɡɚɫɥɨɧɹɬɶ
ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɹɬɶɫɹ ɞɜɢɝɚɬɶɫɹ ɤɭɞɚ-ɥ ɧɟɱɬɨ ɜɪɨɞɟ ɨɛɧɚɠɚɬɶ ɩɨɤɚɡɵ
ɜɚɬɶ ɨɛɴɟɞɢɧɢɬɶ ɫɝɪɭɩɩɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɬɶ ɨɛɭɫɥɨɜɥɢɜɚɬɶ ɨɫɶ
ɨɫɟɜɚɹɥɢɧɢɹɨɬɫɬɭɩɚɬɶɨɬɯɨɞɢɬɶɩɟɪɟɞɜɢɝɚɬɶɩɟɪɟɦɟɳɚɬɶɩɨɫɭ
105
ɳɟɫɬɜɭɜɫɭɳɧɨɫɬɢɩɨɞɡɟɦɧɵɣɩɪɨɦɟɠɭɬɨɤ ɫɟɬɤɚɪɟɲɺɬɤɚɫɤɪɵ
ɜɚɬɶ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɨɜɚɬɶ ɛɵɬɶ ɚɧɚɥɨɝɢɱɧɵɦ ɫɬɪɟɦɢɬɶɫɹ ɪɜɚɬɶɫɹ ɬɚ
ɤɢɦɨɛɪɚɡɨɦɩɨɷɬɨɦɭɬɨɥɱɨɤɢɦɩɭɥɶɫ
ɉɟɪɟɱɢɫɥɢɬɟɭɩɨɦɹɧɭɬɵɟɜɬɟɤɫɬɟɚɪɯɢɬɟɤɬɭɪɧɵɟɬɟɪɦɢɧɵɢ
ɩɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɢɯɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤ
ȼɵɛɟɪɢɬɟɬɨɥɤɨɜɚɧɢɟɤɨɬɨɪɨɟɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɟɬɬɟɪɦɢɧɭɜɥɟ
ɜɨɣɤɨɥɨɧɤɟɈɞɧɨ ɬɨɥɤɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɥɢɲɧɢɦ.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
A
cladding, extent, hedge, infill, louver, node, utility, vitality.
B
to strain after something; to make efforts
DURZRIFORVHO\SODQWHGVKUXEVɤɭɫɬɚɪɧɢɤRUWUHHVIRUPLQJDERXQG
ary
the degree to which something happens, or the degree to which something is affected
7KHTXDOLW\RUVWDWHɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɟRIEHLQJXVHIXO
a shell of tiles, wooden planks, or other material that is fixed to the
outside of a building to protect it against bad weather or to make it
look more attractive
the place where lines cross or meet
a window or opening covered with a series of overlapping, horizontal
slats (ɩɥɚɧɤɚ) arranged so as to admit light and air but shed rain water outside; any similar arrangement of slats, often adjustable
(ɪɟɝɭɥɢɪɭɟɦɵɣ), used to control ventilation, light, etc.
the state of being strong and active; the power giving continuance
ɩɪɨɞɨɥɠɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɶof life, present in all living things
when new homes and other buildings are built in between the buildings
that are already there, rather than around their edge
ɇɚɣɞɢɬɟɜɩɪɢɦɟɱɚɧɢɹɯɤɬɟɤɫɬɚɦɭɪɨɤɨɜ – ɩɟɪɟɜɨɞ
ɧɚɚɧɝɥɢɣɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɯɫɥɨɜ
ɪɚɫɩɵɥɹɬɶɫɜɹɡɵɜɚɬɶ ɫɤɪɭɩɭɥɺɡɧɨɫɥɭɱɚɣɭɜɟɧɱɢɜɚɬɶɡɚɜɟɪɲɚɬɶ
ɭɦɟɥɟɰɦɚɫɬɟɪɱɺɬɤɨɫɬɶɷɤɫɩɟɪɢɦɟɧɬɚɥɶɧɵɣ
Grammar exercises
1ȼɵɞɟɥɢɬɟɝɥɚɜɧɨɟɢɩɪɢɞɚɬɨɱɧɨɟɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟ
ɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤ
1. The large frame of the hospital’s ground floor extends its arms towards
those who are arriving, those who need the hospital.
2. $VWKHFROXPQVGLIIHUɪɚɡɥɢɱɚɬɶɫɹVRPHZKDWLQVL]HDQGFDSLWDOVLW
LV SRVVLEOH WKDW WKH\ FDPH IURP WKH UXLQV ɪɭɢɧɵ RI VHYHUDO RI WKH
great public buildings of Riez.
3. The difference is reflected in the vaults where bays are joined in pairs
and emphasized by some of the earliest rib vaults (ɧɟɪɜɸɪɧɵɣ ɫɜɨɞ)
in Western architecture.
4. The balustrade around the skylight in the entrance area is curved in
such a way it feels good to touch but nothing is laid on top.
5. Considering the views from the inside, simply obtaining openness with
glass seems useless, since the outside scenery is not attractive.
6. The south wall, which is clearly seen from the road, has a small portal
and plain buttresses that slope at the top.
7. It is hard to understand why someone would divide what should have
been a nice first floor living room into a plain kitchen with a more than
4 metre high ceiling.
8. The high tunnel vault rests on double arches and as the nave is very
narrow and its light very dim ɧɟɹɪɤɢɣ, the church seems lofty, and
impressive.
9. The same concept has also been used by a Mumbai architectural and
design team which believes sustainability is necessary for good designs.
10. The apartments vary in shape and size, since they are formed by a
group of one to four of the 600 square-foot “boxes” in different configurations.
ɜɟɪɬɢɤɚɥɶɧɚɹɫɬɨɣɤɚɝɟɧɟɪɚɥɶɧɵɣɩɥɚɧɞɨɫɬɨɢɧɫɬɜɨɞɨɫɬɭɩɧɨɫɬɶ
ɢɫɤɭɫɧɵɣ ɦɚɫɬɟɪ ɧɚɱɢɧɚɬɶ ɩɪɟɞɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɬɶ ɧɨɜɚɬɨɪɫɤɢɣ ɨɛɴɺɦ
ɧɵɣ ɨɞɢɧɚɤɨɜɵɣ ɨɫɟɜɚɹ ɥɢɧɢɹ ɩɟɪɟɤɪɟɫɬɨɤ ɩɨɝɥɨɳɚɬɶ ɩɨɞɧɢ
ɦɚɬɶɫɹ ɩɪɨɝɨɧ ɤɪɵɲɢ ɩɪɨɦɟɠɭɬɨɱɧɵɣ ɩɟɪɟɯɨɞɧɵɣ ɩɪɨɫɬɟɧɨɤ
2. ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟ ɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹ ɨɛɪɚɳɚɹ ɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟ ɧɚ ɮɨɪɦɵ
ɫ ɫɭɮɮɢɤɫɨɦ -ing Ɉɩɪɟɞɟɥɢɬɟ ɤ ɤɚɤɨɣ ɱɚɫɬɢ ɪɟɱɢ ɨɧɢ ɨɬɧɨɫɹɬɫɹ
ɢɤɚɤɭɸɮɭɧɤɰɢɸɜɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɢɜɵɩɨɥɧɹɸɬ
106
107
1. By wrapping the transforming composition of spaces with a continuous skin a Möbius strip volume is created where the facades move
from inside to outside and back again.
2. The architect created a number of preliminary (ɩɪɟɞɜɚɪɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣ) designs after analysing scale drawings to study octagonal
ɜɨɫɶɦɢɭɝɨɥɶɧɵɣDQGFLUFXODUVKDSHV
3. Near the hall side of the library a door opens into a passage leading
into the family bedroom.
4. The foundation of the building, raised as a measure against the flood
of tidal waves (ɩɪɢɥɢɜɧɵɟ ɜɨɥɧɵ), uses a red-brown concrete, as if
the earth itself had been raised, providing contrast to the presence of
the blue sky and ocean continuing beyond.
5. Spretnak offers turning to traditions, thus opposing the negative influence of mass culture.
6. Mosaics are patterns forming distinct boundaries.
7. Small clerestory windows drop sheets of pale light on the plain piers,
rectangular and heavy, rising to support a tunnel vault and divide the
church into three naves of great and slender height.
8. Instead of approaching the city through the limits of a master plan, we
should view it as an accumulation of neighborhoods, each of which
contains nodes that can have a substantial impact in improving the
quality of life.
9. Flanking the cottage, and near the kitchen garden, should be the fruit
trees.
10. We find that white is not to be blamed (ɛɵɬɶ ɜɢɧɨɜɧɵɦ) in the villa
for destroying its antiquity or harmony with the surrounding landscape.
3ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɩɪɢɜɟɞɟɧɧɵɟɧɢɠɟɫɥɨɜɚ Ɉɛɪɚɡɭɣɬɟɨɬɧɢɯɫɭ
ɳɟɫɬɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɟ ɫ ɩɨɦɨɳɶɸ ɢɡɭɱɟɧɧɵɯ ɫɭɮɮɢɤɫɨɜ. ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟ ɧɚ
ɪɭɫɫɤɢɣ ɹɡɵɤ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɧɵɟ ɫɥɨɜɚ.
achieve, arrange, arrange, articulate, base, bright, careful, collect, concave, correct, demolish, develop, effective, expose, full, harsh, install,
measure, modify, move, oppose, pale, propose, restore, rich, rough, secure, sensual, settle, tactile, treat.
108
Pair work
ɋɬɭɞɟɧɬ&ɁɚɞɚɣɬɟɜɨɩɪɨɫɨɜɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɯɬɢɩɨɜɤɬɟɤɫɬɭA.
ɋɬɭɞɟɧɬ'Ɉɬɜɟɬɶɬɟɧɚɜɨɩɪɨɫɵɤɬɟɤɫɬɭɫɬɭɞɟɧɬɚ&
ɋɬɭɞɟɧɬɵ&ɢ' ɉɨɦɟɧɹɣɬɟɫɶɪɨɥɹɦɢ
Ɍɟɤɫɬ ȼ
Storefront for Art & Architecture, New York, U.S.A.
In 1992, Steven Holl and artist Vito Acconci were commissioned as
a collaborative team to renovate the aging facade of the Storefront for Art
and Architecture, one of the few galleries devoted to the exhibition of
young architects in New York City. The Storefront project is the second
collaborative effort by Holl and Acconci; their first work together was a
1988 urban plan for a growing arts community in downtown Washington
D.C. sponsored by the Pennsylvania Avenue Development Corporation.
The Storefront for Art & Architecture is situated on the corner of a
block that marks the intersection of three distinct neighbourhoods: Chinatown, Little Italy and Soho. The gallery itself is a limited, narrow wedge
with a triangulated exhibition interior, such that the most dominant structure for the Storefront for Art and Architecture is the building's long facade. In fact, the history of exhibitions at the gallery was marked in the
various cuts and layers of paint which exhibiting architects had imposed
on and through this once-uniform surface,
Drawing from this history, neither Acconci nor Holl were interested
in the permanence of the facade or the idea of a static gallery space. Seeking to introduce improbability and to pierce the facade, Acconci and Holl
challenged this symbolic border which underlines the exclusivity of the
art world, where only those on the inside belong. Using a hybrid material
comprised of concrete mixed with recycled fibers, Holl and Acconci inserted a series of hinged panels arranged in a puzzle-like configuration.
When the panels are locked in their open position, the facade dissolves
and the interior space of the gallery expands out onto the sidewalk thus
denying the facade its function of creating a division separating the inside
from the outside space.
109
Notes:
collaborative [kq'lxbqrqtIv] a ɨɛɴɟɞɢɧɟɧɧɵɣ, ɫɨɜɦɟɫɬɧɵɣ
corporation ["kLpq'reISqn] n ɤɨɪɩɨɪɚɰɢɹ
exclusivity ["eksklH'sIvItI] n ɢɫɤɥɸɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɶ
improbability [Im"prPbq'bIlItI] n ɧɟɩɪɚɜɞɨɩɨɞɨɛɢɟ
recycled ["rJ'saIkqld] a ɫɞɟɥɚɧɧɵɣ ɢɡ ɜɬɨɪɢɱɧɨɝɨ ɫɵɪɶɹ, ɭɬɢɥɢɡɨɜɚɧɧɵɣ
sponsored ['spPnsq] a ɮɢɧɚɧɫɢɪɭɟɦɵɣɫɭɛɫɢɞɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɣ
underline ["Andq'laIn] v ɩɨɞɱɺɪɤɢɜɚɬɶ
Washington D.C. ['wPSINtqn 'dJ'sJ] n ɝȼɚɲɢɧɝɬɨɧɨɤɪɭɝɄɨɥɭɦɛɢɹ)
Answer the following questions
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
What were Steven Holl and Vito Acconci commissioned to renovate?
What was their first work together?
Where is the Storefront for Art & Architecture situated?
What is the most dominant structure for it?
Why were neither Acconci nor Holl interested in the permanence of
the facade?
6. How did they challenge this symbolic border?
7. What was achieved by that?
Text work
dissolve (v), fiber (n), hybrid (a), permanence (n), puzzle (n), renovate
(v), sidewalk (n), storefront (n), wedge (n).
2. ɇɚɣɞɢɬɟɩɟɪɟɜɨɞɫɥɨɜɫɩɢɫɤɚȺɜɫɩɢɫɤɟȼ
A
ɝɪɚɧɢɰɚ
ɢɫɯɨɞɢɬɶɢɡ
ɤɥɢɧ
ɤɨɦɩɨɡɢɰɢɨɧɧɵɣ
ɩɨɩɵɬɤɚ
ɩɨɪɭɱɚɬɶ
ɩɨɫɬɨɹɧɫɬɜɨ
ɩɪɢɧɚɞɥɟɠɚɬɶ
B
age
belong
border
commission
dissolve
downtown
draw from
effort
A
ɩɪɨɪɟɡɚɬɶ
ɩɵɬɚɬɶɫɹ
ɪɚɫɬɜɨɪɹɬɶɫɹ
ɪɚɫɲɢɪɹɬɶɫɹ
ɪɟɫɬɚɜɪɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ
ɫɬɚɪɟɬɶ
ɬɪɨɬɭɚɪ
ɰɟɧɬɪ ɝɨɪɨɞɚ
3. ɇɚɩɢɲɢɬɟ ɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹ ɫ ɤɚɠɞɵɦ ɢɡ ɩɟɪɟɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɵɯ ɧɢɠɟ
ɫɥɨɜ
mount – mountain
permanence – permanent
ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɬɟɤɫɬ
ɋɨɫɬɚɜɶɬɟɩɥɚɧɬɟɤɫɬɚɢɡ–ɩɭɧɤɬɨɜ
ɉɨɥɶɡɭɹɫɶɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɧɵɦȼɚɦɢɩɥɚɧɨɦɤɪɚɬɤɨɢɡɥɨɠɢɬɟɫɨ
ɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɟɬɟɤɫɬɚɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɨɦɹɡɵɤɟ
Grammar exercises
1. ɇɚɣɞɢɬɟɜɬɟɤɫɬɟɮɨɪɦɵɫɫɭɮɮɢɤɫɨɦ-ingɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɢɬɟɤɤɚ
ɤɨɣ ɱɚɫɬɢ ɪɟɱɢ ɨɧɢ ɨɬɧɨɫɹɬɫɹ ɢ ɤɚɤɭɸ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɸ ɨɧɢ ɜɵɩɨɥɧɹɸɬ
ɜɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɢɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɢɯɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤ
ɇɚɣɞɢɬɟ ɜ ɬɟɤɫɬɟ ɫɥɨɠɧɨɩɨɞɱɢɧɺɧɧɵɟ ɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹ ɜɵɞɟ
ɥɢɬɟɜɧɢɯɝɥɚɜɧɨɟɢɩɪɢɞɚɬɨɱɧɨɟɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹ ɢɩɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɧɚɪɭɫ
ɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤ
Vocabulary exercises
ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤɩɪɢɜɟɞɺɧɧɵɟɧɢɠɟɫɥɨɜɚȿɫɥɢ
ȼɵɧɟɡɧɚɟɬɟɫɥɨɜɨɧɚɣɞɢɬɟɟɝɨɜɫɥɨɜɚɪɟȼɵɩɢɲɢɬɟɢɡɫɥɨɜɚɪɹɬɨ
ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟɫɥɨɜɚɜɤɨɬɨɪɨɦɨɧɨɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɨɜɬɟɤɫɬɟ
110
B
expand
hybrid
permanence
pierce
renovate
seek
sidewalk
wedge
111
Unit 3.12
Ɍɟɤɫɬ Ⱥ
This design strategy also suggests a logical way of grouping the
court chambers in fours, each of the four chambers in any group arranged
back to back, two facing the atrium and two looking to the outside: access
to the judges’ private spaces is from the rear, while the public enters from
the front. It also allows for phasing: the first phase includes the northern
wing and vertical circulation, with the southern wing to follow. The main
entrance at the eastern end, approached from Damrota Street, suggests a
balance between public space and the space of justice.
Notes:
District Court of Justice, Katowice, Poland
The new law court, now under construction and due for completion
in 2008, is one of a number of major civic institutions planned for a new
district of public buildings in the west of the Katowice city centre. This
alone represents a challenge, as between them these new buildings will
have to create a sense of civic values that has yet to be made evident, and
in a street pattern devised for traffic movement rather than public amenity.
The site lies between two parallel roads, Francuska and Damrota Streets.
Inevitably, the shape and character of the site have had a powerful influence on the design of the law court, but what makes it notable is the way
Studniarek and Pilinkiewicz have used these features to advantage, and
introduced ways of offsetting their weaknesses. Conceiving the design as
two long, thin wings on the northern and southern sides of the site with an
atrium between them stresses the shape of the site, yet also makes sense
in terms of function. Primarily it offers a practical basis to deal with the
circulation, both internal and external.
On the outside it means judges can be separated to the west from the
public to the east; other users such as staff and prisoners can approach
from their own entrances to the north or south, and car-parking allocation
follows naturally.
Internally, public circulation hinges around the atrium, creating a
natural and dignified public space, something like an updated version of
GE Street’s magnificent Salle du Pas Perdu in the London High Court,
with plenty of scope for intermediate stairs, lifts and bridges for public
access to the five floors of courtrooms on either side, while private circulation for judges can be concealed within the two solid wings.
112
allocation ["xlq'keISqn] n ɪɚɡɦɟɳɟɧɢɟ
completion [kqm'plJSqn] n ɡɚɜɟɪɲɟɧɢɟ, ɨɤɨɧɱɚɧɢɟ
court of justice ["kLtqv'GAstIs] ɫɭɞ, ɫɭɞɟɛɧɨɟ ɭɱɪɟɠɞɟɧɢɟ
courtroom ['kLtrHm] n ɡɚɥ ɫɭɞɚ, ɡɚɥ ɫɭɞɟɛɧɨɝɨ ɡɚɫɟɞɚɧɢɹ
eastern ['Jstqn] a ɜɨɫɬɨɱɧɵɣ
offset ["Pf'set] v ɫɜɨɞɢɬɶɧɚɧɟɬɤɨɦɩɟɧɫɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ
Poland ['pqVlqnd] n ɉɨɥɶɲɚ
prisoner ['prIzqnq] n ɨɛɜɢɧɹɟɦɵɣ, ɩɨɞɫɭɞɢɦɵɣ
updated ["Ap'deItId] a ɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɣɨɛɧɨɜɥɟɧɧɵɣ
weakness ['wJknIs] n ɧɟɞɨɫɬɚɬɨɤ
Answer the following questions
1. What is the challenge of the project?
2. What features of the site influenced the design of the law court?
3. How have Studniarek and Pilinkiewicz used these features to advantage?
4. How is circulation within the building arranged?
5. How did this design strategy influence the design of the court chambers?
Phonetic exercise
ɇɚɣɞɢɬɟɜɬɟɤɫɬɟɫɥɨɜɚɬɪɚɧɫɤɪɢɩɰɢɹɤɨɬɨɪɵɯɞɚɧɚɧɢɠɟɢɩɟ
ɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɢɯɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤ
['pxrqlql]; ['meIGq]; ['vxljH]; ['CeImbq]; [GAG]; ['GAstIs];
[hInG]; [skqVp].
113
Vocabulary exercises
ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤɩɪɢɜɟɞɟɧɧɵɟɧɢɠɟɫɥɨɜɚɢɫɥɨ
ɜɨɫɨɱɟɬɚɧɢɹɄɚɤɢɟɢɡɩɟɪɟɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɵɯɫɥɨɜɦɨɝɭɬɛɵɬɶɞɪɭɝɢɦɢɱɚ
ɫɬɹɦɢɪɟɱɢ"Ʉɚɤɢɦɢɢɦɟɧɧɨ"Ʉɚɤɨɧɢɜɷɬɨɦɫɥɭɱɚɟɩɟɪɟɜɨɞɹɬɫɹɧɚ
ɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤ"
5. ɇɚɣɞɢɬɟ ɜ ɢɧɬɟɪɧɟɬɟ ɩɟɪɟɜɨɞ ɩɟɪɟɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɵɯ ɧɢɠɟ ɫɥɨɜ ɢ
ɫɥɨɜɨɫɨɱɟɬɚɧɢɣ ɢ ɞɚɣɬɟ ɢɯ ɫɢɧɨɧɢɦɵ ɢɡ ɬɨɣ ɥɟɤɫɢɤɢ ɤɨɬɨɪɚɹ ɢɫ
ɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɚɜɞɚɧɧɨɦɭɱɟɛɧɢɤɟ
parallel (n, a, adv), plenty (n), stair (n), stress (v).
2. ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟ ɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɟ ɫɥɨɜɚ ɢ ɫɥɨɜɨɫɨɱɟɬɚɧɢɹ ɧɚ ɚɧɝɥɢɣ
ɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤ
ɚɧɟɜɦɟɫɬɨɜɩɟɪɜɭɸɨɱɟɪɟɞɶɜɥɢɹɧɢɟɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟɜɪɚɳɚɬɶɫɹ (ɜɨ
ɤɪɭɝ ɱɟɝɨ-ɥ); ɝɪɚɠɞɚɧɫɤɢɣ ɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣ ɞɨɥɠɧɵɣ ɨɠɢɞɚɟɦɵɣ
ɞɨɫɬɭɩ ɩɨɞɯɨɞ ɡɚɞɭɦɵɜɚɬɶ ɪɚɡɪɚɛɚɬɵɜɚɬɶ ɡɚɦɟɬɧɵɣ ɜɵɞɚɸ
ɳɢɣɫɹ ɢɦɟɬɶ ɫɦɵɫɥ ɛɵɬɶ ɧɭɠɧɵɦ ɥɟɫɬɧɢɱɧɵɣ ɦɚɪɲ ɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢ
ɜɵɬɟɤɚɬɶɢɡɦɟɬɨɞɫɩɨɫɨɛɦɧɨɝɨɦɧɨɠɟɫɬɜɨɧɟɢɡɛɟɠɧɨɨɛɥɚɞɚɸ
ɳɢɣɱɭɜɫɬɜɨɦɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨɞɨɫɬɨɢɧɫɬɜɚɜɟɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣɨɡɧɚɱɚɬɶ
ɡɧɚɱɢɬɶɩɚɪɚɥɥɟɥɶɧɵɣɩɟɪɟɦɟɳɟɧɢɟɩɨɞɯɨɞɢɬɶɜɯɨɞɢɬɶɩɨɞɱɺɪ
ɤɢɜɚɬɶ ɩɨɷɬɚɩɧɨɫɬɶɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɬɶɫɨɛɨɣ ɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɶɜɚɠɧɨɫɬɶɩɪɨɫɬɨɪ
ɫ ɬɨɱɤɢ ɡɪɟɧɢɹ ɜ ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɢ ɫɧɚɪɭɠɢ ɫɩɢɧɚ ɤ ɫɩɢɧɟ ɜɩɥɨɬɧɭɸ
ɫɯɟɦɚɦɨɞɟɥɶɭɞɨɛɫɬɜɨɤɨɦɮɨɪɬɭɱɪɟɠɞɟɧɢɟɹɫɧɵɣɧɚɝɥɹɞɧɵɣ
ɉɟɪɟɱɢɫɥɢɬɟ ɭɩɨɦɹɧɭɬɵɟ ɜ ɬɟɤɫɬɟ ɚɪɯɢɬɟɤɬɭɪɧɵɟ ɬɟɪɦɢɧɵ
ɢɩɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɢɯɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤ
Ʉɚɤɢɟɢɡɭɤɚɡɚɧɧɵɯɩɟɪɟɜɨɞɨɜɫɥɨɜɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹɨɲɢɛɨɱɧɵɦɢ
ɍɤɚɠɢɬɟɩɪɚɜɢɥɶɧɵɣɩɟɪɟɜɨɞ
tension ɧɚɩɪɹɠɟɧɢɟ
staff ɩɟɪɫɨɧɚɥ
sidewalk ɬɪɨɬɭɚɪ
retain ɫɨɯɪɚɧɹɬɶ
renovateɪɟɫɬɚɜɪɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ
recede ɨɬɫɬɭɩɚɬɶ
permanence ɩɨɫɬɨɹɧɫɬɜɨ
mediating ɩɪɨɦɟɠɭɬɨɱɧɵɣ
interlock ɫɨɟɞɢɧɹɬɶɫɹ
hollow ɩɨɥɨɫɬɶ
gap ɨɝɪɟɯ
extensive ɜɫɟɫɬɨɪɨɧɧɢɣ
expansion ɩɪɢɫɬɪɨɣɤɚ
couple ɫɟɦɟɣɧɚɹɩɚɪɚ
constrain ɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɬɶ
animate ɨɠɢɜɥɹɬɶ
114
boldness
dull
induce
vivid
virtue
sway
veneration
classify
adorn
copious
Grammar exercises
1. ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɟɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹɨɛɪɚɳɚɹɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟɧɚ
ɮɭɧɤɰɢɢɢɧɮɢɧɢɬɢɜɚɢɢɧɮɢɧɢɬɢɜɧɵɟɨɛɨɪɨɬɵ
1.
The building’s tapering profile results from a requirement to respect
views of St Paul’s Cathedral, in particular from Fleet Street.
2. The six doors on the upper story appear to have been connected by a
wooden gallery that ran around the walls above the top of the groundfloor arches.
3. To conserve heat or cold the building must be designed with a compact
form to reduce the tendency of a building to lose heat.
4. The National Library of Sejong City is the first branch facility of the
National Library of Korea and is planned to be built in the Multi-functional Administrative City of Korea.
5. The particular nature of the addressed users requires very clear circulation schemes and clearly identifiable spaces easy to be controlled by
the staff.
6. The new approach made it possible to cantilever these structural walls
from the central core of the building.
7. The atrium is said to have been kept due to practical considerations.
8. Baroque architects used the real cornices and architectural moldings
to create openings in a lower vault through which a vault above it can
be seen.
9. Frederick wished to introduce Gothic style and technology into southern Italy, and the Cistercian monasteries offered the best models.
10. Bofill tried to incorporate regional elements, but in La Muralla Roja.
he claimed to be breaking with the post-Renaissance tradition.
115
2. ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟ ɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹ ɨɛɪɚɳɚɹ ɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟ ɧɚ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɢ
ɫɥɨɜɚ it.
1. For large apartment buildings within a limited urban space it is often
left to entrances and windows to suggest the style.
2. The building seems to have grown out of the ground it was built on.
3. It was the intention of Julius II to erect on the same site a mausoleum
(ɦɚɜɡɨɥɟɣ) over the monument of Michael Angelo.
4. Nothing is more common than to see a man build a house and then
plant a row of trees close upon the front, which when grown will hide it.
5. We considered it important to share Japan’s sustainable architecture
but also to show examples from all over the world.
6. The serene atmosphere of the place makes it hard to understand that
we’re on the edge of one of Sydney’s most vibrant precincts.
7. The Arnstein typology (ɬɢɩɨɥɨɝɢɹ) makes it easy to understand the
communication gap between the “planned” on the one hand (ɫ ɨɞɧɨɣ
ɫɬɨɪɨɧɵ), and the planner and urban designer on the other.
8. It took 28 years to present the works and designs of seven architects,
in the Museum of Modern Art in New York City.
9. It is not true to say, as Hegel wants, that a work of art must be ugly
(ɛɟɡɨɛɪɚɡɧɵɣ) if it lacks the substance that determines this beauty.
10. Even in the most difficult sites, with careful thinking and sometimes
inspired design it is possible to capture the light and heat of the sun.
3. ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɟɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹɨɛɪɚɳɚɹɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟɧɚ
ɮɭɧɤɰɢɢɝɥɚɝɨɥɨɜhave ɢbe.
1. It was established that the development should be of a high quality
building exhibiting a contemporary design.
2. Many streetscape (ɭɥɢɱɧɵɣ ɩɟɣɡɚɠ) improvements have already
been completed on Monmouth Street enriching the appearance of the
downtown.
3. Between them the new buildings will have to create a sense of civic
values that has yet to be made evident, and in a street pattern devised
for traffic movement rather than public amenity.
4. Various gallery spaces that had been inserted within the courtyards
during the 1950s and 60s were demolished to liberate these spaces.
116
5. Efficient new downtowns are being built in cities that never had an
urban core.
6. Our dream is to create a People’s Palace: inviting, welcoming, inspiring for all.
7. Since ancient times the genus loci of a place has been recognised as
the reality man has to face and come to terms with in his daily life
8. The exhibition designer has now introduced a transparent strip at the
bottom of the window whose aim is to identify the parts of the cathedral.
9. Only a century ago, a typical American community was a small city
so self-contained that its residents rarely had to leave its boundaries to
REWDLQWKHLUGDLO\ɩɨɜɫɟɞɧɟɜɧɵɣQHHGV
10. A building need not be restored to its earliest stage, especially if later
evidence is of cultural importance or the important historical evolution
ɷɜɨɥɸɰɢɹRIWKHEXLOGLQJKDVWREHUHPRYHGLQWKHSURFHVV
Pair work
ɋɬɭɞɟɧɬ&ɁɚɞɚɣɬɟɜɨɩɪɨɫɨɜɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɯɬɢɩɨɜɤɬɟɤɫɬɭA.
ɋɬɭɞɟɧɬ'Ɉɬɜɟɬɶɬɟɧɚɜɨɩɪɨɫɵɤɬɟɤɫɬɭɫɬɭɞɟɧɬɚ&
ɋɬɭɞɟɧɬɵ&ɢ'ɉɨɦɟɧɹɣɬɟɫɶɪɨɥɹɦɢ
Ɍɟɤɫɬ ȼ
Tyrolean Festival Hall, Erl, Austria
In the picturesque Austrian village of Erl, just east of the German
border, where the harsh Alps seem to descend from the heavens to meet
the valley below, a striking, angular structure, the Tyrolean Festival Hall,
pierces the landscape that inspired it. “We conceived of the building as
tectonic plates traversing over one another,” says Sebastian Brunke, one
of the project architects (along with Jorg Rasmussen), of the Viennese
firm Delugan Meissl Associated Architects (DMAA). “The opening between the two plates forms the foyer, which glows at night and through
which the Alpine landscape flows like a carpet.” Reflecting the mountains
above, the upper volume’s sharply pointed cantilever juts out almost
100 feet.
Its radical design juts out, too, in Erl – a typical Tyrolean town of
traditional wood chalets.
117
The new concert hall, with its horizontal orientation and rough,
thrusting forms, is also a counterpoint to its predecessor, the adjacent Passion Playhouse, a varying white performance space by Tyrolean architect
Robert Schuller. Built in the late 1950s to host a Passion play once every
six years (a local tradition that dates back to the early 17th century), the
uninsulated, nautilus-like building is only able to operate during the
warmer months. Thanks to the new facility, the Tyrolean Festival organization, with its own orchestra and choir academy, is now able to extend
its programme of opera and classical music into the winter.
“In order to wrap a volume like this, with its two intersecting
planes,” explains Brunke, “we broke the envelope down into elements
whose pattern does not have a notable direction.”
Notes:
Alps [xlps] n pl Ⱥɥɶɩɵ
carpet ['kRpIt] n ɤɨɜɺɪ
chalet [SxleI] n ɲɚɥɟɞɨɦɜɲɜɟɣɰɚɪɫɤɨɦɫɬɢɥɟɫɛɨɥɶɲɢɦɢɜɟɪɚɧɞɚɦɢɧɚ
ɜɟɪɯɧɢɯɷɬɚɠɚɯ)
counterpoint ['kaVntqpOInt] n ɢɝɪɚ ɤɨɧɬɪɚɫɬɨɜ
heavens ['hevqnz] n ɧɟɛɟɫɚ
host [hqVst] v ɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɬɶ (ɝɨɫɬɟɣ)
nautilus-like ['nLtIlqs"laIk] a ɩɨɯɨɠɢɣ ɧɚ ɤɨɪɚɛɥɢɤ
predecessor ['prJdIsesq] n ɩɪɟɞɲɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɢɤ
radical ['rxdIkql] a ɜɟɥɢɤɨɥɟɩɧɵɣ
Viennese ["vIq'nJz] a ɜɟɧɫɤɢɣ
Answer the following questions
1. What features of the landscape inspired the design of theTyrolean Festival Hall?
2. How is the design interconnected with the landscape?
3. Why is the new concert hall a counterpoint to the adjacent Passion
Playhouse?
4. What did the new facility provide?
5. What did the architects do to wrap the Festival Hall volume?
Grammar exercises
1. ɇɚɣɞɢɬɟɜɬɟɤɫɬɟɢɧɮɢɧɢɬɢɜɵɈɩɪɟɞɟɥɢɬɟɢɯɮɭɧɤɰɢɢɢɩɟ
ɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɢɯɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤ
2. ɇɚɣɞɢɬɟɜɬɟɤɫɬɟɝɥɚɝɨɥɵhave ɢbeɈɩɪɟɞɟɥɢɬɟɢɯɮɭɧɤɰɢɢ
ɢɩɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤ
Vocabulary exercises
ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤɩɪɢɜɟɞɺɧɧɵɟɧɢɠɟɫɥɨɜɚȿɫɥɢ
ȼɵɧɟɡɧɚɟɬɟɫɥɨɜɨɧɚɣɞɢɬɟɟɝɨɜɫɥɨɜɚɪɟȼɵɩɢɲɢɬɟɢɡɫɥɨɜɚɪɹɬɨ
ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟɫɥɨɜɚɜɤɨɬɨɪɨɦɨɧɨɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɨɜɬɟɤɫɬɟ
Alpine (a), angular (a), Austria (n), concert hall, Festival Hall, glow
(n, v), jut out (v), music (n), orchestra (n), tectonic (a), Tyrolean (a).
2. ɇɚɣɞɢɬɟɩɟɪɟɜɨɞɫɥɨɜɫɩɢɫɤɚȺɜɫɩɢɫɤɟȼ
A
B
A
ɜɵɫɬɭɩɚɬɶ
adjacent
ɪɟɡɤɨ
ɞɨɥɢɧɚ
angular
ɫɢɹɬɶ
ɠɢɜɨɩɢɫɧɵɣ
cantilever
ɫɩɭɫɤɚɬɶɫɹ
ɤɨɧɫɨɥɶ
choir
ɫɬɪɭɢɬɶɫɹ
ɨɬɪɚɠɚɬɶ
descend
ɫɭɪɨɜɵɣ
ɩɥɢɬɚ
extend
ɭɜɟɥɢɱɢɜɚɬɶ
ɩɪɢɦɵɤɚɸɳɢɣ flow
ɭɝɥɨɜɚɬɵɣ
ɪɟɡɤɢɣ
glow
ɯɨɪ
B
harsh
jut
picturesque
plate
reflect
rough
sharply
valley
3. ɇɚɩɢɲɢɬɟ ɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹ ɫ ɤɚɠɞɵɦ ɢɡ ɩɟɪɟɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɵɯ ɧɢɠɟ
ɫɥɨɜ
angle – angular
glow n – glow v
Ɍɟɤɫɬ C
Text work
Tyrolean Festival Hall, Erl, Austria (continued)
ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɬɟɤɫɬ
ɋɨɫɬɚɜɶɬɟɩɥɚɧɬɟɤɫɬɚɢɡ–ɩɭɧɤɬɨɜ
ɉɨɥɶɡɭɹɫɶɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɧɵɦȼɚɦɢɩɥɚɧɨɦɤɪɚɬɤɨɢɡɥɨɠɢɬɟɫɨ
ɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɟɬɟɤɫɬɚɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɨɦɹɡɵɤɟ
Lending a reptilian texture to the smooth, origami-like form, a skin
of charcoal-colored fiber cement panels wraps the building and takes on
various shades of black and gray depending on the angle of the sun. The
surface is composed of modules, each consisting of four panels – two
118
119
chevron-shaped pieces and two irregular quadrilaterals mounted on metal
frames secured to the building’s steel structure as if part of an elaborate
jigsaw puzzle.
The influence of the Alpine topography continues past the concert
hall’s sculptural exterior. Inside, the double-height foyer narrows and
widens, reflecting the nature of the site in its 3 percent slope up from west
to east. Traversing the building means feeling the sensation of moving up
or down that gradient. This is emblematic of the architects’ larger design
approach, where expanding and contracting spaces guide visitors through
their buildings, causing them to experience the dimensions of the architecture in a more conscious way.
The lobby’s sharply angled walls mirror the dark facades beyond, as
well as the surrounding mountainous landscape, which enters through
strategic slots in the walls. Inserted into this public space are a bar, cloakroom, and ticket counter whose darkly coloured interiors contrast with the
bright white of the lobby.
Beyond the foyer, visitors enter the 732-seat concert hall, the heart
of the building. The space is relatively square; the architects changed the
original competition-winning design, which was longer and narrower, to
cut costs by minimizing excavation into the hillside behind. Even so, a
massive amount of stone and soil had to be removed to anchor the building
in the slope. Adjusting the concert hall’s proportions also brings the audience closer to the stage, creating a more intimate experience. This “folded
cave,” as Brunke describes the hall, is lined in oiled acacia panels installed
with perfect workmanship. Flexibility was key to the design. The orchestra pit can be raised mechanically to the same level as the front of the hall,
making it possible to add 130 chairs. And it can be raised farther, to the
level of the stage, to hold a full orchestra. Movable wood panels in the
wings can change the width of the stage from 59 to 69 feet, to accommodate anything from chamber music to opera. Offices, rehearsal areas, and
dressing rooms are tucked into the irregular “vacant” spaces between the
rectangular hall and the assertive facade.
From the point when DMAA won the competition for the project in
2007, progress was fast. It helped that the firm had the support of the Festival president, Hans Peter Haselsteiner, who is an art collector as well as
executive of the project’s construction company and its main financier.
Construction started in the fall of 2010, and the 95,000-square- foot building was complete in less than 20 months.
120
The greatest challenge of the project, says Brunke, was to accommodate the specific programmatic demands for the building while maintaining the fluid geometry of its form. The architects also had their work
cut out for them with regard to the site and its prominent existing features,
both built and natural. And here DMAA’s instinct was dead on: rather
than insert itself quietly onto the scene, the Festival Hall Erl translates the
language of its surroundings into a powerful architectural gesture, marking a new era for the tradition of performance in this quaint Tyrolean enclave.
FIGURE 8 Sections of the Tyrolean Festival Hall
(from “Architectural Record 2013-10” [4])
Notes:
acacia [q'keISq] n ɚɤɚɰɢɹ
assertive [q'sWtIv] a ɧɚɩɨɪɢɫɬɵɣ, ɪɟɲɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣ
audience ['LdIqns] n ɡɪɢɬɟɥɢ
cave [keIv] n ɩɨɥɨɫɬɶ, ɜɩɚɞɢɧɚ
chair [Ceq] n ɫɢɞɟɧɢɟ
charcoal ['CRkqVl] n ɬɟɦɧɨ-ɫɟɪɵɣ ɰɜɟɬ, (ɞɪɟɜɟɫɧɵɣ) ɭɝɨɥɶ
conscious ['kPnSqs] a ɨɫɨɡɧɚɧɧɵɣ, ɡɞɪɚɜɵɣ
dead (be dead on) [ded] ɩɨɩɚɫɬɶ ɩɪɹɦɨ ɜ ɬɨɱɤɭ
emblematic ["emblq'mxtIk] a ɫɢɦɜɨɥɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ
excavation ["ekskq'veISqn] n ɡɟɦɥɹɧɵɟ ɪɚɛɨɬɵ, ɭɝɥɭɛɥɟɧɢɟ
fall (AmE) [fLl] n ɨɫɟɧɶ
fiber cement ɫɦ. fibre
financier [fI'nxnsIq] n ɮɢɧɚɧɫɢɫɬ
121
fluid ['flHId] a ɢɡɦɟɧɹɸɳɢɣɫɹ
gesture ['GesCq] n ɩɨɫɬɭɩɨɤ, ɲɚɝ
gradient ['greIdIqnt] n ɧɚɤɥɨɧ, ɭɤɥɨɧ
instinct ['InstINkt] ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɨɟ ɱɭɬɶɺ, ɢɧɬɭɢɰɢɹ
jigsaw puzzle ɫɦ. puzzle
mountainous ['maVntqnqs] a ɝɨɪɧɵɣ, ɝɨɪɢɫɬɵɣ
oiled [OIld] a ɩɪɨɦɚɫɥɟɧɧɵɣɩɪɨɩɢɬɚɧɧɵɣɦɚɫɥɨɦ
origami-like ["PrI'gRmI"laIk] a ɩɨɯɨɠɢɣɧɚɨɪɢɝɚɦɢ
quadrilateral ["kwPdrI'lxtqrql] n ɱɟɬɵɪɟɯɭɝɨɥɶɧɢɤ
reptilian [rep'tIlIqn] a ɪɟɩɬɢɥɶɧɵɣ
soil [sOIl] n ɝɪɭɧɬ, ɡɟɦɥɹ
Answer the following questions
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
What is the exterior? design of the building
How does the Alpine topography influence the interior?
What is the architects’ design approach?
What does the lobby feature?
How large is the concert hall?
What is its design?
How was the flexibility of the design provided?
What did the architects change the original competition-winning design?
9. Where are offices, rehearsal areas, and dressing rooms placed?
10. Why was the building completed so quickly?
11. What did the architects do to overcome the greatest challenge of the
project?
Communication exercise
ɍɱɟɛɧɚɹ ɝɪɭɩɩɚ ɪɚɡɛɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɧɚ ɞɜɟ ɩɨɞɝɪɭɩɩɵ Ʉɚɠɞɚɹ ɩɨɞ
ɝɪɭɩɩɚɜɵɛɢɪɚɟɬɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɟɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɟɡɞɚɧɢɟɩɨɫɬɪɨɟɧɧɨɟɡɚ
ɪɭɛɟɠɨɦ ɡɞɚɧɢɹɧɟɞɨɥɠɧɵɫɨɜɩɚɞɚɬɶ ɢɥɢɛɵɬɶɨɩɢɫɚɧɵɜɞɚɧɧɨɦ
ɭɱɟɛɧɢɤɟɢɨɛɫɭɠɞɚɟɬɟɝɨɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɢɞɨɫɬɨɢɧɫɬɜɚɢɧɟɞɨɫɬɚɬɤɢ
ɐɟɥɶɨɛɫɭɠɞɟɧɢɹ– ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɟɫɨɨɛɳɟɧɢɹɨɛɴɺɦɨɦ–ɩɪɟɞɥɨ
ɠɟɧɢɣ
ɉɨ ɨɤɨɧɱɚɧɢɢ ɨɛɫɭɠɞɟɧɢɹ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɢɬɟɥɶ ɤɚɠɞɨɣ ɩɨɞɝɪɭɩɩɵ
ɞɟɥɚɟɬɫɨɨɛɳɟɧɢɟɞɥɹɭɱɚɫɬɧɢɤɨɜɞɪɭɝɨɣɩɨɞɝɪɭɩɩɵɚɡɚɬɟɦɨɬɜɟ
ɱɚɟɬɧɚɢɯɜɨɩɪɨɫɵɩɨɬɟɦɟ
122
Vocabulary exercise
ȼ ɫɩɢɫɤɟ Ⱥ ɞɚɧɵ ɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɫɥɨɜɚ ɢ ɜɵɪɚɠɟɧɢɹ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɢɫ
ɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɵɜɬɟɤɫɬɟɞɥɹɞɨɦɚɲɧɟɝɨɱɬɟɧɢɹ ɇɚɣɞɢɬɟɢɯɩɟɪɟɜɨɞɜ
ɫɩɢɫɤɟȼ
B
A
B
A
accommodate
adjust
amount
anchor
approach
cause
close
competition
compose
contract
cost
counter
dimension
elaborate
experience
flexibility
ɮɚɤɬɭɪɚ
ɭɡɤɚɹ ɩɪɨɪɟɡɶ
ɫɭɠɢɜɚɬɶɫɹ
ɫɭɠɚɬɶɫɹ
ɫɬɨɢɦɨɫɬɶ
ɫɨɫɬɨɹɬɶ
ɪɚɡɦɟɪ
ɩɪɨɞɭɦɚɧɧɵɣ
ɩɪɢɞɚɜɚɬɶ
ɩɨɱɭɜɫɬɜɨɜɚɬɶ
ɩɨɦɟɳɚɬɶ
ɩɨɞɧɢɦɚɬɶ
ɩɟɪɟɫɟɤɚɬɶ
ɨɬɪɚɠɚɬɶ
ɨɬɧɨɫɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ
ɨɤɪɭɠɚɬɶ
influence
insert
irregular
lend
line
mirror
narrow
raise
relatively
secure
slot
smooth
surround
texture
traverse
workmanship
ɨɛɥɢɰɨɜɵɜɚɬɶ
ɧɟɫɢɦɦɟɬɪɢɱɧɵɣ
ɦɟɬɨɞ
ɦɚɫɬɟɪɫɬɜɨ
ɤɪɟɩɢɬɶ
ɤɨɪɪɟɤɬɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ
ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɨ
ɤɚɫɫɚ
ɡɚɫɬɚɜɥɹɬɶ
ɡɚɤɪɟɩɥɹɬɶ
ɤɨɧɤɭɪɫ
ɝɥɚɞɤɢɣ
ɝɢɛɤɨɫɬɶ
ɜɦɟɳɚɬɶ
ɜɥɢɹɧɢɟ
ɛɥɢɡɤɨ
TEST 9
Part I – Vocabulary
ɁɚɞɚɧɢɟȺɈɩɪɟɞɟɥɢɬɟɫɥɨɜɚɤɤɨɬɨɪɵɦɨɬɧɨɫɹɬɫɹɩɟɪɟɱɢɫ
ɥɟɧɧɵɟɧɢɠɟɬɨɥɤɨɜɚɧɢɹ
x That which remains after a part is removed, destroyed, used up
x Quality of being man made, quality of being unnatural or manufactured
x Put or fit (something) into something else
x Natural world, especially as affected by human activity
x Lack of variation or variety
1. –
2. –
3. –
4. –
5. –
123
Ɂɚɞɚɧɢɟ B. Ɂɚɩɨɥɧɢɬɟ ɩɪɨɩɭɫɤɢ ɜ ɬɟɤɫɬɟ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɹ ɫɥɨɜɚ ɢɡ
ɩɪɢɜɟɞɺɧɧɨɝɨɧɢɠɟɫɩɢɫɤɚɌɪɢ ɫɥɨɜɚɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹɥɢɲɧɢɦɢ
gap
louvers
shade
transition
intention
motif
slot
wedge
6. –
7. –
8. –
9. –
10. –
This building was erected with the (6) … of creating a warm and
caring place for children patients.
The location, on the shore of the Mediterranean sea, formed the (7)
… of the design. One’s eyes focus on the horizon, but are protected from
the sun by a pergola of wooden (8) … supported by cruciform
(ɤɪɟɫɬɨɜɢɞɧɵɣ) pillars. Limited by the areas, the terraces also made it
possible to extend the habitation space of the rooms considerably, creating
an external area in which the children can rest, have breakfast or play with
their friends in the (9) ….
To create a gentle (10) … between the exterior and the interior
world of the hospital, the entrance hall is a transparent space looking onto
an interior garden.
ɁɚɞɚɧɢɟC. Ⱦɚɣɬɟɩɟɪɟɜɨɞɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɯɫɥɨɜɧɚɚɧɝɥɢɣɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤ
11. ɧɟɢɡɦɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ – …
12. ɨɬɯɨɞɢɬɶɧɚɡɚɞɧɢɣɩɥɚɧ) – …
13. ɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɢɜɚɬɶ – …
14. ɞɨɫɤɚɩɥɚɧɤɚ – …
15. ɜɪɚɳɚɬɶɫɹ (ɜɨɤɪɭɝ ɱɟɝɨ-ɥ) – …
Part II – Grammar
ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɟɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹ
16. The Centre of Excellence was never planned as a monumental
building, although its architects certainly wanted it to have a
strong presence in the community.
17. In medieval cities which as a rule are supposed to have grown
without a plan the curving streets do secure in their axis line,
over the roofs of low houses, sights of the highest monuments
often not standing in the same street.
124
18. In the past decade, many of the people working in Silicon Valley having become extremely rich, it has become too crowded
and extremely expensive.
19. Because many citizens incorrectly believe the answer to sprawl
(ɪɚɡɪɚɫɬɚɧɢɟ) is to limit growth near them, the process of infill
development is difficult and risky (ɪɢɫɤɨɜɚɧɧɵɣ).
20. There is no such thing as a city and a suburb now but an array
(ɦɧɨɠɟɫɬɜɨ) of neighborhoods and districts of all kinds, interacting (ɜɡɚɢɦɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɨɜɚɬɶ) with each other in all kinds of important ways to create a region’s pattern.
Part III – Reading
ɉɪɨɱɢɬɚɣɬɟ ɬɟɤɫɬ ɋɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɸɬ ɥɢ ɩɪɢɜɟɞɺɧɧɵɟ ɧɢɠɟ
ɜɵɫɤɚɡɵɜɚɧɢɹ ɟɝɨ ɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɸ ȼɵɛɟɪɢɬɟ ɨɞɢɧ ɢɡ ɜɚɪɢɚɧɬɨɜ ɨɬ
ɜɟɬɚa)ɜɟɪɧɨbɧɟɜɟɪɧɨcɧɟɫɤɚɡɚɧɨ
Banco de Bilbao in Madrid is one of the most refined towers built
in Europe since the Second World War and probably the most distinguished tall office building of the period. Surprisingly, it was not primarily formal visual considerations that were the architect’s main concerns
in conceiving and carrying out the design; these were, instead, functional
organization, the flow of information and energy conservation.
$EDVLFFRQFHUQRIWKHDUFKLWHFWZDVWKHUHGXFWLRQRIJODUHɹɪɤɢɣ
ɫɜɟɬDQGRYHUKHDWLQJEHFDXVHRIWKHLQWHQVHVXQOLJKW$QH[Wended periphery that projects at almost every storey is an interesting solution and
gives the building its characteristic silhouette.
The columns of the structure of the building are set back from the
external glass wall, leaving a zone for easy circulation around its periphery. By hiding the bearing structure and the vertical service elements in
this way, by minimizing the detailing of the building, curving its corners
and projecting the external elements the architect Sáinz de Oiza has given
to the Banco de Bilbao an overall feeling of smoothness and continuity
rather than angularity and a discontinuous (ɞɢɫɤɪɟɬɧɵɣ) articulation of
elements.
21. Banco de Bilbao in Madrid was built after 1945.
22. Visual considerations were the architect’s primary concern in
the design.
125
23. Environmental protection was paid much attention by the architect.
24. The characteristic feature of the building is its extended periphery.
25. The columns add to the silhouette of the structure.
3DUWௗ. Residential and Civil Architecture
Unit 4.1
Ɍɟɤɫɬ Ⱥ
Housing Carl-Spitzweg-Gasse, Graz, Austria
A pair of housing blocks with 49 apartments has four storeys. The
upper two storeys contain maisonettes, the apartments carrying up over
both levels. The maisonettes have in addition roof terraces.
The load-bearing construction is of a simple concrete slab type. The
living areas lie alongside each other, so all spaces can extend through the
complete depth of the building, giving natural light from the sky in two
directions, and no room has to be artificially lit.
The carefully designed rooms are arranged as a unit with the entrance lobby to the flat in the front of the main body of the building. The
kitchen can be placed in any position within the plan. The floor area of
the flat can be increased by eliminating the balconies on the south side,
each with the dimensions of a terrace. The numerous access stairs of simple steel construction that are anchored to the building are intended to give
the residents the feeling of an individual access to their home and to retain
a connection to the ground plane.
Seen from the roof, each block has a defined southern and northern
facade, that have clear formal differences in treatment and yet have a similar quality. In the projecting upper storeys of the south facade, the cladding is of white enamelled glass, while the north is given a skin of highgrade marine plywood.
Viviendas en la Calle Foix, Barcelona, Spain
This project consists of the construction of a multipurpose building
located on the boundary between two uptown districts of Barcelona.
126
127
A fragmented strip edged with low interlocking residential buildings, a housing scheme is taking shape within the urban fabric of narrow
streets. On the southeastern side a row of houses runs parallel to the avenue below, forming a group of buildings linked longitudinally. Full advantage is taken of the slope of the street and regulations governing maximum construction height to create a series of stepped terraces on which
the building’s various facilities are housed. Due to the high location of the
scheme, these terraces are in effect belvederes with magnificent views
over the city.
The facade is clad in travertine, and adapts to both the slope of the
land and the curve of the street. It produces a peaceful, clear, ordered image, thanks to the continuity of design of each of the modules making up
the scheme.
In the interior of the project, articulating its cross sections the communal area is laid out following the internal corridors.
The whole project can be regarded as an exercise in perfect integration into the urban and social framework in which it is set, following the
habitual themes and plastic language of Carlos Ferrater’s work.
maisonette ["meIzq'net] n ɤɜɚɪɬɢɪɚɜɞɜɭɯɭɪɨɜɧɹɯ
marine plywood ɫɦ. plywood
multipurpose ɫɦ. purpose
regulation ["regjV'leISqn] n ɩɪɟɞɩɢɫɚɧɢɟ, ɩɨɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɢɟ
southeastern ["saVT'Jstqn] a ɸɝɨɜɨɫɬɨɱɧɵɣ
Spain n [speIn] n ɂɫɩɚɧɢɹ
travertine ['trxvqtIn] n ɢɡɜɟɫɬɤɨɜɵɣ ɬɭɮ, ɬɪɚɜɟɪɬɢɧ
uptown district ɫɦ. district
FIGURE 10 Floor plan of Viviendas en la Calle Foix
(from Architectural Design Magazine “Multiunit Housing” [3])
Pair work
ɋɬɭɞɟɧɬ&Ɂɚɞɚɣɬɟ–ɜɨɩɪɨɫɨɜɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɯɬɢɩɨɜɤɩɟɪɜɨɣɱɚ
ɫɬɢɬɟɤɫɬɚA.
ɋɬɭɞɟɧɬ'Ɉɬɜɟɬɶɬɟɧɚɜɨɩɪɨɫɵɤɬɟɤɫɬɭɫɬɭɞɟɧɬɚ&
ɋɬɭɞɟɧɬɵ&ɢ'Ɂɚɞɚɣɬɟ–ɜɨɩɪɨɫɨɜɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɯɬɢɩɨɜɤɨɜɬɨ
ɪɨɣɱɚɫɬɢɬɟɤɫɬɚA.
Phonetic exercise
ɇɚɣɞɢɬɟɜɬɟɤɫɬɟɫɥɨɜɚɬɪɚɧɫɤɪɢɩɰɢɹɤɨɬɨɪɵɯɞɚɧɚɧɢɠɟɢɩɟ
ɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɢɯɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤ
FIGURE 9 Site plan of Viviendas en la Calle Foix
(from Architectural Design Magazine “Multiunit Housing” [3])
Notes:
alongside [q"lPN'saId] adv ɛɨɤ ɨ ɛɨɤ, ɨɤɨɥɨ
Barcelona ["bRsq'lqVnq] n ɝȻɚɪɫɟɥɨɧɚ
belvedere ['belvIdIq] n ɛɟɥɶɜɟɞɟɪ (ɩɨɫɬɪɨɣɤɚ ɫ ɨɬɤɪɵɜɚɸɳɢɦɫɹ ɜɢɞɨɦ ɜɞɚɥɶ)
depth [depT] n ɝɥɭɛɢɧɚ, ɬɨɥɳɢɧɚ
eliminate [I'lImIneIt] v ɭɛɪɚɬɶ, ɥɢɤɜɢɞɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ
enamelled glass [I'nxmqld "glRs] ɞɟɤɨɪɚɬɢɜɧɨɟ ɨɤɨɧɧɨɟ ɫɬɟɤɥɨ, ɱɚɫɬɢɱɧɨ ɩɨ
ɤɪɵɬɨɟ ɷɦɚɥɶɸ
128
[hq'bICVql]; ['sADqn]; ['eqrIq]; [eG]; [daI'menSqn];
["kPntI'njHItI]; ['baVndqrI]; [skJm].
Vocabulary exercises
ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤɩɪɢɜɟɞɟɧɧɵɟɧɢɠɟɫɥɨɜɚɄɚɤɢɟ
ɢɡɩɟɪɟɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɵɯɫɥɨɜɦɨɝɭɬɛɵɬɶɞɪɭɝɢɦɢɱɚɫɬɹɦɢɪɟɱɢ"Ʉɚɤɢɦɢ
ɢɦɟɧɧɨ"Ʉɚɤɨɧɢɜɷɬɨɦɫɥɭɱɚɟɩɟɪɟɜɨɞɹɬɫɹɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤ"
body (n), grade (n).
129
ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟ ɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɟ ɫɥɨɜɚ ɢ ɫɥɨɜɨɫɨɱɟɬɚɧɢɹ ɧɚ ɚɧɝɥɢɣ
ɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤ
ɜɵɞɚɜɚɬɶɫɹ ɜɵɫɬɭɩɚɬɶ ɢɡɝɢɛ ɩɨɜɨɪɨɬ ɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣ ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɨ
ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɹ ɤɨɪɩɭɫɤɪɟɩɢɬɶɮɢɤɫɢɪɨɜɚɬɶɤɪɨɦɟɬɨɝɨɜɞɨɛɚɜɨɤ
ɦɧɨɝɨɤɜɚɪɬɢɪɧɵɣɠɢɥɨɣɞɨɦ ɧɚɤɥɨɧɭɤɥɨɧɧɟɫɭɳɚɹɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɹ
ɨɛɥɢɰɨɜɤɚɨɛɲɢɜɤɚɨɛɵɱɧɵɣ ɩɪɢɜɵɱɧɵɣɨɤɚɣɦɥɹɬɶɨɛɪɚɦɥɹɬɶ
ɨɬɞɟɥɤɚ ɨɛɪɚɛɨɬɤɚ ɨɬɞɟɥɶɧɵɣ ɜɯɨɞ ɩɥɚɧɢɪɨɜɨɱɧɚɹ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɚ ɝɨ
ɪɨɞɚɩɪɨɞɨɥɶɧɨɜɞɥɢɧɭɪɚɡɥɢɱɢɟɨɬɥɢɱɢɟɪɚɡɦɟɪɪɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɬɶ
ɫɱɢɬɚɬɶ ɫɥɢɹɧɢɟɨɛɴɟɞɢɧɟɧɢɟ ɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɬɶɢɦɟɬɶɫɨɪɬɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɨɫɨ
ɯɪɚɧɹɬɶɩɨɞɞɟɪɠɢɜɚɬɶɫɬɭɩɟɧɱɚɬɚɹɬɟɪɪɚɫɚɬɟɦɧɟɦɟɧɟɟ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟ
ɪɢɡɨɜɚɬɶɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɬɶ
ɉɟɪɟɱɢɫɥɢɬɟ ɭɩɨɦɹɧɭɬɵɟ ɜ ɬɟɤɫɬɟ ɚɪɯɢɬɟɤɬɭɪɧɵɟ ɬɟɪɦɢɧɵ
ɢɩɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɢɯɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤ
ɋɨɫɬɚɜɶɬɟɦɚɤɫɢɦɚɥɶɧɨɟɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɨɩɚɪɫɢɧɨɧɢɦɨɜɢɚɧɬɨ
ɧɢɦɨɜɢɡɩɪɢɜɟɞɺɧɧɨɝɨɧɢɠɟɫɩɢɫɤɚɫɥɨɜ:
abundant
cladding
decrease
diminish
disparate
few
gain
irregular
lose
plenty
reduce
rough
similar
skin
smooth
win
Grammar exercises
ɉɪɨɚɧɚɥɢɡɢɪɭɣɬɟɩɨɞɱɺɪɤɧɭɬɨɟɜɬɟɤɫɬɟɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɟɜɵɞɟ
ɥɢɬɟɜɧɺɦɩɨɞɥɟɠɚɳɟɟɫɤɚɡɭɟɦɨɟɢɜɬɨɪɨɫɬɟɩɟɧɧɵɟɱɥɟɧɵɢɭɤɚ
ɠɢɬɟɱɚɫɬɶɪɟɱɢɤɨɬɨɪɨɣɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹɷɬɢɱɥɟɧɵɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹ
2. ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟ ɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɟ ɫɥɨɜɨɫɨɱɟɬɚɧɢɹ.
access stairs, concert hall proportions, conference facilities, 13-acre site,
construction technique, corner bracket, downtown community, ecological
energy-use concept, emergency staircase, husband-and-wife team, library
atrium, library user, marble floor pattern, masonry enclosure, Möbius
strip volume, project architect, 4,625-square-foot building, roofing member installation, square column base, ticket counter, triple height internal
atrium.
130
ȼɵɞɟɥɢɬɟɝɥɚɜɧɨɟɢɩɪɢɞɚɬɨɱɧɨɟɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟ
ɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤ
1. Compare the contemporary tendency to express the secondary elements, such as ramps, walkways, staircases, and so on with classical
architecture, where such features were concealed behind the facade
and the main body could express itself.
2. The greatest challenge the architects had to meet was to accommodate
the programmatic demands for the building while maintaining its specific form.
3. At Didyma, general information about the shape of the moulding sections is still visible on the stylobate blocks because, as this Temple was
never finished, such graffiti, which represents the Greek working
methods, was never destroyed.
4. There is a requirement to have smooth floors that allow beds and chairs
to be easily moved.
5. On the east, west, and south, where the offices are located, the skin is
composed of a banded grid of triple-glazed panels with fritting.
6. The plan should receive special attention, since it shows the arrangement of the points of support, and because of that the nature of the
structural design.
7. Carlo Scarpa’s integration of Cangrande’s statue explains better than
anything else how he conceives of an art museum.
8. The support structure was integrated into the double-skin façade,
which means it is afforded protection from the extreme climatic conditions at the site.
9. The landscape in which a building takes place is the overriding factor
in deciding what we build and how it will be built.
10.Since the role of a hospital was unlikely to change, Goldberg felt the
building’s tower need not be flexible.
4. Ɉɛɪɚɡɭɣɬɟ ɨɬ ɞɚɧɧɵɯ ɩɪɢɥɚɝɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɧɚɪɟɱɢɹ ɫ ɩɨɦɨɳɶɸ
ɫɭɮɮɢɤɫɚ -ly. ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟ ɩɪɢɥɚɝɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɟ ɢ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɧɧɵɟ ɨɬ ɧɢɯ
ɧɚɪɟɱɢɹ.
131
actual, annual, apparent, appropriate, constant, deep, diagonal, direct, fair,
final, frequent, full, gentle, increasing, inevitable, initial, literal, magnificent, main, precise, progressive, progressive, real, relative, rich, simple,
slight, technical, true, various, wide.
Ɍɟɤɫɬ ȼ
Quars Megastore, Andorra la Vella, Andorra
This scheme is in downtown Andorra, on a small elongated plot between the river and a new avenue that is to connect the low and high parts
of the city.
The building is structured by means of a potent diagonal that articulates the circulation nucleus with the rest of the ground plan, which is
totally free. The lower part houses a megastore on several half-levels. It
is treated as a completely transparent large glass box enclosed in a glass
skin that is secured by a planar system to a series of metal posts that also
support the signs, sun protection and fish-tank windows. The sharp-edged
floor slabs contained between the two circulation nuclei hang from a series of porticoes of potent exposed concrete columns, allowing views into
the heart of the shopping centre.
The four upper floors and the attic are entirely devoted to offices,
and may be used in open plan or divided into independent modules by
partitions that follow the geometry of the scheme. Surrounded by a teak
terrace, the attic offers a panoramic view of the mountains. Finally, breaking with the curves, the slate roof completes the building with its interplay
of articulated prisms.
The facade facing the river is of alternating strips of polished and
flame-patterned granite perforated with horizontal windows, and the
curve of its glazed corner is protected by many aluminium brise soleils.
At the other end, the granite wall ends in a triangular prism.
The duality of the building is expressed in several ways. The solid
north facade contrasts with the transparency of the south facade; the expansive horizontal treatment of the main mass contrasts with the set back
base and attic; and the angular nature of the granite wall contrasts with the
sensual curves of the glass curtain. The project is thus essentially an attempt to integrate polarities in order to reach a harmonious whole in which
opposites are united, come together and approach each other.
132
Notes:
Andorra [xn'dLrq] n ɝ. Ⱥɧɞɨɪɪɚ, Ⱥɧɞɨɪɪɚ (ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɨ)
attic ['xtIk] n ɦɚɧɫɚɪɞɚ
brise soleil [brJ'zeI sq'leI] ɫɨɥɧɰɟɡɚɳɢɬɧɨɟ ɭɫɬɪɨɣɫɬɜɨ/ɤɨɡɵɪɺɤ
duality [djV'xlItI] n ɞɜɨɣɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ, ɪɚɡɞɜɨɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ
elongated ['JlPNgeItId] a ɜɵɬɹɧɭɬɵɣ, ɭɞɥɢɧɟɧɧɵɣ
fish-tank ['fIStxNk] n ɚɤɜɚɪɢɭɦ
flame [fleIm] n ɨɝɨɧɶ, ɩɥɚɦɹ
harmonious [hR'mqVnIqs] a ɝɚɪɦɨɧɢɱɧɵɣ
megastore ["megq'stL] n ɦɟɝɚɦɚɪɤɟɬ
panoramic ["pxnq'rxmIk] a ɩɚɧɨɪɚɦɧɵɣ
planar ['pleInq] a ɩɥɨɫɤɢɣ
polarity [pq'lxrItI] n ɩɨɥɧɚɹɩɪɨɬɢɜɨɩɨɥɨɠɧɨɫɬɶɩɨɥɹɪɧɨɫɬɶ
prism ['prIzqm] n ɩɪɢɡɦɚ
teak [tJk] n ɬɢɤɬɢɤɨɜɨɟɞɟɪɟɜɨ
Answer the following questions
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
What kind of plot is the building situated on?
How is the building structured?
What makes the roof look different from the rest of the building?
How is the facade facing the river treated?
How is the duality of the building expressed?
Text work
1. ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɬɟɤɫɬ
2. ɋɨɫɬɚɜɶɬɟɩɥɚɧɬɟɤɫɬɚɢɡ–ɩɭɧɤɬɨɜ
3. ɉɨɥɶɡɭɹɫɶ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɧɵɦ ȼɚɦɢ ɩɥɚɧɨɦ ɤɪɚɬɤɨ ɢɡɥɨɠɢɬɟ ɫɨɞɟɪ
ɠɚɧɢɟɬɟɤɫɬɚɧɚɚɧɝɥɢɣɫɤɨɦɹɡɵɤɟ
Vocabulary exercise
ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤɩɪɢɜɟɞɺɧɧɵɟɧɢɠɟɫɥɨɜɚɢɫɥɨɜɨɫɨ
ɱɟɬɚɧɢɹȿɫɥɢȼɵɧɟɡɧɚɟɬɟɫɥɨɜɨɧɚɣɞɢɬɟɟɝɨɜɫɥɨɜɚɪɟȾɚɣɬɟɫɢɧɨ
ɧɢɦɵɩɨɞɱɺɪɤɧɭɬɵɯɫɥɨɜɢɚɧɬɨɧɢɦɵɫɥɨɜɜɵɞɟɥɟɧɧɵɯɤɭɪɫɢɜɨɦ
angular, articulate, avenue, by means of, circulation, curve (v), downtown, entirely, expansive, exposed concrete, glass curtain, half-level,
hang, house (v), interplay (n), nucleus, offer (v), open plan, partition, perforate, portico, post (n), potent, scheme, secure, sensual, set back, slate,
thus, transparent, treat, way, whole (n).
133
Unit 4.2
core, but one of profound proportion, rhythm and generosity. “It’s a void,
but it’s a very useful void”, says Henley.
The large space is surrounded by smaller spaces. In fact, the new
entrance to the school is very small indeed – a single-storey box with projecting fins that seem to welcome visitors with outstretched arms, gathering them in. Through this little vestibule is a neat reception room, through
which is discovered Henley’s “void”. These spaces are therefore deliberately ranged on a rising scale of small, bigger, biggest, much like that
encountered in a carefully modulated church.
Ɍɟɤɫɬ Ⱥ
St Benedict's School, West London
Over its lifetime the school had accumulated an eclectic range of
buildings, dating from the 1890s, the 1930s, the 1960s and the 1990s; no
new development had much of a relationship with what had preceded it.
The brief to the architects was merely a list of spatial requirements, but
Buschow Henley Architects saw what was really needed – a soul, a sense
of purpose and institutional gravitas.
There were two possible solutions. The first was an entirely new
block, separate from the cluster of other buildings, which could provide
everything asked for while being limited by its own terms of reference;
option two was to drop something into the centre of the pre-existing buildings, tying them together and providing a certain critical mass to an otherwise scattered and fragmented place. Henley chose this latter option,
partly because the creation of a stand-alone building would have copied
the problems of the campus, and partly because it was more interesting.
The requirement for two halls was the key. Buschow Henley’s solution was to give the school just one. But they have been clever about it.
The exam hall was to have been of around 225 m2 (2,422 ft2), while the
assembly space needed to be much larger at 400 m2 (4,305 ft2). What the
practice has done is to drop one into the other, a 15×15 m (49×49 ft)
square within a 20×20 m2 (65×65 ft) square. Large doors ring the inner
hall, allowing it to be sealed off, but when opened the generous circulation
spaces beyond dissolve into the centre to create that larger assembly hall.
This is the new heart of the school. Placed in the centre of the older buildings, and nestling up against them, the new hybrid space is the fulcrum
around which the flow of school life runs; it is, in effect, the circulation
134
FIGURE 11 Ground-floor plan
(from Architectural Design 2009 – 5 [2])
Notes:
eclectic [I'klektIk] a ɷɤɥɟɤɬɢɱɧɵɣ
fulcrum ['fVlkrqm] n ɫɬɟɪɠɟɧɶ, ɨɫɶ
gather ɫɦ. gathering
generosity ["Genq'rPsItI] n ɛɥɚɝɨɪɨɞɫɬɜɨ
gravitas ['grxvItxs] n ɚɜɬɨɪɢɬɟɬ, ɜɚɠɧɨɫɬɶ
list [lIst] n ɩɟɪɟɱɟɧɶɫɩɢɫɨɤ
nestle (up) ['nesql] v ɩɪɢɥɶɧɭɬɶɩɪɢɠɚɬɶɫɹ
option ['PpSqn] n ɚɥɶɬɟɪɧɚɬɢɜɚɜɚɪɢɚɧɬ
outstretched ɫɦ stretch
seal off [sJl'Pf] v ɩɥɨɬɧɨɡɚɤɪɵɜɚɬɶɩɟɪɟɤɪɵɜɚɬɶ
soul [sqVl] n ɞɭɲɚ, ɫɟɪɞɰɟ
Pair work
ɋɬɭɞɟɧɬ&Ɂɚɞɚɣɬɟ–ɜɨɩɪɨɫɨɜɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɯɬɢɩɨɜɤɬɟɤɫɬɭA.
ɋɬɭɞɟɧɬ'Ɉɬɜɟɬɶɬɟɧɚɜɨɩɪɨɫɵɤɬɟɤɫɬɭɫɬɭɞɟɧɬɚ&
ɋɬɭɞɟɧɬɵ&ɢ'ɉɨɦɟɧɹɣɬɟɫɶɪɨɥɹɦɢ
135
Phonetic exercise
ɇɚɣɞɢɬɟɜɬɟɤɫɬɟɫɥɨɜɚɬɪɚɧɫɤɪɢɩɰɢɹɤɨɬɨɪɵɯɞɚɧɚɧɢɠɟɢɩɟ
ɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɢɯɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤ
[bI'jPnd]; ['mPdjVleIt]; [q'kjHmjVleIt]; ["sWkjV'leISqn];
['vestIbjHl]; [sq'lHSqn]; ['haIbrId]; ['Genqrqs].
Vocabulary exercises
ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤɩɪɢɜɟɞɟɧɧɵɟɧɢɠɟɫɥɨɜɚɢɫɥɨ
ɜɨɫɨɱɟɬɚɧɢɹɄɚɤɢɟɢɡɩɟɪɟɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɵɯɫɥɨɜɦɨɝɭɬɛɵɬɶɞɪɭɝɢɦɢɱɚ
ɫɬɹɦɢɪɟɱɢ"Ʉɚɤɢɦɢɢɦɟɧɧɨ"Ʉɚɤɨɧɢɜɷɬɨɦɫɥɭɱɚɟɩɟɪɟɜɨɞɹɬɫɹɧɚ
ɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤ"
brief (n), choose (v), encounter (n, v), fin (n), ft2 (n), modulate (v), vestibule (n).
ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟ ɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɟ ɫɥɨɜɚ ɢ ɫɥɨɜɨɫɨɱɟɬɚɧɢɹ ɧɚ ɚɧɝɥɢɣ
ɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤ
ɚɤɤɭɪɚɬɧɵɣ ɜ ɞɪɭɝɢɯ ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɹɯ ɜ ɬɨ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɤɚɤ ɜɟɫɬɢɛɸɥɶ ɜɢ
ɞɢɦɨɩɨ-ɜɢɞɢɦɨɦɭɜɪɟɦɹɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɨɜɚɧɢɹɜɫɟɝɨɥɢɲɶɜɫɬɪɟɬɢɬɶɫɹ
ɫɬɚɥɤɢɜɚɬɶɫɹɝɪɭɩɩɚɫɤɨɩɥɟɧɢɟ ɤɪɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɚɹɦɚɫɫɚ ɤɪɭɝ ɨɛɹɡɚɧɧɨ
ɫɬɟɣ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨɟ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɟ ɨɛɢɥɶɧɵɣ ɨɛɲɢɪɧɵɣ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɢɣ
(ɢɡ ɞɜɭɯ ɧɚɡɜɚɧɧɵɯ ɜɬɨɪɨɣ ɩɪɟɞɩɨɱɢɬɚɬɶ ɩɪɟɞɲɟɫɬɜɨɜɚɬɶ ɩɪɨ
ɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɚɥɶɧɵɣ ɪɚɡɪɨɡɧɟɧɧɵɣ ɛɟɫɩɨɪɹɞɨɱɧɵɣ
ɪɟɛɪɨɩɥɚɫɬɢɧɚɪɟɝɭɥɢɪɨɜɚɬɶɦɨɞɭɥɢɪɨɜɚɬɶɪɟɲɟɧɢɟɫɜɹɡɵɜɚɬɶ
ɫɨɟɞɢɧɹɬɶ ɫɤɚɩɥɢɜɚɬɶ ɧɚɤɚɩɥɢɜɚɬɶ ɫɨɡɧɚɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɭɦɵɲɥɟɧɧɨ
cɬɪɨɣɤɚ ɡɚɫɬɪɨɣɤɚ ɬɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ ɡɚɞɚɧɢɟ ɰɟɥɟɭɫɬɪɟɦɥɺɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɩɨ
ɧɢɦɚɧɢɟɰɟɥɢɱɚɫɬɢɱɧɨ
ɉɟɪɟɱɢɫɥɢɬɟ ɭɩɨɦɹɧɭɬɵɟ ɜ ɬɟɤɫɬɟ ɚɪɯɢɬɟɤɬɭɪɧɵɟ ɬɟɪɦɢɧɵ
ɢɩɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɢɯɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤ
4. Ɉɩɪɟɞɟɥɢɬɟɤɤɚɤɢɦɫɥɨɜɚɦɢɡɭɱɟɧɧɵɦȼɚɦɢɜɞɚɧɧɨɦɭɱɟɛ
ɧɢɤɟɨɬɧɨɫɹɬɫɹɩɟɪɟɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɵɟɧɢɠɟɬɨɥɤɨɜɚɧɢɹ
1. The way in which two or more people or things are connected, or
the state of being connected.
136
2. Having a strong influence or effect; showing great knowledge and
understanding
3. The grounds and buildings of a university or college.
4. A broad flat square or rectangular piece of wood, stone or other solid
material used to construct buildings, patios, paths, etc.
5. A part of a building comprising all the rooms that are on the same
level.
6. A line marking the limits of an area.
Grammar exercises
1. ɉɪɨɱɬɢɬɟɢɩɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɫɥɨɜɨɫɨɱɟɬɚɧɢɹɫɱɢɫɥɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɦɢ
50 m (160 ft); 1/3; 21.01.1845; 24 ft (7.2 m); 95,000-square- foot building;
12u12 in; 50–70 %; 3.5 m; 100u300 mm; 7/8 of its length; 4.5×6.24 ft;
02.11.2016; 1450 ft high; 22.86 m; 600×100 mm; 408,760 sq m; the 19th
floor; 16 %; an area of 1600×100 m; 20×20 m2 (65×65 ft).
2. ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟ ɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹ ɨɛɪɚɳɚɹ ɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟ ɧɚ ɜɢɞɨ-ɜɪɟ
ɦɟɧɧɭɸɮɨɪɦɭɫɤɚɡɭɟɦɨɝɨ
1. By the mid thirties 1 JC Corbusier had already made his move to
Brutalism (ɛɪɭɬɚɥɢɡɦ ɚɪɯɢɬɟɤɬɭɪɧɨɟ ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ -ɯ ɝɨɞɨɜ
ɏɏɫɬɨɥɟɬɢɹ)).
2. A house is a complex assembly of materials which are produced by
methods that result in losing of energy and which produce pollution
either when they are being made or after they have been used.
3. Among newly erected buildings, there will certainly be some that will
be given the status of cultural heritage site at the end of the 21st century.
4. As in all other countries where the late Gothic style had been highly
developed, Belgium (Ȼɟɥɶɝɢɹ) was slow to accept the principles of the
Renaissance in art.
5. The culmination of Renaissance church architecture was reached in St.
Peter’s, at Rome.
6. Adapting historic buildings to modern uses will not be the only aim of
construction.
137
7. Malta’s (ɦɚɥɶɬɢɣɫɤɢɟ) architects are being challenged to transform
their building standards, to deal with new impacts and to design mitigating measures for development proposals.
8. The four upper floors are entirely devoted to offices, and may be used
in open plan or divided into independent modules
9. It seems likely that this project will be completed in the near future, as
the first high- ULVHɜɵɫɨɬɧɨɟɡɞɚɧɢɟWKH+DQVDEDQN%XLOGLQJZDV
finished in 2004.
10. The redesigned square uses sculpture, water and a changing ground
plane to create a richly decorated multi-functional civic area.
ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɟɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɢɬɟɮɭɧɤɰɢɸ
ɫɥɨɜɚone.
1. If one looks into the functioning of natural systems, there is a synergy
ɫɢɧɟɪɝɢɡɦ ɷɮɮɟɤɬ ɨɬ ɫɨɜɦɟɫɬɧɨɣ ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ ɞɜɭɯ ɢ ɛɨɥɟɟ
ɷɥɟɦɟɧɬɨɜZKLFKKXPDQWHFKQRORJLFDOV\VWHPVKDYHQRWHYHQEHJXQ
to seek.
2. The successful design process, according to Fournier, feels “as if one
is discovering a solution, which was already present in potential.
3. One should see the Roman Theatre by moonlight (ɩɪɢɥɭɧɧɨɦɫɜɟɬɟ).
4. You would not be able to find windows like this today. If you replaced
them with vinyl (ɩɥɚɫɬɢɤɨɜɨɟɨɤɧɨ), the vinyl ones last 20 years and
then would need to be replaced by something else that would probably
be even worse.
5. The integrated design process is one in which all technical aspects of
designing are brought to bear during all stages of the design process.
6. The residents are so few that one who walks there feels that all this
complex of architecture, these walls, perfect in every stone, may be a
mirage (ɦɢɪɚɠ).
7. This ceramic tile, similar to the one used on the University of New
South Wales, was made in Spain.
8. Space is little in Entrevaux, and open places are few. There is one
where the hotels and cafés are found, another across the drawbridge
ɩɨɞɴɺɦɧɵɣɦɨɫɬEHKLQGWKH&DWKHGUDO-tower, and a small one before the church itself.
138
9. 7KH&DWKHGUDO
VH[WHULRUKDVOLWWOHWKDWLVZRUWK\ɡɚɫɥɭɠɢɜɚɸɳɢɣRI
description, and after having entered by an evidently poor Renaissance
portal one goes out under an uninteresting modern one.
10. The building on Water Street was a joint project done by Arthur Erickson, a very well known London architect and Reginald Nalizetti,
a local one.
4. ɇɚɣɞɢɬɟɜɝɪɚɦɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯɭɩɪɚɠɧɟɧɢɹɯɞɚɧɧɨɝɨɭɪɨɤɚɩɪɢ
ɦɟɪɵɤɨɧɜɟɪɫɢɢɢɨɛɴɹɫɧɢɬɟɢɯ
5. ɇɚɣɞɢɬɟ ɜ ɝɪɚɦɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɭɩɪɚɠɧɟɧɢɹɯ ɞɚɧɧɨɝɨ ɭɪɨɤɚ
5 ɩɪɢɥɚɝɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɯɢɧɚɪɟɱɢɣɢɨɛɪɚɡɭɣɬɟɢɯɫɪɚɜɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɭɸɢɩɪɟ
ɜɨɫɯɨɞɧɭɸɫɬɟɩɟɧɢ
Ɍɟɤɫɬ ȼ
St Benedict’s School, West London (continued)
Set atop the inner hall – off-centre, sharing the rooftop with glazing
units that illuminate the space below – is the chapel. This little boxy structure, of engineered timber rather than the concrete much in evidence elsewhere, is the equal of the clever and cavernous space beneath. The careful
placing of glazed slots in the facade, along with the deep narrow beams
of the roof structure, contrive to fashion a series of Christian crosses without overdoing it. What makes this little chapel more potent is that it is
entirely unexpected. It is a discrete enclave that draws back from the hubbub of school life, while its external appearance (seen from a corridor
which wraps the periphery of the roof) is more M&E facility than place
of worship. Indeed, the chapel does act as a flue for the natural ventilation
strategy at work in the halls.
In plan, this building is very much an infill structure. Probably half
of its edges press up against the buildings which surround it. But it does
not fill the entire space available – an inner courtyard is left empty, from
which the brick walls of an early building can be seen, while a trapeziumshaped plaza is created between the strip of new classrooms and a wellmannered block from the 1930s. Classrooms, incidentally, tend to be
square in plan rather than rectangular, to provide more flexible spaces for
teaching practice and offering better views of smart boards. Something
139
else the building does rather well is overcome the changes in levels across
the site, linking up different floor plates through gentle ramps.
As a school building, this development is unique – not because of
its responses to the specific limits of the site, but because of the resolution
to create something unashamedly institutional and a little awe-inspiring.
Text work
1. ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɬɟɤɫɬ
2. ɋɨɫɬɚɜɶɬɟɩɥɚɧɬɟɤɫɬɚɢɡ–ɩɭɧɤɬɨɜ
3. ɉɨɥɶɡɭɹɫɶ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɧɵɦ ȼɚɦɢ ɩɥɚɧɨɦ ɤɪɚɬɤɨ ɢɡɥɨɠɢɬɟ ɫɨɞɟɪ
ɠɚɧɢɟɬɟɤɫɬɚɧɚɚɧɝɥɢɣɫɤɨɦɹɡɵɤɟ
Vocabulary exercise
ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤɩɪɢɜɟɞɺɧɧɵɟɧɢɠɟɫɥɨɜɚɢɫɥɨɜɨ
ɫɨɱɟɬɚɧɢɹ ȿɫɥɢ ȼɵ ɧɟ ɡɧɚɟɬɟ ɫɥɨɜɨ ɧɚɣɞɢɬɟ ɟɝɨ ɜ ɫɥɨɜɚɪɟ Ⱦɚɣɬɟ
ɫɢɧɨɧɢɦɵɩɨɞɱɺɪɤɧɭɬɵɯɫɥɨɜɢɚɧɬɨɧɢɦɵɫɥɨɜɜɵɞɟɥɟɧɧɵɯɤɭɪɫɢ
ɜɨɦ
FIGURE 12 First-floor plan
(from Architectural Design 2009 – 5 [2])
Notes:
appearance, atop, available, beam, chapel, discrete, edge, else, empty, entirely, flexible, illuminate, in evidence, infill (n), inspire, in spite of, institutional, link (v), off-centre, ramp, rather than, resolution, response, rooftop, slot, smart board, strip, surround, teaching, tend, through, trapezium,
worship, wrap.
awe [L] n ɬɪɟɩɟɬɛɥɚɝɨɝɨɜɟɧɢɟ
boxy ['bPksI] a ɤɜɚɞɪɚɬɧɵɣɩɪɢɡɟɦɢɫɬɵɣ
cavernous ['kxvqnqs] a ɜɦɟɫɬɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣɨɩɨɦɟɳɟɧɢɢ
contrive [kqn'traIv] v ɭɞɚɜɚɬɶɫɹɫɭɦɟɬɶ
flue [flH] n ɜɨɡɞɭɯɨɜɨɞ
hubbub ['hAbAb] n ɲɭɦɝɜɚɥɬɫɭɦɹɬɢɰɚ
M&E ['emqnd'J] a ɷɥɟɤɬɪɨɦɟɯɚɧɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ
overdo ["qVvq'dH] v ɩɟɪɟɭɫɟɪɞɫɬɜɨɜɚɬɶɩɟɪɟɫɬɚɪɚɬɶɫɹ
unashamedly ["Anq'SeImqdlI] adv ɛɟɡɡɚɫɬɟɧɱɢɜɨ
unexpected ["AnIk'spektId] a ɧɟɨɠɢɞɚɧɧɵɣ
well-mannered ["wel'mxnqd] a ɯɨɪɨɲɨ ɫɩɥɚɧɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɣ
Answer the following questions
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Where is the chapel built in?
What is the aim of the chapel besides being a place of worship?
What makes this building an infill structure?
How is more flexible space for teaching practice achieved?
What makes this development is unique?
140
141
Unit 4.3
Ɍɟɤɫɬ Ⱥ
takes you to the second level, where a corridor snakes along the glass front
of the building to connect Yawkey on one end with White and Ellison on
the other. By placing the main circulation on the second floor, the architects linked Lunder physically to adjacent buildings, while remaining
within existing floor-to-ceiling heights.
In the five-storey bed tower two wedge-shaped openings cut out of
the overall volume accommodate an 80-foot-high skylit atrium, as well as
an open-air garden court, where bamboo trees shoot upward past the patient levels.
Notes:
Massachusetts General Hospital
NBBJ’s New York office designed a 14-storey structure of Massachusetts General Hospital’s (MGH) Lunder Building in Boston wedged
into a cluster of buildings that all but hides the pillared portico of Charles
Bulfinch’s original neoclassical hospital of 1818.
On the restricted 42,000-square-foot site, the architects inserted a
glass and steelframed squarish polygonal volume on the west side of the
arrivals court to MGH’s main entrance. To mitigate its huge presence,
NBBJ fragmented the massing and angled exterior planes, in addition to
detailing the glass facade, to express the building’s separate functions on
the exterior. While clear glass encloses the first two floors (devoted to
reception, emergency admissions, and circulation), vertical fritted glass
fins on the third and fourth floors allow daylight to enter the interior while
affording occupants a sense of privacy. Above, on the fifth level, a solid
wall of insulated metal panels, covered in wire mesh, conceals a doubleheight mechanical space. For the patient-room portion, from the sixth to
10th floors, the architects emphasized the horizontal lines of glass curtain
walls, which are broken by receding and slanted planes that follow the
carved-out portions of the floor plate.
The building modulates horizontally to MGH’s Yawkey Center for
Outpatient Care to the south and to the vertical glass tower of the Ellison
Building to the north as part of the architects’ intention to seamlessly connect Lunder visually and physically to other hospital structures around it.
Connection is a major subtext: Visitors enter the new facility from
the White Building, the hospital’s main entrance to the north. As you
come into Lunder, you find that a large stair, parallel to the glass facade,
142
arrival ɫɦ. arrive
bamboo ["bxm'bH] n ɛɚɦɛɭɤ
Boston ['bPstqn] n ɝȻɨɫɬɨɧ
emergency admission ɫɦ. emergency
Massachusetts ["mxsq'CHsIts] n ɆɚɫɫɚɱɭɫɟɬɫɲɬɚɬɋɒȺ)
neoclassical ["nJqV'klxsIkql] a ɧɟɨɤɥɚɫɫɢɰɢɫɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ
seamlessly ['sJmlqslI] adv ɩɥɚɜɧɨ, ɨɪɝɚɧɢɱɧɨ
shoot [SHt] v ɩɪɨɪɚɫɬɚɬɶ, ɪɚɫɬɢ
skylit ɫɦ. skylight
snake [sneIk] v ɜɢɬɶɫɹ, ɬɹɧɭɬɶɫɹ
squarish ɫɦ. square
steelframed ɫɦ. steel
subtext ['sAbtekst] n ɩɨɞɬɟɤɫɬ
wire [waIq] n ɩɪɨɜɨɥɨɤɚ
Pair work
ɋɬɭɞɟɧɬ&Ɂɚɞɚɣɬɟ-ɜɨɩɪɨɫɨɜɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɯɬɢɩɨɜɤɬɟɤɫɬɭA.
ɋɬɭɞɟɧɬ'Ɉɬɜɟɬɶɬɟɧɚɜɨɩɪɨɫɵɤɬɟɤɫɬɭɫɬɭɞɟɧɬɚ&
ɋɬɭɞɟɧɬɵ&ɢ'ɉɨɦɟɧɹɣɬɟɫɶɪɨɥɹɦɢ
Phonetic exercise
ɇɚɣɞɢɬɟɜɬɟɤɫɬɟɫɥɨɜɚɬɪɚɧɫɤɪɢɩɰɢɹɤɨɬɨɪɵɯɞɚɧɚɧɢɠɟɢɩɟ
ɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɢɯɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤ
[pq'lIgqnl]; ['pLtIkqV]; ['vIZVqlI]; [weG]; [Ik'stIqrIq]; [kLt];
[mI'kxnIkql]; [q'GeIsqnt].
143
Vocabulary exercises
ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤɩɪɢɜɟɞɟɧɧɵɟɧɢɠɟɫɥɨɜɚɢɫɥɨ
ɜɨɫɨɱɟɬɚɧɢɹɄɚɤɢɟɢɡɩɟɪɟɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɵɯɫɥɨɜɦɨɝɭɬɛɵɬɶɞɪɭɝɢɦɢɱɚ
ɫɬɹɦɢɪɟɱɢ"Ʉɚɤɢɦɢɢɦɟɧɧɨ"Ʉɚɤɨɧɢɜɷɬɨɦɫɥɭɱɚɟɩɟɪɟɜɨɞɹɬɫɹɧɚ
ɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤ"
all but, hospital (n), General Hospital, massing (n), mesh (n), slant (v).
2. ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟ ɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɟ ɫɥɨɜɚ ɢ ɫɥɨɜɨɫɨɱɟɬɚɧɢɹ ɧɚ ɚɧɝɥɢɣ
ɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤ
ɛɨɥɶɧɢɰɚɨɛɳɟɝɨɩɪɨɮɢɥɹɜɜɨɞɢɬɶ ɜɩɢɫɵɜɚɬɶ ɜɫɬɚɜɥɹɬɶɜɦɟɳɚɬɶ
ɪɚɡɦɟɳɚɬɶɜɬɢɫɤɢɜɚɬɶɫɹɜɤɥɢɧɢɬɶɫɹɝɪɭɩɩɚɫɤɨɩɥɟɧɢɟɤɨɦɩɨ
ɧɨɜɤɚ ɦɟɫɬɨ ɭɱɚɫɬɨɤ ɦɧɨɝɨɭɝɨɥɶɧɵɣ ɩɨɥɢɝɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɣ ɧɚɤɥɨ
ɧɹɬɶɫɹ ɧɟɧɟɫɭɳɚɹ ɧɚɜɟɫɧɚɹ ɧɚɪɭɠɧɚɹ ɫɬɟɧɚ ɨɛɳɢɣ ɩɨɥɧɵɣ
ɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɢɜɚɬɶɨɤɪɭɠɚɬɶɨɝɨɪɚɠɢɜɚɬɶɨɬɪɚɠɚɬɶɜɵɪɚɠɚɬɶɩɟɪɟɦɟ
ɳɟɧɢɟɩɨɬɨɤɢ ɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɹ ɜ ɡɞɚɧɢɢ ɩɥɨɫɤɨɫɬɶ ɩɨɦɟɳɚɬɶ ɪɚɡɦɟ
ɳɚɬɶɩɨɪɬɢɤɝɚɥɟɪɟɹɩɨɱɬɢɟɞɜɚɧɟɩɪɟɞɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɬɶɞɚɜɚɬɶɩɪɢɺɦ
ɧɚɹɪɟɝɢɫɬɪɚɬɭɪɚɩɪɢɦɵɤɚɸɳɢɣɫɨɫɟɞɧɢɣɪɚɫɩɨɥɚɝɚɬɶɫɹɩɨɞɭɝ
ɥɨɦ ɪɟɛɪɨ ɩɥɚɫɬɢɧɚ ɫɟɬɤɚ ɫɦɹɝɱɚɬɶ ɭɦɟɧɶɲɚɬɶ ɭɤɪɵɜɚɬɶ
ɫɤɪɵɜɚɬɶ ɬɪɚɩɟɰɢɹ ɮɪɚɝɦɟɧɬɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɣ ɪɚɡɞɪɨɛɥɟɧɧɵɣ ɮɪɢɬɬɨ
ɜɚɧɧɨɟɫɬɟɤɥɨɱɭɜɫɬɜɨɭɟɞɢɧɺɧɧɨɫɬɢ
ɉɟɪɟɱɢɫɥɢɬɟɭɩɨɦɹɧɭɬɵɟɜɬɟɤɫɬɟɚɪɯɢɬɟɤɬɭɪɧɵɟɬɟɪɦɢɧɵɢ
ɩɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɢɯɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤ
ɇɚɣɞɢɬɟɬɨɥɤɨɜɚɧɢɹɫɥɨɜɫɩɢɫɤɚȺɜɫɩɢɫɤɟȼɈɞɧɨɬɨɥɤɨ
ɜɚɧɢɟɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹɥɢɲɧɢɦȾɚɣɬɟɨɞɧɨɤɨɪɟɧɧɵɟɫɥɨɜɚɤɬɟɪɦɢɧɚɦɩɨ
ɦɟɱɟɧɧɵɦɡɜɺɡɞɨɱɤɨɣ
A
authentic, dwelling*, enclosure*, neighbourhood*, precinct, shelter,
suite, urban.
B
1. a group of connected rooms used as a unit, such as an apartment.
2. connected with the people who live in a town or city.
3. a place to live, considered as one of the basic needs of life.
4. relating to or characteristic of a town or city characteristic of the city
as distinguished from the country (ɫɟɥɶɫɤɚɹ ɦɟɫɬɧɨɫɬɶ).
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5. an area surrounded by a wall or fence (ɡɚɛɨɪ), and used for a particular
purpose.
6. having the origin supported by unquestionable evidence.
7. the area within the walls or boundaries of a place; an enclosed or defined area of ground around a cathedral, church, or college; a specially
designated area in a town, especially one closed to traffic.
8. a district or community within a town or city or the people who live
there.
9. a structure where a person lives and especially sleeps.
Grammar exercises
1. ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɩɪɢɜɟɞɟɧɧɵɟɧɢɠɟɫɥɨɜɚɈɛɪɚɡɭɣɬɟɨɬɧɢɯɫɭ
ɳɟɫɬɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɟ ɫ ɩɨɦɨɳɶɸ ɢɡɭɱɟɧɧɵɯ ɫɭɮɮɢɤɫɨɜ. ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟ ɧɚ
ɪɭɫɫɤɢɣ ɹɡɵɤ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɧɵɟ ɫɥɨɜɚ.
accentuate, animate, articulate, bright, collect, complete, connect, distinct,
empty, enjoy, expansive, expose, express, fix, harsh, imagine, incorporate, install, insulate, modify, operate, oppose, pave, perforate, predict,
propose, require, restore, secure, sense, situate, smart, smooth, tactile,
translate, ventilate.
ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟ ɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹ ɨɛɪɚɳɚɹ ɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟ ɧɚ ɝɟɪɭɧɞɢɣ
ɢɩɪɢɱɚɫɬɢɟI.
1. Limited space around the museum and the technical complexity of extending underground led the architects to propose placing the extension
on top of the existing building.
2. To survive we need shelter from the elements using three skins.
3. The plan of the Greek city can still be seen underlying the street pattern
in the area of modern Naples.
4. Maderna was employed by Paul V. to lengthen (ɭɞɥɢɧɹɬɶ) the nave by
two bays, destroying the proportions of the whole, and hiding the dome
from view on a near approach.
5. In studying the relationship that exists between the size and shape of
plazas and of the major structures on them, Sitte identifies two types of
square: the “deep type and the wide type”.
145
6. Even today we still think of the splendour of the formal, straight street
being associated with public exhibition and parade ɦɟɫɬɨ ɞɥɹ
ɩɪɨɝɭɥɨɤ
7. The style was refined, almost always pleasing, making free use of
stucco enrichments, both internally and externally, with abundant gilding and frescoing (ɭɤɪɚɲɚɬɶɮɪɟɫɤɚɦɢ).
8. A deck on the roof affords a pleasant look-out for the family from its
top giving a finish to its architectural appearance, and yet making no
ambitious attempt at ornamentation.
9. The great palace at Tokio,28 covering an immense area, is almost entirely composed of one-storied buildings of wood, with little of splendor or architectural dignity (ɜɟɥɢɱɢɟ).
10. The Florentine School of the Italian Renaissance is rich in examples
which show distinctions achieved by varying the proportions of the
floors in height and by changing the texture of the masonry by rustication (ɨɬɞɟɥɤɚɫɬɟɧɵɪɭɫɬɚɦɢ) DQGFKDQQHOOLQJɧɚɪɟɡɤɚɤɚɧɧɟɥɸɪ
8. Most fields are square or rectangular, the important axes being northwest/south-east.
9. The relative difficulty being constructing on ledge rock, effort was
given to use several existing elements such as foundations, retaining
walls and to construct simple masonry piers for the addition.
10. Eight steel columns pierce the original building and support the twostorey extension, making it structurally independent.
Ɍɟɤɫɬ ȼ
Nemours Children’s Hospital, Orlando, FL, USA
1. The temple long destroyed we can still marvel its elegance looking at
the remnants.
2. Vignola employing the orders with unfailing refinement, his contemporaries showed less taste, making of them an end rather than a means.
3. The plot being on a very steep slope only interrupted by two large natural terraces, the building is placed gently between them to preserve
the maximum masses of vegetation.
4. The sanctuary is preceded by much more imposing porches and hypostyle (ɝɢɩɨɫɬɢɥɶ) halls, the latter being sometimes of great extent,
though rarely lofty.
5. The canals were laid out as a public park in the English landscape style
in the second half of the 19th century, following the demolition of the
city walls.
6. Urban centres are normally considered as the positive elements of the
regional landscape often given the greatest planning attention.
7. Otto Wagner did not pursue a garden city approach preferring the traditional urban form with the street block of 4-6 storeys with central
light well (ɫɜɟɬɨɜɨɣ ɤɨɥɨɞɟɰ).
The project’s 630,000 ft2 facility includes a landscaped entry court,
95 inpatient beds and 76 exam rooms, emergency facilities, a central energy plant and a parking deck. The palette of exterior materials includes
precast, terracotta, metal panels, patterned glass and curtain wall systems.
A combination of specialty finishes and high performance materials give
the interiors a pure, modern aesthetic.
In Orlando’s subtropical environment, intense sun and humidity
were a major design concern. Extensive solar studies resulted in shaded
outdoor spaces, and also helped determine the design and placement of
sun screens – blocking direct sunlight, while admitting abundant natural
light to the interiors. In response to the area’s high water table, the architects designed a curving ramp to raise the entry drive one level, allowing
a daylight basement that accommodates the facility’s delivery and service
functions.
The Nemours Children’s Hospital is one of only three Children’s
Hospitals in the nation to achieve LEED Gold Certification with Stanley
Beaman & Sears having designed two of the three.
Because the 60-acre greenfield site initially had very little vegetation, Nemours put a priority on landscaping, encouraging planting early
in the construction process, so that a mature landscape could be created
by opening day. The interior spaces are flooded with natural light and
views of nature are abundant for children and families, as well as for staff
and support personnel. While the design of facilities for children can easily resort to gimmick or cliché, this Children’s Hospital design avoids that
tendency entirely, introducing a more authentic tone: a mature yet lively
architecture, an enriching and fresh interior atmosphere, and a site design
that celebrates the role nature can play in the healing process.
146
147
3. ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɟɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹɨɛɪɚɳɚɹɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟɧɚ
ɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɵɟɢɧɟɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɵɟɩɪɢɱɚɫɬɧɵɟɨɛɨɪɨɬɵ
Text work
1. ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɬɟɤɫɬ
2. ɋɨɫɬɚɜɶɬɟɩɥɚɧɬɟɤɫɬɚɢɡ–ɩɭɧɤɬɨɜ
3. ɉɨɥɶɡɭɹɫɶ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɧɵɦ ȼɚɦɢ ɩɥɚɧɨɦ ɤɪɚɬɤɨ ɢɡɥɨɠɢɬɟ ɫɨɞɟɪ
ɠɚɧɢɟɬɟɤɫɬɚɧɚɚɧɝɥɢɣɫɤɨɦɹɡɵɤɟ
Vocabulary exercise
ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤɩɪɢɜɟɞɺɧɧɵɟɧɢɠɟɫɥɨɜɚɢɫɥɨɜɨ
ɫɨɱɟɬɚɧɢɹ ȿɫɥɢ ȼɵ ɧɟ ɡɧɚɟɬɟ ɫɥɨɜɨ ɧɚɣɞɢɬɟ ɟɝɨ ɜ ɫɥɨɜɚɪɟ Ⱦɚɣɬɟ
ɫɢɧɨɧɢɦɵɩɨɞɱɺɪɤɧɭɬɵɯɫɥɨɜɢɚɧɬɨɧɢɦɵɫɥɨɜɜɵɞɟɥɟɧɧɵɯɤɭɪɫɢ
ɜɨɦ
FIGURE 13 Nemours Children’s Hospital
(from http://www.archdaily.com [18])
Notes:
cliché ['klJSeI] n ɲɬɚɦɩ, ɤɥɢɲɟ
delivery [dI'lIvqrI] n ɞɨɫɬɚɜɤɚ, ɩɨɫɬɚɜɤɚ
gimmick ['gImIk] n ɭɥɨɜɤɚɪɟɤɥɚɦɧɵɣɩɪɢɟɦ
greenfield site ɫɦ. site
humidity [hjH'mIdItI] n ɜɥɚɠɧɨɫɬɶ
inpatient ['In"peISqnt] n ɫɬɚɰɢɨɧɚɪɧɵɣ ɛɨɥɶɧɨɣ
LEED Gold Certification ɫɦ. LEED
nation ['neISqn] n ɫɬɪɚɧɚ, ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɨ
specialty ['speSqltI] n ɧɨɜɢɧɤɚɮɢɪɦɟɧɧɨɟɢɡɞɟɥɢɟ
subtropical ["sAb'trPpIkql] a ɫɭɛɬɪɨɩɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ
support personnel [sq'pLt "pWsq'nel] ɜɫɩɨɦɨɝɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɣɩɟɪɫɨɧɚɥ
terracotta ["terq'kPtq] n ɬɟɪɪɚɤɨɬɚɠɟɥɬɚɹɢɥɢɤɪɚɫɧɚɹ – ɝɨɧɱɚɪɧɚɹɝɥɢɧɚ
ɜɵɫɲɟɝɨɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɚ)
abundant, acre, as well as, authentic, avoid, certification, create, curving
ramp, design concern, determine, encourage, enrich, exam room, extensive, facility, finish (n), flood (v), fresh, heal(v), high performance material, intense, landscaping, LEED, major, mature (a), palette, parking deck,
patterned glass, plant (n), precast, priority, resort to (v), response, resulted
in, staff, vegetation.
Answer the following questions
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
What does the facility include?
What gives the interiors a pure, modern aesthetic?
How did Orlando’s subtropical environment influence the design?
Why did Nemours encourage early planting?
What does this Children’s Hospital feature?
148
149
Unit 4.4
Ɍɟɤɫɬ Ⱥ
Norddeutsche Landesbank
This new bank complex is a self-contained mini-metropolis, rising
like a sculpture of glass-and-steel boxes, piled with nonchalant elegance
one atop the other, some cantilevered daringly, and all culminating in a
tower.
Behnisch, Behnisch & Partner devised a massing that would create
a transition zone between Hannover’s 19th-century residential area to the
south and its denser historic centre to the north. With shining elevations
facing many different directions, the structure’s multiple orientations
were intended as a way of connecting it with the surroundings, so that the
Norddeutsche Landesbank building wouldn’t seem to be turning its back
on anyone.
The 840,000-square-foot complex occupies a large city block. In response to this connection of neighbourhoods and the scale of Hannover’s
old quarter, the new building meets the busy artery of Friederichswall
with a low base: ground-floor shops beneath two floors of offices, embracing a publicly accessible inner courtyard with a reflecting pool and
wooden decks. The low perimeter block of offices surrounds three sides
of this courtyard traversed at various heights by glass tubelike passageways connecting the wings of the building. The nearly 230-foot-tall tower –
a beacon in the larger urban context – houses primarily offices and meeting rooms, with executive dining rooms and boardrooms at its top. Crowning the tower is a 65-foot-high sculpture of glass panes, coated with a
metal film that changes color with the position of the sun and nighttime
illumination by diodes.
150
The lobby is a four-storey-high, semi-public space – the actual bank
offices, and accompanying security measures, start on the second floor –
covered by a sloping glass wall with louvers for climate control. To one
side is the “forum,” a space that doubles as art gallery and lecture hall. In
the lobby, a remarkable floor bridges height differences not with stairs but
through a seemingly countless number of slightly ramping triangular
planes, keeping the space. This entry area also provides access to a twolevel underground parking garage and the ground-floor company restaurant, just beside the tower lobby. The restaurant’s roof is abstractly shaped
like butterfly wings and covered with earth and vegetation that varies with
the seasons.
Notes:
artery ['RtqrI] n (ɝɥɚɜɧɚɹɦɚɝɢɫɬɪɚɥɶ
beacon ['bJkqn] n ɦɚɹɤ
boardroom ɫɦ board
diode ['daIqVd] n ɞɢɨɞ
Hannover [hR'nqVvq] n ɝȽɚɧɧɨɜɟɪ
mini-metropolis ["mInImq'trPpqlIs] n ɦɢɧɢ- ɝɨɪɨɞ, ɝɨɪɨɞɨɤ
nighttime ['naIttaIm] a ɧɨɱɧɨɣ
nonchalant ['nPnSqlqnt] a ɛɟɡɡɚɛɨɬɧɵɣ, ɛɟɫɩɟɱɧɵɣ
pane [peIn] n ɪɚɦɚ, ɫɟɤɰɢɹ
shine [SaIn] v ɛɥɟɫɬɟɬɶ, ɫɜɟɪɤɚɬɶ
tubelike ['tjHblaIk] a ɩɨɯɨɠɢɣ ɧɚ ɬɪɭɛɭ, ɬɪɭɛɤɨɨɛɪɚɡɧɵ
Pair work
ɋɬɭɞɟɧɬ&Ɂɚɞɚɣɬɟ–ɜɨɩɪɨɫɨɜɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɯɬɢɩɨɜɤɬɟɤɫɬɭA.
ɋɬɭɞɟɧɬ'Ɉɬɜɟɬɶɬɟɧɚɜɨɩɪɨɫɵɤɬɟɤɫɬɭɫɬɭɞɟɧɬɚ&
ɋɬɭɞɟɧɬɵ&ɢ'ɉɨɦɟɧɹɣɬɟɫɶɪɨɥɹɦɢ
Phonetic exercise
ɇɚɣɞɢɬɟɜɬɟɤɫɬɟɫɥɨɜɚɬɪɚɧɫɤɪɢɩɰɢɹɤɨɬɨɪɵɯɞɚɧɚɧɢɠɟɢɩɟ
ɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɢɯɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤ
['trxvWs]; [paIl]; ['neIbqhVd]; [qk'sesIbql]; [Im'breIs]; ['bAtqflaI];
['mAltIpql]; ["LrIqn'teISqn]; ['elIgqns].
151
Vocabulary exercises
ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤɩɪɢɜɟɞɟɧɧɵɟɧɢɠɟɫɥɨɜɚɢɫɥɨ
ɜɨɫɨɱɟɬɚɧɢɹɄɚɤɢɟɢɡɩɟɪɟɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɵɯɫɥɨɜɦɨɝɭɬɛɵɬɶɞɪɭɝɢɦɢɱɚ
ɫɬɹɦɢɪɟɱɢ"Ʉɚɤɢɦɢɢɦɟɧɧɨ"Ʉɚɤɨɧɢɜɷɬɨɦɫɥɭɱɚɟɩɟɪɟɜɨɞɹɬɫɹɧɚ
ɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤ"
abstract (a), abstractly (adv), butterfly (n, a), embrace (v), film (n), mini(prefix), passageway (n), pile (n, v), seemingly (adv).
(ɫɟɤɬɨɪ) useful up to 40 % of primary energy requirements and also a
considerable amount of overall water requirements.
Meanwhile, the service life of both new and renovated buildings
reaches far into the future. Therefore, these buildings considerably influence planned energy and water needs for the next 50 to 80 years. This
means that, even today, they must be planned, constructed and marvelled
according to the principles of energy efficiency, climatic aspects, and water conservation.
Grammar exercises
2. ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟ ɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɟ ɫɥɨɜɚ ɢ ɫɥɨɜɨɫɨɱɟɬɚɧɢɹ ɧɚ ɚɧɝɥɢɣ
ɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤ
ɛɚɛɨɱɤɚɜɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯɜɟɧɬɢɥɹɰɢɨɧɧɚɹɪɟɲɺɬɤɚɜɟɧɱɚɬɶɭɜɟɧɱɢɜɚɬɶ
ɜɧɢɡɭɩɨɞɜɵɫɬɭɩɚɬɶɜɜɢɞɟɤɨɧɫɨɥɢɝɭɫɬɨɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɧɵɣɞɥɢɧɧɵɣ
ɜɨɞɨɺɦɡɚɜɟɪɲɚɬɶɫɹɡɚɞɭɦɵɜɚɬɶɪɚɡɪɚɛɚɬɵɜɚɬɶɡɚɧɢɦɚɬɶɦɟɫɬɨ
ɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɨ); ɤɨɪɢɞɨɪɩɪɨɯɨɞɤɬɨ-ɥɢɛɨ ɥɢɤɜɢɞɢɪɨɜɚɬɶɩɟɪɟɩɚɞ
ɦɟɪɚɛɟɡɨɩɚɫɧɨɫɬɢɦɧɨɠɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɣɧɚɩɟɪɜɵɣɜɡɝɥɹɞ
ɧɚ ɩɨɜɟɪɯ ɧɚɞ ɧɚɝɪɨɦɨɠɞɚɬɶ ɫɤɥɚɞɵɜɚɬɶ ɜ ɤɭɱɭ ɧɚɫɬɢɥ ɩɥɢɬɚ
ɧɚɫɬɢɥɚɧɟɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɵɣɚɜɬɨɧɨɦɧɵɣɨɛɨɥɨɱɤɚɩɨɤɪɵɬɢɟɨɠɢɜɥɺɧ
ɧɵɣɞɟɥɨɜɨɣɨɤɪɭɠɚɬɶɨɯɜɚɬɢɬɶɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɢɟɩɨɞɧɨɠɢɟɨɬɤɪɵɬɵɣ
ɞɥɹɨɛɳɟɝɨɞɨɫɬɭɩɚɩɟɪɟɫɟɤɚɬɶɩɟɪɢɦɟɬɪɜɧɟɲɧɹɹɝɪɚɧɢɰɚɩɨɤɚ
ɬɵɣɩɨɥɨɝɢɣɪɚɡɥɢɱɢɟɨɬɥɢɱɢɟɪɚɡɦɟɪɪɚɡɦɚɯɪɹɞɨɦɨɤɨɥɨɛɥɢɡ
ɫɦɟɥɨɞɟɪɡɤɨɫɪɟɞɚɨɤɪɭɠɟɧɢɟɱɢɫɬɨɞɟɤɨɪɚɬɢɜɧɨ.
ɉɟɪɟɱɢɫɥɢɬɟ ɭɩɨɦɹɧɭɬɵɟ ɜ ɬɟɤɫɬɟ ɚɪɯɢɬɟɤɬɭɪɧɵɟ ɬɟɪɦɢɧɵ
ɢɩɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɢɯɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤ
ɇɚɣɞɢɬɟɜɬɟɤɫɬɟɥɟɤɫɢɱɟɫɤɢɯɨɲɢɛɨɤ
There are essential challenges for the future, such as taking a responsible (ɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣ) approach towards nature. Also, there is the plain
for an environmentally- friendly energy supply (ɷɧɟɪɝɨɫɧɚɛɠɟɧɢɟ) that
is easy on resources and climate. A further challenge is the search for
clean sources of drinking water. Besides from new and more efficient
technologies that are currently in place, additional emphasis will than
need to be placed on reducing energy and water requirements without decreasing either comfort level or living standard. The building sector
152
1. ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɟɬɟɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɟɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹɨɛɪɚɳɚɹɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟɧɚ
ɨɛɨɪɨɬthere + to be.
1. There have been a series of advancements in glazing technology in
recent years that allows for the selection of glass that has different
thermal and light transmitting properties.
2. In all such cases there should be a governing feature to co-ordinate
ɤɨɨɪɞɢɧɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ WKH GLYLVLRQV SDUticularly those marking the
floors.
3. In the sustainable city of the future there will be a range of city street
blocks varying from single-use blocks to those of multi-use in varying
proportions and with varying combinations of uses.
4. Beside each atrium there is a circulation and services core of exposed
concrete with offices between.
5. There were two possible solutions.
6. Progress in architecture has always added something to traditional
knowledge but at all periods there has been neither direct break with
the pDVWQRUHQWLUHUHOLDQFHɨɩɨɪɚRQQRYHOW\ɧɨɜɢɡɧɚRIIRUP
7. There is no conflict between the idea of home and institutional scale.
8. ,QWKH ZRUNRIDQ DUFKLWHFWWKHUH PXVWEHQRGRXEWVɫɨɦɧɟɧɢɹ) as
soon as the concept of the project has been developed.
9. WKHUHWKHUHKDGEHHQRQO\DVSKDOWɚɫɮɚɥɶɬDQGEULFNWKHUHZDVDQ
inviting pool surrounded by newly planted trees.
10. There should be no spaces lost to the community within the urban
fabric.
ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟ ɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹ ɨɛɪɚɳɚɹ ɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟ ɧɚ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɢ
ɫɥɨɜɚ it.
153
1. The whole project can be regarded as an exercise in perfect integration
(ɢɧɬɟɝɪɚɰɢɹ) into the urban and social framework in which it is set.
2. At first the façade covered in carving of different scales seems to be
controlled by an architectural system, but when you look more closely
it turns out to be just a picture of architecture, based on an arcade partly
closed, partly open.
3. It is not surprising that you are unable to find, in English, a book telling
of the cathedrals of the South which is both accurate (ɬɨɱɧɵɣ DQG
complete.
4. In hot climate it is best to hide from the sun under a large hat or a roof.
5. The southern overhangs allow each floor to shade the one beneath it
EXWPDNHWKHVWUXFWXUHVHHPDELWWLSV\ɧɚɜɟɫɟɥɟ
6. Even if the site has a difficult orientation it is possible to catch the sun
with the use of elements projecting from the building in the form of
upper-floor clearstory windows, bay windows and roof lights.
7. At his lectures Professor McCaughan made it quite clear that he was a
follower of Camillo Sitte
8. The organisation of the internal circulation is one of the basic elements
that must be taken into account so that the patients can understand it
easily.
9. It was the highly stylish French Tramway systems that influenced
many similar developments in Britain.
10. Instead of approaching the city through the limits of a master plan
(ɝɟɧɟɪɚɥɶɧɵɣɩɥɚɧ), we should view it as an accumulation of neighborhoods, each of which contains nodes.
3. ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɟɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹɨɛɪɚɳɚɹɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟɧɚ
ɮɭɧɤɰɢɢɫɥɨɜɚ that.
1. The sustainable city is not one that transfers the poor to cardboard box
ɤɚɪɬɨɧɧɚɹɤɨɪɨɛɤɚFXOWXUHVEHQHDWKWKHYLDGXFWɜɢɚɞɭɤ
2. The new development is not as successful as that in Denver.
3. The second floor and all those above it are cantilevered out from the
first floor, effectively hiding all of the entrances.
4. In recent times civic architecture has reflected that general decline of
taste which today permeates (ɨɯɜɚɬɢɬɶ) all divisions of society.
154
5. The result of all this is that almost no British university has been able
to enjoy a return on investment (ɞɨɯɨɞɧɨɫɬɶɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɨɜɥɨɠɟɧɢɣ).
6. The tools choice and the techniques of rough-shaping and finishing are
important for any project that intends to recover (ɨɬɤɪɵɬɶ) the nature
of stone.
7. The outer panes provide noise protection from the street, wind protection for the sunshades and also afford privacy to those inside.
8. This is the first time in the history of architecture that the housing for
common people was to be regarded, and was indeed intended, as great
architecture.
9. There are very few windows, and those that are evident are recessed.
10. From the beginning the intention was to create an entrance building
that would transform a plain corner of the Museumplein into a public
space. That’s why Mels Crouwel provided the huge canopy.
Ɍɟɤɫɬȼ
Hertz Customer Service Facility, Orlando, U.S.A.
Many visitors to this favoured resort destination form their first impressions from the facility where they pick up their rental car. The million
people who annually pass through Hertz's busiest facility in the world at
Orlando have their experience made easy and convenient by efficient circulation.
Tourists arriving at the Orlando Airport expect an exotic, tropical
setting, so both indoor and outdoor areas evoke a man-made, tropical forest offering shelter from the sun and rain. Exterior drop-off and pick-up
areas are protected by undulating, flower-like modular fibre-glass canopies on metal stems. Forming a distinctive profile from the adjacent highway and from the air, they identify the facility and create a sense of comfort, safety, and welcome for the weary traveller.
Interior transactions take place in a solid, orthogonal building of
metal and glass, clearly visible from the outdoors. The “glass box” housing the four-sided counters and four corner lounges is as open and inviting
as the canopies outdoors. The ceiling repeats the forms of the exterior
canopies using wood ornament in wave forms around interior columns.
The wave is outlined once again in perforated metal screens which form awnings over the counters. The other service buildings on the site use the same
basic design language of rectangular volumes and wave-form canopies.
155
Site, buildings, and equipment are a “machine” which can daily process 2,500 cars, while providing a memorable and appropriate environment for the families renting them and a comfortable and safe work setting
for the Hertz staff. The transparency of the glass building and the regularity of the modular canopies attempt to create an orderly oasis in the visual
clutter characterising so much of roadside America.
adjacent, appropriate, attempt, awning, clutter, comfortable, counter, destination, distinctive, drop-off, evoke, facility, favoured (a), lounge, orderly, orthogonal, outline (v), perforate, provide, rental car, setting, so,
shelter, solid, staff, transparency, tropical, undulating.
Ɍɟɤɫɬ C
Arthouse at the Jones Center, Austin, Texas, U.S.A
Notes:
convenient [kqn'vJnIqnt] a ɭɞɨɛɧɵɣ, ɩɪɢɟɦɥɟɦɵɣ
customer ['kAstqmq] n ɤɥɢɟɧɬ, ɩɨɬɪɟɛɢɬɟɥɶ
daily ['deIlI] adv ɟɠɟɞɧɟɜɧɨ
exotic [Ig'zPtIk] a ɷɤɡɨɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ
highway ['haIweI] n ɲɨɫɫɟ, ɚɜɬɨɫɬɪɚɞɚ
man-made ["mxn'meId] a ɪɭɤɨɬɜɨɪɧɵɣ, ɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣ
modular ['mPdjVlq] a ɦɨɞɭɥɶɧɵɣ
oasis [qV'eIsIs] n ɩɪɢɛɟɠɢɳɟ, ɨɚɡɢɫ
pick-up ['pIk'Ap] n ɩɨɫɚɞɤɚɩɚɫɫɚɠɢɪɨɜɬɚɤɫɢ); pick up v ɛɪɚɬɶɡɚɛɢɪɚɬɶ
rent [rent] v ɛɪɚɬɶɧɚɩɪɨɤɚɬ
roadside America ['rqVdsaId q'merIkq@ɩɪɢɞɨɪɨɠɧɚɹȺɦɟɪɢɤɚ
stem [stem] n ɧɨɠɤɚɩɨɞɫɬɚɜɤɚ
transaction [trxn'zxkSqn] n ɨɩɟɪɚɰɢɹɜɡɚɢɦɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟ
weary ['wIqrI] a ɭɫɬɚɥɵɣ, ɭɬɨɦɥɺɧɧɵɣ
ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤɩɪɢɜɟɞɺɧɧɵɟɧɢɠɟɫɥɨɜɚɢɫɥɨɜɨ
ɫɨɱɟɬɚɧɢɹȿɫɥɢȼɵɧɟɡɧɚɟɬɟɫɥɨɜɨɧɚɣɞɢɬɟɟɝɨɜɫɥɨɜɚɪɟȾɚɣɬɟɫɢ
ɧɨɧɢɦɵɩɨɞɱɺɪɤɧɭɬɵɯɫɥɨɜɢɚɧɬɨɧɢɦɵɫɥɨɜɜɵɞɟɥɟɧɧɵɯɤɭɪɫɢɜɨɦ
The Arthouse glows from the light of the 177 punched-out 4-by-16inch LED-lit glass blocks that perforate the south and east walls. The
seemingly random placement of rectangular elements is a bit of an LTL
signature move – the firm has used similar perforations in its designs for
Lozoo and Xing restaurants in New York City, for example. “We’re interested in the accumulation of discrete parts,” says LTL principal Paul
Lewis.
“In this case, it’s not so much that we’re inserting forms, but that
we're displacing from the whole.” The blocks are just one of several strategic additions and adjustments that LTL used to enhance the amalgamation of history in the existing three-storey brick structure, built in 1851.
The building began its life in Austin as the Queen Theatre. In 1956
it became a department store and a second floor was added, as well as
storefront windows and a new facade on Congress Avenue that included
an awning extending over the sidewalk. The present owner bought the
building in 1995, changed its name to Arthouse at the Jones Center, and
gave it a slight renovation that closed off the second floor, which was not
up to code. “There were a number of factors that the history of the building
set up for us,” says Lewis. “For most historic conservation projects, there's
a single moment in the building’s history where it was at its best, and you
want to get it back there. But with this project, it was a trajectory. The
architecture was pulled in two directions – as a theatre toward the stage at
the west side, and as a store it engaged the street at the east. We decided
not to whitewash any of that but to honour it all.”
The building is in a historic district but is not designated a historic
building, so nothing was sacred. Still, conservation was critical to the organization and to the architects. Inserted within the envelope are an entry
lounge, a large open gallery, two artist studios, and etc. The architects
added a 5,500-square-foot ipe-wood roof deck for open-air performances,
156
157
Answer the following questions
1.
2.
3.
4.
What is the main aim of the facility?
What do the exterior areas feature?
What is the basic design language of the building?
What contrast does the design of the building create?
Text work
1. ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɬɟɤɫɬ
2. ɋɨɫɬɚɜɶɬɟɩɥɚɧɬɟɤɫɬɚɢɡ–ɩɭɧɤɬɨɜ
3. ɉɨɥɶɡɭɹɫɶ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɧɵɦ ȼɚɦɢ ɩɥɚɧɨɦ ɤɪɚɬɤɨ ɢɡɥɨɠɢɬɟ ɫɨɞɟɪ
ɠɚɧɢɟɬɟɤɫɬɚɧɚɚɧɝɥɢɣɫɤɨɦɹɡɵɤɟ
Vocabulary exercise
with a 17-by-33-foot screen that can be set up for films. Administrative
office areas on the first floor were largely left alone.
treads over a diamond-polished cast-concrete base connects the lobby to
the main second-floor gallery, and is designed so the first wood tread extends to the side to form a reception desk.
Rather than create a white-box gallery space on the existing second
floor, the architects chose to let traces of the past – frescoes on the south
wall, remains of the theatre balcony, ornamental plaster work, and paint
from the building’s days as a department store – remain, while the glass
blocks lodged into the masonry bring light into the interior. Practicality
suggested that the south wall be used for art, so a 16,000-pound movable
wall was added inside the room to give the space more flexibility. The
building’s original structure is a concrete frame with a steel-truss roof into
which a concrete and steel deck floor was inserted. When LTL decided to
add a flat roof on top of the existing pitched-roof frame, the firm supported the new roof with steel members attached to the top chords of the
trusses. To further help carry the load of the new roof, the team stiffened
the trusses’ bottom chords with I-beams.
Notes:
The lobby, wrapped in floor-to- ceiling glazing, opens the building
up to the street. LTL resurfaced the awning in plaster, shearing and
stretching its geometry to continue it inside and to create an anamorphic
sign stating “Arthouse” on the street. A central stair with 21 L-shaped ipe
amalgamation [q"mxlgq'meISqn] n ɫɥɢɹɧɢɟ, ɨɛɴɟɞɢɧɟɧɢɟ
anamorphic [xnq'mLfIk] a ɚɧɚɦɨɪɮɨɬɧɵɣ
Arthouse ['RthaVs] n ɚɪɬɯɚɭɫɫɩɟɰɢɚɥɢɡɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɣɤɢɧɨɬɟɚɬɪɧɟɪɚɫɫɱɢɬɚɧ
ɧɵɟɧɚɲɢɪɨɤɭɸɚɭɞɢɬɨɪɢɸ)
Austin ['PstIn] n ɝ. Ɉɫɬɢɧ
cast-concrete ɫɦ concrete
code [kqVd] n ɧɨɪɦɵ ɢ ɩɪɚɜɢɥɚ
fresco ['freskqV] n ɮɪɟɫɤɚɮɪɟɫɤɨɜɚɹɠɢɜɨɩɢɫɶ
I-beam ɫɦ beam
ipe ['IpeI] n ɢɩɟғ ɛɪɚɡɢɥɶɫɤɢɣɨɪɟɯɩɨɪɨɞɚɞɪɟɜɟɫɢɧɵ)
LED (light-emitting diode) ['el'J'dJ] n ɫɜɟɬɨɞɢɨɞ
lodge [lPG] v ɪɚɡɦɟɫɬɢɬɶ, ɩɨɦɟɫɬɢɬɶ
perforation ɫɦ. perforate
pound [paVnd] n ɮɭɧɬ (0,454 ɤɝ)
practicality ["prxktI'kxlItI] n ɩɪɚɤɬɢɰɢɡɦ, ɩɪɚɤɬɢɱɧɨɫɬɶ
punched-out ['pAnCt'aVt] a ɜɵɪɭɛɥɟɧɧɵɣ (ɜ ɫɬɟɧɟ)
reception desk ɫɦ. reception 1 4.4c
resurface ["rJ'sWfIs] v ɜɨɫɫɬɚɧɚɜɥɢɜɚɬɶ/ɡɚɦɟɧɹɬɶ ɩɨɤɪɵɬɢɟ
shear [SIq] v ɪɚɫɫɟɤɚɬɶ
signature ['sIgnqCq] n ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɫɬɢɤɚɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɧɵɣɩɪɢɡɧɚɤ
Texas ['teksqs] n ɌɟɯɚɫɲɬɚɬɋɒȺ)
trajectory [trq'GektqrI] n ɷɜɨɥɸɰɢɹ
truss roof ['trAsrHf] ɫɦ. roof
whitewash ['waItwPS] v ɫɤɪɵɬɶ ɧɟɞɨɫɬɚɬɤɢ, ɨɛɟɥɢɬɶ
158
159
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
Entrance
Central Stair
Stair And Elevator
Awning
Screening
Mobile Gallery Wall
Mechanical
Roof Deck
Two Artist Studios
Gallery
Gallery/Lounge
FIGURE 14 First-floor plan
(from Architectural Record 2011-02 [4])
Answer the following questions
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
What is the signature move of LTL in the extetior of the building?
What was the history of the building?
How did it influence the present project?
What was critical to the architects?
What were the alterations on the first floor?
What were the alterations on the second floor?
What traces of the past were left there?
Why were the trusses’ bottom chords stiffened with I-beams?
Communication exercise
ɍɱɟɛɧɚɹ ɝɪɭɩɩɚ ɪɚɡɛɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɧɚ ɞɜɟ ɩɨɞɝɪɭɩɩɵ Ʉɚɠɞɚɹ ɩɨɞ
ɝɪɭɩɩɚ ɜɵɛɢɪɚɟɬ ɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɟ ɤɨɪɩɨɪɚɬɢɜɧɨɟ ɡɞɚɧɢɟ ɩɨɫɬɪɨɟɧɧɨɟ
ɜɊɨɫɫɢɢɢɥɢɡɚɪɭɛɟɠɨɦɡɞɚɧɢɹɧɟɞɨɥɠɧɵɫɨɜɩɚɞɚɬɶɢɥɢɛɵɬɶɨɩɢ
ɫɚɧɵɜɞɚɧɧɨɦɭɱɟɛɧɢɤɟɢɨɛɫɭɠɞɚɟɬɟɝɨɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɢɞɨɫɬɨɢɧɫɬɜɚ
ɢɧɟɞɨɫɬɚɬɤɢɐɟɥɶɨɛɫɭɠɞɟɧɢɹ– ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɟɫɨɨɛɳɟɧɢɹɨɛɴɺɦɨɦ
15–ɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɣ
ɉɨ ɨɤɨɧɱɚɧɢɢ ɨɛɫɭɠɞɟɧɢɹ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɢɬɟɥɶ ɤɚɠɞɨɣ ɩɨɞɝɪɭɩɩɵ
ɞɟɥɚɟɬɫɨɨɛɳɟɧɢɟɞɥɹɭɱɚɫɬɧɢɤɨɜɞɪɭɝɨɣɩɨɞɝɪɭɩɩɵɚɡɚɬɟɦɨɬɜɟ
ɱɚɟɬɧɚɢɯɜɨɩɪɨɫɵ ɩɨɬɟɦɟ
Vocabulary exercise
ȼ ɫɩɢɫɤɟ Ⱥ ɞɚɧɵ ɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɫɥɨɜɚ ɢ ɜɵɪɚɠɟɧɢɹ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɢɫ
ɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɵ ɜ ɬɟɤɫɬɟ ɞɥɹ ɞɨɦɚɲɧɟɝɨ ɱɬɟɧɢɹ ɇɚɣɞɢɬɟ ɢɯ ɩɟɪɟɜɨɞ
ɜɫɩɢɫɤɟȼ
Ⱥ
a bit
accumulate
attach
chord
conservation
designate
displace
enhance
extend
flat (a)
flexibility
B
ɷɥɟɦɟɧɬ
ɲɬɭɤɚɬɭɪɤɚ
ɱɬɢɬɶ
ɭɫɬɚɧɚɜɥɢɜɚɬɶ
ɭɫɢɥɢɜɚɬɶ
ɭɫɢɥɢɜɚɬɶ
ɭɤɥɨɧ
ɫɰɟɧɚ
ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɟ
ɫɤɚɩɥɢɜɚɬɶ
ɫɜɹɳɟɧɧɵɣ
Ⱥ
move (n)
owner
pitch
plaster
pull
random
renovation
sacred
seemingly
set up
stage
160
B
ɩɪɢɤɪɟɩɥɹɬɶ
ɩɨɹɫɮɟɪɦɵ)
ɩɨɫɬɭɩɨɤ
ɩɨɦɟɳɚɬɶ
ɩɥɨɫɤɢɣ
ɩɟɪɟɦɟɳɚɬɶ
ɩɟɪɟɞɜɢɠɧɨɣ
ɨɤɪɭɠɚɬɶ
ɧɟɦɧɨɝɨ
ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɹɬɶ
ɧɚɜɢɞ
Ⱥ
further (adv)
honour (v)
insert
member
movable
ȼ
ɪɚɫɬɹɝɢɜɚɬɶ
ɩɪɨɫɬɭɩɶ
ɩɪɨɫɬɢɪɚɬɶɫɹ
ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɥɶɧɵɣ
ɩɪɢɫɩɨɫɨɛɥɹɟɦɨɫɬɶ
Ⱥ
state
stiffen
stretch
tread
wrap
ȼ
ɦɨɞɟɪɧɢɡɚɰɢɹ
ɤɜɚɥɢɮɢɰɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ
ɞɨɩɨɥɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ
ɝɥɚɫɢɬɶ
ɜɥɚɞɟɥɟɰ
TEST 10
Part I – Vocabulary
ɁɚɞɚɧɢɟȺɈɩɪɟɞɟɥɢɬɟɫɥɨɜɚɤɤɨɬɨɪɵɦɨɬɧɨɫɹɬɫɹɩɟɪɟɱɢɫ
ɥɟɧɧɵɟɧɢɠɟɬɨɥɤɨɜɚɧɢɹ
x Curved roof over part of a building
x Interconnected group of rooms arranged usually in a row with each
room opening into the next
x Cross or cut each other
x Range of colours that are used
x Enclosed or defined area of ground around a cathedral, church, or
college.
x
1.
–
2.
–
3.
–
4.
–
5.
–
Ɂɚɞɚɧɢɟ B. Ɂɚɩɨɥɧɢɬɟ ɩɪɨɩɭɫɤɢ ɜ ɬɟɤɫɬɟ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɹ ɫɥɨɜɚ ɢɡ
ɩɪɢɜɟɞɺɧɧɨɝɨɧɢɠɟɫɩɢɫɤɚɌɪɢɫɥɨɜɚɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹɥɢɲɧɢɦɢ
adopted
basic
embrace
house
awning
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
chord
gate
–
–
–
–
–
161
houses
The design of this single-family house dwelling responds to a (6) …
factor: to adapt the building to the physical characteristics of the site, and
therefore to the landscape. Located in a residential district, the plot has a
steep slope of almost four metres that ensures privacy. It is set between
two streets.
The solution (7) … was that of conceiving two volumes whose orientation was imposed by the situation of the streets: a body aligned with
Rue Marquette in the direction south east to north west and a body aligned
with Rue de la Cote with a north- south orientation. The project is defined
by the inter-section of these two volumes and the solution of their facades.
The first is a parallelepiped (ɩɚɪɚɥɥɟɥɟɩɢɩɟɞ) that (8) … the entrance,
which is on the south-east facade, giving access to the (9) … by means of
a service staircase. A white steel (10) … protects the property and gives
access to the underground garage. The second is a cubic volume that has
greater physical and visual relation to the exterior.
ɁɚɞɚɧɢɟC. Ⱦɚɣɬɟɩɟɪɟɜɨɞɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɯɫɥɨɜɧɚɚɧɝɥɢɣɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤ
11. ɤɪɨɜɟɥɶɧɵɣɫɥɚɧɟɰ – …
12. ɭɡɤɚɹɩɪɨɪɟɡɶɨɤɧɚ – …
13. ɪɟɛɪɨɝɪɟɛɟɧɶ – …
14. ɨɛɨɥɨɱɤɚ – …
15. ɤɨɦɩɨɧɨɜɤɚɚɪɯɢɬɟɤɬɭɪɧɵɯɦɚɫɫ – …
Part II – Grammar
ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɟɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹ
16. The office blocks are cantilevered above the street level as a
floating form to represent the mountains.
17. Restoration applies to cases when a building is returned to a former state, existing components being restored and later additions of no historic value being removed.
18. New standards gave the developers flexibility in design and mix
of uses while ensuring that each centre, whether residential,
civic or commercial blocks, would develop into a walkable,
mixed-use place.
19. The basilican form of church became general in Italy, and with
but slight deviations (ɨɬɫɬɭɩɥɟɧɢɟ) from the original type.
20. There being no original Victorian features left in the flat, the
sense of a Victorian drawing room has been partly restored by
WKHFDUHIXOUHIXUELVKPHQWɪɟɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɹRIWKHZLQGRZVDQG
shutters along the full width of the front.
162
III – Reading
ɉɪɨɱɢɬɚɣɬɟ ɬɟɤɫɬ ɋɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɸɬ ɥɢ ɩɪɢɜɟɞɺɧɧɵɟ ɧɢɠɟ
ɜɵɫɤɚɡɵɜɚɧɢɹ ɟɝɨ ɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɸ ȼɵɛɟɪɢɬɟ ɨɞɢɧ ɢɡ ɜɚɪɢɚɧɬɨɜ ɨɬ
ɜɟɬɚa) ɜɟɪɧɨbɧɟɜɟɪɧɨcɧɟɫɤɚɡɚɧɨ
Verhaeghe House
The program for this house was chosen from among ten competing
ɤɨɧɤɭɪɢɪɭɸɳɢHDUFKLWHFWXUDOVWXGLRV7KH9HUKDHJKHKRXVHLVDVLP
ple two-story structure with a flat roof, edged on both sides by neighboring buildings. Since the site itself was seven meters wide and zoning restrictions (ɪɟɝɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɧɨɪɦɚɬɢɜɵ) would only allow a height of six
meters, a modest volume had to be designed.
With such spatial restrictions, the architects decided to increase volume by placing the ground floor 80cm down to the level of the foundation
masonry. This is a simple enough operation; while the advantages gained
in spatial configuration are highly attractive.
The living room is a high-ceilinged, transparent space. Here, the
dwellers move freely about between two strategically-placed volumes –
the kitchen and the toilet – which do not reach the full height of the ceiling. Together, these volumes form a screen of sorts within the transparent
volume which provides the necessary privacy from the public street. The
high and wide glass facade rises between the volume and the plinth like a
rare and floating object.
21. There were numerous programmes for this house.
22. There is a lawn behind the house.
23. The spatial restrictions, didn’t allow the architects to increase
the building volume.
24. The height of all rooms is the same.
25. The privacy is maintained by the high and wide façade.
163
Unit 4.5
Ɍɟɤɫɬ Ⱥ
Project Glass/Wood House, New Canaan, Connecticut, U.S.A
Tokyo-based Kengo Kuma’s first commission in the United States
was a new wing for a mid-century Modern house in New Canaan, Connecticut.
Kuma designed a transparent, L-shaped addition that sits just to the
west of the original. The interior is almost entirely open, with very few
walls. Instead, stainless steel mesh screens differentiate circulation space
from other parts of the programme. The structure is composed of steel
columns only 3 inches wide and 6 inches deep, with equally minimal steel
beams, and a roof supported by exposed glue-laminated spruce joists.
The project also included modifications to the existing house, such
as the replacement of one section of solid exterior wall near the addition
with glass, in order to provide more of a visual connection between new
and old structures. As part of the renovation work, the kitchen, which had
been just inside the entrance, was removed, making the entire central zone
of the older structure into an airy space for welcoming guests, like the
entryway, in a Japanese house, explains Kuma.
The expansion, like its mid-century neighbour, has a surrounding
veranda, as well as a sheltering canopy at the same elevation of that on
the original. However, the tectonic reality of these similar elements is very
different. While the house’s original owner and architect John Black Lee,
placed vertical structural components at the edges of his veranda, Kuma
pulled them to the interior, behind a smooth skin of insulated, low-emissivity glazing. Although Lee concealed the roof structure behind a fascia
and a dry wall ceiling, Kuma’s joists are left exposed with the plywood
sheathing on top of them tapering to a projecting, paper- thin edge. And
164
while Lee’s pavilion is elevated just above a mostly level ground plane,
Kuma’s expansion is supported on slender columns over a steeply sloping
section of the site. The newer piece feels almost like a treehouse, especially at the western end of the dining room, where the floor is 17 feet
above grade.
In response to the hard problem of joining these distinct but sympathetic expressions, Kuma created an 18-foot-long glass-enclosed walkway
that gently steps down about 4 feet, following the terrain. The roof of this
passageway appears to have been slipped under the canopies surrounding
both new and old buildings, creating the impression that the two could be
disconnected if some future owner so desired.
Notes:
Connecticut [kq'netIkqt] n ɄɨɧɧɟɤɬɢɤɭɬɲɬɚɬɋɒȺ)
differentiate ["dIfq'renSIeIt] v ɨɛɨɫɨɛɥɹɬɶ, ɪɚɡɝɪɚɧɢɱɢɜɚɬɶ
disconnect ["dIskq'nekt] v ɪɚɡɞɟɥɹɬɶ, ɪɚɡɴɟɞɢɧɹɬɶ
fascia ['feISq] n ɤɚɪɧɢɡ, ɩɨɥɨɱɤɚ (ɚɪɯɢɬɟɤɬɭɪɧɵɣ ɨɛɥɨɦ)
Japanese ["Gxpq'nJz] a ɹɩɨɧɫɤɢɣ
joist [GOIst] n ɛɚɥɤɚ (ɩɟɪɟɤɪɵɬɢɹ, ɤɪɵɲɢ)
low-emissivity glazing ɫɦ. glaze
minimal ['mInImql] a ɦɢɧɢɦɚɥɶɧɵɣ, ɨɱɟɧɶ ɦɚɥɟɧɶɤɢɣ
sheathing ['SJDIN] n ɥɢɫɬɨɜɚɹ ɨɛɲɢɜɤɚ
slip [slIp] v ɩɪɨɫɤɨɥɶɡɧɭɬɶ, ɭɫɤɨɥɶɡɧɭɬɶ
Tokyo ['tqVkIqV] n ɝ. Ɍɨɤɢɨ
treehouse ['trJhaVs@ɞɨɦɧɚɞɟɪɟɜɟɯɚɥɚɛɭɞɚɧɚɞɟɪɟɜɟɞɥɹɞɟɬɟɣ)
Pair work
ɋɬɭɞɟɧɬ&Ɂɚɞɚɣɬɟ–ɜɨɩɪɨɫɨɜɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɯɬɢɩɨɜɤɬɟɤɫɬɭA.
ɋɬɭɞɟɧɬ'Ɉɬɜɟɬɶɬɟɧɚɜɨɩɪɨɫɵɤɬɟɤɫɬɭɫɬɭɞɟɧɬɚ&
ɋɬɭɞɟɧɬɵ&ɢ'ɉɨɦɟɧɹɣɬɟɫɶɪɨɥɹɦɢ
Phonetic exercise
ɇɚɣɞɢɬɟɜɬɟɤɫɬɟɫɥɨɜɚɬɪɚɧɫɤɪɢɩɰɢɹɤɨɬɨɪɵɯɞɚɧɚɧɢɠɟɢɩɟ
ɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɢɯɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤ
[Ik'spxnSqn]; [In'tIqrIq]; ['GentlI]; [trxn'spxrqnt]; ['eqrI];
[gest]; ['teIpq]; ['plaIwVd].
165
The Bluecoat Arts Centre, Liverpool
Vocabulary exercises
ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤɩɪɢɜɟɞɟɧɧɵɟɧɢɠɟɫɥɨɜɚɢɫɥɨ
ɜɨɫɨɱɟɬɚɧɢɹɄɚɤɢɟɢɡɩɟɪɟɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɵɯɫɥɨɜɦɨɝɭɬɛɵɬɶɞɪɭɝɢɦɢɱɚ
ɫɬɹɦɢɪɟɱɢ"Ʉɚɤɢɦɢɢɦɟɧɧɨ"Ʉɚɤɨɧɢɜɷɬɨɦɫɥɭɱɚɟɩɟɪɟɜɨɞɹɬɫɹɧɚ
ɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤ"
airy (a), spruce (n), stainless steel.
2. ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟ ɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɟ ɫɥɨɜɚ ɢ ɫɥɨɜɨɫɨɱɟɬɚɧɢɹ ɧɚ ɚɧɝɥɢɣ
ɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤ
ɚɪɯɢɬɟɤɬɭɪɧɵɣɜɨɬɜɟɬɧɚɜɪɚɜɧɨɣɫɬɟɩɟɧɢɜɵɫɨɬɚɜɵɫɬɭɩɚɸɳɢɣ
ɡɚɤɚɡɩɨɪɭɱɟɧɢɟɡɚɦɟɧɚɡɪɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣɜɢɡɭɚɥɶɧɵɣɤɚɤ«ɬɚɤɢ«
ɦɧɨɝɨɫɥɨɣɧɵɣɞɨɳɚɬɨɤɥɟɺɧɵɣɧɟɪɠɚɜɟɸɳɚɹɫɬɚɥɶ ɨɬɞɟɥɹɬɶɨɝɨ
ɪɚɠɢɜɚɬɶɨɬɤɪɵɬɵɣɨɛɧɚɠɟɧɧɵɣɨɬɥɢɱɚɸɳɢɣɫɹɧɟɩɨɯɨɠɢɣɩɨɥ
ɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɩɪɢɫɬɪɨɣɤɚ ɩɪɨɡɪɚɱɧɵɣ ɩɪɨɫɬɨɪɧɵɣ ɫɤɪɵɜɚɬɶ ɩɪɹɬɚɬɶ
ɫɭɯɨɣɤɚɦɟɧɧɨɣɤɥɚɞɤɢɬɨɝɞɚɤɚɤɬɨɧɤɢɣɭɡɤɢɣɭɞɚɥɹɬɶɭɛɢɪɚɬɶ
ɭɱɚɫɬɨɤɫɤɪɭɬɵɦɭɤɥɨɧɨɦɮɚɧɟɪɚ ɯɜɨɣɧɚɹɞɪɟɜɟɫɢɧɚɯɨɬɹɲɢɪɢ
ɧɨɣ ɞɸɣɦɚ
Ɉɩɪɟɞɟɥɢɬɟ ɟɫɬɶ ɥɢ ɨɲɢɛɤɢ ɜ ɩɟɪɟɜɨɞɟ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɧɵɯ
ɧɢɠɟɫɥɨɜȿɫɥɢɨɲɢɛɤɢɢɦɟɸɬɫɹɭɤɚɠɢɬɟɩɪɚɜɢɥɶɧɵɣɩɟɪɟɜɨɞ
potent ɦɨɳɧɵɣ
restrict ɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɢɜɚɬɶ
sidewalk ɬɪɨɬɭɚɪ
slot ɤɨɪɨɬɤɢɣ
stress ɩɨɞɱɺɪɤɢɜɚɬɶ
widen ɪɚɫɲɢɪɹɬɶɫɹ
chimney ɬɪɭɛɚ
counter ɩɪɢɥɚɜɨɤ
dissolve ɞɵɦɨɯɨɞ
jut (outɜɵɞɚɜɚɬɶɫɹ
partition ɩɟɪɟɝɨɪɨɞɤɚ
permanence ɧɟɢɡɦɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ
Ɂɚɩɨɥɧɢɬɟɩɪɨɩɭɫɤɢɜɬɟɤɫɬɟɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɹɫɥɨɜɚɢɡɩɪɢɜɟɞɺɧ
ɧɨɝɨɧɢɠɟɫɩɢɫɤɚȾɜɚ ɫɥɨɜɚ ɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɥɢɲɧɢɦɢ.
are
courtyards
define
first
green
housing
intended
laminated
renovated
166
source
together
used
The Bluecoat Arts Centre has been (1)… and extended with a new
wing (2)… a performance space and four galleries. The core of the complex is Bluecoat Chambers, a school building dating from (ɨɬɧɨɫɹɳɢɣɫɹɤ)
1716, which is arranged around two (3)…. The new wing replaces some
nineteenth century buildings in the south-east corner of the site.
Wire -FXWEULFNVɤɢɪɩɢɱɢ ɩɪɨɜɨɥɨɱɧɨɣɪɟɡɤɢKDYHEHHQ«,
as a deliberate new texture in the historic development of the original
school building. The bricks were (5)… to be load bearing but the builder
chose to construct the Centre with a concrete frame. The cross walls
(ɩɨɩɟɪɟɱɧɵɟ ɫɬɟɧɵ) above (6)… floor level are still load bearing but the
rest of the brick walls (7)… tied to the concrete walls that have been left
exposed internally.
The 7.4 m high cloister piers have concrete cores and a beam ties
the piers (8)… at the top and they are tied back to the main building at
roof level by timber rafters (ɫɬɪɨɩɢɥɚ).
At first floor the exposed concrete walls (9)… a performance space.
Glazed openings to the cloister below have independent inner and outer
frames with (10)… glass to provide acoustic (ɡɜɭɤɨɜɨɣ) separation.
Grammar exercises
1. ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟ ɭɤɚɡɚɧɧɵɟ ɧɢɠɟ ɫɥɨɜɚ ɢ ɫɥɨɜɨɫɨɱɟɬɚɧɢɹ, ɢɫɩɨɥɶ
ɡɭɹ ɮɪɚɡɨɜɵɟ ɝɥɚɝɨɥɵ break, bring, cut, draw, give, hold, keep, set,
stand, turn. ɋɨɫɬɚɜɶɬɟɫɤɚɠɞɵɦɢɡɧɢɯɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɟɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹ
ɛɵɬɶ ɧɚ ɜɵɫɨɬɟ ɧɟ ɭɫɬɭɩɚɬɶ ɜɨɡɜɪɚɳɚɬɶ ɜɟɪɧɭɬɶ ɜɵɜɟɪɧɭɬɶ
ɧɚɢɡɧɚɧɤɭ ɜɵɞɜɢɝɚɬɶ ɩɪɢɜɧɨɫɢɬɶ ɜɵɞɟɥɹɬɶ ɨɛɨɫɨɛɥɹɬɶ ɜɵɞɟ
ɥɹɬɶɫɹɜɵɫɬɭɩɚɬɶɜɵɪɟɡɚɬɶɞɟɥɢɬɶɪɚɡɛɢɜɚɬɶɢɡɥɭɱɚɬɶɢɫɬɨɱɚɬɶ
ɢɫɯɨɞɢɬɶɢɡɧɚɦɟɪɟɜɚɬɶɫɹɫɨɛɢɪɚɬɶɫɹɱɬɨ-ɥɞɟɥɚɬɶɧɟɞɨɩɭɫɤɚɬɶ
ɧɟɩɨɞɩɭɫɤɚɬɶɨɛɪɚɳɚɬɶɫɹɤɱɟɦɭ-ɥɨɬɤɚɡɵɜɚɬɶɫɹɨɬɱɟɝɨ-ɥɢɛɨ);
ɨɬɪɟɡɚɬɶ ɢɡɨɥɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ ɩɨɞɞɟɪɠɢɜɚɬɶ ɩɨɞɩɢɪɚɬɶ ɩɨɦɟɳɚɬɶ ɜ ɝɥɭ
ɛɢɧɟɨɬɨɞɜɢɝɚɬɶɩɨɪɜɚɬɶɫɩɨɤɨɧɱɢɬɶɫɩɪɟɜɪɚɳɚɬɶɫɹɜɨɱɬɨ-ɥɫɜɹ
ɡɵɜɚɬɶ ɨɛɴɟɞɢɧɹɬɶɫɹ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɬɶ ɧɚɛɪɚɫɵɜɚɬɶ ɩɪɨɟɤɬ ɭɫɬɚɧɚɜɥɢ
ɜɚɬɶɫɬɚɜɢɬɶɮɨɪɦɭɥɢɪɨɜɚɬɶɭɫɬɚɧɚɜɥɢɜɚɬɶɱɟɪɩɚɬɶɜɞɨɯɧɨɜɟɧɢɟ).
2. ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹɨɛɪɚɳɚɹɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟɧɚɩɪɢɱɚɫɬɢɟ,,
1. Given the current accent on sustainability, many local authorities are
attempting to make the built environment more human with paint, vegetation and sculpture.
167
2. Portland, Oregon, as a city, made a planed effort to bring people back
to its centre.
3. )UpMXVɎɪɟɠɭɫ – ɮɪɚɧɰɭɡɫɤɢɣɩɨɪɬFODLPHGWREH³WKHROGHVWFLW\
in France,” was one of the numerous trading towns of the Phoenicia
Ɏɢɧɢɤɢɹ
4. Any of the approaches to built form offered are suitable for a city on
undulating terrain.
5. Many streetscape (ɭɥɢɱɧɵɣ ɩɟɣɡɚɠ) improvements have already
been completed on Monmouth Street enriching the appearance of the
downtown.
6. The type established by St. Peter’s was widely imitated throughout Italy.
7. If centrally located, skylight/ atrium acts together with low operable
windows to naturally ventilate the space, drawing cool air across the
exposed concrete floors and through the skylight louvers.
8. People can choose different visual experiences from the fixed menu of
the urban environment either by changing their focus of attention in a
given scene or by moving to another location and opening up a completely new vista or picture.
9. The arcade also introduces a unifying element of continuity to the
street scene made up of various retailers.
10. Stoney Street is one of the two principal streets of the Lace Market,
with five and six storey warehouses built with the distinctive red-orange Nottingham brick.
6. The task is to build architecture generous enough to be attractive and
comfortable for any citizen (ɝɨɪɨɠɚɧɢɧ) with no regard to his social
or economic background.
7. City streets will be much more noble, if the doors are built all after the
same model, and the houses on each side stand in an even line, and
none higher than the other’.
8. The economics of most building projects denies anything but standardised (ɫɬɚɧɞɚɪɬɢɡɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɣ) solutions.
9. Architecture is the art and discipline of creating an actual plan of any
complex object or system.
10. There is some danger in attempting to transfer design concepts
which may be effective at one particular time, or at one place or in one
culture to a quite different setting.
Ɍɟɤɫɬ ȼ
L’ Île Verte a Centre Ville, Nantes, France
1. None of the tiles on the facades were cut.
2. If some limit is not placed upon traffic volume the destruction
ɭɧɢɱɬɨɠɟɧɢɟRIVWUHHWVDQGVTXDUHVDVSODFHVRIVRFLDOFRQWDFWZLOO
continue.
3. All rooms on both levels are open to the southwest, to countryside
(ɫɟɥɶɫɤɚɹɦɟɫɬɧɨɫɬɶ) without any housing.
4. There were no original Victorian features left in the flat.
5. +LVWRULFDOEXLOGLQJVLQ-njUPDODɘɪɦɚɥɚ) represent Classicism, Eclectism and National Romanticism, as well as some features of Functionalism.
The project was to create a new urban design for central Nantes in
France. The requirements included the project for a second tramline running along the old bed of the Erdre, the reconstruction of the bomb-damaged Île Feydeau, and new law courts further south. But the main problem
was the definition of a vast area and the project of substantially constraining the flow of cars on the north side of the island and taking them further
south along an axis running from the Loire to the TGV station.
Rather than seeing the project as an invitation to make the space
more dense, the architects took this reduction as a starting point for a “hollow” project conversely. They thus respected the old water routes and
based their design on a respect for the tradition of Nantes as a historic
trading city. The architects did not wish to increase the already considerable number of pedestrian spaces. They therefore left the cars, but aimed
to create a general street and tram level and remove many of the traffic
lights along the Cours, replacing them with mini-roundabouts to permit
changes of direction and crossing.
The project seemed to demand a point of equilibrium that only the
Île Feydeau could provide. Its two components -the Cours and the bed of
the Loire, are articulated around an oval of turf in the middle of which the
real island is inscribed within a park that descends from the chateau to the
168
169
ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɟɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹɨɛɪɚɳɚɹɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟɧɚ
ɧɟɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɺɧɧɵɟɢɨɬɪɢɰɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɟɦɟɫɬɨɢɦɟɧɢɹ
Loire. The oval is free of trees and is interrupted to the north on a triangular parvis conceived as a large wooden quay that will accommodate the
Cours des Cinquante Otages. Built in its first stage of granite and slate,
as it widens out, this also takes in a garden of mixed box-trees and magnolias.
At a time when, lacking a clear strategy for the suburbs, town centres
are being dramatically densified, this project tends to respect the need for
fresh air and relaxation.
Notes:
bomb-damaged ['bPm"dxmIGd] ɫɦ. damage
box-tree ['bPkstrJ] n ɫɚɦɲɢɬ
chateau ['SxtqV] n ɡɚɦɨɤ, ɞɜɨɪɟɰ
conversely [kqn'vWslI] adv ɧɚɨɛɨɪɨɬ
densify ['densI"faI] n ɭɩɥɨɬɧɹɬɶ (ɡɚɫɬɪɨɣɤɭ)
equilibrium ["JkwI'lIbrIqm] n ɪɚɜɧɨɜɟɫɢɟ
invitation ["InvI'teISqn] n ɫɬɢɦɭɥ, ɩɪɢɝɥɚɲɟɧɢɟ
magnolia [mxg'nqVlIq] n ɦɚɝɧɨɥɢɹ
mini-roundabout ɫɦ. roundabout
oval ['qVvql] n ɨɜɚɥ
parvis ['pRvIs] n ɩɚɩɟɪɬɶɨɬɤɪɵɬɨɟɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɨɜɨɤɪɭɝɰɟɪɤɜɢɜɨɎɪɚɧɰɢɢ)
quay [kJ] n ɧɚɛɟɪɟɠɧɚɹ
reconstruction ["rJkqn'strAkSqn] n ɜɨɫɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɢɟɪɟɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɹ
reduction ɫɦ. reduce
trading city ['treIdIN 'sItI] ɬɨɪɝɨɜɵɣ ɝɨɪɨɞ
tramline ['trxmlaIn] n ɬɪɚɦɜɚɣɧɚɹ ɥɢɧɢɹ
turf [tWf] n ɝɚɡɨɧ
Vocabulary exercise
ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤɩɪɢɜɟɞɺɧɧɵɟɧɢɠɟɫɥɨɜɚɢɫɥɨɜɨ
ɫɨɱɟɬɚɧɢɹ ȿɫɥɢ ȼɵ ɧɟ ɡɧɚɟɬɟ ɫɥɨɜɨ ɧɚɣɞɢɬɟ ɟɝɨ ɜ ɫɥɨɜɚɪɟ Ⱦɚɣɬɟ
ɫɢɧɨɧɢɦɵɩɨɞɱɺɪɤɧɭɬɵɯɫɥɨɜɢɚɧɬɨɧɢɦɵɫɥɨɜɜɵɞɟɥɟɧɧɵɯɤɭɪɫɢ
ɜɨɦ
accommodate, articulate, component, conceive, considerable, constrain,
create, crossing, dense, descend, direction, dramatically, further, inscribe,
island, lack, pedestrian, permit, rather than, relaxation, route, slate, substantially, suburb, tend to, therefore, thus, vast, widen.
Answer the following questions
1.
2.
3.
4.
What is the project aimed at?
What is the design based on?
What is the point of equilibrium of the project?
What is the difference of the project from other urban schemes?
Text work
1. ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɬɟɤɫɬ
2. ɋɨɫɬɚɜɶɬɟɩɥɚɧɬɟɤɫɬɚɢɡ–ɩɭɧɤɬɨɜ
3. ɉɨɥɶɡɭɹɫɶ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɧɵɦ ȼɚɦɢ ɩɥɚɧɨɦ ɤɪɚɬɤɨ ɢɡɥɨɠɢɬɟ ɫɨɞɟɪ
ɠɚɧɢɟɬɟɤɫɬɚɧɚɚɧɝɥɢɣɫɤɨɦɹɡɵɤɟ
170
171
Unit 4.6
Ɍɟɤɫɬ Ⱥ
Wall House, Chile
The plot of land situated in the suburbs of Santiago, Chile, has a
rural character, with dirt roads and mature trees forming hedges that don’t
block off the views of the distant Andean mountains.
The house does not have just one set of walls enclosing a single
space, but four, each with different structural, functional, atmospheric, or
climatic qualities affecting the interior areas. At the building’s centre is a
rectangular concrete core and the ground-floor concrete slab containing
gas-powered radiant heating that adjusts the house’s climate, as well as
PEX hoses that cool down the house in summer.
Surrounding the core, and its ceramic-tiled bathroom, is the building’s second layer, comprising the kitchen, dining area, and guest room.
The third layer consists of a transparent skin enclosing two lightfilled, double-height areas along the outer corners of the house that contain both the living room and master bedroom. The shell is made of highinsulation polycarbonate panels that filter the harsh Chilean sun while still
revealing on its surface the changing shadows of trees and outside elements. The panels work together with the soft, fabric membrane that separates the fourth and final layer.
This membrane acts as an energy screen, reflecting almost 70 percent of the house’s UV intake, while air pockets in the polycarbonate panels insulate the building. The two layers are spaced apart from each other
at varying distances so that warm air passes through the shell and out the
membrane.
This membrane drives away mosquitoes and shapes the building into
an unusual cut-diamond figure that echoes the pointy peaks of the nearby
172
Andes. The soft casing, wrapped entirely around the house and flexible to
the demands of its dwellers, creates a tentlike screened porch that can be
opened to allow for breathtaking views of the mountain range. The varied
characteristics of the three transparent wall elements permit changes in
luminosity to adapt to different seasons or times of day.
Starting from a simple, rectangular core, the house’s layers build
upon one another, creating increasingly complex geometries. Thus the
passage from inside to outside the house describes several transformations: from dark, heavy interiors to light, airy living spaces; from the
centuries-old concrete material to the modern, ecofriendly soft skin; from
the simple, private functions of the body to the complex interactions that
occur in public spaces.
Second floor
First floor
1. Living space
2. Kitchen
3. Bathroom
FIGURE 15 First-floor plan
(from Architectural Record 2008-04 [4])
Notes:
air pocket ['eq"pPkIt] ɜɨɡɞɭɲɧɚɹ ɩɨɥɨɫɬɶ
Andes ['xndJz] n pl Ⱥɧɞɵ (ɝɨɪɧɚɹ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɚ)
casing ['keIsIN] n ɨɛɥɢɰɨɜɤɚ ɩɨɤɪɵɬɢɟ
ceramic-tiled ɫɦ. tile
dirt road ['dWtrqVd] ɝɪɭɧɬɨɜɚɹ ɞɨɪɨɝɚ
distant ['dIstqnt] a ɞɚɥɺɤɢɣ, ɭɞɚɥɺɧɧɵɣ
ecofriendly ['JkqV"frendlI] a ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɧɵɣ
filter ['fIltq] v ɩɨɝɥɨɳɚɬɶ (ɫɜɟɬ)
173
luminosity ["lHmI'PsItI] n ɹɪɤɨɫɬɶ, ɨɫɜɟɳɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ
mosquito [mq'skJtqV] n ɤɨɦɚɪ, ɦɨɫɤɢɬ
PEX hose ['pJ'J'eks "hqVz] n ɲɥɚɧɝ ɢɡ ɫɲɢɬɨɝɨ ɩɨɥɢɷɬɢɥɟɧɚ
pointy peak ['pOIntI 'pJk] ɨɫɬɪɨɤɨɧɟɱɧɚɹ ɜɟɪɲɢɧɚ
polycarbonate ["pPlI'kRbqneIt] n ɩɨɥɢɤɚɪɛɨɧɚɬ
radiant heating ɫɦ. heating
Santiago ["sxntI'RgqV] n ɝɋɚɧɬɶɹɝɨ
tentlike ['tentlaIk] a ɩɨɯɨɠɢɣ ɧɚ ɲɚɬɺɪ
UV intake ['jH'vJ'InteIk] ɩɨɫɬɭɩɥɟɧɢɟ ɭɥɶɬɪɚɮɢɨɥɟɬɚ
Pair work
ɋɬɭɞɟɧɬ&Ɂɚɞɚɣɬɟ–ɜɨɩɪɨɫɨɜɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɯɬɢɩɨɜɤɬɟɤɫɬɭA.
ɋɬɭɞɟɧɬ'Ɉɬɜɟɬɶɬɟɧɚɜɨɩɪɨɫɵɤɬɟɤɫɬɭɫɬɭɞɟɧɬɚ&
ɋɬɭɞɟɧɬɵ&ɢ'ɉɨɦɟɧɹɣɬɟɫɶɪɨɥɹɦɢ
Phonetic exercise
ɇɚɣɞɢɬɟɜɬɟɤɫɬɟɫɥɨɜɚɬɪɚɧɫɤɪɢɩɰɢɹɤɨɬɨɪɵɯɞɚɧɚɧɢɠɟɢɩɟ
ɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɢɯɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤ
['fxbrIk]; [mq'CVq]; [GI'PmqtrI]; ['membreIn];
[rek'txNgjVlq]; ['SxdqV]; [rxp]; ['sWfIs].
Vocabulary exercises
1. ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟ ɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɟ ɫɥɨɜɚ ɢ ɫɥɨɜɨɫɨɱɟɬɚɧɢɹ ɧɚ ɚɧɝɥɢɣ
ɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤ
ɚɬɦɨɫɮɟɪɧɵɣ ɦɟɬɟɨɪɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɜɟɪɚɧɞɚ ɬɟɪɪɚɫɚ ɜɤɥɸɱɚɬɶ ɫɨ
ɫɬɚɜɥɹɬɶ ɜɥɢɹɬɶ ɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɨɜɚɬɶ ɞɨɫɬɢɝɲɢɣ ɡɪɟɥɨɫɬɢ ɠɟɫɬɨɤɢɣ
ɛɟɡɠɚɥɨɫɬɧɵɣ ɨ ɤɥɢɦɚɬɟ ɢ ɬ ɩ ɠɢɜɚɹ ɢɡɝɨɪɨɞɶ ɠɢɬɟɥɶ ɨɛɢɬɚ
ɬɟɥɶ ɡɟɦɟɥɶɧɵɣ ɭɱɚɫɬɨɤ ɤɨɪɪɟɤɬɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ ɪɟɝɭɥɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ ɦɚɬɟɪɢɹ
ɬɤɚɧɶ ɧɚɛɨɪ ɤɨɦɩɥɟɤɬ ɨɛɨɥɨɱɤɚ ɨɛɥɢɰɨɜɤɚ ɨɤɪɭɠɚɬɶ ɨɝɨɪɚɠɢ
ɜɚɬɶ ɨɬɝɨɧɹɬɶ ɩɪɨɝɨɧɹɬɶ ɨɬɤɪɵɜɚɬɶ ɩɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɬɶ ɨɯɜɚɬɵɜɚɬɶ ɫɨ
ɫɬɨɹɬɶɢɡɩɨɜɬɨɪɹɬɶɫɹɩɨɞɪɚɠɚɬɶɩɪɢɝɨɪɨɞɩɪɟɞɦɟɫɬɶɹɩɪɨɡɪɚɱ
ɧɵɣɪɚɫɫɬɚɜɥɹɬɶɫɩɪɨɦɟɠɭɬɤɚɦɢɫɟɥɶɫɤɢɣɩɪɨɜɢɧɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɣɫɥɨɣ
ɩɥɚɫɬɪɹɞɰɟɧɬɪɚɥɶɧɨɟɹɞɪɨɠɺɫɬɤɨɫɬɢɷɤɪɚɧ
Ɉɩɪɟɞɟɥɢɬɟ ɟɫɬɶ ɥɢ ɨɲɢɛɤɢ ɜ ɩɟɪɟɜɨɞɟ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɧɵɯ
ɧɢɠɟɫɥɨɜȿɫɥɢɨɲɢɛɤɢɢɦɟɸɬɫɹɭɤɚɠɢɬɟɩɪɚɜɢɥɶɧɵɣɩɟɪɟɜɨɞ
174
abundant ɨɛɢɥɶɧɵɣ
connectivity ɫɜɹɡɚɧɧɨɫɬɶ
destination ɪɚɫɫɬɨɹɧɢɟ
embrace ɨɤɪɭɠɚɬɶ
fin ɪɟɛɪɨ
interlock ɫɨɟɞɢɧɹɬɶɫɹ
mesh ɫɟɬɤɚ
palette ɩɚɥɢɬɪɚ
partition ɩɟɪɟɝɨɪɨɞɤɚ
release ɩɨɧɢɦɚɬɶ
smart ɷɥɟɝɚɧɬɧɵɣ
tile ɨɛɥɢɰɨɜɨɱɧɚɹɩɥɢɬɤɚ
3. ɇɚɣɞɢɬɟ ɜ ɢɧɬɟɪɧɟɬɟ ɩɟɪɟɜɨɞ ɩɟɪɟɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɵɯ ɧɢɠɟ ɫɥɨɜ
ɢɫɥɨɜɨɫɨɱɟɬɚɧɢɣɢɞɚɣɬɟɢɯɫɢɧɨɧɢɦɵɢɡɬɨɣɥɟɤɫɢɤɢɤɨɬɨɪɚɹɢɫ
ɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɚɜɞɚɧɧɨɦɭɱɟɛɧɢɤɟ
absence
cardinal (a)
chisel
conform
elation
endeavour
fault
flawless
humble
subject (v)
ɇɚɣɞɢɬɟɜɩɪɢɦɟɱɚɧɢɹɯɤɬɟɤɫɬɚɦɭɪɨɤɨɜ–ɩɟɪɟɜɨɞɧɚ
ɚɧɝɥɢɣɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɯɫɥɨɜ
ɚɥɶɬɟɪɧɚɬɢɜɚɛɥɚɝɨɝɨɜɟɧɢɟɛɨɤɨɛɨɤɜɥɚɠɧɨɫɬɶɜɧɟɲɧɢɣɜɢɞɝɚ
ɡɨɧɝɥɭɛɢɧɚɤɜɚɪɬɢɪɚɜɞɜɭɯɭɪɨɜɧɹɯɥɢɤɜɢɞɢɪɨɜɚɬɶɦɚɝɢɫɬɪɚɥɶ
ɧɚɛɟɪɟɠɧɚɹɨɛɴɟɞɢɧɟɧɢɟɨɪɝɚɧɢɱɧɨɩɟɪɟɭɫɟɪɞɫɬɜɨɜɚɬɶɩɨɞɜɟɲɢ
ɜɚɬɶɩɪɚɤɬɢɱɧɨɫɬɶɩɪɟɞɩɢɫɚɧɢɟɪɚɡɝɪɚɧɢɱɢɜɚɬɶɪɚɡɴɟɞɢɧɹɬɶɫɜɟɪ
ɤɚɬɶ ɬɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ ɡɚɞɚɧɢɟ ɡɚɤɚɡɱɢɤɚ ɭɞɥɢɧɟɧɧɵɣ ɭɞɨɛɧɵɣ
ɭɩɥɨɬɧɹɬɶɡɚɫɬɪɨɣɤɭ).
Grammar exercises
1. ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟ ɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹ ɨɛɪɚɳɚɹ ɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟ ɧɚ ɮɨɪɦɵ
ɫɫɭɮɮɢɤɫɨɦ-ingɈɩɪɟɞɟɥɢɬɟɤɤɚɤɨɣɱɚɫɬɢɪɟɱɢɨɧɢɨɬɧɨɫɹɬɫɹɢ
ɤɚɤɭɸɮɭɧɤɰɢɸɜɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɢɜɵɩɨɥɧɹɸɬ
1. The office floors, containing the highest quality office space, take the
form of rectangular floor plates progressively diminishing in depth towards the apex.
175
2. Later the building became a department store and a second floor was
added, as well as a new facade on Congress Avenue that included an
awning extending over the sidewalk.
3. By placing the main circulation on the second floor, the architects
linked Lunder physically to adjacent buildings, while remaining
within existing floor-to-ceiling heights.
4. Sites for housing have been designed as open ended squares facing
onto the water.
5. The apparent size or proportion of an element is changed by its detailing.
6. The Olympic games in 1992 created pretext (ɩɨɜɨɞ) for achieving
planning aims that under more normal circumstances may not have
been possible.
7. Classrooms tend to be square in plan rather than rectangular, to provide more flexible spaces for teaching practice and offering better
views of smart boards.
8. Speaking of the Italian villa, it appears that in undulating country the
forms should be square and massive; and, where the segments of
curves are small, the buildings should be low and flat.
9. In the Boulevard des Italiens, just at the turning into the Rue de la Paix
(in Paris), there stands a large and bare-looking house.
10.Vertical fritted glass fins on the third and fourth floors allow daylight
to enter the interior while affording occupants a sense of privacy.
2. ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɟɬɟɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɟɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹɨɛɪɚɳɚɹɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟɧɚ
ɫɥɨɜɚɫɨɬɪɢɰɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɦɢɩɪɢɫɬɚɜɤɚɦɢdis-, im-, in-, ir-, mis-, un-.
6. A sculptural staircase, whose large landings (ɥɟɫɬɧɢɱɧɵɟ ɩɥɨɳɚɞɤɢ)
encourage informal social exchange, welcomes users upon entry
7. The irregular façade design was determined by computing a design to
avoid random forms and to approximate forms in nature.
8. It would be misleading to think that design solutions cannot be generated through analysis from theory.
9. The house is as unconventional as it may be in the neighborhood it
fits in.
10. In the Sculpture Gallery, in the same city, the one distinctively
Greek feature introduced by Klenze, an Ionic portico, is also the one
inappropriate note in the design.
ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɩɪɢɜɟɞɟɧɧɵɟɧɢɠɟɫɥɨɜɚɈɛɪɚɡɭɣɬɟɨɬɧɢɯɩɪɢ
ɥɚɝɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɟ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɹ ɨɞɢɧ ɢɡ ɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɯ ɫɭɮɮɢɤɫɨɜ -able, –
an/ian, –al, -ful, -ive ɢɩɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɢɯ ɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤ
accept, act, architecture, attract, axis, care, Christ, colour, comfort, consider, construct, create, decorate, delight, dimension, effect, Europe, execute, expand, grade, history, honour, idea, identify, industry, move, note,
power, progress, reason, respect, Rome, sense, size, sustain, understand,
use.
Ɍɟɤɫɬ ȼ
Geriatric Home, Leibnitz, Austria
1. The idea to build a supermarket in the suburb seemed to be imperfect.
2. On the city side the free-standing building is slightly recessed in relation to the unbroken, mediaeval façade of Blijmarkt.
3. The façade is an impressive creation despite its somewhat monotonous
fenestration (ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɪɚɫɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɹɨɤɨɧ) and the inartistic repetition in the third story of the composition and proportions of the second.
4. The height transition adjusts two very dissimilar urban scales: the flat,
horizontal one of the park to the West of 11th Avenue and the vertical
one of the tower to the East of the site.
5. New temporary (ɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɣ) exhibitions became so successful that
extension of the museum became unavoidable.
This small nursing home with 19 single rooms is composed of two
separate elements set 2 degrees out of parallel to each other.
The approximately square building contains the administration,
kitchen, communal area and the entrance to the living section on the
ground floor. On the upper floor there are different treatment facilities and
private rooms with balconies. The visitor’s entrance is clearly characterised by a suspended canopy that projects far from the wall; the entrance
for staff and suppliers is situated at the side towards the rear. The porch
and the administration rooms form the northern end of the building, facing
the forecourt. A multi-functional lounge occupying most of the ground
floor opens to the south and is only connected to the west by the kitchen.
The ground floor is structured by the top-lit main staircase standing next
to the lift.
176
177
The small chapel, which is open at the top has a red wall with timber
cladding and is designed in the form of a parabola.
This element consciously places an accent of colour in an otherwise
very reserved space. Special attention was paid to the interior organisation
and circulation: the limited radius of movement of old people is made
more varied by the generous use of glass surfaces and sliding elements
providing views to the exterior.
The living units on the upper floor are reached by a gallery overlooking the ground floor. A short bridge leads to the common room, which
has full-height glazing. The rooms have generous balconies (or terraces
on the ground floor) that are protected against the western sun by the overhanging roof. The east entrance to the individual rooms is a cantilevered
walkway with steps at the ends.
The construction system consists of reinforced concrete pillars and
plates and provide flexibility and the impression of lightness.
Vocabulary exercise
ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤɩɪɢɜɟɞɺɧɧɵɟɧɢɠɟɫɥɨɜɚɢɫɥɨɜɨ
ɫɨɱɟɬɚɧɢɹȿɫɥɢȼɵɧɟɡɧɚɟɬɟɫɥɨɜɨɧɚɣɞɢɬɟɟɝɨɜɫɥɨɜɚɪɟȾɚɣɬɟɫɢ
ɧɨɧɢɦɵɩɨɞɱɺɪɤɧɭɬɵɯɫɥɨɜɢɚɧɬɨɧɢɦɵɫɥɨɜɜɵɞɟɥɟɧɧɵɯɤɭɪɫɢɜɨɦ
approximately, cantilevered, chapel, circulation, consciously, exterior, facility, forecourt, generous, lightness, otherwise, overlook, pillar, project
(v), protect, rear, reinforced concrete, reserved, square (a), suspended,
timber, top-lit, treatment, walkway.
Notes:
geriatric home ["GerI'xtrIkhqVm] ɞɨɦ ɩɪɟɫɬɚɪɟɥɵɯ
nursing home ['nWsINhqVm] ɱɚɫɬɧɵɣ ɢɧɬɟɪɧɚɬ ɞɥɹ ɩɪɟɫɬɚɪɟɥɵɯ
parabola [pq'rxbqlq] n ɩɚɪɚɛɨɥɚ
slide [slaId] a ɪɚɡɞɜɢɠɧɨɣ, ɩɨɞɜɢɠɧɵɣ
supplier [sq'plaIq] n ɩɨɫɬɚɜɳɢɤ (ɬɨɜɚɪɚ, ɭɫɥɭɝɢ)
Answer the following questions
1.
2.
3.
4.
What is the floor-to-floor distribution of the facilities?
Which element places an accent of colour in the space?
How is the circulation within the buildings provided?
What does the construction system of the buildings achieve?
Text work
1. ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɬɟɤɫɬ
2. ɋɨɫɬɚɜɶɬɟɩɥɚɧɬɟɤɫɬɚɢɡ-ɩɭɧɤɬɨɜ
3. ɉɨɥɶɡɭɹɫɶ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɧɵɦ ȼɚɦɢ ɩɥɚɧɨɦ ɤɪɚɬɤɨ ɢɡɥɨɠɢɬɟ ɫɨɞɟɪ
ɠɚɧɢɟɬɟɤɫɬɚɧɚɚɧɝɥɢɣɫɤɨɦɹɡɵɤɟ
178
179
Unit 4.7
Ɍɟɤɫɬ Ⱥ
Once on the campus, visitors can appreciate the office buildings’
boomerang forms and 40-foot cantilevers hovering above the plaza. Curving the buildings’ arms adds a degree of audacity to the design while Gustafson Guthrie Nichol’s landscape aligns with nearby streets, knitting the
complex into its Seattle context.
The project earned a LEED Platinum rating by applying a range of
sustainable strategies, including landscaping and green roofs that cover
40 percent of the site; a 1 million-gallon tank that stores rainwater for use
in irrigation, reflecting pools, and toilets; a 750,000-gallon underground
tank for water to chill the buildings, and aggressive daylighting made possible by narrow buildings that keep all workstations within 30 feet of sunlight.
Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation Headquarters
While the 640,000-square-foot complex designed by NBBJ and
opened in June 2011 has its gaps, it hits most of the right chords in terms
of sustainability, transparency, workplace quality, and image.
The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation headquarters occupies a
prominent site, across Fifth Avenue from the Seattle Center. A pair of
curved office buildings, a reception pavilion, and a 1,000-car parking
structure anchor three corners of the site and may be joined by a third
office building in the future. By burying four of the garage’s five levels
below grade and creating a plaza in front, NBBJ softened the impact of
the huge structure. A visitor center designed by Olson Kundig Architects
occupies part of the garage’s frontage on Fifth Avenue, adding another
hospitable note to the structure.
Early in the design process, the architects and client decided that a
campus was the right model for the project. So they broke the complex
into a set of four buildings and collaborated with Gustafson Guthrie
Nichol on the landscape. Weaving buildings and landscape together was
an essential part of the scheme. To take advantage of a climate that is
temperate most of the year, the design team created a large plaza one level
below the street. (Dropping the plaza below grade allowed the architects
to add an extra floor to the office buildings without surpassing the height
limit, which is measured from the street.) A shaded courtyard next to the
reception pavilion offers views to the plaza below, providing a degree of
transparency to people even if they don’t have any further access.
A
ȼ
ɋ
D
E
F
Office Building A
2IILFH%XLOGLQJȼ
Garage
Future Phase
Space Needle
Experience Music Project
FIGURE 16 Site plan
(from Architectural Record 2012-03 [4])
Notes:
aggressive [q'gresIv] a ɚɤɬɢɜɧɵɣ, ɞɟɣɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣ
boomerang ['bHmqrxN] n ɛɭɦɟɪɚɧɝ
180
181
daylighting ['deIlaItIN] n ɟɫɬɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɟ ɨɫɜɟɳɟɧɢɟ
earn [Wn] v ɡɚɫɥɭɠɢɬɶɫɧɢɫɤɚɬɶɩɨɥɭɱɢɬɶ
gallon ['gxlqn] n ɝɚɥɥɨɧɜɋɒȺ– ɥ)
hospitable ['hPspItqbql] a ɝɨɫɬɟɩɪɢɢɦɧɵɣ, ɪɚɞɭɲɧɵɣ
hover ['hPvq] v ɩɚɪɢɬɶɧɚɜɢɫɚɬɶ
irrigation ["IrI'geISqn] n ɩɨɥɢɜ, ɨɪɨɲɟɧɢɟ
knit [nIt] v ɜɩɥɟɬɚɬɶɫɜɹɡɵɜɚɬɶɫɨɟɞɢɧɹɬɶ
LEED Platinum rating ɫɦ. LEED
Seattle [sI'xtl] n ɝɋɢɷɬɥ
workplace ['wWkpleIs] n ɪɚɛɨɱɟɟ ɦɟɫɬɨ
workstation ['wWk"steISqn] n (ɚɜɬɨɦɚɬɢɡɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɨɟ) ɪɚɛɨɱɟɟ ɦɟɫɬɨ
Pair work
ɋɬɭɞɟɧɬ&Ɂɚɞɚɣɬɟ-ɜɨɩɪɨɫɨɜɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɯɬɢɩɨɜɤɬɟɤɫɬɭA.
ɋɬɭɞɟɧɬ'Ɉɬɜɟɬɶɬɟɧɚɜɨɩɪɨɫɵɤɬɟɤɫɬɭɫɬɭɞɟɧɬɚ&
ɋɬɭɞɟɧɬɵ&ɢ'ɉɨɦɟɧɹɣɬɟɫɶɪɨɥɹɦɢ
Phonetic exercise
ɇɚɣɞɢɬɟɜɬɟɤɫɬɟɫɥɨɜɚɬɪɚɧɫɤɪɢɩɰɢɹɤɨɬɨɪɵɯɞɚɧɚɧɢɠɟɢɩɟ
ɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɢɯɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤ
[pq'vIljqn]; [I'senSql]; [sq"steInq'bIlItI]; [wJv]; ['strxtIGI];
[kq'lxbqreIt]; ['kxntI"lJvq]; [q'prJSIeIt].
Vocabulary exercises
1. ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤɩɪɢɜɟɞɟɧɧɵɟɧɢɠɟɫɥɨɜɚɢɫɥɨ
ɜɨɫɨɱɟɬɚɧɢɹɄɚɤɢɟɢɡɩɟɪɟɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɵɯɫɥɨɜɦɨɝɭɬɛɵɬɶɞɪɭɝɢɦɢɱɚ
ɫɬɹɦɢɪɟɱɢ"Ʉɚɤɢɦɢɢɦɟɧɧɨ"Ʉɚɤɨɧɢɜɷɬɨɦɫɥɭɱɚɟɩɟɪɟɜɨɞɹɬɫɹɧɚ
ɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤ"
collaborate (v), note (n), tank (n), weave (v).
2. ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟ ɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɟ ɫɥɨɜɚ ɢ ɫɥɨɜɨɫɨɱɟɬɚɧɢɹ ɧɚ ɚɧɝɥɢɣ
ɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤ
ɜɥɢɹɧɢɟ ɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟ ɝɚɪɦɨɧɢɱɧɨɫɬɶ ɷɤɨɪɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɶ ɡɚɞɟɬɶ
ɱɭɜɫɬɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɟ ɫɬɪɭɧɵ ɩɨɩɚɫɬɶ ɜ ɬɨɱɤɭ ɡɚɦɟɬɧɵɣ ɛɪɨɫɚɸɳɢɣɫɹ
ɜ ɝɥɚɡɚ ɜɢɞɧɵɣ ɨɛɪɚɡ ɨɛɥɢɤ ɨɛɹɡɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɣ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɵɣ ɨɝɪɟɯ
182
ɨɝɪɨɦɧɵɣɝɪɨɦɚɞɧɵɣɨɰɟɧɢɜɚɬɶɩɨɞɨɫɬɨɢɧɫɬɜɭɩɚɪɚɩɨɝɪɭɠɚɬɶ
ɡɚɪɵɜɚɬɶ ɜ ɡɟɦɥɸ ɩɪɟɜɨɫɯɨɞɢɬɶ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɧɚɹ ɝɪɭɩɩɚ ɪɟɡɟɪɜɭɚɪ ɫɟ
ɪɢɹɧɚɛɨɪɫɢɫɬɟɦɚɫɟɪɬɢɮɢɤɚɰɢɢɡɞɚɧɢɣɢɫɯɨɞɹɢɡɢɯɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɧɨ
ɫɬɢɢɷɧɟɪɝɨɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢɫɤɪɟɩɥɹɬɶɮɢɤɫɢɪɨɜɚɬɶɫɦɟɥɨɫɬɶɞɟɪ
ɡɨɫɬɶ ɫɨɜɩɚɞɚɬɶ ɝɚɪɦɨɧɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ ɫɨɟɞɢɧɹɬɶ ɫɩɥɟɬɚɬɶ ɫɨɯɪɚɧɹɬɶ
ɯɪɚɧɢɬɶ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɹ ɤɨɦɩɥɟɤɫɚ ɡɞɚɧɢɣ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɭɦɟɪɟɧɧɵɣ
(ɨɤɥɢɦɚɬɟɭɪɨɜɟɧɶɡɟɦɥɢɲɬɚɛ-ɤɜɚɪɬɢɪɚ
ɉɟɪɟɱɢɫɥɢɬɟɭɩɨɦɹɧɭɬɵɟɜɬɟɤɫɬɟɚɪɯɢɬɟɤɬɭɪɧɵɟɬɟɪɦɢɧɵɢ
ɩɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɢɯɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤ.
ɇɚɣɞɢɬɟɬɨɥɤɨɜɚɧɢɹɫɥɨɜɫɩɢɫɤɚȺɜɫɩɢɫɤɟȼɈɞɧɨɬɨɥɤɨ
ɜɚɧɢɟɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹɥɢɲɧɢɦȾɚɣɬɟ ɨɞɧɨɤɨɪɟɧɧɵɟ ɫɥɨɜɚ ɤ ɬɟɪɦɢɧɚɦ, ɩɨ
ɦɟɱɟɧɧɵɦ ɡɜɺɡɞɨɱɤɨɣ (*).
A
sustainable*, shed, scheme, nearby*, lounge, allow, devise, generous,
housing*, intricate.
B
1. a systematic plan or arrangement for achieving a particular aim or
effect
2. a slight or temporary structure built to shade or shelter something;
a structure often open in front
3. a public sitting room or area in a hotel, theatre and etc where people
can sit and wait
4. a place that is not far away; adjacent
5. a place or part where two things or parts are joined
6. able to continue without causing damage to the environment
7. accommodation in houses, apartments, etc.
8. larger or more abundant than is usual
9. to develop a method of doing something
10. to let someone do or have something, or let something occur
11. very complicated or detailed
Grammar exercises
ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹɨɛɪɚɳɚɹɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟɧɚɫɨɫɥɚɝɚɬɟɥɶ
ɧɨɟɧɚɤɥɨɧɟɧɢɟ
183
1. A different arrangement of glazing could have easily been “hit and
miss” (ɫɞɟɥɚɧɧɵɣɧɚɚɜɨɫɶ).
2. If we didn’t protect the older housing, a significant amount of housing
occupied by the poor and the elderly would be lost.
3. Decoration could be developed following a process of both direct and
indirect design.
4. 7KHPD[LPXPSHUPLVVLEOHɞɨɩɭɫɬɢɦɵɣVL]HVTXDUHRIIWZRXOG
require buildings of about seven storeys.
5. In architecture, much of the pleasure derives from similar contrasts.
If such contrasts were eliminated (ɭɫɬɪɚɧɹɬɶ) our lives would lose
much vitality.
6. 2QHZRQGHUVɭɞɢɜɥɹɬɶɫɹZK\WKHVFKHPHFRXOGQ¶WKDYHEHHQJLYHQ
sufficient space to allow conventional terraces with a bit of garden and
off-street parking.
7. If the new office towers of the development around St Paul’s had been
as distinctive and as distinguished as the older dome, they may have
been acceptable.
8. Even if the fountain were itself replaced at a later date, the new fountain was likely to remain at the same location.
9. The church of the Madeleine, by Vignon, was designed, in a style as
Roman as the requirements would permit.
10. A few decades ago, glass would have been considered not hardwearing (ɢɡɧɨɫɨɫɬɨɣɤɢɣ) enough a material to act as a wall.
2. ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɟɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹɨɛɪɚɳɚɹɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟɧɚ
ɮɭɧɤɰɢɢɢɧɮɢɧɢɬɢɜɚɢɢɧɮɢɧɢɬɢɜɧɵɟɨɛɨɪɨɬɵ
1. The computer-aided design was able to reproduce the original geometric model and to make a virtual three-dimensional reproduction, that
could be considered likely identical to the original.
2. The urban architects consided the 16th Street Mall in Denver, Colorado, to illustrate the use of a decorated environment to enrich and
bring life back to a downtown.
3. The architect had an opportunity to gain work experience in the rebuilding of Beirut (Ȼɟɣɪɭɬ) Central District.
4. The glass skin, like that of Berlin’s Reichstag dome, allows government to be quite transparent.
184
5. In the neighbourhood of the pyramids are found a large number of
tombs which are thought to be those of private persons.
6. There should be enough common land to be useful and to accommodate children’s games and small gatherings.
7. The aim was to bring all activities under one roof so that there could
be more interchange between departments and greater transparency,
due to open-plan office layout.
8. To propose development strategies, which reduce, as far as possible,
the pressures on a fragile global environment would seem reasonable.
9. The interiors underwent significant alterations to substitute the poor
lighting and ventilation.
10. Developers will have plenty of buildings to choose from.
Ɍɟɤɫɬ ȼ
Leipzig Nene Messe Glass Halls, Leipzig, Germany
Having won an international competition Professor Marg invited Ian
Ritchie Architects to collaborate with him together with IPP IngeQLHXUE‫܄‬URDQG+/-Technik in the design and realization of the huge glass
“winter garden” which is the centrepiece of the new Leipzig International
Exhibition Centre.
The glass hall is 238 m long, 80 m wide, and 28 m high at the apex,
and includes four separate single-storey stone faced buildings providing
catering, shopping & cloakroom facilities. A central work area has been
designated to provide reception, relaxation and meeting areas for conference delegates. Six bridges run through and across the hall 5m above the
main floor level. They are enclosed in curved glass linking the main hall
with the exhibition halls and conference centre, A further bridge links it
with the other entrance pavilion across a water landscape.
The building sought to achieve simplicity with economy, allowing
it to exist as a filigree shell within the central landscape of the site. The
vaulted structure is composed of an external orthogonal single layer grid
shell of uniform-diameter tube stiffened by primary arches of 25 m diameter. The envelope is composed of low-iron PPG starfire laminated glass
panels 1.5–3.125 m, suspended 0.5 m below the grid shell, and includes
discreet perimeter ventilation and fire escape exits at low level, and ventilation/smoke extract “butterfly” openings at high level. Entrances are
located in both end walls.
185
Environmental control is achieved in summer through the opening
vents. In exceptionally hot periods de-ionised water is run from the apex
over the glass vault. Underfloor heating maintains a minimum internal
temperature of 8°C at 2 m above ground level, with perimeter heating
counteracting downdraughts and minimising condensation.
Notes:
°C (degree Celsius) [dI'grJ 'selsIqs] (BrE degree Centigrade) [dI'grJ 'sentIgreId]) ɝɪɚɞɭɫ ɩɨ ɐɟɥɶɫɢɸ
catering ['keItqrIN] n (ɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɟ) ɩɢɬɚɧɢɟ
condensation ["kPnden'seISqn] n ɤɨɧɞɟɧɫɚɰɢɹ, ɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɤɨɧɞɟɧɫɚɬɚ
de-ionised water [dJ'aIqnaIzd "wLtq@ɞɟɢɨɧɢɡɨɜɚɧɧɚɹɞɟɦɢɧɟɪɚɥɢɡɨɜɚɧɧɚɹ
ɜɨɞɚ
delegate ['delIgIt] n ɞɟɥɟɝɚɬ, ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɢɬɟɥɶ
downdraught ɫɦ. draught
economy [I'kPnqmI] n ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɹ, ɛɟɪɟɠɥɢɜɨɫɬɶ
fire escape exit ['faIqrI"skeIp 'egzIt] ɩɨɠɚɪɧɵɣ ɜɵɯɨɞ
Leipzig ['laIpsIg] n ɝ. Ʌɟɣɩɰɢɝ
minimum ['mInImqm] a ɦɢɧɢɦɚɥɶɧɵɣ
PPG (polypropylene glycol) ['pJ'pJ'GJ] n ɩɨɥɢɩɪɨɩɢɥɟɧɝɥɢɤɨɥɶ
starfire ['stRfaIq] n ɡɜɟɡɞɧɵɣɧɚɡɜɚɧɢɟɩɢɝɦɟɧɬɚ)
underfloor heating ɫɦ. heating
ventilation/smoke extract ["ventI'leISqn/smqVk 'ekstrxkt] ɞɵɦɨɜɵɬɹɠɧɚɹ ɫɢ
ɫɬɟɦɚ
Vocabulary exercise
ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤɩɪɢɜɟɞɺɧɧɵɟɧɢɠɟɫɥɨɜɚɢɫɥɨɜɨ
ɫɨɱɟɬɚɧɢɹȿɫɥɢȼɵɧɟɡɧɚɟɬɟɫɥɨɜɨɧɚɣɞɢɬɟɟɝɨɜɫɥɨɜɚɪɟȾɚɣɬɟɫɢ
ɧɨɧɢɦɵɩɨɞɱɺɪɤɧɭɬɵɯɫɥɨɜɢɚɧɬɨɧɢɦɵɫɥɨɜɜɵɞɟɥɟɧɧɵɯɤɭɪɫɢɜɨɦ
across, arch, collaborate, counteract, curved, designate, discreet, enclose,
end wall, external, faced, filigree, grid, high, include, in spite of, landscape, layer, link, locate, seek, shell, simplicity, through, uniform (a), vent.
Answer the following questions
1.
2.
3.
4.
Who did Professor Marg collaborate with in the design?
How is circulation within the centre provided?
What is the envelope composed of?
How is environmental control achieved?
Text work
1. ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɬɟɤɫɬ
2. ɋɨɫɬɚɜɶɬɟɩɥɚɧɬɟɤɫɬɚɢɡ–ɩɭɧɤɬɨɜ
3. ɉɨɥɶɡɭɹɫɶ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɧɵɦ ȼɚɦɢ ɩɥɚɧɨɦ ɤɪɚɬɤɨ ɢɡɥɨɠɢɬɟ ɫɨɞɟɪ
ɠɚɧɢɟɬɟɤɫɬɚɧɚɚɧɝɥɢɣɫɤɨɦɹɡɵɤɟ
186
187
Unit 4.8
Ɍɟɤɫɬ Ⱥ
rich cherry wood; its wall panels are stainless steel. The volume of the
concession area, with 22-ft-high ceilings, is double that of the concourse’s
lounges. A glass-paneled expanse looks out to the Alaska Range.
The LEED-certified buildings in Alaska number fewer than a dozen.
Though the terminal is cooled using ground-source heat pumps during
warm months, and much of the stainless steel for the project came from a
local fabricator, when the project was first developed there wasn’t interest
in pursuing the certification. A LEED certification for the airport would
have assured other builders of the promise and possibility of sustainable
design in Alaska.
Fairbanks International Airport, Fairbanks, Alaska
In the 1950s a small terminal was erected in Fairbanks, Alaska. By
2003 approximately 800,000 travellers used the airport annually. Over the
next two decades, forecasts predicted traffic increasing to 920,000. Airport officials realised they would have to make changes to control that
growth. Bettisworth North of Fairbanks was commissioned to draw up a
comprehensive terminal-area development plan.
The plan resulted in an 84,000 ft2 addition, a 59,000 ft2 renovation
of the existing terminal, and demolition of the remaining structure.
The airport’s face to those arriving by road is a glass-paneled curtain
wall marked by four vestibules in orange glass. Their permanent lighting
gives off a firelike glow against the darkness, which by December descends on Fairbanks for all but a few hours.
Visitors move through the lobby on an axial circulation path that
extends like a spine along the front of the building and passes ticketing
areas, rental car booths, and baggage claim. The simple path is bordered
by exposed steel pillars wrapped in concrete planks. The planks were
formed using a mold based on local spruce, giving the space a woody
feeling. The path’s ceiling is heavy timber construction and glulam
beams. The use of wood is repeated in paneling and ceilings throughout
the terminal – a dominant local construction material.
The transition of finishes and materials from the first-floor entry hall
to the second-floor concourse is meant to pass to departing travellers the
idea that they are leaving a pioneer town for a more refined destination,
and just the opposite for those arriving. The materials on the concourse
are the same as the entry hall, but more polished. Its floor is covered in
188
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Baggage claim
Greeter lobby
Ticketing
Customs and border control
Baggage handling
Baggage screening
Boarding lounge
FIGURE 17 Fairbanks International Airport
(from Architectural Record 2010-03 [4])
Notes:
Alaska [q'lxskq] n Ⱥɥɹɫɤɚ (ɲɬɚɬ ɋɒȺ)
baggage claim ['bxgIG kleIm@ɜɵɞɚɱɚɛɚɝɚɠɚ
booth [bHT] n ɤɢɨɫɤ, ɫɬɨɣɤɚ
189
cherry wood ['CerIwVd] ɞɪɟɜɟɫɢɧɚ ɜɢɲɧɟɜɨɝɨ ɞɟɪɟɜɚ
comprehensive ["kPmprI'hensIv] a ɞɟɬɚɥɶɧɵɣ, ɩɨɞɪɨɛɧɵɣ
concession area ɫɦ. area
darkness ['dRknIs] n ɬɟɦɧɨɬɚ, ɧɨɱɶ
depart [dJ'pRt] v ɭɟɡɠɚɬɶ, ɨɬɛɵɜɚɬɶ
dozen ['dAzqn] n ɞɸɠɢɧɚ
fabricator ['fxbrIkeItq] n ɢɡɝɨɬɨɜɢɬɟɥɶ
firelike ['faIq"laIk] a ɩɨɞɨɛɧɵɣ ɤɨɫɬɪɭ
forecast ['fLkRst] n ɩɪɨɝɧɨɡ
glulam beam ɫɦ. beam 1 4.8a
ground-source heat pump ɫɦ. ground
LEED-certified ɫɦ LEED
mold (BrE mould) [mqVld] n ɫɦ mould
pioneer town ["paIq'nIq "taVn] ɝɨɪɨɞ-ɩɟɪɜɨɩɪɨɯɨɞɰɟɜ
promise ['prPmIs] n ɩɟɪɫɩɟɤɬɢɜɚ, ɧɚɞɟɠɞɚ
terminal ['tWmInql] n ɚɷɪɨɜɨɤɡɚɥ
woody ['wVdI] a ɥɟɫɢɫɬɵɣ, ɥɟɫɧɨɣ
2. ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟ ɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɟ ɫɥɨɜɚ ɢ ɫɥɨɜɨɫɨɱɟɬɚɧɢɹ ɧɚ ɚɧɝɥɢɣ
ɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤ
ɜɟɪɯɧɢɣɨɬɞɟɥɨɱɧɵɣɫɥɨɣɝɨɪɧɚɹɫɢɫɬɟɦɚɰɟɩɶɝɨɪ); ɝɨɪɧɵɣɯɪɟ
ɛɟɬ ɞɜɨɣɧɨɣɜɞɜɨɟɛɨɥɶɲɢɣɞɟɫɹɬɢɥɟɬɢɟɞɨɥɠɧɨɫɬɧɵɟɥɢɰɚɞɨ
ɦɢɧɢɪɭɸɳɢɣɨɫɧɨɜɧɨɣɟɠɟɝɨɞɧɨɠɟɥɟɡɨɛɟɬɨɧɧɚɹɩɥɚɫɬɢɧɚɡɚɤɚ
ɡɵɜɚɬɶɩɨɪɭɱɚɬɶɡɚɥɨɠɢɞɚɧɢɹɢɫɤɚɬɶɞɨɛɢɜɚɬɶɫɹɤɚɧɚɞɫɤɚɹɟɥɶ
ɧɟɪɠɚɜɟɸɳɚɹ ɫɬɚɥɶ ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɢɜɚɬɶ ɝɚɪɚɧɬɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ ɨɤɚɣɦɥɹɬɶ
ɨɤɪɭɠɚɬɶ ɩɨɤɪɵɜɚɬɶ ɨɫɟɜɨɣ ɨɬɩɨɥɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɣ ɨɬɲɥɢɮɨɜɚɧɧɵɣ
ɩɚɧɟɥɶɧɚɹɨɛɲɢɜɤɚɨɯɥɚɠɞɚɬɶɩɨɜɫɸɞɭɜɟɡɞɟɩɪɟɞɫɤɚɡɵɜɚɬɶɩɪɨ
ɫɬɢɪɚɬɶɫɹɬɹɧɭɬɶɫɹɩɪɨɫɬɨɪɲɢɪɨɤɨɟɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɨɫɧɨɫɪɚɡɪɭ
ɲɟɧɢɟ ɫɬɨɣɤɚ ɨɩɨɪɚ ɬɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ ɡɚɞɚɧɢɟ ɭɥɭɱɲɟɧɧɵɣ ɭɫɨɜɟɪ
ɲɟɧɫɬɜɨɜɚɧɧɵɣɮɨɪɦɚɲɚɛɥɨɧ
Ɉɩɪɟɞɟɥɢɬɟ ɟɫɬɶ ɥɢ ɨɲɢɛɤɢ ɜ ɩɟɪɟɜɨɞɟ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɧɵɯ
ɧɢɠɟɫɥɨɜȿɫɥɢɨɲɢɛɤɢɢɦɟɸɬɫɹɭɤɚɠɢɬɟɩɪɚɜɢɥɶɧɵɣɩɟɪɟɜɨɞ
Pair work
ɋɬɭɞɟɧɬ&Ɂɚɞɚɣɬɟ–ɜɨɩɪɨɫɨɜɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɯɬɢɩɨɜɤɬɟɤɫɬɭA.
ɋɬɭɞɟɧɬ'Ɉɬɜɟɬɶɬɟɧɚɜɨɩɪɨɫɵɤɬɟɤɫɬɭɫɬɭɞɟɧɬɚ&
ɋɬɭɞɟɧɬɵ&ɢ'ɉɨɦɟɧɹɣɬɟɫɶɪɨɥɹɦɢ
Phonetic exercise
ɇɚɣɞɢɬɟɜɬɟɤɫɬɟɫɥɨɜɚɬɪɚɧɫɤɪɢɩɰɢɹɤɨɬɨɪɵɯɞɚɧɚɧɢɠɟɢɩɟ
ɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɢɯɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤ
[DqV]; [sq"tIfI'keISqn]; [q'prPksImItlI]; [pq'sjH]; [TrH];
['kPNkLs]; [q'SVq]; ['pWmqnqnt].
Vocabulary exercises
ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤɩɪɢɜɟɞɟɧɧɵɟɧɢɠɟɫɥɨɜɚɢɫɥɨ
ɜɨɫɨɱɟɬɚɧɢɹɄɚɤɢɟɢɡɩɟɪɟɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɵɯɫɥɨɜɦɨɝɭɬɛɵɬɶɞɪɭɝɢɦɢɱɚ
ɫɬɹɦɢɪɟɱɢ"Ʉɚɤɢɦɢɢɦɟɧɧɨ"Ʉɚɤɨɧɢɜɷɬɨɦɫɥɭɱɚɟɩɟɪɟɜɨɞɹɬɫɹɧɚ
ɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤ"
assure (v), officials (n), spine (n).
190
audacity ɫɦɟɥɨɫɬɶ
discreet ɫɤɪɨɦɧɵɣ
fresh ɨɪɢɝɢɧɚɥɶɧɵɣ
groined vault ɤɪɟɫɬɨɜɵɣɫɜɨɞ
initial ɩɟɪɜɨɧɚɱɚɥɶɧɵɣ
lend ɞɚɜɚɬɶ
lie ɤɥɚɫɬɶ
maintain ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɢɜɚɬɶ
mean ɩɪɟɞɧɚɡɧɚɱɚɬɶ
noxious ɜɪɟɞɧɵɣɩɚɝɭɛɧɵɣ
once ɤɚɤɬɨɥɶɤɨ
realization ɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɥɟɧɢɟ
ɇɚɣɞɢɬɟɜɬɟɤɫɬɟɥɟɤɫɢɱɟɫɤɢɯɨɲɢɛɨɤ
The idea of harmony in architecture is extremely derived from the
Renaissance. The aim of Classical architecture has always been to achieve
an apparent harmony of parts. Such harmony has been removed to be inherent to the buildings of antiquity and to be to a great extent “built in” to
the principal antique elements – especially to the five orders. The module
(ɦɨɞɭɥɶ) used to achieve harmony through proportion was the radius of
the column at its base which was divided into thirty parts.
City elements of the structure were derived from this module. The
five orders of architecture each had their own system of proportion, for
example, in the Tuscan order the atrium height was fourteen modules, in
the Ionic and Corinthian it was nineteen and in the Composite twenty. All
191
other parts of the orders varied in a similar way. The purpose of such proportions is to establish harmony throughout the building. The harmony is
appreciated through the use of one or more of the orders as dominant components of the building, or further simply by the use of dimensions repeating simple modules.
Grammar exercises
1. ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɟɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɢɬɟɮɭɧɤɰɢɸ
ɫɥɨɜɚone.
1. A gently stepped ramp, similar to the one that surrounds the inside of
the Reichstag dome but more functional, encircles the structure.
2. The building comprises three parts which are shifted in relation to one
another. Two of those have courtyards and the central one has a large
living room.
3. The old Cathedral, Notre-Dame, lies in the heart of the town; and takes
one back along the years, far past the Renaissance, to those medieval
GD\VZKHQHYHQFKXUFKHVZHUHSODFHVRIGHIHQFHɨɛɨɪɨɧɚ
4. Seventy-six entrances, each one numbered, allowed the spectators
ɡɪɢɬɟɥɢ) to find their seats and exit easily.
5. The choice of an octagonal (ɜɨɫɶɦɢɭɝɨɥɶɧɵɣ) plan is an unusual one
for a castle.
6. Bernini puts the figures of Saint Teresa and the Angel (ɚɧɝɟɥ) above
the altar in a niche (ɧɢɲɚ) lit from above where one would expect to
see a painting.
7. Treating every project as a new one fitting into a specific location is a
good way of avoiding routine (ɪɭɬɢɧɚ).
8. The Mary Rose museum is unique as the only one in the world to be
inspired by the archaeological find (ɚɪɯɟɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɚɹɧɚɯɨɞɤɚ).
9. Another strange aspect appears when one looks at the facades of the
building. It is framed in two stone walls which remain open at the
comer.
10.The facade was realized as a curtain of mystery (ɬɚɣɧɚ) that, on being
opened, allows one to see a long corridor covered by a pergola formed
by a ribs of glass.
1. The lower bracket has shorter sides than the upper one so that the upper
level projects over the lower level and roofs parts of the outdoor area.
2. This is one of the most impressive churches of its size in Europe.
3. An alternative arrangement of glazing could have been appropriate.
4. Clearly, buildings of quality are a prime requirement, which was to a
great extent lacking in Holford's St Paul's precinct.
5. Buildings have been traditionally designed using accepted premises.
6. There are certain combinations of lines, light, and shadow that, although indeed meaningless (ɛɟɫɫɦɵɫɥɟɧɧɵɣ), nevertheless please our
eye and mind.
7. It is remarkable that the changes, the modifications of the architecture
JLYHQ E\ 5RPH ZHUH FRQFHLYHG LQ WKH SURYLQFHV ɩɪɨɜɢɧɰɢɢ) long
before they were reproduced in Italy.
8. Following the route of the old Roman road from northeast to southwest, one finds oneself back at the entrance of the Parc Central, which
is identified by a striking earthwork (ɡɟɦɥɹɧɨɟɫɨɨɪɭɠɟɧɢɟ) that is
visible from a considerable distance.
9. It is highly probable that if the citizens had been asked 20, or even
10 years ago, the answer would have been much different.
10. The churches in which a Greek or Latin cross is dominated by a high
dome rising from a drum and terminating in a lantern, and is treated
both internally and externally with Roman Corinthian pilasters and
arches, are almost numberless.
3. ɉɪɟɨɛɪɚɡɭɣɬɟɩɪɢɜɟɞɺɧɧɵɟɧɢɠɟɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹɜɤɨɫɜɟɧɧɭɸ
ɪɟɱɶ ɫɨɛɥɸɞɚɹ ɩɪɚɜɢɥɚ ɫɨɝɥɚɫɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɜɪɟɦɺɧ ɜ ɚɧɝɥɢɣɫɤɨɦ ɹɡɵɤɟ
ȼɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɟɝɥɚɜɧɨɝɨɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɣɬɟɫɥɨɜɨɫɨɱɟɬɚɧɢɹIt is
said that «ɢIt was said that «ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɩɪɟɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɧɧɵɟɩɪɟɞ
ɥɨɠɟɧɢɹɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤ
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
The commission is complex.
Two walls of the courtyard are original.
Glass balustrades extend up three metres.
The internal corridor forms an additional insulation.
The house is reached via a black gravel walkway.
2. ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɟɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹɨɛɪɚɳɚɹɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟɧɚ
ɮɭɧɤɰɢɢɝɥɚɝɨɥɨɜhave ɢbe.
192
193
Ɍɟɤɫɬ ȼ
Answer the following questions
Red Wall Shanghai China
The project had to deal with severe limits: a particularly meagre
budget, a site that was oblong and narrow and, above all, the severe reasoning of the investor who had intention of commercially exploiting every
single square meter of the new building. The Italian architect therefore
proposed a simple design: a regular volume of four floors, empty in the
centre as this was necessary to provide light for illuminating the upper
levels intended to be offices. The Red Wall has not been designed with
complex structures or expensive material, but to maximize the local resources and know-how. The aim was to concentrate the experimentation
on the “skin”.
The limits of the budget and the decision to concentrate on the external face or skin have in effect produced a dual result, which is sculptural and functional at the same time. The aesthetics and the identity of
the building have been fine-tuned towards the environmental comfort of
the interior. The main façade is a long composition of panels in red aluminium, triangular in form, intended to be perceived as in movement from the
interior of the motor cars that transit the elevated road on the opposite side.
The principal façade of the Red Wall is completely two-dimensional; however, the pattern of the composition creates a strange optical
mesh effect which seems to create a relief movement. In this way Gatti
obtains an astonishing result, optimizing the resources at hand: to effect
this, no more aluminium was used than for a conventional facework. The
“red wall” is thick and has linear and narrow openings in order to limit
the acoustic and visual pollution resulting from the presence of traffic.
The “skin” of the façade gives a sculptural effect and its width provides
the shade necessary to prevent overheating.
Notes:
budget ['bAGIt] n ɫɦɟɬɚ, ɛɸɞɠɟɬ
China ['CaInq] n Ʉɢɬɚɣ
dual ['djHql] a ɞɜɨɣɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣ, ɞɜɨɣɧɨɣ
experimentation [Ik"sperImen'teISqn] n ɷɤɫɩɟɪɢɦɟɧɬɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ
facework ['feIswWk] n ɨɛɥɢɰɨɜɤɚ, ɨɛɥɢɰɨɜɨɱɧɚɹ ɪɚɛɨɬɚ
fine-tuned ['faIn"tjHnd] a ɬɨɱɧɨ ɧɚɫɬɪɨɟɧɧɵɣ
investor [In'vestq] n ɢɧɜɟɫɬɨɪ
optimize ['PptImaIz] AmE v ɨɩɬɢɦɢɡɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ
194
1.
2.
3.
4.
What were the limits of the project?
How did these limits influence the design?
What is the main façade appearance intended for?
What does the “skin” of the façade provide?
Text work
1. ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɬɟɤɫɬ
2. ɋɨɫɬɚɜɶɬɟɩɥɚɧɬɟɤɫɬɚɢɡ–ɩɭɧɤɬɨɜ
3. ɉɨɥɶɡɭɹɫɶ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɧɵɦ ȼɚɦɢ ɩɥɚɧɨɦ ɤɪɚɬɤɨ ɢɡɥɨɠɢɬɟ ɫɨɞɟɪ
ɠɚɧɢɟɬɟɤɫɬɚɧɚɚɧɝɥɢɣɫɤɨɦɹɡɵɤɟ
Vocabulary exercise
ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤɩɪɢɜɟɞɺɧɧɵɟɧɢɠɟɫɥɨɜɚɢɫɥɨɜɨ
ɫɨɱɟɬɚɧɢɹȿɫɥɢȼɵɧɟɡɧɚɟɬɟɫɥɨɜɨɧɚɣɞɢɬɟɟɝɨɜɫɥɨɜɚɪɟȾɚɣɬɟɫɢ
ɧɨɧɢɦɵɩɨɞɱɺɪɤɧɭɬɵɯɫɥɨɜɢɚɧɬɨɧɢɦɵɫɥɨɜɜɵɞɟɥɟɧɧɵɯɤɭɪɫɢɜɨɦ
above all, astonishing, at hand, at the same time, complex (a), conventional, deal with, decision, elevated, environmental, identity, in effect, in
this way, intention, know-how, meagre, oblong, obtain, optical mesh,
overheating, pattern, perceive, pollution, propose, provide, reasoning, resources, result from, severe, transit, triangular.
Ɍɟɤɫɬ C
Valmy Footbridge: An Architectural Marvel
Linking the west part of the Parisian financial district La Defense
with the city of Nanterre via the recently erected highrise building “Tour
Granite”, this 90 m long footbridge winding through a dense architectural
web is a modern urban promenade based on an ambitious structural concept.
The client – EPA Seine Arche – is an institution in charge of developing the public space between La Défense and Nanterre. During an architectural competition in Paris, the project of the architect Dietmar
Feichtinger has been chosen.
The architectural ambition for lightness and transparency is obtained
by a balance of forces. The structural functions – tension and compression
are clearly expressed. The dimension of each element is minimised. The
195
organic and soft shape of the structure – close to the pedestrians – is in
opposition to the monumental scale and the “cold” abstract expression of
the highrise buildings.
The bridge keeps a large distance with the building and the supporting structure has been transferred to the exterior curve. This allows obtaining a maximum of natural light for the offices and the cafeteria. The
bridge attains the “Tour Granite” on the first floor. Escalators and stairs
link up with the ground level in the city of Nanterre.
The rhythm of the structural elements assures the identity of the
bridge. The main structural elements are the girders accentuating the
bridge every 10 m as the “spinal column” of the bridge. The deck consists
of a steel sheet box girder. The radiating “spine elements” are interconnected by pre-stressed cables. A system of cantilevers takes on the vertical
forces. Resistance against torsion is assured by the deck and retaining cables below pre-stressed in the circumferential direction. The walking surface of the deck is covered with a uniform dark grey epoxy resin. The
continuous surface opposes the stone pattern of the existing platforms and
reinforces the impression of the bridge as a link.
The railings are composed of pre-stressed horizontal steel cables and
a tube of stainless steel as handrail. The posts are made of 2 parallel steel
plates including fixation for the light. Functional light is assured by fluorescent tubes vertically installed with each post and covered by a perforated stainless steel protection sheet. Glass screens as wind shields are
fixed at the exterior curve so that the pedestrian may view the cityscape.
At night the illumination of the masts emphasises the rhythmic structure
of the promenade.
Supporting Elements
One can compare the structure of the Granite-footbridge with a spinal column: each element functions actively to assure stability creating a
balance of tension and compression forces achieving maximum lightness:
the spinal elements (“masts”), cables and the bridge deck.
The bridge is supported on each end by a combination of 2 anchoring elements fixing the beam: On one side the bridge is supported by a
pile and anchored in the concrete slab of the existing platform, on the
other side it is supported by 2 piles.
The suspension structure – spinal elements and suspension cables –
supports the vertical forces. It is positioned asymmetrically to the deck
beam. Forces are being transmitted from the centre to the anchorage on
the 2 ends. The closer one gets to the supports the stronger are the forces
196
in the cables. This is why the number and the diameter of the cables as
well as the height and the cross section of the spinal elements increase
towards the supports.
Torsion is created by the curved geometry in plan and the asymmetrical layout of the supporting structure. Retaining cables are being installed under the bridge deck linking the spinal elements to balance torsion causing a horizontal force. The curved layout and the inclination of
the upper part of the spinal element demand transversal stabilisation.
A vertical cable linking the two ends of each spinal element responds to
this effort.
The bridge deck is as light as possible and responds to flexion and
torsion. A lift gives additional access to the bridge linking the street level
to the deck.
Notes:
anchorage ɫɦ anchor
asymmetrically ["eIsI'metrIkqlI] adv ɚɫɢɦɦɟɬɪɢɱɧɨ
compression [kqm'preSqn] n ɫɠɚɬɢɟ
financial [faI'nxnSql] a ɮɢɧɚɧɫɨɜɵɣ
fixation ɫɦ. fix
flexion ['flekSqn] n ɫɝɢɛɚɧɢɟ, ɢɡɝɢɛ
footbridge ['fVt"brIG] n ɩɟɲɟɯɨɞɧɵɣ ɦɨɫɬ
handrail ['hxndreIl] n ɩɟɪɢɥɚ, ɨɝɪɚɠɞɟɧɢɟ
highrise ['haIraIz] a ɜɵɫɨɬɧɵɣ, ɦɧɨɝɨɷɬɚɠɧɵɣ
mast [mRst] n ɫɬɨɣɤɚ, ɨɩɨɪɚ
opposition ɫɦ opposite
pre-stressed ["prJ'strest] a ɩɪɟɞɜɚɪɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ-ɧɚɩɪɹɠɟɧɧɵɣ
resistance [rI'zIstqns] n ɩɪɨɱɧɨɫɬɶɫɨɩɪɨɬɢɜɥɟɧɢɟ
spinal ['spaInl] a ɫɩɢɧɚɥɶɧɵɣ; spinal column ɫɦ. column
suspension ɫɦ. cable
torsion ['tLSqn] n ɤɪɭɱɟɧɢɟ, ɫɤɪɭɱɢɜɚɧɢɟ
transversal stabilisation [trxnz'vWsql "steIbIlaI'zeISqn] ɩɨɩɟɪɟɱɧɚɹ ɭɫɬɨɣɱɢ
ɜɨɫɬɶ
wind shield ɫɦ. wind
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Answer the following questions
Where was the footbridge built?
How is the ambition for lightness and transparency obtained?
Who has been chosen for the project?
How is the footbridge connected to ground structures?
What is the structure of the footbridge?
What does the illumination of the footbridge feature?
197
7. What makes the structure of the Granite-footbridge resemble (ɛɵɬɶ
ɩɨɯɨɠɢɦɧɚ) a spinal column?
8. What is the suspension structure of the bridge?
9. How is torsion balanced in it?
Communication exercise
ɍɱɟɛɧɚɹ ɝɪɭɩɩɚ ɪɚɡɛɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɧɚ ɞɜɟ ɩɨɞɝɪɭɩɩɵ Ʉɚɠɞɚɹ ɩɨɞ
ɝɪɭɩɩɚɜɵɛɢɪɚɟɬɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɣɝɪɚɞɨɫɬɪɨɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣɩɪɨɟɤɬɜɊɨɫɫɢɢ
ɢɥɢ ɡɚ ɪɭɛɟɠɨɦ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɵ ɧɟ ɞɨɥɠɧɵ ɫɨɜɩɚɞɚɬɶ ɢɥɢ ɛɵɬɶ ɨɩɢɫɚɧɵ
ɜɞɚɧɧɨɦɭɱɟɛɧɢɤɟɢɨɛɫɭɠɞɚɟɬɟɝɨɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɢɞɨɫɬɨɢɧɫɬɜɚɢɧɟ
ɞɨɫɬɚɬɤɢ ɐɟɥɶ ɨɛɫɭɠɞɟɧɢɹ – ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɫɨɨɛɳɟɧɢɹ ɨɛɴɺɦɨɦ
15–ɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɣ
ɉɨ ɨɤɨɧɱɚɧɢɢ ɨɛɫɭɠɞɟɧɢɹ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɢɬɟɥɶ ɤɚɠɞɨɣ ɩɨɞɝɪɭɩɩɵ
ɞɟɥɚɟɬɫɨɨɛɳɟɧɢɟɞɥɹɭɱɚɫɬɧɢɤɨɜɞɪɭɝɨɣɩɨɞɝɪɭɩɩɵɚɡɚɬɟɦɨɬɜɟ
ɱɚɟɬɧɚɢɯɜɨɩɪɨɫɵɩɨɬɟɦɟ
Vocabulary exercise
ȼ ɫɩɢɫɤɟ Ⱥ ɞɚɧɵ ɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɫɥɨɜɚ ɢ ɜɵɪɚɠɟɧɢɹ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɢɫ
ɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɵ ɜ ɬɟɤɫɬɟ ɞɥɹ ɞɨɦɚɲɧɟɝɨ ɱɬɟɧɢɹ ɇɚɣɞɢɬɟ ɢɯ ɩɟɪɟɜɨɞ
ɜɫɩɢɫɤɟȼ
Ⱥ
accentuate
actively
anchor
assure
attain
be in charge of
cable
cantilever (n)
cause
circumferential
direction
competition
deck
dimension
epoxy
erect
girder
B
ɷɩɨɤɫɢɞɧɚɹ ɫɦɨɥɚ
ɱɟɪɟɡ
ɭɱɪɟɠɞɟɧɢɟ
ɭɫɬɚɧɚɜɥɢɜɚɬɶ
ɭɡɨɪ
ɬɪɨɫ
ɫɬɪɨɢɬɶ
ɫɨɟɞɢɧɹɬɶ
ɫɜɚɹ
ɪɚɫɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɟ
Ⱥ
identity
institution
layout
lightness
link (v)
obtain
pattern
pile
position (v)
promenade
soft
ɪɚɡɦɟɪ
ɩɪɨɥɺɬɧɨɟɫɬɪɨɟɧɢɟ spine
tension
ɩɨɞɱɟɪɤɢɜɚɬɶ
transfer (v)
ɩɟɪɟɧɨɫɢɬɶ
via
ɨɫɶ
wind
ɨɝɢɛɚɬɶ
198
B
ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɢɜɚɬɶ
ɧɚɬɹɠɟɧɢɹ
ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɟɜɞɨɥɶ
ɨɤɪɭɠɧɨɫɬɢ
ɦɟɫɬɨɞɥɹɝɭɥɹɧɶɹ
ɥɺɝɤɨɫɬɶ
ɥɺɝɤɢɣ
ɤɪɟɩɢɬɶ
ɤɨɧɫɨɥɶ
ɤɨɧɤɭɪɫ
ɢɧɞɢɜɢɞɭɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɶ
ɞɨɫɬɢɝɚɬɶ
ɞɨɛɢɜɚɬɶɫɹ
ɜɵɡɵɜɚɬɶ
ɛɵɬɶɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣɡɚ
ɛɚɥɨɱɧɚɹɮɟɪɦɚ
ɚɤɬɢɜɧɨ
TEST 11
Part I – Vocabulary
ɁɚɞɚɧɢɟȺɈɩɪɟɞɟɥɢɬɟɫɥɨɜɚɤɤɨɬɨɪɵɦɨɬɧɨɫɹɬɫɹɩɟɪɟɱɢɫ
ɥɟɧɧɵɟɧɢɠɟɬɨɥɤɨɜɚɧɢɹ
x Independently supported outer wall that carries only its own weight
and is freely removable.
x Horizontal architectural member supporting the weight above an
opening, as a window or a door.
x Triangular upper part of the front of a classical building, typically
set over a portico.
x Having many and various forms, features, parts, etc.
x Can change or be changed easily to suit any new situation.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
–
–
–
–
–
Ɂɚɞɚɧɢɟ B. Ɂɚɩɨɥɧɢɬɟ ɩɪɨɩɭɫɤɢ ɜ ɬɟɤɫɬɟ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɹ ɫɥɨɜɚ ɢɡ
ɩɪɢɜɟɞɺɧɧɨɝɨɧɢɠɟɫɩɢɫɤɚɌɪɢɫɥɨɜɚɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹɥɢɲɧɢɦɢ
access
bank
castle
delight
districts
emphasis
fabric
merit
6. –
7. –
8. –
9. –
10.–
Canyeret is a district of the old historic centre of the Catalonian hill
town of Lerida located between the Gothic cathedral and the walled (6)
… above, and the 19th-century (7) … along the river below.
A remarkable feature of the Canyeret redevelopment is that the municipal building is the primary focus for the scheme, rather than a housing
199
complex. The scheme is strongly inspired by the Italian restoration policies developed for the northern Italian hill towns with its (8) … on the
problem of inserting new urban (9) … into the old and particularly on
treating historic hill towns in such a way that the old and the new complement each other.
Another remarkable feature of the new mixed-use urban scheme of
Canyeret is the emphasis it places on creating pedestrian circulation patterns, public spaces and easy (10) … within the new urban continuity.
ɁɚɞɚɧɢɟC. Ⱦɚɣɬɟɩɟɪɟɜɨɞɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɯɫɥɨɜɢɫɥɨɜɨɫɨɱɟɬɚɧɢɣɧɚ
ɚɧɝɥɢɣɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤ
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
ɰɟɧɬɪɚɥɶɧɚɹɥɢɧɢɹɨɫɶ – …
ɚɠɭɪɧɵɣ – …
ɧɟɪɠɚɜɟɸɳɚɹɫɬɚɥɶ – …
ɩɪɨɫɬɨɪɧɵɣ – …
ɜɧɟɲɧɹɹɝɪɚɧɢɰɚ – …
Part II – Grammar
ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɟɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹ
16. Visitors approaching the building found themselves facing a rigorous tower surrounded by a park, the building anchored without into
the flank of a hill, which had to be climbed on foot (ɜɡɛɢɪɚɬɶɫɹ
ɩɟɲɤɨɦ) to reach the entrance.
17. By adopting a new method, a building has been created that is completely different from any designed before.
18. The medieval streets of Paris proved difficult to police
ɩɨɞɞɟɪɠɢɜɚɬɶ ɩɨɪɹɞɨɤ LQ WLPHV RI XQUHVW KRZHYHU WKH QHZ
ERXOHYDUGVɛɭɥɶɜɚɪEHWZHHQWKHPDLQDUHDVRIWKHFLW\ZHUHWR
SURYLGHHDV\PRYHPHQWLQWLPHVRIULRWɛɭɧɬ
19. The fact that the staircase is external shows the functional autonRP\ɚɜɬɨɧɨɦɧɨɫɬɶRIHDFKOHYHOUHYHDOVWKHVORSHRIWKHODQG
and offers us a view framed toward the sea from the moment one
goes through the front door.
20. For buildings to have an externally decorative character such as
temples, arches of triumph, and amphitheatres stone was employed.
200
Part III – Reading
ɉɪɨɱɢɬɚɣɬɟ ɬɟɤɫɬ ɋɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɸɬ ɥɢ ɩɪɢɜɟɞɺɧɧɵɟ ɧɢɠɟ
ɜɵɫɤɚɡɵɜɚɧɢɹ ɟɝɨ ɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɸ ȼɵɛɟɪɢɬɟ ɨɞɢɧ ɢɡ ɜɚɪɢɚɧɬɨɜ ɨɬ
ɜɟɬɚa) ɜɟɪɧɨbɧɟɜɟɪɧɨcɧɟɫɤɚɡɚɧɨ
Prentice Women’s Hospital byBertrand Goldberg
Hospital buildings are too often designed with uninspiring corridors
of patient rooms constructed from a limited palette of materials. However,
this was not the case in Prentice Women’s Hospital.The hospital has an attractive form: a tower containing rooms for patient care, placed atop a rectiOLQHDUɩɪɹɦɨɥɢɧɟɣɧɵɣSOLQWKFRQWDLQLQJWKHKRVSLWDO¶VRWKHUIXQFWLRQV
The approach was to let the interior requirements of the building
define the exterior form, which resulted in the particular plinth-and-tower
form of the hospital. The lower floors contained medical suites, research
ODERUDWRULHVɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɫɤɢɟ ɥɚɛɨɪɚɬɨɪɢɢ), dining facilities and service areas. Because future developments in medical technology may require spaces to be changed dramatically, Goldberg chose the form of a
rectilinear plinth, which provides the greatest possible flexibility. On the
other hand, since the role of a hospital (accommodating and caring for
patients) was unlikely to change, the architect felt the building’s tower
need not be flexible.
The “IRXUOHDIFORYHUɤɥɟɜɟɪ´SODQRIWKLVWRZHUGLYLGHVHDFKIORRU
into four small communities, encouraging greater social ties between the
neighbour occupants. The radial arrangement creates a large number of
criss-crossing (ɩɟɪɟɤɪɺɫɬɧɵɣ) routes around each floor, placing all patients roughly on the same distance from the centrally-located nurses’ staWLRQɫɟɫɬɪɢɧɫɤɢɣɩɨɫɬSURYLGLQJHIILFLHQWFDUH
21. The corridor system is common for hospital buildings.
22. The rectilinear plinth does not contain patient rooms.
23. Both the tower and the rectilinear plinth were designed adaptable for future renovations.
24. 7KHFORYHUSODQRIWKHWRZHUUHVXOWHGIURPK\JLHQHɝɢɝɢɟɧɚ
requirements.
25. The exterior of the hospital has a rich palette of materials.
201
Unit 4.9
Ɍɟɤɫɬ Ⱥ
To create continuity among the varied spaces, the firm devised a
simple brick lattice motif that appears again and again throughout the
complex. In the hotel suites, it forms partitions between living, sleeping,
and bath areas with a natural finish that echoes the historic materials. In
the hostel, the firm used it for bunk beds – the project’s most impressive
move – painting the bricks a Barragan-inspired acid yellow. “They’re like
sculptures in the middle of the room,” says Cherem of the feature.
Layered and atmospheric, the building invites research, and each
space-from a restored 19th-century elevator to the thoughtfully designed
shops-fits a rough but smart aesthetic that reads as distinctly Mexico City,
but with a playfulness that keeps it from feeling overly refined.
Making A Scene
A hotel, hostel, restaurant, and retail complex in the centre of Mexico City has a story. The building, constructed during the late 17th century, was once home to the Countess of Miravalle. An imposing manse
with heavy masonry walls, it was used as a hotel in the 19th century and
returned to a private residence in the early 20th.
For the building's latest chapter, a young local firm, CheremSerrano,
has renovated it into a platform for all things making Mexico City reputation: food, art, design, and culture.
The designers preserved remnants from each era of the 38,000 ft2,
four-level building’s history, taking off finishes, saving materials, and
making careful alterations to the structure.
Beyond a massive front door, the architects placed restaurants in two
of the building’s courtyards. Up a curving 19th- century stair that dominates the main patio, the mezzanine level holds small retail spaces to accommodate independent shops. On the building’s upper floors, the architects identified space for 16 luxury hotel suites, and, following a recent
tendency, they placed 17 hostel rooms around a third courtyard.
The architects made significant but artful interventions in the structure. They uncovered the masonry walls and reinforced them to meet contemporary seismic standards. They added a steel deck to the roof to support a pool and bar.
They also inserted a new stair without modifying the floor plan by
dropping it through an air shaft cut into the building decades ago to house
HVAC equipment.
202
1. Entry
2. Primary courtyard
3. Hostel courtyard
4. 19th-century stair
5. Contemporary stair
6. Elevator
7. Retail
8. Hostel room
9. Hostel bathroom
10.Public bathroom
FIGURE 18 Level one
(from Architectural Record 2013-06 [4])
Notes:
acid yellow ["xsId 'jelqV] ɹɞɨɜɢɬɨ-ɠɟɥɬɵɣ
Barragan n ɅɭɢғɫȻɚɪɪɚɝɚғɧɫɚɦɵɣɜɥɢɹɬɟɥɶɧɵɣɦɟɤɫɢɤɚɧɫɤɢɣɚɪɯɢɬɟɤɬɨɪXX
ɜɟɤɚ)
203
bunk bed ['bANkbed@ɞɜɭɯɴɹɪɭɫɧɚɹɤɪɨɜɚɬɶ
countess ['kaVntIs] n ɝɪɚɮɢɧɹ
hostel [hPstl] n ɨɛɳɟɠɢɬɢɟ ɬɭɪɛɚɡɚ
HVAC (Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning) ['eIC 'vJ 'eI 'sJ] ɨɬɨɩɥɟɧɢɟ
ɜɟɧɬɢɥɹɰɢɹɢɤɨɧɞɢɰɢɨɧɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟɜɨɡɞɭɯɚ
manse [mxns] n ɞɨɦɲɨɬɥɚɧɞɫɤɨɝɨɩɚɫɬɨɪɚ
Mexico City ['meksIkV'sItI] n ɝ. Ɇɟɯɢɤɨ
playfulness ['pleIfVlnIs] n ɢɝɪɢɜɨɫɬɶ, ɲɭɬɥɢɜɨɫɬɶ
reputation ["repjV'teISqn] n ɫɥɚɜɚ, ɢɡɜɟɫɬɧɨɫɬɶ
residence ['rezIdqns] n ɞɨɦ, ɪɟɡɢɞɟɧɰɢɹ
seismic standards ['saIzmIk 'stxndqdz] ɫɟɣɫɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɫɬɚɧɞɚɪɬɵ (ɞɥɹ ɩɪɨɟɤ
ɬɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɫɟɣɫɦɨɫɬɨɣɤɢɯ ɡɞɚɧɢɣ)
thoughtfully ['TLtfqlI] adv ɩɪɨɞɭɦɚɧɧɨɜɧɢɦɚɬɟɥɶɧɨ
Pair work
ɋɬɭɞɟɧɬ&Ɂɚɞɚɣɬɟ–ɜɨɩɪɨɫɨɜɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɯɬɢɩɨɜɤɬɟɤɫɬɭA.
ɋɬɭɞɟɧɬ'Ɉɬɜɟɬɶɬɟɧɚɜɨɩɪɨɫɵɤɬɟɤɫɬɭɫɬɭɞɟɧɬɚ&
ɋɬɭɞɟɧɬɵ&ɢ'ɉɨɦɟɧɹɣɬɟɫɶɪɨɥɹɦɢ
Phonetic exercise
ɇɚɣɞɢɬɟɜɬɟɤɫɬɟɫɥɨɜɚɬɪɚɧɫɤɪɢɩɰɢɹɤɨɬɨɪɵɯɞɚɧɚɧɢɠɟɢɩɟ
ɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɢɯɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤ
[rI'sWC]; [mqV'tJf]; [swJt]; [prI'zWv]; ["rJIn'fLs]; ['ekqV];
[Js'TetIk]; ['fJCq].
Vocabulary exercises
ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤɩɪɢɜɟɞɟɧɧɵɟɧɢɠɟɫɥɨɜɚɢɫɥɨ
ɜɨɫɨɱɟɬɚɧɢɹɄɚɤɢɟɢɡɩɟɪɟɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɵɯɫɥɨɜɦɨɝɭɬɛɵɬɶɞɪɭɝɢɦɢɱɚ
ɫɬɹɦɢɪɟɱɢ"Ʉɚɤɢɦɢɢɦɟɧɧɨ"Ʉɚɤɨɧɢɜɷɬɨɦɫɥɭɱɚɟɩɟɪɟɜɨɞɹɬɫɹɧɚ
ɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤ"
preserve (v), research (n).
2. ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟ ɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɟ ɫɥɨɜɚ ɢ ɫɥɨɜɨɫɨɱɟɬɚɧɢɹ ɧɚ ɚɧɝɥɢɣ
ɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤ
204
ɚɩɚɪɬɚɦɟɧɬɵ ɧɨɦɟɪ ɥɸɤɫ ɜɟɪɯɧɢɣ ɨɬɞɟɥɨɱɧɵɣ ɫɥɨɣ ɜɦɟɲɚɬɟɥɶ
ɫɬɜɨɜɧɭɬɪɟɧɧɹɹɫɬɟɧɚɩɟɪɟɝɨɪɨɞɤɚɜɵɹɜɥɹɬɶɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɬɶ ɡɚɩɪɟ
ɞɟɥɚɦɢɩɨɡɚɞɢɢɫɤɭɫɧɵɣɭɦɟɥɵɣɤɚɦɟɧɧɚɹɤɥɚɞɤɚɤɨɝɞɚ-ɬɨɧɟɤɨ
ɝɞɚ (ɧɚɭɱɧɨɟ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɧɚɹ ɱɟɪɬɚ ɨɬ
ɤɪɵɬɵɣ ɜɧɭɬɪɟɧɧɢɣ ɞɜɨɪ ɩɟɪɟɞɟɥɤɚ ɩɟɪɟɫɬɪɨɣɤɚ ɩɨɜɬɨɪɹɬɶ
ɩɨɞɪɚɠɚɬɶɩɨɡɞɧɢɣɜɤɨɧɰɟɤɚɤɨɝɨ-ɥɩɟɪɢɨɞɚɩɨɦɟɳɚɬɶɪɚɡɦɟ
ɳɚɬɶɩɨɫɬɭɩɨɤɲɚɝɩɪɟɨɛɥɚɞɚɬɶɝɥɚɜɟɧɫɬɜɨɜɚɬɶɩɪɢɞɚɜɚɬɶɠɺɫɬ
ɤɨɫɬɶ ɚɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ ɩɪɢɞɭɦɵɜɚɬɶ ɪɚɡɪɚɛɚɬɵɜɚɬɶ ɪɟɫɬɚɜɪɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ
ɪɟɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɢɪɨɜɚɬɶɪɨɡɧɢɱɧɚɹɬɨɪɝɨɜɥɹɫɥɟɞɨɫɬɚɬɨɤɫɧɢɦɚɬɶɭɞɚ
ɥɹɬɶɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɨɜɚɬɶɫɬɚɧɞɚɪɬɚɦɫɨɯɪɚɧɹɬɶɫɛɟɪɟɝɚɬɶɭɫɬɚɧɚɜɥɢ
ɜɚɬɶɰɟɥɨɫɬɧɨɫɬɶɧɟɪɚɡɪɵɜɧɨɫɬɶ
Ɉɩɪɟɞɟɥɢɬɟ ɟɫɬɶ ɥɢ ɨɲɢɛɤɢ ɜ ɩɟɪɟɜɨɞɟ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɧɵɯ
ɧɢɠɟɫɥɨɜȿɫɥɢɨɲɢɛɤɢɢɦɟɸɬɫɹɭɤɚɠɢɬɟɩɪɚɜɢɥɶɧɵɣɩɟɪɟɜɨɞ
archaic ɞɪɟɜɧɢɣ
borrow ɡɚɢɦɫɬɜɨɜɚɬɶ
current ɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ
distinction ɨɬɥɢɱɢɟ
evoke ɜɵɡɵɜɚɬɶ
exploit ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɬɶ
forward-looking ɞɚɥɶɧɨɜɢɞɧɵɣ
gain access ɩɨɥɭɱɚɬɶɞɨɫɬɭɩ
habitation ɩɪɢɜɵɱɤɚ
invite ɪɚɫɩɨɥɚɝɚɬɶɤ
overly ɢɡɥɢɲɧɟ
refined ɢɡɵɫɤɚɧɧɵɣ
4. Ɉɩɪɟɞɟɥɢɬɟɤɤɚɤɢɦɫɥɨɜɚɦɢɡɭɱɟɧɧɵɦȼɚɦɢɜɞɚɧɧɨɦ ɭɱɟɛ
ɧɢɤɟɨɬɧɨɫɹɬɫɹɩɟɪɟɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɵɟɧɢɠɟɬɨɥɤɨɜɚɧɢɹ
1. extend over so as to cover (ɩɨɤɪɵɜɚɬɶ) partly
2. make or become less severe or less rigorous
3. turn away from a given plane or direction, especially the vertical or
horizontal
4. think up a method of doing something
5. have an intense colour and radiant slightly
6. turn or bend round or into a different direction
7. move across, over, or through something
8. be greater or better than
205
Grammar exercises
1. ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹɨɛɪɚɳɚɹɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟɧɚɩɪɢɱɚɫɬɢɹ,–II.
1. A ground floor porch provides a buffer between each house and the
street, protected by a folded “curtain” of perforated metal that allows
eastern sunlight in.
2. Architects design and build urban developments giving pleasure to
those who see them.
3. The development of three new terraced houses fills the whole of the
plot earlier occupied by a single storey industrial shed (ɚɧɝɚɪ).
4. Describing and analysing architecture the book shows us the most
magnificent developments of the period.
5. The eleventh-century vaults nearly all fallen in, had to be reconstructed
on new principles.
6. The iron construction of the elevated railway pierced the heart of the
city, introducing a new rhythm to its peaceful setting and creating the
unexpected encounter.
7. The plan showing the arrangement of the points of support and thus
the nature of the structural design should receive special attention.
8. Gothic architecture never being able to be devised by the Greeks,
niether could the Egyptian styles have grown up in Italy.
9. The stair recessed on one side, from the front door you see straight
through to the back garden with the sky above.
10.Filling up the transparent escalators attached to the front of the building, the people become the building’s facade, a dynamic proscenium
(ɚɜɚɧɫɰɟɧɚ) overlooking an amphitheatre-like square.
ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɟɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹɨɛɪɚɳɚɹɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟɧɚ
ɫɤɚɡɭɟɦɵɟɜɫɬɪɚɞɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɦɡɚɥɨɝɟ
1. The Cardroom Estate was a poor community just to the east of Manchester’s city centre that was known for depopulation (ɫɨɤɪɚɳɟɧɢɟ
ɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɢɹ) and a lack of shops and services.
2. In antiquity, “architects” may have been known by name, but this designation disappeared and the designer gradually got in charge of the
main building decisions.
3. Each house is composed around a dramatic two-storey central hall
with a roof light above so light is brought down deep into the plan.
206
4. A steel structure has been built across the top of the two-storey building to provide space for rehearsal and performance.
5. Giancarlo di Carlo was asked to take part in the development of a new
campus in 1951.
6. Teotihuacan (Ɍɟɨɬɢɭɚɤɚɧ ɞɪɟɜɧɢɣ ɝɨɪɨɞ ɜ ɞɨɥɢɧɟ Ɇɟɯɢɤɨ) has
been carefully studied as a whole urban system.
7. The architects didn’t even consider putting solar panels on the roofs
because it would have been rejected on national heritage grounds.
8. Some of the buildings were intended as ambitious six storey single
homes.
9. In Los Angeles a shopping mall has been replaced by small shops,
cafes, and more than six hundred condos (ɤɨɧɞɨɦɢɧɢɭɦɵ – ɤɨɨɩɟɪɚ
ɬɢɜɧɵɟ ɤɜɚɪɬɢɪɵ).
10. The foundation of the building, raised as a measure against the
flood, uses a red-brown concrete, as if the earth itself had been raised,
providing contrast to the blue sky.
ɇɚɣɞɢɬɟɜɬɟɤɫɬɚɯɞɚɧɧɨɝɨɭɪɨɤɚɩɪɢɦɟɪɵɤɨɧɜɟɪɫɢɢɢɨɛɴ
ɹɫɧɢɬɟɢɯ
Ɍɟɤɫɬ ȼ
Single Family House, Kobe, Hyogo, Japan
This is a house for a couple and a child and consists of a parking
space and work-room on the first floor, bedrooms, bathroom and toilet on
the second floor and living, dining and kitchen on the third floor. It is a
5.7 m by 7.5 m rectangle with 2 concrete walls running south to north,
and the porch and court yard at the north end and the south end, and three
levels of void slabs. They are all well integrated with each other.
The public space on the first floor is open, the private space on the
second floor is closed and the third floor is open again. As you go up along
the promenade-like stairs, the ‘scenery, “light and shadow” and ‘the level
of the ceiling’ varies dramatically. The sense of openness and scenery
when you reach the top of the promenade-stairs is expansive.
The entrance on the first floor has an open-feeling like an exterior
space because it is almost all glass. The work-room can be called “borrowed scenery space”. The horizontal window of this room is set at eye207
level and the level of the long counter and the courtyard floor is about the
same to create a sense of continuity.
Even though the second floor is a “closed” space, the light and wind
can be felt from the top-light and the courtyard.
The stair-room has plenty of natural daylight from the side-light and
this light reaches right down to the entrance on the first floor. All the
rooms are facing the courtyard and have a 3200 mm ceiling height to realise the sense of openness and to accommodate the loft space. The washroom, bathroom and the toilet also have a top light to take in the daylight
and the wind. The third floor is actually like an outside space which is
released from the horizon but successfully obtains a second horizon. The
sequence with the outside was emphasised by the light “floating” steel
roof and this lightness dissolves the existence of the roof.
Vocabulary exercise
ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤɩɪɢɜɟɞɺɧɧɵɟɧɢɠɟɫɥɨɜɚɢɫɥɨɜɨɫɨ
ɱɟɬɚɧɢɹȿɫɥɢȼɵɧɟɡɧɚɟɬɟɫɥɨɜɨɧɚɣɞɢɬɟɟɝɨɜɫɥɨɜɚɪɟȾɚɣɬɟɫɢɧɨ
ɧɢɦɵɩɨɞɱɺɪɤɧɭɬɵɯɫɥɨɜɢɚɧɬɨɧɢɦɵɫɥɨɜɜɵɞɟɥɟɧɧɵɯɤɭɪɫɢɜɨɦ
borrow, continuity, couple, court yard, dissolve, dramatically, existence,
expansive, floating roof, in spite of, integrate, level (n), obtain, open-feeling, plenty, porch, private space, promenade-like stairs, public space, realise, release, sequence, shadow, side-light, top-light, vary, void slab.
Notes:
horizon [hq'raIzqn] n ɝɨɪɢɡɨɧɬ, ɩɟɪɫɩɟɤɬɢɜɚ
Japan [Gq'pxn] n əɩɨɧɢɹ
loft [lPft] n ɱɟɪɞɚɤ
openness ['qVpqnnIs] n ɨɬɤɪɵɬɨɫɬɶ, ɧɟɡɚɦɤɧɭɬɨɫɬɶ
rectangle ['rektxNgql] n ɩɪɹɦɨɭɝɨɥɶɧɢɤ
scenery ɫɦ. scene
washroom ['wPSrVm] n ɬɭɚɥɟɬ
Answer the following questions
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
How is the house planned?
What is the difference between the spaces of the floors?
What does the first floor feature?
What makes the interior on different floors light?
What purpose does the light “floating” steel roof serve?
Text work
1. ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɬɟɤɫɬ
2. ɋɨɫɬɚɜɶɬɟɩɥɚɧɬɟɤɫɬɚɢɡ–ɩɭɧɤɬɨɜ
3. ɉɨɥɶɡɭɹɫɶ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɧɵɦ ȼɚɦɢ ɩɥɚɧɨɦ ɤɪɚɬɤɨ ɢɡɥɨɠɢɬɟ ɫɨɞɟɪ
ɠɚɧɢɟɬɟɤɫɬɚɧɚɚɧɝɥɢɣɫɤɨɦɹɡɵɤɟ
208
209
Unit 4.10
intended to fill up the immense complex with a sense of community:
“Where social life, the informal encounter, and neighbour interaction are
traditionally restricted to the ground level, the 8 House allows them to
expand all the way to the top,” explains Ingels.
The inventiveness extends to the smaller scale with cleverly conceived components, such as a zigzagging cable system supporting the
stairs inside two-storey apartments and the outdoor ramp’s stone paving
pattern delineating a slope gradual enough for people in wheelchairs.
Ɍɟɤɫɬ Ⱥ
8 HOUSE, COPENHAGEN
For the most recently completed and largest of Ingels’s Copenhagen
residential projects – the 8 House, which includes 476 apartments and
more than 100,000 square feet of commercial space and shared facilities –
the aim was to build a “three-dimensional community even though the
building is in the middle of nowhere,” says Ingels. The “nowhere” is about
7 miles IURPWKHFLW\FHQWUHDWWKHVRXWKHUQWLSRIԦUHVWDGDVWLOOVRPHZKDW
barren district rising along a branch of Copenhagen’s new metro line.
In order to create an architectural framework for the community the
designers based the 8 House scheme on the typology of a perimeter block,
but squeezed it in the middle to form a bowtie shape that defines two
courtyards. At the central “knot,” they created a 30-foot-wide passageway
that connects the east and west sides of the site. They then layered the
components of the programme one on top of the other like a cake. Commercial uses, including retail space, a cafe, a day care centre, and offices,
are placed near the base, so that they can benefit from direct contact with
the street, while the different types of apartments – townhouses, flats, and
penthouses – are stacked above. And in order to provide the residential units
with daylight and views of marshes, they raised the building's northeast corner to 10 storeys, sloping it to only one storey at the diagonally opposite
corner by stepping down each successive line of apartments. The result is
plenty of variety in the building’s precast-concrete structural components.
The most unusual aspect of 8 House is a continuous open-air ramp.
Along with stairs and elevators, it provides access to the townhouses and
penthouses as it loops around the building, stretching from the street level
to the top floor and back again. More than any other feature, the ramp is
210
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Passageway
Townhouses
Cafe
Daycare
Commercial Space
Planned Tower
Penthouses
FIGURE 19 Site plan
(from Architectural Record 2011-08 [4])
1.
2.
3.
4.
Penthouses
Flats
Townhouses
Commercial
FIGURE 20 Section A-A
(from Architectural Record 2011-08 [4])
211
Notes:
bowtie ['bqVtaI] n ɝɚɥɫɬɭɤ-ɛɚɛɨɱɤɚ
Copenhagen ["kqVpqn'heIgqn] n ɝ. Ʉɨɩɟɧɝɚɝɟɧ
delineate [dI'lInIeIt] v ɨɛɜɨɞɢɬɶ/ɨɱɟɪɱɢɜɚɬɶ ɤɨɧɬɭɪ
inventiveness [In'ventIvnIs] n ɢɫɤɭɫɧɨɫɬɶ, ɦɚɫɬɟɪɫɬɜɨ
knot [nPt] n ɭɡɟɥ
marsh [mRS] n ɛɨɥɨɬɨ
penthouse ['penthaVs] n ɩɟɧɬɯɚɭɡɮɟɲɟɧɟɛɟɥɶɧɚɹɤɜɚɪɬɢɪɚɜɧɚɞɫɬɪɨɣɤɟɧɚ
ɤɪɵɲɟɞɨɦɚ)
squeeze [skwJz] v ɫɠɢɦɚɬɶɫɞɚɜɥɢɜɚɬɶ
townhouse ["taVn'haVs] n ɝɨɪɨɞɫɤɨɣɞɨɦɬɚɭɧɯɚɭɫ
typology [taI'pPlqGI] n ɬɢɩɨɥɨɝɢɹ
wheelchair ['wJlCeq] n ɢɧɜɚɥɢɞɧɚɹɤɨɥɹɫɤɚ
zigzag ['zIgzxg] v ɪɚɫɩɨɥɚɝɚɬɶɡɢɝɡɚɝɨɦ
Pair work
ɋɬɭɞɟɧɬ&Ɂɚɞɚɣɬɟ–ɜɨɩɪɨɫɨɜɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɯɬɢɩɨɜɤɬɟɤɫɬɭA.
ɋɬɭɞɟɧɬ'Ɉɬɜɟɬɶɬɟɧɚɜɨɩɪɨɫɵɤɬɟɤɫɬɭɫɬɭɞɟɧɬɚ&
ɋɬɭɞɟɧɬɵ&ɢ'ɉɨɦɟɧɹɣɬɟɫɶɪɨɥɹɦɢ
Phonetic exercise
ɇɚɣɞɢɬɟɜɬɟɤɫɬɟɫɥɨɜɚɬɪɚɧɫɤɪɢɩɰɢɹɤɨɬɨɪɵɯɞɚɧɚɧɢɠɟɢɩɟ
ɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɢɯɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤ
['leIq]; [kq'mjHnItI]; ['grxGVql]; ['sqVSql]; [slqVp]; ['xkses];
[dI'faIn]; [reIz].
Vocabulary exercises
ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟ ɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɟ ɫɥɨɜɚ ɢ ɫɥɨɜɨɫɨɱɟɬɚɧɢɹ ɧɚ ɚɧɝɥɢɣ
ɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤ
ɜ Ȼɨɝɨɦ ɡɚɛɵɬɨɦ ɦɟɫɬɟ ɜ ɝɥɭɲɢ ɞɟɬɫɤɢɣ ɫɚɞ ɹɫɥɢ ɞɨ ɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɨɣ
ɫɬɟɩɟɧɢ ɧɟɫɤɨɥɶɤɨ ɞɨɫɬɭɩ ɩɨɞɯɨɞ ɡɚɤɚɧɱɢɜɚɬɶ ɡɚɜɟɪɲɚɬɶ ɡɨɧɚ
ɫɨɜɦɟɫɬɧɨɝɨɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹɤɨɧɟɰɨɤɨɧɟɱɧɨɫɬɶɤɪɭɝɨɜɨɣɧɚɫɟɥɟ
ɧɢɟɫɨɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɨɧɚɫɥɚɢɜɚɬɶɤɥɚɫɬɶɩɥɚɫɬɚɦɢɧɟɞɚɜɧɨɜɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɟɟ
ɜɪɟɦɹ ɧɟɮɨɪɦɚɥɶɧɚɹ ɜɫɬɪɟɱɚ ɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɢɜɚɬɶ ɭɫɬɚɧɚɜɥɢɜɚɬɶ ɝɪɚ
ɧɢɰɵɨɝɪɨɦɧɵɣɤɨɥɨɫɫɚɥɶɧɵɣɨɩɢɫɵɜɚɬɶɩɟɬɥɸɨɩɭɫɤɚɬɶɫɹɭɫɬɭ
ɩɚɦɢɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɢɟɩɨɞɧɨɠɢɟɩɚɧɞɭɫɧɚɤɥɨɧɧɚɹɩɥɨɫɤɨɫɬɶɩɨɥɨɝɢɣ
212
ɩɨɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɣɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɣɨɞɢɧɡɚɞɪɭɝɢɦɩɪɨɟɤɬɠɢɥɨɣɡɚɫɬɪɨɣɤɢ
ɩɪɨɯɨɞ ɩɟɪɟɯɨɞ ɩɭɫɬɵɧɧɵɣ ɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɟ ɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɧɨɫɬɶ ɪɚɫ
ɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɹɬɶɫɹ ɪɚɫɲɢɪɹɬɶɫɹ ɫɛɨɪɧɵɣ ɛɟɬɨɧ ɫɯɟɦɚ ɭɫɬɪɨɣɫɬɜɚ
ɦɨɫɬɨɜɨɣɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɹɡɚɫɬɪɨɣɤɢ ɰɟɥɶɧɚɦɟɪɟɧɢɟ
Ɉɩɪɟɞɟɥɢɬɟ ɟɫɬɶ ɥɢ ɨɲɢɛɤɢ ɜ ɩɟɪɟɜɨɞɟ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɧɵɯ
ɧɢɠɟɫɥɨɜȿɫɥɢɨɲɢɛɤɢɢɦɟɸɬɫɹɭɤɚɠɢɬɟɩɪɚɜɢɥɶɧɵɣɩɟɪɟɜɨɞ
concave ɜɨɝɧɭɬɵɣ
conceive ɡɚɞɭɦɵɜɚɬɶ
face ɛɵɬɶɨɛɪɚɳɺɧɧɵɦɤɱɟɦɭ-ɥ)
gently ɫɥɟɝɤɚ
hard ɬɪɭɞɧɵɣ
impose ɧɚɜɹɡɵɜɚɬɶ
ODYLVKɨɛɢɥɶɧɵɣ
rigorous ɫɤɪɭɩɭɥɺɡɧɵɣ
royal ɪɨɹɥɶ
structural ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɨɧɧɵɣ
tactile ɨɫɹɡɚɟɦɵɣ
thrust ɧɚɝɪɭɡɤɚ
ɇɚɣɞɢɬɟ ɜ ɢɧɬɟɪɧɟɬɟ ɩɟɪɟɜɨɞ ɩɟɪɟɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɵɯ ɧɢɠɟ ɫɥɨɜ
ɢɫɥɨɜɨɫɨɱɟɬɚɧɢɣɢɞɚɣɬɟɢɯɫɢɧɨɧɢɦɵɢɡɬɨɣɥɟɤɫɢɤɢɤɨɬɨɪɚɹɢɫ
ɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɚɜɞɚɧɧɨɦɭɱɟɛɧɢɤɟ
accomplish
cant (v)
clarity
compartment
elongate (a)
glorify
harm
perfect (v)
rearwards
sequential
4. ɇɚɣɞɢɬɟɬɨɥɤɨɜɚɧɢɹɫɥɨɜɫɩɢɫɤɚȺɜɫɩɢɫɤɟȼɈɞɧɨɬɨɥɤɨ
ɜɚɧɢɟɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹɥɢɲɧɢɦȾɚɣɬɟɨɞɧɨɤɨɪɟɧɧɵɟɫɥɨɜɚɤɬɟɪɦɢɧɚɦɩɨ
ɦɟɱɟɧɧɵɦɡɜɺɡɞɨɱɤɨɣ
A
carving*, demolition*, gap, lantern, mezzanine, pattern, pediment, spine,
vista, wing.
B
1. a space or opening in the middle of something or between things;
2. GHOLEHUDWH GHVWUXFWLRQ ɪɚɡɪɭɲɟɧɢɟ RI buildings and other structures;
3. a piece of decorative work cut in stone, wood, or other material;
4. a part of a large building, especially one that projects from the main
part;
213
5. a pleasing view, especially one seen through a long, narrow passage,
as between rows of houses or trees;
6. DFHQWUDOIHDWXUHRUPDLQVRXUFHRIVWUHQJWKɩɪɨɱɧɨɫɬɶ;
7. the triangular upper part of the front of a classical building, typically
set over a portico;
8. a repeated decorative design; a model or plan used as a guide in
making things;
9. a low ceiling storey between two main stories in a building, usually
directly above the ground floor and in the form of a balcony;
10. a square, curved, or polygonal structure on the top of a dome or a
room, with glazed or open sides;
11. the platform or foundation for a row of columns.
Grammar exercises
ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɟɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹɨɛɪɚɳɚɹɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟɧɚ
ɮɭɧɤɰɢɢɫɥɨɜɚ that.
1. By lifting the atrium floor artificially, the architect gives the impression that the natural ground level is close to it.
2. Callum says that the science of the building is that of perception.
3. The three building volumes are characterised by decorative ornamental panels and large glazed elevations, those acting to reflect the surrounding landscape of pine trees.
4. Style of Henry IV covered his reign (ɰɚɪɫɬɜɨɜɚɧɢɟ) and partly that of
Louis XIII employing the orders and other classic forms with a somewhat heavy style of ornament.
5. Between 1450 and 1490 the Renaissance presented in Sienna, in a
number of important palaces, a sharp contrast to the prevalent Gothic
style of that city.
6. The double height space helps the hot air that always moves up, to get
out through the higher openings.
7. With convenient proximity to urban amenities Cyan offers quality to
those who want a minimum impact, high density urban lifestyle.
8. The community was looking for a design that would be sensitive and
accommodating to the neighborhood and they found that in Pelli
Clarke Pelli’s design.
9. There is a continuity between the multimedia library entry hall and that
of the cultural centre.
214
10. Wellington House is essentially freestanding so that all apartments
benefit from good daylight, with those on the top floor enjoying
breathtaking views across London.
ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟ ɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹ ɨɛɪɚɳɚɹ ɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟ ɧɚ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɢ
ɫɥɨɜɚ it.
1. We have designed a light, luminous (ɹɪɤɨɨɫɜɟɳɺɧɧɵɣ) center that
we hope will be a good neighbour and a dynamic expression of the
events that it will house.
2. It appears that in undulating country the forms should be square and
massive; and, where the segments of curves are small, the buildings
should be low and flat.
3. Then one notices the admirable effect of the monument at this unusual
spot, and, in the end, it becomes clear that if the monument were placed
in the centre of the plaza the effect would not be nearly as great.
4. In addition, the support structure was integrated into the double-skin
façade, which means that it is afforded protection from the extreme
climatic conditions at the site.
5. In the passage from the original artistic object to the series of copies, it
is possible to recognise the beginnings of standardisation
(ɫɬɚɧɞɚɪɬɢɡɚɰɢɹ) in production methods.
6. It seems likely that the architect took his inspiration from one of the
most important Doric works in Greece, the temple of Zeus in Olympia.
3. ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟ ɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɟ ɫɥɨɜɨɫɨɱɟɬɚɧɢɹ
amphitheatre location, city landmark building, client meeting room, complex axis, curtain wall system, diagonal view line, entrance area, exhibition interior, garage platform, heat exchange process, medical center campus,
3 percent slope, modification process, performance space, site border.
Ɍɟɤɫɬ ȼ
Instituto Andaluz del Patrimonio Historico, Sevilla, Spain
La Cartuja de Santa Maria de las Cuevas can be regarded as a miniature city standing opposite Seville. It has undergone a continuous process of modification over its five centuries of existence. A dense network
of kilns, chimneys, bell towers and spires rises over the island. In the 15th
century, it was a Carthusian monastery, only to become a famous pottery
in the first half of the 19th century. The complex became increasingly
215
chaotic and labyrinthine, the more recent industrial structures combining
with and superimposing themselves on the earlier religious buildings to
create a unique pattern of relationships between the two.
Part of the complex was given a thorough restoration in 1992. Three
years later, another section was honoured to house the Heritage Institute
of the Department of Culture, leaving a further section of the complex still
to be restored.
The project for this last stage, by the architect Guillermo Vazquez
Consuegra, focuses on the so-called Manufacturing Area, characterised
by industrial installations and featuring few religious elements. The
scheme works from the basis of considering the site as a conglomeration
of parts. It emphasizes its random, discontinuous nature and attempts to
construct its edges appropriately, add new buildings and complete fragments, at the same time respecting the unique urban quality of the original
building with its cloisters, alleys and catwalks.
A new architecture was proposed that sought its origins in the experience of that which already existed. However, the architect stressed the
importance of not overestimating the remains for the mere fact of their
antiquity, but for their architectural, constructional and historical value.
Some elements were therefore demolished, only those considered to be of
quality being preserved. The intention was to create an architecture free
of formal and stylistic mimicry.
Notes:
alley ['xlI] n ɩɟɪɟɭɥɨɤ, ɩɪɨɟɡɞ
Carthusian monastery [kR'TjHZqn 'mPnqstrI] ɤɚɪɬɟɡɢɚɧɫɤɢɣ (ɨɬɧɨɫɹɳɢɣɫɹ ɤ
ɦɨɧɚɲɟɫɤɨɦɭ ɨɪɞɟɧɭ ɤɚɪɬɟɡɢɚɧɰɟɜ) ɦɨɧɚɫɬɵɪɶ
catwalk ['kxtwLk] n ɩɟɪɟɯɨɞɧɵɣ ɦɨɫɬɢɤ
chaotic [keI'PtIk] a ɯɚɨɬɢɱɧɵɣ, ɛɟɫɩɨɪɹɞɨɱɧɵɣ
conglomeration [kqn"glPmq'reISqn] n ɫɦɟɫɶ, ɫɤɨɩɥɟɧɢɟ
demolish [dI'mPlIS] v ɫɧɨɫɢɬɶɡɞɚɧɢɟ)
discontinuous ["dIskqn'tInjVqs] a ɧɟɨɞɧɨɪɨɞɧɵɣ
kiln [kIln] n ɩɟɱɶɞɥɹɫɭɲɤɢɨɛɠɢɝɚ)
labyrinthine ɫɦ. labyrinth
miniature ['mInIqCq] a ɦɢɧɢɚɬɸɪɧɵɣ, ɦɚɥɟɧɶɤɢɣ
overestimate ["qVvqr'estImIt] v ɩɟɪɟɨɰɟɧɢɜɚɬɶ, ɩɪɟɭɜɟɥɢɱɢɜɚɬɶ
pottery ['pPtqrI] n ɝɨɧɱɚɪɧɚɹ ɦɚɫɬɟɪɫɤɚɹ
stylistic mimicry [staI'lIstIk 'mImIkrI] ɫɬɢɥɢɫɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ ɩɨɞɪɚɠɚɧɢɟ/ɢɦɢɬɢɪɨ
ɜɚɧɢɟ
superimpose ["sjHpqrIm'pqVz] v ɧɚɤɥɚɞɵɜɚɬɶ (ɨɞɧɨɧɚɞɪɭɝɨɟ)
thorough ['TArq] a ɩɨɥɧɵɣ, ɜɫɟɨɛɴɟɦɥɸɳɢɣ
216
Answer the following questions
1. Why can La Cartuja de Santa Maria de las Cuevas be regarded as a
miniature city?
2. What were the previous stages of the complex restoration?
3. What does the project for the last stage focus on?
4. What basis does the scheme work from?
5. Why were some elements of the area demolished?
Text work
1. ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɬɟɤɫɬ
2. ɋɨɫɬɚɜɶɬɟɩɥɚɧɬɟɤɫɬɚɢɡ–ɩɭɧɤɬɨɜ
3. ɉɨɥɶɡɭɹɫɶ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɧɵɦ ȼɚɦɢ ɩɥɚɧɨɦ ɤɪɚɬɤɨ ɢɡɥɨɠɢɬɟ ɫɨɞɟɪ
ɠɚɧɢɟɬɟɤɫɬɚɧɚɚɧɝɥɢɣɫɤɨɦɹɡɵɤɟ
Vocabulary exercise
ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤɩɪɢɜɟɞɺɧɧɵɟɧɢɠɟɫɥɨɜɚɢɫɥɨɜɨ
ɫɨɱɟɬɚɧɢɹ ȿɫɥɢ ȼɵ ɧɟ ɡɧɚɟɬɟ ɫɥɨɜɨ ɧɚɣɞɢɬɟ ɟɝɨ ɜ ɫɥɨɜɚɪɟ Ⱦɚɣɬɟ
ɫɢɧɨɧɢɦɵɩɨɞɱɺɪɤɧɭɬɵɯɫɥɨɜɢɚɧɬɨɧɢɦɵɫɥɨɜɜɵɞɟɥɟɧɧɵɯɤɭɪɫɢɜɨɦ
antiquity, appropriately, at the same time, attempt (v), bell tower, cloister,
combine, dense, emphasize, existence, experience, feature (v), focus (v),
for the mere fact, honour (v), increasingly, installations, intention, opposite, origin, pattern, preserve, random, regard (v), relationship, restore,
seek, so-called, spire, stage, still, undergo, unique.
217
Unit 4.11
Ɍɟɤɫɬ Ⱥ
Dhoby Ghaut Green, Singapore
Singapore's Urban Redevelopment Authority (URA) asked Soo
Chan and his firm, SCDA Architects, to rethink a park called Dhoby
Ghaut Green, which faces busy Orchard Road and leads to the Bras
Basah/Bugis arts and entertainment district.
Chan realised that the amphitheatre’s location on the site would affect the way the park works. So he placed it near the transit station on a
spot that divides the park into two zones. On the west side, where large
trees provide shade, he added gravel and plantings to create a place where
people could relax during the week and market stalls could be set on
weekends. To the east, he created a grassy lawn for sports and other active
uses. For the cafe pavilion, he incorporated a few small structures (elevator, mechanical, storage) servicing the transit station and added indoor and
outdoor dining areas, and then tied it all together with a long, standingseam roof.
Chan realised that a nondirectional structure would work better with
the rest of the park and developed a spiraling design with arms that reach
out to the landscaped spaces on both the east and west.
To reduce the apparent mass of the amphitheatre and create seating
for 250 people, he pushed the concrete base of the structure into the earth.
Above this, he designed a lacy metal screen that shades access ramps and
the seating area and focuses attention on the performance space. “At first,
I thought about weaving aluminium ribs around steel supports to create a
basket effect,” recalls Chan. But because the steel supports slant down
and spiral around the central space, weaving the ribs in and out would
have been expensive and made any errors stand out. So he attached the
218
powder-coated gray ribs to the outside of the columns and twisted them
to create an irregular pattern that is more forgiving of imperfections. The
twisted surfaces catch sunlight in different ways during the day and scatter
light at night.
To provide protection from the rain, Chan placed aluminium panels
on top of the arms embracing the performance space. Underneath these
panels he installed planks of balau, a tropical hardwood that adds a warm
note to the material palette.
For the dining pavilion the architect kept things simple; orthogonal
metal-and-glass curtain walls enclose a small cafe and a sushi bar where
a conveyor belt delivers the food. A long metal canopy reaches out to the
vehicular drop-off circle, providing shaded access to the MRT station and
the cafe.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Covered walkway
Dressing room
Stage
Seating
FIGURE 20 Dhoby Ghaut Green
(from Architectural Record 2011-05 [4])
Notes:
balau [bq'laV] n ɛɚɧɝɤɢɪɚɣɠɟɥɬɵɣɛɚɥɚɭɨɱɟɧɶɬɜɟɪɞɚɹɞɪɟɜɟɫɢɧɚɩɪɚɤ
ɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɛɟɡɫɭɱɤɨɜ)
conveyor belt [kqn'veIq "belt] ɤɨɧɜɟɣɟɪɧɚɹ ɥɟɧɬɚ
deliver [dI'lIvq] v ɞɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɬɶɩɨɞɚɜɚɬɶ
forgiving [fq'gIv] a ɫɧɢɫɯɨɞɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣɬɟɪɩɢɦɵɣ
grassy ['grRsI] a ɩɨɤɪɵɬɵɣ ɬɪɚɜɨɣ
hardwood ['hRdwVd] n ɞɪɟɜɟɫɢɧɚ ɬɜɺɪɞɵɯ ɩɨɪɨɞ
imperfection ["Impq'fekSqn] n ɞɟɮɟɤɬ, ɧɟɞɨɫɬɚɬɨɤ
lacy ['leIsI] a ɤɪɭɠɟɜɧɨɣɩɨɯɨɠɢɣɧɚɤɪɭɠɟɜɨ
market stall ɫɦ. market
nondirectional ["nPndI'rekSqnql] a ɜɫɟɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɧɵɣ
219
powder-coated ['paVdq "kqVtId] a ɫ ɩɨɪɨɲɤɨɜɵɦ ɩɨɤɪɵɬɢɟɦ
rethink [rJ'TINk] v ɩɟɪɟɫɦɨɬɪɟɬɶɩɟɪɟɨɫɦɵɫɥɢɬɶ
scatter ['skxtq] v ɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɹɬɶɪɚɫɫɟɢɜɚɬɶ
Singapore ['sINqpL] n ɝ. ɋɢɧɝɚɩɭɪ
spot [spPt] n ɦɟɫɬɧɨɫɬɶ, ɪɚɣɨɧ
standing-seam roof ɫɦ. stand
storage ['stLrIG] n ɯɪɚɧɢɥɢɳɟ, ɫɤɥɚɞ
sushi bar ['sHSIbR] ɫɭɲɢ-ɛɚɪ
Pair work
ɋɬɭɞɟɧɬ&Ɂɚɞɚɣɬɟ–ɜɨɩɪɨɫɨɜɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɯɬɢɩɨɜɤɬɟɤɫɬɭA.
ɋɬɭɞɟɧɬ'Ɉɬɜɟɬɶɬɟɧɚɜɨɩɪɨɫɵɤɬɟɤɫɬɭɫɬɭɞɟɧɬɚ&
ɋɬɭɞɟɧɬɵ&ɢ'ɉɨɦɟɧɹɣɬɟɫɶɪɨɥɹɦɢ
Phonetic exercise
ɇɚɣɞɢɬɟɜɬɟɤɫɬɟɫɥɨɜɚɬɪɚɧɫɤɪɢɩɰɢɹɤɨɬɨɪɵɯɞɚɧɚɧɢɠɟɢɩɟ
ɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɢɯɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤ
[greI]; ['spaIqrql]; ["entq'teInmqnt]; [vJ'hIkjVlq]; ['kWtn
"wLl]; ['grxvql]; [q'pxrqnt]; ['fqVkqs].
Vocabulary exercises
ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟ ɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɟ ɫɥɨɜɚ ɢ ɫɥɨɜɨɫɨɱɟɬɚɧɢɹ ɧɚ ɚɧɝɥɢɣ
ɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤ
ɜɟɫɬɢɩɪɢɜɨɞɢɬɶɤɜɢɧɬɨɜɚɹɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɹɜɥɢɹɬɶɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɨɜɚɬɶ
ɜɵɞɟɥɹɬɶɫɹ ɜɵɫɬɭɩɚɬɶ ɞɨɫɤɚ ɩɥɚɧɤɚ ɡɚɝɪɚɠɞɟɧɢɟ ɩɟɪɟɝɨɪɨɞɤɚ
ɥɭɠɚɣɤɚɫɩɨɞɫɬɪɢɠɟɧɧɨɣɬɪɚɜɨɣɝɚɡɨɧɦɟɫɬɚɞɥɹɫɢɞɟɧɢɹɦɟɫɬɨ
ɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɟɦɟɫɬɨɪɚɫɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɹɧɚɤɥɨɧɹɬɶɫɹɨɛɫɥɭɠɢɜɚɬɶ ɨɠɢɜ
ɥɺɧɧɵɣ ɞɟɥɨɜɨɣ ɨɡɟɥɟɧɟɧɢɟ ɧɚɫɚɠɞɟɧɢɟ ɨɡɟɥɟɧɟɧɧɨɟ ɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧ
ɫɬɜɨɨɫɬɚɥɶɧɵɟɞɪɭɝɢɟ ɨɱɟɜɢɞɧɵɣɧɟɫɨɦɧɟɧɧɵɣɨɲɢɛɤɚɩɨɝɪɟɲ
ɧɨɫɬɶɩɚɥɢɬɪɚɧɚɛɨɪɩɟɪɟɫɚɞɨɱɧɚɹɫɬɚɧɰɢɹɩɥɨɳɚɞɤɚɞɥɹɜɵɫɚɞɤɢ
ɩɚɫɫɚɠɢɪɨɜ ɩɨɞɴɟɡɞɧɨɣ ɩɚɧɞɭɫ ɩɪɢɤɪɟɩɥɹɬɶ ɩɪɢɫɨɟɞɢɧɹɬɶ ɪɚɡ
ɜɥɟɱɟɧɢɟɭɜɟɫɟɥɟɧɢɟɪɟɛɪɨɠɺɫɬɤɨɫɬɢɮɥɚɧɟɰɫɨɟɞɢɧɹɬɶɫɩɥɟɬɚɬɶ
ɫɨɟɞɢɧɹɬɶɨɛɴɟɞɢɧɹɬɶɫɬɚɜɢɬɶɭɫɬɚɧɚɜɥɢɜɚɬɶɬɨɤɚɤ ɬɨɥɤɚɬɶɩɢ
ɯɚɬɶɮɚɥɶɰɟɜɚɹɤɪɨɜɥɹɰɟɥɶɧɚɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟ
220
ɉɟɪɟɱɢɫɥɢɬɟ ɭɩɨɦɹɧɭɬɵɟ ɜ ɬɟɤɫɬɟ ɚɪɯɢɬɟɤɬɭɪɧɵɟ ɬɟɪɦɢɧɵ
ɢɩɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɢɯɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤ
Ɉɩɪɟɞɟɥɢɬɟ ɟɫɬɶ ɥɢ ɨɲɢɛɤɢ ɜ ɩɟɪɟɜɨɞɟ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɧɵɯ
ɧɢɠɟɫɥɨɜȿɫɥɢɨɲɢɛɤɢɢɦɟɸɬɫɹɭɤɚɠɢɬɟɩɪɚɜɢɥɶɧɵɣɩɟɪɟɜɨɞ
fairly ɜɟɫɶɦɚ
hedge ɠɢɜɚɹɢɡɝɨɪɨɞɶ
identifiable ɥɟɝɤɨɪɚɡɥɢɱɢɦɵɣ
intricate ɜɧɭɬɪɟɧɧɢɣ
manifold ɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɧɵɣ
mighty ɜɟɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣ
mutually ɜɡɚɢɦɧɨ
neat ɚɤɤɭɪɚɬɧɵɣ
noxious ɩɚɝɭɛɧɵɣ
oculus ɤɪɭɝɥɨɟɨɤɧɨ
pale ɤɪɚɫɨɱɧɵɣ
perceptual ɫɭɛɴɟɤɬɢɜɧɨ
ɜɨɫɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɟɦɵɣ
Ɂɚɩɨɥɧɢɬɟɩɪɨɩɭɫɤɢɜɬɟɤɫɬɟɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɹɫɥɨɜɚɢɡɩɪɢɜɟɞɺɧ
ɧɨɝɨɧɢɠɟɫɩɢɫɤɚȾɜɚ ɫɥɨɜɚ ɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɥɢɲɧɢɦɢ.
arrive
concrete
converted
flanked
lit
out
particular
prevail
sculpture
tie
warm
white
Bleibtreu Hotel, Berlin, Germany
An old Berlin town house was (1)… into a modern hotel with carefully selected art, elaborate design and the most modern technology.
The entrance is (2)… by a cafeteria and an exclusive florist’s
(ɰɜɟɬɨɱɧɵɣ) shop, which surround guests with pleasant impressions from
the moment they (3)…. The building opens (4)… into the calm garden of
the Mediterranean-style (ɫɪɟɞɢɡɟɦɧɨɦɨɪɫɤɢɣ) inner courtyard through a
series of glassed-in rooms with Italian mosaic floor.
Distinct colour schemes give each floor its own (5)… atmosphere.
Repetitive elements (6)… the various parts together into a picturesque
whole. On the top floor black and white striped patterns (7)…, with black,
grey and red tiles in the bathrooms. The fourth floor is decorated in (8)…
yellow tones. Strong blue shades are used on the other three floors. All
the rooms are well (9)…, with natural light sources being widely employed. The interior design of the hotel is by Herbert Jakob Weinand.
On the ground floor, the building opens its common rooms onto a
peaceful garden, where a huge metal (10)… stands out painted in the same
blue color that feature the image of the hotel.
221
Grammar exercises
ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɟɬɟɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɟɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹɨɛɪɚɳɚɹɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟɧɚ
ɫɥɨɜɚɫɨɬɪɢɰɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɦɢɩɪɢɫɬɚɜɤɚɦɢdis-, im-, in-, ir-, mis-, un-.
1. The chief drawback (ɧɟɞɨɫɬɚɬɨɤ) in these light arcades was their inability to bear the thrust of the vaulting over the space behind them.
2. New architecture should emphasise disadvantaged citizens in the urban environment
3. New materials and methods of construction are leaving their mark on
the proportions, and the artistic composition of American buildings,
irrespective of the styles used.
4. The Greek Revival in Germany presents the aspect of a sincere
(ɢɫɤɪɟɧɧɢɣ) search for beauty, by the artists of great talent, misled by
the idea that the forms of a dead civilization could be brought into new
life.
5. Controlled blinds in the cavity (ɭɝɥɭɛɥɟɧɢɟ) automatically adjust to
limit unwanted solar gain.
6. The substructure (ɩɨɞɡɟɦɧɚɹɱɚɫɬɶɡɞɚɧɢɹ) was inadequate to support
a dome of masonry.
7. The diagonal of the square, is the only irrational number in Renaissance theory of architecture.
8. It is better to wait even two or three years, to fully mature the best
plans of building, than by hurrying, to mis-locate and mis-arrange the
structure of which such buildings are capable.
9. The placement of the building following the natural terraces of the
ground allows us to move the entrance to the background of the plot
making it unnoticeable from the street.
10.This building with its fine rotunda was excellently planned, and forms
a noble palace of art, to whose monumental requirements and artistic
purpose the Greek colonnades and pediments were not inappropriate.
ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɟɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹɨɛɪɚɳɚɹɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟɧɚ
ɧɟɥɢɱɧɵɟɮɨɪɦɵɝɥɚɝɨɥɚ
1. Cooling of the air is achieved by circulating cold water from a 70 metre
deep underground well (ɫɤɜɚɠɢɧɚ).
2. Two years later the site was developed, the design being based closely
on the ideas of the people taking part in the activity.
222
3. Tube lighting performs an angular dance above and seems to be permanently on, more for its sculptural quality than for illumination.
4. There are a number of ways that an urban design project can be illustrated using visual material.
5. The structure is a light steel frame, whose use with curved walls is
unique.
6. Low-density suburbs are not the ideal type of development to support
public transport, which to be effective, requires a densely populated
area within walking distance from the transport corridors.
7. Gulio Pippi and Michelangelo stopped following the rules adopted by
Renaissance architects and felt that all aspects of art should be open for
discussion (ɞɢɫɤɭɫɫɢɹ).
8. The goals of urban design are to design and build urban developments
which are both structurally and functionally reasonable while at the
same time giving pleasure to those who see development.
9. The design of the façade is attributed to Lorenzo Maitani, but numerous
sculptors worked for more than a century to complete it.
10. A plane of stone cladding folds down to form the single-storey Garden Room, anchored by a free standing wall into the newly-landscaped
slope of the rising ground behind.
ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹɫɷɦɮɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɢɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɹɦɢ
1. Description is given not only for planning, design and construction of
the city but also of its institutional organization.
2. Nowhere else in Europe at that time was there such intense feeling
(ɨɳɭɳɟɧɢɟ), or such free course for individual genius as in Florence.
3. Only at low density is there sufficient garden area to support mature
trees and dense planting.
4. What makes this little chapel more powerful is that it is entirely unexpected.
5. So strongly did Giacopo Tatti Sansovino (1477–1570) impress upon
Venice his ornate variations (ɜɚɪɶɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ) on classic themes, that
later architects followed the main features of his work.
6. It was clear from the initial project that the use of glass was not only
for transparency but also to express a sense of lightness.
7. Not until 1525 did the new forms begin to dominate in cathedral
design.
223
8. It is only when not symmetrical buildings follow the law of equilibULXPɡɚɤɨɧɪɚɜɧɨɜɟɫɢɹDQGEDODQFHWKDWWKH\FRUUHVSRQGWRWKHODZ
of unity.
9. The transport system serving future urban systems would not only
have to serve economic development, but also protect the environment
and sustain future quality of life.
10.It is the Renaissance rather than the classic or Gothic revival which
prevails throughout Vienna (ɝȼɟɧɚ).
11.In nothing does the street have more importance than in its social function.
12.Urban designers plan and design, not only for the here and now, but
also for the future.
meant to organise the future development and the connection between the
east and west sides of the campus.
The architects decided to use the same materials as in the existing
buildings and to redefine the use of glass to improve their relationship
with the main public spaces and to serve the creation of formal associations in the complex.
1. Lobby-atrium
2. Cafe
3. Lecture hall
4. Classroom
5. Library
6. Office
7. Conference room
8. Rehabilitation gym
9. Clinical research lab
10. Reception
11. Check-in, out
12. Exam room
13. Staff workroom
14. X-ray
15. Lab suite
16. Shared equipment
17. Telecommunications
Ɍɟɤɫɬ ȼ
Donald W. Reynolds Center, Little Rock, USA
This building serves as a research centre, a medical teaching centre
and a primary care service specialising in geriatrics. The centre includes
four primary areas (services for patients, clinical research, education and
administration) housed in a structure of approximately 9,000 m2. The
challenge was to find a single means of expression and to accommodate
the different functions in an interdisciplinary medium.
The project is located in the south-east corner of the medical campus, on the edge of the future expansion scheme, which will extend the
centre toward the east. The situation of the complex between the existing
and future campus creates a strong connection between the main campus
and the other areas.
The programme located the building in the north part of the site, next
to the existing campus and to some physical connections that were
planned for the future. The building was developed as a pair of simple
volumes divided by a linear backbone or atrium. The volume to the north,
housing the administrative, research and educational facilities, relates directly in both function and scale to the heart of the Medical Center Campus. The south volume houses the outpatient services, enjoying a comfortable southern aspect. It maintains a more modest scale that is adapted
to the patients and visitors who will use the centre every day. The atrium
is located between the two volumes and acts as a common connection for
the main areas of the programme and its users. It is an element that is
224
Ground floor plan
First floor plan
FIGURE 21 Donald W. Reynolds Center
(from Architectural Design Magazine “New health facilities” [3])
225
Notes:
backbone ['bxkbqVn] n ɨɫɧɨɜɚ, ɫɬɟɪɠɟɧɶ
clinical ['klInIkql] a ɤɥɢɧɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ
geriatrics ["GerI'xtrIks] n pl ɝɟɪɢɚɬɪɢɹɨɛɥɚɫɬɶɦɟɞɢɰɢɧɵɩɨɫɜɹɳɟɧɧɚɹɥɟ
ɱɟɧɢɸɥɸɞɟɣɩɨɠɢɥɨɝɨɢɫɬɚɪɱɟɫɤɨɝɨɜɨɡɪɚɫɬɚ)
interdisciplinary ["Intq"dIsI'plInqrI] a ɦɟɠɞɢɫɰɢɩɥɢɧɚɪɧɵɣ
redefine ["rJdI'faIn] v ɩɟɪɟɫɦɨɬɪɟɬɶɩɟɪɟɨɰɟɧɢɬɶ
Unit 4.12
Answer the following questions
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
What is the challenge of the project?
Where is the project located?
What does each volume of the building house?
What is the functional purpose of the atrium?
How is the relationship with the main public spaces achieved?
Text work
1. ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɬɟɤɫɬ
2. ɋɨɫɬɚɜɶɬɟɩɥɚɧɬɟɤɫɬɚɢɡ–ɩɭɧɤɬɨɜ
3. ɉɨɥɶɡɭɹɫɶɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɧɵɦȼɚɦɢɩɥɚɧɨɦɤɪɚɬɤɨɢɡɥɨɠɢɬɟ
ɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɟɬɟɤɫɬɚɧɚɚɧɝɥɢɣɫɤɨɦɹɡɵɤɟ
Vocabulary exercise
Ɍɟɤɫɬ Ⱥ
Tamil Nadu’s New Legislative Assembly Building
Seven storeys Tamil Nadu’s new Legislative Assembly building has
become India’s largest government building to have been awarded the
LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) Gold Certification from the Indian Green Building Council (IGBC). The building would
use less water, consume less energy, preserve natural resources, generate
less waste and provide healthier space to occupants, as compared to a conventional building. Design conceived by German architect GMP, the geometry of this new building reflects circles and isosceles triangle.
adapt, atrium, campus, challenge (n), discover, edge, elsewhere, enjoy,
expansion scheme, extend, formal, heal, house (v), improve, junction, linear, maintain, mean (v), means, medium (n), modest, outpatient service,
pair, primary care service, relate, scale, the same, volume.
GMP designed and built Secretariat, is based on the culture and tradition of Tamil Nadu. The Secretariat structure is like a chakra with
36 isoceles triangles in its base which will be turned into offices for the
Government officials including the Office of the Speaker. There is also a
car parking lot that can accommodate over 500 cars, which is developed
as a multi-storey building, to the left of the complex. There are totally 4
units, where the offices of the officials, Assembly, Conventional Hall and
the Legislative Assembly chamber are placed.
Design Concept
The circle is the most natural and obvious geometric shape for any
conference and assembly building. Inspired by the Hindu philosophy of
the chakra wheels, the floor-plan design for the new assembly building in
Chennai, the capital of the southern Indian state of Tamil Nadu, provides
a five-part figure, formed by circles of different sizes inscribed into
30 segments of a larger, imaginary, circle.
226
227
ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤɩɪɢɜɟɞɺɧɧɵɟɧɢɠɟɫɥɨɜɚɢɫɥɨɜɨ
ɫɨɱɟɬɚɧɢɹ ȿɫɥɢ ȼɵ ɧɟ ɡɧɚɟɬɟ ɫɥɨɜɨ ɧɚɣɞɢɬɟ ɟɝɨ ɜ ɫɥɨɜɚɪɟ Ⱦɚɣɬɟ
ɫɢɧɨɧɢɦɵɩɨɞɱɺɪɤɧɭɬɵɯɫɥɨɜɢɚɧɬɨɧɢɦɵɫɥɨɜɜɵɞɟɥɟɧɧɵɯɤɭɪɫɢ
ɜɨɦ
Urban Design
The large parliament building fills one segment of the underlying
imaginary circular geometry, whose centre lies beyond the river Kuvam,
which runs along the northern site border.
The building structure derived from the chakra vortex column is reserved for the actual parliament building, the seat of the legislative assembly. However, the first circle is a public urban plaza (Civic Forum) at the
beginning of the enfilade of architectural structures and landscaped open
areas (including administration building, auditorium and guest house) east
of the legislative assembly. The Civic Forum circle determines the widths
and longitudinal axis of these subordinate bracketing structures and thus
forms the “hinge” between the population and the government it elected
Secretariat ["sekrI'teqrIqt] n ɫɟɤɪɟɬɚɪɢɚɬ
Speaker ['spJkq] n ɫɩɢɤɟɪ (ɩɪɟɞɫɟɞɚɬɟɥɶ ɩɚɥɚɬɵ ɩɚɪɥɚɦɟɧɬɚ)
Pair work
ɋɬɭɞɟɧɬ&Ɂɚɞɚɣɬɟ–ɜɨɩɪɨɫɨɜɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɯɬɢɩɨɜɤɬɟɤɫɬɭA.
ɋɬɭɞɟɧɬ'Ɉɬɜɟɬɶɬɟɧɚɜɨɩɪɨɫɵɤɬɟɤɫɬɭɫɬɭɞɟɧɬɚ&
ɋɬɭɞɟɧɬɵ&ɢ'ɉɨɦɟɧɹɣɬɟɫɶɪɨɥɹɦɢ
Phonetic exercise
ɇɚɣɞɢɬɟɜɬɟɤɫɬɟɫɥɨɜɚɬɪɚɧɫɤɪɢɩɰɢɹɤɨɬɨɪɵɯɞɚɧɚɧɢɠɟɢɩɟ
ɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɢɯɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤ
[kqn'venSqnql]; ['CeImbq]; ['enfIleId]; ['leGIslqtIv];
[kqn'sJv]; [hInG]; ['sIvIk]; [In"vaIrqn'mentl].
Vocabulary exercises
ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤɩɪɢɜɟɞɟɧɧɵɟɧɢɠɟɫɥɨɜɚɢɫɥɨ
ɜɨɫɨɱɟɬɚɧɢɹɄɚɤɢɟɢɡɩɟɪɟɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɵɯɫɥɨɜɦɨɝɭɬɛɵɬɶɞɪɭɝɢɦɢɱɚ
ɫɬɹɦɢɪɟɱɢ"Ʉɚɤɢɦɢɢɦɟɧɧɨ"Ʉɚɤɨɧɢɜɷɬɨɦɫɥɭɱɚɟɩɟɪɟɜɨɞɹɬɫɹɧɚ
ɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤ"
Legislative Assembly, parliament (n), wheel (n).
ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟ ɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɟ ɫɥɨɜɚ ɢ ɫɥɨɜɨɫɨɱɟɬɚɧɢɹ ɧɚ ɚɧɝɥɢɣ
ɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤ
FIGURE 22 Site plan
(from http://nbmcw.com [19])
Notes:
award [q'wLd] v ɩɪɢɫɭɠɞɚɬɶ , ɧɚɝɪɚɠɞɚɬɶ
chakra vortex column ['CAkrq 'vLteks "kOlqm] ɜɢɯɪɟɜɚɹ ɤɨɥɨɧɧɚ ɱɚɤɪɵ, ɤɨ
ɥɨɧɧɚ ɡɚɜɢɬɤɨɜ ɱɚɤɪɵ
consume [kqn'sjHm] v ɩɨɬɪɟɛɥɹɬɶɪɚɫɯɨɞɨɜɚɬɶ
elect [I'lekt] v ɢɡɛɢɪɚɬɶɜɵɛɢɪɚɬɶ
healthy ['helTI] a ɛɟɡɨɩɚɫɧɵɣɡɞɨɪɨɜɵɣ
Hindu philosophy ['hIndH fI'lPsqfI] ɮɢɥɨɫɨɮɢɹ ɢɧɞɭɢɡɦɚ
isosceles triangle [aI"sPsqlJz 'traIxNgql@ɪɚɜɧɨɛɟɞɪɟɧɧɵɣɬɪɟɭɝɨɥɶɧɢɤ
228
ɜɦɟɳɚɬɶɪɚɡɦɟɳɚɬɶɜɨɨɛɪɚɠɚɟɦɵɣɜɩɢɫɵɜɚɬɶɜɤɥɸɱɚɬɶɜɜɬɨɪɨ
ɫɬɟɩɟɧɧɵɣ ɜɬɨɪɢɱɧɵɣ ɜɵɡɵɜɚɬɶ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɢɬɶ ɝɟɨɦɟɬɪɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ
ɮɨɪɦɚɝɪɚɧɢɰɚɤɪɚɣɡɚɞɭɦɵɜɚɬɶɡɚɦɵɲɥɹɬɶɡɚɤɨɧɨɞɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɟɫɨ
ɛɪɚɧɢɟ ɤɨɥɟɫɨ ɤɨɧɫɨɥɶɧɚɹ ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɹ ɤɨɧɮɟɪɟɧɰ-ɡɚɥ ɤɪɭɝ
ɨɤɪɭɠɧɨɫɬɶ ɥɟɠɚɬɶ ɜ ɨɫɧɨɜɟ ɨɛɢɬɚɬɟɥɶ ɠɢɬɟɥɶ ɨɛɵɱɧɵɣ ɨɛɳɟ
ɩɪɢɧɹɬɵɣ ɨɡɟɥɟɧɟɧɢɟ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɬɶ ɨɛɭɫɥɨɜɥɢɜɚɬɶ ɨɬɯɨɞɵ ɦɭɫɨɪ
ɩɪɟɜɪɚɳɚɬɶɫɹɜɨɱɬɨ-ɥɢɛɨɩɪɟɞɧɚɡɧɚɱɚɬɶɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɟɪɟɫɭɪɫɵɩɪɨ
ɞɨɥɶɧɵɣ ɨɫɶ ɩɪɨɢɫɯɨɞɢɬɶ ɜɟɫɬɢ ɫɜɨɺ ɩɪɨɢɫɯɨɠɞɟɧɢɟ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɣ
ɪɚɡɧɵɣɫɜɟɪɯɛɨɥɶɲɟɫɨɯɪɚɧɹɬɶɫɛɟɪɟɝɚɬɶɫɬɟɪɠɟɧɶɤɚɪɞɢɧɚɥɶ
ɧɵɣɩɭɧɤɬɬɚɤɬɚɤɢɦɨɛɪɚɡɨɦɭɱɚɫɬɨɤɫɟɤɬɨɪɮɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɣɞɟɣ
ɫɬɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣɹɜɧɵɣɨɱɟɜɢɞɧɵɣ
229
ɇɚɣɞɢɬɟɜɩɪɢɦɟɱɚɧɢɹɯɤɬɟɤɫɬɚɦɭɪɨɤɨɜ–ɩɟɪɟɜɨɞɧɚ
ɚɧɝɥɢɣɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɯɫɥɨɜ
ɜɵɫɨɬɧɵɣ ɦɧɨɝɨɷɬɚɠɧɵɣ ɞɪɟɜɟɫɢɧɚ ɬɜɺɪɞɵɯ ɩɨɪɨɞ ɡɚɫɥɭɠɢɬɶ
ɫɧɢɫɤɚɬɶɤɪɭɠɟɜɧɨɣɩɨɯɨɠɢɣɧɚɤɪɭɠɟɜɨɤɪɭɱɟɧɢɟɫɤɪɭɱɢɜɚɧɢɟ
ɥɟɫɢɫɬɵɣɧɚɤɥɚɞɵɜɚɬɶ (ɨɞɧɨɧɚɞɪɭɝɨɟɨɛɜɨɞɢɬɶɨɱɟɪɱɢɜɚɬɶɤɨɧ
ɬɭɪɨɛɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɚɨɤɪɭɠɟɧɢɟɨɫɧɨɜɚɫɬɟɪɠɟɧɶɩɟɪɟɨɰɟɧɢɜɚɬɶɩɪɟ
ɭɜɟɥɢɱɢɜɚɬɶɩɟɪɢɥɚɨɝɪɚɠɞɟɧɢɟɩɨɥɧɵɣɜɫɟɨɛɴɟɦɥɸɳɢɣɩɪɨɞɭ
ɦɚɧɧɨɜɧɢɦɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɩɪɨɱɧɨɫɬɶɫɨɩɪɨɬɢɜɥɟɧɢɟɪɚɫɩɨɥɚɝɚɬɶɡɢɝɡɚ
ɝɨɦɫɝɢɛɚɧɢɟɢɡɝɢɛɫɠɚɬɢɟɫɠɢɦɚɬɶɫɞɚɜɥɢɜɚɬɶɫɬɢɥɢɫɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ
ɩɨɞɪɚɠɚɧɢɟɫɬɨɣɤɚɨɩɨɪɚɯɚɨɬɢɱɧɵɣɛɟɫɩɨɪɹɞɨɱɧɵɣɱɟɪɞɚɤɷɤɨ
ɥɨɝɢɱɧɵɣɹɪɤɨɫɬɶɨɫɜɟɳɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ
ɇɚɣɞɢɬɟɜɬɟɤɫɬɟɥɟɤɫɢɱɟɫɤɢɯɨɲɢɛɨɤ
Shanghai Tower
Shanghai Tower is organized as nine cylindrical buildings stacked
one behind the other. The inner layer of the double-skin façade encloses
the stacked buildings, with the exterior façade creates the building envelope, which turns 120 degrees as it rises and gives Shanghai Tower its
distinctive, curving aspect. The spaces between the two façade layers create nine atrium sky gardens. Much like plazas and civic squares in traditional cities, the public sky atria offer spaces within the Tower for crown
and community gathering space with restaurants, cafés, and stores, as well
as rich landscaping throughout. With sky gardens lining its perimeter,
Shanghai Tower is literally enveloped in public spaces.
Shanghai Tower’s interior and exterior skins are transparent, establishing a rural connection between the tower’s interiors and the urban fabric of Shanghai. On the ground level, abundant entrances on the site and
a metro station under the building, continue the physical and visual connections between the tower and the city.
Sustainability is at the core of Shanghai Tower’s design. The building’s transparent inner and outer skins occupy maximum natural daylight,
thus reducing the need for electric light.
1. The huge scale is broken down into some small-scale attractive places
and internally the private spaces of the malls are well detailed.
2. The promenade has provided the community with pure, clean air at a
constant temperature of 18 degrees.
3. The complex underground edifices of Luxor were sealed
(ɡɚɩɟɱɚɬɵɜɚɬɶ) as soon as they came fully into use and had been seen
by very few before that moment.
4. A sense of landscape was a fundamental element in creating a Greek
city.
5. The greatest classic monument in Russia is the Cathedral of St. Isaac,
a vast rectangular edifice with four Roman Corinthian pedimental colonnades projecting from its faces, and a dome with a peristyle crowning the whole.
6. In addition to community gardens, vacant lots are also being reclaimed
for parks, infill housing, and mixed-use development.
7. Each of the main components of the Gothic style had been around for
a while without producing anything much like a final complete Gothic
result.
8. Early Christian architecture continued to have a powerful influence
and to limit the spatial imagination of architects to simple basilicas.
9. The two maisonettes (ɤɜɚɪɬɢɪɵ ɜɞɜɭɯɭɪɨɜɧɹɯ) have the same plan,
some different interior decoration elements, adjusted to the taste of
each owner.
10.Christopher Wren was unable to replace the small Queen's House by
Inigo Jones with a bigger building which would have unified the whole
scheme, nor could he block the view of this important building with
another structure.
ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɟɬɟɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɟɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹɨɛɪɚɳɚɹɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟɧɚ
ɨɛɨɪɨɬthere + to be.
ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟ ɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹ ɨɛɪɚɳɚɹ ɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟ ɧɚ ɜɢɞɨ-ɜɪɟ
ɦɟɧɧɭɸɮɨɪɦɭɫɤɚɡɭɟɦɨɝɨ
1. There is the simple practicality of a style in the church that aimed at a
protecting strength rather than at any art of beauty.
2. There will be a profound awareness of the difference between big and
great.
3. There is more glass in this skyscraper than any other in the world according to the Royal Bank.
230
231
Grammar exercises
4. In the project offered there is a dialogue between the old and the new.
5. Using the principle that nodal points should always be visible along
street axes ensures that there will be a point from where the important
focuses can be seen.
6. According to Hallett, there has been a slight shift (ɨɬɯɨɞ) away from
the conventional materials of timber or iron work, both of which are
fairly heavy.
7. If the prevailing lines of the near hills are vertical there will be monotony, therefore the prevailing lines of our edifice must be horizontal.
8. There has been been close cooperation between all those concerned in
the project from the start.
9. There isn’t quite the attention or care with some details that there
should be for a public building of this importance.
10.There were no original Victorian features left in the flat when the restoration started.
Passages
Stepped overhangs above passages and stepped column heads are
characteristic of Dravidian architecture. The design of the Assembly Hall
itself has therefore been derived from these traditional elements: the upper
storey’s jut out step-wise into the circular plenary chamber. This heightens the hall’s significance as the ‘heart’ of the government complex.
Wall Paintings / Interior Decoration
Southern Indian architecture fascinates because of its rich interior
ornamentation with wall paintings or artistic wood carvings and stone
moldings.
The Dome
The Assembly Hall’s skyline with its domed roof is a modern reinterpretation of the originally thatched archaic temples typical of southern
India. This classical symbol of sovereignty in the form of a contemporary
filigree glass-and-steel engineering structure forms a bridge from the past
into the future.
Ɍɟɤɫɬ ȼ
Notes:
Tamil Nadu’s New Legislative Assembly Building (continued)
climber ['klaImq] n ɜɶɸɳɟɟɫɹ ɪɚɫɬɟɧɢɟ
convince [kqn'vIns] v ɭɛɟɠɞɚɬɶ, ɭɜɟɪɹɬɶ
Dravidian architecture [drq'vIdIqn 'RkItekCq] ɞɪɚɜɢɞɫɤɚɹ ɚɪɯɢɬɟɤɬɭɪɚ
(ɞɪɚɜɢ̗ɞɵ — ɧɚɪɨɞɵ, ɧɚɫɟɥɹɸɳɢɟ ɝɥɚɜɧɵɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ ɘɠɧɭɸ ɂɧɞɢɸ)
fascinate ['fxsIneIt] v ɨɱɚɪɨɜɵɜɚɬɶɩɥɟɧɹɬɶ
kolam [kP'lAm] n ɤɨɥɚɦɪɢɫɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɭɡɨɪɨɜɧɚɩɨɥɭ– ɨɞɧɨɢɡɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧ
ɧɵɯɜɢɞɨɜɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɘɠɧɨɣɂɧɞɢɢ)
modernity [mP'dWnItI] n ɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ
prayer [preq] n ɦɨɥɢɬɜɚ
quote [kwqVt] v ɩɨɜɬɨɪɹɬɶɛɵɬɶɩɪɢɦɟɪɨɦ
reinterpretation [rJIn"tWprI'teISqn] n ɧɨɜɚɹɢɧɬɟɪɩɪɟɬɚɰɢɹ
rice flour ['raIs"flaVq] n ɪɢɫɨɜɚɹɦɭɤɚ
sovereignty ['sPvrqntI] n ɫɭɜɟɪɟɧɢɬɟɬ, ɫɭɜɟɪɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ
Modernity and Tradition
The design for the state parliament convinces as an impressive, yet
simple and modern large architectural form in a creative reinterpretation
of traditional south-Indian architecture and ornamentation, which form
inherent parts of the overall design.
Kolams
These intricate geometric ornaments of colored rice flour represent
prayers for happiness and wealth and are laid out on the thresholds of
houses or flats. The design therefore includes a large-scale stone-mosaic
kolam on the threshold of the new Civic Forum, abstract reinterpretations
of kolams as reliefs of pale-colored stone on some prominent façade sections, and kolam-type geometric arrangements of garden plantings.
Roof Gardens
The two roof gardens, visible as central green outdoor spaces from
the 5th and 6th floors quote traditional Tamil patio house architecture.
Bridges connect them to the surrounding floors. Pergolas grown with
climbers shade the roof gardens from the tropical sun and peripheral inclined glass roofs let natural light fall into the building.
1. How are kolams used in the ornamentation?
2. How are roof gardens treated?
3. What characteristic features of Dravidian architecture were used in the
design of the Assembly Hall?
4. What makes the Assembly Hall’s skyline a bridge from the past into
the future?
232
233
Answer the following questions
Text work
ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɬɟɤɫɬ
ɋɨɫɬɚɜɶɬɟɩɥɚɧɬɟɤɫɬɚɢɡ–ɩɭɧɤɬɨɜ
ɉɨɥɶɡɭɹɫɶɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɧɵɦȼɚɦɢɩɥɚɧɨɦɤɪɚɬɤɨɢɡɥɨɠɢɬɟɫɨ
ɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɟɬɟɤɫɬɚɧɚɚɧɝɥɢɣɫɤɨɦɹɡɵɤɟ
Vocabulary exercise
ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤɩɪɢɜɟɞɺɧɧɵɟɧɢɠɟɫɥɨɜɚɢɫɥɨɜɨ
ɫɨɱɟɬɚɧɢɹȿɫɥɢȼɵɧɟɡɧɚɟɬɟɫɥɨɜɨɧɚɣɞɢɬɟɟɝɨɜɫɥɨɜɚɪɟȾɚɣɬɟɫɢ
ɧɨɧɢɦɵɩɨɞɱɺɪɤɧɭɬɵɯɫɥɨɜɢɚɧɬɨɧɢɦɵɫɥɨɜɜɵɞɟɥɟɧɧɵɯɤɭɪɫɢɜɨɦ
archaic, carving creative, derive, filigree, heighten, incline, inherent, interior, intricate, jut out, molding overall, overhang, passage, patio, pergola,
planting, plenary chamber, prominent, relief, represent, skyline, stepped,
temple, thatched, threshold.
Ɍɟɤɫɬ C
Tamil Nadu's New Legislative Assembly Building (continued)
Parliament building
Apart from the philosophical foundations of the project, the courtyard motif was an essential design factor, used in various forms: as a central plaza, a central access and distribution area and not least as an open
water tank – a traditional element of Tamil Nadu architecture. The designers also used the courtyard motif in other sections of the complex, and
filled them with different functions.
Four circular “holes”, or negative forms (courtyards), were cut into
the building mass and filled with different contents. The first and largest
negative form has been left open, while the three following ones accommodate special functional cylinders (assembly hall, library, conference
rooms, etc.). The airspace between the large, curving peripheral building
mass and the cylinders ensures natural lighting for the rooms even down
to the ground floor. The cylinder buildings are connected to the peripheral
structure by bridges arranged like the spokes of a wheel. The fifth, and
smallest, cylinder to the northeast is shaded by a mighty old banyan tree,
which stands on the longitudinal axis of the complex.
234
The courtyards:
1st Circle (Basis) – Civic Forum, Public Plaza
This public courtyard has the function of a threshold, or “anteroom”,
to the main entrance of the building. A planted two-storey structure and a
water tank (pool) form the atmospheric centre of the plaza. The surrounding structures contain a number of public functions such as ticket offices
and visitor information points.
2nd Circle (Power) – Assembly Hall
As the seat of the legislative, the Assembly Hall forms the heart of
the complex and rises from the second plan circle as a free-standing structure. The domed roof of the plenary chamber is visible from afar and symbolizes the exceptional significance of this hall.
3rd Circle (Communication) – Library, Conference Rooms, Roof
Garden
The library represents the memory store of government legislative
decisions and decrees. The building’s placement in the 3rd circle, directly
next to the Assembly Hall, is an evidence of its significant function. The
two-storey conference hall on the 2nd upper floor and the 5th-level rooftop garden surrounded by generously dimensioned corridors and foyers
form the communication forum for the ministerial suites around the library.
4th Circle (Knowledge) – Chief Minister’s Office
The 4th circle cut into the northern end of the building mass is defined by the Chief Minister’s suite. The rooftop garden of this structure is
a resting place reserved for the Chief Minister.
5th Circle (Universal Consciousness)
Tree of Life the banyan tree is a symbol of longevity and permanence. The specimen that stood here has therefore been integrated into the
design concept in a significant way – as a silent witness to the past, present
and future in the last of the five successively smaller circles. The overall
large geometric form of the parliament building generated additional, this
time semicircular “cut-outs” (courtyards) at its periphery. These function
as light wells for the offices in the upper-floor bracketing structures and
include the ground-floor VIP front drives along the circular access road
underneath the building base.
Outdoor Areas
The parliament building stands on a terraced green base and is thus
raised from the ground level. From this green terrace, a grand staircase
235
leads up to the Civic Forum plaza, linking the building to the urban surroundings.
The width of the administration building (which defines the east side
of the Civic Forum) corresponds to the diameter of the round plaza in
front of the parliament building. The radius of the office building’s concave façade starts from the centre of the Civic Forum and thus points to
the functional connection between the two structures.
On the environmental aspect, this building is constructed to cause
least disturbance to environment adopting the concepts of Green buildings. When compared to conventional buildings, this building reduced
20 % energy consumption by using energy saving electrical appliances
including light fixtures. The natural lighting is harvested on all sides
through panel façade and through the big dome at the top.
Notes:
airspace ['eqspeIs] n ɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɨ, ɩɪɨɫɜɟɬ
anteroom ['xntIrVm] n ɜɟɫɬɢɛɸɥɶ, ɩɟɪɟɞɧɹɹ
banyan tree ['bxnIqn "trJ] n ɛɚɧɶɹɧ, ɢɧɞɢɣɫɤɢɣ ɮɢɤɭɫ
Chief Minister [CJf 'mInIstq] ɝɥɚɜɚ ɩɪɚɜɢɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɚ
consciousness ['kPnSqsnqs] n ɫɨɡɧɚɧɢɟ
consumption [kqn'sAmpSqn] n ɩɨɬɪɟɛɥɟɧɢɟ, ɪɚɫɯɨɞ
contents ['kPntents] n ɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɟ, ɫɨɞɟɪɠɢɦɨɟ
cut-out ['kAt'aVt] n ɜɵɪɟɡ, ɩɪɨɮɢɥɶ, ɤɨɧɬɭɪ
decree [dI'krJ] n ɭɤɚɡɞɟɤɪɟɬɡɚɤɨɧ
disturbance [dI'stWbqns] n ɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟɧɚɪɭɲɟɧɢɟ
electrical appliance [I'lektrIkql q'plaIqns@ɷɥɟɤɬɪɢɱɟɫɤɨɟɭɫɬɪɨɣɫɬɜɨ
from afar [frqmq'fR] adv ɢɡɞɚɥɟɤɚ
harvest ['hRvqst] v ɩɨɥɭɱɚɬɶɭɥɚɜɥɢɜɚɬɶ
hole [hqVl] n ɜɩɚɞɢɧɚ ɭɝɥɭɛɥɟɧɢɟ
light well ['laItwel] ɫɜɟɬɨɜɚɹ ɲɚɯɬɚ
longevity [lPn'GevItI] n ɞɨɥɝɨɥɟɬɢɟɞɨɥɝɨɠɢɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɨ
ministerial ["mInI'stIqrIql] a ɦɢɧɢɫɬɟɪɫɤɢɣɩɪɚɜɢɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣ
philosophical ["fIlq'sPfIkql] a ɮɢɥɨɫɨɮɫɤɢɣ
silent ['saIlqnt] a ɛɟɡɦɨɥɜɧɵɣ
specimen ['spesImqn] n ɷɤɡɟɦɩɥɹɪ, ɪɚɫɬɟɧɢɟ
spoke [spqVk] n ɫɩɢɰɚ (ɤɨɥɟɫɚ)
VIP ["vJ aI 'pJ] (very important person) ɜɵɫɨɤɨɩɨɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɧɨɟ ɥɢɰɨ, ɜɚɠɧɚɹ
ɩɟɪɫɨɧɚ
236
Answer the following questions
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
How is the courtyard motif used in the design?
What are the four circular “holes” cut into the building mass?
What is the fifth cylinder of the design?
What meaning does the cylinder have?
What is the purpose of the semicircular courtyards at the periphery.?
How is the building linked to the urban surroundings?
What is the environmental aspect of the building?
Communication exercise
ɍɱɟɛɧɚɹ ɝɪɭɩɩɚ ɪɚɡɛɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɧɚ ɞɜɟ ɩɨɞɝɪɭɩɩɵ Ʉɚɠɞɚɹ ɩɨɞ
ɝɪɭɩɩɚɜɵɛɢɪɚɟɬɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɣɝɪɚɞɨɫɬɪɨɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣɩɪɨɟɤɬɜɊɨɫɫɢɢ
ɢɥɢɡɚɪɭɛɟɠɨɦɩɪɨɟɤɬɵɧɟɞɨɥɠɧɵɫɨɜɩɚɞɚɬɶɢɥɢɛɵɬɶɨɩɢɫɚɧɵɜ
ɞɚɧɧɨɦɭɱɟɛɧɢɤɟɢɨɛɫɭɠɞɚɟɬɟɝɨɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɢɞɨɫɬɨɢɧɫɬɜɚɢɧɟɞɨ
ɫɬɚɬɤɢ ɐɟɥɶ ɨɛɫɭɠɞɟɧɢɹ – ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɫɨɨɛɳɟɧɢɹ ɨɛɴɺɦɨɦ -20
ɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɣ
ɉɨ ɨɤɨɧɱɚɧɢɢ ɨɛɫɭɠɞɟɧɢɹ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɢɬɟɥɶ ɤɚɠɞɨɣ ɩɨɞɝɪɭɩɩɵ
ɞɟɥɚɟɬɫɨɨɛɳɟɧɢɟɞɥɹɭɱɚɫɬɧɢɤɨɜɞɪɭɝɨɣɩɨɞɝɪɭɩɩɵɚɡɚɬɟɦɨɬɜɟ
ɱɚɟɬɧɚɢɯɜɨɩɪɨɫɵɩɨɬɟɦɟ
Vocabulary exercise
ȼ ɫɩɢɫɤɟ Ⱥ ɞɚɧɵ ɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɫɥɨɜɚ ɢ ɜɵɪɚɠɟɧɢɹ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɢɫ
ɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɵ ɜ ɬɟɤɫɬɟ ɞɥɹ ɞɨɦɚɲɧɟɝɨ ɱɬɟɧɢɹ ɇɚɣɞɢɬɟ ɢɯ ɩɟɪɟɜɨɞ
ɜɫɩɢɫɤɟȼ
access
accommodate
apart from
assembly hall
bracketing
structure
cause
concave
curve
distribution
evidence
fixture
generously
ɲɢɪɢɧɚ
ɭɤɚɡɵɜɚɬɶ
ɫɨɤɪɚɳɚɬɶ
ɫɨɟɞɢɧɹɬɶ
ɫɜɢɞɟɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɨ
ɪɟɡɟɪɜɭɚɪ
ɪɚɫɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɟ
ɩɪɢɩɨɞɧɢɦɚɬɶ
ɩɪɢɛɨɪ
ɩɪɟɞɧɚɡɧɚɱɚɬɶ
ɩɨɷɬɨɦɭ
ɩɨɫɬɨɹɧɫɬɜɨ
permanence
planted
point
raise
reduce
reserve
rooftop
seat
semicircular
successively
237
ɩɥɨɫɤɚɹ ɤɪɵɲɚ
ɨɡɟɥɟɧɺɧɧɵɣ
ɧɟɜɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɸɸ
ɨɱɟɪɟɞɶ
ɦɟɫɬɨɧɚɯɨɠɞɟɧɢɟ
ɤɨɧɫɨɥɶɧɚɹ
ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɹ
ɢɦɟɸɳɢɣɫɨɥɢɞɧɵɟ
ɪɚɡɦɟɪɵ
ɢɡɝɢɛɚɬɶ
ɞɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɨ
ɝɪɨɦɚɞɧɵɣ
ɜɵɡɵɜɚɬɶ
dimensioned
integrate
link
mighty
not least
ɩɨɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɨ
ɩɨɦɢɦɨ
ɩɨɥɭɤɪɭɝɥɵɣ
ɩɨɞ
suite
tank
therefore
underneath
width
witness
ɜɴɟɡɞ
ɜɨɝɧɭɬɵɣ
ɜɦɟɳɚɬɶ
ɜɤɥɸɱɚɬɶ
ɚɩɚɪɬɚɦɟɧɬɵ
ɚɤɬɨɜɵɣɡɚɥ
TEST 12
Part I – Vocabulary
ɁɚɞɚɧɢɟȺɈɩɪɟɞɟɥɢɬɟɫɥɨɜɚɤɤɨɬɨɪɵɦɨɬɧɨɫɹɬɫɹɩɟɪɟɱɢɫ
ɥɟɧɧɵɟɧɢɠɟɬɨɥɤɨɜɚɧɢɹ
x Small area of ground marked off for some special use.
x Inner part of an ancient Greek or Roman temple, housing the statue
of a god or goddess.
x Bricks or stone from which a building, wall etc has been made Masonry is bricks or pieces of stone which have been stuck together
with cement as part of a wall or building.
x Main business section of a city or town.
x A roofless inner courtyard.
1.
–
2.
–
3.
–
4.
–
5.
–
ɁɚɞɚɧɢɟB. ɇɚɣɞɢɬɟɜɬɟɤɫɬɟɥɟɤɫɢɱɟɫɤɢɯɨɲɢɛɨɤ
The client desired a flexible home which would impact a space in
which to work as well as live. The program made use of the existing
boundary walls and foundations. A new steel frame was inserted, from
which hang the facades.
The front of the house neats north and is conceived as an insulated
facade with no outside views. This mute (ɩɪɢɝɥɭɲɺɧɧɵɣ) elevation is
expressed in the interior as a double-height space with a continuous skylight running the length of the house, acting as a light chimney for the
flexible live/work space on the ground.
238
The back of the house faces south and enjoys the full east to west
precinct. This is exploited by making a large glazed clerestory and reflecting wall, creating a second double-height space, which lends sunlight to
the ground floor. The lower part of the skill is divided into two: on one
side is a glazed box and on the other a window system opens onto a walled
court space.
The upper floor is entered on the east side by a maple staircase. Upstairs, the rooms are small but the floor to ceiling heights are deliberately
tall (3.2 inches).
6.
–
7.
–
8.
–
9.
–
10. –
ɁɚɞɚɧɢɟC. Ⱦɚɣɬɟɩɟɪɟɜɨɞɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɯɫɥɨɜɢɫɥɨɜɨɫɨɱɟɬɚɧɢɣɧɚ
ɚɧɝɥɢɣɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤ
11. ɦɟɫɬɨɞɥɹɩɪɨɝɭɥɨɤ – …
12. ɧɨɜɚɬɨɪɫɤɢɣ – …
13. ɫɬɟɤɥɨɜɨɥɨɤɧɨ – …
14. ɝɨɪɨɞɫɤɨɣɥɚɧɞɲɚɮɬ – …
15. ɛɟɬɨɧɫɨɛɧɚɠɟɧɧɵɦɡɚɩɨɥɧɢɬɟɥɟɦ – …
Part II – Grammar
ɉɟɪɟɜɟɞɢɬɟɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɟɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹ
16. From the social area one descends to the bedrooms through an
open courtyard that allows the bedrooms to flow and mix with
the colours of the garden.
17. A design concept strongly connected with sustainable development is the idea of mixed land uses, its origin being in the rejecWLRQRIULJLGɠɟɫɬɤɢɣODQG-use zones associated with the mechDQLVWLFɦɟɯɚɧɢɫɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɣPRGHORIFLW\SODQQLQJDVSUDFWLVHG
earlier.
18. There being many vantage points from which a building can be
seen, there are different concepts such as symmetry, balance,
rhythm and outline which have been used to analyse architectural
design.
239
19. In the design of the building the interplay of form, colour and
natural materials forms a harmonious (ɝɚɪɦɨɧɢɱɧɵɣ) whole in
which people occupy a central place.
20. If the central contrast in the composition is light-dark, the values
of the colours used will come particularly into play and have a
great influence on the overall effect, the hues (ɨɬɬɟɧɨɤ) playing
a secondary role that of an accessory (ɚɤɫɟɫɫɭɚɪ) to the lightdark contrast.
21. The outline of the site and the views around it determined the
placement of the building.
22. The house has many windows.
23. The terrain below the house has a two-metre change in height.
24. Masonry was used for the construction.
25. Artificial lighting is reflected in a double mirror at the bottom
of the stairs.
Part III – Reading
ɉɪɨɱɢɬɚɣɬɟ ɬɟɤɫɬ ɋɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɸɬ ɥɢ ɩɪɢɜɟɞɺɧɧɵɟ ɧɢɠɟ
ɜɵɫɤɚɡɵɜɚɧɢɹ ɟɝɨ ɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɸ ȼɵɛɟɪɢɬɟ ɨɞɢɧ ɢɡ ɜɚɪɢɚɧɬɨɜ ɨɬ
ɜɟɬɚa) ɜɟɪɧɨbɧɟɜɟɪɧɨcɧɟɫɤɚɡɚɧɨ
Stassen House
This house was built in 1998 on a smooth site in the Brabant
Flamand area. The placement of the building was influenced by the trapezium shape of the site and the surrounding views: an old farm lies to the
north; the nearest town, with its church’s bell tower, is to the east; and, to
the south, a fruit and vegetable garden. Large and small, horizontal and
vertical windows frame each of these views from the inside. The site is
reached via a secondary local road. In spite of the terrain’s two-metre
change in height, the ground floor rests on one smooth level. A more intimate space is created by an open-air extension of the main living area at
the back of the plot, which is enclosed by walls.
The construction of the two volumes was extremely simple and economical: brick walls form the support for precast concrete vaults. Most of
the interior walls and the central staircase were either done entirely in
wood, lined in wood or plastered, while the floor is plain concrete covered
in tiles or flagstone (ɤɚɦɟɧɧɚɹ ɩɥɢɬɚ).
The volume containing the staircase plays a very important role
within the composition; its diagonal placement and vertical continuity,
lends a dynamic aspect to the space and lets in natural or artificial light.
This interplay of lighting is reflected in a double mirror located at the
bottom of the stairs.
The house is defined by its powerful geometry. The volumes of
which it is comprised contribute to the creation of a sculptural unit, which
is enhanced by the combination of materials of the extenor cladding.
240
241
Bibliography
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
Alexander L.G. Longman English Grammar. Longman House, Harlow, 1995,
ISBN 0-582-55892-1
Architectural Design. – John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 1980 – 2009.
Architectural Design Magazine [Architectural.Ebook] by Pal Ciprian, 20052009.
Architectural Record. – The Mcgraw-Hill Companies, 2003-2014.
Bauer M., Mösle P., Schwarz M. Green Building. Guidebook for Sustainable
Architecture. – Springer, 2009, ISBN 978-3-642-00635-7.
Bizley G. Architecture in Detail II. – Architectural Press, 2010, ISBN 978-0080-96535-2.
Calthorpe P., Fulton W. The Regional City. – Island Press, 2001, 978-1-55963784-8
Castex J. Architecture of Italy. Greenwood Press,WestPort, Connecticut, 2008,
ISBN 978–0–313–32086–6
Downton P. F. Ecopolis: Architecture and Cities for a Changing Climate. –
Springer, 2009, ISBN: 978-1-4020-8495-9.
Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English. Longman Dictionaries, Harlow, 2005, ISBN 1-405-81126-9
Roaf S., Fuentes M., Thomas S. Ecohouse: A Design Guide. – Architectural
Press, 2007. ISBN 978-0-7506-6903-0
Sennott R.S. (ed.) Encyclopedia of 20th Century Architecture. Vol. 1. A-F. –
New York, 2004, ISBN 1 5795 84357.
Tzonis A., Lefaivre L. Architecture in Europe since 1968. – Thames and Gudson, 2000, ISBN 0-500-27948-9.
ɄɚɭɲɚɧɫɤɚɹȼɅɢɞɪȽɪɚɦɦɚɬɢɤɚɚɧɝɥɢɣɫɤɨɝɨɹɡɵɤɚɅɟɧɢɧɝɪɚɞɉɪɨ
ɫɜɟɳɟɧɢɟ
ɆɸɥɥɟɪȼɄ ɇɨɜɵɣɚɧɝɥɨ-ɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɫɥɨɜɚɪɶɆɨɫɤɜɚɊɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤ
ISBN 5-200-03176-1.
ɇɨɜɵɣ ɛɨɥɶɲɨɣ ɚɧɝɥɨ-ɪɭɫɫɤɢɣ ɫɥɨɜɚɪɶ ɩɨɞ ɨɛɳɢɦ ɪɭɤɨɜɨɞɫɬɜɨɦ
ɗɆɆɟɞɧɢɤɨɜɨɣɢɘȾȺɩɪɟɫɹɧɚɜ-ɯɬɨɦɚɯɆɨɫɤɜɚɊɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤ
1993, ISBN 5-200-01848-X
ɉɨɥɹɤɨɜɚ Ɍɘ ɋɢɧɹɜɫɤɚɹ ȿȼ ɢ ɞɪ Ⱥɧɝɥɢɣɫɤɢɣ ɹɡɵɤ ɞɥɹ ɢɧɠɟɧɟɪɨɜ
ɆɨɫɤɜɚȼɵɫɲɚɹɲɤɨɥɚISBN 5-06-003733-9.
http://www.archdaily.com.
http://nbmcw.com.
http://www.architecturenewsplus.com
http://translate.academic.ru.
Appendices
Appendix 1. Pronunciation Table
ɉɪɨɢɡɧɨɲɟɧɢɟɜɭɩɪɚɠɧɟɧɢɹɯɡɚɞɚɧɢɹɢɫɥɨɜɚɪɟɞɚɺɬɫɹɩɨɦɟɠɞɭɧɚɪɨɞ
ɧɨɣɮɨɧɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɫɢɫɬɟɦɟɍɞɚɪɟɧɢɟɜɮɨɧɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɬɪɚɧɫɤɪɢɩɰɢɢɫɬɚɜɢɬɫɹ
ɩɟɪɟɞ ɭɞɚɪɧɵɦɫɥɨɝɨɦȼɬɨɪɨɫɬɟɩɟɧɧɨɟɭɞɚɪɟɧɢɟɫɬɚɜɢɬɫɹɜɧɢɡɭɩɟɪɟɞ ɭɞɚɪ
ɧɵɦɫɥɨɝɨɦ
Ƚɥɚɫɧɵɟɡɜɭɤɢ
J – ɞɨɥɝɢɣɢ
I – ɤɪɚɬɤɢɣɨɬɤɪɵɬɵɣɢ
e – ɤɚɤɷ ɜɫɥɨɜɚɯɷɬɨɬɷɬɢ
x – ɨɱɟɧɶɨɬɤɪɵɬɵɣɷɤɚɤɭɞɚɪɧɵɣɝɥɚɫɧɵɣɜɫɥɨɜɟɛɹɤɚ
R – ɞɨɥɝɢɣɝɥɭɛɨɤɢɣɚɤɚɤɭɞɚɪɧɵɣɝɥɚɫɧɵɣɜɫɥɨɜɟɩɚɥɤɚ
P – ɤɪɚɬɤɢɣɨɬɤɪɵɬɵɣɨ
L – ɞɨɥɝɢɣɨ
V – ɤɪɚɬɤɢɣɭ
H – ɞɨɥɝɢɣɭ
A – ɤɪɚɬɤɢɣɚɤɚɤɜɫɥɨɜɚɯɜɚɪɢɬɶɦɨɫɬɵ
W – ɤɚɤɞɨɥɝɨɟɺ ɜɫɥɨɜɚɯɎɺɤɥɚɫɜɺɤɥɚ
q – ɛɟɡɭɞɚɪɧɵɣɝɥɚɫɧɵɣɩɨɯɨɠɢɣɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɛɟɡɭɞɚɪɧɵɣɝɥɚɫɧɵɣɜɫɥɨ
ɜɚɯɧɭɠɟɧɝɨɥɨɫɤɚɪɟɬɚ
q – ɛɟɡɭɞɚɪɧɵɣɝɥɚɫɧɵɣɦɨɠɟɬɩɪɨɢɡɧɨɫɢɬɶɫɹɢɥɢɧɟɩɪɨɢɡɧɨɫɢɬɶɫɹ
242
243
Ⱦɜɭɝɥɚɫɧɵɟɡɜɭɤɢ
Appendix 2. Vocabulary
eI – ɷɣ
aI – ɚɣ
OI – ɨɣ
eq – ɷɚ
qV – ɷɭ
aV – ɚɭ
Iq – ɢɚ
Vq – ɭɚ
ɋɨɝɥɚɫɧɵɟɡɜɭɤɢ
p–ɩ
b – ɛ
m–ɦ
w – ɡɜɭɤɨɛɪɚɡɭɟɬɫɹɤɨɝɞɚɝɭɛɵɜɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɢɤɚɤɩɪɢɫɜɢɫɬɟɪɟɡɤɨɪɚɡ
ɞɜɢɝɚɸɬɫɹɇɚɩɨɦɢɧɚɟɬɡɜɭɤɭ.
f–ɮ
v–ɜ
T – ɛɟɡɝɨɥɨɫɚɨɛɚɡɜɭɤɚɨɛɪɚɡɭɸɬɫɹɩɪɢɩɨɦɨɳɢɹɡɵɤɚ
D – ɫɝɨɥɨɫɨɦɤɨɧɱɢɤɤɨɬɨɪɨɝɨɩɨɦɟɳɚɟɬɫɹɦɟɠɞɭɩɟɪɟɞɧɢɦɢ
ɡɭɛɚɦɢ
s–ɫ
z–ɡ
t – ɬɧɨɩɪɢɩɪɨɢɡɧɨɲɟɧɢɢɤɨɧɱɢɤɹɡɵɤɚɤɚɫɚɟɬɫɹɞɺɫɟɧɚɧɟɡɭɛɨɜ
d – ɞ
~
~
~
~
n – ɧ
~
~
~
~
l–ɥ
~
~
~
~
r – ɧɟɪɚɫɤɚɬɢɫɬɨɟɤɪɚɬɤɨɟɫɥɚɛɨɟɪ ɤɨɧɱɢɤɹɡɵɤɚɧɟɦɧɨɝɨɡɚɜɺɪɧɭɬɧɚɡɚɞ
S – ɦɹɝɤɨɟɲ
Z – ɦɹɝɤɨɟɠ
C–ɱ
G – ɨɱɟɧɶɦɹɝɤɨɟɫɥɢɬɧɨɟɞɠ
k–ɤ
g–ɝ
N – ɩɪɨɢɡɧɟɫɺɧɧɵɣɡɚɞɧɟɣɱɚɫɬɶɸɫɩɢɧɤɢɹɡɵɤɚɡɜɭɤɧ
h – ɩɪɨɫɬɨɣɪɟɡɤɢɣɜɵɞɨɯ
j – ɫɥɚɛɵɣɡɜɭɤɣ
244
A.D. ["eI 'dJ] ɧɚɲɟɣ ɷɪɵ 1.6a
ability [q'bIlItI] n ɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɨɫɬɶɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɶa
about [q'baVt] adv ɨɤɨɥɨɩɪɢɛɥɢɡɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɧɟɩɨɞɚɥɺɤɭɩɨɛɥɢɡɨɫɬɢɪɹ
ɞɨɦɜɡɚɞɢɜɩɟɪɺɞ ɩɨɜɨɤɪɭɝɨɨɬɧɨɫɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɧɚɫɱɺɬprep ɩɨbe
about ɤɚɫɚɬɶɫɹɢɦɟɬɶɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɟa
above [q'bAv] adv ɧɚɜɟɪɯɭɜɜɟɪɯɭɜɵɲɟɜɜɟɪɯɧɚɜɟɪɯɜɵɲɟɫɜɵɲɟ
prep ɧɚɞabove all adv ɩɪɟɠɞɟɜɫɟɝɨɛɨɥɟɟɬɨɝɨb
absolute ['xbsqlHt] a ɩɨɥɧɵɣɚɛɫɨɥɸɬɧɵɣɛɟɡɭɫɥɨɜɧɵɣa
abstract ['xbstrxkt] a ɚɛɫɬɪɚɤɬɧɵɣɱɢɫɬɨɞɟɤɨɪɚɬɢɜɧɵɣ abstractly adv ɚɛ
ɫɬɪɚɤɬɧɨɱɢɫɬɨɞɟɤɨɪɚɬɢɜɧɨa
abundant [q'bAndqnt] a ɨɛɢɥɶɧɵɣɨɛɲɢɪɧɵɣɢɡɨɛɢɥɶɧɵɣa
accent ['xksqnt] n ɭɞɚɪɟɧɢɟɭɩɨɪɨɬɥɢɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣɩɪɢɡɧɚɤgive accent
ɩɨɞɱɺɪɤɢɜɚɬɶɜɵɞɟɥɹɬɶa
accentuate [qk'senCVeIt] v ɩɨɞɱɟɪɤɢɜɚɬɶɞɟɥɚɬɶɚɤɰɟɧɬɧɚb
acceptable [qk'septqbql] a ɩɪɢɟɦɥɟɦɵɣɩɨɞɯɨɞɹɳɢɣɞɨɩɭɫɬɢɦɵɣb
accepted [qk'septId] a ɨɛɳɟɩɪɢɧɹɬɵɣɨɛɵɱɧɵɣɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɧɵɣa
access ['xkses] n ɞɨɫɬɭɩɩɨɞɯɨɞɜɴɟɡɞɧɚɞɨɪɨɝɭɞɨɪɨɠɧɵɣɩɨɞɴɟɡɞ
access ramp ɩɚɧɞɭɫɜɴɟɡɞɧɚɹɪɚɦɩɚaccess road ɩɨɞɴɟɡɞɧɨɣɩɭɬɶgain access ɩɨɥɭɱɢɬɶɞɨɫɬɭɩpublic access ɨɬɤɪɵɬɵɣɞɨɫɬɭɩa
accessible [qk'sesIbql] a ɞɨɫɬɭɩɧɵɣɞɨɫɬɢɠɢɦɵɣɨɬɤɪɵɬɵɣɞɥɹɞɨɫɬɭɩɚ
ɢɦɟɸɳɢɣɞɨɫɬɭɩ publicly accessible ["pAblIklI qk'sesIbql@ɨɛɳɟɞɨɫɬɭɩ
ɧɵɣɨɬɤɪɵɬɵɣɞɥɹɨɛɳɟɝɨɞɨɫɬɭɩɚ 1.3b
accommodate [q'kPmqdeIt] v ɩɪɢɫɩɨɫɚɛɥɢɜɚɬɶɜɦɟɳɚɬɶɪɚɡɦɟɳɚɬɶɞɚ
ɜɚɬɶɩɪɢɫɬɚɧɢɳɟɩɪɟɞɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɬɶɩɨɦɟɳɟɧɢɟɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɢɜɚɬɶɫɧɚɛɠɚɬɶ 1.5a
accommodation [q"kPmq'deISqn] n 1. ɪɚɡɦɟɳɟɧɢɟ ɩɪɟɞɨɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɟɠɢɥɶɹ
ɩɨɦɟɳɟɧɢɟoffice accommodation ɫɥɭɠɟɛɧɵɟɩɨɦɟɳɟɧɢɹ 1.12b
accompany [q'kAmpqnI] v ɫɨɩɭɬɫɬɜɨɜɚɬɶɫɨɩɪɨɜɨɠɞɚɬɶb
according (to) [q'kLdIN] prep ɜɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɢɢɫɨɝɥɚɫɧɨ ɩɨ 1.12b
account [q'kaVnt] n on account of ɢɡ-ɡɚɜɫɥɟɞɫɬɜɢɟɜɜɢɞɭɩɨɩɪɢɱɢɧɟtake
into account ɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɬɶɜɨɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟa
accumulate [q'kjHmjVleIt] v ɫɤɚɩɥɢɜɚɬɶɫɹɧɚɤɚɩɥɢɜɚɬɶɫɹɚɤɤɭɦɭɥɢɪɨ
ɜɚɬɶɫɹ 1.6b
accumulation [q"kjHmjV'leISqn] n ɫɤɨɩɥɟɧɢɟɫɨɛɢɪɚɧɢɟɚɤɤɭɦɭɥɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ
1.6b
achieve [q'CJv] v ɞɨɫɬɢɝɚɬɶɞɨɫɬɢɝɧɭɬɶɞɨɛɢɜɚɬɶɫɹɭɫɩɟɲɧɨɜɵɩɨɥɧɹɬɶ
ɢɫɩɨɥɧɹɬɶa
achievement [q'CJvmqnt] n ɞɨɫɬɢɠɟɧɢɟɭɫɩɟɯa
acoustic [q'kHstIk] a ɡɜɭɤɨɜɨɣɡɜɭɤɨɩɨɝɥɨɳɚɸɳɢɣacoustic panel ɚɤɭ
ɫɬɢɱɟɫɤɚɹɡɜɭɤɨɩɨɝɥɨɳɚɸɳɚɹɩɚɧɟɥɶb
acre ['eIkq] n ɚɤɪ (ɟɞɢɧɢɰɚɩɥɨɳɚɞɢ ɝɚɢɥɢɦ2) 3.6a
245
across [q'krPs] adv ɩɨɩɟɪɺɤɜɲɢɪɢɧɭɨɬɤɪɚɹɞɨɤɪɚɹɩɨɬɭɫɬɨɪɨɧɭɧɚ
ɬɨɣɫɬɨɪɨɧɟprep ɩɨɫɤɜɨɡɶɱɟɪɟɡc
act [xkt] n ɚɤɬɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫ v ɪɚɛɨɬɚɬɶɫɥɭɠɢɬɶɞɟɣɫɬɜɨɜɚɬɶɜɤɚɱɟ
ɫɬɜɟɜɥɢɹɬɶɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɨɜɚɬɶɞɟɣɫɬɜɨɜɚɬɶɪɚɛɨɬɚɬɶa
active ['xktIv] a ɚɤɬɢɜɧɵɣ actively adv ɚɤɬɢɜɧɨɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨ4.8c
activity [xk'tIvItI] n ɚɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɶɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɶɮɭɧɤɰɢɨɧɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟɦɟɪɨ
ɩɪɢɹɬɢɟpl ɜɢɞɵɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢsocial activities ɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɟɦɟɪɨɩɪɢɹɬɢɹ
1.8c
actual ['xkCVql] a 1. ɮɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɣɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣɞɚɧɧɵɣɫɚɦ actually
adv ɮɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɜɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢɧɚɫɚɦɨɦɞɟɥɟ 1.12c
adapt [q'dxpt] v ɩɪɢɫɩɨɫɚɛɥɢɜɚɬɶɫɹ ɩɪɢɫɩɨɫɨɛɢɬɶɫɹ), ɢɡɦɟɧɹɬɶɫɹ);
adapted a ɩɪɢɝɨɞɧɵɣɩɨɞɯɨɞɹɳɢɣ 1.5a
add [xd] v ɞɨɛɚɜɥɹɬɶɩɪɢɛɚɜɥɹɬɶɭɫɢɥɢɜɚɬɶɱɬɨ-ɥɩɪɢɞɚɜɚɬɶb
addition [q'dISqn] n ɞɨɩɨɥɧɟɧɢɟɩɪɢɛɚɜɥɟɧɢɟɩɪɢɫɬɪɨɣɤɚɧɚɞɫɬɪɨɣɤɚin
addition ɤɪɨɦɟɬɨɝɨɜɞɨɛɚɜɨɤɤɬɨɦɭɠɟb
additional [q'dISqnql] a ɞɨɩɨɥɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣ ɧɨɜɵɣ 1.12c
adjacent [q'GeIsqnt] a ɩɪɢɥɟɠɚɳɢɣɩɪɢɦɵɤɚɸɳɢɣɫɦɟɠɧɵɣɫɨɫɟɞɧɢɣb
adjust [q'GAst] v ɭɫɬɚɧɚɜɥɢɜɚɬɶɜɧɨɫɢɬɶɩɨɩɪɚɜɤɭɤɨɪɪɟɤɬɢɪɨɜɚɬɶɪɟ
ɝɭɥɢɪɨɜɚɬɶb
adjustment [q'GAstmqnt] n 1. ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɚɫɛɨɪɤɚ 2. ɩɪɢɫɩɨɫɚɛɥɢɜɚɧɢɟɚɞɚɩ
ɬɚɰɢɹ1.4c
administration [qd"mInI'streISqn] n ɚɞɦɢɧɢɫɬɪɚɰɢɹɪɭɤɨɜɨɞɫɬɜɨa
administrative [qd'mInIstrqtIv] a ɚɞɦɢɧɢɫɬɪɚɬɢɜɧɵɣɢɫɩɨɥɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣ
ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɱɟɫɤɢɣɚɞɦɢɧɢɫɬɪɚɬɢɜɧɨ-ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣadministratively adv ɚɞ
ɦɢɧɢɫɬɪɚɬɢɜɧɨ1.5a
admit [qd'mIt] n ɜɩɭɫɤɚɬɶɞɨɩɭɫɤɚɬɶɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɬɶɩɪɨɩɭɫɤɚɬɶɨɫɜɟɬɟ)
1.3b
adopt [q'dPpt] v 1. ɩɟɪɟɧɢɦɚɬɶɭɫɜɚɢɜɚɬɶ ɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɬɶ ɜɵɛɢɪɚɬɶa
advance [qd'vRns] n ɞɨɫɬɢɠɟɧɢɟɭɫɩɟɯɩɪɨɝɪɟɫɫɭɥɭɱɲɟɧɢɟv ɩɪɨɞɜɢ
ɝɚɬɶɫɹɪɚɡɜɢɜɚɬɶɫɹadvanced ɩɨɡɞɧɢɣa
advantage [qd'vRntIG] n ɩɪɟɢɦɭɳɟɫɬɜɨɩɨɥɶɡɚɜɵɝɨɞɚɜɵɢɝɪɵɲtake
advantage ɜɨɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɬɶɫɹɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɬɶɩɪɟɢɦɭɳɟɫɬɜɚto advantage adv
ɜɵɝɨɞɧɨɯɨɪɨɲɨ 1.5b
aesthetic(s) [Js'TetIk(s)] n ɷɫɬɟɬɢɤɚaesthetic [Js'TetIk] a ɷɫɬɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ 2.1a
affect [q'fekt] v ɜɥɢɹɬɶɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɨɜɚɬɶa
afford [q'fLd] v ɩɪɟɞɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɬɶɞɚɜɚɬɶb
against [q'genst / q'geInst] prep ɧɚɧɚɮɨɧɟɨɬɭɤɚɡɵɜɚɟɬɧɚɡɚɳɢɬɭ
ɨɬɱɟɝɨ-ɥɩɨɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɸɤɩɪɨɬɢɜa
age [eIG] n ɜɟɤɷɩɨɯɚage old ɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɨɧɧɵɣv ɫɬɚɪɟɬɶb
aggregate ['xgrIgIt] n ɡɚɩɨɥɧɢɬɟɥɶb
aid [eId] n ɩɨɦɨɳɶɩɨɞɞɟɪɠɤɚ v ɩɨɦɨɝɚɬɶɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɬɶɩɨɦɨɳɶ1.4b
aim [eIm] n ɰɟɥɶɧɚɦɟɪɟɧɢɟɫɬɪɟɦɥɟɧɢɟɡɚɦɵɫɟɥ v 1. ɫɬɪɟɦɢɬɶɫɹɫɬɚɜɢɬɶ
ɫɜɨɟɣɰɟɥɶɸɞɨɛɢɜɚɬɶɫɹɧɚɰɟɥɢɜɚɬɶɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɹɬɶ1.4a
246
airy ['eqrI] a ɩɪɨɫɬɨɪɧɵɣ 4.5a
aisle [aIl] n 1. ɛɨɤɨɜɨɣɩɪɢɞɟɥɢɥɢ ɧɟɮɯɪɚɦɚ) 2. ɤɨɪɢɞɨɪɩɪɨɯɨɞɤɪɵɥɨ
ɡɞɚɧɢɹ1.4a
align [q'laIn] v ɜɵɫɬɪɚɢɜɚɬɶɜɥɢɧɢɸɫɬɚɜɢɬɶɜɪɹɞɪɚɫɩɨɥɚɝɚɬɶɩɨɨɞɧɨɣ
ɥɢɧɢɢɫɨɜɩɚɞɚɬɶɭɜɹɡɵɜɚɬɶɫɹɝɚɪɦɨɧɢɪɨɜɚɬɶc
alike [q'laIk] a ɩɨɯɨɠɢɣ ɨɞɢɧɚɤɨɜɵɣ adv ɨɞɢɧɚɤɨɜɨɜɪɚɜɧɨɣɫɬɟɩɟɧɢ2.8b
all but ['LlbAt] adv ɩɨɱɬɢɟɞɜɚɧɟɡɚɢɫɤɥɸɱɟɧɢɟɦɤɪɨɦɟa
allow [q'laV] v ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɬɶɞɚɜɚɬɶɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɶɞɟɥɚɬɶɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɵɦɩɪɟɞɭ
ɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɬɶɭɱɢɬɵɜɚɬɶɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɬɶɜɨɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟa
almost ['LlmqVst] a ɩɨɱɬɢɟɞɜɚɧɟadv ɩɨɱɬɢɩɨɥɧɨɫɬɶɸɮɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɣalmost certain ɩɨɱɬɢɧɚɜɟɪɧɹɤɚb
alone [q'lqVn] adv ɬɨɥɶɤɨɢɫɤɥɸɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨleave alone ɧɟɬɪɨɝɚɬɶɧɟɩɵɬɚɬɶɫɹ
ɭɥɭɱɲɢɬɶstand-alone ɨɬɞɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɨɹɳɢɣthis alone ɭɠɟɷɬɨa
along [q'lPN] adv ɜɞɨɥɶalong with ɫɜɦɟɫɬɟɫprep ɜɞɨɥɶɩɨɩɨ 1.5b
Alpine ['xlpaIn] a ɚɥɶɩɢɣɫɤɢɣɜɵɫɨɤɨɝɨɪɧɵɣb
also ['LlsqV] adv ɬɚɤɠɟɬɨɠɟɤɬɨɦɭɠɟɩɪɢɬɨɦb
alteration ["Lltq'reISqn] n ɩɟɪɟɞɟɥɤɚ ɩɟɪɟɫɬɪɨɣɤɚ ɪɟɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɹ ɜɧɟɫɟɧɢɟ
ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɣ 2.8c
alternately [Ll'tWnItlI] adv ɩɨɩɟɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɩɨɨɱɟɪɟɞɧɨ alternate ['LltqneIt] v
ɱɟɪɟɞɨɜɚɬɶɫɹɫɦɟɧɹɬɶɫɹ 1.6a
although [Ll'DqV] adv ɧɟɫɦɨɬɪɹɧɚɬɨɱɬɨɯɨɬɹa
aluminium ["xlq'mInIqm] n ɚɥɸɦɢɧɢɣb
ambition [xm'bISqn] n ɫɬɪɟɦɥɟɧɢɟɦɟɱɬɚc
ambitious [xm'bISqs] a ɢɡɵɫɤɚɧɧɵɣ ɩɪɟɬɟɧɰɢɨɡɧɵɣ 1.11b
amenity [q'mJnItI] n ɭɞɨɛɫɬɜɨpl (ɤɨɦɦɭɧɚɥɶɧɵɟɭɞɨɛɫɬɜɚɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɧɨɟ
ɢɛɵɬɨɜɨɟɨɛɫɥɭɠɢɜɚɧɢɟɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɵɟɩɪɟɞɦɟɬɵɛɵɬɚc
amenity [q'mJnItI] n ɭɞɨɛɫɬɜɨ ɤɨɦɮɨɪɬ; pl (ɤɨɦɦɭɧɚɥɶɧɵɟɭɞɨɛɫɬɜɚɤɭɥɶ
ɬɭɪɧɨɟɢɛɵɬɨɜɨɟɨɛɫɥɭɠɢɜɚɧɢɟɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɵɟɩɪɟɞɦɟɬɵɛɵɬɚc
among [q'mAN] prep ɫɪɟɞɢɩɨɫɪɟɞɢɦɟɠɞɭɭ ɫɪɟɞɢb
amount [q'maVnt] n ɨɛɴɺɦ ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɨɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɚ v ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɬɶɞɨɯɨɞɢɬɶɞɨ
ɞɨɫɬɢɝɚɬɶ1.4c
amphitheatre ['xmfI"TIqtq] n ɚɦɮɢɬɟɚɬɪɚɪɟɧɚɫɬɚɞɢɨɧ 1.5a
amplitude ['xmplItjHd] n ɦɚɫɲɬɚɛɧɨɫɬɶɨɛɴɟɦɲɢɪɨɬɚb
analogy [q'nxlqGI] n ɚɧɚɥɨɝɢɹɫɪɚɜɧɟɧɢɟa
analysis [q'nxlIsIs] n ɚɧɚɥɢɡɢɡɭɱɟɧɢɟɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɟ2.1b
anchor ['xNkq] v ɫɤɪɟɩɥɹɬɶɡɚɤɪɟɩɥɹɬɶɤɪɟɩɢɬɶɮɢɤɫɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ anchorage
['xNkqrIG] n ɚɧɤɟɪɧɨɟɭɫɬɪɨɣɫɬɜɨɚɧɤɟɪɧɚɹɨɩɨɪɚ anchoring element ɤɪɟ
ɩɟɠɧɵɣɷɥɟɦɟɧɬa
ancient ['eInSqnt] a ɚɧɬɢɱɧɵɣɞɪɟɜɧɢɣɞɪɟɜɧɢɣɫɬɚɪɢɧɧɵɣb
angle ['xNgql] n ɭɝɨɥ ɭɝɨɥɧɚɤɥɨɧɚv ɪɚɫɩɨɥɚɝɚɬɶɫɹɩɨɞɭɝɥɨɦɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɵ
ɜɚɬɶɭɝɨɥ1.4c
angular ['xNgjVlq] a ɭɝɥɨɜɚɬɵɣɫɨɫɬɪɵɦɢɭɝɥɚɦɢb
animate ['xnImIt] v ɨɠɢɜɥɹɬɶ 3.9a
247
annual ['xnjVql] a ɟɠɟɝɨɞɧɵɣ; annually adv ɟɠɟɝɨɞɧɨ 3.4ɫ
antique ["xn'tJk] a ɚɧɬɢɱɧɵɣ, ɞɪɟɜɧɢɣ 1.5a
antiquity [xn'tIkwItI] n ɞɪɟɜɧɨɫɬɶ, ɚɧɬɢɱɧɨɫɬɶ 1.7b
apart [q'pRt] adv ɜɨɬɞɚɥɟɧɢɢɜɫɬɨɪɨɧɟɞɪɭɝɨɬɞɪɭɝɚɪɚɡɞɟɥɶɧɨ3.
apart from ɤɪɨɦɟɩɨɦɢɦɨɧɟɝɨɜɨɪɹɨb
apartment [q'pRtmqnt] n ɤɜɚɪɬɢɪɚɠɢɥɨɟɩɨɦɟɳɟɧɢɟc
apex ['eIpeks] n ɜɟɪɲɢɧɚɜɵɫɲɚɹɬɨɱɤɚ4.7b
apparent [q'pxrqnt] a ɨɱɟɜɢɞɧɵɣɹɜɧɵɣɧɟɫɨɦɧɟɧɧɵɣ ɜɢɞɢɦɵɣ
ɥɟɝɤɨɪɚɡɥɢɱɢɦɵɣa
appear [q'pIq] v 1. ɤɚɡɚɬɶɫɹɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɬɶɫɹɜɵɝɥɹɞɟɬɶɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɢɬɶɜɩɟɱɚɬ
ɥɟɧɢɟɩɨɹɜɥɹɬɶɫɹɩɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɬɶɫɹɜɵɝɥɹɞɟɬɶ1.4c
appearance [q'pIqrqns] n (ɜɧɟɲɧɢɣ) ɜɢɞ 4.2b
application ["xplI'keISqn] n ɩɪɢɦɟɧɟɧɢɟɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɟ1.5a
apply [q'plaI] v ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɬɶɩɪɢɦɟɧɹɬɶ 2. ɛɵɬɶɩɪɢɦɟɧɢɦɵɦɤɚɫɚɬɶɫɹ
3. ɧɚɥɨɠɢɬɶɧɚɧɟɫɬɢɧɚɧɨɫɢɬɶ 4. ɜɵɩɨɥɧɹɬɶɫɹɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɥɹɬɶɫɹ1.4c
appreciate [q'prJSIeIt] v ɜɨɫɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɬɶɪɚɡɥɢɱɚɬɶɨɰɟɧɢɜɚɬɶɨɰɟɧɢɜɚɬɶ
ɩɨɞɨɫɬɨɢɧɫɬɜɭ2.5b
approach [q'prqVC] n ɞɨɫɬɭɩɩɨɞɯɨɞɩɨɞɯɨɞɩɨɡɢɰɢɹɦɟɬɨɞv ɩɨɞɯɨ
ɞɢɬɶɩɪɢɛɥɢɠɚɬɶɫɹɜɯɨɞɢɬɶa
appropriate [q'prqVprIqt] a ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɣɩɨɞɯɨɞɹɳɢɣɭɦɟɫɬɧɵɣ
2. ɩɪɢɫɭɳɢɣɫɜɨɣɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣɩɨɞɨɛɚɸɳɢɣ>q'prqVprIeIt] v ɩɪɢɫɜɚɢɜɚɬɶappropriately adv ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɩɨɞɨɛɚɸɳɢɦɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ 1.1a
approximate [q'prPksImIt] v ɩɪɢɛɥɢɠɚɬɶɫɛɥɢɠɚɬɶ approximately adv ɩɪɢ
ɛɥɢɡɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɩɨɱɬɢɩɪɢɦɟɪɧɨa
apse [xps] n ɚɩɫɢɞɚɩɨɥɭɤɪɭɝɥɚɹɜɵɫɬɭɩɚɸɳɚɹɱɚɫɬɶɡɞɚɧɢɹɩɟɪɟɤɪɵɬɚɹ
ɩɨɥɭɤɭɩɨɥɨɦ) 1.7a
apsidal ['xpsIdql] a ɜɮɨɪɦɟɚɩɫɢɞɵ (ɚɩɫɢɞɚ – ɩɪɢɦɵɤɚɸɳɢɣɤɨɫɧɨɜɧɨɦɭ
ɨɛɴɺɦɭɩɨɧɢɠɟɧɧɵɣɜɵɫɬɭɩɡɞɚɧɢɹɩɨɥɭɤɪɭɝɥɵɣɝɪɚɧɺɧɵɣɩɪɹɦɨɭɝɨɥɶɧɵɣ
ɢɥɢɭɫɥɨɠɧɺɧɧɵɣɜɩɥɚɧɟɩɟɪɟɤɪɵɬɵɣɩɨɥɭɤɭɩɨɥɨɦɢɥɢɫɨɦɤɧɭɬɵɦɩɨɥɭɫɜɨ
ɞɨɦ) 1.9a
arcade [R'keId] n ɚɪɤɚɞɚɫɜɨɞɱɚɬɚɹɝɚɥɟɪɟɹɩɚɫɫɚɠɫɦɚɝɚɡɢɧɚɦɢ) 1.7a
arch [RC] n ɚɪɤɚɫɜɨɞɚɪɤɚɞɚv ɢɡɝɢɛɚɬɶɩɪɢɞɚɜɚɬɶɮɨɪɦɭɚɪɤɢ pointed
arch ɫɬɪɟɥɶɱɚɬɚɹɝɨɬɢɱɟɫɤɚɹɚɪɤɚ; arched a ɚɪɨɱɧɵɣɫɜɨɞɱɚɬɵɣɢɡɨɝɧɭɬɵɣa
archaic [R'keIIk] a ɞɪɟɜɧɢɣa
arched [RCt] a ɚɪɨɱɧɵɣɞɭɝɨɜɨɣɫɜɨɞɱɚɬɵɣɢɡɨɝɧɭɬɵɣF
architect ['RkItekt] n ɚɪɯɢɬɟɤɬɨɪɡɨɞɱɢɣb
architectural ["RkI'tekCqrql] a ɚɪɯɢɬɟɤɬɭɪɧɵɣb
architecture ['RkItekCq] n ɚɪɯɢɬɟɤɬɭɪɚɡɨɞɱɟɫɬɜɨɚɪɯɢɬɟɤɬɭɪɧɵɣ)
ɫɬɢɥɶ1.1a
architrave ['RkItreIv] n ɚɪɯɢɬɪɚɜɥɸɛɚɹɩɪɹɦɨɥɢɧɟɣɧɚɹɩɟɪɟɤɥɚɞɢɧɚɩɟ
ɪɟɤɪɵɜɚɸɳɚɹɩɪɨɦɟɠɭɬɨɤɧɚɞɤɨɥɨɧɧɚɦɢɫɬɨɥɛɚɦɢɢɥɢɨɤɨɧɧɵɦɢɢɞɜɟɪ
ɧɵɦɢɩɪɨɺɦɚɦɢɧɢɠɧɹɹɱɚɫɬɶɚɧɬɚɛɥɟɦɟɧɬɚɧɟɩɨɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ ɨɩɢɪɚɸ
ɳɚɹɫɹɧɚɤɚɩɢɬɟɥɢɤɨɥɨɧɧɵɜɬɨɫɤɚɧɫɤɨɦɢɞɨɪɢɱɟɫɤɨɦɨɪɞɟɪɚɯɚɪɯɢɬɪɚɜ
ɞɟɥɚɟɬɫɹɩɪɨɫɬɵɦɢɝɥɚɞɤɢɦɚɜɢɨɧɢɱɟɫɤɨɦɢɤɨɪɢɧɮɫɤɨɦɨɧɝɨɪɢɡɨɧ
ɬɚɥɶɧɨɪɚɡɞɟɥɺɧɧɚɬɪɢɱɚɫɬɢ) 1.4c
area ['eqrIq] n ɩɥɨɳɚɞɶɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɨ ɡɨɧɚɪɚɣɨɧɨɛɥɚɫɬɶɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɹ
ɭɱɚɫɬɨɤɩɥɨɳɚɞɤɚconcession area [kqn'seSqn 'eqrIq@ɡɨɧɚ ɩɨɞɚɪɟɧɞɭɞɥɹ
ɩɪɟɞɨɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɹɭɫɥɭɝɩɢɬɚɧɢɹɬɨɪɝɨɜɥɢɢɬɩ); plan area ɩɥɨɳɚɞɶɜɩɥɚɧɟ
ɩɥɨɳɚɞɶɝɨɪɢɡɨɧɬɚɥɶɧɨɝɨɫɟɱɟɧɢɹ 1.6b
around [q'raVnd] adv ɜɨɤɪɭɝɤɪɭɝɨɦ ɩɨɨɤɪɭɠɧɨɫɬɢɨɤɨɥɨɩɪɢɛɥɢɡɢ
ɬɟɥɶɧɨprep ɜɨɤɪɭɝɩɨb
arrange [q'reInG] v ɪɚɡɦɟɳɚɬɶ ɪɚɫɫɬɚɜɥɹɬɶɪɚɫɩɨɥɚɝɚɬɶɜɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɺɧɧɨɦ
ɩɨɪɹɞɤɟɭɫɥɨɜɥɢɜɚɬɶɫɹɞɨɝɨɜɚɪɢɜɚɬɶɫɹc
arrangement [q'reInGmqnt] n 1. ɪɚɡɦɟɳɟɧɢɟɪɚɫɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɟɪɚɫɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɟ
2. ɫɯɟɦɚɩɥɚɧɢɪɨɜɤɢɭɫɬɪɨɣɫɬɜɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɚmake arrangements ɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɬɶ
ɦɟɪɵɞɚɬɶɪɚɫɩɨɪɹɠɟɧɢɟ 1.4b
arrive [q'raIv] v ɩɪɢɛɵɜɚɬɶɩɪɢɟɡɠɚɬɶarrival [q'raIvql] n ɜɧɨɜɶɩɪɢɛɵɜɲɢɣa
art [Rt] n 1. ɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɨ ɦɚɫɬɟɪɫɬɜɨɩɪɨɢɡɜɟɞɟɧɢɟɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɚfine art
ɢɡɨɛɪɚɡɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɟɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɨa
artful ['Rtfql] ɢɫɤɭɫɧɵɣɭɦɟɥɵɣc
articulate [R'tIkjVleIt] v ɹɫɧɨɨɬɱɟɬɥɢɜɨɜɵɪɚɠɚɬɶɮɨɪɦɭɥɢɪɨɜɚɬɶɫɜɹ
ɡɵɜɚɬɶɫɹɫɨɟɞɢɧɹɬɶɫɹ articulation [R"tIkjV'leISqn] n ɦɟɫɬɨɫɨɱɥɟɧɟ
ɧɢɹɫɨɟɞɢɧɟɧɢɹa
articulation [R"tIkjV'leISqn] ɫɦ. articulate 3.9a
artificial ["RtI'fISql] a ɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣ; artificially adv ɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ; artificiality ["RtIfISI'xlItI] n ɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ, ɧɟɧɚɬɭɪɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɶ 3.1a
artist ['RtIst] n ɯɭɞɨɠɧɢɤɫɤɭɥɶɩɬɨɪɚɪɯɢɬɟɤɬɨɪb
artistic [R'tIstIk] a ɯɭɞɨɠɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣɷɫɬɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɣɦɚɫɬɟɪɫɤɨɣɜɵɫɨ
ɤɨɩɪɨɮɟɫɫɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɣa
as [xz/qz] cj ɤɨɝɞɚɜɬɨɜɪɟɦɹɤɚɤɩɨɦɟɪɟɬɨɝɨɤɚɤɬɚɤɤɚɤɩɨɫɤɨɥɶɤɭ;
adv ɤɚɤɜɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɟas … as ɬɚɤɨɣɠɟ«ɤɚɤɬɚɤɠɟ«ɤɚɤɢas well as
ɬɚɤɠɟɤɚɤɢɧɚɪɹɞɭɫas if ɤɚɤɛɭɞɬɨas long as ɩɨɤɚɞɨɬɟɯɩɨɪɩɨɤɚ
7. as to ɱɬɨɤɚɫɚɟɬɫɹas such ɤɚɤɬɚɤɨɜɨɣɫɚɦɩɨɫɟɛɟas … as possible
ɧɚɫɤɨɥɶɤɨɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨas follows ɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɣas a result ɜɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɟ
12. as compared to ɩɨɫɪɚɜɧɟɧɢɸɫas far as … goes ɱɬɨɤɚɫɚɟɬɫɹ«; pron
such as ɬɨɬɤɨɬɨɪɵɣsuch as ɬɚɤɨɣɤɚɤɤɚɤɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɪ 1.1b
aspect ['xspekt] n ɚɫɩɟɤɬɫɬɨɪɨɧɚɬɨɱɤɚɡɪɟɧɢɹ ɜɧɟɲɧɢɣɜɢɞɫɬɨ
ɪɨɧɚ ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ(ɤɭɞɚɜɵɯɨɞɹɬɨɤɧɚɡɞɚɧɢɹ) 1.1a
assemblage [q'semblIG] n ɫɨɛɪɚɧɢɟɝɪɭɩɩɚb
assembly [q'semblI] n ɫɨɛɪɚɧɢɟɚɫɫɚɦɛɥɟɹAssembly chamber ɩɚɥɚɬɚɡɚɫɟɞɚ
ɧɢɣ Assembly Hall ɫɦ hall; Legislative Assembly ['leGIslqtIv q'semblI@ɡɚɤɨ
ɧɨɞɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɟɫɨɛɪɚɧɢɟa
associate [q'sqVSIeIt] v ɚɫɫɨɰɢɢɪɨɜɚɬɶɫɹɫɜɹɡɵɜɚɬɶɫɹɨɛɴɟɞɢɧɹɬɶɫɹa
association [q"sqVsI'eISqn] n ɫɜɹɡɶɚɫɫɨɰɢɚɰɢɹD
assure [q'SVq] v ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɢɜɚɬɶɝɚɪɚɧɬɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ4.8a
248
249
Assyrian [q'sIrIqn] a ɚɫɫɢɪɢɣɫɤɢɣn ɚɫɫɢɪɢɟɰ (ɠɢɬɟɥɶ Ⱥɫɫɢ̗ɪɢɢ— ɞɪɟɜɧɟɝɨ
ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɚɜɋɟɜɟɪɧɨɦɆɟɠɞɭɪɟɱɶɟɧɚɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɝɨɂɪɚɤɚ
;;,9ɜɟɤɞɨɧɷ – ɞɨɧɷ) 1.1a
astonishing [q'stPnISIN] a ɢɡɭɦɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣɩɨɪɚɡɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣɭɞɢɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣb
at least [qt'lJst] adv ɩɨɤɪɚɣɧɟɣɦɟɪɟɩɨɦɟɧɶɲɟɣɦɟɪɟb
atmosphere ['xtmqsfIq] n ɫɪɟɞɚɨɛɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɚɚɬɦɨɫɮɟɪɚb
atmospheric ["xtmqs'ferIk] a ɚɬɦɨɫɮɟɪɧɵɣɦɟɬɟɨɪɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɣɫɨɡɞɚɸ
ɳɢɣɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɺɧɧɭɸɚɬɦɨɫɮɟɪɭɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɹɳɢɣɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɺɧɧɨɟɜɩɟɱɚɬɥɟɧɢɟ4.6a
atop [q'tPp] prep ɧɚɩɨɜɟɪɯɧɚɞb
atrium ['eItrIqm@ɚɬɪɢɭɦɰɟɧɬɪɚɥɶɧɚɹɱɚɫɬɶɞɪɟɜɧɟɪɢɦɫɤɨɝɨɠɢɥɢɳɚ
ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɜɲɚɹɫɨɛɨɣɜɧɭɬɪɟɧɧɢɣɫɜɟɬɨɜɨɣɞɜɨɪɨɬɤɭɞɚɢɦɟɥɢɫɶɜɵɯɨɞɵ
ɜɨɜɫɟɨɫɬɚɥɶɧɵɟɩɨɦɟɳɟɧɢɹɛɨɥɶɲɨɟɨɬɤɪɵɬɨɟɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɨɜɧɭɬɪɢ
ɡɞɚɧɢɹɜɵɫɨɬɚɤɨɬɨɪɨɝɨɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬɧɟɫɤɨɥɶɤɨɷɬɚɠɟɣ) 1.7a
attach [q'txC] v ɩɪɢɩɢɫɵɜɚɬɶɩɪɢɞɚɜɚɬɶɛɵɬɶɫɜɨɣɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɦɩɪɢɫɭɳɢɦ
ɩɪɢɤɪɟɩɥɹɬɶɩɪɢɫɨɟɞɢɧɹɬɶɫɜɹɡɵɜɚɬɶɫɤɪɟɩɥɹɬɶa
attain [q'teIn] v ɩɪɢɨɛɪɟɬɚɬɶɩɨɥɭɱɚɬɶɞɨɫɬɢɝɚɬɶb
attempt [q'tempt] n ɩɨɩɵɬɤɚ v ɩɵɬɚɬɶɫɹɩɪɨɛɨɜɚɬɶɫɞɟɥɚɬɶɩɨɩɵɬɤɭ 1.11b
attention [q'tenSqn] n ɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟɭɯɨɞɡɚɛɨɬɚgive/pay attention to ɨɛɪɚɳɚɬɶ
ɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟɧɚb
attract [q'trxkt] v ɩɪɢɜɥɟɤɚɬɶɩɪɢɬɹɝɢɜɚɬɶattraction [q'trxkSqn] n ɞɨɫɬɨ
ɩɪɢɦɟɱɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɶ2.4b
attractive [q'trxktIv] a ɩɪɢɜɥɟɤɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɣɨɱɚɪɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɣɩɪɢɹɬɧɵɣɱɚɪɭɸ
ɳɢɣa
attribute ['xtrIbjHt] n ɨɬɥɢɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɚɹɱɟɪɬɚɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɨ[q'trIbjHt] v ɩɪɢɩɢɫɵ
ɜɚɬɶɱɟɦɭ-ɥ) 1.1b
audacity [L'dxsItI] n ɫɦɟɥɨɫɬɶɞɟɪɡɨɫɬɶb
auditorium ["LdI'tLrIqm] n ɤɨɧɮɟɪɟɧɰ-ɡɚɥɡɪɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣɡɚɥɚɭɞɢɬɨɪɢɹc
Austria ['LstrIq] n Ⱥɜɫɬɪɢɹb
authentic [L'TentIk] a ɜɟɪɧɵɣɞɨɫɬɨɜɟɪɧɵɣɢɫɤɪɟɧɧɢɣɩɨɞɥɢɧɧɵɣa
Authority [L'TPrItI] n ɚɞɦɢɧɢɫɬɪɚɰɢɹɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɟɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɹa
available [q'veIlqbql] a ɫɜɨɛɨɞɧɵɣɞɨɫɬɭɩɧɵɣɢɦɟɸɳɢɣɫɹb
avenue ['xvInjH] n ɩɪɨɯɨɞɚɜɟɧɸɩɪɨɫɩɟɤɬa
avoid [q'vOId] v 1. ɢɡɛɟɝɚɬɶɢɡɛɟɠɚɬɶɩɪɟɞɨɬɜɪɚɳɚɬɶɧɟɞɨɩɭɫɤɚɬɶb
awareness [q'weqnqs] n ɨɫɨɡɧɚɧɢɟɩɨɧɢɦɚɧɢɟɨɫɨɡɧɚɧɧɨɫɬɶD
awesome ['Lsqm] a ɝɪɚɧɞɢɨɡɧɵɣɩɨɬɪɹɫɚɸɳɢɣɭɞɢɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣɩɪɢɜɨɞɹ
ɳɢɣɜɬɪɟɩɟɬɭɫɬɪɚɲɚɸɳɢɣc
awning ['LnIN] n (ɫɨɥɧɰɟɡɚɳɢɬɧɵɣɧɚɜɟɫɬɟɧɬb
axial ['xksIql] a ɨɫɟɜɨɣɩɨɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɸɨɫɢ2.1b
axis ['xksIs] pl axes ['xksIz] n 1. ɨɫɶ ɨɫɟɜɚɹɥɢɧɢɹɤɨɨɪɞɢɧɚɬɧɚɹɨɫɶɝɥɚɜ
ɧɚɹɰɟɧɬɪɚɥɶɧɚɹɨɫɶ1.4c
back [bxk] n ɡɚɞɧɹɹɬɵɥɶɧɚɹɱɚɫɬɶɡɚɞɧɹɹɛɨɥɟɟɨɬɞɚɥɺɧɧɚɹɱɚɫɬɶɡɚɞ
ɧɢɣɩɥɚɧɫɩɢɧɚback to back ɫɩɢɧɚɤɫɩɢɧɟɜɩɥɨɬɧɭɸɜɩɪɢɬɵɤ a ɡɚɞɧɢɣ
ɞɚɥɶɧɢɣ adv ɫɡɚɞɢɩɨɡɚɞɢɨɛɪɚɬɧɨɧɚɡɚɞɫɧɨɜɚɨɩɹɬɶbring back ɫɦ
250
bring; draw back ɫɦ draw; date back to ɨɬɧɨɫɢɬɶɫɹɤɜɨɫɯɨɞɢɬɶɤfall back
ɜɨɡɜɪɚɳɚɬɶɫɹb
background ['bxkgraVnd] n 1. ɮɨɧ 2. ɡɚɞɧɢɣɩɥɚɧ1.4c
balance ['bxlqns] n ɛɚɥɚɧɫɪɚɜɧɨɜɟɫɢɟɩɪɨɩɨɪɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɶɝɚɪɦɨɧɢ
ɱɟɫɤɨɟɫɨɱɟɬɚɧɢɟɝɚɪɦɨɧɢɹ v ɛɚɥɚɧɫɢɪɨɜɚɬɶɭɪɚɜɧɨɜɟɲɢɜɚɬɶEDODQFHG a
ɩɪɨɩɨɪɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɣɫɛɚɥɚɧɫɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɣɫɢɦɦɟɬɪɢɱɧɵɣc
balustrade ["bxlq'streId] n 1. ɛɚɥɸɫɬɪɚɞɚɩɚɪɚɩɟɬɧɟɜɵɫɨɤɚɹɫɬɟɧɤɚ
ɨɝɪɚɠɞɚɸɳɚɹɤɪɨɜɥɸɡɞɚɧɢɹɬɟɪɪɚɫɭɛɚɥɤɨɧɢɬɩ) 1.10b
bank [bxNk] n 1. ɛɟɪɟɝ 2. ɝɪɭɩɩɚɪɹɞɫɟɪɢɹɛɚɧɤ 1.11b
bare [beq] a ɫɤɭɞɧɵɣɧɟɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣɝɨɥɵɣ ɨɛɧɚɠɺɧɧɵɣa
barrel vault ['bxrql"vLlt@ɰɢɥɢɧɞɪɢɱɟɫɤɢɣɫɜɨɞɨɩɢɪɚɟɬɫɹɧɚɩɚɪɚɥɥɟɥɶ
ɧɵɟɫɬɟɧɵɢɥɢɧɚɩɚɪɚɥɥɟɥɶɧɵɟɪɹɞɵɫɬɨɥɛɨɜɢɥɢɤɨɥɨɧɧɩɨɥɭɰɢɥɢɧɞɪɢ
ɱɟɫɤɢɣɫɜɨɞɛɨɱɚɪɧɵɣɫɜɨɞɨɛɪɚɡɭɟɬɫɹɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɟɦɩɥɨɫɤɨɣɤɪɢɜɨɣɨɛɪɚɡɭ
ɸɳɟɣɩɨɤɪɢɜɨɣ-ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɹɸɳɟɣ); barrel-vaulted a ɢɦɟɸɳɢɣɰɢɥɢɧɞɪɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ
ɫɜɨɞb
barren ['bxrqn] a ɩɭɫɬɵɧɧɵɣɫɤɭɱɧɵɣbarren lack ɩɨɥɧɨɟɨɬɫɭɬɫɬɜɢɟc
base [beIs] n ɨɫɧɨɜɚɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɢɟɰɨɤɨɥɶɮɭɧɞɚɦɟɧɬɩɨɞɧɨɠɢɟv ɨɫ
ɧɨɜɵɜɚɬɶɛɚɡɢɪɨɜɚɬɶɪɚɡɦɟɳɚɬɶa
basement ['beIsmqnt] n ɩɨɞɜɚɥ ɰɨɤɨɥɶɧɵɣɷɬɚɠ1.6a
basic ['beIsIk] a ɢɫɯɨɞɧɵɣ ɩɟɪɜɢɱɧɵɣɨɫɧɨɜɧɨɣɝɥɚɜɧɵɣc
basilica [bq'zIlIkq] n ɛɚɡɢғɥɢɤɚɰɚɪɫɤɢɣɞɜɨɪɟɰ(«ɞɨɦɛɚɡɢɥɟɜɫɚɰɚɪɫɤɢɣ
ɞɨɦª – ɬɢɩɫɬɪɨɟɧɢɹɩɪɹɦɨɭɝɨɥɶɧɨɣɮɨɪɦɵɤɨɬɨɪɨɟɫɨɫɬɨɢɬɢɡɧɟɱɺɬɧɨɝɨ
ɱɢɫɥɚɢɥɢɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɯɩɨɜɵɫɨɬɟɧɟɮɨɜɛɚɡɢғɥɢɤɚɨɫɨɛɵɣɜɢɞɯɪɚɦɚ
ɥɢɛɨɯɪɚɦɜɨɨɛɳɟa
basis ['beIsIs] n ɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɨɫɧɨɜɧɨɣɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɨɫɧɨɜɚɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɢɟ1.5a
bay [beI] n ɨɬɫɟɤɫɟɤɰɢɹɷɪɤɟɪɜɵɫɬɭɩɫɨɤɧɨɦɮɨɧɚɪɶɛɭɯɬɚɡɚɥɢɜ
1. 8b
beam [bJm] n ɛɚɥɤɚɩɪɨɝɨɧdeck beam ['dek bJm@ɛɚɥɤɚɩɨɞɞɟɪɠɢɜɚɸɳɚɹ
ɧɚɫɬɢɥɪɟɛɪɨɧɚɫɬɢɥɚglulam beam ["glHlxm 'bJm] ɫɥɨɢɫɬɚɹɞɨɳɚɬɨɤɥɟɺ
ɧɚɹɛɚɥɤɚ; I-beam ['aI"bJm] ɞɜɭɬɚɜɪɨɜɚɹɛɚɥɤɚɞɜɭɬɚɜɪa
bear [beq] v ɢɦɟɬɶɧɟɫɬɢɧɚɫɟɛɟbear witness ɫɜɢɞɟɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɨɜɚɬɶɩɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɬɶ
1.5a
beauty ['bjHtI] n ɤɪɚɫɨɬɚ 1.1b
because [bI'kPz] cj ɩɨɬɨɦɭɱɬɨɬɚɤɤɚɤ because of ɢɡ-ɡɚɜɫɥɟɞɫɬɜɢɟ 1.4c
before [bI'fL] adv ɪɚɧɶɲɟɩɪɟɠɞɟɪɚɧɟɟ ɞɨɬɨɝɨprep ɩɟɪɟɞɱɟɦ-ɥcj
ɩɪɟɠɞɟɱɟɦɪɚɧɶɲɟɱɟɦɞɨɬɨɝɨɤɚɤ1.5a
beginning [bI'gInIN] n ɧɚɱɚɥɨa
behind [bI'haInd] adv ɡɚɫɡɚɞɢɩɨɡɚɞɢ prep ɡɚɩɨɡɚɞɢɫɡɚɞɢb
bell [bel] n ɤɨɥɨɤɨɥɤɚɩɢɬɟɥɶɤɨɪɢɧɮɫɤɨɣɤɨɥɨɧɧɵɤɨɥɨɤɨɥɨɨɛɪɚɡɧɚɹ
ɮɨɪɦɚbell tower ɤɨɥɨɤɨɥɶɧɹa
belong [bI'lPN] v ɩɪɢɧɚɞɥɟɠɚɬɶɨɬɧɨɫɢɬɶɫɹbelonging n ɨɛɳɧɨɫɬɶɩɪɢɧɚɞ
ɥɟɠɧɨɫɬɶb
below [bI'lqV] adv ɜɧɢɡɭ; ɧɢɠɟ; from below ɫɧɢɡɭprep ɧɢɠɟ, ɩɨɞ 1.2a
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bend [bend] v ɢɡɝɢɛɚɬɶɧɚɤɥɨɧɹɬɶ 1.5b
beneath [bI'nJT] adv 1. ɧɢɠɟ 2. ɜɧɢɡɭ; prep ɩɨɞ 1.2a
benefit ['benIfIt] n ɜɵɝɨɞɚɩɪɢɛɵɥɶɩɨɥɶɡɚɩɪɟɢɦɭɳɟɫɬɜɨ v ɢɡɜɥɟɤɚɬɶ
ɩɨɥɶɡɭɜɵɝɨɞɭc
Berlin [bW'lIn] n ɝ. Ȼɟɪɥɢɧ 3.1b
beside [bI'saId] prep ɪɹɞɨɦ, ɨɤɨɥɨ, ɛɥɢɡ, ɜɨɡɥɟ 2.4c
besides [bI'saIdz] prep ɤɪɨɦɟ, ɩɨɦɢɦɨ 1.2a
between [bI'twJn] adv ɦɟɠɞɭprep ɦɟɠɞɭɫɪɟɞɢD
beyond [bI'jPnd] adv ɜɧɟɡɚɩɪɟɞɟɥɚɦɢ2. ɜɞɚɥɢɞɚɥɶɲɟɧɚɪɚɫɫɬɨɹɧɢɢ
ɩɨɬɭɫɬɨɪɨɧɭprep 1. ɡɚɩɪɟɞɟɥɚɦɢɜɧɟɜɞɚɥɢ ɩɨɡɚɞɢ1.4a
Birmingham ['bWmINqm] n ɝȻɢɪɦɢɧɝɟɦɚɞɦɰɟɧɬɪɝɪɚɮɍɷɫɬ-Ɇɢɞɥɟɧɞɫ
Ⱥɧɝɥɢɹȼɟɥɢɤɨɛɪɢɬɚɧɢɹ) 2.4a
bit [bIt] n a bit ɧɟɦɧɨɝɨɱɭɬɶ-ɱɭɬɶa
blinds [blaInds] n ɠɚɥɸɡɢ, ɫɬɚɜɧɢ 3.5a
block [blPk] n ɤɨɪɩɭɫɡɞɚɧɢɟɦɧɨɝɨɤɜɚɪɬɢɪɧɵɣɞɨɦɤɜɚɪɬɚɥɝɨɪɨɞɚ
ɛɥɨɤɝɥɵɛɚɦɚɫɫɢɜɦɨɞɭɥɶoffice block ɚɞɦɢɧɢɫɬɪɚɬɢɜɧɨɟɡɞɚɧɢɟ
2. ɛɢɡɧɟɫ-ɰɟɧɬɪ ɨɮɢɫɧɨɟɡɞɚɧɢɟstreet block ɝɨɪɨɞɫɤɨɣɤɜɚɪɬɚɥɠɢɥɢɳɧɵɣ
ɦɚɫɫɢɜɤɨɦɩɚɤɬɧɚɹɡɚɫɬɪɨɣɤɚɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɟɧɧɚɹɩɨɩɟɪɢɦɟɬɪɭɭɥɢɰɚɦɢv ɩɪɟ
ɝɪɚɠɞɚɬɶɩɪɟɩɹɬɫɬɜɨɜɚɬɶ ɦɟɲɚɬɶblock off ɡɚɤɪɵɜɚɬɶɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɢɜɚɬɶc
board [bLd] n boardroom ['bLdrHm@ɡɚɥɡɚɫɟɞɚɧɢɣɫɨɜɟɬɚɞɢɪɟɤɬɨɪɨɜ
board school ɫɦ school; drawing board ɫɦ draw; smart board ['smRtbLd]
ɢɧɬɟɪɚɤɬɢɜɧɚɹɞɨɫɤɚb
body ['bPdI] n ɤɨɪɩɭɫɩɥɨɬɶɬɟɥɨa
border ['bLdq] n ɝɪɚɧɢɰɚɤɪɚɣɤɪɨɦɤɚɛɨɪɞɸɪɤɥɭɦɛɵ); v ɝɪɚɧɢɱɢɬɶ
ɨɤɚɣɦɥɹɬɶa
borrow ['bPrqV] v ɡɚɢɦɫɬɜɨɜɚɬɶ 1.1a
both [bqVT] a ɨɛɚɨɛɟɢɬɨɬɢɞɪɭɝɨɣpron ɨɛɚɨɛɟ both … and … cj ɤɚɤ«
ɬɚɤɢ«a
bottom ['bPtqm] n ɧɢɡɧɢɠɧɹɹɱɚɫɬɶɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɢɟ a ɧɢɠɧɢɣc
boundary ['baVndqrI] n ɝɪɚɧɢɰɚ2.4a
boutique [bH'tJk] n ɛɭɬɢɤɧɟɛɨɥɶɲɨɣɦɨɞɧɵɣɦɚɝɚɡɢɧ a ɷɤɫɤɥɸɡɢɜɧɵɣ
ɢɡɵɫɤɚɧɧɵɣ2.4b
bracket ['brxkqt] n ɤɪɨɧɲɬɟɣɧɤɨɧɫɨɥɶɩɨɞɜɟɫɤɚ ɩɨɞɩɨɪɤɚ bracketing
structure ɤɨɧɫɨɥɶɧɚɹɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɹa
branch [brRnC] n ɮɢɥɢɚɥɨɬɞɟɥɟɧɢɟɜɟɬɤɚɜɟɬɜɶb
break [breIk] n ɪɚɡɪɵɜɛɪɟɲɶɳɟɥɶv ɥɨɦɚɬɶɪɚɡɪɵɜɚɬɶɪɚɡɞɟɥɢɬɶɩɪɟɪɵ
ɜɚɬɶbreak down into ɞɟɥɢɬɶɪɚɡɛɢɜɚɬɶbreak with ɩɨɪɜɚɬɶɫɩɨɤɨɧɱɢɬɶɫ
ɢɡɛɚɜɢɬɶɫɹbreak away space ɦɟɫɬɨɭɟɞɢɧɟɧɢɹ broken pediment ['brqVkqn
'pedImqnt] ɪɚɡɨɪɜɚɧɧɵɣɮɪɨɧɬɨɧɩɪɟɪɜɚɧɧɵɣɜɫɪɟɞɧɟɣɱɚɫɬɢɞɥɹɭɫɬɚ
ɧɨɜɤɢ ɤɚɤɨɝɨ-ɥɢɛɨɭɤɪɚɲɟɧɢɹɩɨɥɭɮɪɨɧɬɨɧɮɪɨɧɬɨɧɫɪɚɡɪɵɜɨɦɜɧɢɠɧɟɣ
ɱɚɫɬɢɝɨɪɢɡɨɧɬɚɥɶɧɨɝɨɤɚɪɧɢɡɚ) 2.8b
breathtaking ['breT"teIkIN] a ɢɡɭɦɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣɩɨɪɚɡɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣɩɨɬɪɹɫɚɸɳɢɣb
brick [brIk] n ɤɢɪɩɢɱɛɥɨɤa ɤɢɪɩɢɱɧɵɣ; buff brick ['bAf brIk] ɤɢɪɩɢɱ
ɠɺɥɬɨ-ɨɪɚɧɠɟɜɨɝɨɰɜɟɬɚ 1.5b
bridge [brIG] n ɦɨɫɬɩɟɪɟɯɨɞv ɥɢɤɜɢɞɢɪɨɜɚɬɶɩɟɪɟɩɚɞa
brief [brJf] n ɬɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɤɨɟɡɚɞɚɧɢɟɡɚɤɚɡɱɢɤɚ) 4.2a
bright [braIt] a ɹɪɤɢɣb
bring [brIN] v ɩɪɢɧɨɫɢɬɶɜɵɡɵɜɚɬɶɩɪɢɜɨɡɢɬɶɜɵɜɟɡɬɢɡɚɜɟɡɬɢɜɧɨ
ɫɢɬɶɜɜɨɞɢɬɶbring back ɜɨɡɜɪɚɳɚɬɶɜɟɪɧɭɬɶɩɪɢɧɨɫɢɬɶɨɛɪɚɬɧɨɜɜɟɫɬɢ
ɜɧɨɜɶbring into the service ɫɬɚɜɢɬɶɧɚɫɥɭɠɛɭbring forward ɜɵɞɜɢɝɚɬɶ
ɫɬɚɜɢɬɶɩɪɢɜɧɨɫɢɬɶbring within ɫɨɨɬɧɨɫɢɬɶɫɨɝɥɚɫɨɜɵɜɚɬɶ 1.5a
Britain ['brItqn] n Ȼɪɢɬɚɧɢɹ2.8c
British ['brItIS] a ɛɪɢɬɚɧɫɤɢɣ 1.11b
broad [brLd] a ɨɛɲɢɪɧɵɣɲɢɪɨɤɢɣɨɛɳɢɣɨɫɧɨɜɧɨɣb
bronze [brPnz] a ɛɪɨɧɡɨɜɵɣ 1.6a
build [bIld] v 1. ɫɨɨɪɭɠɚɬɶɫɬɪɨɢɬɶɜɨɡɜɨɞɢɬɶ 2. ɫɨɡɞɚɜɚɬɶ 1.1b
builder ['bIldq] n ɫɬɪɨɢɬɟɥɶ ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɬɨɪ 1.4a
building ['bIldIN] n ɡɞɚɧɢɟɫɨɨɪɭɠɟɧɢɟɩɨɫɬɪɨɣɤɚɫɬɪɨɢɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɨɜɨɡɜɟ
ɞɟɧɢɟɡɞɚɧɢɣb
bury ['berI] v ɩɨɝɪɭɠɚɬɶɫɹ ɡɚɪɵɜɚɬɶɜɡɟɦɥɸa
busy ['bIzI] a ɨɠɢɜɥɺɧɧɵɣɞɟɥɨɜɨɣc
butterfly ['bAtqflaI] n ɛɚɛɨɱɤɚ a ɧɚɩɨɦɢɧɚɸɳɢɣɩɨɮɨɪɦɟɛɚɛɨɱɤɭ ɞɜɭ
ɫɬɜɨɪɱɚɬɵɣ4.4a
buttress ['bAtrqs] n ɤɨɧɬɪɮɨɪɫɨɩɨɪɚɩɨɞɩɨɪɤɚv ɭɫɢɥɢɜɚɬɶɫɩɨɦɨɳɶɸ
ɤɨɧɬɪɮɨɪɫɨɜ ɩɨɞɞɟɪɠɢɜɚɬɶɩɨɞɩɢɪɚɬɶb
Byzantine [baI'zxntaIn] a ɜɢɡɚɧɬɢɣɫɤɢɣn ɜɢɡɚɧɬɢɟɰɠɢɬɟɥɶ ȼɢɡɚɧɬɢ̗ɢ
ȼɨɫɬɨɱɧɨɣɊɢɦɫɤɨɣɢɦɩɟɪɢɢ—ɝɝ) 1.1a
c. ɫɦ century 1.7a
cable [keIbl] n ɬɪɨɫɤɚɛɟɥɶsuspension cable [sq'spenSqn "keIbl@ɧɟɫɭɳɢɣ
ɬɪɨɫɩɨɞɜɟɫɧɨɝɨɦɨɫɬɚc
cafeteria ["kxfI'tIqrIq] n ɤɚɮɟ-ɡɚɤɭɫɨɱɧɚɹa
calm [kRm] n ɬɢɲɶɬɢɲɢɧɚ v ɭɧɢɦɚɬɶɭɬɢɯɨɦɢɪɢɜɚɬɶ2.7b
campus ['kxmpqs] n ɫɬɭɞɟɧɱɟɫɤɢɣɭɧɢɜɟɪɫɢɬɟɬɫɤɢɣɝɨɪɨɞɨɤɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɹ
ɭɧɢɜɟɪɫɢɬɟɬɚɤɨɥɥɟɞɠɚɤɨɦɩɥɟɤɫɡɞɚɧɢɣɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɹɤɨɦ
ɩɥɟɤɫɚɡɞɚɧɢɣɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢb
canal [kq'nxl] n ɤɚɧɚɥcanalize ['kxnqlaIz] AmE v ɩɪɟɜɪɚɳɚɬɶɜɤɚɧɚɥ 2.2a
canopy ['kxnqpI] n ɤɨɡɵɪɺɤɧɚɜɟɫɧɚɞɜɯɨɞɨɦɜɡɞɚɧɢɟɬɟɧɬɧɚɜɟɫ
ɫɜɨɞb
cantilever ['kxntI"lJvq] n ɤɨɧɫɨɥɶɤɨɧɫɨɥɶɧɚɹɛɚɥɤɚɩɥɢɬɚ v ɜɵɫɬɭɩɚɬɶɜ
ɜɢɞɟɤɨɧɫɨɥɢc
capital ['kxpItl] n ɤɚɩɢɬɟɥɶɤɨɥɨɧɧɵɫɬɨɥɢɰɚ1.2a
capture ['kxpCq] v ɭɥɚɜɥɢɜɚɬɶɩɨɝɥɨɳɚɬɶɩɨɥɭɱɚɬɶɫ
care [keq] n ɜɧɢɦɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɶɬɳɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɶɜɞɭɦɱɢɜɨɫɬɶɡɚɛɨɬɚɩɨɩɟɱɟ
ɧɢɟcare ward ['keq"wLd] ɩɚɥɚɬɚɨɬɞɟɥɟɧɢɟday care centre ɞɟɬɫɤɢɣɫɚɞ
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253
ɹɫɥɢprimary care service ɩɟɪɜɢɱɧɨɟɦɟɞɢɰɢɧɫɤɨɟɨɛɫɥɭɠɢɜɚɧɢɟ take care
ɬɳɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɩɨɡɚɛɨɬɢɬɶɫɹɩɨɫɬɚɪɚɬɶɫɹb
carry ['kxrI] v ɜɵɩɨɥɧɹɬɶɧɟɫɬɢɧɚɝɪɭɡɤɭɩɨɞɞɟɪɠɢɜɚɬɶɞɨɛɢɜɚɬɶɫɹ
ɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɬɶɡɚɤɥɸɱɚɬɶɞɨɫɬɢɝɚɬɶɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɺɧɧɨɝɨɦɟɫɬɚ); carry out ɜɵ
ɩɨɥɧɹɬɶcarry up ɜɨɡɜɨɞɢɬɶɫɬɪɨɢɬɶa
carve [kRv] v ɜɵɪɟɡɚɬɶɪɟɡɚɬɶɜɵɫɟɤɚɬɶcarving n ɪɟɡɶɛɚɪɟɡɧɨɣɨɪɧɚ
ɦɟɧɬa
carving ['kRvIN] n ɪɟɡɶɛɚɪɟɡɧɨɣɨɪɧɚɦɟɧɬɪɟɡɧɨɟɢɡɨɛɪɚɠɟɧɢɟ 1.4c
case [keIs] n ɫɥɭɱɚɣɨɛɫɬɨɹɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɨcase study ɚɧɚɥɢɡɤɨɧɤɪɟɬɧɵɯɫɢɬɭɚ
ɰɢɣɩɪɢɦɟɪɨɜb
castle ['kRsql] n ɡɚɦɨɤɞɜɨɪɟɰb
cathedral [kq'TJdrql] n ɫɨɛɨɪɤɚɮɟɞɪɚɥɶɧɵɣɫɨɛɨɪa
cause [kLz] n ɩɪɢɱɢɧɚɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɢɟ v ɜɵɡɵɜɚɬɶ ɨɛɭɫɥɚɜɥɢɜɚɬɶ ɩɪɟɞɨɩɪɟɞɟ
ɥɹɬɶɡɚɫɬɚɜɥɹɬɶɩɨɛɭɠɞɚɬɶa
ceiling ['sJlIN] n ɩɨɬɨɥɨɤɩɟɪɟɤɪɵɬɢɟɨɛɲɢɜɤɚɩɨɬɨɥɤɚ 1.5b
celebrate ['selIbreIt] v 1. ɫɥɚɜɢɬɶɫɹɛɵɬɶɡɧɚɦɟɧɢɬɵɦɨɬɧɨɫɢɬɶɫɹɫɭɜɚɠɟ
ɧɢɟɦɩɨɱɢɬɚɬɶɱɬɢɬɶɜɨɡɞɚɜɚɬɶɞɨɥɠɧɨɟɰɟɧɢɬɶɩɨɞɨɫɬɨɢɧɫɬɜɭcelebrated
a ɡɧɚɦɟɧɢɬɵɣɩɪɨɫɥɚɜɥɟɧɧɵɣ 1.12b
cell [sel] n ɡɞ ɚɥɬɚɪɶ 1.3b
cella ['selq] n ɰɟɥɥɚɜɧɭɬɪɟɧɧɟɟɩɨɦɟɳɟɧɢɟɞɪɟɜɧɟɜɨɫɬɨɱɧɨɝɨɢɥɢɚɧɬɢɱ
ɧɨɝɨɯɪɚɦɚɜɤɨɬɨɪɨɦɫɬɨɹɥɚɫɬɚɬɭɹɛɨɠɟɫɬɜɚ) 1.4a
central ['sentrql] a ɰɟɧɬɪɚɥɶɧɵɣɝɥɚɜɧɵɣɪɚɫɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɧɵɣɜɰɟɧɬɪɟɨɫ
ɧɨɜɧɨɣɫɚɦɵɣɜɚɠɧɵɣɜɟɞɭɳɢɣa
centre (AmE center) ['sentq] n ɰɟɧɬɪɫɟɪɟɞɢɧɚɰɟɧɬɪɚɥɶɧɚɹɬɨɱɤɚɫɪɟɞɨ
ɬɨɱɢɟɰɟɧɬɪɤɨɦɩɥɟɤɫɬɨɪɝɨɜɵɯɢɥɢɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɧɨ-ɩɪɨɫɜɟɬɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɯɭɱɪɟ
ɠɞɟɧɢɣɱɚɫɬɶɪɚɣɨɧɝɨɪɨɞɚȾɨɦɜɧɚɢɦɟɧɨɜɚɧɢɹɯ); at … centres ɫ
ɪɚɫɫɬɨɹɧɢɟɦ«ɦɟɠɞɭɨɫɹɦɢ off-centre ɫɦɟɳɺɧɧɵɣɨɬɧɨɫɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɰɟɧɬɪɚv
ɤɨɧɰɟɧɬɪɢɪɨɜɚɬɶɫɹɫɨɫɪɟɞɨɬɨɱɢɜɚɬɶɫɹ ɪɚɫɩɨɥɚɝɚɬɶɜɰɟɧɬɪɟ 1.1a
centrepiece ['sentqpJs] n ɨɫɧɨɜɧɨɣɩɪɟɞɦɟɬɤɨɥɥɟɤɰɢɢɝɥɚɜɧɨɟɭɤɪɚɲɟɧɢɟ
3.1b
century ['senCqrI] n ɫɬɨɥɟɬɢɟɜɟɤ 1.1a
certain ['sWtn] a ɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɣɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɺɧɧɵɣɛɟɫɫɩɨɪɧɵɣɧɟɢɡɛɟɠɧɵɣ
certainly adv ɤɨɧɟɱɧɨɧɟɫɨɦɧɟɧɧɨ2.5b
certification [sq"tIfI'keISqn] n ɫɟɪɬɢɮɢɤɚɰɢɹɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɚ) 4.3b
challenge ['CxlqnG] n ɬɪɭɞɧɨɫɬɶɫɥɨɠɧɨɫɬɶɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɚ v ɫɬɚɜɢɬɶɚɦɛɢɰɢ
ɨɡɧɵɟɡɚɞɚɱɢɛɪɨɫɚɬɶɜɵɡɨɜɨɫɩɚɪɢɜɚɬɶɩɨɞɜɟɪɝɚɬɶɫɨɦɧɟɧɢɸa
chamber ['CeImbq] n ɩɨɦɟɳɟɧɢɟɤɨɦɧɚɬɚɡɚɥɩɚɥɚɬɚɤɚɛɢɧɟɬɤɚ
ɦɟɪɚa
change [CeInG] n ɩɟɪɟɦɟɧɚɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɟ; v ɦɟɧɹɬɶɫɹɢɡɦɟɧɹɬɶɫɹ) 1.1b
channel ['Cxnl] n ɤɚɧɚɥɢɫɬɨɱɧɢɤɲɜɟɥɥɟɪ1.1a
chapel ['Cxpql] n ɱɚɫɨɜɧɹɧɟɛɨɥɶɲɚɹɰɟɪɤɨɜɶɤɚɩɟɥɥɚb
character ['kxrqktq] n 1. ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɧɚɹɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɶɨɬɥɢɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣɩɪɢɡɧɚɤ
ɫɜɨɣɫɬɜɨ 2. ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɨɩɪɢɪɨɞɚ1.4c
254
characterise ['kxrIktqraIz] v ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɡɨɜɚɬɶɨɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɡɨɜɚɬɶɨɬɥɢɱɚɬɶ
1.8a
characteristic ["kxrIktq'rIstIk] n ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɶɫɜɨɣɫɬɜɨ a ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɧɵɣɬɢ
ɩɢɱɧɵɣ 1.1b
charge [CRG] n be in charge of ɛɵɬɶɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣɡɚ v ɨɛɜɢɧɹɬɶɚɬɚɤɨ
ɜɚɬɶɜɡɹɬɶɫɹɡɚ2.7b
chevron ['Sevrqn] n ɲɟɜɪɨɧɭɡɨɪɢɡɩɨɜɬɨɪɹɸɳɢɯɫɹɡɢɝɡɚɝɨɜa
chief [CJf] a ɨɫɧɨɜɧɨɣɜɚɠɧɟɣɲɢɣɝɥɚɜɧɵɣa
Chile ['CIlI] n ɑɢɥɢa
chill [CIl] v ɨɯɥɚɠɞɚɬɶchilled beam ɛɚɥɤɚɫɩɚɫɫɢɜɧɵɦɨɯɥɚɠɞɟɧɢɟɦa
chimney ['CImnI] n 1. ɬɪɭɛɚɞɵɦɨɜɚɹɢɥɢɜɵɬɹɠɧɚɹɫɬɨɥɛ3.2b
chinatown ['CaInqtaVn] n ɤɢɬɚɣɫɤɢɣ ɤɜɚɪɬɚɥ 2.6a
choice [COIs] n ɜɵɛɨɪ 2.6a
choir [kwaIq] n ɤɥɢɪɨɫ (ɦɟɫɬɨ, ɧɚ ɤɨɬɨɪɨɦ ɜɨ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɛɨɝɨɫɥɭɠɟɧɢɹ ɧɚɯɨ
ɞɹɬɫɹ ɩɟɜɱɢɟ ɢ ɱɬɟɰɵ), ɯɨɪ; choir academy ["kwaIq q'kxdqmI] ɲɤɨɥɚ ɯɨɪɨ
ɜɨɝɨ ɩɟɧɢɹ 1.7a
choose [CHz] v ɜɵɛɢɪɚɬɶɩɪɟɞɩɨɱɢɬɚɬɶɪɟɲɚɬɶa
chord [kLd] n ɩɨɹɫɮɟɪɦɵɛɚɥɤɢ); hit the right chords ɡɚɞɟɬɶɱɭɜɫɬɜɢɬɟɥɶ
ɧɵɟɫɬɪɭɧɵɩɨɩɚɫɬɶɜɬɨɱɤɭc
Christian ['krIstIqn] a ɯɪɢɫɬɢɚɧɫɤɢɣ 1.1a
chronological ["krOnq'lOGIkql] a ɯɪɨɧɨɥɨɝɢғɱɟɫɤɢɣ; chronologically adv ɯɪɨ
ɧɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢ 1.1a
church [CWC] n ɰɟɪɤɨɜɶɯɪɚɦɩɪɟɢɦɯɪɢɫɬɢɚɧɫɤɢɣ); a ɰɟɪɤɨɜɧɵɣ1.1a
circle n. ['sWkql] n ɤɨɥɶɰɨɤɪɭɝɨɤɪɭɠɧɨɫɬɶ 1.4b
circular ['sWkjVlq] a ɤɪɭɝɥɵɣɤɪɭɝɨɜɨɣɤɨɥɶɰɟɜɨɣɞɭɝɨɜɨɣcircular steps
ɜɢɧɬɨɜɚɹɥɟɫɬɧɢɰɚ1.5b
circulation ["sWkjV'leISqn] n ɩɟɪɟɦɟɳɟɧɢɟɩɨɬɨɤɢɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɹɜɡɞɚɧɢɢɰɢɪ
ɤɭɥɹɰɢɹa
circumferential direction ɫɦ direction 4.8c
circumstance ['sWkqmstxns] n ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹ, ɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɟ ɞɟɥ 2.7b
cityscape ['sItIskeIp] n ɝɨɪɨɞɫɤɨɣ ɩɟɣɡɚɠ, ɝɨɪɨɞɫɤɨɣ ɥɚɧɞɲɚɮɬ 3.5b
civic ['sIvIk] a 1. ɝɪɚɠɞɚɧɫɤɢɣɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣɝɨɪɨɞɫɤɨɣ1.1a
civilization ["sIvqlaI'zeISqn] n ɰɢɜɢɥɢɡɚɰɢɹɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɚ1.1a
clad [klxd] v ɨɛɥɢɰɨɜɵɜɚɬɶ ɩɨɤɪɵɜɚɬɶ; cladding ['klxdIN] n ɧɚɪɭɠɧɨɟ
ɨɝɪɚɠɞɟɧɢɟɡɞɚɧɢɹɨɛɲɢɜɤɚɨɛɥɢɰɨɜɤɚ 3.1a
cladding ɫɦ clad 3.9a
claim [kleIm] v ɭɬɜɟɪɠɞɚɬɶɡɚɹɜɥɹɬɶa
classic ['klxsIk] a ɤɥɚɫɫɢɱɟɫɤɢɣɚɧɬɢɱɧɵɣn ɤɥɚɫɫɢɤɚa
clear [klIq] a ɫɜɨɛɨɞɧɵɣɛɟɫɩɪɟɩɹɬɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣɨɬɤɪɵɬɵɣɨɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɟ
ɨɬɱɺɬɥɢɜɵɣɜɧɹɬɧɵɣɱɺɬɤɢɣclear glass ɩɪɨɡɪɚɱɧɨɟɛɟɫɰɜɟɬɧɨɟɫɬɟɤɥɨ
make clear ɪɚɡɴɹɫɧɹɬɶɹɫɧɨɞɚɜɚɬɶɩɨɧɹɬɶ clearly adv ɨɬɱɺɬɥɢɜɨɹɫɧɨ ɧɟɫɨ
ɦɧɟɧɧɨ ɨɱɟɜɢɞɧɨb
clearstory ['klIqstqrI] n ɜɟɪɯɧɢɣɪɹɞɨɤɨɧɨɫɜɟɳɚɸɳɢɣɯɨɪɵb
255
client ['klaIqnt] n ɤɥɢɟɧɬɡɚɤɚɡɱɢɤb
cliff [klIf] n ɭɬɺɫɨɬɜɟɫɧɚɹɫɤɚɥɚa
climatic [klaI'mxtIk] a ɤɥɢɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɣa
cloakroom ['klqVkrVm] n ɝɚɪɞɟɪɨɛc
cloister ['klOIstq] n ɤɪɵɬɚɹɚɪɤɚɞɚɝɚɥɟɪɟɹa
close [klqVz] n. ɤɨɧɟɰɡɚɜɟɪɲɟɧɢɟv ɡɚɤɪɵɜɚɬɶɫɹ>klqVs] a ɬɳɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɣ
ɬɨɱɧɵɣɛɥɢɡɤɢɣɧɚɯɨɞɹɳɢɣɫɹɪɚɫɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɧɵɣɧɟɞɚɥɟɤɨɡɚɤɪɵɬɵɣ
ɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɟɧɧɵɣclose proximity – ɧɟɩɨɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɟɧɧɚɹɛɥɢɡɨɫɬɶadv ɛɥɢɡɤɨ
closely [klqVslI] adv 1. ɛɥɢɡɤɨɬɳɚɬɟɥɶɧɨa
clothes [klqVDz] n ɨɞɟɠɞɚb
cluster ['klAstq] n ɝɪɭɩɩɚɫɤɨɩɥɟɧɢɟv ɪɚɫɬɢɝɪɨɡɞɶɹɦɢ ɫɨɛɢɪɚɬɶɫɹ
ɝɪɭɩɩɚɦɢa
clutter ['klAtq] n ɩɨɦɟɯɢɛɟɫɩɨɪɹɞɨɤɡɚɝɪɨɦɨɠɞɟɧɢɟɩɪɟɞɦɟɬɚɦɢa
coat [kqVt] v 1. ɨɛɥɢɰɨɜɵɜɚɬɶɩɨɤɪɵɜɚɬɶɝɪɭɧɬɨɜɚɬɶ1.6a
collaborate [kq'lxbqreIt] v ɫɨɬɪɭɞɧɢɱɚɬɶɪɚɛɨɬɚɬɶɫɨɜɦɟɫɬɧɨa
collector [kq'lektq] n ɤɨɥɥɟɤɰɢɨɧɟɪcollector chamber [kq'lektq 'CeImbq]
ɤɚɦɟɪɚɫɨɥɧɟɱɧɨɝɨɬɟɩɥɨɨɛɦɟɧɧɢɤɚb
colonnade ["kPlq'neId] n ɤɨɥɨɧɧɚɞɚ ɪɹɞɤɨɥɨɧɧa
colossal [kq'lPsql] a ɤɨɥɨɫɫɚɥɶɧɵɣɝɪɚɧɞɢɨɡɧɵɣɝɪɨɦɚɞɧɵɣa
colour (AmE color) ['kAlq] n 1. ɰɜɟɬɬɨɧɨɬɬɟɧɨɤ 2. ɤɪɚɫɤɚcoloured (AmE
colored) ['kAlqd] a ɰɜɟɬɧɨɣɦɧɨɝɨɰɜɟɬɧɵɣɨɤɪɚɲɟɧɧɵɣɪɚɫɤɪɚɲɟɧɧɵɣ
1.2a
colourful ['kAlqfql] a ɤɪɚɫɨɱɧɵɣɹɪɤɢɣɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɧɵɣ8c
column ['kOlqm] n ɤɨɥɨɧɧɚɫɬɨɣɤɚengaged column ɩɨɥɭɤɨɥɨɧɧɚɩɢɥɹɫɬɪ
spinal column ['spaInl "kOlqm@ɩɨɡɜɨɧɨɱɧɵɣɫɬɨɥɛ 1.1a
columnar ['kPlqmnq] a ɤɨɥɨɧɧɵɣ ɭɤɪɚɲɟɧɧɵɣɤɨɥɨɧɧɚɦɢɤɨɥɨɧɧɨɨɛɪɚɡ
ɧɵɣ1.4a
combination ["kPmbI'neISqn] n ɫɨɱɟɬɚɧɢɟɤɨɦɛɢɧɚɰɢɹ1.5a
combine [kqm'baIn] v ɫɨɱɟɬɚɬɶɫɹɨɛɴɟɞɢɧɹɬɶɫɹɫɨɟɞɢɧɹɬɶɫɹb
comfort ['kAmfqt] n ɤɨɦɮɨɪɬɭɸɬɭɞɨɛɫɬɜɚ1.5a
comfortable ['kAmftqbql] a ɭɞɨɛɧɵɣɤɨɦɮɨɪɬɧɵɣb
commercial [kq'mWSql] a ɬɨɪɝɨɜɵɣɤɨɦɦɟɪɱɟɫɤɢɣ; commercially adv ɤɨɦ
ɦɟɪɱɟɫɤɢ 1.1b
commission [kq'mISqn] n ɡɚɤɚɡ ɩɨɪɭɱɟɧɢɟv ɡɚɤɚɡɵɜɚɬɶɩɨɪɭɱɚɬɶc
common ['kPmqn] a ɨɛɵɤɧɨɜɟɧɧɵɣɨɛɵɱɧɵɣɩɪɨɫɬɨɣ ɲɢɪɨɤɨɪɚɫɩɪɨ
ɫɬɪɚɧɺɧɧɵɣɨɛɳɟɩɪɢɧɹɬɵɣɨɞɢɧɚɤɨɜɵɣɨɛɳɢɣɢɦɟɸɳɢɣɨɛɳɟɟɩɪɨɢɫ
ɯɨɠɞɟɧɢɟɢɥɢɢɫɬɨɱɧɢɤɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɵɣcommon room ɤɨɦ
ɧɚɬɚɨɬɞɵɯɚcommonly adv ɨɛɵɱɧɨɨɛɵɤɧɨɜɟɧɧɨɤɚɤɩɪɚɜɢɥɨ 1.5a
commonplace ['kPmqnpleIs] a ɛɚɧɚɥɶɧɵɣɨɛɵɤɧɨɜɟɧɧɵɣɪɹɞɨɜɨɣa
communal ['kPmjVnql] a ɤɨɦɦɭɧɚɥɶɧɵɣɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣɤɨɥɥɟɤɬɢɜɧɵɣ1.12b
communication [kq"mjHnI'keISqn] n ɩɟɪɟɦɟɳɟɧɢɟɜɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɟɤɨɦ
ɦɭɧɢɤɚɰɢɹɨɛɳɟɧɢɟɨɛɦɟɧɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɟɣb
256
community [kq'mjHnItI] n ɠɢɬɟɥɢɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɢɟɫɨɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɨɧɚɫɟɥɺɧɧɵɣ
ɩɭɧɤɬɩɨɫɟɥɟɧɢɟɝɨɪɨɞ 2.6b
compact [kqm'pxkt / 'kPmpxkt] a ɤɨɦɩɚɤɬɧɵɣɦɚɥɵɯɪɚɡɦɟɪɨɜɩɥɨɬ
ɧɵɣ2.6b
compare [kqm'peq] v ɫɪɚɜɧɢɜɚɬɶ as compared to ɩɨɫɪɚɜɧɟɧɢɸɫ ɫ
compensate ['kPmpqnseIt] v ɤɨɦɩɟɧɫɢɪɨɜɚɬɶɭɪɚɜɧɨɜɟɲɢɜɚɬɶb
competition ["kPmpI'tISqn] n ɤɨɧɤɭɪɫɫɨɫɬɹɡɚɧɢɟ3.12c
complement ['kPmplImqnt] v ɞɨɩɨɥɧɹɬɶc
complete [kqm'plJt] a ɩɨɥɧɵɣɡɚɤɨɧɱɟɧɧɵɣɫɨɜɟɪɲɟɧɧɵɣɚɛɫɨɥɸɬ
ɧɵɣv ɡɚɤɚɧɱɢɜɚɬɶɡɚɜɟɪɲɚɬɶɫɞɟɥɚɬɶɫɨɜɟɪɲɟɧɧɵɦcompletely adv ɫɨ
ɜɟɪɲɟɧɧɨɩɨɥɧɨɫɬɶɸɜɩɨɥɧɟɜɫɟɰɟɥɨa
complex ['kPmpleks] n ɤɨɦɩɥɟɤɫɫɢɫɬɟɦɚɫɨɜɨɤɭɩɧɨɫɬɶɦɧɨɠɟɫɬɜɨɝɪɭɩɩɚ
a ɫɥɨɠɧɵɣɫɨɫɬɚɜɧɨɣɤɨɦɩɥɟɤɫɧɵɣ 1.8a
complexity [kqm'pleksItI] n ɫɥɨɠɧɨɫɬɶɡɚɩɭɬɚɧɧɨɫɬɶb
component [kqm'pqVnqnt] n ɫɨɫɬɚɜɧɚɹɱɚɫɬɶ ɞɟɬɚɥɶɷɥɟɦɟɧɬ2.4c
compose [kqm'pqVz] v ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɬɶ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɬɶɫɨɡɞɚɜɚɬɶɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ1.6a
composite ['kPmpqzIt] a ɫɨɫɬɚɜɧɨɣɫɥɨɠɧɵɣ ɤɨɦɛɢɧɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɣɤɨɦɩɨɡɢɬ
ɧɵɣComposite (order) ɫɥɨɠɧɵɣɨɪɞɟɪ1.4c
composition ["kPmpq'zISqn] n ɤɨɦɩɨɡɢɰɢɹɫɨɱɟɬɚɧɢɟɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɚɩɨɫɬɪɨɟ
ɧɢɟɫɨɫɬɚɜb
comprise [kqm'praIz] v 1. ɜɤɥɸɱɚɬɶɡɚɤɥɸɱɚɬɶɜɫɟɛɟɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɬɶɨɯɜɚɬɵ
ɜɚɬɶɫɨɫɬɨɹɬɶɢɡ 2. ɜɯɨɞɢɬɶɜɫɨɫɬɚɜ1.4c
concave ["kPn'keIv] a ɜɨɝɧɭɬɵɣb
conceal [kqn'sJl] v ɭɤɪɵɜɚɬɶɫɤɪɵɜɚɬɶɫɤɪɵɬɶɩɪɹɬɚɬɶ1.8c
conceive [kqn'sJv] v ɡɚɞɭɦɵɜɚɬɶɡɚɦɵɲɥɹɬɶɨɫɦɵɫɥɢɜɚɬɶɨɫɦɵɫɥɹɬɶ
ɩɨɧɢɦɚɬɶɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɬɶb
concentrate ['kPnsqntreIt] v ɤɨɧɰɟɧɬɪɢɪɨɜɚɬɶɫɹɫɨɫɪɟɞɨɬɨɱɢɜɚɬɶɫɹ1.5b
concept ['kPnsept] n ɢɞɟɹɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɤɨɧɰɟɩɰɢɹ2.5a
concern [kqn'sWn] n ɜɚɠɧɨɫɬɶɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟwithout concern for ɧɟɨɛɪɚɳɚɹ
ɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɹɧɚɛɟɡɨɬɧɨɫɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɤ v ɤɚɫɚɬɶɫɹɡɚɬɪɚɝɢɜɚɬɶɢɦɟɬɶɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɟa
concert hall ['kPnsqthLl] n ɤɨɧɰɟɪɬɧɵɣ ɡɚɥ 3.12b
concourse ['kPNkLs] n ɫɤɨɩɥɟɧɢɟɡɚɥɨɠɢɞɚɧɢɹa
concrete ['kPNkrJt] n ɛɟɬɨɧɛɟɬɨɧɧɚɹɫɦɟɫɶa ɛɟɬɨɧɧɵɣcast-concrete
["kRst'kPNkrJt] ɦɨɧɨɥɢɬɧɵɣɥɢɬɨɣɛɟɬɨɧ 1.5b
condition [kqn'dISqn] n ɭɫɥɨɜɢɟɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɹ ɨɛɫɬɨɹɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɚɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɟ
ɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɟɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɟɞɟɥa
conference ['kPnfqrqns] n ɜɫɬɪɟɱɚɫɨɜɟɳɚɧɢɟɩɟɪɟɝɨɜɨɪɵɤɨɧɮɟɪɟɧɰɢɹb
configuration [kqn"fIgq'reISqn] n ɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɟɪɚɫɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɟɮɨɪɦɚ
ɫɢɫɬɟɦɚɝɟɨɦɟɬɪɢɹɜɧɟɲɧɢɟɨɱɟɪɬɚɧɢɹa
confine [kqn'faIn] v ɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɢɜɚɬɶɩɪɢɞɟɪɠɢɜɚɬɶɫɹa
connect [kq'nekt] v ɫɨɟɞɢɧɹɬɶɫɹɫɜɹɡɵɜɚɬɶɫɹ ɚɫɫɨɰɢɢɪɨɜɚɬɶɫɹɫɨ
ɱɟɬɚɬɶɫɹa
connection [kq'nekSqn] n ɫɜɹɡɶɫɨɟɞɢɧɟɧɢɟɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɨɫɨɨɛɳɟɧɢɹb
257
connectivity ["kPnek'tIvItI] n ɫɜɹɡɚɧɧɨɫɬɶb
conservation ["kPnsq'veISqn] n ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɟb
conserve [kqn'sWv] v ɫɨɯɪɚɧɹɬɶɤɨɧɫɟɪɜɢɪɨɜɚɬɶb
consider [kqn'sIdq] v ɩɨɥɚɝɚɬɶɫɱɢɬɚɬɶɫɹɪɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɬɶɫɹb
considerable [kqn'sIdqrqbql] a ɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣɛɨɥɶɲɨɣ ɧɟɦɚɥɵɣconsiderably adv ɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ1.4a
consideration [kqn"sIdq'reISqn] n ɮɚɤɬɨɪɫɨɨɛɪɚɠɟɧɢɟɪɚɡɦɵɲɥɟɧɢɟ
ɪɚɡɞɭɦɶɹɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟunder consideration ɪɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɟɦɵɣɨɛɫɭɠɞɚɟɦɵɣa
consist [kqn'sIst] v ɫɨɫɬɨɹɬɶɢɡ 1.4c
constant ['kPnstqnt] a ɩɨɫɬɨɹɧɧɵɣɧɟɢɡɦɟɧɧɵɣconstantly adv ɩɨɫɬɨɹɧɧɨ
ɧɟɩɪɟɪɵɜɧɨc
constrain [kqn'streIn] v ɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɢɜɚɬɶa
construct [kqn'strAkt] v ɫɬɪɨɢɬɶ ɫɨɨɪɭɠɚɬɶɜɨɡɞɜɢɝɚɬɶb
construction [kqn'strAkSqn] n ɫɬɪɨɢɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɨɩɨɫɬɪɨɣɤɚɜɨɡɜɟɞɟɧɢɟɤɨɧ
ɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɹɫɨɨɪɭɠɟɧɢɟɩɨɫɬɪɨɣɤɚɡɞɚɧɢɟ1.1a
constructive [kqn'strAktIv] a ɫɬɪɨɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɬɢɜɧɵɣ ɨɬɧɨɫɹɳɢɣɫɹ
ɤɫɨɨɪɭɠɟɧɢɹɦɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɬɨɪɫɤɢɣɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɧɵɣ constructively adv ɤɨɧ
ɫɬɪɭɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɧɨ 1.1a
contact ['kPntxkt] n ɫɨɩɪɢɤɨɫɧɨɜɟɧɢɟɤɨɧɬɚɤɬ come in contact with ɤɨɧɬɚɤ
ɬɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ 1.1b
contain [kqn'teIn] v ɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɬɶɜɦɟɳɚɬɶɢɦɟɬɶɭɞɟɪɠɢɜɚɬɶɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɢ
ɜɚɬɶb
contemporary [kqn'tempqrqrI] n ɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɢɤ a ɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɣɜɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧ
ɧɨɦɫɬɢɥɟa
context ['kPntekst] n ɤɨɧɬɟɤɫɬɫɪɟɞɚɨɤɪɭɠɟɧɢɟb
continue [kqn'tInjH] v ɩɪɨɞɨɥɠɚɬɶɫɹɩɪɨɫɬɢɪɚɬɶɫɹɬɹɧɭɬɶɫɹɨɫɬɚ
ɜɚɬɶɫɹb
continuity ["kPntI'njHItI] n ɰɟɥɨɫɬɧɨɫɬɶɧɟɪɚɡɪɵɜɧɨɫɬɶa
continuous [kqn'tInjVqs] a ɧɟɩɪɟɪɵɜɧɵɣɫɩɥɨɲɧɨɣɧɟɪɚɡɪɟɡɧɨɣc
contract [kqn'trxkt] v ɫɭɠɚɬɶɫɹa
contrast ['kPntrRst] n ɤɨɧɬɪɚɫɬɪɚɡɥɢɱɢɟɩɪɨɬɢɜɨɩɨɥɨɠɧɨɫɬɶ ɪɚɡɥɢ
ɱɢɟɨɬɥɢɱɢɟin contrast ɜɨɬɥɢɜɢɟɨɬɷɬɨɝɨɫɞɪɭɝɨɣɫɬɨɪɨɧɵin contrast to
ɜɨɬɥɢɱɢɟɨɬin contrast with ɩɨɫɪɚɜɧɟɧɢɸɫ>kqn'trRst] v ɤɨɧɬɪɚɫɬɢɪɨ
ɜɚɬɶɩɪɨɬɢɜɨɪɟɱɢɬɶɪɚɫɯɨɞɢɬɶɫɹb
contribute [kqn'trIbjHt] v ɫɩɨɫɨɛɫɬɜɨɜɚɬɶɫɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɨɜɚɬɶɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɢɜɚɬɶa
control [kqn'trqVl] n 1. ɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɶ ɪɟɝɭɥɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟɫɞɟɪɠɢɜɚɧɢɟɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɟ
ɧɢɟ v 1. ɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɢɪɨɜɚɬɶɩɪɨɜɟɪɹɬɶɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɥɹɬɶɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɶɪɟɝɭɥɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ
ɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɢɪɨɜɚɬɶɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɢɜɚɬɶɫɞɟɪɠɢɜɚɬɶɝɨɫɩɨɞɫɬɜɨɜɚɬɶ 1.8a
convenience [kqn'vJnIqns] n ɭɞɨɛɫɬɜɨɩɪɟɢɦɭɳɟɫɬɜɨɜɵɝɨɞɚ 1.5a
conventional [kqn'venSqnql] a ɨɛɵɱɧɵɣɩɪɢɜɵɱɧɵɣɨɛɳɟɩɪɢɧɹɬɵɣɬɪɚɞɢ
ɰɢɨɧɧɵɣ Conventional Hall ɡɚɥɡɚɫɟɞɚɧɢɣɤɨɧɮɟɪɟɧɰɡɚɥ 2.8a
convex ["kPn'veks] a ɜɵɩɭɤɥɵɣ 1.4c
258
cool [kHl] n ɩɪɨɯɥɚɞɚ v ɨɯɥɚɠɞɚɬɶɫɹɬɠ cool down); a ɩɪɨɯɥɚɞɧɵɣ cooling ['kHlIN] n ɨɯɥɚɠɞɟɧɢɟc
cooling ɫɦ cool 3.3a
copy ['kPpI] v ɤɨɩɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ ɩɨɞɪɚɠɚɬɶcopying ['kPpIIN] n ɤɨɩɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟb
core [kL] n ɰɟɧɬɪɹɞɪɨɫɟɪɞɟɱɧɢɤɰɟɧɬɪɚɥɶɧɵɣɫɬɜɨɥɰɟɧɬɪɚɥɶɧɨɟɹɞɪɨ
ɠɺɫɬɤɨɫɬɢɜɵɫɨɬɧɨɝɨɡɞɚɧɢɹ); service core ɰɟɧɬɪɚɥɶɧɵɣɫɬɜɨɥɜɵɫɨɬɧɨɝɨ
ɡɞɚɧɢɹɫɨɫɬɨɹɤɚɦɢɢɧɠɟɧɟɪɧɵɯɫɟɬɟɣa
Corinthian (order) [kq'rInTIqn] a ɤɨɪɢɧɮɫɤɢɣɨɪɞɟɪ) 1.4c
corner ['kLnq] n ɭɝɨɥɩɟɪɟɫɟɱɟɧɢɟɭɥɢɰa
cornice ['kLnIs] n ɤɚɪɧɢɡ, ɫɜɟɫ; arched cornice ɚɪɨɱɧɵɣɤɚɪɧɢɡ 1.4c
correct [kq'rekt] v ɢɫɩɪɚɜɥɹɬɶɩɨɩɪɚɜɥɹɬɶɤɨɪɪɟɤɬɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ a ɩɪɚɜɢɥɶɧɵɣ
ɜɟɪɧɵɣɧɭɠɧɵɣ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɣ 1.4c
correctness [kq'rektnIs] n ɩɪɚɜɢɥɶɧɨɫɬɶɬɨɱɧɨɫɬɶ1.5a
correspond ["kPrq'spPnd] v ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɨɜɚɬɶɛɵɬɶɚɧɚɥɨɝɢɱɧɵɦa
corridor ['kPrIdL] n ɤɨɪɢɞɨɪɩɭɬɶ1.5b
cost [kPst] n ɰɟɧɚɫɬɨɢɦɨɫɬɶpl ɪɚɫɯɨɞɵɢɡɞɟɪɠɤɢat a cost ɰɟɧɨɣɩɨ
ɬɟɪɶb
Council ['kaVnsql] n ɫɨɜɟɬcity council ɝɨɪɨɞɫɤɨɣɫɨɜɟɬ2.4c
counter ['kaVntq] n ɩɪɢɥɚɜɨɤɫɬɨɣɤɚɪɚɛɨɱɢɣɫɬɨɥɤɚɫɫɚc
counteract ["kaVntqr'xkt] v ɩɪɨɬɢɜɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɨɜɚɬɶɩɪɟɩɹɬɫɬɜɨɜɚɬɶɧɟɣɬɪɚɥɢ
ɡɨɜɚɬɶ1.5a
countless ['kaVntlqs] a ɛɟɫɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɵɣɧɟɫɱɺɬɧɵɣb.
couple ['kApql] n ɫɟɦɟɣɧɚɹɩɚɪɚa
course [kLs] n ɤɭɪɫ run its course ɢɫɱɟɪɩɚɬɶɫɟɛɹwater course ['wLtqkLs]
ɜɨɞɧɵɣɩɨɬɨɤɜɨɞɨɬɨɤ 1.11b
court [kLt] n ɞɜɨɪɞɜɨɪɢɤɩɥɨɳɚɞɤɚɫɭɞcourt yard ɜɧɭɬɪɟɧɧɢɣɞɜɨɪ;
High Court ȼɵɫɨɤɢɣɫɭɞɩɪɚɜɨɫɭɞɢɹɜɯɨɞɢɬɜɫɨɫɬɚɜȼɟɪɯɨɜɧɨɝɨɫɭɞɚȼɟɥɢ
ɤɨɛɪɢɬɚɧɢɢ); Law Courts Ⱦɨɦɩɪɚɜɨɫɭɞɢɹ1.4b
courtyard ['kLtjRd] n ɞɜɨɪɜɧɭɬɪɟɧɧɢɣɞɜɨɪb
cover ['kAvq] v 1. ɩɨɤɪɵɜɚɬɶɡɚɤɪɵɜɚɬɶɧɚɤɪɵɜɚɬɶ 2. ɤɪɵɬɶɨɯɜɚɬɵɜɚɬɶ1.4a
create [krI'eIt] v ɫɨɡɞɚɜɚɬɶɬɜɨɪɢɬɶɫɨɡɢɞɚɬɶɞɟɥɚɬɶɪɚɡɪɚɛɚɬɵɜɚɬɶ2. 2.
ɜɵɡɵɜɚɬɶɩɪɨɢɡɜɟɫɬɢ.8c
creation [krI'eISqn] n ɫɨɡɞɚɧɢɟ1.12b
creative [krI'eItIv] a ɬɜɨɪɱɟɫɤɢɣɫɨɡɢɞɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɣc
criteria [kraI'tIqrIq] pl ɨɬcriterion [kraI'tIqrIqn@ɤɪɢɬɟɪɢɣɩɪɢɡɧɚɤb
critical ['krItIkql] a ɪɟɲɚɸɳɢɣɤɪɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ2.4b
cross [krPs] n ɤɪɟɫɬ v ɩɟɪɟɫɟɤɚɬɶɩɟɪɟɯɨɞɢɬɶcrossroads ['krPsrqVdz] n ɩɟ
ɪɟɤɪɟɫɬɨɤ cross section ɩɨɩɟɪɟɱɧɨɟɫɟɱɟɧɢɟɩɨɩɟɪɟɱɧɵɣɩɪɨɮɢɥɶ cross vault
ɤɪɟɫɬɨɜɵɣɫɜɨɞLatin cross ɤɚɬɨɥɢɱɟɫɤɢɣɤɪɟɫɬ 1.12b
crossing ['krPsIN] n 1. ɩɟɪɟɫɟɱɟɧɢɟ ɩɟɪɟɤɪɟɳɢɜɚɧɢɟɩɟɪɟɩɪɚɜɚɩɟɪɟɟɡɞ 1.12b
crown [kraVn] n ɧɚɢɜɵɫɲɚɹɬɨɱɤɚɜɟɪɲɢɧɚɜɟɧɟɰɲɟɥɵɝɚɜɟɪɯɧɹɹɥɢ
ɧɢɹɢɥɢɯɪɟɛɟɬɫɜɨɞɚɜɟɪɯɭɲɤɚɞɟɪɟɜɚ); v ɜɟɧɱɚɬɶɭɜɟɧɱɢɜɚɬɶa
cubic ['kjHbIk] a ɤɭɛɢɱɟɫɤɢɣb
259
culminate ['kAlmIneIt] v ɞɨɫɬɢɝɚɬɶɜɵɫɲɟɣɬɨɱɤɢɫɬɟɩɟɧɢɡɚɜɟɪɲɚɬɶɫɹa
cultural ['kAlCqrql] a ɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɧɵɣ culturally adv ɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɧɨɜɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɧɨɦɨɬ
ɧɨɲɟɧɢɢ2.6a
current ['kArqnt] a ɧɵɧɟɲɧɢɣɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɣ2.1b
curtain ['kWtn] n ɡɚɧɚɜɟɫɷɤɪɚɧ curtain wall ɧɟɧɟɫɭɳɚɹɧɚɜɟɫɧɚɹɧɚɪɭɠɧɚɹ
ɫɬɟɧɚɫɬɟɧɚɢɡɥɺɝɤɢɯɧɚɜɟɫɧɵɯɩɚɧɟɥɟɣ 3.7b
curvature ['kWvqCq] n 1. ɡɚɤɪɭɝɥɟɧɢɟɢɡɝɢɛ 2. ɢɡɨɝɧɭɬɨɫɬɶɤɪɢɜɢɡɧɚ1.4c
curve [kWv] n ɢɡɝɢɛɩɨɜɨɪɨɬɤɪɢɜɚɹv ɝɧɭɬɶɫɹɢɡɝɢɛɚɬɶɫɹcurved a ɢɡɨ
ɝɧɭɬɵɣɢɫɤɪɢɜɥɺɧɧɵɣɤɪɢɜɨɥɢɧɟɣɧɵɣcurved bridge ɤɪɢɜɨɥɢɧɟɣɧɵɣ
(ɜɩɥɚɧɟɦɨɫɬb
cut [kAt] v ɪɟɡɚɬɶɪɚɡɪɟɡɚɬɶɜɵɪɟɡɚɬɶɲɥɢɮɨɜɚɬɶɝɪɚɧɢɬɶɤɚɦɧɢ); cut
across ɩɟɪɟɫɟɤɚɬɶcut into ɜɤɥɸɱɚɬɶɜɪɟɡɚɬɶcut off ɨɬɪɟɡɚɬɶɢɡɨɥɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ
ɨɬɫɟɤɚɬɶɩɪɟɪɵɜɚɬɶcut out ɜɵɪɟɡɚɬɶɝɨɬɨɜɢɬɶɩɥɚɧɢɪɨɜɚɬɶcut costs
ɫɨɤɪɚɬɢɬɶɪɚɫɯɨɞɵn ɫɨɤɪɚɳɟɧɢɟɜɵɪɟɡɤɚɫɪɟɡb
cylinder ['sIlIndq] n ɰɢɥɢɧɞɪɰɢɥɢɧɞɪɢɱɟɫɤɢɣɨɛɴɺɦ a ɰɢɥɢɧɞɪɢɱɟɫɤɢɣɰɢ
ɥɢɧɞɪɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɮɨɪɦɵc
cylindrical [sI'lIndrIkql] a ɰɢɥɢɧɞɪɢɱɟɫɤɢɣsemi-cylindrical
[sqmIsI'lIndrIkql@ɩɨɥɭɰɢɥɢɧɞɪɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ1.5b
damage ['dxmIG] n ɜɪɟɞɩɨɜɪɟɠɞɟɧɢɟɭɳɟɪɛ v ɜɪɟɞɢɬɶɧɚɧɨɫɢɬɶɭɳɟɪɛ
ɩɨɜɪɟɠɞɚɬɶɩɨɪɬɢɬɶbomb-damaged ['bPm"dxmIGd] a ɩɨɫɬɪɚɞɚɜɲɢɣɨɬ
ɛɨɦɛɚɪɞɢɪɨɜɤɢnon-damaging ɛɟɡɜɪɟɞɧɵɣa
danger ['deInGq] n ɨɩɚɫɧɨɫɬɶɭɝɪɨɡɚɪɢɫɤ dangerous ['deInGqrqs] a ɨɩɚɫ
ɧɵɣb
daring ['deqrIN] a ɫɦɟɥɵɣɞɟɪɡɤɢɣɞɟɪɡɧɨɜɟɧɧɵɣdaringly adv ɫɦɟɥɨ
ɞɟɪɡɤɨ.8c
dark [dRk] a ɬɺɦɧɵɣn ɬɟɦɧɨɬɚɧɨɱɶafter dark – ɩɨɫɥɟɧɚɫɬɭɩɥɟɧɢɹɬɟɦ
ɧɨɬɵdarkly adv ɫɬɺɦɧɵɦɨɬɬɟɧɤɨɦɬɭɫɤɥɨb
daylight ['deIlaIt] n ɞɧɟɜɧɨɣɫɜɟɬɛɟɫɬɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɟɨɫɜɟɳɟɧɢɟa
deal (with) [dJl] v ɫɬɨɥɤɧɭɬɶɫɹɫɡɚɧɢɦɚɬɶɫɹɪɟɲɚɬɶɫɩɪɚɜɥɹɬɶɫɹɫɩɪɨɛɥɟ
ɦɨɣb
decade [de'keId] n ɞɟɫɹɬɢɥɟɬɢɟb
decide [dI'saId] v ɪɟɲɚɬɶɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɬɶɪɟɲɟɧɢɟc
decision [dI'sIZqn] n ɪɟɲɟɧɢɟ2.4c
deck [dek] n ɩɥɨɫɤɚɹɤɪɵɲɚɦɨɫɬɨɜɨɟɩɨɥɨɬɧɨɦɨɫɬɚɩɪɨɥɺɬɧɨɟɫɬɪɨ
ɟɧɢɟɦɨɫɬɚɷɬɚɠɤɧɢɝɨɯɪɚɧɢɥɢɳɚɹɪɭɫɧɚɫɬɢɥɩɥɢɬɚɧɚɫɬɢɥɚɩɥɨ
ɳɚɞɤɚ deck floor ɩɥɨɫɤɚɹɤɪɵɲɚobservation deck ["Pbzq'veISqn"dek@ɫɦɨɬ
ɪɨɜɚɹɩɥɨɳɚɞɤɚroof deck ɧɚɫɬɢɥɤɪɵɲɢ decking n ɧɚɫɬɢɥɩɟɪɟɤɪɵɬɢɹ 3.8a
decline [dI'klaIn] n 1. ɭɩɚɞɨɤɫɩɚɞɡɚɤɚɬɭɜɹɞɚɧɢɟ v ɭɝɚɫɚɬɶɢɞɬɢɧɚɫɩɚɞ 1.1b
decorate ['dekqreIt] v 1. ɭɤɪɚɲɚɬɶɭɛɢɪɚɬɶɞɟɤɨɪɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ ɭɤɪɚɲɚɬɶɫɨɛɨɣ
ɫɥɭɠɢɬɶɭɤɪɚɲɟɧɢɟɦ1.4a
decoration ["dekq'reISqn] n ɭɤɪɚɲɟɧɢɟɭɛɪɚɧɫɬɜɨɞɟɤɨɪɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟɞɟ
ɤɨɪɧɚɪɭɠɧɚɹɢɜɧɭɬɪɟɧɧɹɹɨɬɞɟɥɤɚa
decorative ['dekqrqtIv] a ɞɟɤɨɪɚɬɢɜɧɵɣɨɪɧɚɦɟɧɬɚɥɶɧɵɣa
260
decrease [dI'krJs] v ɭɦɟɧɶɲɚɬɶɫɨɤɪɚɳɚɬɶ 1.4c
deep [dJp] a 1. ɝɥɭɛɨɤɢɣ 2. ɲɢɪɨɤɢɣɢɦɟɸɳɢɣɛɨɥɶɲɭɸɬɨɥɳɢɧɭadv ɝɥɭ
ɛɨɤɨɜɝɥɭɛɢɧɟdeeply adv ɝɥɭɛɨɤɨ1.6a
define [dI'faIn] v 1. ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɬɶɞɚɜɚɬɶɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɟɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɡɨɜɚɬɶɨɩɪɟ
ɞɟɥɹɬɶɭɫɬɚɧɚɜɥɢɜɚɬɶ 3. ɨɱɟɪɱɢɜɚɬɶɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɢɜɚɬɶɭɫɬɚɧɚɜɥɢɜɚɬɶɝɪɚɧɢɰɵ 1.1b
definition ["defI'nISqn] n ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɟɬɨɥɤɨɜɚɧɢɟɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɟɝɪɚɧɢɰa
degree [dI'grJ@ɫɬɟɩɟɧɶɭɪɨɜɟɧɶɦɚɫɲɬɚɛ ɦɟɪɚɝɪɚɞɭɫ1.4b
deliberate [dI'lIbqrIt] a ɧɚɦɟɪɟɧɧɵɣ ɨɛɞɭɦɚɧɧɵɣ deliberately adv ɫɨɡɧɚ
ɬɟɥɶɧɨɭɦɵɲɥɟɧɧɨa
delight [dI'laIt] n ɜɨɫɬɨɪɝɜɨɫɯɢɳɟɧɢɟɧɚɫɥɚɠɞɟɧɢɟɢɫɬɨɱɧɢɤɧɚɫɥɚɠɞɟɧɢɹ
v ɪɚɞɨɜɚɬɶɜɨɫɯɢɳɚɬɶdelightfully adv ɜɨɫɯɢɬɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɨɱɚɪɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɱɚɪɭ
ɸɳɟa
demand [dI'mRnd] n ɬɪɟɛɨɜɚɧɢɟɫɩɪɨɫɩɨɬɪɟɛɧɨɫɬɶv ɬɪɟɛɨɜɚɬɶɩɪɟɞɴɹɜ
ɥɹɬɶɬɪɟɛɨɜɚɧɢɟdemanding ɬɪɭɞɧɵɣa
demolition ["demq'lISqn] n ɫɧɨɫɪɚɡɪɭɲɟɧɢɟdemolish [dI'mPlIS] v ɫɧɨɫɢɬɶ
ɪɚɡɪɭɲɚɬɶ 2.12c
dense [dens] a ɝɭɫɬɨɣɩɥɨɬɧɵɣɤɨɦɩɚɤɬɧɵɣdensely adv ɝɭɫɬɨɩɥɨɬɧɨ
densely populated ɝɭɫɬɨɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɧɵɣ.8c
density ['densItI] n ɩɥɨɬɧɨɫɬɶɤɨɧɰɟɧɬɪɚɰɢɹ2.4b
deny [dI'naI] v ɨɬɪɢɰɚɬɶɨɬɜɟɪɝɚɬɶɧɟɞɚɜɚɬɶa
department [dI'pRtmqnt] n ɨɬɞɟɥɟɧɢɟɛɨɥɶɧɢɰɵɞɟɩɚɪɬɚɦɟɧɬɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ
department store ɭɧɢɜɟɪɦɚɝa
depend [dI'pend] v ɡɚɜɢɫɟɬɶɨɛɭɫɥɨɜɥɢɜɚɬɶɫɹɨɫɧɨɜɵɜɚɬɶɫɹɩɨɥɚ
ɝɚɬɶɫɹa
dependent [dI'pendqnt] a ɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɵɣɡɚɜɢɫɹɳɢɣɨɛɭɫɥɨɜɥɟɧɧɵɣ2.5a
derive [dI'raIv] v 1. ɭɫɬɚɧɚɜɥɢɜɚɬɶɩɪɨɢɫɯɨɞɢɬɶɜɟɫɬɢɫɜɨɺɩɪɨɢɫɯɨɠɞɟɧɢɟ
ɧɚɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɶɩɨɥɭɱɚɬɶɡɚɢɦɫɬɜɨɜɚɬɶɢɡɜɥɟɤɚɬɶ 1.1b
descend [dI'send] v ɫɩɭɫɤɚɬɶɫɹɨɩɭɫɤɚɬɶɫɹɩɨɧɢɠɚɬɶɫɹɨɦɟɫɬɧɨɫɬɢ) 3.1a
describe [dI'skraIb] v ɨɩɢɫɵɜɚɬɶɢɡɨɛɪɚɠɚɬɶɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɡɨɜɚɬɶb
description [dI'skrIpSqn] n ɨɩɢɫɚɧɢɟb
design [dI'zaIn] n ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɹɩɥɚɧɡɚɦɵɫɟɥɩɪɨɟɤɬɩɪɨɟɤɬɧɨɟɪɟɲɟ
ɧɢɟɱɟɪɬɺɠɷɫɤɢɡɩɪɨɟɤɬɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟɞɢɡɚɣɧɜɧɟɲɧɢɣɜɢɞɢɫɩɨɥɧɟɧɢɟ
v ɩɪɨɟɤɬɢɪɨɜɚɬɶɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɢɪɨɜɚɬɶɢɫɩɨɥɧɹɬɶɜɵɩɨɥɧɹɬɶa
designate ['dezIgneIt] v ɤɜɚɥɢɮɢɰɢɪɨɜɚɬɶɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɡɨɜɚɬɶɩɪɟɞɧɚɡɧɚ
ɱɚɬɶc
designer [dI'zaInq] n ɩɪɨɟɤɬɢɪɨɜɳɢɤɪɚɡɪɚɛɨɬɱɢɤɞɢɡɚɣɧɟɪ8c
desire [dI'zaIq] n ɠɟɥɚɧɢɟɦɟɱɬɚɫɬɪɟɦɥɟɧɢɟɩɨɠɟɥɚɧɢɟ v ɠɟɥɚɬɶɯɨɬɟɬɶ
ɬɪɟɛɨɜɚɬɶ2.6a
despite [dI'spaIt] prep ɧɟɫɦɨɬɪɹɧɚɜɨɩɪɟɤɢb
destination ["destI'neISqn] n ɦɟɫɬɨɩɭɧɤɬɧɚɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɹɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɟb
destroy [dI'strOI] v ɪɚɡɪɭɲɚɬɶɭɧɢɱɬɨɠɚɬɶb
detached [dI'txCt] a ɨɬɞɟɥɶɧɵɣɨɛɨɫɨɛɥɟɧɧɵɣdetached house ɨɬɞɟɥɶɧɵɣ
ɞɨɦɧɚɨɞɧɭɫɟɦɶɸɨɫɨɛɧɹɤ2.5b
261
detail ['dJteIl] n ɞɟɬɚɥɶɩɨɞɪɨɛɧɨɫɬɶɱɚɫɬɶɷɥɟɦɟɧɬdetailing ɞɟɬɚɥɢɡɚ
ɰɢɹɞɟɬɚɥɢɪɨɜɤɚa, 4.9a) 1.1a
determine [dI'tWmIn] n ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɬɶɞɟɬɟɪɦɢɧɢɪɨɜɚɬɶɨɛɭɫɥɨɜɥɢɜɚɬɶ
ɭɫɬɚɧɚɜɥɢɜɚɬɶa
develop [dI'velqp] v ɪɚɡɜɢɜɚɬɶɫɹɫɨɜɟɪɲɟɧɫɬɜɨɜɚɬɶɫɹɫɨɡɞɚɜɚɬɶɪɚɡ
ɪɚɛɚɬɵɜɚɬɶɢɡɥɚɝɚɬɶɪɚɫɤɪɵɜɚɬɶɡɚɫɬɪɚɢɜɚɬɶɪɚɡɪɚɛɚɬɵɜɚɬɶɪɚɫɬɢ
ɪɚɫɲɢɪɹɬɶɫɹɩɪɟɜɪɚɳɚɬɶɫɹ 1.1a
development [dI'velqpmqnt] n ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɟɪɨɫɬɫɨɜɟɪɲɟɧɫɬɜɨɜɚɧɢɟ
3. cɬɪɨɢɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɨcɬɪɨɣɤɚɡɚɫɬɪɨɣɤɚɨɫɜɨɟɧɢɟɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢɩɪɨɟɤɬɡɚ
ɫɬɪɨɣɤɢpl ɫɨɛɵɬɢɹɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɟɫɨɛɵɬɢɣɨɛɫɬɨɹɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɚpl ɞɨɫɬɢɠɟɧɢɹ1.1a
device [dI'vaIs] n ɭɫɬɪɨɣɫɬɜɨɩɪɢɫɩɨɫɨɛɥɟɧɢɟɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɤɨɦɩɨɧɟɧɬ
ɷɥɟɦɟɧɬ1.5b
devise [dI'vaIz] v ɩɪɢɞɭɦɵɜɚɬɶɡɚɞɭɦɵɜɚɬɶɪɚɡɪɚɛɚɬɵɜɚɬɶb
devote [dI'vqVt] v ɩɨɫɜɹɳɚɬɶɨɬɜɨɞɢɬɶc
diagonal [daI'xgqnql] n ɞɢɚɝɨɧɚɥɶɪɚɫɤɨɫ a ɞɢɚɝɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɣɧɚɤɥɨɧɧɵɣ diagonally adv ɞɢɚɝɨɧɚɥɶɧɨb
diameter [daI'xmItq] n ɞɢɚɦɟɬɪa
diamond ['daIqmqnd] n ɚɥɦɚɡ a ɪɨɦɛɨɜɢɞɧɵɣcut-diamond ɨɝɪɚɧɺɧɧɵɣɚɥ
ɦɚɡ diamond pattern ɪɨɦɛɢɱɟɫɤɢɣɪɢɫɭɧɨɤ diamond-polished ɨɬɲɥɢɮɨɜɚɧ
ɧɵɟɚɥɦɚɡɧɵɦɢɧɫɬɪɭɦɟɧɬɨɦa
difference ['dIfqrqns] n ɪɚɡɥɢɱɢɟɨɬɥɢɱɢɟ v ɪɚɡɥɢɱɚɬɶɫɹɨɬɥɢɱɚɬɶɫɹɫ
different ['dIfqrqnt] a ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɣɪɚɡɧɵɣɢɧɨɣɞɪɭɝɨɣɨɬɥɢɱɧɵɣ ɨɬ
ɧɟɬɚɤɨɣɤɚɤdifferently adv ɢɧɚɱɟɩɨ-ɞɪɭɝɨɦɭ 1.1b
dignify ['dIgnIfaI] v ɨɛɥɚɝɨɪɨɞɢɬɶɩɪɢɞɚɬɶɞɨɫɬɨɢɧɫɬɜɨc
dimension [daI'menSqn] n ɪɚɡɦɟɪɢɡɦɟɪɟɧɢɟɚɫɩɟɤɬdimensioned adv
ɪɚɫɫɱɢɬɚɧɧɵɣɩɨɪɚɡɦɟɪɭa
dimensional [daI'menSqnql/ dI'menSqnql] a ɪɚɡɦɟɪɧɵɣthree-dimensional
ɬɪɺɯɦɟɪɧɵɣ2.4c
diminish [dI'mInIS] v ɭɦɟɧɶɲɚɬɶɨɫɥɚɛɥɹɬɶɭɛɚɜɥɹɬɶɫɨɤɪɚɳɚɬɶb
dining ['daInIN] n ɩɢɬɚɧɢɟɩɪɢɺɦɩɢɳɢdining area ɡɨɧɚɩɢɬɚɧɢɹ dining facility ɫɬɨɥɨɜɚɹɭɱɪɟɠɞɟɧɢɟɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨɩɢɬɚɧɢɹdining room ɫɬɨɥɨɜɚɹa
direct [dI'rekt] a ɩɪɹɦɨɣɹɫɧɵɣɧɟɞɜɭɫɦɵɫɥɟɧɧɵɣɨɱɟɜɢɞɧɵɣɹɜɧɵɣ
directly adv ɩɪɹɦɨɧɟɩɨɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɫɪɚɡɭɧɟɦɟɞɥɟɧɧɨa
direction [dI'rekSqn] n ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɟɨɛɥɚɫɬɶɫɬɨɪɨɧɚdirectional a
ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɧɵɣɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɹɸɳɢɣɨɪɢɟɧɬɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɣcircumferential direction
[sq"kAmfq'renSql dI'rekSqn@ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɟɜɞɨɥɶɨɤɪɭɠɧɨɫɬɢgive directions
ɨɛɴɹɫɧɢɬɶɪɚɫɫɤɚɡɚɬɶɤɚɤɩɪɨɣɬɢb
directional [dI'rekSqnql (daI)] a ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɧɵɣF
disappear ["dIsq'pIq] v ɢɫɱɟɡɚɬɶɫɤɪɵɜɚɬɶɫɹc
discipline ['dIsIplIn] n ɩɨɪɹɞɨɤɨɬɪɚɫɥɶɡɧɚɧɢɣɞɢɫɰɢɩɥɢɧɚ2.5a
discover [dIs'kAvq] v ɧɚɯɨɞɢɬɶɜɵɹɫɧɹɬɶɭɡɧɚɜɚɬɶb
discreet [dIs'krJt] a ɨɫɬɨɪɨɠɧɵɣɨɫɦɨɬɪɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣɫɤɪɨɦɧɵɣɫɤɪɵɬɵɣ
discreetly adv ɫɤɪɨɦɧɨɧɟɛɪɨɫɚɹɫɶɜɝɥɚɡɚb
262
discrete [ddI'skrJt] a ɨɬɞɟɥɶɧɵɣɪɚɡɞɟɥɶɧɵɣa
disparate ['dIspqrqt] a ɧɟɫɨɩɨɫɬɚɜɢɦɵɣɪɚɡɪɨɡɧɟɧɧɵɣɧɟɫɨɜɦɟɫɬɢɦɵɣ2.5a
displace [dIs'pleIs] v 1. ɜɵɬɟɫɧɹɬɶ ɡɚɦɟɧɹɬɶ 2. ɩɟɪɟɦɟɳɚɬɶɩɟɪɟɧɨɫɢɬɶ 1.11b
display [dI'spleI] n ɩɨɤɚɡɞɟɦɨɧɫɬɪɚɰɢɹɢɡɨɛɪɚɠɟɧɢɟɜɵɫɬɚɜɤɚv 1.
ɩɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɬɶɞɟɦɨɧɫɬɪɢɪɨɜɚɬɶɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɢɜɚɬɶɩɪɨɹɜɥɹɬɶɜɵɫɬɚɜɥɹɬɶa
dissolve [dI'zPlv] v ɪɚɫɬɜɨɪɹɬɶɫɹɪɚɫɫɟɢɜɚɬɶɫɹɩɟɪɟɥɢɜɚɬɶɫɹb
distance ['dIstqns] n 1. ɪɚɫɫɬɨɹɧɢɟ 2. ɞɚɥɶɨɬɞɚɥɟɧɢɟɞɢɫɬɚɧɰɢɹ1.4c
distinct [dI'stINkt] a 1. ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɣɪɚɡɧɵɣ 2. ɨɬɥɢɱɧɵɣɨɬɥɢɱɚɸɳɢɣɫɹɧɟ
ɫɯɨɠɢɣɧɟɩɨɯɨɠɢɣɹɫɧɵɣɹɜɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣɨɬɱɺɬɥɢɜɵɣas distinct from ɜɨɬ
ɥɢɱɢɟɨɬdistinctly adv ɹɫɧɨɧɟɞɜɭɫɦɵɫɥɟɧɧɨɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɺɧɧɨɧɟɫɨɦɧɟɧɧɨ 1.9a
distinction [dI'stINkSqn] n 1. ɨɬɥɢɱɢɟɪɚɡɥɢɱɢɟ 2. ɨɬɥɢɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣɩɪɢɡɧɚɤ
ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ 1.8a
distinctive [dI'stINktIv] a ɨɬɥɢɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɧɵɣɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɵɣ2.4a
distinguish [dI'stINgwIS] v ɨɬɥɢɱɚɬɶɪɚɡɥɢɱɚɬɶ 2. ɨɬɥɢɱɚɬɶɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɡɨ
ɜɚɬɶ 3. ɨɬɞɟɥɹɬɶɪɚɡɞɟɥɹɬɶɨɛɨɫɨɛɥɹɬɶ 1.9a
distribution ["dIstrI'bjHSqn] n ɪɚɡɦɟɳɟɧɢɟɪɚɫɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɟɪɚɫɩɪɟɞɟɥɟ
ɧɢɟɪɚɫɫɪɟɞɨɬɨɱɟɧɢɟa
district ['dIstrIkt] n ɪɚɣɨɧɨɤɪɭɝɭɱɚɫɬɨɤuptown district ["Ap'taVn
'dIstrIkt@ɭɞɚɥɺɧɧɵɣɨɬɰɟɧɬɪɚɠɢɥɨɣɪɚɣɨɧɝɨɪɨɞɚ2.4a
divide [dI'vaId] v ɞɟɥɢɬɶɫɹɪɚɡɞɟɥɹɬɶɫɹɩɨɞɪɚɡɞɟɥɹɬɶɨɬɞɟɥɹɬɶɫɹ 1.4c
division [dI'vIZqn] n ɫɟɤɰɢɹɱɚɫɬɶɝɪɚɧɢɰɚɛɚɪɶɟɪa
dome [dqVm] n ɤɭɩɨɥɫɜɨɞdomed a ɤɭɩɨɥɨɨɛɪɚɡɧɵɣɭɤɪɚɲɟɧɧɵɣɤɭɩɨɥɨɦa
domical ['dqVmIkql] a ɤɭɩɨɥɶɧɵɣɫɤɭɩɨɥɚɦɢa
dominant ['dPmInqnt] a 1. ɝɨɫɩɨɞɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɣɨɫɧɨɜɧɨɣɩɪɟɨɛɥɚɞɚɸɳɢɣ
2. ɞɨɦɢɧɢɪɭɸɳɢɣɨɫɧɨɜɧɨɣ 1.8a
dominate ['dPmIneIt] v ɞɨɦɢɧɢɪɨɜɚɬɶɩɪɟɨɛɥɚɞɚɬɶɝɥɚɜɟɧɫɬɜɨɜɚɬɶɢɦɟɬɶ
ɩɪɟɨɛɥɚɞɚɸɳɟɟɜɥɢɹɧɢɟ 1.8a
Doric (order) ['PrIk] a ɞɨɪɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ (ɨɪɞɟɪ) 1.4c
double ['dAbql] v ɭɞɜɚɢɜɚɬɶɫɹɭɜɟɥɢɱɢɜɚɬɶɜɞɜɨɟa ɞɜɨɣɧɨɣɜɞɜɨɟɛɨɥɶ
ɲɢɣɭɞɜɨɟɧɧɵɣɫɞɜɨɟɧɧɵɣ 1.5b
downtown ["daVn'taVn] n ɰɟɧɬɪɝɨɪɨɞɚɞɟɥɨɜɚɹɱɚɫɬɶɝɨɪɨɞɚ2.6a
drama ['drRmq] n ɷɮɮɟɤɬɧɟɱɬɨɛɪɨɫɤɨɟɷɮɮɟɤɬɧɨɟb
dramatic [drq'mxtIk] a ɪɟɡɤɢɣɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣɷɮɮɟɤɬɧɵɣb
dramatically [drq'mxtIkqlI] adv ɪɚɡɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɪɟɡɤɨb
draught [drRft] n 1. ɫɤɜɨɡɧɹɤ2. ɬɹɝɚɜɨɡɞɭɯɚ; downdraught ['daVndrRft] n
ɧɢɫɯɨɞɹɳɢɣɩɨɬɨɤɜɨɡɞɭɯɚa
draw [drL] v ɬɹɧɭɬɶɡɚɬɹɝɢɜɚɬɶ draw back ɱɟɪɩɚɬɶɜɞɨɯɧɨɜɟɧɢɟ); draw
from ɢɡɜɥɟɤɚɬɶɭɪɨɤɢɡɢɫɯɨɞɢɬɶɢɡdrawn out ɜɵɬɹɝɢɜɚɬɶ ɜɵɜɨɞɢɬɶ draw
up ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɬɶɧɚɛɪɚɫɵɜɚɬɶɩɪɨɟɤɬdrawing board ['drLIN"bLd@ɱɟɪɬɺɠɧɚɹ
ɞɨɫɤɚ2.6b
dressing room ['dresINrHm@ɬɭɚɥɟɬɧɚɹɤɨɦɧɚɬɚɝɚɪɞɟɪɨɛɧɚɹ3.8b
drive [draIv] n 1. ɩɨɞɴɟɡɞɧɚɹɞɨɪɨɝɚɚɥɥɟɹɷɧɟɪɝɢɱɧɵɟɭɫɢɥɢɹɤɚɦɩɚɧɢɹ
ɬɟɧɞɟɧɰɢɹ v ɟɡɞɢɬɶɟɯɚɬɶdrive away ɨɬɝɨɧɹɬɶɩɪɨɝɨɧɹɬɶa
263
drop [drPp] v ɨɩɭɫɤɚɬɶɩɚɞɚɬɶɨɩɭɫɤɚɬɶɫɹɫɧɢɠɚɬɶɫɹɩɨɧɢɠɚɬɶɫɹ
drop-off ɩɥɨɳɚɞɤɚɞɥɹɜɵɫɚɞɤɢɩɚɫɫɚɠɢɪɨɜ 1.4c
drop-off ['drPp'Pf] n ɜɵɫɚɞɤɚɩɚɫɫɚɠɢɪɨɜɬɚɤɫɢ) 4.4b
drum [drAm] n 1. ɛɚɪɚɛɚɧɤɭɩɨɥɚ 2. ɰɢɥɢɧɞɪɢɱɟɫɤɢɣɛɥɨɤ 1.8a
due [djH] a ɞɨɥɠɧɵɣɨɠɢɞɚɟɦɵɣdue to ['djHtH] prep ɛɥɚɝɨɞɚɪɹɢɡ-ɡɚ
ɜɫɥɟɞɫɬɜɢɟ2.6b
during ['djHqrIN] prep ɜɬɟɱɟɧɢɟɜɨɜɪɟɦɹɜɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɟ1.1a
dweller ['dwelq] n ɠɢɬɟɥɶɨɛɢɬɚɬɟɥɶ2.6a
dwelling ['dwelIN] n ɠɢɥɢɳɟ, ɠɢɥɨɣ ɞɨɦ 2.7a
dynamic [daI'nxmIk] a 1. ɞɢɧɚɦɢɱɧɵɣ 2. ɮɭɧɤɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɣ; dynamics
[daI'nxmIks] n ɞɢɧɚɦɢɤɚ 1.8c
each [JC] a ɤɚɠɞɵɣ; pron ɤɚɠɞɵɣ, ɥɸɛɨɣ; each other ɞɪɭɝ ɞɪɭɝɚ 1.1b
early ['WlI] a ɪɚɧɧɢɣɩɪɟɞɵɞɭɳɢɣ ɞɪɟɜɧɢɣ ɧɚɱɚɥɶɧɵɣadv ɪɚɧɨ 1.2a
earth [WT] n ɡɟɦɥɹ, ɝɪɭɧɬ 3.5a
easy ['JzI] a ɥɺɝɤɢɣɧɟɬɪɭɞɧɵɣɩɪɢɹɬɧɵɣeasily adv ɥɟɝɤɨɫɜɨɛɨɞɧɨ2.4a
echo ['ekqV] v ɩɨɜɬɨɪɹɬɶɫɹɩɨɞɪɚɠɚɬɶb
economic ["ekq'nPmIk] a ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɣɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣ2.1a
edge [eG] n ɤɪɚɣɪɟɛɪɨɝɪɚɧɶɝɪɚɧɢɰɚ v ɨɤɚɣɦɥɹɬɶɨɛɪɚɦɥɹɬɶb
edifice ['edIfIs] n ɜɟɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɟ ɦɨɧɭɦɟɧɬɚɥɶɧɨɟɡɞɚɧɢɟɫɨɨɪɭɠɟɧɢɟb
effect [I'fekt] n ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟɜɥɢɹɧɢɟɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɫɥɟɞɫɬɜɢɟ
ɷɮɮɟɤɬɜɩɟɱɚɬɥɟɧɢɟɰɟɥɶɫɦɵɫɥɫɭɳɧɨɫɬɶv ɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɥɹɬɶɫɨɜɟɪ
ɲɚɬɶɜɥɢɹɬɶin effect adv ɜɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢɜɫɭɳɧɨɫɬɢa
effective [I'fektIv] a ɞɟɣɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɢɜɧɵɣɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɵɣb
effectiveness [I'fektIvnIs] n ɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɶɞɟɣɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɫɬɶɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɶ 1.4c
efficient [I'fISqnt] a ɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɵɣɞɟɣɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣɤɜɚɥɢɮɢɰɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɣ
ɭɦɟɥɵɣɪɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɣefficiently adv ɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɭɫɩɟɲɧɨ ɨɩɟɪɚɬɢɜɧɨ8c
effort ['efqt] n ɭɫɢɥɢɟɩɨɩɵɬɤɚb
Egyptian [I'GIpSqn] a ɟɝɢɩɟɬɫɤɢɣn ɟɝɢɩɬɹɧɢɧ1.1a
either ['aIDq] a ɢɬɨɬɢɞɪɭɝɨɣɨɛɚ in either case ɜɨɛɨɢɯɫɥɭɱɚɹɯɬɚɤɢɥɢ
ɢɧɚɱɟeither ... or... cj ɢɥɢɢɥɢ 1.2a
elaborate [I'lxbqrIt] a ɬɳɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɞɟɬɚɥɶɧɨɪɚɡɪɚɛɨɬɚɧɧɵɣɩɪɨɞɭɦɚɧ
ɧɵɣ>I'lxbqreIt] v ɞɟɬɚɥɶɧɨɬɳɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɪɚɡɪɚɛɚɬɵɜɚɬɶa
elegance ['elIgqns] n ɢɡɹɳɟɫɬɜɨɢɡɵɫɤɚɧɧɨɫɬɶɭɬɨɧɱɺɧɧɨɫɬɶb
element ['elImqnt] n 1. ɷɥɟɦɟɧɬɤɨɦɩɨɧɟɧɬɫɨɫɬɚɜɧɚɹɱɚɫɬɶɞɟɬɚɥɶ 2. pl ɚɬ
ɦɨɫɮɟɪɧɵɟɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɟɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɧɟɩɨɝɨɞɚ1.4a
elevate ['elIveIt] v ɩɨɞɧɢɦɚɬɶɫɹɩɨɜɵɲɚɬɶɫɹɜɨɡɜɵɲɚɬɶɫɹelevated a
1. ɩɨɞɧɹɬɵɣɩɪɢɩɨɞɧɹɬɵɣɛɥɚɝɨɪɨɞɧɵɣ ɜɟɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣelevated floor
ɮɚɥɶɲɩɨɥelevated road ɞɨɪɨɝɚɧɚɷɫɬɚɤɚɞɟɩɭɬɟɩɪɨɜɨɞb
elevation ["elI'veISqn] n 1. ɮɚɫɚɞ 2. ɜɵɫɨɬɚ 3.2a
elevator ['elIveItq] n ɥɢɮɬɩɨɞɴɺɦɧɢɤD
else [els] a ɞɪɭɝɨɣ; adv ɟɳɺ, ɤɪɨɦɟ 2.4a
elsewhere [els'weq] adv ɝɞɟ-ɬɨɜɞɪɭɝɨɦɦɟɫɬɟa
embellish [Im'belIS] v ɭɤɪɚɲɚɬɶɪɚɡɭɤɪɚɲɢɜɚɬɶ ɚ
embellishment [Im'belISmqnt] n ɭɤɪɚɲɟɧɢɟ1.1a
embrace [Im'breIs] v ɨɤɪɭɠɚɬɶɨɯɜɚɬɢɬɶɨɛɧɢɦɚɬɶa
emergency [I'mWGqnsI] a ɚɜɚɪɢɣɧɵɣɷɤɫɬɪɟɧɧɵɣɡɚɩɚɫɧɨɣemergency admission [I'mWGqnsI qd'mISqn] ɷɤɫɬɪɟɧɧɚɹɝɨɫɩɢɬɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɹa
emphasise (AmE emphasize) ['emfqsaIz] v 1. ɩɨɞɱɟɪɤɢɜɚɬɶ ɜɵɞɟɥɹɬɶ ɨɫɨɛɨ
ɨɬɦɟɱɚɬɶɩɪɢɞɚɜɚɬɶɜɵɪɚɡɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɶ2.5b
employ [Im'plOI] v ɭɩɨɬɪɟɛɥɹɬɶɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɬɶɩɪɢɦɟɧɹɬɶɧɚɧɢɦɚɬɶɞɟɪ
ɠɚɬɶɧɚɫɥɭɠɛɟa
employment [Im'plOImqnt] n ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɟɩɪɢɦɟɧɟɧɢɟ 1.4c
empty ['emptI] a ɩɭɫɬɨɣɧɟɡɚɧɹɬɵɣb
encircle [In'sWkql] v ɨɤɪɭɠɚɬɶɨɯɜɚɬɵɜɚɬɶɨɩɨɹɫɵɜɚɬɶ 1.4b
enclave ['enkleIv] n ɚɧɤɥɚɜ2.6a
enclose [In'klqVz] v ɨɤɪɭɠɚɬɶɨɝɨɪɚɠɢɜɚɬɶɨɤɚɣɦɥɹɬɶenclosed a ɡɚɤɪɵɬɵɣ
ɡɚɦɤɧɭɬɵɣɨɝɨɪɨɠɟɧɧɵɣb
enclosure [In'klqVZq] n ɨɝɪɚɠɞɚɸɳɢɟɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɢɡɞɚɧɢɹɫɢɫɬɟɦɚɫɬɟɧ
ɩɟɪɟɝɨɪɨɞɨɤɢɩɟɪɟɤɪɵɬɢɣɨɝɨɪɨɠɟɧɧɨɟɦɟɫɬɨɡɚɤɪɵɬɨɟɫɨɨɪɭɠɟɧɢɟ
ɨɝɪɚɠɞɟɧɢɟɡɞɚɧɢɹɜɨɤɪɭɝɞɜɨɪɚb
encounter [In'kaVntq] n (ɫɥɭɱɚɣɧɚɹɜɫɬɪɟɱɚ v ɜɫɬɪɟɬɢɬɶɫɹɫɬɚɥɤɢɜɚɬɶɫɹa
encourage [In'kArIG] v ɩɨɨɳɪɹɬɶɩɨɞɞɟɪɠɢɜɚɬɶɫɩɨɫɨɛɫɬɜɨɜɚɬɶb
end [end] n ɤɨɧɟɰɨɤɨɧɱɚɧɢɟɤɪɚɣ ɫɬɨɪɨɧɚɬɨɪɟɰɰɟɥɶɡɚɞɚɱɚv
ɤɨɧɱɚɬɶɫɹɡɚɤɚɧɱɢɜɚɬɶɫɹend wall ɬɨɪɰɟɜɚɹɫɬɟɧɚb
endow [In'daV] v ɞɚɜɚɬɶɩɪɟɞɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɬɶɧɚɞɟɥɹɬɶa
energy ['enqGI] n ɷɧɟɪɝɢɹɷɥɟɤɬɪɨɷɧɟɪɝɢɹɷɧɟɪɝɨɪɟɫɭɪɫɵa ɷɧɟɪɝɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɣb
enfilade ['enfIleId] n ɚɧɮɢɥɚɞɚ (ɤɨɦɧɚɬ) 3.10a
engage [In'geIG] v 1. ɡɚɧɢɦɚɬɶ 2. ɜɤɥɸɱɚɬɶ, ɫɨɟɞɢɧɹɬɶ; engaged column ɩɨ
ɥɭɤɨɥɨɧɧɚ, ɩɢɥɹɫɬɪ 1.6a
engineer ["enGI'nIq] n ɢɧɠɟɧɟɪɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɬɨɪv ɫɨɡɞɚɜɚɬɶɩɪɨɟɤɬɢɪɨɜɚɬɶa
engineering ["enGI'nIqrIN] n ɬɟɯɧɢɤɚɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɹɫɬɪɨɢɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɨ 1.5a
enhance [In'hRns] v ɩɨɜɵɲɚɬɶɭɜɟɥɢɱɢɜɚɬɶɭɫɢɥɢɜɚɬɶ2.1b
enjoy [In'GOI] v ɨɛɥɚɞɚɬɶɢɦɟɬɶɧɚɫɥɚɠɞɚɬɶɫɹɩɨɥɭɱɚɬɶɭɞɨɜɨɥɶɫɬɜɢɟb
enough [I'nAf] a ɞɨɫɬɚɬɨɱɧɵɣɞɨɫɬɚɬɨɱɧɨɯɜɚɬɚɟɬadv ɞɨɫɬɚɬɨɱɧɨɞɨɜɨɥɶɧɨ8c
enrich [In'rIC] v ɭɤɪɚɲɚɬɶɨɬɞɟɥɵɜɚɬɶɨɛɨɝɚɳɚɬɶɪɚɫɲɢɪɹɬɶɭɥɭɱɲɚɬɶa
ensure [In'SVq] v ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɢɜɚɬɶɝɚɪɚɧɬɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ2.6b
enter ['entq] v ɜɯɨɞɢɬɶɜɜɴɟɡɠɚɬɶɜɩɪɨɧɢɤɚɬɶɩɨɫɬɭɩɚɬɶɩɪɨɯɨɞɢɬɶ
(ɜɧɭɬɪɶ) 1.6b
entertain ["entq'teIn] v 1. ɪɚɡɜɥɟɤɚɬɶɩɪɢɞɟɪɠɢɜɚɬɶɫɹɢɞɟɢ) 1.3b
entertainment ["entq'teInmqnt] n ɪɚɡɜɥɟɱɟɧɢɟɭɜɟɫɟɥɟɧɢɟD
entire [In'taIq] a ɩɨɥɧɵɣɰɟɥɵɣɜɟɫɶentirely adv ɩɨɥɧɨɫɬɶɸɜɫɟɰɟɥɨɫɨ
ɜɟɪɲɟɧɧɨ 1.4a
entrance ['entrqns] n ɜɯɨɞɜɴɟɡɞɜɯɨɞɧɚɹɞɜɟɪɶɜɴɟɡɞɧɵɟɜɨɪɨɬɚmain
entrance ɩɚɪɚɞɧɵɣɩɨɞɴɟɡɞɝɥɚɜɧɵɣɜɯɨɞentrance lobby ɜɟɫɬɢɛɸɥɶ 1.4c
264
265
entry ['entrI] n ɜɯɨɞɜɴɟɡɞentry hall ɮɨɣɟɜɟɫɬɢɛɸɥɶentry lobby ɜɟɫɬɢ
ɛɸɥɶɯɨɥɥɮɨɣɟ 2.2b
entryway ['entrIweI] n ɜɯɨɞb
envelope ['envqlqVp] n (ɧɚɪɭɠɧɚɹɨɛɨɥɨɱɤɚɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɢɜɚɸɳɚɹɩɨɜɟɪɯɧɨɫɬɶ
(ɡɞɚɧɢɹ) 3.3a
environment [In'vaIrqnmqnt] n ɨɤɪɭɠɚɸɳɚɹɫɪɟɞɚɫɪɟɞɚɨɛɢɬɚɧɢɹɫɪɟɞɚ
ɨɤɪɭɠɚɸɳɢɟɭɫɥɨɜɢɹbuilt environment ɚɧɬɪɨɩɨɝɟɧɧɚɹɩɪɟɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɧɧɚɹɱɟ
ɥɨɜɟɤɨɦɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɟɧɧɚɹɫɪɟɞɚphysical environment ɮɢɡɢɱɟɫɤɚɹɫɪɟɞɚenvironmental [In"vaIrqn'mentl] a ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɣɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɧɵɣɨɬɧɨɫɹɳɢɣɫɹ
ɤɨɤɪɭɠɚɸɳɟɣɫɪɟɞɟenvironmental comfort ɤɨɦɮɨɪɬɧɨɫɬɶɫɪɟɞɵɨɛɢɬɚɧɢɹ
environmentally adv ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢ 2.1a
epoxy [I'pPksI] n ɷɩɨɤɫɢɞɧɚɹɫɦɨɥɚb
equal ['Jkwql] n ɪɚɜɧɵɣɪɨɜɧɹadv ɜɪɚɜɧɨɣɫɬɟɩɟɧɢɪɚɜɧɵɦɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ
equality [I'kwPlItI] n ɪɚɜɟɧɫɬɜɨ ɪɚɜɧɨɩɪɚɜɢɟ 1.5b
equipment [I'kwIpmqnt] n ɨɛɨɪɭɞɨɜɚɧɢɟɚɩɩɚɪɚɬɭɪɚɚɩɩɚɪɚɬɭɪɚɭɦ
ɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣɛɚɝɚɠ2.6b
era ['Iqrq] n ɷɪɚɩɟɪɢɨɞɷɩɨɯɚa
erect [I'rekt] v ɫɬɪɨɢɬɶɫɨɨɪɭɠɚɬɶɜɨɡɞɜɢɝɚɬɶa ɩɪɹɦɨɣa
erection [I'rekSqn] n ɫɬɪɨɢɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɨɜɨɡɜɟɞɟɧɢɟɫɨɨɪɭɠɟɧɢɟb
error ['erq] n ɨɲɢɛɤɚɩɨɝɪɟɲɧɨɫɬɶc
escalator ['eskqleItq] n ɷɫɤɚɥɚɬɨɪ 3.9b
especially [I'speSqlI] adv ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɜɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɢa
essential [I'senSql] a ɨɛɹɡɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɣɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɵɣɨɫɧɨɜɧɨɣ essentially adv
ɩɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɭ2.6a
establish [I'stxblIS] v ɫɨɡɞɚɜɚɬɶɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɨɜɵɜɚɬɶɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɢɜɚɬɶɭɫɬɚɧɚɜ
ɥɢɜɚɬɶɜɵɹɫɧɹɬɶɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɬɶ2.1b
establishment [I'stxblISmqnt] n ɭɱɪɟɠɞɟɧɢɟɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɹɡɚɜɟɞɟɧɢɟ.8c
etc. (et cetera) [et'setqrq@ɢɬɚɤɞɚɥɟɟ2.4c
ethnic ['eTnIk] a ɷɬɧɢɱɟɫɤɢɣɧɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɣ2.4b
Europe ['jVqrqp] n ȿɜɪɨɩɚ 1.1a
European ["jVqrq'pJqn] a ɟɜɪɨɩɟɣɫɤɢɣ 1.3a
even ['Jvqn] adv ɞɚɠɟ 1.1a
event [I'vent] n ɫɨɛɵɬɢɟ, ɦɟɪɨɩɪɢɹɬɢɟ 2.10a
evidence ['evIdqns] n ɞɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɨ, ɫɜɢɞɟɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɨ; in evidence ɩɪɢɫɭɬɫɬɜɭ
ɸɳɢɣ, ɡɚɦɟɬɧɵɣ 2.10a
evident ['evIdqnt] a ɨɱɟɜɢɞɧɵɣɹɜɧɵɣɹɫɧɵɣɧɚɝɥɹɞɧɵɣa
evoke [I'vqVk] v ɜɵɡɵɜɚɬɶɩɪɨɛɭɠɞɚɬɶ2.6a
evolve [I'vPlv] v ɪɚɡɜɢɜɚɬɶɪɚɡɜɢɜɚɬɶɫɹɷɜɨɥɸɰɢɨɧɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ 1.1a
exactness [Ig'zxktnqs] n ɚɤɤɭɪɚɬɧɨɫɬɶɬɨɱɧɨɫɬɶ 1.4b
example [Ig'zRmpql] n ɩɪɢɦɟɪ, ɨɛɪɚɡɟɰ 1.3a
exception [Ik'sepSqn] n ɢɫɤɥɸɱɟɧɢɟD
exceptional [Ik'sepSqnql] a ɢɫɤɥɸɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣ, ɧɟɡɚɭɪɹɞɧɵɣ; exceptionally adv
ɢɫɤɥɸɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ, ɤɪɚɣɧɟ 2.10a
266
excessive [Ik'sesIv] a ɱɪɟɡɦɟɪɧɵɣɢɡɥɢɲɧɢɣɩɨɜɵɲɟɧɧɵɣa
exchange [Iks'CeInG] n ɨɛɦɟɧ2.8c
exclusive [Ik'sklHsIv] a ɢɫɤɥɸɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣɢɫɤɥɸɱɚɸɳɢɣexclusively
[Ik'sklHsIvlI] adv ɢɫɤɥɸɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨb
execute ['eksIkjHt] v ɜɵɩɨɥɧɹɬɶɢɫɩɨɥɧɹɬɶb
executive [Ig'zekjVtIv] n ɪɭɤɨɜɨɞɢɬɟɥɶɚɞɦɢɧɢɫɬɪɚɬɨɪ a ɜɵɫɲɟɝɨɤɥɚɫɫɚ
ɩɪɟɞɧɚɡɧɚɱɟɧɧɵɣɞɥɹɪɭɤɨɜɨɞɢɬɟɥɟɣc
exercise ['eksqsaIz] n ɩɪɢɦɟɪ ɩɪɨɹɜɥɟɧɢɟ v ɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɥɹɬɶ ɜɵɩɨɥɧɹɬɶ 3.10b
exhibit [Ig'zIbIt] v ɩɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɬɶɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɢɜɚɬɶɩɪɨɹɜɥɹɬɶ ɜɵɫɬɚɜɥɹɬɶɷɤɫ
ɩɨɧɢɪɨɜɚɬɶɭɱɚɫɬɜɨɜɚɬɶɜɜɵɫɬɚɜɤɟɜɵɫɬɚɜɥɹɬɶɫɹ1.4b
exhibition ["eksI'bISqn] n ɜɵɫɬɚɜɤɚa
exist [Ig'zIst] v ɛɵɬɶɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɨɜɚɬɶɢɦɟɬɶɫɹɜɫɬɪɟɱɚɬɶɫɹɧɚɯɨɞɢɬɶɫɹb
existence [Ig'zIstqns] n ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɨɜɚɧɢɟɧɚɥɢɱɢɟb
expand ['Ik'spxnd] v ɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɹɬɶɫɹɪɚɫɲɢɪɹɬɶɫɹɪɚɡɜɢɜɚɬɶɫɹɪɚɫ
ɬɹɝɢɜɚɬɶɫɹb
expanse [Ik'spxns] n ɩɪɨɫɬɨɪɲɢɪɨɤɨɟɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɨ8c
expansion [Ik'spxnSqn] n ɪɚɫɲɢɪɟɧɢɟɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɢɟɩɪɢɫɬɪɨɣɤɚb
expansive [Ik'spxnsIv] a ɨɛɲɢɪɧɵɣɩɪɨɫɬɨɪɧɵɣɜɫɟɨɛɴɟɦɥɸɳɢɣɲɢɪɨɤɢɣb
expectation ["ekspek'teISqn] n ɨɠɢɞɚɧɢɟ, ɧɚɞɟɠɞɚ 2.6a
experience [Ik'spIqrIqns] n 1. (ɠɢɡɧɟɧɧɵɣɨɩɵɬɜɩɟɱɚɬɥɟɧɢɟɩɟɪɟɠɢɜɚ
ɧɢɟ v ɩɨɱɭɜɫɬɜɨɜɚɬɶɢɫɩɵɬɵɜɚɬɶɢɡɜɟɞɚɬɶ2.4c
explain [Ik'spleIn] v ɨɛɴɹɫɧɹɬɶb
exploit [Ik'splOIt] v ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɬɶ1.8c
expose [Ik'spqVz] v ɜɵɫɬɚɜɥɹɬɶɩɨɞɜɟɪɝɚɬɶɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɸ ɫɨɥɧɰɚɢɬɩɨɛ
ɧɚɠɚɬɶɩɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɬɶexposed a ɨɬɤɪɵɬɵɣɨɛɧɚɠɟɧɧɵɣ exposed concrete ɛɟ
ɬɨɧɫɨɛɧɚɠɟɧɧɵɦɡɚɩɨɥɧɢɬɟɥɟɦ3.5a
express [Ik'spres] v ɨɬɪɚɠɚɬɶɜɵɪɚɠɚɬɶb
expression [Ik'spreSqn] n ɜɵɪɚɠɟɧɢɟɱɟɝɨ-ɥɜɵɪɚɡɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɶɷɤɫɩɪɟɫ
ɫɢɹ8c
extend [Ik'stend] v ɩɪɨɫɬɢɪɚɬɶɫɹɬɹɧɭɬɶɫɹ ɩɪɨɞɨɥɠɚɬɶɫɹɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚ
ɧɹɬɶɫɹ ɪɚɫɲɢɪɹɬɶɭɜɟɥɢɱɢɜɚɬɶa
extension [Ik'stenSqn] n ɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɢɟɪɚɫɲɢɪɟɧɢɟɞɨɩɨɥɧɟɧɢɟɩɪɢ
ɥɨɠɟɧɢɟɩɪɢɫɬɪɨɣɤɚby extension ɜɪɚɫɲɢɪɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɦɫɦɵɫɥɟɟɫɥɢɭɠɧɚ
ɬɨɩɨɲɥɨa
extensive [Ik'stensIv] a ɨɛɲɢɪɧɵɣɛɨɥɶɲɨɣɜɫɟɫɬɨɪɨɧɧɢɣɨɛɢɫɫɥɟɞɨ
ɜɚɧɢɢ) 3.9b
extent [Ik'stent] n ɫɬɟɩɟɧɶɦɟɪɚ ɪɚɡɦɟɪɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɚɩɪɨɬɹɠɟɧɢɟɩɪɨɬɹ
ɠɺɧɧɨɫɬɶto a great extent ɜɛɨɥɶɲɨɣɦɟɪɟɜɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɣɫɬɟɩɟɧɢb
exterior [Ik'stIqrIq] n ɜɧɟɲɧɢɣɧɚɪɭɠɧɵɣɜɢɞɷɤɫɬɟɪɶɟɪɜɧɟɲ
ɧɹɹɧɚɪɭɠɧɚɹɱɚɫɬɶɜɧɟɲɧɹɹɨɛɥɚɫɬɶa ɜɧɟɲɧɢɣɧɚɪɭɠɧɵɣb
external [Ik'stWnql] a ɧɚɪɭɠɧɵɣɜɧɟɲɧɢɣɧɚɯɨɞɹɳɢɣɫɹɜɧɟexternally
adv ɢɡɜɧɟɫɧɚɪɭɠɢ1.1a
extra ['ekstrq] a ɞɨɩɨɥɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣ3.3a
267
extreme [Ik'strJm] a 1. ɤɪɚɣɧɢɣɱɪɟɡɜɵɱɚɣɧɵɣ ɜɵɫɲɢɣɩɪɟɞɟɥɶɧɵɣɷɤɫ
ɬɪɟɦɚɥɶɧɵɣextremely adv ɱɪɟɡɜɵɱɚɣɧɨɤɪɚɣɧɟɜɜɵɫɲɟɣɫɬɟɩɟɧɢɨɱɟɧɶ1.6a
fabric ['fxbrIk] n ɦɚɬɟɪɢɹɬɤɚɧɶɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɬɟɤɫɬɭɪɚɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɚɭɫɬɪɨɣ
ɫɬɜɨfabric-covered ɨɛɬɹɧɭɬɵɣɬɤɚɧɶɸ urban fabric (ɩɥɚɧɢɪɨɜɨɱɧɚɹɫɬɪɭɤ
ɬɭɪɚɝɨɪɨɞɚ a ɬɤɚɧɟɜɵɣɦɚɬɟɪɱɚɬɵɣb
facade/façade [fq'sRd] n ɮɚɫɚɞ; ɝɥɚɜɧɵɣ ɮɚɫɚɞ (facade from 2.5a 34 ) 1.10a
face [feIs] n 1. (ɧɚɪɭɠɧɚɹɥɢɰɟɜɚɹɩɨɜɟɪɯɧɨɫɬɶɮɚɫɚɞv ɫɬɚɥɤɢɜɚɬɶɫɹ
(ɫɱɟɦ-ɬɨɜɵɯɨɞɢɬɶɛɵɬɶɨɛɪɚɳɺɧɧɵɦɤɱɟɦɭ-ɥɨɛɥɢɰɨɜɵɜɚɬɶa
facility [fq'sIlItI] n ɨɛɴɟɤɬɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɚɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɨɨɛɨɪɭɞɨɜɚɧɢɟɡɞɚɧɢɟɫɨ
ɨɪɭɠɟɧɢɟɩɨɦɟɳɟɧɢɟb
fact [fxkt] n ɮɚɤɬɨɛɫɬɨɹɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɶin fact ɜɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɬɟɥɶ
ɧɨɫɬɢɧɚɫɚɦɨɦɞɟɥɟb
factor ['fxktq] n ɮɚɤɬɨɪɫɨɫɬɚɜɧɨɣɷɥɟɦɟɧɬɞɜɢɠɭɳɚɹɫɢɥɚa
fail [feIl] v ɬɟɪɩɟɬɶɧɟɭɞɚɱɭɧɟɜɵɩɨɥɧɹɬɶɫɹɧɟɭɞɚɜɚɬɶɫɹ 1.5a
fairly ['feqlI] adv ɫɩɪɚɜɟɞɥɢɜɨɛɟɫɩɪɢɫɬɪɚɫɬɧɨɞɨɜɨɥɶɧɨɜɟɫɶɦɚa
far [fR] adv ɞɚɥɟɤɨɞɚɜɧɨɝɨɪɚɡɞɨɧɚɦɧɨɝɨa
fashion ['fxSqn] n ɮɨɪɦɚɫɬɢɥɶɦɚɧɟɪɚv ɫɨɡɞɚɜɚɬɶɩɪɢɞɚɜɚɬɶɮɨɪɦɭ1.1a
fast [fRst] a ɛɵɫɬɪɵɣ; adv ɛɵɫɬɪɨ 2.6b
favour ['feIvq] n in favour of ɜɩɨɥɶɡɭ favoured a ɛɥɚɝɨɞɚɬɧɵɣ2.8a
feature ['fJCq] n ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɶɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɧɚɹɱɟɪɬɚɩɪɢɡɧɚɤɫɜɨɣɫɬɜɨɞɟ
ɬɚɥɶɷɥɟɦɟɧɬɩɚɪɚɦɟɬɪv ɛɵɬɶɢɥɢɹɜɥɹɬɶɫɹɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɧɨɣɱɟɪɬɨɣɨɬɥɢ
ɱɚɬɶɨɬɥɢɱɚɬɶɫɹɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɡɨɜɚɬɶɫɹa
Festival Hall ['festIvqlhLl] n ɮɟɫɬɢɜɚɥɶɧɵɣ ɡɚɥ 3.12b
few [fjH] n ɧɟɦɧɨɝɢɟɦɚɥɨɤɬɨɩɨɱɬɢɧɢɤɬɨa ɧɟɦɧɨɝɢɟɧɟɦɧɨɝɨɦɚɥɨ
a few – ɧɟɫɤɨɥɶɤɨa
fiber ['faIbq] ɫɦ fibre 3.11b
fibre (AmE fiber) ['faIbq] n ɜɨɥɨɤɧɨ fiber cement ['faIbq sI"ment@ɮɢɛɪɨɰɟ
ɦɟɧɬfibre glass ɫɬɟɤɥɨɜɨɥɨɤɧɨ glass fibre ɫɬɟɤɥɨɜɨɥɨɤɧɨb
figure ['fIgq] n ɫɬɚɬɭɹɮɢɝɭɪɚɮɨɪɦɚɨɛɪɚɡa
filigree ['fIlIgrJ] a ɮɢɥɢɝɪɚɧɧɵɣ ɚɠɭɪɧɵɣb
fill [fIl] v ɡɚɩɨɥɧɹɬɶɧɚɩɨɥɧɹɬɶɫɹfill in ɡɚɞɟɥɵɜɚɬɶ ɡɚɩɨɥɧɹɬɶ1.6a
film [fIlm] n ɨɛɨɥɨɱɤɚɩɨɤɪɵɬɢɟɮɢɥɶɦɤɢɧɨa
fin [fIn] n ɪɟɛɪɨɩɥɚɫɬɢɧɚɝɪɟɛɟɧɶa
fine [faIn] a ɩɪɟɤɪɚɫɧɵɣɩɪɟɜɨɫɯɨɞɧɵɣɭɬɨɧɱɺɧɧɵɣɢɡɹɳɧɵɣɦɟɥ
ɤɢɣfinely adv 1. ɩɪɟɤɪɚɫɧɨɬɳɚɬɟɥɶɧɨb
finish ['fInIS] n ɨɬɞɟɥɤɚɩɨɜɟɪɯɧɨɫɬɢɩɨɜɟɪɯɧɨɫɬɶɜɟɪɯɧɢɣɨɬɞɟɥɨɱɧɵɣ
ɫɥɨɣɧɚɤɪɵɜɨɱɧɵɣɫɥɨɣɲɬɭɤɚɬɭɪɤɢv ɨɬɞɟɥɵɜɚɬɶɧɚɧɨɫɢɬɶɜɧɟɲɧɸɸ
ɨɬɞɟɥɤɭɩɨɤɪɵɜɚɬɶɨɛɪɚɛɚɬɵɜɚɬɶɫɜɧɟɲɧɟɣɫɬɨɪɨɧɵ ɡɚɜɟɪɲɚɬɶɡɚɤɚɧɱɢ
ɜɚɬɶ1.4a
firm [fWm] n ɮɢɪɦɚa
fit [fIt] v ɩɪɢɫɩɨɫɚɛɥɢɜɚɬɶɫɨɜɩɚɞɚɬɶɬɨɱɧɨɩɨɞɯɨɞɢɬɶ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɨɜɚɬɶ
ɝɨɞɢɬɶɫɹ 1.5a
fix [fIks] v ɡɚɤɪɟɩɥɹɬɶɮɢɤɫɢɪɨɜɚɬɶɭɫɬɚɧɚɜɥɢɜɚɬɶfixed a ɧɟɩɨɞɜɢɠɧɵɣ
ɫɬɚɰɢɨɧɚɪɧɵɣ fixation [fIk'seISqn] n ɤɪɟɩɥɟɧɢɟ fixture ['fIksCq] n ɚɪɦɚɬɭɪɚ
ɩɪɢɛɨɪa
fixture ['fIksCq] ɫɦ fix 3.1a
flank [flxNk] n ɛɨɤɤɪɚɣɫɬɨɪɨɧɚv ɪɚɫɩɨɥɚɝɚɬɶɫɹɩɨɛɨɤɚɦb
flat [flxt] n 1. ɤɜɚɪɬɢɪɚ 2. ɞɨɦɫɨɫɬɨɹɳɢɣɢɡɧɟɫɤɨɥɶɤɢɯɤɜɚɪɬɢɪa ɩɥɨɫɤɢɣ
ɪɨɜɧɵɣɝɥɚɞɤɢɣ 1.9a
flexibility ["fleksIbIlItI] n ɝɢɛɤɨɫɬɶɩɪɢɫɩɨɫɨɛɥɹɟɦɨɫɬɶ1.5a
flexible ['fleksIbql] a ɭɧɢɜɟɪɫɚɥɶɧɵɣɝɢɛɤɢɣɥɟɝɤɨɩɪɢɫɩɨɫɚɛɥɢɜɚɟɦɵɣb
floating ['flqVtIN] a ɩɥɚɜɚɸɳɢɣɫɜɨɛɨɞɧɵɣfloating roof ɩɥɚɜɚɸɳɚɹɤɪɨɜɥɹ
ɤɪɨɜɥɹɫɩɥɚɜɚɸɳɟɣɫɬɪɨɩɢɥɶɧɨɣɫɢɫɬɟɦɨɣb
flood [flAd] n ɩɨɬɨɤ v ɡɚɥɢɜɚɬɶɧɚɩɨɥɧɹɬɶflood plain ['flAdpleIn] ɩɨɣɦɚ
ɪɟɤɢa
floor [flL] n ɩɨɥɩɟɪɟɤɪɵɬɢɟɷɬɚɠɝɪɭɧɬɩɨɱɜɚɩɨɜɟɪɯɧɨɫɬɶ ɩɨɞ
ɫɬɢɥɚɸɳɢɣɫɥɨɣɩɥɨɳɚɞɤɚɭɱɚɫɬɨɤfloor-arrangement ɤɨɦɩɨɧɨɜɨɱɧɵɣ
ɩɥɚɧɷɬɚɠɚground floor ɰɨɤɨɥɶɧɵɣɷɬɚɠɩɟɪɜɵɣɷɬɚɠmain floor ɩɟɪɜɵɣ
ɷɬɚɠ 1.4b
Florence ['flPrqns] n ɝɎɥɨɪɟɧɰɢɹD
flow [flqV] n ɬɟɱɟɧɢɟɩɨɬɨɤɯɨɞɬɟɱɟɧɢɟ v ɬɟɱɶɩɪɨɬɟɤɚɬɶɫɬɪɭɢɬɶɫɹ
flowing a ɩɥɚɜɧɵɣɝɥɚɞɤɢɣɦɹɝɤɢɣɨɛɬɟɤɚɟɦɵɣa
fluorescent [flVq'resqnt] a ɮɥɭɨɪɟɫɰɟɧɬɧɵɣ fluorescent tube
[flVq'resqnt"tjHb] ɥɚɦɩɚɞɧɟɜɧɨɝɨɫɜɟɬɚa
focal point ['fqVkql"pOInt@ɫɪɟɞɨɬɨɱɢɟɰɟɧɬɪɚɥɶɧɚɹɬɨɱɤɚ2.4a
focus ['fqVkqs] n ɫɪɟɞɨɬɨɱɢɟɰɟɧɬɪɰɟɧɬɪɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɹɭɩɨɪɧɚɱɬɨ-ɥ
v ɫɨɫɪɟɞɨɬɨɱɢɜɚɬɶb
foil [fOIl] n ɮɨɧɤɨɧɬɪɚɫɬ2.7a
fold [fqVld] v ɫɤɥɚɞɵɜɚɬɶɫɝɢɛɚɬɶɢɡɝɢɛɚɬɶfold away ɭɛɢɪɚɬɶɨɬɨɞɜɢ
ɝɚɬɶa
follow ['fPlqV] v ɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɶɡɚɢɞɬɢ ɡɚɩɪɢɞɟɪɠɢɜɚɬɶɫɹɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɶɫɨɛɥɸ
ɞɚɬɶɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɶɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɜɵɬɟɤɚɬɶɢɡɹɜɫɬɜɨɜɚɬɶɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɶɩɪɢɦɟɪɭ
as follows ɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɦɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ follow on ɩɪɨɞɨɥɠɚɬɶɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɶfollowing a
ɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɣprep ɩɨɫɥɟɜɫɥɟɞɡɚ1.8c
foot [fVt] (pl feet) n ɮɭɬɦɟɪɚɞɥɢɧɵ§ɫɦ); by foot ɩɟɲɤɨɦb
footpath ɫɦ. path 2.7a
footprint ['fVt"prInt] n 1. (ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɟɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟɩɹɬɧɨɡɚɫɬɪɨɣɤɢa
for [fL/fq] prep ɞɥɹɜɬɟɱɟɧɢɟ. ɤɚɤɧɚɡɚɱɬɨɤɚɫɚɟɬɫɹɜɨɬɧɨɲɟ
ɧɢɢcj ɬɚɤɤɚɤɩɨɬɨɦɭɱɬɨɢɛɨa
force [fLs] n ɫɢɥɚ, ɭɫɢɥɢɟ 3.4a
forecourt ['fLkLt] n ɩɟɪɟɞɧɢɣɞɜɨɪɜɧɟɲɧɢɣɞɜɨɪa
form [fLm] n ɮɨɪɦɚɜɧɟɲɧɢɣɜɢɞɨɱɟɪɬɚɧɢɟɮɨɪɦɚɜɢɞɜɢɞɪɚɡɧɨ
ɜɢɞɧɨɫɬɶɮɨɪɦɵɬɢɩɨɩɚɥɭɛɤɚv 1. ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɬɶɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɵɜɚɬɶ ɩɪɢɞɚ
ɜɚɬɶɮɨɪɦɭɫɬɪɨɢɬɶɫɨɡɞɚɜɚɬɶa
formal ['fLmql] a ɮɨɪɦɚɥɶɧɵɣɮɨɪɦɚɥɢɫɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɣɨɮɢɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɣ
268
269
ɫɬɪɨɝɢɣɬɨɱɧɵɣɫɢɦɦɟɬɪɢɱɧɵɣɫɬɪɨɝɨɪɚɫɩɥɚɧɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɣformal garden
ɚɧɝɥɢɣɫɤɢɣɫɚɞ8c
former ['fLmq] a ɩɪɟɠɧɢɣɛɵɜɲɢɣɩɪɟɞɲɟɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɣthe former ɩɟɪ
ɜɵɣɢɡɞɜɭɯ) 1.8a
formulate ['fLmjVleIt] v ɮɨɪɦɭɥɢɪɨɜɚɬɶɜɵɪɚɛɨɬɚɬɶɫɨɡɞɚɬɶ 1.5a
forum pl. fora ['fLrqm@ɮɨɪɭɦɰɟɧɬɪɚɥɶɧɚɹɝɨɪɨɞɫɤɚɹɩɥɨɳɚɞɶɫɮɨɪɦɢ
ɪɨɜɚɧɧɚɹɧɟɫɤɨɥɶɤɢɦɢɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɦɢɡɞɚɧɢɹɦɢɜɞɪɟɜɧɟɪɢɦɫɤɨɦɝɪɚɞɨ
ɫɬɪɨɢɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɟɮɨɪɭɦɫɨɛɪɚɧɢɟCivic Forum Ƚɪɚɠɞɚɧɫɤɢɣɮɨɪɭɦb
forward ['fLwqd] adv ɜɩɟɪɺɞɞɚɥɶɲɟforward-looking ['fLwqd"lVkIN] a ɩɪɨ
ɝɪɟɫɫɢɜɧɵɣɞɚɥɶɧɨɜɢɞɧɵɣa
found [faVnd] v ɨɫɧɨɜɵɜɚɬɶɡɚɤɥɚɞɵɜɚɬɶɡɞɚɧɢɟɨɫɧɨɜɵɜɚɬɶɫɹɨɩɢ
ɪɚɬɶɫɹa
foundation [faVn'deISqn] n ɨɫɧɨɜɚɛɚɡɢɫɛɚɡɚɮɭɧɞɚɦɟɧɬɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɢɟ
(ɝɨɪɨɞɚɢɬɩɮɨɧɞɭɱɪɟɠɞɟɧɢɟɢɥɢɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɹɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɟɧɚɩɨ
ɠɟɪɬɜɨɜɚɧɧɵɣɮɨɧɞ2.1a
fountain ['faVntIn] n ɮɨɧɬɚɧ 1.8c
foyer ['fOIeI] n ɜɟɫɬɢɛɸɥɶ, ɯɨɥɥ, ɮɨɣɟ 3.8a
fragment ['frxgmqnt] n 1. ɮɪɚɝɦɟɧɬ, ɨɛɥɨɦɨɤ, ɨɫɤɨɥɨɤ 2. ɱɚɫɬɶ; [frxg'ment]
v ɪɚɡɛɢɜɚɬɶ, ɪɚɡɞɟɥɹɬɶ; fragmented [frxg'mentId] a ɮɪɚɝɦɟɧɬɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɣ,
ɪɚɡɞɪɨɛɥɟɧɧɵɣ 3.1b
frame [freIm] n ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɹɫɨɨɪɭɠɟɧɢɟɤɚɪɤɚɫɪɚɦɚɫɬɨɣɤɚɞɜɟɪ
ɧɚɹɨɤɨɧɧɚɹɤɨɪɨɛɤɚ ɞɭɝɚv ɨɛɪɚɦɥɹɬɶɫɨɡɞɚɜɚɬɶɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɬɶbraced
frame ['breIst"freIm@ɠɟɫɬɤɚɹɪɚɦɚ 1.10a
framework ['freImwWk] n ɪɚɦɧɚɹɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɹɤɚɪɤɚɫ ɧɟɫɭɳɚɹɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤ
ɰɢɹɨɫɧɨɜɚ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɚ ɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɢɚɥɶɧɚɹɫɯɟɦɚɪɚɦɤɢɩɪɟɞɟɥɵɤɨɧɰɟɩ
ɰɢɹa
France [frRns] n Ɏɪɚɧɰɢɹ 1.9b
French [frenC] a ɮɪɚɧɰɭɡɫɤɢɣ 1.12b
frequent ['frJkwqnt] a ɱɚɫɬɵɣɱɚɫɬɨɜɫɬɪɟɱɚɸɳɢɣɫɹɨɛɵɱɧɵɣadv ɱɚ
ɫɬɨɡɚɱɚɫɬɭɸa
fresh [freS] a ɫɜɟɠɢɣɨɪɢɝɢɧɚɥɶɧɵɣb
frieze n [frJz@ɮɪɢɡɞɟɤɨɪɚɬɢɜɧɵɣɷɥɟɦɟɧɬɜɜɢɞɟɝɨɪɢɡɨɧɬɚɥɶɧɨɣɩɨɥɨɫɵ
ɢɥɢɥɟɧɬɵɭɜɟɧɱɢɜɚɸɳɟɣɢɥɢɨɛɪɚɦɥɹɸɳɟɣɬɭɢɥɢɢɧɭɸɱɚɫɬɶɚɪɯɢɬɟɤɬɭɪ
ɧɨɝɨɫɨɨɪɭɠɟɧɢɹ) 1.4c
frit [frIt] v ɫɩɟɤɚɬɶɫɩɥɚɜɥɹɬɶ fritting n ɮɪɢɬɬɨɜɚɧɢɟfritted glass ɮɪɢɬɬɨɜɚɧ
ɧɨɟɫɬɟɤɥɨa
front [frAnt] n ɩɟɪɺɞɩɟɪɟɞɧɹɹɫɬɨɪɨɧɚɮɚɫɚɞɥɢɰɟɜɚɹɫɬɨɪɨɧɚɩɟ
ɪɟɞɧɢɣɩɥɚɧin front of ɩɟɪɟɞɜɩɟɪɟɞɢ a ɩɟɪɟɞɧɢɣv ɜɵɯɨɞɢɬɶɧɚɛɵɬɶɨɛ
ɪɚɳɺɧɧɵɦɧɚa
frontage ['frAntIG] n 1. (ɩɟɪɟɞɧɢɣɮɚɫɚɞɭɱɚɫɬɨɤɡɟɦɥɢc
ft (foot) [fVt] ɫɦ. foot 3.7a
ft2 (square foot) [skweq 'fVt] n ɤɜɚɞɪɚɬɧɵɣ ɮɭɬ 4.2a
function ['fANkSqn] n ɧɚɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟɮɭɧɤɰɢɹɡɚɞɚɱɚɮɭɧɤɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɶ
v ɮɭɧɤɰɢɨɧɢɪɨɜɚɬɶɞɟɣɫɬɜɨɜɚɬɶb
functional ['fANkSqnql] a ɮɭɧɤɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɣ functionally adv ɮɭɧɤɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨ2.1a
fundamental ["fAndq'mentl] n ɨɫɧɨɜɧɨɟɩɪɚɜɢɥɨɩɪɢɧɰɢɩ a ɨɫɧɨɜɧɨɣɨɫɧɨ
ɜɨɩɨɥɚɝɚɸɳɢɣb
further ['fWDq] a ɞɨɩɨɥɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣɞɨɛɚɜɨɱɧɵɣɞɚɥɶɧɟɣɲɢɣɞɚɥɶɧɢɣ
adv ɞɨɩɨɥɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɤɪɨɦɟɬɨɝɨɛɨɥɟɟɬɨɝɨɞɚɥɶɲɟɞɚɥɟɟa
fuse [fjHz] v ɫɨɟɞɢɧɹɬɶɨɛɴɟɞɢɧɹɬɶa
gable ['geIbql] n ɳɢɩɟɰɮɪɨɧɬɨɧgabled roof ɞɜɭɫɤɚɬɧɚɹɢɥɢɳɢɩɰɨɜɚɹ
ɤɪɵɲɚb
gain [geIn] n ɭɜɟɥɢɱɟɧɢɟ solar gain ɫɦ solar; v ɩɨɥɭɱɚɬɶɩɪɢɨɛɪɟɬɚɬɶ gain
access ɩɨɥɭɱɚɬɶɞɨɫɬɭɩb
gallery ['gxlqrI] n ɝɚɥɟɪɟɹɤɚɪɬɢɧɧɚɹɝɚɥɟɪɟɹɩɚɫɫɚɠɤɨɪɢɞɨɪɛɚɥ
ɤɨɧɩɨɪɬɢɤɤɨɥɨɧɧɚɞɚb
gap [gxp] n ɩɪɨɦɟɠɭɬɨɤɪɚɫɫɬɨɹɧɢɟ ɨɝɪɟɯ 3.11a
gate [geIt] n ɜɨɪɨɬɚ ɤɚɥɢɬɤɚa
gateway ['geItweI] n ɜɨɪɨɬɚɩɪɨɺɦɜɨɪɨɬb
gathering ['gxDqrIN] n ɜɫɬɪɟɱɚ ɫɨɛɪɚɧɢɟɥɸɞɟɣ ɫɛɨɪ gather ['gxDq] v ɫɨɛɢ
ɪɚɬɶa) 2.12b
general ['Genqrql] a ɨɛɳɢɣɜɫɟɨɛɳɢɣɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɺɧɧɵɣɨɛɳɟɩɪɢɧɹ
ɬɵɣɨɛɵɱɧɵɣ general public ɲɢɪɨɤɚɹɩɭɛɥɢɤɚɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɫɬɶgenerally
adv ɨɛɵɱɧɨɤɚɤɩɪɚɜɢɥɨɨɛɵɤɧɨɜɟɧɧɨɜɰɟɥɨɦ1.4a
generate ['GenqreIt] v ɩɨɪɨɠɞɚɬɶɜɵɡɵɜɚɬɶɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɢɬɶɝɟɧɟɪɢɪɨɜɚɬɶa
generous ['Genqrqs] a ɨɛɢɥɶɧɵɣɨɛɲɢɪɧɵɣD
genius ['GJnIqs] n ɝɟɧɢɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɶ; genius loci ["GJnIqs 'lqVsaI] ɥɚɬ. ɝɟɧɢɣ ɦɟ
ɫɬɚ, ɞɭɯ ɦɟɫɬɚ 1.5a
gentle ['Gentl] a 1. ɥɺɝɤɢɣ ɧɟɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣɩɨɥɨɝɢɣ; gently adv ɨɬɥɨɝɨ
ɩɨɥɨɝɨɭɦɟɪɟɧɧɨɫɥɟɝɤɚɫɥɚɛɨc
geographical ["GJq'grxfIkql] a ɝɟɨɝɪɚɮɢɱɟɫɤɢɣgeographically adv ɝɟɨɝɪɚ
ɮɢɱɟɫɤɢɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɚɥɶɧɨa
geometric ["GIq'metrIk] a ɝɟɨɦɟɬɪɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ2.5a
geometry [GI'PmqtrI] n ɝɟɨɦɟɬɪɢɹɤɨɧɮɢɝɭɪɚɰɢɹɮɨɪɦɚb
German ['GWmqn] a ɧɟɦɟɰɤɢɣb
Germany n ['GWmqnI@Ƚɟɪɦɚɧɢɹb
get [get] v ɞɨɛɢɪɚɬɶɫɹɞɨɤɚɤɨɝɨ-ɥɦɟɫɬɚ); get back ɜɟɪɧɭɬɶɜɨɡɜɪɚɳɚɬɶget
into ɩɪɨɧɢɤɚɬɶɩɨɩɚɞɚɬɶɤɭɞɚ-ɥ); get off ɫɧɢɦɚɬɶɭɞɚɥɹɬɶ get to ɩɨɞɨɣɬɢ3.9b
gild [gIld] v ɡɨɥɨɬɢɬɶɩɨɤɪɵɜɚɬɶɩɨɡɨɥɨɬɨɣ 1.6a
girder ['gWdq] n ɛɚɥɨɱɧɚɹɮɟɪɦɚɮɟɪɦɚɫɩɚɪɚɥɥɟɥɶɧɵɦɢɩɨɹɫɚɦɢpost-andgirder system ɫɬɨɟɱɧɨ-ɛɚɥɨɱɧɚɹɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɹsteel sheet box girder ɫɬɚɥɶɧɚɹ
ɛɚɥɤɚɤɨɪɨɛɱɚɬɨɝɨɫɟɱɟɧɢɹa
give [gIv] v ɞɚɜɚɬɶɩɪɢɞɚɜɚɬɶɞɚɜɚɬɶɛɵɬɶɢɫɬɨɱɧɢɤɨɦɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɢɬɶ
give attention ɭɞɟɥɹɬɶɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟgive directions ɭɤɚɡɵɜɚɬɶɞɨɪɨɝɭgive over
270
271
ɨɬɞɚɜɚɬɶɫɹɩɨɫɜɹɳɚɬɶgive off ɢɡɥɭɱɚɬɶɢɫɬɨɱɚɬɶgive place ɭɫɬɭɩɚɬɶɦɟɫɬɨ
give pleasure ɞɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɬɶɭɞɨɜɨɥɶɫɬɜɢɟgive up ɨɬɤɚɡɵɜɚɬɶɫɹɨɬɱɟɝɨ-ɥɢɛɨ) 1.1a
glaze [gleIz] v ɩɨɤɪɵɜɚɬɶɝɥɚɡɭɪɶɸɦɭɪɚɜɨɣɝɥɚɡɭɪɨɜɚɬɶ ɡɚɫɬɟɤɥɹɬɶ
ɨɫɬɟɤɥɹɬɶglazing ['gleIzIN] n ɡɚɫɬɟɤɥɟɧɢɟɨɫɬɟɤɥɟɧɢɟɥɢɫɬɨɜɨɟɫɬɟɤɥɨ
ɝɥɹɧɟɰ low-emissivity glazing [lqV"emI'sIvItI 'gleIzIN] ɷɧɟɪɝɨɫɛɟɪɟɝɚɸɳɟɟ
ɨɫɬɟɤɥɟɧɢɟ 1.10a
glow [glqV] n ɫɢɹɧɢɟɫɜɟɬ v ɫɢɹɬɶ ɫɜɟɪɤɚɬɶ ɫɜɟɬɢɬɶɫɹ 3.12b
glue laminated ɫɦ. laminated 3.10b
goal [gqV] n ɰɟɥɶ, ɡɚɞɚɱɚ 2.1a
good [gVd] v ɯɨɪɨɲɢɣɜɵɝɨɞɧɵɣɭɞɨɛɧɵɣɜɚɠɧɵɣɩɨɥɟɡɧɵɣɭɦɟ
ɥɵɣɢɫɤɭɫɧɵɣ ɩɨɞɯɨɞɹɳɢɣɨɬɜɟɱɚɸɳɢɣɰɟɥɢɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɣbe at
one's best ɛɵɬɶɧɚɜɵɫɨɬɟɛɵɬɶɜɭɞɚɪɟ 1.4b
Gothic ['gPTIk] a ɝɨɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɣɫɬɢɥɶɚɪɯɢɬɟɤɬɭɪɵɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɣɡɪɟ
ɥɨɦɭɢɩɨɡɞɧɟɦɭɋɪɟɞɧɟɜɟɤɨɜɶɸXII – XVI ɜɟɤɚ) 1.1a
govern ['gAvqn] v ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɬɶɨɛɭɫɥɨɜɥɢɜɚɬɶɪɭɤɨɜɨɞɢɬɶɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɹɬɶ
ɪɟɝɭɥɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ2.1b
government ['gAvqmqnt] n ɩɪɚɜɢɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɨɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɟɪɭɤɨɜɨɞɫɬɜɨ 1.5a
grade [greId] n ɫɨɪɬɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɨɭɪɨɜɟɧɶɡɟɦɥɢɝɪɭɧɬɚa
gradual ['grxGVql] a 1. ɩɨɫɬɟɩɟɧɧɵɣ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɣ ɩɨɥɨɝɢɣgradually adv ɩɨɫɬɟɩɟɧɧɨ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɦɚɥɨ-ɩɨɦɚɥɭɩɨɧɟɦɧɨɝɭ1.4c
grain [greIn] n 1. ɡɟɪɧɢɫɬɨɫɬɶ 2. ɫɬɪɨɟɧɢɟɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɚɩɪɢɪɨɞɚɫɤɥɚɞɯɚɪɚɤ
ɬɟɪɚgrained a ɡɟɪɧɢɫɬɵɣ1.4c
grand [grxnd] a ɝɪɚɧɞɢɨɡɧɵɣɜɟɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣɛɨɥɶɲɨɣb
granite ['grxnIt] n ɝɪɚɧɢɬ 1.2b
gravel ['grxvql] n ɝɪɚɜɢɣ 3.2b
gray ɫɦ. grey 3.10a
Greek [grJk] a ɝɪɟɱɟɫɤɢɣ; n ɝɪɟɤ 1.1a
grey (AmE gray) [greI] a ɫɟɪɵɣ (ɰɜɟɬ) 3.2b
grid [grId] n ɫɟɬɤɚɪɟɲɺɬɤɚɤɨɨɪɞɢɧɚɬɧɚɹɫɟɬɤɚ2.1b
groined vault ['grOInd"vLlt@ɤɪɟɫɬɨɜɵɣɫɜɨɞ 1.5b
ground [graVnd] n 1. ɡɟɦɥɹ, ɩɨɜɟɪɯɧɨɫɬɶ ɡɟɦɥɢ 2. ɩɨɱɜɚ, ɡɟɦɥɹ, ɝɪɭɧɬ 3. ɬɟɪ
ɪɢɬɨɪɢɹ; ground plane ɝɨɪɢɡɨɧɬɚɥɶɧɚɹ ɩɥɨɫɤɨɫɬɶ; grounds 1. ɭɱɚɫɬɨɤ ɡɟɦɥɢ,
ɩɪɢɭɫɚɞɟɛɧɵɣ ɭɱɚɫɬɨɤ 2. ɨɛɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɢɟ, ɞɨɜɨɞɵ; ground-source heat pump
ɬɟɩɥɨɜɨɣ ɧɚɫɨɫ, ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɸɳɢɣ ɬɟɩɥɨɬɭ ɝɪɭɧɬɚ 1.4c
grouping ['grHpIN] n ɝɪɭɩɩɢɪɨɜɤɚɨɛɴɟɞɢɧɟɧɢɟɝɪɭɩɩɚb
grow [grqV] v ɪɚɫɬɢɭɜɟɥɢɱɢɜɚɬɶɫɹɭɫɢɥɢɜɚɬɶɫɹ ɜɵɪɚɫɬɚɬɶ grow out of ɜɵ
ɪɚɫɬɚɬɶɜɨɡɧɢɤɚɬɶɢɡɱɟɝɨ-ɥgrow with smth ɡɚɪɚɫɬɚɬɶɱɟɦ-ɥɛɵɬɶɩɨɤɪɵ
ɬɵɦɱɟɦ-ɥa
growth [grqVT] n ɪɨɫɬɭɜɟɥɢɱɟɧɢɟɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɟb
guarded ['gRdId] a ɨɯɪɚɧɹɟɦɵɣ ɫɬɨɪɨɠɟɜɨɣb
guest [gest] n ɝɨɫɬɶɩɨɫɟɬɢɬɟɥɶa
guide [gaId] n ɨɪɢɟɧɬɢɪɨɛɪɚɡɟɰɩɪɢɦɟɪ v ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɬɶɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ
ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɹɬɶɜɟɫɬɢb
habitation ["hxbI'teISqn] n ɨɛɢɬɚɧɢɟɩɪɨɠɢɜɚɧɢɟɫɟɥɟɧɢɟɩɨɫɟɥɟɧɢɟa
habitual [hq'bICVql] a ɨɛɵɱɧɵɣɩɪɢɜɵɱɧɵɣa
half [hRf] n ɩɨɥɨɜɢɧɚhalf- (ɤɨɦɩɨɧɟɧɬɫɥɨɠɧɵɯɫɥɨɜɩɨɥɭ-ɩɨɥɨɜɢɧɚb
hall [hLl] n ɡɚɥassembly hall ɚɤɬɨɜɵɣɡɚɥentry hall ɜɟɫɬɢɛɸɥɶlecture hall
['lekCq"hLl] ɤɨɧɮɟɪɟɧɰ-ɡɚɥɚɭɞɢɬɨɪɢɹmain hall ɰɟɧɬɪɚɥɶɧɵɣɡɚɥɡɚɥɡɚɫɟ
ɞɚɧɢɣtown/city hall ɪɚɬɭɲɚɡɞɚɧɢɟɦɭɧɢɰɢɩɚɥɢɬɟɬɚɝɨɪɨɞɫɤɨɝɨɫɨɜɟɬɚa
hang [hxN] v ɩɨɞɜɟɲɢɜɚɬɶɜɟɲɚɬɶb
hard [hRd] a ɬɜɺɪɞɵɣ ɤɪɟɩɤɢɣɬɪɭɞɧɵɣɬɹɠɺɥɵɣc
harmony ['hRmqnI] n ɝɚɪɦɨɧɢɹɫɨɪɚɡɦɟɪɧɨɫɬɶɫɨɝɥɚɫɢɟ 1.4c
harsh [hRS] a ɫɭɪɨɜɵɣɠɟɫɬɨɤɢɣɛɟɡɠɚɥɨɫɬɧɵɣɨɤɥɢɦɚɬɟɢɬɩ) 3.5b
head [hed] n ɝɨɥɨɜɚɤɚɩɢɬɟɥɶv ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɹɬɶɫɹɞɜɢɝɚɬɶɫɹɤɭɞɚ-ɥ);
headed ['hedId] a ɫɜɟɪɯɧɟɣɱɚɫɬɶɸɫɝɨɥɨɜɨɣa
headquarters ['hed"kwLtqz] n ɲɬɚɛ-ɤɜɚɪɬɢɪɚɝɥɚɜɧɨɟɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɟb
heal [hJl] v ɢɫɰɟɥɹɬɶɜɵɥɟɱɢɜɚɬɶɡɚɥɟɱɢɜɚɬɶb
heart [hRt] n ɰɟɧɬɪɰɟɧɬɪɚɥɶɧɚɹɱɚɫɬɶɫɟɪɟɞɢɧɚɫɭɬɶɫɭɳɧɨɫɬɶb
heat [hJt] n ɬɟɩɥɨɠɚɪɷɧɟɪɝɢɹv ɧɚɝɪɟɜɚɬɶ ɬɨɩɢɬɶɨɬɚɩɥɢɜɚɬɶɨɛɨɝɪɟɜɚɬɶ8c
heating ['hJtIN] n ɨɬɨɩɥɟɧɢɟɨɛɨɝɪɟɜ overheating ["qVvq'hJtIN@ɩɟɪɟɝɪɟɜ
ɩɟɪɟɝɪɟɜɚɧɢɟperimeter heating [pq'rImItq'hJtIN@ɩɟɪɢɦɟɬɪɚɥɶɧɨɟɨɬɨɩɥɟ
ɧɢɟradiant heating ['reIdIqnt 'hJtIN@ɪɚɞɢɚɬɨɪɧɨɟɨɬɨɩɥɟɧɢɟunderfloor
heating ['AndqflL 'hJtIN@ɨɬɨɩɥɟɧɢɟɧɚɝɪɟɜɨɦɩɨɥɚa
heavy ['hevI] a ɬɹɠɺɥɵɣɬɹɠɟɥɨɜɟɫɧɵɣ ɤɪɭɩɧɵɣɛɨɥɶɲɨɣɦɨɳɧɵɣ
ɦɚɫɫɢɜɧɵɣ1.4c
hedge [heG] n ɠɢɜɚɹɢɡɝɨɪɨɞɶ2.5b
height [haIt] n ɜɵɫɨɬɚpl ɯɨɥɦɜɨɡɜɵɲɟɧɧɨɫɬɶa
heighten ['haItn] v ɭɫɢɥɢɜɚɬɶɩɨɜɵɲɚɬɶb
heritage ['herItIG] n ɧɚɫɥɟɞɢɟheritage building ɨɛɴɟɤɬɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɧɨɝɨɧɚɫɥɟ
ɞɢɹ world heritage site ɨɛɴɟɤɬȼɫɟɦɢɪɧɨɝɨɧɚɫɥɟɞɢɹb
hide [haId] v ɩɪɹɬɚɬɶɫɤɪɵɜɚɬɶɡɚɤɪɵɜɚɬɶa
hierarchical [haI'rRkIkql] a ɢɟɪɚɪɯɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ2.6a
hill [hIl] n ɯɨɥɦɜɨɡɜɵɲɟɧɧɨɫɬɶɝɨɪɤɚhilly ['hIlI] a ɯɨɥɦɢɫɬɵɣ 1.8c
hillside ['hIlsaId] n ɫɤɥɨɧ ɝɨɪɵ/ɯɨɥɦɚ, ɤɨɫɨɝɨɪ 2.11a
hilltop ['hIltPp] n ɜɟɪɲɢɧɚ ɯɨɥɦɚ/ɝɨɪɵ 2.11a
hinge [hInG] n ɫɬɟɪɠɟɧɶɤɚɪɞɢɧɚɥɶɧɵɣɩɭɧɤɬ v ɜɪɚɳɚɬɶɫɹ (ɜɨɤɪɭɝ ɱɟɝɨ-ɥ);
hinged a ɧɚɩɟɬɥɹɯɩɨɜɨɪɨɬɧɵɣɫɬɜɨɪɱɚɬɵɣb
historic [hI'stPrIk] n ɢɫɬɨɪɢɱɟɫɤɨɟɩɪɨɢɡɜɟɞɟɧɢɟ a ɢɫɬɨɪɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ historical
[hI'stPrIkql] a ɢɫɬɨɪɢɱɟɫɤɢɣa
historical ɫɦ historic. 2.1b
hit [hIt] v 1. ɩɨɩɚɞɚɬɶ, ɞɨɫɬɢɝɚɬɶ 2. ɡɚɞɟɜɚɬɶ 3.3a
hold [hqVld] v ɜɦɟɳɚɬɶɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɬɶɜɫɟɛɟhold together ɫɜɹɡɵɜɚɬɶɨɛɴɟɞɢ
ɧɹɬɶɫɹhold up ɩɨɞɞɟɪɠɢɜɚɬɶɩɨɞɩɢɪɚɬɶ ɭɞɟɪɠɚɬɶc
hollow ['hPlqV] n ɩɭɫɬɨɬɚɩɨɥɨɫɬɶ a ɩɭɫɬɨɣɩɭɫɬɨɬɟɥɵɣb
homogeneous ["hqVmq'GJnIqs] a ɨɞɧɨɪɨɞɧɵɣɝɨɦɨɝɟɧɧɵɣ2.8a
272
273
honour ['Pnq] v ɱɬɢɬɶ ɭɜɚɠɚɬɶ ɭɞɨɫɬɚɢɜɚɬɶɱɟɫɬɢɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɬɶɱɟɫɬɶ4.4c
horizontal ["hPrI'zPntl] a ɝɨɪɢɡɨɧɬɚɥɶɧɵɣ ɩɥɨɫɤɢɣɪɚɜɧɢɧɧɵɣɨɞɧɨ
ɪɨɞɧɵɣɟɞɢɧɵɣ horizontally adv ɝɨɪɢɡɨɧɬɚɥɶɧɨ horizontality
["hPrIzqn'txlItI] ɝɨɪɢɡɨɧɬɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɶc
hospital ['hPspItl] n ɛɨɥɶɧɢɰɚɤɥɢɧɢɤɚGeneral Hospital ['Genqrql 'hPspItl]
ɛɨɥɶɧɢɰɚɨɛɳɟɝɨɩɪɨɮɢɥɹa
hot [hPt] a ɝɨɪɹɱɢɣɠɚɪɤɢɣhot room ['hPtrHm@ɩɚɪɧɚɹ8c
house [haVs] n ɞɨɦɠɢɥɢɳɟɡɞɚɧɢɟɩɨɫɬɪɨɣɤɚɫɬɪɨɟɧɢɟ>haVz] v ɪɚɡɦɟ
ɳɚɬɶɫɹ ɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɬɶɫɹɩɨɦɟɳɚɬɶɫɹɜɦɟɳɚɬɶɫɹcountry house ɡɚɝɨɪɨɞ
ɧɵɣɞɨɦdetached house ɨɬɞɟɥɶɧɵɣɞɨɦɨɫɨɛɧɹɤsemi-detached house ɞɜɭɯ
ɤɜɚɪɬɢɪɧɵɣɞɨɦguest house ɞɨɦɞɥɹɩɪɢɟɡɠɢɯɧɟɛɨɥɶɲɚɹɝɨɫɬɢɧɢɰɚa
housing ['haVzIN] n ɞɨɦɚɠɢɥɶɺɠɢɥɢɳɧɨɟɫɬɪɨɢɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɨɠɢɥɚɹɡɚ
ɫɬɪɨɣɤɚhousing scheme ɩɥɚɧɡɚɫɬɪɨɣɤɢɠɢɥɨɝɨɦɢɤɪɨɪɚɣɨɧɚa
however [haV'evq] adv ɤɚɤɛɵɧɢɤɚɤɨɣɛɵɧɢcj ɬɟɦɧɟɦɟɧɟɟɨɞɧɚɤɨɧɟ
ɫɦɨɬɪɹɧɚɷɬɨb
huge [hjHG] a ɨɝɪɨɦɧɵɣɝɪɨɦɚɞɧɵɣɝɢɝɚɧɬɫɤɢɣc
human ['hjHmqn] n ɱɟɥɨɜɟɤpl ɥɸɞɢ a ɱɟɥɨɜɟɱɟɫɤɢɣɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɣ2.5a
hybrid ['haIbrId] a ɤɨɦɩɨɡɢɰɢɨɧɧɵɣɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɪɚɡɧɨɪɨɞɧɵɣb
idea [aI'dIq] n ɢɞɟɹɦɵɫɥɶɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɟɩɨɧɹɬɢɟɦɧɟɧɢɟɜɡɝɥɹɞ
ɭɛɟɠɞɟɧɢɟb
ideal ["aI'dIql] a ɢɞɟɚɥɶɧɵɣɫɨɜɟɪɲɟɧɧɵɣ2.5b
identifiable [aI"dentI'faIqbql] a ɨɩɨɡɧɚɜɚɟɦɵɣɥɟɝɤɨɪɚɡɥɢɱɢɦɵɣ2.4c
identify [aI"dentI'faI] v ɭɫɬɚɧɚɜɥɢɜɚɬɶɜɵɹɜɥɹɬɶɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɬɶɢɞɟɧɬɢɮɢɰɢ
ɪɨɜɚɬɶɧɚɡɵɜɚɬɶ2.4c
identity [aI'dentItI] n ɨɬɥɢɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɟɱɟɪɬɵɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɢɢɧɞɢɜɢɞɭɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɶ
ɫɚɦɨɛɵɬɧɨɫɬɶself-identity ["selfaI'dentItI] n ɬɨɠɞɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɫɬɶɫɚɦɨɦɭɫɟɛɟ
ɫɚɦɨɢɞɟɧɬɢɱɧɨɫɬɶ 2.4c
illuminate [I'lHmIneIt] v ɨɫɜɟɳɚɬɶɨɡɚɪɹɬɶF
illumination [I"lHmI'neISqn] n ɨɫɜɟɳɟɧɢɟɩɨɞɫɜɟɬɤɚF
illusion [I'lHZqn] n ɢɥɥɸɡɢɹF
illustrate ['IlqstreIt] v ɢɥɥɸɫɬɪɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ, ɫɥɭɠɢɬɶ ɩɪɢɦɟɪɨɦ 2.2a
image ['ImIG] n 1. ɨɛɪɚɡ ɨɛɥɢɤ ɢɡɨɛɪɚɠɟɧɢɟ 2. ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪ
3. ɨɬɪɚɠɟɧɢɟ 2.4a
imaginary [I'mxGInqrI] a ɜɨɨɛɪɚɠɚɟɦɵɣ 3.3b
imagination [I"mxGI'neISqn] n ɜɨɨɛɪɚɠɟɧɢɟ, ɮɚɧɬɚɡɢɹ 1.10a
imaginative [I'mxGInqtIv] a ɨɛɪɚɡɧɵɣɯɭɞɨɠɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣɨɪɢɝɢɧɚɥɶɧɵɣ1.8c
imitate ['ImIteIt] v ɩɨɞɪɚɠɚɬɶɤɨɩɢɪɨɜɚɬɶɢɦɢɬɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ 1.1a
imitation ["ImI'teISqn] n ɩɨɞɪɚɠɚɧɢɟɤɨɩɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟɢɦɢɬɚɰɢɹa
immense [I'mens] a ɨɝɪɨɦɧɵɣɤɨɥɨɫɫɚɥɶɧɵɣɝɪɨɦɚɞɧɵɣc
impact ['Impxkt] n ɜɥɢɹɧɢɟɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟɩɨɫɥɟɞɫɬɜɢɹ2.4a
imperative [Im'perqtIv] n ɬɪɟɛɨɜɚɧɢɟɢɦɩɟɪɚɬɢɜa ɩɨɜɟɥɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣɢɦɩɟ
ɪɚɬɢɜɧɵɣɧɚɫɬɨɹɬɟɥɶɧɵɣɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɵɣa
importance [Im'pLtqns] n ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟɜɚɠɧɨɫɬɶɡɧɚɱɢɦɨɫɬɶ2.4c
274
impose [Im'pqVz] v ɧɚɜɹɡɵɜɚɬɶb
imposing [Im'pqVzIN] a ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɹɳɢɣɫɢɥɶɧɨɟɜɩɟɱɚɬɥɟɧɢɟɜɩɟɱɚɬɥɹɸɳɢɣ
ɜɧɭɲɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣɢɦɩɨɡɚɧɬɧɵɣa
impression [Im'preSqn] n ɨɳɭɳɟɧɢɟɜɩɟɱɚɬɥɟɧɢɟɜɨɫɩɪɢɹɬɢɟa
impressive [Im'presIv] a ɜɩɟɱɚɬɥɹɸɳɢɣɜɵɪɚɡɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɹɳɢɣɝɥɭ
ɛɨɤɨɟɜɩɟɱɚɬɥɟɧɢɟɜɨɥɧɭɸɳɢɣb
improve [Im'prHv] v ɭɥɭɱɲɚɬɶɫɨɜɟɪɲɟɧɫɬɜɨɜɚɬɶc
inch [InC] n ɞɸɣɦ(ɦɟɪɚɞɥɢɧɵ§ɫɦ) 1.4c
incidentally ["InsI'dentqlI] adv ɦɟɠɞɭɩɪɨɱɢɦɤɫɬɚɬɢ2.8a
inclination ["INklI'neISqn] n ɧɚɤɥɨɧɭɤɥɨɧF
incline [In'klaIn] v ɧɚɤɥɨɧɹɬɶɫɹE
include [In'klHd] v ɜɤɥɸɱɚɬɶɜɫɟɛɹɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɬɶɨɯɜɚɬɵɜɚɬɶb
incorporate [In'kLpqreIt] v ɜɤɥɸɱɢɬɶɜɫɨɫɬɚɜɱɟɝɨ-ɥɫɨɟɞɢɧɹɬɶɨɛɴɟɞɢ
ɧɹɬɶb
increase [In'krJs] v ɭɜɟɥɢɱɢɜɚɬɶɫɹɩɨɜɵɲɚɬɶɫɹɜɨɡɪɚɫɬɚɬɶɪɚɫɬɢɭɫɢɥɢ
ɜɚɬɶɫɹ 1.4c
increasingly [In'krJsINlI] adv ɜɫɺɛɨɥɟɟɜɫɺɜɛɨɥɶɲɟɣɫɬɟɩɟɧɢɦɟɪɟb
indeed [In'dJd] adv ɜɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢɮɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɛɟɡɭɫɥɨɜɧɨɤɨ
ɧɟɱɧɨɜɫɚɦɨɦɞɟɥɟɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɞɚɠɟb
independent ["IndI'pendqnt] a ɧɟɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɵɣɫɚɦɨɫɬɨɹɬɟɥɶɧɵɣɨɬɞɟɥɶɧɵɣc
India ['IndIq] n ɂɧɞɢɹa
individual ["IndI'vIGVql] a ɥɢɱɧɵɣɢɧɞɢɜɢɞɭɚɥɶɧɵɣɱɚɫɬɧɵɣɨɬɞɟɥɶ
ɧɵɣɟɞɢɧɢɱɧɵɣɨɞɢɧɨɱɧɵɣa
indoor ['IndL] a ɧɚɯɨɞɹɳɢɣɫɹɜɩɨɦɟɳɟɧɢɢ ɤɨɦɧɚɬɧɵɣ ɜɧɭɬɪɟɧɧɢɣ
2. ɤɪɵɬɵɣ 3.1a
industrial [In'dAstrIql] a ɩɪɨɦɵɲɥɟɧɧɵɣɢɧɞɭɫɬɪɢɚɥɶɧɵɣa
inevitable [I'nevItqbql] a ɧɟɢɡɛɟɠɧɵɣinevitably adv ɧɟɢɡɛɟɠɧɨɪɚɡɭɦɟɟɬɫɹ
ɨɛɹɡɚɬɟɥɶɧɨb
infill ['InfIl] n ɬɨɱɟɱɧɚɹɡɚɫɬɪɨɣɤɚ v ɡɚɩɨɥɧɹɬɶb
influence ['InflVqns] n ɜɥɢɹɧɢɟɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟ v ɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɬɶɜɥɢɹɧɢɟɜɨɡɞɟɣ
ɫɬɜɢɟɜɥɢɹɬɶ1.1a
informal [In'fLmql] a ɧɟɮɨɪɦɚɥɶɧɵɣɧɟɨɮɢɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɣɫɜɨɛɨɞɧɵɣɟɫɬɟ
ɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣa
inherent [In'hIqrqnt] a ɩɪɢɫɭɳɢɣɫɜɨɣɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣɧɟɨɬɴɟɦɥɟɦɵɣc
initial [I'nISql] a ɩɟɪɜɨɧɚɱɚɥɶɧɵɣɢɫɯɨɞɧɵɣ initially adv ɫɫɚɦɨɝɨɧɚɱɚɥɚɢɡ
ɧɚɱɚɥɶɧɨa
inner ['Inq] a ɜɧɭɬɪɟɧɧɢɣa
innovative ['InqvqtIv] a ɧɨɜɚɬɨɪɫɤɢɣɢɡɨɛɪɟɬɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɣɩɪɨɝɪɟɫɫɢɜɧɵɣa
inscribe [In'skraIb] v ɜɩɢɫɵɜɚɬɶɜɵɪɟɡɚɬɶɧɚɱɟɪɬɚɬɶ4.5b
insert [In'sWt] v ɜɤɥɸɱɚɬɶ ɩɨɦɟɳɚɬɶ ɜɜɨɞɢɬɶ ɜɩɢɫɵɜɚɬɶ ɜɫɬɚɜɥɹɬɶa
inside [In'saId] n ɜɧɭɬɪɟɧɧɟɟɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɨɜɧɭɬɪɟɧɧɹɹɱɚɫɬɶɢɧɬɟɪɶɟɪ
a ɜɧɭɬɪɟɧɧɢɣadv ɜɧɭɬɪɢɜɧɭɬɪɶinside out ɧɚɢɡɧɚɧɤɭinside-out ɩɨɜɫɸɞɭ
275
ɢɜɧɭɬɪɢɢɫɧɚɪɭɠɢfrom inside ɢɡɧɭɬɪɢon the inside ɜɧɭɬɪɢɫɜɧɭɬɪɟɧ
ɧɟɣɫɬɨɪɨɧɵ 1.4b
inspire [In'spaIq] v 1. ɜɞɨɯɧɨɜɥɹɬɶɜɨɨɞɭɲɟɜɥɹɬɶɜɥɢɹɬɶɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɨɜɚɬɶ
2. ɩɪɨɛɭɞɢɬɶɩɨɛɭɠɞɚɬɶinspired ɝɟɧɢɚɥɶɧɵɣɨɞɭɯɨɬɜɨɪɺɧɧɵɣ 1.12b
in spite of [In'spaItqv] adv ɧɟɫɦɨɬɪɹ ɧɚ 3.2a
install [In'stLl] v ɭɫɬɚɧɚɜɥɢɜɚɬɶɦɨɧɬɢɪɨɜɚɬɶɩɨɦɟɳɚɬɶa
installation ["Instq'leISqn] n ɦɨɧɬɚɠɫɨɨɪɭɠɟɧɢɟ pl ɫɨɨɪɭɠɟɧɢɹ ɨɛɴɟɤɬɵ 3.7a
instance ['Instqns] n ɫɥɭɱɚɣfor instance ɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɪF
instead [In'sted] adv ɜɦɟɫɬɨɜɡɚɦɟɧɜɦɟɫɬɨɷɬɨɝɨinstead of ɚɧɟ 1.4b
institution ["InstI'tjHSqn] n ɭɱɪɟɠɞɟɧɢɟɜɟɞɨɦɫɬɜɨɡɚɜɟɞɟɧɢɟ 1.5a
institutional ["InstI'tjHSqnql] a ɜɟɞɨɦɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣɤɨɪɩɨɪɚɬɢɜɧɵɣɢɧɫɬɢɬɭɰɢ
ɨɧɧɵɣɫɜɹɡɚɧɧɵɣɫɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɦɢɢɧɫɬɢɬɭɬɚɦɢ); institutional
architecture ɢɧɫɬɢɬɭɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɚɹɚɪɯɢɬɟɤɬɭɪɚb
insulate ['InsjVleIt] v ɢɡɨɥɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ; insulating a ɢɡɨɥɹɰɢɨɧɧɵɣ 3.2a
insulation ["InsjV'leISqn] n ɢɡɨɥɹɰɢɹ 3.3a
integrate ['IntIgreIt] v 1. ɨɛɴɟɞɢɧɹɬɶ, ɢɧɬɟɝɪɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ 2. ɜɤɥɸɱɚɬɶ, ɫɨɜɦɟɳɚɬɶ;
integrated a ɜɫɟɨɛɴɟɦɥɸɳɢɣ, ɤɨɦɩɥɟɤɫɧɵɣ, ɟɞɢɧɵɣ 2.4b
integration ["Intq'greISqn] n ɫɥɢɹɧɢɟɨɛɴɟɞɢɧɟɧɢɟɢɧɬɟɝɪɚɰɢɹa
intend [In'tend] v ɩɪɟɞɧɚɡɧɚɱɚɬɶɧɚɦɟɪɟɜɚɬɶɫɹɯɨɬɟɬɶɫɨɛɢɪɚɬɶɫɹa
intense [In'tens] a ɢɧɬɟɧɫɢɜɧɵɣɷɧɟɪɝɢɱɧɵɣɫɢɥɶɧɵɣɪɚɫɤɚɥɺɧɧɵɣ2.8c
intention [In'tenSqn] n ɧɚɦɟɪɟɧɢɟɩɥɚɧɵɡɚɦɵɫɟɥɰɟɥɶa
interaction ["Intqr'xkSqn] n ɜɡɚɢɦɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟɜɡɚɢɦɨɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɹɨɛɳɟɧɢɟ2.6a
interchange ['IntqCeInG] n 1. (ɬɪɚɧɫɩɨɪɬɧɚɹɩɟɪɟɫɚɞɤɚɩɟɪɟɦɟɳɟɧɢɟ2.4a
interconnect ["Intqkq'nekt] v ɫɜɹɡɵɜɚɬɶɫɹɫɨɟɞɢɧɹɬɶɫɹinterconnected a
ɜɡɚɢɦɨɫɜɹɡɚɧɧɵɣɜɡɚɢɦɨɫɨɨɛɳɚɸɳɢɟɫɹ2.1a
interest ['Intrqst] n ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɡɚɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɨɜɚɧɧɨɫɬɶɢɧɬɟɪɟɫv ɢɧ
ɬɟɪɟɫɨɜɚɬɶɩɪɢɜɥɟɤɚɬɶɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟb
interior [In'tIqrIq] n ɜɧɭɬɪɟɧɧɹɹɱɚɫɬɶɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɨɜɧɭɬɪɢɜɧɭɬɪɟɧɧɢɣ
ɜɢɞɩɨɦɟɳɟɧɢɹɢɧɬɟɪɶɟɪa ɜɧɭɬɪɟɧɧɢɣ1.4b
interlock ["Intq'lPk] v ɫɨɟɞɢɧɹɬɶɫɹ ɫɦɵɤɚɬɶɫɹc
intermediate ["Intq'mJdIqt] a ɩɪɨɦɟɠɭɬɨɱɧɵɣ, ɫɪɟɞɧɢɣ 1.12a
internal [In'tWnl] a ɜɧɭɬɪɟɧɧɢɣinternally adv ɢɡɧɭɬɪɢɫɜɧɭɬɪɟɧɧɟɣɫɬɨ
ɪɨɧɵɜɧɭɬɪɢb
international ["Intq'nxSqnql] v ɦɟɠɞɭɧɚɪɨɞɧɵɣ 1.12b
interplay ['IntqpleI] n ɜɡɚɢɦɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟɜɡɚɢɦɨɫɜɹɡɶb
interrupt ["Intq'rApt] v ɩɪɟɪɵɜɚɬɶɫɹɧɚɪɭɲɚɬɶɦɟɲɚɬɶɡɚɫɥɨɧɹɬɶɩɪɟ
ɩɹɬɫɬɜɨɜɚɬɶb
intersect ["Intq'sekt] v ɩɟɪɟɫɟɤɚɬɶɫɹɩɪɨɯɨɞɢɬɶɱɟɪɟɡ 1.12b
intersection ["Intq'sekSqn] n ɩɟɪɟɤɪɟɳɢɜɚɧɢɟ ɩɟɪɟɫɟɱɟɧɢɟɬɨɱɤɚɩɟɪɟɫɟ
ɱɟɧɢɹ ɩɟɪɟɤɪɺɫɬɨɤb
intervention ["Intq'venSqn] n ɜɦɟɲɚɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɨɢɧɬɟɪɜɟɧɰɢɹb
intimate ['IntImIt] a ɤɚɦɟɪɧɵɣɭɟɞɢɧɟɧɧɵɣɛɥɢɡɤɢɣɝɥɭɛɨɤɨɥɢɱɧɵɣb
intricate ['IntrIkIt] a ɫɥɨɠɧɵɣɡɚɦɵɫɥɨɜɚɬɵɣɡɚɩɭɬɚɧɧɵɣ2.4c
276
introduce ["Intrq'djHs] v ɜɜɨɞɢɬɶɩɨɦɟɳɚɬɶɜɧɭɬɪɶɱɟɝɨ-ɥɜɧɟɞɪɹɬɶ
ɭɫɬɚɧɚɜɥɢɜɚɬɶɜɩɭɫɤɚɬɶɩɨɞɚɜɚɬɶɩɪɢɜɧɨɫɢɬɶɩɪɢɦɟɧɹɬɶ 1.4b
invite [In'vaIt] v 1. ɩɪɢɝɥɚɲɚɬɶɡɜɚɬɶɫɩɨɫɨɛɫɬɜɨɜɚɬɶɜɵɡɵɜɚɬɶɩɨɛɭɠ
ɞɚɬɶɪɚɫɩɨɥɚɝɚɬɶɤɩɪɢɜɥɟɤɚɬɶɦɚɧɢɬɶb
inward ['Inwqd] a ɜɧɭɬɪɟɧɧɢɣinwards ['Inwqdz] adv ɜɧɭɬɪɶc
Ionic (order) [aI'PnIk] a ɢɨɧɢɱɟɫɤɢɣɨɪɞɟɪ) 1.4c
iron ['aIqn] n ɠɟɥɟɡɨlow-iron ɫɧɢɡɤɢɦɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɟɦɠɟɥɟɡɚa
irregular [I'regjVlq] a ɧɟɩɪɚɜɢɥɶɧɵɣɧɟɨɬɜɟɱɚɸɳɢɣɧɨɪɦɚɦɫɬɚɧɞɚɪɬɚɦ
ɧɟɨɛɵɱɧɵɣɢɦɟɸɳɢɣɧɟɩɪɚɜɢɥɶɧɭɸɮɨɪɦɭɧɟɫɢɦɦɟɬɪɢɱɧɵɣɧɟɪɟɝɭ
ɥɹɪɧɵɣɧɟɪɚɜɧɨɦɟɪɧɵɣɧɟɨɞɢɧɚɤɨɜɵɣɧɟɪɨɜɧɵɣb
irregularity [I"regjV'lxrItI] n ɧɟɨɞɧɨɪɨɞɧɨɫɬɶɛɟɫɩɨɪɹɞɨɱɧɨɫɬɶa
island ['aIlqnd] n ɨɫɬɪɨɜb
isolate ['aIsqleIt] v ɜɵɞɟɥɹɬɶɢɡɨɥɢɪɨɜɚɬɶɨɬɞɟɥɹɬɶɨɛɨɫɨɛɥɹɬɶ1.5b
Italian [I'txlIqn] a ɢɬɚɥɶɹɧɫɤɢɣ 3.7a
Italy ['ItqlI] n ɂɬɚɥɢɹ 1.1a
join [GOIn] v ɫɨɟɞɢɧɹɬɶɨɛɴɟɞɢɧɹɬɶɩɪɢɫɨɟɞɢɧɹɬɶa
joint [GOInt] n ɫɬɵɤɲɨɜɫɨɟɞɢɧɟɧɢɟjoint project ɫɨɜɦɟɫɬɧɵɣɩɪɨɟɤɬb
judge [GAG] n ɫɭɞɶɹɨɰɟɧɢɜɚɬɶɫɭɞɢɬɶɜɡɜɟɲɢɜɚɬɶɞɨɫɬɨɢɧɫɬɜɚɫɭ
ɞɢɬɶɞɟɥɚɬɶɜɵɜɨɞɫɱɢɬɚɬɶɩɨɥɚɝɚɬɶ 1.4b
junction ['GANkSqn] n ɩɟɪɟɤɪɟɫɬɨɤ 2.4a
just [GAst] adv ɢɦɟɧɧɨɤɚɤɪɚɡɬɨɱɧɨɩɪɨɫɬɨɩɪɹɦɨɫɨɜɫɟɦɩɪɨɫɬɨ
ɜɫɟɝɨɥɢɲɶɬɨɥɶɤɨɫɪɚɡɭ ɤɚɤɪɚɡjust as cj ɩɨɞɨɛɧɨɬɨɦɭɤɚɤɤɚɤb
jut (out) [GAt] v ɜɵɞɚɜɚɬɶɫɹɜɵɫɬɭɩɚɬɶb
keep [kJp] v ɞɟɪɠɚɬɶɢɦɟɬɶɯɪɚɧɢɬɶ ɞɟɪɠɚɬɶɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɬɶɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɬɶ
ɭɞɟɪɠɢɜɚɬɶɫɨɯɪɚɧɹɬɶɨɫɬɚɜɚɬɶɫɹkeep away from ɧɟɞɨɩɭɫɤɚɬɶɧɟɩɨɞ
ɩɭɫɤɚɬɶkeep out ɧɟɩɭɫɤɚɬɶɨɛɟɪɟɝɚɬɶɤɨɝɨ-ɥɨɬ 1.4a
key [kJ] n ɤɥɸɱɪɟɲɚɸɳɢɣɮɚɤɬɨɪ a ɝɥɚɜɧɵɣɨɫɧɨɜɧɨɣɤɥɸɱɟɜɨɣ2.1b
kind [kaInd] n ɤɥɚɫɫɪɚɡɪɹɞɪɚɡɧɨɜɢɞɧɨɫɬɶɜɢɞa kind of ɧɟɱɬɨɜɪɨɞɟa
knowledge ['nPlIG] n ɡɧɚɧɢɟɡɧɚɧɢɹɨɫɜɟɞɨɦɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɶa
labyrinth ['lxbqrInT] n ɥɚɛɢɪɢɧɬlabyrinthine ["lxbq'rInTaIn] a ɩɨɞɨɛɧɵɣ
ɥɚɛɢɪɢɧɬɭa
lack [lxk] n ɧɟɞɨɫɬɚɬɨɤɧɟɯɜɚɬɤɚɨɬɫɭɬɫɬɜɢɟv ɢɫɩɵɬɵɜɚɬɶɧɟɞɨɫɬɚɬɨɤ
(ɜɱɺɦ-ɥɧɟɢɦɟɬɶɱɟɝɨ-ɥɧɟɞɨɫɬɚɜɚɬɶɧɟɯɜɚɬɚɬɶb
laminated ['lxmInItId] a ɫɥɨɢɫɬɵɣ laminated glass ɬɪɢɩɥɟɤɫ (ɫɥɨɢɫɬɨɟɛɟɡ
ɨɫɤɨɥɨɱɧɨɟɫɬɟɤɥɨ); glue laminated ['glH"lxmIneItId] ɦɧɨɝɨɫɥɨɣɧɵɣɞɨɳɚ
ɬɨɤɥɟɺɧɵɣb
land [lxnd] n ɡɟɦɥɹɫɬɪɚɧɚɩɨɱɜɚɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɹɭɱɚɫɬɨɤland use
ɮɭɧɤɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɟɡɨɧɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢɡɟɦɥɟɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɟ v ɩɪɢɫɬɚ
ɜɚɬɶɤɛɟɪɟɝɭɩɪɢɱɚɥɢɜɚɬɶb
landmark ['lxndmRk] n ɨɪɢɟɧɬɢɪ, ɜɟɯɚ 2.4a
landscape ['lxndskeIp] n 1. ɥɚɧɞɲɚɮɬ, ɪɟɥɶɟɮ ɦɟɫɬɧɨɫɬɢ 2. ɥɚɧɞɲɚɮɬ, ɩɟɣ
ɡɚɠ 3. ɨɡɟɥɟɧɟɧɢɟ; landscaped a ɨɡɟɥɟɧɟɧɧɵɣ; landscaping n ɥɚɧɞɲɚɮɬɧɚɹ ɚɪ
ɯɢɬɟɤɬɭɪɚ, ɨɡɟɥɟɧɟɧɢɟ 2.3b
277
language ['lxNgwIG] n ɹɡɵɤ 3.12c
lantern ['lxntqn] n 1. ɮɨɧɚɪɶ 2. ɮɨɧɚɪɶ ɜɟɪɯɧɟɝɨ ɫɜɟɬɚ 1.10b
last [lRst] v ɩɪɨɞɨɥɠɚɬɶɫɹɞɥɢɬɶɫɹɯɜɚɬɚɬɶ(ɩɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɢ); a ɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɢɣ2.4b
late [leIt] a ɩɨɡɞɧɢɣɜɤɨɧɰɟɤɚɤɨɝɨ-ɥɩɟɪɢɨɞɚɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɢɣɧɟɞɚɜɧɢɣ
later ɩɨɡɞɧɟɟɫɩɭɫɬɹ 1.2a
lateral ['lxtqrql] a ɛɨɤɨɜɨɣɝɨɪɢɡɨɧɬɚɥɶɧɵɣɩɨɩɟɪɟɱɧɵɣlateral stability
ɩɨɩɟɪɟɱɧɚɹɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɨɫɬɶ 1.5b
latter ['lxtq] a ɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɢɣthe latter ɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɢɣɢɡɞɜɭɯɧɚɡɜɚɧɧɵɯɜɬɨɪɨɣ 1.4c
lattice ['lxtIs] n ɪɟɲɺɬɤɚɫɟɬɤɚɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɚlattice structure ɪɟɲɺɬɱɚ
ɬɚɹɫɬɟɪɠɧɟɜɚɹɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɹb
lavish ['lxvIS] a ɨɛɢɥɶɧɵɣɛɨɝɚɬɵɣɳɟɞɪɵɣc
law court ['lLkLt] n ɫɭɞD
lawn [lLn] n ɥɭɠɚɣɤɚɫɩɨɞɫɬɪɢɠɟɧɧɨɣɬɪɚɜɨɣɝɚɡɨɧɩɥɨɳɚɞɤɚɫɬɪɚɜɹ
ɧɵɦɩɨɤɪɵɬɢɟɦa
lay [leI] v ɤɥɚɫɬɶɩɨɥɨɠɢɬɶɭɫɬɚɧɚɜɥɢɜɚɬɶlay out ɩɥɚɧɢɪɨɜɚɬɶɪɚɡɦɟɱɚɬɶ
ɜɵɤɥɚɞɵɜɚɬɶɪɚɫɩɨɥɚɝɚɬɶa
layer ['leIq] n ɫɥɨɣɩɥɚɫɬɪɹɞ v ɧɚɫɥɚɢɜɚɬɶɤɥɚɫɬɶɩɥɚɫɬɚɦɢɫɥɨɹɦɢ
layered a ɦɧɨɝɨɫɥɨɣɧɵɣc
layout ['leIaVt] n ɩɥɚɧɢɪɨɜɤɚɝɟɧɟɪɚɥɶɧɵɣɩɥɚɧɪɚɫɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɟ2.5a
lead [lJd] v ɜɟɫɬɢɩɪɢɜɨɞɢɬɶɤleading a ɜɟɞɭɳɢɣɝɥɚɜɧɵɣb
leaf [lJf] n ɥɢɫɬɤɪɵɥɨɡɞɚɧɢɹ) 1.10a
learning ['lWnIN] n ɡɧɚɧɢɹɷɪɭɞɢɰɢɹɨɛɭɱɟɧɢɟɢɡɭɱɟɧɢɟa
leave [lJv] v ɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɬɶɩɨɤɢɞɚɬɶleave alone ɧɟɬɪɨɝɚɬɶb
lecture hall ɫɦ hall 3.5b
LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) [lJd] 100-ɛɚɥɶɧɚɹ
ɫɢɫɬɟɦɚɫɟɪɬɢɮɢɤɚɰɢɢɡɞɚɧɢɣɢɫɯɨɞɹɢɡɢɯɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɧɨɫɬɢɢɷɧɟɪɝɨɷɮɮɟɤ
ɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢɪɚɡɪɚɛɨɬɚɧɚɋɨɜɟɬɚɩɨɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɧɨɦɭɫɬɪɨɢɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɭ
ɋɒȺɜɟɪɫɢɹLEED vɝɢɦɟɟɬ-ɛɚɥɶɧɭɸɫɢɫɬɟɦɭ); LEED-certified
['lJd"sWtIfaId] ɫɟɪɬɢɮɢɰɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɣɩɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɟLEED; LEED Gold Certification ['lJd "gqVld sq"tIfI'keISqn@ɡɨɥɨɬɨɣɭɪɨɜɟɧɶɫɟɪɬɢɮɢɤɚɰɢɢ LEED 2009
(60–ɛɚɥɥɨɜLEED Platinum rating ['lJd 'plxtInqm 'reItIN@ɩɥɚɬɢɧɨɜɵɣ
ɭɪɨɜɟɧɶɫɟɪɬɢɮɢɤɚɰɢɢ LEED 2009 ɛɚɥɥɨɜɢɜɵɲɟb
legibility ["leGq'bIlItI] n ɱɺɬɤɨɫɬɶ, ɪɚɡɥɢɱɢɦɨɫɬɶ 2.4a
Legislative Assembly ɫɦ. assembly 4.12a
lend [lend] v ɩɪɢɞɚɜɚɬɶ, ɞɚɜɚɬɶ 2.11b
length [leNT] n ɞɥɢɧɚɩɪɨɬɹɠɺɧɧɨɫɬɶɪɚɫɫɬɨɹɧɢɟ length-wise adv ɜɞɥɢɧɭ
ɩɪɨɞɨɥɶɧɨ1.4c
let [let] v ɩɨɡɜɨɥɢɬɶlet’s ɞɚɜɚɣɬɟc
level ['levql] n ɭɪɨɜɟɧɶɫɬɟɩɟɧɶɫɬɭɩɟɧɶɷɬɚɠv ɜɵɪɚɜɧɢɜɚɬɶɞɟɥɚɬɶ
ɪɨɜɧɵɦa ɪɨɜɧɵɣɩɥɨɫɤɢɣɝɨɪɢɡɨɧɬɚɥɶɧɵɣb
liberate ['lIbqreIt] v ɨɫɜɨɛɨɞɢɬɶɢɡɛɚɜɢɬɶɫɧɢɦɚɬɶɞɢɫɤɪɢɦɢɧɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɟ
ɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɟɧɢɹa
library ['laIbrqrI] n ɛɢɛɥɢɨɬɟɤɚc
278
lie [laI] v ɥɟɠɚɬɶɧɚɯɨɞɢɬɶɫɹɡɚɤɥɸɱɚɬɶɫɹɜɱɺɦ-ɥɛɵɬɶɪɚɫɩɨɥɨɠɟɧ
ɧɵɦlow-lying ɧɢɡɤɨɥɟɠɚɳɢɣɧɢɡɤɨɪɚɫɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɧɵɣb
lifestyle ['laIfstaIl] n ɨɛɪɚɡɫɬɢɥɶɭɤɥɚɞɠɢɡɧɢ2.6a
lifetime ['laIftaIm] n ɜɪɟɦɹɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɨɜɚɧɢɹa
lift [lIft] n ɥɢɮɬb
light [laIt] n ɫɜɟɬɞɧɟɜɧɨɣɫɜɟɬ ɨɫɜɟɳɟɧɢɟɫɜɟɬɨɜɨɣɩɪɨɺɦɥɚɦɩɚ
ɮɨɧɚɪɶɫɜɟɬɢɥɶɧɢɤv ɨɫɜɟɳɚɬɶɫɹa ɥɺɝɤɢɣɧɟɬɹɠɺɥɵɣɫɜɟɬɥɵɣɛɥɟɞ
ɧɵɣɨɰɜɟɬɟ) light rail rapid transit system ɫɟɬɶɫɤɨɪɨɫɬɧɨɝɨɦɨɧɨɪɟɥɶɫɨɜɨɝɨ
ɝɨɪɨɞɫɤɨɝɨɬɪɚɧɫɩɨɪɬɚ roof light ɨɤɧɨɮɨɧɚɪɶɜɟɪɯɧɟɝɨɫɜɟɬɚ traffic lights
ɫɜɟɬɨɮɨɪa
lighting ['laItIN] n ɨɫɜɟɳɟɧɢɟɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɚɨɫɜɟɳɟɧɢɹb
lightness ['laItnIs] n ɥɺɝɤɨɫɬɶɨɫɜɟɳɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ4.6b
like [laIk] a ɩɨɞɨɛɧɵɣɩɨɯɨɠɢɣprep ɤɚɤɱɬɨ-ɥ); cj ɤɚɤlook like ɛɵɬɶɩɨɯɨ
ɠɢɦɧɚ~like suffix ɜɫɥɨɠɧɵɯɩɪɢɥɚɝɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɯɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɧɧɵɯɨɬɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɢ
ɬɟɥɶɧɵɯɢɦɟɟɬɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟ ɩɨɞɨɛɧɵɣɱɟɦɭ-ɥɧɚɩɨɦɢɧɚɸɳɢɣɱɬɨ-ɥ1.2a
likely ['laIklI] adv ɜɟɪɨɹɬɧɨ 2.6a
limestone ['laImstqVn] n ɢɡɜɟɫɬɧɹɤ 1.2b
limit ['lImIt] n ɩɪɟɞɟɥɝɪɚɧɢɰɚɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɟɧɢɟv ɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɢɜɚɬɶa
line [laIn] n ɥɢɧɢɹɱɟɪɬɚɝɪɚɧɢɰɚɤɨɧɬɭɪɨɱɟɪɬɚɧɢɟɩɪɨɮɢɥɶɨɛ
ɥɚɫɬɶɫɮɟɪɚ ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɟɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɟɤɭɪɫɩɭɬɶv ɨɛɲɢɜɚɬɶɨɛɥɢɰɨ
ɜɵɜɚɬɶɭɫɬɚɧɚɜɥɢɜɚɬɶɜɪɹɞ1.4c
linear ['lInIq] a ɥɢɧɟɣɧɵɣɩɪɹɦɨɥɢɧɟɣɧɵɣ2.4c
link [lINk] n 1. (ɬɪɚɧɫɩɨɪɬɧɵɣɩɭɧɤɬɩɟɪɟɫɚɞɤɢɫɜɹɡɭɸɳɟɟɡɜɟɧɨv ɫɜɹ
ɡɵɜɚɬɶɫɨɟɞɢɧɹɬɶɫɰɟɩɥɹɬɶb
lintel ['lIntl] n ɩɟɪɟɦɵɱɤɚɧɚɞɩɪɨɺɦɨɦa
literal ['lItqrql] a ɛɭɤɜɚɥɶɧɵɣɬɨɱɧɵɣliterally adv ɛɭɤɜɚɥɶɧɨɩɪɹɦɨ-ɬɚɤɢ
ɛɟɡɩɪɟɭɜɟɥɢɱɟɧɢɹb
lively ['laIvlI] a ɠɢɜɨɣɩɨɥɧɵɣɠɢɡɧɢɹɪɤɢɣ2.4a
living ['lIvIN] n ɠɢɡɧɶɩɪɨɠɢɜɚɧɢɟ a ɠɢɥɨɣliving quarters ɠɢɥɨɟɩɨɦɟɳɟ
ɧɢɟ living room ɝɨɫɬɢɧɚɹɠɢɥɚɹɤɨɦɧɚɬɚb
load [lqVd] n ɧɚɝɪɭɡɤɚ load-bearing wall ɧɟɫɭɳɚɹɫɬɟɧɚload-bearing construction ɧɟɫɭɳɚɹɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɹa
lobby ['lPbI] n ɜɟɫɬɢɛɸɥɶɯɨɥɥɮɨɣɟɤɨɪɢɞɨɪɤɭɥɭɚɪɵ entry lobby ɫɦ entry; entrance lobby ɫɦ entrance 3.5b
local ['lqVkql] a ɦɟɫɬɧɵɣ ɥɨɤɚɥɶɧɵɣ ɡɞɟɲɧɢɣɱɚɫɬɧɵɣlocally adv ɥɨ
ɤɚɥɶɧɨɧɚɦɟɫɬɟɜɩɪɟɞɟɥɚɯɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɺɧɧɨɝɨɪɚɣɨɧɚɢɥɢɦɟɫɬɧɨɫɬɢ 1.8a
locate [lqV'keIt] v ɪɚɡɦɟɫɬɢɬɶɪɚɫɩɨɥɚɝɚɬɶ ɭɫɬɚɧɚɜɥɢɜɚɬɶɩɨɦɟɫɬɢɬɶɪɚɫɩɨ
ɥɨɠɢɬɶɜɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɺɧɧɨɦɦɟɫɬɟ 1.5b
location [lqV'keISqn] n ɦɟɫɬɨɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɟ ɦɟɫɬɨɪɚɫɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɹɪɚɫɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɟ 1.12b
lock [lPk] v ɡɚɤɪɟɩɥɹɬɶɮɢɤɫɢɪɨɜɚɬɶair lock ['eqlPk] ɜɨɡɞɭɲɧɵɣɬɚɦɛɭɪ
lock gate ['lPkgeIt@ɜɨɪɨɬɚɲɥɸɡɚb
lofty ['lPftI] a ɨɱɟɧɶɜɵɫɨɤɢɣa
logical ['lPGIkql] a ɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɣɥɨɝɢɱɧɵɣɩɨɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɣb
279
Lombard ['lPmbqd] a ɥɨɦɛɚɪɞɫɤɢɣɅɨɦɛɚ̗ɪɞɢɹ – ɚɞɦɢɧɢɫɬɪɚɬɢɜɧɵɣɪɟɝɢɨɧ
ɜɂɬɚɥɢɢ) 1.9a
London ['lAndqn] n ɝɅɨɧɞɨɧD
longitudinal ["lPnGI'tjHdInql] a ɩɪɨɞɨɥɶɧɵɣ; longitudinally adv ɩɪɨɞɨɥɶɧɨ
ɜɞɥɢɧɭ 1.6a
loop [lHp] n ɩɟɬɥɹ v ɨɩɢɫɵɜɚɬɶɩɟɬɥɸc
lose [lHz] v ɬɟɪɹɬɶlost a ɭɬɪɚɱɟɧɧɵɣɩɪɨɩɚɜɲɢɣc
lot [lPt] n ɭɱɚɫɬɨɤ ɡɚɫɬɪɨɣɤɢ; parking lot ɫɦ. parking 3.10a
lotus ['lqVtqs] n ɥɨɬɨɫ 1.2a
lounge [laVnG] n ɜɟɫɬɢɛɸɥɶ, ɮɨɣɟ, ɡɚɥ ɨɠɢɞɚɧɢɹ (ɚɷɪɨɩɨɪɬɚ) 4.4b
louver ['lHvq] n 1. ɜɟɧɬɢɥɹɰɢɨɧɧɚɹ ɪɟɲɺɬɤɚ 2. ɠɚɥɸɡɢ; louvered a c ɠɚɥɸɡɢ
3.5b
lovely ['lAvlI] a ɜɨɫɯɢɬɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣɨɱɚɪɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɣɩɪɟɤɪɚɫɧɵɣ2.5b
low [lqV] a ɧɢɡɤɢɣɫɥɚɛɵɣɩɨɧɢɠɟɧɧɵɣɧɟɛɨɥɶɲɨɣ adv ɧɢɡɤɨlow-rise
ɦɚɥɨɷɬɚɠɧɵɣ 1.4c
lower ['lqVq] a ɧɢɠɧɢɣɧɢɡɤɢɣ 1.8a
L-shaped ['el"SeIpt] a Ƚ-ɨɛɪɚɡɧɵɣ 4.4c
luxury ['lAkSqrI] n ɛɨɝɚɬɫɬɜɨ, ɩɵɲɧɨɫɬɶ, ɪɨɫɤɨɲɶ; a 1. ɪɨɫɤɨɲɧɵɣ 2. ɤɥɚɫɫɚ
ɥɸɤɫ 1.5a
m (metre) ɫɦ. metre 2.4a
m2 (square metre) [skweq 'mJtq] n ɤɜɚɞɪɚɬɧɵɣ ɦɟɬɪ 3.10b
machine [mq'SJn] n ɦɚɲɢɧɚɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɚa
magnificent [mxg'nIfIsqnt] a ɜɟɥɢɤɨɥɟɩɧɵɣɜɟɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣɢɡɭɦɢɬɟɥɶ
ɧɵɣɩɪɟɤɪɚɫɧɵɣ magnificently adv ɜɟɥɢɤɨɥɟɩɧɨ 1.4b
main [meIn] a ɨɫɧɨɜɧɨɣɝɥɚɜɧɵɣmain hall ɰɟɧɬɪɚɥɶɧɵɣɡɚɥmainly adv
ɜɨɫɧɨɜɧɨɦɝɥɚɜɧɵɦɨɛɪɚɡɨɦɛɨɥɶɲɟɣɱɚɫɬɶɸɩɪɟɢɦɭɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ1.4a
maintain [meIn'teIn] v ɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɬɶɜɢɫɩɪɚɜɧɨɫɬɢɩɨɞɞɟɪɠɢɜɚɬɶɨɫɭ
ɳɟɫɬɜɥɹɬɶɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɢɜɚɬɶɫɨɯɪɚɧɹɬɶɩɪɨɞɨɥɠɚɬɶ2.4c
majesty ['mxGIstI] n ɜɟɥɢɱɢɟɜɟɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɫɬɶb
major ['meIGq] a ɝɥɚɜɧɵɣɤɪɭɩɧɵɣɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣɨɫɧɨɜɧɨɣɜɚɠɧɵɣ
ɛɨɥɶɲɨɣb
mall [mLl] n ɩɚɫɫɚɠɬɨɪɝɨɜɚɹɝɚɥɟɪɟɹshopping mall ɤɪɭɩɧɵɣɬɨɪɝɨɜɵɣ
ɰɟɧɬɪc
manifold ['mxnIfqVld] a ɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɧɵɣ2.5b
manufacturing ["mxnjV'fxkCqrIN] n ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜɨɢɡɝɨɬɨɜɥɟɧɢɟ a ɩɪɨɢɡ
ɜɨɞɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɣb
maple ['meIpql] n ɤɥɺɧb
marble ['mRbql] n ɦɪɚɦɨɪɦɪɚɦɨɪɧɨɟɢɡɞɟɥɢɟ 1.4a
mark [mRk] n ɡɧɚɤɦɚɪɤɚ ɫɥɟɞɨɬɩɟɱɚɬɨɤv ɨɬɦɟɱɚɬɶɨɛɨɡɧɚɱɚɬɶ
ɭɤɚɡɵɜɚɬɶɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɡɨɜɚɬɶɨɬɥɢɱɚɬɶɜɵɞɟɥɹɬɶɡɚɦɟɱɚɬɶɡɚɩɨɦɢɧɚɬɶ1.4b
market ['mRkIt] n ɪɵɧɨɤɛɚɡɚɪ market stall ['mRkIt "stLl] ɬɨɪɝɨɜɚɹɩɚ
ɥɚɬɤɚɬɨɪɝɨɜɵɣɩɪɢɥɚɜɨɤa
marvel ['mRvql] n ɱɭɞɨɞɢɜɨ ɭɞɢɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣɮɟɧɨɦɟɧ v ɞɢɜɢɬɶɫɹɢɡɭɦ
ɥɹɬɶɫɹɜɨɫɯɢɳɚɬɶɫɹc
marvellous (AmE marvelous) ['mRvqlqs] a ɡɚɦɟɱɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɣɢɡɭɦɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣ
ɭɞɢɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣɱɭɞɟɫɧɵɣɩɪɟɤɪɚɫɧɵɣa
masonry ['meIsqnrI] n ɤɚɦɟɧɧɚɹ/ɤɢɪɩɢɱɧɚɹɤɥɚɞɤɚmasonry wall ɤɚɦɟɧɧɚɹ
ɫɬɟɧɚb
mass [mxs] n ɦɚɫɫɚɦɚɫɫɢɜɫɤɨɩɥɟɧɢɟ ɦɧɨɠɟɫɬɜɨa
massing ['mxsIN] n ɫɨɫɪɟɞɨɬɨɱɟɧɢɟɤɨɦɩɨɧɨɜɤɚɚɪɯɢɬɟɤɬɭɪɧɵɯɦɚɫɫ) 4.3a
massive ['mxsIv] a ɦɚɫɫɢɜɧɵɣɬɹɠɺɥɵɣɝɪɚɧɞɢɨɡɧɵɣɨɝɪɨɦɧɵɣc
master bedroom ['mRstq "bedrVm@ɝɥɚɜɧɚɹɫɩɚɥɶɧɹɫɩɚɥɶɧɹɯɨɡɹɟɜb
masterpiece ['mRstqpJs] n ɲɟɞɟɜɪb
mastery ['mRstqrI] n ɦɚɫɬɟɪɫɬɜɨɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɨa
match [mxC] v ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɨɜɚɬɶɫɨɱɟɬɚɬɶɫɹ 3.1a
material [mq'tIqrIql] n ɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥa ɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɶɧɵɣ; materially adv ɦɚɬɟɪɢ
ɚɥɶɧɨ 1.5a
matter ['mxtq] n ɞɟɥɨɜɨɩɪɨɫv ɢɦɟɬɶɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟb
mature [mq'CVq] v ɞɨɫɬɢɝɧɭɬɶɡɪɟɥɨɫɬɢ ɫɨɜɟɪɲɟɧɫɬɜɚ a 1. ɡɪɟɥɵɣ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɨɣ
ɝɨɬɨɜɵɣɞɨɫɬɢɝɲɢɣɡɪɟɥɨɫɬɢ 1.1a
maximize ['mxksImaIz] v ɦɚɤɫɢɦɚɥɶɧɨɭɜɟɥɢɱɢɜɚɬɶɭɜɟɥɢɱɢɜɚɬɶɞɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɚc
maximum ['mxksImqm] n ɦɚɤɫɢɦɭɦ a ɦɚɤɫɢɦɚɥɶɧɵɣɩɪɟɞɟɥɶɧɨɞɨɩɭɫɬɢ
ɦɵɣ2.4a
meagre ['mJgq] a ɫɤɭɞɧɵɣɛɟɞɧɵɣɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɟɧɧɵɣa
mean [mJn] v ɨɡɧɚɱɚɬɶɡɧɚɱɢɬɶɢɦɟɬɶɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟɩɪɟɞɧɚɡɧɚɱɚɬɶ ɩɨɞɪɚɡɭ
ɦɟɜɚɬɶɢɦɟɬɶɜɜɢɞɭmeans [mJnz] n ɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɨɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɚɪɟɫɭɪɫɵɫɩɨɫɨɛ
by means of ɩɨɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɨɦwithin the means ɩɨɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɚɦ 1.4b
meanwhile ['mJnwaIl] adv ɬɟɦɜɪɟɦɟɧɟɦɦɟɠɞɭɬɟɦ1.1a
measure ['meZq] n ɦɟɪɚɤɪɢɬɟɪɢɣv ɢɦɟɬɶɪɚɡɦɟɪɢɡɦɟɪɹɬɶb
mechanical [mI'kxnIkql] n ɦɟɯɚɧɢɱɟɫɤɚɹɱɚɫɬɶ a ɬɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɱɟ
ɫɤɢɣɦɚɲɢɧɧɵɣadv ɦɟɯɚɧɢɱɟɫɤɢa
mediate ['mJdIeIt] v ɛɵɬɶɫɜɹɡɭɸɳɢɦɡɜɟɧɨɦ mediating ['mJdIeItIN] a ɩɪɨ
ɦɟɠɭɬɨɱɧɵɣb
medical ['medIkql] a ɜɪɚɱɟɛɧɵɣɦɟɞɢɰɢɧɫɤɢɣa
Medieval ["medI'Jvql] a ɫɪɟɞɧɟɜɟɤɨɜɵɣ2.1b
Mediterranean ["medItq'reInIqn] a ɫɪɟɞɢɡɟɦɧɨɦɨɪɫɤɢɣb
medium ['mJdIqm] pl media ['mJdIq] n 1. ɫɩɨɫɨɛɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɨɜɵɪɚɠɟɧɢɹ
ɫɪɟɞɚɧɨɫɢɬɟɥɶɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɢɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɨɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɢa ɫɪɟɞɧɢɣ media
centre ɦɟɞɢɚ-ɰɟɧɬɪb
meet [mJt] v ɜɫɬɪɟɱɚɬɶɫɹɫɯɨɞɢɬɶɫɹɫɨɩɪɢɤɚɫɚɬɶɫɹɩɟɪɟɫɟɤɚɬɶɫɹ
ɭɞɨɜɥɟɬɜɨɪɹɬɶɨɬɜɟɱɚɬɶɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɨɜɚɬɶɠɟɥɚɧɢɹɦɬɪɟɛɨɜɚɧɢɹɦɢɬɩ) 1.2a
meeting ['mJtIN] n ɫɨɛɪɚɧɢɟɜɫɬɪɟɱɚc
member ['membq] n ɷɥɟɦɟɧɬɷɥɟɦɟɧɬɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɢɞɟɬɚɥɶc
membrane ['membreIn] n ɦɟɦɛɪɚɧɚɩɟɪɟɝɨɪɨɞɤɚɷɤɪɚɧb
280
281
memorable ['memqrqbql] a ɩɚɦɹɬɧɵɣɧɟɡɚɛɵɜɚɟɦɵɣɥɟɝɤɨɡɚɩɨɦɢɧɚɸ
ɳɢɣɫɹ2.4a
mere [mIq] a ɧɟɛɨɥɟɟɱɟɦɜɫɟɝɨɥɢɲɶɩɪɨɫɬɨɣɱɢɫɬɵɣmerely adv
ɬɨɥɶɤɨɜɫɟɝɨɥɢɲɶb
merit ['merIt] n ɞɨɫɬɨɢɧɫɬɜɨɡɚɫɥɭɝɚ v ɡɚɫɥɭɠɢɜɚɬɶɛɵɬɶɞɨɫɬɨɣɧɵɦ2.7b
mesh [meS] n 1. ɫɟɬɤɚ 2. ɥɨɜɭɲɤɚ 4.3a
metal ['metl] n ɦɟɬɚɥɥ a ɦɟɬɚɥɥɢɱɟɫɤɢɣa
method ['meTqd] n ɦɟɬɨɞɫɩɨɫɨɛɫɢɫɬɟɦɚɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɹ 1.5a
metre (AmE meter) ['mJtq] n ɦɟɬɪ 3.1b
mezzanine ['mezqnJn] n ɦɟɞɡɚɧɢɧɦɟɰɢɚɧɢɧɩɪɨɦɟɠɭɬɨɱɧɵɣɷɬɚɠɛɨ
ɥɟɟɧɢɡɤɢɣɜɤɨɬɨɪɨɦɪɚɫɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɵɜɬɨɪɨɫɬɟɩɟɧɧɵɟɩɨɦɟɳɟɧɢɹɩɨɥɭ
ɷɬɚɠɩɪɟɢɦɭɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɦɟɠɞɭɩɟɪɜɵɦɢɜɬɨɪɵɦɷɬɚɠɨɦɚɧɬɪɟɫɨɥɶɪɨɞ
ɛɚɥɤɨɧɚɜɧɭɬɪɢɜɵɫɨɤɨɝɨɩɨɦɟɳɟɧɢɹɛɟɥɶɷɬɚɠa
mid- [mId] prefix ɤɨɦɩɨɧɟɧɬɫɥɨɠɧɵɯɫɥɨɜɫɨɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟɦɫɪɟɞɢɩɨɫɪɟɞɢɫ
middle ['mIdl] n ɫɟɪɟɞɢɧɚa ɫɪɟɞɧɢɣin the middle of nowhere ɜȻɨɝɨɦɡɚɛɵ
ɬɨɦɦɟɫɬɟɜɝɥɭɲɢɜɝɥɭɯɨɦɚɧɢ 1.4c
mighty ['maItI] a ɜɟɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣɝɪɨɦɚɞɧɵɣ 1.5a
Milan [mI'lxn] n ɝɆɢɥɚɧE
mile [maIl] n ɦɢɥɹ(ɦɟɪɚɞɥɢɧɵ§ɤɦ) 1.4c
millennium [mI'lenIqm] pl millennia [mI'lenIq] n ɬɵɫɹɱɟɥɟɬɢɟ 2.1b
mini- ['mInI] prefix ɦɢɧɢ- 4.4a
minimise (AmE minimize) ['mInImaIz] v ɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɢɬɶ, ɫɜɨɞɢɬɶ ɤ ɦɢɧɢɦɭɦɭ 3.5a
minor ['maInq] a ɜɬɨɪɨɫɬɟɩɟɧɧɵɣ, ɦɚɥɵɣ 2.4c
mirror ['mIrq] n ɡɟɪɤɚɥɨv ɨɬɪɚɠɚɬɶɨɬɨɛɪɚɠɚɬɶa
mitigate ['mItIgeIt] v ɫɦɹɝɱɚɬɶɭɦɟɧɶɲɚɬɶɨɛɥɟɝɱɚɬɶa
mix [mIks] n ɫɦɟɲɟɧɢɟɫɦɟɫɶɫɨɱɟɬɚɧɢɟɤɨɦɩɥɟɤɫɫɨɫɬɚɜ v ɫɦɟɲɢ
ɜɚɬɶɫɹɫɨɟɞɢɧɹɬɶɫɹɫɨɱɟɬɚɬɶɫɹ mixed a ɫɦɟɲɚɧɧɵɣɪɚɡɧɨɪɨɞɧɵɣa
mm (millimeter) ['mIlI"mJtq] n ɦɢɥɥɢɦɟɬɪ 3.6b
model ['mPdl] n ɦɨɞɟɥɶɦɚɤɟɬɨɛɪɚɡɟɰɷɬɚɥɨɧɩɪɢɦɟɪɬɢɩv ɦɨɞɟɥɢ
ɪɨɜɚɬɶa
modern ['mPdn] a ɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɣɧɨɜɵɣɦɨɞɟɪɧɨɫɬɢɥɟ) 1.11b
modest ['mPdqst] a ɫɤɪɨɦɧɵɣɭɦɟɪɟɧɧɵɣɫɞɟɪɠɚɧɧɵɣɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɟɧɧɵɣb
modification ["mPdIfI'keISqn] n ɞɨɪɚɛɨɬɤɚɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɟɦɨɞɢɮɢɤɚɰɢɹb
modify ['mPdIfaI] v ɢɡɦɟɧɹɬɶɦɨɞɢɮɢɰɢɪɨɜɚɬɶc
modulate ['mPdjVleIt] v ɪɟɝɭɥɢɪɨɜɚɬɶɦɨɞɭɥɢɪɨɜɚɬɶɫɧɢɠɚɬɶa
module ['mPdjHl] n ɛɥɨɤɭɡɟɥɫɟɤɰɢɹɷɥɟɦɟɧɬɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɢb
molding (BrE moulding) ['mqVldIN] n ɫɦ moulding 3.9a
monolithic ["mPnq'lITIk] a ɟɞɢɧɵɣ, ɰɟɥɶɧɵɣ 3.1a
monotony [mq'nPtqnI] n ɦɨɧɨɬɨɧɧɨɫɬɶ, ɨɞɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɟ 1.5a
monument ['mPnjVmqnt] n ɩɚɦɹɬɧɢɤ, ɦɨɧɭɦɟɧɬ 1.1a
monumental ["mPnjV'mentql] 1. ɦɟɦɨɪɢɚɥɶɧɵɣ, ɩɨɪɚɡɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣ 1.6b
mosaic [mqV'zeIIk] n ɦɨɡɚɢɤɚ; a ɦɨɡɚɢɱɧɵɣ 1.8c
282
most [mqVst] n ɛɨɥɶɲɢɧɫɬɜɨ ɛɨɥɶɲɚɹɱɚɫɬɶa 1. superl ɨɬmuch ɢmany
ɧɚɢɛɨɥɶɲɢɣadv 1. superl ɨɬmuch ɛɨɥɶɲɟɜɫɟɝɨɫɥɭɠɢɬɞɥɹɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚ
ɧɢɹɩɪɟɜɨɫɯɫɬɦɧɨɝɨɫɥɨɠɧɵɯɩɪɢɥɚɝɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɯɢɧɚɪɟɱɢɣɨɱɟɧɶɜɟɫɶɦɚ
mostly adv ɝɥɚɜɧɵɦɨɛɪɚɡɨɦɨɛɵɤɧɨɜɟɧɧɨɨɛɵɱɧɨa
motif (pl motives) [mqV'tJf] n ɦɨɬɢɜɷɥɟɦɟɧɬɨɪɧɚɦɟɧɬɚɩɨɜɬɨɪɹɸɳɢɣɫɹ
ɭɡɨɪa
motor car ['mqVtqkR] n ɥɟɝɤɨɜɨɣɚɜɬɨɦɨɛɢɥɶb
mould [mqVld] n ɮɨɪɦɚɲɚɛɥɨɧɨɩɚɥɭɛɤɚa
moulding ['mqVldIN] n ɥɟɩɧɢɧɚɥɟɩɧɨɟɭɤɪɚɲɟɧɢɟɞɟɤɨɪɚɬɢɜɧɚɹɨɬɥɢɜɤɚ
ɩɪɨɮɢɥɶɚɪɯɢɬɟɤɬɭɪɧɨ-ɞɟɤɨɪɚɬɢɜɧɚɹɞɟɬɚɥɶ 1.4c
mount [maVnt] v ɭɫɬɚɧɚɜɥɢɜɚɬɶɦɨɧɬɢɪɨɜɚɬɶa
mountain ['maVntIn] n ɝɨɪɚa
movable ['mHvqbql] a ɩɟɪɟɞɜɢɠɧɨɣɪɚɡɛɨɪɧɵɣɫɴɺɦɧɵɣa
move [mHv] n ɩɨɫɬɭɩɨɤ ɲɚɝv ɞɜɢɝɚɬɶɫɹɩɟɪɟɞɜɢɝɚɬɶɫɹɩɟɪɟɦɟɳɚɬɶɫɹ
move away ɭɛɢɪɚɬɶ ɭɞɚɥɹɬɶc
movement ['mHvmqnt] n ɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɟɩɟɪɟɦɟɳɟɧɢɟɩɟɪɟɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɟɪɚɡɜɢ
ɬɢɟɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɟɨɠɢɜɥɟɧɢɟɬɟɱɟɧɢɟɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɟɯɭɞɨɠɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɟb
multi- [mAltI] prefix ɦɧɨɝɨ-ɦɭɥɶɬɢ- 2.2b
multi- [mAltI] prefix ɦɧɨɝɨ-ɦɭɥɶɬɢ- 2.2b
multiple ['mAltIpql] a ɦɧɨɝɨɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɵɣɦɧɨɠɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɣɪɚɡ
ɧɵɣ 3.6a
multi-storey ["mAltI'stLrI] a ɦɧɨɝɨɷɬɚɠɧɵɣ 2.2b
music ['mjHzIk] n ɦɭɡɵɤɚ 3.12b
mutually ['mjHCVqlI] adv ɜɡɚɢɦɧɨɜɡɚɢɦɨ- 2.1a
narrow ['nxrqV] a ɭɡɤɢɣɬɟɫɧɵɣv ɫɭɠɢɜɚɬɶɫɹ ɭɦɟɧɶɲɚɬɶɫɹa
national ['nxSqnql] a ɧɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɣɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣ nationally adv ɜɦɚɫ
ɲɬɚɛɟɜɫɟɣɫɬɪɚɧɵɫɨɛɳɟɧɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɣɬɨɱɤɢɡɪɟɧɢɹ2.4b
natural ['nxCqrql] a 1. ɟɫɬɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɣɨɛɵɱɧɵɣɧɨɪɦɚɥɶɧɵɣ
ɧɚɫɬɨɹɳɢɣɧɚɬɭɪɚɥɶɧɵɣɡɟɦɧɨɣɮɢɡɢɱɟɫɤɢɣnaturally adv ɟɫɬɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ
ɪɚɡɭɦɟɟɬɫɹɤɚɤɢɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɥɨɨɠɢɞɚɬɶc
nature ['neICq] n ɩɪɢɪɨɞɚɫɜɨɣɫɬɜɚɫɭɳɧɨɫɬɶɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɫɭɳɧɨɫɬɶ2.1b
nave [neIv] n ɧɟɮɜɵɬɹɧɭɬɨɟɩɨɦɟɳɟɧɢɟɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɟɧɧɨɟɫɨɞɧɨɣɢɥɢɫɨɛɟɢɯ
ɩɪɨɞɨɥɶɧɵɯɫɬɨɪɨɧɪɹɞɨɦɤɨɥɨɧɧɢɥɢɫɬɨɥɛɨɜɨɬɞɟɥɹɸɳɢɯɟɝɨɨɬɫɨɫɟɞɧɢɯ
ɧɟɮɨɜ) 1.7a
near [nIq] adv ɛɥɢɡɤɨɧɟɞɚɥɟɤɨɨɤɨɥɨnearly adv ɩɨɱɬɢɱɭɬɶɧɟ1.1a
nearby ['nIqbaI] a ɫɨɫɟɞɧɢɣɛɥɢɡɥɟɠɚɳɢɣɛɥɢɡɤɨɪɚɫɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɧɵɣa
neat [nJt] a ɚɤɤɭɪɚɬɧɵɣɨɬɥɢɱɧɵɣ neatly adv ɚɤɤɭɪɚɬɧɨ2.5b
necessary ['nesIsqrI] a ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɵɣɧɭɠɧɵɣɧɟɢɡɛɟɠɧɵɣnecessarily
["nesI'serIlI] adv ɨɛɹɡɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɧɟɩɪɟɦɟɧɧɨc
need [nJd] n ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨɫɬɶɩɨɬɪɟɛɧɨɫɬɶɧɚɞɨɛɧɨɫɬɶɧɭɠɞɚin need
of ɧɭɠɞɚɬɶɫɹɜmeet the needs ɭɞɨɜɥɟɬɜɨɪɹɬɶɬɪɟɛɨɜɚɧɢɹ/ɩɨɬɪɟɛɧɨɫɬɢ
v ɧɭɠɞɚɬɶɫɹɢɦɟɬɶɧɚɞɨɛɧɨɫɬɶɩɨɬɪɟɛɧɨɫɬɶɬɪɟɛɨɜɚɬɶɫɹɛɵɬɶɧɟɨɛ
ɯɨɞɢɦɵɦɛɵɬɶɞɨɥɠɧɵɦɛɵɬɶɨɛɹɡɚɧɧɵɦɧɭɠɧɨneeded a ɧɭɠɧɵɣɧɟɨɛ
ɯɨɞɢɦɵɣb
283
negative ['negqtIv] a ɨɬɪɢɰɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɣɧɟɝɚɬɢɜɧɵɣɧɟɝɚɬɢɜɧɵɣɨɛɪɚɬɧɵɣ
(ɨɛɢɡɨɛɪɚɠɟɧɢɢ) 2.6a
neighbour ['neIbq] n ɫɨɫɟɞ 2.5b
neighbourhood ['neIbqhVd] n ɪɚɣɨɧɤɜɚɪɬɚɥɫɨɫɟɞɫɬɜɨɫɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɶ
ɨɤɪɟɫɬɧɨɫɬɢɦɟɫɬɧɨɫɬɶ2.2b
neither ['naIDq] pron ɧɢɬɨɬɧɢɞɪɭɝɨɣɧɢɱɬɨ neither … nor… cj ɧɢɧɢb
network ['netwWk] n ɫɟɬɶɫɟɬɤɚɫɯɟɦɚɫɢɫɬɟɦɚɰɟɩɶ1.6b
nevertheless ["nevqDq'les] cj ɨɞɧɚɤɨɬɟɦɧɟɦɟɧɟɟɜɫɺɠɟa
New York ["njH'jLk] n ɝ. ɇɶɸ-Ƀɨɪɤ 3.11b
next [nekst] a ɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɣɫɨɫɟɞɧɢɣɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɣɩɨɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɣprep ɪɹ
ɞɨɦɫɨɤɨɥɨa
noble ['nqVbql] a ɛɥɚɝɨɪɨɞɧɵɣɜɟɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣɩɪɟɤɪɚɫɧɵɣɡɚɦɟɱɚ
ɬɟɥɶɧɵɣɩɪɟɜɨɫɯɨɞɧɵɣb
node [nqVd] n ɭɡɥɨɜɚɹɬɨɱɤɚɭɡɥɨɜɨɣɰɟɧɬɪɬɨɱɤɚɩɟɪɟɫɟɱɟɧɢɹ2.4a
noise [nOIz] n ɲɭɦ noisy ['nOIzI] a ɲɭɦɧɵɣɝɪɨɦɤɢɣb
northeast ["nLT'Jst] n ɫɟɜɟɪɨ-ɜɨɫɬɨɤ a ɫɟɜɟɪɨ-ɜɨɫɬɨɱɧɵɣb
northern ['nLDqn] a ɫɟɜɟɪɧɵɣa
notable ['nqVtqbql] a ɡɚɦɟɬɧɵɣɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣɞɨɫɬɨɩɪɢɦɟɱɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɣ
ɜɵɞɚɸɳɢɣɫɹb
note [nqVt] n ɧɨɬɤɚɩɪɢɡɧɚɤa
noteworthy ['nqVt"wWDI] a ɡɚɫɥɭɠɢɜɚɸɳɢɣɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɹɩɪɢɦɟɱɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɣɩɪɢ
ɦɟɱɚɬɟɥɶɧɨa
Nottingham ['nPtINqm] n ɝɇɨɬɬɢɧɝɟɦɚɞɦɰɟɧɬɪɝɪɚɮɇɨɬɬɢɧɝɟɦɲɢɪ
Ⱥɧɝɥɢɹȼɟɥɢɤɨɛɪɢɬɚɧɢɹ) 2.2a
noxious ['nPkSqs] a ɜɪɟɞɧɵɣɩɚɝɭɛɧɵɣɝɢɛɟɥɶɧɵɣb
nucleus ['njHklIqs] pl nuclei ['njHklIq] n ɹɞɪɨɰɟɧɬɪb
number ['nAmbq] n ɱɢɫɥɨɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɨpl ɛɨɥɶɲɨɟɱɢɫɥɨɦɚɫɫɚa number of ɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɨɟɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɨɧɟɫɤɨɥɶɤɨɪɹɞv ɧɚɫɱɢɬɵɜɚɬɶɡɚɧɭɦɟɪɨ
ɜɚɬɶ 1.2a
numerous ['njHmqrqs] a ɦɧɨɝɨɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɵɣɦɧɨɝɢɟa
object ['PbGekt] n ɨɛɴɟɤɬɩɪɟɞɦɟɬ2.4c
oblong ['PblPN] a ɩɪɨɞɨɥɝɨɜɚɬɵɣɭɞɥɢɧɺɧɧɵɣɜɵɬɹɧɭɬɵɣ1.5b
observer [qb'zWvq] n ɧɚɛɥɸɞɚɬɟɥɶɩɪɨɯɨɠɢɣ2.5b
obtain [qb'teIn] v ɩɨɥɭɱɚɬɶɩɪɢɨɛɪɟɬɚɬɶɞɨɛɢɜɚɬɶɫɹɞɨɫɬɢɝɚɬɶɪɟɚɥɢ
ɡɨɜɵɜɚɬɶɫɹɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɥɹɬɶɫɹ 1.4b
obvious ['PbvIqs] a ɹɜɧɵɣɨɱɟɜɢɞɧɵɣɡɚɦɟɬɧɵɣ obviously adv ɹɜɧɨɛɟɡ
ɭɫɥɨɜɧɨb
occupant ['PkjVpqnt] n ɨɛɢɬɚɬɟɥɶɠɢɬɟɥɶa
occupy ['PkjVpaI] v ɡɚɧɢɦɚɬɶɦɟɫɬɨɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɨɡɚɧɢɦɚɬɶɫɹɱɟɦ-ɥ);
ɭɞɟɥɹɬɶɜɪɟɦɹɱɟɦɭ-ɥ) 1.7a
occur [q'kW] v ɫɥɭɱɚɬɶɫɹɩɪɨɢɫɯɨɞɢɬɶɜɫɬɪɟɱɚɬɶɫɹɩɨɩɚɞɚɬɶɫɹɢɦɟɬɶ
ɦɟɫɬɨb
oculus ['PkjVlqs] n ɨɬɜɟɪɫɬɢɟɜɜɟɪɲɢɧɟɤɭɩɨɥɚɤɪɭɝɥɨɟɨɤɧɨb
284
off [Pf] adv ɭɤɚɡɵɜɚɟɬɧɚ 1. ɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɟɩɪɨɱɶɜɫɬɨɪɨɧɭɢɬɩ – ɩɟɪɟɞɚɺɬɫɹ
ɝɥɚɝɨɥɶɧɵɦɢɩɪɢɫɬɚɜɤɚɦɢ ɨɬ-, ɭ-, ɜɵ-, ɫ-: cut off [kAt'Pf] ɨɬɪɟɡɚɬɶgive off
[gIv'Pf] ɢɫɩɭɫɤɚɬɶ 2. ɫɧɹɬɢɟɩɪɟɞɦɟɬɚɨɞɟɠɞɵɢɥɢɫɥɨɹɩɨɜɟɪɯɧɨɫɬɢ: take
off [teIk'Pf] ɫɧɢɦɚɬɶɜɵɤɥɸɱɟɧɢɟɩɪɢɛɨɪɚɢɥɢɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɚ: turn off [tWn'Pf]
ɜɵɤɥɸɱɚɬɶ 4. ɨɬɞɚɥɺɧɧɨɫɬɶɩɨɪɚɫɫɬɨɹɧɢɸ: make off-site ["meIk'Pf saIt]]
ɢɡɝɨɬɨɜɢɬɶɧɟɧɚɫɬɪɨɣɩɥɨɳɚɞɤɟ 1.11b
offer ['Pfq] v ɹɜɥɹɬɶɫɹɩɪɟɞɥɚɝɚɬɶɜɵɪɚɠɚɬɶb
officials [q'fISqlz] n pl ɞɨɥɠɧɨɫɬɧɵɟɥɢɰɚɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɢɬɟɥɢ4.8a
once [wAns] adv 1. ɨɞɢɧɪɚɡɨɞɧɚɠɞɵɤɨɝɞɚ-ɬɨɧɟɤɨɝɞɚat once ɫɪɚɡɭ
ɧɟɦɟɞɥɟɧɧɨɬɨɬɱɚɫɠɟɜɬɨɠɟɜɪɟɦɹɜɨɞɧɨɢɬɨɠɟɜɪɟɦɹɜɦɟɫɬɟɫɬɟɦ
once again ɟɳɟɪɚɡɫɧɨɜɚcj ɤɚɤɬɨɥɶɤɨ 1.4b
only ['qVnlI] adv ɬɨɥɶɤɨɢɫɤɥɸɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɥɢɲɶcj ɧɨɬɨɥɶɤɨa WKHRQO\ɟɞɢɧ
ɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣb
opening ['qVpqnIN] n ɨɬɜɟɪɫɬɢɟɩɪɨɺɦɩɪɨɫɜɟɬɨɬɤɪɵɬɢɟa
operate ['PpqreIt] v ɪɚɛɨɬɚɬɶ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɨɧɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ 3.4a
operation ["Ppq'reISqn] n ɪɚɛɨɬɚɮɭɧɤɰɢɨɧɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟc
opportunity ["Ppq'tjHnItI] n ɭɞɨɛɧɵɣɫɥɭɱɚɣɛɥɚɝɨɩɪɢɹɬɧɚɹɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɶ
ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɶɩɟɪɫɩɟɤɬɢɜɚc
oppose [q'pqVz] v ɜɫɬɭɩɚɬɶɜɩɪɨɬɢɜɨɪɟɱɢɟɩɪɨɬɢɜɨɩɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɬɶb
opposite ['PpqzIt] n ɩɪɨɬɢɜɨɩɨɥɨɠɧɨɫɬɶ a ɩɪɨɬɢɜɨɩɨɥɨɠɧɵɣjust the opposite ɩɪɹɦɨɫɨɜɟɪɲɟɧɧɨɩɪɨɬɢɜɨɩɨɥɨɠɧɨɟ adv ɧɚɩɪɨɬɢɜ be in opposition to
["Ppe'zISqn@ɤɨɧɬɪɚɫɬɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ 1.8c
optical ['PptIkql] a ɨɩɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɣɡɪɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣc
optimum ['PptImqm] a ɨɩɬɢɦɚɥɶɧɵɣ2.6b
orchestra ['Lkqstrq] n ɨɪɤɟɫɬɪorchestra pit ɨɪɤɟɫɬɪɨɜɚɹɹɦɚb
order ['Ldq] n ɩɨɪɹɞɨɤɩɨɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɶɨɪɞɟɪɫɬɪɨɣin order to
ɞɥɹɬɨɝɨɱɬɨɛɵv ɭɩɨɪɹɞɨɱɢɜɚɬɶɩɪɢɜɨɞɢɬɶɜɩɨɪɹɞɨɤb
ordering ['LdqrIN] n ɭɩɨɪɹɞɨɱɟɧɢɟɪɚɫɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɟa
orderly ['LdqlI] a ɭɩɨɪɹɞɨɱɟɧɧɵɣɦɟɬɨɞɢɱɧɵɣb
organic [L'gxnIk] a ɝɚɪɦɨɧɢɱɧɵɣɨɪɝɚɧɢɱɧɵɣɟɫɬɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣa
organisation ɫɦ organise 3.2a
organise (AmE organize) ['LgqnaIz] v ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɨɜɵɜɚɬɶɭɫɬɪɚɢɜɚɬɶɮɨɪɦɢɪɨ
ɜɚɬɶ organisation (AmE organization) ["LgqnaI'zeISqn] n ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɹɫɬɪɭɤ
ɬɭɪɚɤɨɧɮɢɝɭɪɚɰɢɹɭɫɬɪɨɣɫɬɜɨ organiser (AmE organizer) ['LgqnaIzq] n ɨɪ
ɝɚɧɢɡɚɬɨɪ 1.8c
orientate ['LrIqnteIt] v ɨɪɢɟɧɬɢɪɨɜɚɬɶɪɚɫɩɨɥɚɝɚɬɶ2.6a
orientation ["LrIqn'teISqn] n ɨɪɢɟɧɬɚɰɢɹɪɚɫɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɟɫ
origin ['PrIGIn] n ɢɫɬɨɤɢɩɟɪɜɨɢɫɬɨɱɧɢɤɜɨɡɧɢɤɧɨɜɟɧɢɟɩɪɨɢɫɯɨɠɞɟ
ɧɢɟb
original [q'rIGInql] n 1. ɨɪɢɝɢɧɚɥɩɨɞɥɢɧɧɢɤɩɟɪɜɨɢɫɬɨɱɧɢɤɩɪɨɬɨɬɢɩ
a ɨɪɢɝɢɧɚɥɶɧɵɣɩɨɞɥɢɧɧɵɣɫɚɦɨɛɵɬɧɵɣɩɟɪɜɨɧɚɱɚɥɶɧɵɣɢɫɯɨɞɧɵɣ
originally adv ɩɟɪɜɨɧɚɱɚɥɶɧɨɩɨɧɚɱɚɥɭ1.1a
Orlando [L'lxndqV] n ɝɈɪɥɚɧɞɨb
285
ornament ['Lnqmqnt] n. 1. ɨɪɧɚɦɟɧɬɤɪɚɫɨɬɚv ɨɪɧɚɦɟɧɬɢɪɨɜɚɬɶɭɤɪɚ
ɲɚɬɶ1.1a
ornamental ["Lnq'mentl] a ɫɥɭɠɚɳɢɣɭɤɪɚɲɟɧɢɟɦɨɪɧɚɦɟɧɬɚɥɶɧɵɣɞɟɤɨɪɚ
ɬɢɜɧɵɣa
ornamentation ["Lnqmen'teISqn] n ɞɟɤɨɪɚɬɢɜɧɨɟɭɤɪɚɲɟɧɢɟc
ornate [L'neIt] a ɧɚɪɹɞɧɵɣɨɫɬɢɥɟɢɡɵɫɤɚɧɧɨ ɭɤɪɚɲɟɧɧɵɣb
orthogonal [L'TPgqnql] a ɨɪɬɨɝɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɣɩɪɹɦɨɭɝɨɥɶɧɵɣb
otherwise ['ADqwaIz] adv ɜɞɪɭɝɢɯɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɹɯ ɢɧɚɱɟɢɧɵɦɨɛɪɚɡɨɦɩɨɞɪɭɝɨɦɭ 1.11a
outdoor ["aVt'dL] a ɜɧɟɲɧɢɣɧɚɪɭɠɧɵɣɧɚɨɬɤɪɵɬɨɦɜɨɡɞɭɯɟɜɧɟɩɨɦɟɳɟ
ɧɢɹ outdoors n ɞɜɨɪɭɥɢɰɚ adv ɫɧɚɪɭɠɢɧɚɭɥɢɰɟa
outer ['aVtq] a ɜɧɟɲɧɢɣɧɚɪɭɠɧɵɣb
outline ['aVtlaIn] n ɨɱɟɪɬɚɧɢɟɤɨɧɬɭɪ v ɨɱɟɪɱɢɜɚɬɶɨɛɨɡɧɚɱɢɬɶa
outpatient ['aVt"peISqnt] a ɚɦɛɭɥɚɬɨɪɧɵɣoutpatients ['aVt"peISqnts] n ɚɦɛɭ
ɥɚɬɨɪɧɨɟɨɬɞɟɥɟɧɢɟoutpatient care ɚɦɛɭɥɚɬɨɪɧɨɟɥɟɱɟɧɢɟa
outside ['aVtsaId] n ɧɚɪɭɠɧɚɹɱɚɫɬɶɫɬɨɪɨɧɚɜɧɟɲɧɹɹɩɨɜɟɪɯɧɨɫɬɶa ɧɚɪɭɠ
ɧɵɣɜɧɟɲɧɢɣ>aVt'saId] adv ɫɧɚɪɭɠɧɨɣɫɬɨɪɨɧɵɫɧɚɪɭɠɢɧɚɪɭɠɭ
prep ɜɧɟɡɚɩɪɟɞɟɥɚɦɢb
over ['qVvq] prep ɩɨɧɚɧɚɞɜɵɲɟ ɫɜɟɪɯɛɨɥɶɲɟ ɜɬɟɱɟɧɢɟɡɚɩɨ
ɬɭɫɬɨɪɨɧɭɡɚgive over ɩɟɪɟɞɚɜɚɬɶlook over ɜɵɯɨɞɢɬɶɧɚɫɦɨɬɪɟɬɶɧɚturn
over ɩɟɪɟɜɨɪɚɱɢɜɚɬɶover time ɫɬɟɱɟɧɢɟɦɜɪɟɦɟɧɢa
overall ["qVvqr'Ll] a ɨɛɳɢɣ, ɩɨɥɧɵɣ 3.9a
overcome ["qVvq'kAm] v ɩɪɟɨɞɨɥɟɜɚɬɶ 2.6a
overhang ['qVvqhxN] n ɜɵɫɬɭɩɚɸɳɢɣ ɜɟɪɯɧɢɣ ɷɬɚɠ, ɜɵɫɬɭɩ; ["qVvq'hxN] v
ɜɵɫɬɭɩɚɬɶ ɧɚɞ; ɜɵɞɚɜɚɬɶɫɹ 3.3a
overheating ɫɦ heating ɫ
overlap ['qVvqlxp] v ɫɨɜɦɟɳɚɬɶɫɹɱɚɫɬɢɱɧɨɫɨɜɩɚɞɚɬɶɡɚɯɨɞɢɬɶɨɞɢɧ
ɡɚɞɪɭɝɨɣɩɟɪɟɤɪɵɜɚɬɶɞɪɭɝɞɪɭɝɚɫɨɟɞɢɧɹɬɶɜɧɚɯɥɺɫɬɤɭ2.4c
overlook ["qVvq'lVk] v ɜɵɯɨɞɢɬɶɧɚɫɦɨɬɪɟɬɶɧɚɜɨɡɜɵɲɚɬɶɫɹɧɚɞa
overly ['qVvqlI] adv ɱɪɟɡɦɟɪɧɨɢɡɥɢɲɧɟɫɥɢɲɤɨɦ 1.12b
override ["qVvq'raId] v ɩɨɞɚɜɥɹɬɶɩɪɟɨɛɥɚɞɚɬɶɞɨɦɢɧɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ overriding a
ɜɚɠɧɟɣɲɢɣɞɨɦɢɧɢɪɭɸɳɢɣa
overwhelming ["qVvq'welmIN] a ɨɲɟɥɨɦɥɹɸɳɢɣɩɨɬɪɹɫɚɸɳɢɣb
owe [qV] v ɛɵɬɶɨɛɹɡɚɧɧɵɦɱɟɦɭ-ɥɤɨɦɭ-ɥɭɧɚɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɶɨɬowing to
prep ɛɥɚɝɨɞɚɪɹɜɫɥɟɞɫɬɜɢɟɩɨɩɪɢɱɢɧɟ 1.4c
own [qVn] v ɢɦɟɬɶɜɥɚɞɟɬɶɨɛɥɚɞɚɬɶa ɫɜɨɣɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣa
owner ['qVnq] n ɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɢɤɜɥɚɞɟɥɟɰ4.4c
paint [peInt] n ɤɪɚɫɤɚv ɩɢɫɚɬɶɤɪɚɫɤɚɦɢɤɪɚɫɢɬɶɪɚɫɤɪɚɲɢɜɚɬɶa
painting ['peIntIN] n ɠɢɜɨɩɢɫɶɤɚɪɬɢɧɚwall painting ɮɪɟɫɤɚɮɪɟɫɤɨɜɚɹɠɢ
ɜɨɩɢɫɶc
pair [peq] n ɩɚɪɚb
pale [peIl] a ɫɥɚɛɵɣɛɥɟɤɥɵɣ ɫɜɟɬɥɨ- (ɨɰɜɟɬɟ), pale-colored ɛɥɟɞɧɨɨɤɪɚɲɟɧ
ɧɵɣa
286
palette ['pxlqt] n ɩɚɥɢɬɪɚ ɧɚɛɨɪb
panel ['pxnl] n ɨɛɥɢɰɨɜɨɱɧɚɹɩɚɧɟɥɶɮɢɥɺɧɤɚɩɥɢɬɚ ɳɢɬɩɟɪɟɧɨɫɧɚɹ
ɡɚɝɨɪɨɞɤɚwall panel ɫɬɟɧɨɜɚɹɩɚɧɟɥɶv ɨɛɲɢɜɚɬɶɩɚɧɟɥɹɦɢɨɬɞɟɥɵɜɚɬɶ
ɮɢɥɺɧɤɚɦɢ ɨɬɞɟɥɵɜɚɬɶɞɟɤɨɪɚɬɢɜɧɨɣɩɨɥɨɫɨɣɢɥɢɜɫɬɚɜɤɨɣpaneling (ɩɚ
ɧɟɥɶɧɚɹɨɛɲɢɜɤɚ1.4a
Pantheon ['pxnTIqn] n ɉɚɧɬɟɨɧ©ɯɪɚɦɜɫɟɯɛɨɝɨɜªɜɊɢɦɟɩɚɦɹɬɧɢɤɰɟɧ
ɬɪɢɱɟɫɤɨ-ɤɭɩɨɥɶɧɨɣɚɪɯɢɬɟɤɬɭɪɵɩɟɪɢɨɞɚɪɚɫɰɜɟɬɚɚɪɯɢɬɟɤɬɭɪɵȾɪɟɜɧɟɝɨ
Ɋɢɦɚɩɨɫɬɪɨɟɧɧɵɣɜɝɨɞɭɧɷ) 1.5b
parallel ['pxrqlql] n ɩɚɪɚɥɥɟɥɶ a ɩɚɪɚɥɥɟɥɶɧɵɣ adv ɩɚɪɚɥɥɟɥɶɧɨ 3.12a
Paris ['pxrIs] n ɝ. ɉɚɪɢɠ 1.12c
park [pRk] n ɩɚɪɤɫɤɜɟɪ v ɩɚɪɤɨɜɚɬɶɫɹɫɬɚɜɢɬɶɧɚɫɬɨɹɧɤɭbusiness park
ɞɟɥɨɜɨɣɪɚɣɨɧcar park ɫɬɨɹɧɤɚɚɜɬɨɦɨɛɢɥɟɣa
parking ['pRkIN] n ɫɬɨɹɧɤɚɩɚɪɤɨɜɤɚparking deck ɷɬɚɠɝɚɪɚɠɚparking lot
ɦɟɫɬɨɫɬɨɹɧɤɢb
parkland ['pRklxnd] n ɡɟɥɟɧɚɹɩɚɪɤɨɜɚɹɡɨɧɚɩɚɪɤɨɜɵɣɥɟɫ2.5a
parliament ['pRlqmqnt] n ɩɚɪɥɚɦɟɧɬ4.12a
part [pRt] n ɱɚɫɬɶɤɨɦɩɨɧɟɧɬɷɥɟɦɟɧɬɫɟɝɦɟɧɬfor the most part ɛɨɥɶɲɟɣ
ɱɚɫɬɶɸin part ɱɚɫɬɢɱɧɨpartly ['pRtlI] adv ɱɚɫɬɢɱɧɨa
Parthenon ['pRTInqn] n ɉɚɪɮɟɧɨɧa
particular [pq'tIkjVlq] a ɨɫɨɛɵɣɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɵɣɫɩɟɰɢɮɢɱɟɫɤɢɣin particular ɜ
ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɢɜɱɚɫɬɧɨɫɬɢ particularly adv ɨɱɟɧɶɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɜɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ2.1b
partition [pR'tISqn] n ɜɧɭɬɪɟɧɧɹɹɫɬɟɧɚɩɟɪɟɝɨɪɨɞɤɚb
partner ['pRtnq] n ɤɨɦɩɚɧɶɨɧ, ɩɚɪɬɧɺɪ 3.10a
pass [pRs] v ɢɞɬɢɩɪɨɯɨɞɢɬɶɩɪɨɬɟɤɚɬɶɩɟɪɟɞɚɜɚɬɶɫɨɨɛɳɚɬɶb
passage ['pxsIG] n ɩɪɨɯɨɞɯɨɞ ɩɟɪɟɯɨɞb
passageway ['pxsIGweI] n ɤɨɪɢɞɨɪɩɪɨɯɨɞɩɟɪɟɯɨɞa
passive ['pxsIv] a ɩɚɫɫɢɜɧɵɣa
past [pRst] n ɩɪɨɲɥɨɟ adv ɦɢɦɨ ɡɚɪɚɦɤɢɩɪɟɞɟɥɵ 3.8c
path [pRT] n ɩɭɬɶɞɨɪɨɝɚ ɞɨɪɨɠɤɚ footpath ['fVtpRT] n ɩɟɲɟɯɨɞɧɚɹɞɨ
ɪɨɠɤɚɬɪɨɩɢɧɤɚ pathway ['pRTweI] n ɬɪɨɩɚɞɨɪɨɠɤɚɞɨɪɨɝɚɩɭɬɶ2.4a
pathway ɫɦ. path 2.1b
patient ['peISqnt] n ɩɚɰɢɟɧɬ 3.2a
patio ['pxtIqV] n ɩɚɬɢɨɨɬɤɪɵɬɵɣɜɧɭɬɪɟɧɧɢɣɞɜɨɪɞɜɨɪɢɤɬɟɪɪɚɫɚb
pattern ['pxtqn] n ɫɯɟɦɚɮɨɪɦɚɦɨɞɟɥɶɪɢɫɭɧɨɤɭɡɨɪɫɬɢɥɶɯɚɪɚɤ
ɬɟɪɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɶɨɛɪɚɡɟɰɲɚɛɥɨɧgrid pattern ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɚɪɚɫɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɹ
v 1. ɤɨɩɢɪɨɜɚɬɶɭɤɪɚɲɚɬɶɭɡɨɪɨɦ2.1b
pave [peIv] v ɦɨɫɬɢɬɶɜɵɫɬɢɥɚɬɶ2.4c
pavilion [pq'vIljqn] n 1. (ɜɵɫɬɚɜɨɱɧɵɣɩɚɜɢɥɶɨɧɛɟɫɟɞɤɚɱɚɫɬɶɡɞɚɧɢɹ
ɮɥɢɝɟɥɶa
peaceful ['pJsfql] a ɬɢɯɢɣ, ɫɩɨɤɨɣɧɵɣ 3.2a
pedestrian [pq'destrIqn] n ɩɟɲɟɯɨɞ; a ɩɟɲɢɣ, ɩɟɲɟɯɨɞɧɵɣ 2.2b
pediment ['pedImqnt] n ɮɪɨɧɬɨɧ 1.4a
pendentive [pqn'dentIv] n ɩɚɪɭɫ (ɫɜɨɞɚ ɢɥɢ ɤɭɩɨɥɚ) 1.8 a
287
people ['pJpql] n ɧɚɪɨɞ 2. ɥɸɞɢɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɢɟɠɢɬɟɥɢ 1.1b
perceive [pq'sJv] v ɜɨɫɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɬɶɨɳɭɳɚɬɶɱɭɜɫɬɜɨɜɚɬɶ2.6b
percent [pq'sent] n ɩɪɨɰɟɧɬc
perception [pq'sepSqn] n ɜɨɫɩɪɢɹɬɢɟɨɳɭɳɟɧɢɟɨɫɨɡɧɚɧɢɟɩɨɧɢɦɚɧɢɟ2.1b
perceptual [pq'sepCVql] a ɫɭɛɴɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɜɨɫɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɟɦɵɣɩɟɪɰɟɩɰɢɨɧɧɵɣ2.4a
perfect ['pWfIkt] a ɫɨɜɟɪɲɟɧɧɵɣɛɟɡɭɩɪɟɱɧɵɣɢɞɟɚɥɶɧɵɣperfectly adv ɩɨɥ
ɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɢɞɟɚɥɶɧɨ1.5a
perfection [pq'fekSqn] n ɫɨɜɟɪɲɟɧɫɬɜɨɛɟɡɭɩɪɟɱɧɨɫɬɶa
perforate ['pWfqreIt] v ɩɟɪɮɨɪɢɪɨɜɚɬɶɩɪɨɫɜɟɪɥɢɜɚɬɶɩɪɨɧɢɡɵɜɚɬɶɩɪɨɛɢ
ɜɚɬɶ perforation ["pWfq'reISqn] n ɨɬɜɟɪɫɬɢɟb
perform [pq'fLm] v ɢɫɩɨɥɧɹɬɶɜɵɩɨɥɧɹɬɶb
performance [pq'fLmqns] n ɜɵɫɬɭɩɥɟɧɢɟɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɟhigh performance
a ɜɵɫɨɤɨɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣb
pergola ['pWgqlq] n ɩɟɪɝɨɥɚɛɟɫɟɞɤɚɚɪɤɚɢɥɢɤɪɵɬɚɹɚɥɥɟɹɢɡɜɶɸɳɢɯɫɹ
ɪɚɫɬɟɧɢɣ) 3.2b
perimeter [pq'rImItq] n ɩɟɪɢɦɟɬɪɜɧɟɲɧɹɹɝɪɚɧɢɰɚ perimeter heating ɩɟɪɢ
ɦɟɬɪɚɥɶɧɨɟɨɬɨɩɥɟɧɢɟ 2.9a
peripheral [pq'rIfqrql] a ɩɟɪɢɮɟɪɢɣɧɵɣɜɫɩɨɦɨɝɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɣɞɨɩɨɥɧɢɬɟɥɶ
ɧɵɣa
periphery [pq'rIfqrI] n ɩɟɪɢɮɟɪɢɹɤɪɚɣɜɧɟɲɧɹɹɝɪɚɧɢɰɚa
peristyle ['perIstaIl] n ɩɟɪɢɫɬɢɥɶɤɨɥɨɧɧɵɨɤɪɭɠɚɸɳɢɟɡɞɚɧɢɟɢɥɢɜɧɭɬɪɟɧ
ɧɢɣɞɜɨɪ) 1.6b
permanence ['pWmqnqns] n ɧɟɢɡɦɟɧɧɨɫɬɶɩɨɫɬɨɹɧɫɬɜɨb
permanent ['pWmqnqnt] a ɩɨɫɬɨɹɧɧɵɣ permanently adv ɩɨɫɬɨɹɧɧRD
permit [pq'mIt] v ɞɚɜɚɬɶɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɶɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɬɶpermit of ɞɨɩɭɫɤɚɬɶ
['pWmIt] n ɪɚɡɪɟɲɟɧɢɟ 1.9b
perpendicular ["pWpqn'dIkjVlq] a ɩɟɪɩɟɧɞɢɤɭɥɹɪɧɵɣb
perspective [pq'spektIv] n 1. ɜɢɞɪɚɤɭɪɫɩɪɨɟɤɰɢɹɩɟɪɫɩɟɤɬɢɜɚ a ɨɩɬɢɱɟ
ɫɤɢɣɡɪɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣ 1.11a
phase [feIz] n ɫɬɚɞɢɹɮɚɡɚɷɬɚɩ phasing ['feIzIN] n ɩɨɷɬɚɩɧɨɫɬɶa
phenomenon [fI'nPmInqn] pl phenomena [fI'nPmInq] n ɹɜɥɟɧɢɟɮɟɧɨɦɟɧ2.4c
physical ['fIzIkql] a ɮɢɡɢɱɟɫɤɢɣɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɶɧɵɣɜɟɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣphysically adv
ɮɢɡɢɱɟɫɤɢɫɨɜɟɪɲɟɧɧɨɩɨɥɧɨɫɬɶɸ2.1a
piazza [pI'xtsq] n ɩɥɨɳɚɞɶa
picturesque ["pIkCq'resk] a ɠɢɜɨɩɢɫɧɵɣɤɨɥɨɪɢɬɧɵɣɨɪɢɝɢɧɚɥɶɧɵɣ2.5b
piece [pJs] n ɩɪɨɢɡɜɟɞɟɧɢɟɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɚɞɟɬɚɥɶɱɚɫɬɶɭɱɚɫɬɨɤɮɪɚɝɦɟɧɬ2.5a
pier [pIq] n ɫɬɨɣɤɚɫɬɨɥɛɩɢɥɨɧɤɢɪɩɢɱɧɚɹɤɨɥɨɧɧɚɢɥɢɩɢɥɹɫɬɪɚ
ɨɩɨɪɚa
pierce [pIqs] v ɩɪɨɪɟɡɚɬɶ ɩɪɨɧɡɚɬɶɩɪɨɬɵɤɚɬɶ 1.8a
pilaster [pI'lxstq] n ɩɢɥɹɫɬɪb
pile [paIl] n ɫɜɚɹɫɬɨɥɛ v ɧɚɝɪɨɦɨɠɞɚɬɶɫɤɥɚɞɵɜɚɬɶɜɤɭɱɭa
pillar ['pIlq] n ɤɨɥɨɧɧɚɩɢɥɨɧɫɬɨɣɤɚɨɩɨɪɚpillared a ɫɩɢɥɨɧɚɦɢ1.4b
288
pine [paIn] n ɫɨɫɧɚ 3.10a
pink [pINk] n ɪɨɡɨɜɵɣ ɰɜɟɬ 3.3b
pitch [pIC] n ɭɤɥɨɧ ɫɤɚɬɚ (ɤɪɵɲɢ); pitched a ɢɦɟɸɳɢɣ ɭɤɥɨɧ, ɢɦɟɸɳɢɣ ɨɩɪɟ
ɞɟɥɟɧɧɭɸ ɜɵɫɨɬɭ; single-pitch roof ɨɞɧɨɫɤɚɬɧɚɹ ɤɪɵɲɚ; pitched-roof ɫɤɚɬɧɚɹ
ɤɪɵɲɚ 1.10a
place [pleIs] n ɦɟɫɬɨ ɝɨɪɨɞɧɚɫɟɥɺɧɧɵɣɩɭɧɤɬ 3. ɡɞɚɧɢɟɩɨɦɟɳɟɧɢɟ
ɦɟɫɬɨ 4. ɦɟɫɬɨɭɱɚɫɬɨɤ give place ɭɫɬɭɩɚɬɶɦɟɫɬɨ take place ɫɥɭɱɚɬɶɫɹɩɪɨ
ɢɫɯɨɞɢɬɶɢɦɟɬɶɦɟɫɬɨ take smb.'s place ɡɚɧɹɬɶɱɶɺ-ɥɦɟɫɬɨɡɚɦɟɧɢɬɶɱɬɨ-ɥ
v 1. ɫɬɚɜɢɬɶɩɨɦɟɳɚɬɶɪɚɡɦɟɳɚɬɶ 2. ɫɬɚɜɢɬɶ ɞɟɥɚɬɶb
placement ['pleIsmqnt] n ɪɚɫɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɟɪɚɡɦɟɳɟɧɢɟɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɚa
plain [pleIn] n ɪɚɜɧɢɧɚa ɩɪɨɫɬɨɣɧɟɡɚɦɵɫɥɨɜɚɬɵɣɨɛɵɤɧɨɜɟɧɧɵɣ ɨɞ
ɧɨɰɜɟɬɧɵɣɛɟɡɭɡɨɪɚɢɥɢɪɢɫɭɧɤɚflood plain ɫɦ flood; plainly adv ɨɬɤɪɨ
ɜɟɧɧɨɩɪɹɦɨa
plan [plxn] n ɩɥɚɧɱɟɪɬɺɠɩɪɨɟɤɬɫɯɟɦɚɝɨɪɢɡɨɧɬɚɥɶɧɚɹɩɪɨɟɤɰɢɹ
ɩɪɨɟɤɬɩɪɨɟɤɬɩɥɚɧɢɪɨɜɤɢv ɩɥɚɧɢɪɨɜɚɬɶɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɬɶɩɥɚɧplanning n
ɩɥɚɧɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟɩɥɚɧɢɪɨɜɤɚɩɪɨɟɤɬɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟɪɚɡɪɚɛɨɬɤɚɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɢ1.4b
plane [pleIn] n ɩɥɨɫɤɨɫɬɶɩɥɨɫɤɚɹɩɨɜɟɪɯɧɨɫɬɶɭɪɨɜɟɧɶc
plank [plxNk] n ɞɨɫɤɚɩɥɚɧɤɚɪɟɣɤɚ concrete plank ɠɟɥɟɡɨɛɟɬɨɧɧɚɹɩɥɚ
ɫɬɢɧɚa
planning ['plxnIN] n ɩɥɚɧɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟɩɪɨɟɤɬɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟplanning design ɩɟɪ
ɫɩɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɟɩɪɨɟɤɬɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ 1.5a
plant [plRnt] n ɡɚɜɨɞɩɪɟɞɩɪɢɹɬɢɟɫɬɚɧɰɢɹ v ɫɚɠɚɬɶ ɡɚɫɚɠɢɜɚɬɶ planting
['plRntIN] n ɨɡɟɥɟɧɟɧɢɟ ɧɚɫɚɠɞɟɧɢɟpower plant ɷɥɟɤɬɪɨɫɬɚɧɰɢɹb
planting ['plRntIN] ɫɦ. plant 2.7a
plaster ['plRstq] n ɲɬɭɤɚɬɭɪɤɚ, ɫɭɯɚɹ ɲɬɭɤɚɬɭɪɤɚ 1.10a
plastic ['plxstIk] n ɩɥɚɫɬɢɤ; a ɩɥɚɫɬɢɱɧɵɣ plastic art ɫɤɭɥɶɩɬɭɪɚ; ɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɨ
ɜɚɹɧɢɹ 1.5a
plate [pleIt] n ɩɥɢɬɚɧɚɫɬɢɥfloor plate ɩɥɢɬɚɩɟɪɟɤɪɵɬɢɹɩɥɢɬɚɩɨɥɚ
ɦɟɬɚɥɥɢɱɟɫɤɢɣɧɚɫɬɢɥɩɨɥɚa
platform ['plxtfLm] n ɩɥɚɬɮɨɪɦɚɩɥɨɳɚɞɤɚc
play [pleI] n ɢɫɩɨɥɧɟɧɢɟv ɢɝɪɚɬɶɩɨɦɟɳɚɬɶɪɚɫɩɨɥɚɝɚɬɶb
plaza ['plRzq] n ɩɥɨɳɚɞɶb
please [plJz] v ɞɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɬɶɭɞɨɜɨɥɶɫɬɜɢɟɪɚɞɨɜɚɬɶ2.6a
pleasure ['pleZq] n ɭɞɨɜɨɥɶɫɬɜɢɟɧɚɫɥɚɠɞɟɧɢɟ2.1a
plenary chamber ['plJnqrI "CeImbq] ɡɚɥɩɥɟɧɚɪɧɵɯɡɚɫɟɞɚɧɢɣ 4.12b
plenty ['plentI] n ɨɛɢɥɢɟɦɧɨɝɨɦɧɨɠɟɫɬɜɨa
plinth [plInT] n ɰɨɤɨɥɶɩɨɞɤɨɥɨɧɧɢɤa
plot [plPt] n (ɡɟɦɟɥɶɧɵɣɭɱɚɫɬɨɤb
plywood ['plaIwVd] n ɮɚɧɟɪɚmarine plywood [mq"rJn 'plaIwVd@ɫɭɞɨɫɬɪɨɢ
ɬɟɥɶɧɚɹɮɚɧɟɪɚb
podium ['pqVdIqm] n ɩɨɞɢɭɦɩɪɹɦɨɭɝɨɥɶɧɚɹɜɨɡɜɵɲɟɧɧɚɹɩɥɚɬɮɨɪɦɚ
ɫɥɟɫɬɧɢɰɟɣɫɬɨɪɰɟɜɨɣɫɬɨɪɨɧɵ) 1.6a
point [pOInt] n ɬɨɱɤɚɦɨɦɟɧɬɜɪɟɦɟɧɢɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɟɩɨɡɢɰɢɹɦɟɫɬɨ
289
v 1. ɭɤɚɡɵɜɚɬɶɩɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɬɶ 2. ɨɛɪɚɳɚɬɶɱɶɺ-ɥɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟ pointed ['pOIntId] a
ɨɫɬɪɨɤɨɧɟɱɧɵɣɤɨɧɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ 1.1b
policy ['pPlIsI] n ɫɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɹɫɢɫɬɟɦɚ2.7b
polished ['pPlISt] a ɩɨɥɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɣɨɬɩɨɥɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɣɝɥɚɞɤɢɣ diamond-polished ɨɬɲɥɢɮɨɜɚɧɧɵɣɚɥɦɚɡɧɵɦɢɧɫɬɪɭɦɟɧɬɨɦb
pollution [pq'lHSqn] n ɡɚɝɪɹɡɧɟɧɢɟɨɤɪɭɠɚɸɳɟɣɫɪɟɞɵ) 2.3a
polygonal [pq'lIgqnl] a ɦɧɨɝɨɭɝɨɥɶɧɵɣɩɨɥɢɝɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɣa
pool [pHl] n ɩɪɭɞɜɨɞɨɺɦɛɚɫɫɟɣɧreflecting pool ɞɥɢɧɧɵɣɜɨɞɨɺɦ
swimming pool ['swImIN "pHl@ɩɥɚɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɣɛɚɫɫɟɣɧc
popular ['pPpjVlq] a ɧɚɪɨɞɧɵɣɩɨɩɭɥɹɪɧɵɣ ɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɺɧɧɵɣc
populate ['pPpjVleIt] v ɧɚɫɟɥɹɬɶɡɚɫɟɥɹɬɶc
population ["pPpjV'leISqn] n ɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɢɟɠɢɬɟɥɢɫɨɫɬɚɜb
porch [pLC] n ɩɨɪɬɢɤɤɪɵɬɚɹɝɚɥɟɪɟɹɜɟɪɚɧɞɚ ɬɟɪɪɚɫɚ 1.4a
portal ['pLtl] n ɩɨɪɬɚɥɝɥɚɜɧɵɣɜɯɨɞɞɜɟɪɶɜɨɪɨɬɚɬɚɦɛɭɪɞɜɟɪɟɣ) 1.7b
portico ['pLtIkqV] n ɩɨɪɬɢɤɝɚɥɟɪɟɹb
portion ['pLSqn] n ɱɚɫɬɶɞɨɥɹ ɭɱɚɫɬɨɤc
position [pq'zISqn] n ɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɟɦɟɫɬɨɧɚɯɨɠɞɟɧɢɟɪɚɫɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɟɦɟɫɬɨ
v ɪɚɫɩɨɥɚɝɚɬɶɭɫɬɚɧɚɜɥɢɜɚɬɶ2.5b
positive ['pPzItIv] a ɬɨɱɧɵɣɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɺɧɧɵɣɹɜɧɵɣɤɨɧɤɪɟɬɧɵɣɩɨɥɨɠɢ
ɬɟɥɶɧɵɣ positively adv ɛɟɡɭɫɥɨɜɧɨɧɟɫɨɦɧɟɧɧɨɩɨɥɨɠɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɭɬɜɟɪɞɢ
ɬɟɥɶɧɨ2.5a
possess [pq'zes] v ɨɛɥɚɞɚɬɶɢɦɟɬɶb
possibility ["pPsI'bIlItI] n ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɶɜɟɪɨɹɬɧɨɫɬɶc
possible ['pPsIbql] a ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɵɣɜɟɪɨɹɬɧɵɣɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɢɦɵɣɞɨɩɭɫɬɢɦɵɣc
post [pqVst] n ɫɬɨɣɤɚɫɬɨɥɛprefix ɩɨɫɥɟ-ɩɨɫɬ- 1.12a
postwar ["pqVst'wL] a ɩɨɫɥɟɜɨɟɧɧɵɣa
potent ['pqVtqnt] a ɦɨɳɧɵɣɤɪɟɩɤɢɣɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɵɣb
potential [pq'tenSql] n ɩɨɬɟɧɰɢɚɥɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɶ a ɩɨɬɟɧɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɣɜɨɡɦɨɠ
ɧɵɣc
pour [pL] v ɡɚɥɢɜɚɬɶɭɤɥɚɞɵɜɚɬɶɛɟɬɨɧɧɭɸɫɦɟɫɶɛɟɬɨɧɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ pouring['pLrIN] n ɡɚɥɢɜɤɚ/ɭɤɥɚɞɤɚɛɟɬɨɧɧɨɣɫɦɟɫɢ); poured concrete ɦɨɧɨɥɢɬ
ɧɵɣɥɢɬɨɣɛɟɬɨɧ poured-in-place ɦɨɧɨɥɢɬɧɵɣɨɬɥɢɬɵɣɧɚɦɟɫɬɟa
poverty ['pPvqtI] n ɫɤɭɞɨɫɬɶ ɛɟɞɧɨɫɬɶɧɢɳɟɬɚ 1.11a
power ['paVq] n ɫɢɥɚɦɨɳɶɦɨɝɭɳɟɫɬɜɨɫɢɥɚɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɶɫɩɨɫɨɛ
ɧɨɫɬɶɷɧɟɪɝɢɹɜɥɚɫɬɶv ɩɪɢɜɨɞɢɬɶɜɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟa
powerful ['paVqfql] a ɫɢɥɶɧɵɣ, ɦɨɳɧɵɣ 3.4b
practical ['prxktIkql] a ɭɬɢɥɢɬɚɪɧɵɣɩɪɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ1.5a
practice ['prxktIs] n ɩɪɚɤɬɢɤɚɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɢɜɲɢɣɫɹɩɨɪɹɞɨɤɨɛɵɱɚɣ
3. ɨɩɵɬ 1.3a
pre- [prJ] pref ɩɪɟɞ-ɞɨ- 1.10a
precast ["prJ'kRst] a ɡɚɜɨɞɫɤɨɝɨɢɡɝɨɬɨɜɥɟɧɢɹɫɛɨɪɧɵɣɨɛɟɬɨɧɟ); precast
concrete ɫɛɨɪɧɵɣɛɟɬɨɧ 3.1b
precede [prI'sJd] v ɩɪɟɞɲɟɫɬɜɨɜɚɬɶD
290
precinct ['prJsINkt] n 1. (ɨɝɨɪɨɠɟɧɧɚɹɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɹɜɨɤɪɭɝɡɞɚɧɢɹɨɫɨɛɰɟɪɤɜɢ
ɢɥɢɫɨɛɨɪɚɪɚɣɨɧɱɚɫɬɶɝɨɪɨɞɚɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɟɦɚɹɞɥɹɤɚɤɢɯ-ɥɰɟɥɟɣ) 1.3b
precise [prI'saIs] a ɹɫɧɵɣɨɬɱɺɬɥɢɜɵɣɱɺɬɤɢɣprecisely adv ɬɨɱɧɨɫɬɪɨɝɨ
ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɺɧɧɨb
predict [prI'dIkt] v ɩɪɟɞɫɤɚɡɵɜɚɬɶ 3.4a
pre-eminently [prJ'emInqntlI] adv ɜ ɩɟɪɜɭɸ ɨɱɟɪɟɞɶ 1.10a
premises ['premIsIz] n pl ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɹɧɟɞɜɢɠɢɦɨɫɬɶɜɵɲɟɢɡɥɨɠɟɧɧɨɟ
ɩɪɟɞɩɨɫɵɥɤɚa
presence ['prezqns] n ɧɚɥɢɱɢɟɩɪɢɫɭɬɫɬɜɢɟɜɧɟɲɧɢɣɜɢɞɷɮɮɟɤɬɩɪɢ
ɫɭɬɫɬɜɢɹ2.6b
present [prI'zent] v ɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɢɜɚɬɶɩɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɬɶɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɬɶɞɚɜɚɬɶ ɞɚ
ɪɢɬɶɩɪɟɩɨɞɧɨɫɢɬɶɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɬɶɫɨɛɨɣ['prezqnt] a ɧɚɫɬɨɹɳɢɣɧɵɧɟɲ
ɧɢɣɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɣb
preserve [prI'zWv] v ɫɨɯɪɚɧɹɬɶɫɛɟɪɟɝɚɬɶ4.9a
press (against) [pres] v ɭɩɟɪaɬɶɫɹɜɨɱɬɨ-ɥɢɛɨa
pressure ['preSq] n ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɟɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟɧɚɠɢɦɬɪɭɞɧɨɟɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɟa
prevail [prI'veIl] v ɩɪɟɨɛɥɚɞɚɬɶɩɪɟɜɚɥɢɪɨɜɚɬɶɝɨɫɩɨɞɫɬɜɨɜɚɬɶa
prevent [prI'vent] v ɦɟɲɚɬɶɩɪɟɩɹɬɫɬɜɨɜɚɬɶɧɟɞɨɩɭɫɤɚɬɶ2.4b
primary ['praImqrI] a ɨɫɧɨɜɧɨɣɜɚɠɧɟɣɲɢɣɝɥɚɜɧɵɣɩɪɨɫɬɨɣɢɫɯɨɞ
ɧɵɣɷɥɟɦɟɧɬɚɪɧɵɣ primary care service ɫɦ service; primarily adv ɝɥɚɜɧɵɦ
ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ ɜɩɟɪɜɭɸɨɱɟɪɟɞɶ ɩɪɟɠɞɟɜɫɟɝɨb
prime [praIm] a ɩɪɟɜɨɫɯɨɞɧɵɣɨɬɥɢɱɧɵɣɩɟɪɜɨɤɥɚɫɫɧɵɣa
principal ['prInsIpql] n ɝɥɚɜɚɞɢɪɟɤɬɨɪa ɝɥɚɜɧɵɣɨɫɧɨɜɧɨɣadv principally
ɝɥɚɜɧɵɦɨɛɪɚɡɨɦb
principle ['prInsIpql] n ɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɨɪɦɚb
priority [praI'PrItI] n ɩɪɢɨɪɢɬɟɬɩɪɟɢɦɭɳɟɫɬɜɨa
privacy ['praIvqsI/'prIvqsI] n ɭɟɞɢɧɟɧɢɟɭɟɞɢɧɺɧɧɨɫɬɶɫɟɤɪɟɬɧɨɫɬɶa
private ['praIvIt] a 1. ɱɚɫɬɧɵɣɥɢɱɧɵɣ ɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣ 2. ɧɟɨɮɢɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɣ
ɱɚɫɬɧɵɣprivate street ɞɨɪɨɝɚɧɟɷɤɫɩɥɭɚɬɢɪɭɟɦɚɹɞɨɪɨɠɧɨɣɚɞɦɢɧɢɫɬɪɚ
ɰɢɟɣa
probably ['prPbqblI] adv ɜɟɪɨɹɬɧɨɧɚɜɟɪɧɨɟɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɞɨɥɠɧɨɛɵɬɶa
process ['prqVses] n ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɣɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɩɪɢɺɦɯɨɞɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ
be in process ɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɥɹɬɶɫɹɪɚɡɪɚɛɚɬɵɜɚɬɶɫɹ v ɨɮɨɪɦɥɹɬɶɩɪɨɩɭɫɤɚɬɶ2.1a
produce [prq'djHs] v ɫɨɡɞɚɜɚɬɶɩɪɢɧɨɫɢɬɶɞɚɜɚɬɶɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɢɬɶɜɵɪɚ
ɛɚɬɵɜɚɬɶɩɪɨɞɨɥɠɚɬɶ>'prPdjHs] n 1. ɩɪɨɞɭɤɰɢɹɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɢɫɯɨɞ1.1a
production [prq'dAkSqn] n ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜɨɫɨɡɞɚɧɢɟa
profile ['prqVfaIl] n ɩɪɨɮɢɥɶɨɱɟɪɬɚɧɢɟɤɨɧɬɭɪɩɨɩɟɪɟɱɧɨɟɫɟɱɟɧɢɟ
v ɩɪɢɞɚɜɚɬɶɨɱɟɪɬɚɧɢɹɩɪɨɮɢɥɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ 1.10b
profound [prq'faVnd] a ɝɥɭɛɨɤɢɣɩɪɨɧɢɤɧɨɜɟɧɧɵɣɫɨɜɟɪɲɟɧɧɵɣ2.6b
programmatic ["prqVgrq'mxtIk] a ɩɪɨɝɪɚɦɦɧɵɣc
programme (AmE-program) ['prqVgrxm] n ɩɪɨɝɪɚɦɦɚɩɥɚɧɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜ
ɥɟɧɢɟɫɩɟɤɬɚɤɥɶb
progress ['prqVgres] n ɩɪɨɝɪɟɫɫa
291
progressive [prq'gresIv] a ɩɪɨɝɪɟɫɫɢɜɧɵɣɩɟɪɟɞɨɜɨɣ progressively adv ɩɨ
ɫɬɟɩɟɧɧɨɩɨɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɨa
project ['prPGekt] n ɩɪɨɟɤɬɩɥɚɧ ɫɬɪɨɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣɨɛɴɟɤɬ ɫɬɪɨɣɤɚ ɤɨɧ
ɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɹ>prq'Gekt] v ɜɵɞɚɜɚɬɶɫɹɜɵɫɬɭɩɚɬɶ ɩɪɨɟɰɢɪɨɜɚɬɶprojection
[prq'GekSqn] n ɜɵɫɬɭɩɚɸɳɚɹ ɱɚɫɬɶɜɵɫɬɭɩc
proliferation [prq"lIfq'reISqn] n ɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɢɟ ɛɵɫɬɪɨɟɭɜɟɥɢɱɟɧɢɟ
ɪɨɫɬ 1.12b
promenade ["prPmq'nRd] n ɦɟɫɬɨɞɥɹɝɭɥɹɧɶɹɩɪɨɝɭɥɨɤɩɪɨɦɟɧɚɞc
prominent ['prPmInqnt] a 1. ɡɚɦɟɬɧɵɣɛɪɨɫɚɸɳɢɣɫɹɜɝɥɚɡɚɜɢɞɧɵɣ 2. ɢɡ
ɜɟɫɬɧɵɣɜɵɞɚɸɳɢɣɫɹ 1.11a
property ['prPpqtI] n ɫɜɨɣɫɬɜɨɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɨɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɫɬɢɤɚɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ
ɡɟɦɟɥɶɧɚɹɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɫɬɶsingle property ɟɞɢɧɨɥɢɱɧɚɹɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ 2.5a
proportion [prq'pLSqn] n ɩɪɨɩɨɪɰɢɹɫɨɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɟɫɨɪɚɡɦɟɪɧɨɫɬɶɝɚɪɦɨ
ɧɢɹɱɚɫɬɶɞɨɥɹpl ɪɚɡɦɟɪɪɚɡɦɟɪɵv ɫɨɪɚɡɦɟɪɹɬɶ ɪɚɫɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɬɶɩɪɨ
ɩɨɪɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨa
proposal [prq'pqVzql] n ɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɟɩɪɨɟɤɬa
propose [prq'pqVz] v ɩɪɟɞɥɚɝɚɬɶɩɪɨɜɨɡɝɥɚɲɚɬɶa
protect [prq'tekt] v ɡɚɳɢɳɚɬɶɨɝɪɚɠɞɚɬɶprotective [prq'tektIv] a ɡɚɳɢɬ
ɧɵɣɨɝɪɚɞɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣ2.5b
protection [prq'tekSqn] n ɡɚɳɢɬɚ 3.2a
protective ɫɦ. protect 3.2a
provide [prq'vaId] v ɫɧɚɛɠɚɬɶɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɢɜɚɬɶɩɪɟɞɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɬɶɞɚɜɚɬɶ
3. provide for ɩɪɟɞɭɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɬɶa
proximity [prPk'sImItI] n ɛɥɢɡɨɫɬɶɫɨɫɟɞɫɬɜɨ close proximity ɧɟɩɨɫɪɟɞ
ɫɬɜɟɧɧɚɹɛɥɢɡɨɫɬɶ 2.6b
public ['pAblIk] n ɩɭɛɥɢɤɚɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɫɬɶa ɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣɤɨɦɦɭ
ɧɚɥɶɧɵɣɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹɧɚɪɨɞɧɵɣɨɛɳɟɧɚɪɨɞɧɵɣɩɭɛɥɢɱ
ɧɵɣɨɛɳɟɞɨɫɬɭɩɧɵɣɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣɧɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɣpublic entertainment ɦɚɫɫɨɜɵɣɨɬɞɵɯpublicly accessible ɫɦ accessible 1.4a
publicly accessible ɫɦ. accessible 3.3a
pull [pVl] ɫɞɜɢɝɚɬɶ, ɪɚɡɞɜɢɝɚɬɶ, ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɹɬɶ 4.4c
pure [pjVq] a ɱɢɫɬɵɣɫɬɪɨɝɢɣɛɟɡɭɩɪɟɱɧɵɣ purely adv ɱɢɫɬɨɩɪɨ
ɫɬɨɢɫɤɥɸɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨa
purpose ['pWpqs] n ɰɟɥɶɧɚɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟɡɚɦɵɫɟɥɰɟɥɟɭɫɬɪɟɦɥɺɧɧɨɫɬɶɰɟ
ɥɟɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɶmultipurpose ["mAltI'pWpqs] a ɭɧɢɜɟɪɫɚɥɶɧɵɣɦɧɨɝɨɰɟ
ɥɟɜɨɣ2.1a
pursue [pq'sjH] v ɢɫɤɚɬɶɞɨɛɢɜɚɬɶɫɹ pursue a policy ɩɪɨɜɨɞɢɬɶɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɭ2.8c
push [pVS] n ɬɨɥɱɨɤɩɨɛɭɠɞɟɧɢɟɢɦɩɭɥɶɫ v ɬɨɥɤɚɬɶɩɢɯɚɬɶ ɩɪɨɞɜɢ
ɝɚɬɶɪɚɡɜɢɜɚɬɶɢɞɟɸɢɬɩ) 1.12c
put [pVt] v ɤɥɚɫɬɶɫɬɚɜɢɬɶɩɨɦɟɳɚɬɶput on ɧɚɞɟɜɚɬɶput a priority ɨɬɞɚ
ɜɚɬɶɩɪɢɨɪɢɬɟɬ put together ɫɨɟɞɢɧɹɬɶɫɨɛɪɚɬɶɜɨɟɞɢɧɨa
puzzle ['pAzql] n ɝɨɥɨɜɨɥɨɦɤɚ jigsaw puzzle ['GIgsL "pAzql] ɝɨɥɨɜɨɥɨɦɤɚ
ɩɚɡɥb
pyramid ['pIrqmId] n ɩɢɪɚɦɢɞɚb
quaint [kweInt] a ɩɪɢɱɭɞɥɢɜɵɣɡɚɦɵɫɥɨɜɚɬɵɣɨɪɢɝɢɧɚɥɶɧɵɣa
quality ['kwPlItI] n ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɨɫɜɨɣɫɬɜɨɫɜɨɣɫɬɜɨɩɪɢɡɧɚɤɭɪɨɜɟɧɶɤɚɱɟ
ɫɬɜɚɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɧɚɹɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɶɜɵɫɨɤɨɟɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɨɞɨɫɬɨɢɧɫɬɜɨɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ 1.4c
quarter ['kwLtq] n ɱɟɬɜɟɪɬɶɱɟɬɜɺɪɬɚɹɱɚɫɬɶɤɜɚɪɬɚɥɪɚɣɨɧɱɚɫɬɶɝɨ
ɪɨɞɚpl ɩɨɦɟɳɟɧɢɟɠɢɥɶɺɤɜɚɪɬɢɪɚɠɢɥɢɳɟquarter-round ɱɟɬɜɟɪɬɧɨɣ
ɜɚɥɚɪɯɢɬɟɤɬɭɪɧɵɣɨɛɥɨɦ) 1.4c
quiet ['kwaIqt] n ɬɢɲɢɧɚɩɨɤɨɣɫɩɨɤɨɣɫɬɜɢɟ quietly adv ɬɢɯɨɫɩɨɤɨɣɧɨɧɟ
ɩɪɢɜɥɟɤɚɹɜɫɟɨɛɳɟɝɨɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɹb
quite [kwaIt] adv ɫɨɜɟɪɲɟɧɧɨɩɨɥɧɨɫɬɶɸɩɨɱɬɢɞɨɜɨɥɶɧɨɛɨɥɟɟɢɥɢɦɟ
ɧɟɟ 1.1a
radial ['reIdIql] a ɪɚɞɢɚɥɶɧɵɣ radially adv ɪɚɞɢɚɥɶɧɨ 2.10b
radiate ['reIdIeIt] v ɪɚɫɯɨɞɢɬɶɫɹɥɭɱɚɦɢɪɚɞɢɭɫɚɦɢb
radius ['reIdIqs] n ɪɚɣɨɧɩɪɟɞɟɥɵɩɥɨɳɚɞɶɪɚɞɢɭɫɡɚɤɪɭɝɥɟɧɢɟa
rail [reIl] n ɠɟɥɟɡɧɚɹɞɨɪɨɝɚɠɟɥɟɡɧɨɞɨɪɨɠɧɵɣɩɭɬɶrailway ['reIlweI] a ɠɟ
ɥɟɡɧɨɞɨɪɨɠɧɵɣa
railings ['reIlINz] n pl ɩɟɪɢɥɚɩɟɪɢɥɶɧɵɟɨɝɪɚɠɞɟɧɢɹa
railway ɫɦ. rail 2.3b
rainwater ['reInwLtq] n ɞɨɠɞɟɜɚɹ ɜɨɞɚ 3.5b
raise [reIz] v ɩɨɞɧɢɦɚɬɶɩɪɢɩɨɞɧɢɦɚɬɶɩɨɜɵɲɚɬɶb
ramp [rxmp] n ɩɚɧɞɭɫɧɚɤɥɨɧɧɚɹɩɥɨɫɤɨɫɬɶɧɚɤɥɨɧɧɵɣɩɨɥstepped ramp
ɫɬɭɩɟɧɱɚɬɵɣɩɚɧɞɭɫa
random ['rxndqm] a ɫɥɭɱɚɣɧɵɣɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɥɶɧɵɣɛɟɫɩɨɪɹɞɨɱɧɵɣb
range [reInG] n 1. ɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɧɵɟɪɹɞɞɢɚɩɚɡɨɧ ɫɮɟɪɚɡɨɧɚɨɛɥɚɫɬɶɤɪɭɝ
ɪɹɞɥɢɧɢɹɰɟɩɶɫɟɪɢɹɧɚɛɨɪɤɪɹɠɝɨɪɧɚɹɫɢɫɬɟɦɚɰɟɩɶɝɨɪ); at close
range ɧɚɧɟɛɨɥɶɲɨɦɪɚɫɫɬɨɹɧɢɢɛɥɢɡɤɨv ɜɵɫɬɪɚɢɜɚɬɶɜɪɹɞɫɬɚɜɢɬɶɪɚɫɩɨ
ɥɚɝɚɬɶɜɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɺɧɧɨɦ ɩɨɪɹɞɤɟ) 1.4b
rank [rxNk] v ɫɱɢɬɚɬɶɫɹɨɬɧɨɫɢɬɶɫɹɤɥɚɫɫɢɮɢɰɢɪɨɜɚɬɶɫɹb
rapid ['rxpId] a ɛɵɫɬɪɵɣɫɤɨɪɵɣrapidly adv ɛɵɫɬɪɨ 1.12a
rare [req] a ɪɟɞɤɢɣrarely adv ɪɟɞɤɨɧɟɱɚɫɬɨ 1.2a
rather ['rRDq] adv ɞɨɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɨɣɫɬɟɩɟɧɢɞɨɜɨɥɶɧɨɨɬɱɚɫɬɢɧɟɫɤɨɥɶɤɨ
ɩɨɠɚɥɭɣɫɤɨɪɟɟɛɨɥɶɲɟ rather than ɚɧɟɜɦɟɫɬɨɫɤɨɪɟɟɱɟɦ1.4a
re- [rJ] prefix ɨɛɪɚɡɭɟɬɝɥɚɝɨɥɵɫɨɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟɦɩɨɜɬɨɪɧɨɝɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹɩɟɪɟre- [rJ] prefix ɨɛɪɚɡɭɟɬɝɥɚɝɨɥɵɫɨɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟɦɩɨɜɬɨɪɧɨɝɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ ɩɟɪɟ- 2.12c
reach [rJC] v 1. ɩɪɨɫɬɢɪɚɬɶɫɹɞɨɯɨɞɢɬɶ 2. ɜɵɬɹɝɢɜɚɬɶɫɹɩɪɨɬɹɝɢɜɚɬɶɫɹɞɨ
ɟɡɠɚɬɶɞɨɯɨɞɢɬɶɞɨɛɢɪɚɬɶɫɹɞɨɫɬɢɱɶɞɨɛɢɬɶɫɹɞɨɫɬɢɝɚɬɶreach out ɬɹ
ɧɭɬɶɫɹɜɵɬɹɝɢɜɚɬɶɫɹ 1.11a
reality [rI'xlItI] n ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɶɪɟɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɶɢɫɬɢɧɧɨɫɬɶɩɨɞɥɢɧɧɚɹ
ɫɭɳɧɨɫɬɶ 1.4c
realise (AmE realize) ['rIqlaIz] v 1. ɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɢɬɶɪɟɚɥɢɡɨɜɚɬɶɩɪɟɬɜɨɪɢɬɶ
ɜɠɢɡɧɶ 2. ɩɨɧɢɦɚɬɶɨɫɨɡɧɚɜɚɬɶɞɟɥɚɬɶɹɫɧɵɦɧɚɝɥɹɞɧɵɦ 2.6a
realisation (AmE realization) ["rIqlaI'zeISqn] n ɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɥɟɧɢɟɜɵɩɨɥɧɟɧɢɟ
ɪɟɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɹ2.7a
292
293
rear [rIq] n ɡɚɞɧɹɹɬɵɥɶɧɚɹɫɬɨɪɨɧɚ/ɱɚɫɬɶa ɡɚɞɧɢɣɪɚɫɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɧɵɣɫɡɚɞɢb
reason ['rJzqn] n ɩɪɢɱɢɧɚɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɢɟɨɩɪɚɜɞɚɧɢɟv ɞɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɬɶɚɪɝɭɦɟɧɬɢ
ɪɨɜɚɬɶreasoning n ɚɪɝɭɦɟɧɬɚɰɢɹɞɨɜɨɞɵɨɛɴɹɫɧɟɧɢɹ2.4b
reasonable ['rJzqnqbql] a ɪɚɡɭɦɧɵɣɩɪɢɟɦɥɟɦɵɣɞɨɩɭɫɬɢɦɵɣ reasonably
adv ɤɨɪɪɟɤɬɧɨɜɩɨɥɧɟ2.8b
recall [rI'kLl@ɧɚɩɨɦɢɧɚɬɶɜɫɩɨɦɢɧɚɬɶa
recede [rI'sJd] v ɨɬɫɬɭɩɚɬɶɨɬɯɨɞɢɬɶɧɚɡɚɞɧɢɣɩɥɚɧɛɵɬɶɫɤɨɲɟɧɧɵɦ
ɫɪɟɡɚɧɧɵɦa
receive [rI'sJv] v ɧɟɫɬɢɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɬɶɧɚɝɪɭɡɤɭ) 1.2b
recent ['rJsqnt] a ɧɨɜɵɣɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɣɩɨɡɞɧɢɣ recently adv ɧɟɞɚɜɧɨɜɩɨ
ɫɥɟɞɧɟɟɜɪɟɦɹuntil recently ɞɨɧɟɞɚɜɧɟɝɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɢb
reception [rI'sepSqn] n ɫɬɨɣɤɚɚɞɦɢɧɢɫɬɪɚɬɨɪɚɩɪɢɺɦɧɚɹɪɟɝɢɫɬɪɚɬɭɪɚ
ɩɪɢɟɦɝɨɫɬɟɣ reception desk [rI'sepSqn "desk@ɫɬɨɣɤɚɪɟɝɢɫɬɪɚɰɢɢa
recess [rI'ses] n ɭɝɥɭɛɥɟɧɢɟɜɩɚɞɢɧɚɜɨɝɧɭɬɨɫɬɶv ɭɝɥɭɛɥɹɬɶɞɟɥɚɬɶɭɝɥɭɛ
ɥɟɧɢɟa
reclaimed [rI'kleImd] a ɦɟɥɢɨɪɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɣɨɫɭɲɟɧɧɵɣɜɨɫɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧ
ɧɵɣɪɟɝɟɧɟɪɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɣb
recognisable ['rekqgnaIzqbql] a ɭɡɧɚɜɚɟɦɵɣa
recognise ['rekqgnaIz] BrE v ɭɡɧɚɜɚɬɶɪɚɫɩɨɡɧɚɜɚɬɶɫɨɡɧɚɜɚɬɶɨɫɨɡɧɚ
ɜɚɬɶa
reconstruct ["rJkqn'strAkt] v ɜɨɫɫɨɡɞɚɜɚɬɶɜɨɫɫɬɚɧɚɜɥɢɜɚɬɶb
record ['rekLd] n ɫɜɢɞɟɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɨ>rI'kLd] v ɡɚɩɢɫɵɜɚɬɶɪɟɝɢɫɬɪɢɪɨɜɚɬɶb
rectangular [rek'txNgjVlq] a ɩɪɹɦɨɭɝɨɥɶɧɵɣa
redevelopment ["rJdI'velqpmqnt] n ɪɟɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɹɩɟɪɟɫɬɪɨɣɤɚb
reduce [rI'djHs] v ɭɦɟɧɶɲɚɬɶ(ɫɹ), ɫɨɤɪɚɳɚɬɶ(ɫɹɩɨɧɢɠɚɬɶɫɧɢɠɚɬɶreduction [rI'dAkSqn] n ɫɨɤɪɚɳɟɧɢɟɭɦɟɧɶɲɟɧɢɟ 1.6b
reference ['refqrqns] n ɷɬɚɥɨɧɫɬɚɧɞɚɪɬpoint of reference ɬɨɱɤɚɩɪɢɜɹɡɤɢ
ɬɨɱɤɚɨɬɫɱɟɬɚ 2.4c
refined [rI'faInd] a ɭɬɨɧɱɺɧɧɵɣɢɡɹɳɧɵɣɢɡɵɫɤɚɧɧɵɣɭɥɭɱɲɟɧɧɵɣ
ɭɫɨɜɟɪɲɟɧɫɬɜɨɜɚɧɧɵɣ 1.4b
refinement [rI'faInmqnt] n ɭɬɨɧɱɺɧɧɨɫɬɶɢɡɵɫɤɚɧɧɨɫɬɶɭɫɨɜɟɪɲɟɧɫɬɜɨ
ɜɚɧɢɟa
reflect [rI'flekt] v ɨɬɪɚɠɚɬɶɫɹɫɜɢɞɟɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɨɜɚɬɶreflecting a ɡɟɪɤɚɥɶɧɵɣb
reflection [rI'flekSqn] n ɨɬɪɚɠɟɧɢɟɪɚɡɦɵɲɥɟɧɢɟɪɚɡɞɭɦɶɟb
regard [rI'gRd] v ɪɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɬɶɫɱɢɬɚɬɶɤɚɫɚɬɶɫɹɢɦɟɬɶɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɟ
with regard to ɱɬɨɤɚɫɚɟɬɫɹ2.6b
region ['rJGqn] n ɨɛɥɚɫɬɶɪɚɣɨɧɪɟɝɢɨɧɫɬɪɚɧɚ2.4c
regional ['rJGqnql] a ɦɟɫɬɧɵɣb
regular ['regjVlq] a ɩɪɚɜɢɥɶɧɵɣɫɬɚɧɞɚɪɬɧɵɣɮɨɪɦɚɥɶɧɵɣa
regularity ["regjV'lxrItI] n ɪɟɝɭɥɹɪɧɨɫɬɶɩɨɫɬɨɹɧɫɬɜɨɩɨɪɹɞɨɤb
rehearsal [rI'hWsql] n ɪɟɩɟɬɢɰɢɹb
reinforce ["rJIn'fLs] v ɭɤɪɟɩɥɹɬɶɭɫɢɥɢɜɚɬɶɩɪɢɞɚɜɚɬɶɠɺɫɬɤɨɫɬɶɚɪɦɢɪɨ
ɜɚɬɶ reinforced concrete ["rJIn'fLst'kPNkrJt@ɠɟɥɟɡɨɛɟɬɨғɧb
294
reject [rI'Gekt] v ɨɬɜɟɪɝɚɬɶɨɬɤɚɡɵɜɚɬɶɫɹ2.8a
relate [rI'leIt] v ɢɦɟɬɶɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɟɛɵɬɶɫɜɹɡɚɧɧɵɦɫɨɨɬɧɨɫɢɬɶa
relationship [rI'leISqnSIp] n ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɟɜɡɚɢɦɨɫɜɹɡɶɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨɫɬɶa
relative ['relqtIv] a ɨɬɧɨɫɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣɫɪɚɜɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣrelative position ɜɡɚ
ɢɦɧɨɟɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɟrelatively adv ɨɬɧɨɫɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɪɚɜɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɞɨɜɨɥɶɧɨ1.6a
relax [rI'lxks] v ɨɬɞɵɯɚɬɶɪɚɫɫɥɚɛɥɹɬɶrelaxed a ɝɢɛɤɢɣɳɚɞɹɳɢɣb
relaxation ["rJlxk'seISqn] n ɨɬɞɵɯɪɚɫɫɥɚɛɥɟɧɢɟ4.5b
release [rI'lJs] v ɨɫɜɨɛɨɠɞɚɬɶɜɵɫɜɨɛɨɠɞɚɬɶɜɵɩɭɫɤɚɬɶɫɩɭɫɤɚɬɶa
relief [rI'lJf] n 1. ɪɟɥɶɟɮɪɟɥɶɟɮɧɨɫɬɶɪɟɥɶɟɮɧɵɣɪɢɫɭɧɨɤ ɤɨɧɬɪɚɫɬin
relief ɪɟɥɶɟɮɧɨɜɵɩɭɤɥɨ 1.10a
relieve [rI'lJv] v ɨɛɥɟɝɱɚɬɶɨɫɥɚɛɥɹɬɶɜɧɨɫɢɬɶɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɟɨɠɢɜɥɹɬɶb
religious [rI'lIGqs] a ɪɟɥɢɝɢɨɡɧɵɣɤɭɥɶɬɨɜɵɣb
rely [rI'laI] v ɩɨɥɚɝɚɬɶɫɹɞɨɜɟɪɹɬɶɪɚɫɫɱɢɬɵɜɚɬɶ 1.4b
remain [rI'meIn] v ɨɫɬɚɜɚɬɶɫɹɫɨɯɪɚɧɹɬɶɫɹn pl ɨɫɬɚɬɤɢb
remarkable [rI'mRkqbql] a ɡɚɦɟɱɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɣɭɞɢɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣ ɩɨɪɚɡɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣ 1.10a
remnant ['remnqnt] n ɫɥɟɞ, ɨɫɬɚɬɨɤ 2.9b
remove [rI'mHv] v ɭɞɚɥɹɬɶɭɫɬɪɚɧɹɬɶɭɛɢɪɚɬɶɫ
Renaissance [rI'neIsqns] n ɷɩɨɯɚȼɨɡɪɨɠɞɟɧɢɹɊɟɧɟɫɫɚɧɫa ɨɬɧɨɫɹɳɢɣɫɹ
ɤɷɩɨɯɟȼɨɡɪɨɠɞɟɧɢɹa
render ['rendq] v ɩɪɢɜɨɞɢɬɶɜɤɚɤɨɟ-ɥɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɟɞɟɥɚɬɶɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɬɶ 1.4c
renovate ['renqveIt] v ɨɛɧɨɜɥɹɬɶɪɟɫɬɚɜɪɢɪɨɜɚɬɶɪɟɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɢɪɨɜɚɬɶb
renovation ["renq'veISqn] n ɪɟɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɹɨɛɧɨɜɥɟɧɢɟɦɨɞɟɪɧɢɡɚɰɢɹ4.4c
rental car ['rentl "kR@ɩɪɨɤɚɬɧɵɣɚɜɬɨɦɨɛɢɥɶb
repair [rI'peq] n ɪɟɦɨɧɬɪɟɦɨɧɬɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟa
repetition ["repI'tISqn] n ɩɨɜɬɨɪɟɧɢɟ 1.5a
repetitive [rI'petItIv] a ɩɨɜɬɨɪɹɟɦɵɣɩɨɜɬɨɪɹɸɳɢɣɫɹɦɧɨɝɨɤɪɚɬɧɵɣa
replace [rI'pleIs] v ɡɚɦɟɧɹɬɶ; replacement n ɡɚɦɟɧɚ 1.11a
represent ["reprI'zent] v ɨɥɢɰɟɬɜɨɪɹɬɶɫɢɦɜɨɥɢɡɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɬɶɫɨ
ɛɨɣ ɢɫɩɨɥɧɹɬɶɪɨɥɶc
reproduction ["rJprq'dAkSqn] n ɜɨɫɩɪɨɢɡɜɟɞɟɧɢɟɤɨɩɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟa
require [rI'kwaIq] v ɧɭɠɞɚɬɶɫɹɬɪɟɛɨɜɚɬɶɩɨɬɪɟɛɨɜɚɬɶɫɹa ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢ
ɦɵɣɨɛɹɡɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɣc
requirement [rI'kwaIqmqnt] n ɬɪɟɛɨɜɚɧɢɟɩɨɬɪɟɛɧɨɫɬɶɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨɟ
ɭɫɥɨɜɢɟb
research [rI'sWC] n (ɧɚɭɱɧɨɟɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɟɢɡɭɱɟɧɢɟɧɚɭɱɧɨ-ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɶ
ɫɤɚɹɪɚɛɨɬɚ4.9a
reserve [rI'zWv] v ɩɪɟɞɧɚɡɧɚɱɚɬɶ reserved a ɫɞɟɪɠɚɧɧɵɣɡɚɦɤɧɭɬɵɣ4.6b
resident ['rezIdqnt] n ɩɨɫɬɨɹɧɧɵɣɦɟɫɬɧɵɣɠɢɬɟɥɶ a ɩɨɫɬɨɹɧɧɨɠɢɜɭɳɢɣ
ɩɪɨɠɢɜɚɸɳɢɣ2.4c
residential ["rezI'denSql] a ɠɢɥɨɣɠɢɥɢɳɧɵɣɩɨɫɬɨɹɧɧɨɩɪɨɠɢɜɚɸɳɢɣ
residential accommodation ɠɢɥɵɟɩɨɦɟɳɟɧɢɹresidential unit ɠɢɥɨɟɡɞɚɧɢɟa
resin ['rezIn] n ɫɦɨɥɚɩɨɥɢɦɟɪb
295
resist [rI'zIst] v ɫɨɩɪɨɬɢɜɥɹɬɶɫɹɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɬɶɫɨɩɪɨɬɢɜɥɟɧɢɟb
resolution ["rezq'lHSqn] n ɪɚɡɪɟɲɟɧɢɟɪɚɡɥɨɠɟɧɢɟɪɟɲɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɶɪɟ
ɲɢɦɨɫɬɶb
resort [rI'zLt] n ɤɭɪɨɪɬ v ɩɪɢɛɟɝɚɬɶɤɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɬɶ 4.3b
resource [rI'sLs] n ɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɨɪɟɫɭɪɫ ɫɩɨɫɨɛpl ɪɟɫɭɪɫɵɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɚb
respect [rI'spekt] n ɭɱɟɬɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟɭɜɚɠɟɧɢɟ v ɫɨɛɥɸɞɚɬɶɧɟɧɚɪɭɲɚɬɶ
with respect to ɱɬɨɤɚɫɚɟɬɫɹa
respective [rI'spektIv] a ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɣ; respectively adv ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ 3.2b
respond [rI'spPnd] v ɨɬɜɟɱɚɬɶɪɟɚɝɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ2.6b
response [rI'spPns] n ɪɟɚɤɰɢɹɨɬɜɟɬɪɟɚɝɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ2.6a
rest [rest] n the rest ɨɫɬɚɥɶɧɨɟɨɫɬɚɥɶɧɵɟɞɪɭɝɢɟv ɨɩɢɪɚɬɶɫɹɧɚɱɬɨ-ɥ);
ɩɨɤɨɢɬɶɫɹɧɚɱɺɦ-ɥɨɬɞɵɯɚɬɶb
restoration ["restq'reISqn] n ɪɟɫɬɚɜɪɚɰɢɹb
restore [rI'stL] v ɪɟɫɬɚɜɪɢɪɨɜɚɬɶɜɨɫɫɬɚɧɚɜɥɢɜɚɬɶa
restrict [rI'strIkt] v ɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɢɜɚɬɶb
result [rI'zAlt] n ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɢɬɨɝɫɥɟɞɫɬɜɢɟv result in ɩɪɢɜɨɞɢɬɶɤ ɢɦɟɬɶɪɟ
ɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɨɦresult from ɩɪɨɢɫɯɨɞɢɬɶɜɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɟɱɟɝɨ-ɥɩɪɨɢɫɬɟɤɚɬɶ 1.1a
retail ['rJteIl] n ɪɨɡɧɢɱɧɚɹɬɨɪɝɨɜɥɹa
retain [rI'teIn] v ɫɨɯɪɚɧɹɬɶɩɨɞɞɟɪɠɢɜɚɬɶ retaining cable ɩɨɞɞɟɪɠɢɜɚɸɳɢɣ
ɬɪɨɫretaining wall ɩɨɞɩɨɪɧɚɹɫɬɟɧɚb
return [rI'tWn] v ɜɨɡɜɪɚɳɚɬɶɫɹ2.3b
reveal [rI'vJl] v ɨɬɤɪɵɜɚɬɶ ɪɚɫɤɪɵɜɚɬɶɩɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɬɶɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɢɜɚɬɶ1.1b
revive [rI'vaIv] v ɜɨɡɪɨɠɞɚɬɶɩɪɨɛɭɠɞɚɬɶɜɨɡɜɪɚɳɚɬɶɫɹɤɠɢɡɧɢb
rhythm ['rIDqm] n ɪɢɬɦɝɚɪɦɨɧɢɹɩɨɫɬɨɹɧɧɚɹɫɦɟɧɚ2.10b
rhythmic ['rIDmIk] a ɪɢɬɦɢɱɧɵɣɪɚɜɧɨɦɟɪɧɵɣa
rib [rIb] n ɪɟɛɪɨɪɟɛɪɨɠɺɫɬɤɨɫɬɢ ɮɥɚɧɟɰɛɭɪɬɢɤɩɪɨɞɨɥɶɧɚɹɛɚɥɤɚ
ɧɟɪɜɸɪɚɜɵɫɬɭɩɚɸɳɟɟɪɟɛɪɨɝɨɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨɤɚɪɤɚɫɧɨɝɨɤɪɟɫɬɨɜɨɝɨɫɜɨɞɚ) 1.6a
richness ['rICnIs] n ɛɨɝɚɬɫɬɜɨ 1.5a
ridge [rIG] n ɝɪɟɛɟɧɶɝɨɪɵɤɪɚɣɪɟɛɪɨb
right [raIt] a 1. ɩɪɹɦɨɣɨɥɢɧɢɢɭɝɥɟɜɟɪɧɵɣɩɪɚɜɢɥɶɧɵɣɧɚɞɥɟɠɚɳɢɣ
ɩɨɞɯɨɞɹɳɢɣɧɚɢɛɨɥɟɟɭɞɨɛɧɵɣɩɪɟɞɩɨɱɬɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣ adv ɬɨɱɧɨɤɚɤɪɚɡb
rigorous ['rIgqrqs] a ɫɬɪɨɝɢɣɫɤɪɭɩɭɥɺɡɧɵɣɬɳɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɣb
ring [rIN] n ɤɨɥɶɰɨring road ɤɨɥɶɰɟɜɚɹɝɨɪɨɞɫɤɚɹɞɨɪɨɝɚ 1.12c
rise [raIz] n ɩɨɞɴɟɦɜɨɡɜɵɲɟɧɢɟɩɪɨɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɟɩɨɞɴɺɦv ɩɨɞɧɢ
ɦɚɬɶɫɹɜɨɡɜɵɲɚɬɶɫɹɜɨɡɪɚɫɬɚɬɶɭɜɟɥɢɱɢɜɚɬɶɫɹa
ritual ['rICVql] n ɪɢɬɭɚɥɨɛɪɹɞa ɪɢɬɭɚɥɶɧɵɣɩɪɟɞɩɢɫɵɜɚɟɦɵɣɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɟɣ
(1.8c) 1.7a
rock [rPk] n ɝɨɪɧɚɹɩɨɪɨɞɚb
role [rqVl] n ɪɨɥɶɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟ2.4c
Roman ['rqVmqn] a ɪɢɦɫɤɢɣn ɪɢɦɥɹɧɢɧ1.1a
Rome [rqVm] n ɝɊɢɦɊɢɦɫɤɚɹ ɢɦɩɟɪɢɹ 1.1a
roof [rHf] n ɤɪɵɲɚɤɪɨɜɥɹdomed roof ɤɭɩɨɥɶɧɚɹɤɪɵɲɚgable roof
ɞɜɭɯɫɤɚɬɧɚɹɤɪɵɲɚ(planted) green roof ɡɟɥɺɧɚɹɤɪɵɲɚɠɢɜɚɹɤɪɵɲɚ
296
(ɤɪɵɲɚ ɡɞɚɧɢɹɧɚɤɨɬɨɪɨɣɪɚɡɦɟɳɚɟɬɫɹɬɨɥɫɬɵɣɫɥɨɣɩɥɨɞɨɪɨɞɧɨɣɩɨɱɜɵ
ɜɤɨɬɨɪɭɸɜɵɫɚɠɢɜɚɸɬɫɹɰɜɟɬɵɨɜɨɳɢɬɪɚɜɚ); pitch roof ɫɤɚɬɧɚɹ ɤɪɵɲɚ;
rubble roof ɛɭɬɨɜɚɹ ɤɪɵɲɚ; seam roof ɮɚɥɶɰɟɜɚɹ ɤɪɨɜɥɹ; shed roof
ɨɞɧɨɫɤɚɬɧɚɹɤɪɵɲɚslate roof ['sleItrHf] ɲɢɮɟɪɧɚɹɤɪɵɲɚ; truss roof
['trAsrHf] ɤɪɵɲɚɢɡɫɬɪɨɩɢɥɶɧɵɯɮɟɪɦv ɤɪɵɬɶɧɚɫɬɢɥɚɬɶɤɪɵɲɭ
ɩɨɤɪɵɜɚɬɶroofing ɤɪɨɜɥɹɩɨɤɪɵɬɢɟɤɪɵɲɢ1.2a
rooftop ['rHftPp] n ɩɥɨɫɤɚɹ ɤɪɵɲɚ, ɤɪɵɲɚ 4.2b
rough [rAf] a ɧɟɪɨɜɧɵɣɲɟɪɲɚɜɵɣɝɪɭɛɵɣɩɪɢɛɥɢɡɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣɱɟɪɧɨɜɨɣ
ɧɟɨɲɬɭɤɚɬɭɪɟɧɧɵɣɝɪɭɛɵɣɪɟɡɤɢɣc
round [raVnd] a ɤɪɭɝɥɵɣɡɚɤɪɭɝɥɺɧɧɵɣ; adv ɜɨɤɪɭɝɩɨɩɨɜɫɟɣ
prep ɩɨall-year-round ɤɪɭɝɥɨɝɨɞɢɱɧɵɣ 1.2a
roundabout ['raVndqbaVt] n ɤɪɭɝɨɜɨɣɩɟɪɟɤɪɺɫɬɨɤɩɥɨɳɚɞɶɫɤɪɭɝɨɜɵɦɞɜɢ
ɠɟɧɢɟɦmini-roundabout ["mInI'raVndqbaVt] n ɤɪɭɝɨɜɨɣɦɢɧɢ-ɩɟɪɟɤɪɺɫɬɨɤa
route [rHt] n ɦɚɪɲɪɭɬɩɭɬɶɬɪɚɫɫɚ2.4a
row [rqV] n ɪɹɞɥɢɧɢɹ 1.6a
royal ['rOIql a ɰɚɪɫɤɢɣ 1.2b
rule [rHl] n ɩɪɚɜɢɥɨ, ɧɨɪɦɚ; ruled a ɝɪɚɮɥɟɧɵɣ, ɥɢɧɟɣɱɚɬɵɣ 2.9a
rural ['rVqrql] a ɫɟɥɶɫɤɢɣɞɟɪɟɜɟɧɫɤɢɣɩɪɨɜɢɧɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɣb
sacred ['seIkrId] a ɫɜɹɳɟɧɧɵɣɫɜɹɬɨɣb
safe [seIf] a ɛɟɡɨɩɚɫɧɵɣɧɟɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɳɢɣɨɩɚɫɧɨɫɬɢc
safety ['seIftI] n ɛɟɡɨɩɚɫɧɨɫɬɶlaminated safety glass ɬɪɢɩɥɟɤɫɫɥɨɢɫɬɨɟɛɟɡ
ɨɫɤɨɥɨɱɧɨɟɫɬɟɤɥɨ) 3.3a
same [seIm] n ɬɨɠɟɫɚɦɨɟɨɞɧɨɢɬɨɠɟpron ɬɨɬɠɟɫɚɦɵɣɷɬɨɬɠɟɨɞɢɧ
ɢɬɨɬɠɟ 1.4b
sandstone ['sxndstqVn] n ɩɟɫɱɚɧɢɤa
save [seIv] v ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɬɶɫɛɟɪɟɝɚɬɶ saving ['seIvIN] n ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɹɫɛɟɪɟɠɟɧɢɟc
saving ɫɦ save 3.5a
scale [skeIl] n 1. ɫɨɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɟɦɚɫɲɬɚɛɝɪɚɞɚɰɢɹ 2. ɪɚɡɦɟɪɨɯɜɚɬɪɚɡɦɚɯ
ɝɚɦɦɚɰɜɟɬɨɜɭɪɨɜɟɧɶɫɬɭɩɟɧɶɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ) 1.5a
scatter ['skxtq] v ɪɚɫɫɟɢɜɚɬɶɪɚɡɛɪɚɫɵɜɚɬɶɪɚɫɤɢɞɵɜɚɬɶ a scattered ɪɚɡɪɨɡ
ɧɟɧɧɵɣɛɟɫɩɨɪɹɞɨɱɧɵɣb
scene [sJn] n ɨɛɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɚɨɤɪɭɠɟɧɢɟɤɚɪɬɢɧɚ scenery ['sJnqrI] n ɨɛɫɬɚ
ɧɨɜɤɚɨɤɪɭɠɟɧɢɟɜɢɞɩɟɣɡɚɠa
scheme [skJm] n ɩɥɚɧɩɪɨɟɤɬɩɪɨɝɪɚɦɦɚ ɡɚɦɵɫɟɥɫɢɫɬɟɦɚɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɚ1.4a
school [skHl] n ɲɤɨɥɚ nursery school ['nWsqrI"skHl@ɞɟɬɫɤɢɣɫɚɞboard
school ['bLdskHl] ɩɚɧɫɢɨɧɲɤɨɥɚ-ɢɧɬɟɪɧɚɬc
scientific ["saIqn'tIfIk] a ɧɚɭɱɧɵɣ 1.12a
scope [skqVp] n ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɶɩɪɨɫɬɨɪɫɜɨɛɨɞɚɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɣ) 2.12a
screen [skrJn] n ɡɚɝɪɚɠɞɟɧɢɟɩɟɪɟɝɨɪɨɞɤɚɫɟɬɤɚɪɟɲɺɬɤɚɡɚɳɢɬɧɵɣ)
ɷɤɪɚɧɷɤɪɚɧɠɚɥɸɡɢsun screen ɫɨɥɧɰɟɡɚɳɢɬɧɵɣɷɤɪɚɧv ɨɬɞɟɥɹɬɶɨɝɨ
ɪɚɠɢɜɚɬɶɩɪɢɤɪɵɜɚɬɶa
sculptural ['skAlpCqrql] a ɫɤɭɥɶɩɬɭɪɧɵɣɩɨɯɨɠɢɣɧɚɫɬɚɬɭɸɩɥɚɫɬɢɱɟ
ɫɤɢɣ2.4c
297
sculpture ['skAlpCq] n ɫɤɭɥɶɩɬɭɪɚɫɤɭɥɶɩɬɭɪɧɨɟɩɪɨɢɡɜɟɞɟɧɢɟɢɡɜɚɹɧɢɟ
v ɜɚɹɬɶɥɟɩɢɬɶɜɵɫɟɤɚɬɶɧɚɤɚɦɧɟɦɪɚɦɨɪɟɢɬɩɭɤɪɚɲɚɬɶɫɤɭɥɶɩɬɭ
ɪɚɦɢɫɤɭɥɶɩɬɭɪɧɨɣɪɚɛɨɬɨɣb
search [sWC] n ɩɨɢɫɤ(ɢ) 2.3a
season ['sJzqn] n ɜɪɟɦɹ ɝɨɞɚ 3.4a
seat [sJt] n ɫɦ. seating 3.12c
seating ['sJtIN] n ɦɟɫɬɚɞɥɹɫɢɞɟɧɢɹ seat [sJt] n ɫɢɞɟɧɶɟ ɦɟɫɬɨɧɚɯɨɠɞɟ
ɧɢɟɦɟɫɬɨɩɪɟɛɵɜɚɧɢɟ2.4c
secondary ['sekqndqrI] a ɜɬɨɪɨɫɬɟɩɟɧɧɵɣ ɞɨɩɨɥɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣɞɨɛɚɜɨɱɧɵɣ 1.8c
section ['sekSqn] n ɩɨɩɟɪɟɱɧɨɟɫɟɱɟɧɢɟɩɪɨɮɢɥɶɫɟɤɰɢɹɨɬɪɟɡɨɤ
ɭɱɚɫɬɨɤɫɟɝɦɟɧɬɪɚɣɨɧɤɜɚɪɬɚɥɝɨɪɨɞɚ) 1.2a
secular ['sekjVlq] a ɫɜɟɬɫɤɢɣa
secure [sI'kVq] v 1. ɩɨɥɭɱɚɬɶɩɪɢɨɛɪɟɬɚɬɶ ɞɨɫɬɢɝɚɬɶɤɚɤɨɣ-ɥɰɟɥɢɡɚ
ɤɪɟɩɥɹɬɶɫɤɪɟɩɥɹɬɶɩɪɢɤɪɟɩɥɹɬɶ a ɧɚɞɺɠɧɵɣɩɪɨɱɧɵɣb
security [sI'kjVqrItI@ɛɟɡɨɩɚɫɧɨɫɬɶɡɚɳɢɬɚc
seek [sJk] v ɫɬɪɟɦɢɬɶɫɹɞɨɛɢɜɚɬɶɫɹɩɵɬɚɬɶɫɹɢɫɤɚɬɶɩɵɬɚɬɶɫɹɧɚɣɬɢb
seem [sJm] v ɤɚɡɚɬɶɫɹɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɬɶɫɹɜɫɨɱɟɬɚɧɢɹɯɤɚɠɟɬɫɹɨɱɟɜɢɞɧɨ
ɜɢɞɢɦɨɩɨ-ɜɢɞɢɦɨɦɭ 1.4b
seemingly ['sJmINlI] adv ɧɚɩɟɪɜɵɣɜɡɝɥɹɞɧɚɜɢɞa
segment ['segmqnt] n ɫɟɝɦɟɧɬ ɭɱɚɫɬɨɤɫɟɤɬɨɪ 1.6b
select [sq'lekt] v ɨɬɛɢɪɚɬɶɜɵɛɢɪɚɬɶɩɨɞɛɢɪɚɬɶc
selection [sI'lekSqn] n ɜɵɛɨɪɩɨɞɛɨɪ ɧɚɛɨɪ 1.3a
self- [self] prefix ɫɚɦɨ- self-contained ["selfkqn'teInd] a 1. ɢɡɨɥɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɣ, ɨɬ
ɞɟɥɶɧɵɣ 2. ɧɟɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɵɣ, ɚɜɬɨɧɨɦɧɵɣ 2.6a
semi- ['semI] prefix ɩɨɥɭ- 1.5b
semi-cylindrical ɫɦ cylindrical 1.5b
semi-public ["semI'pAblIk] a ɫɦɟɲɚɧɧɵɣD
sensation [sen'seISqn] n ɨɳɭɳɟɧɢɟ, ɱɭɜɫɬɜɨ 3.3b
sense [sens] n 1. ɱɭɜɫɬɜɨ ɨɳɭɳɟɧɢɟɜɨɫɩɪɢɹɬɢɟ 2. ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟɜɚɠɧɨɫɬɶɨɛ
ɳɟɟɧɚɫɬɪɨɟɧɢɟɞɭɯmake sense ɢɦɟɬɶɫɦɵɫɥɛɵɬɶɧɭɠɧɵɦa
sensitive ['sensItIv] a ɱɭɜɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣɜɨɫɩɪɢɢɦɱɢɜɵɣɱɭɬɤɢɣ sensitively adv
ɞɟɥɢɤɚɬɧɨɨɫɬɨɪɨɠɧɨ2.1b
sensual ['senSVql] a ɱɭɜɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣɫɟɧɫɭɚɥɶɧɵɣɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɶɧɵɣa
separate ['sepqreIt] v ɨɬɞɟɥɹɬɶɪɚɡɴɟɞɢɧɹɬɶ>'sepqrIt] a ɨɬɞɟɥɶɧɵɣɢɡɨ
ɥɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɣɨɛɨɫɨɛɥɟɧɧɵɣɨɬɞɟɥɺɧɧɵɣɨɫɨɛɵɣɫɩɟɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɣseparately
adv ɨɬɞɟɥɶɧɨ ɨɛɨɫɨɛɥɟɧɧɨseparation ["sepq'reISqn] n ɪɚɡɞɟɥɟɧɢɟ 1.7a
sequence ['sJkwqns] n ɩɨɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɶɪɹɞ ɱɟɪɟɞɚɱɟɪɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɟc
serene [sI'rJn] a ɹɫɧɵɣɫɜɟɬɥɵɣɫɩɨɤɨɣɧɵɣɛɟɡɦɹɬɟɠɧɵɣb
series ['sIqrJz] n ɪɹɞɝɪɭɩɩɚɪɹɞɫɢɫɬɟɦɚ1.1a
serve [sWv] v ɫɥɭɠɢɬɶɞɥɹɱɟɝɨ-ɥ), ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɬɶɫɹɩɪɢɦɟɧɹɬɶɫɹɨɛɫɥɭ
ɠɢɜɚɬɶɭɞɨɜɥɟɬɜɨɪɹɬɶɝɨɞɢɬɶɫɹa
service ['sWvIs] n ɫɥɭɠɛɚɭɫɥɭɠɟɧɢɟɪɚɛɨɬɚɫɮɟɪɚɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢɨɛ
ɫɥɭɠɢɜɚɧɢɟɬɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɤɨɟɷɤɫɩɥɭɚɬɚɰɢɨɧɧɨɟɦɟɞɢɰɢɧɫɤɨɟɢɬɞ); v ɨɛɫɥɭ
ɠɢɜɚɬɶprimary care service ɩɟɪɜɢɱɧɨɟɦɟɞɢɰɢɧɫɤɨɟɨɛɫɥɭɠɢɜɚɧɢɟservice
core ɰɟɧɬɪɚɥɶɧɵɣɫɬɜɨɥɜɵɫɨɬɧɨɝɨɡɞɚɧɢɹɫɨɫɬɨɹɤɚɦɢɢɧɠɟɧɟɪɧɵɯɫɟɬɟɣ
service room ɫɥɭɠɟɛɧɨɟɩɨɦɟɳɟɧɢɟa
set [set] n ɝɪɭɩɩɚɧɚɛɨɪɤɨɦɩɥɟɤɬɫɟɪɢɹɫɨɜɨɤɭɩɧɨɫɬɶɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ
v ɫɬɚɜɢɬɶɩɨɦɟɳɚɬɶɩɨɫɬɚɜɢɬɶɩɨɦɟɳɚɬɶɫɹɪɚɫɩɨɥɚɝɚɬɶɫɹɭɫɬɚɧɚɜɥɢ
ɜɚɬɶɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɬɶɧɚɡɧɚɱɚɬɶset apart from ɜɵɞɟɥɹɬɶɨɛɨɫɨɛɥɹɬɶɞɟɥɚɬɶɧɟ
ɩɨɯɨɠɢɦset back ɩɨɦɟɳɚɬɶɜɝɥɭɛɢɧɟɨɬɨɞɜɢɝɚɬɶset forth ɮɨɪɦɭɥɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ
ɭɫɬɚɧɚɜɥɢɜɚɬɶset in ɧɚɫɬɭɩɚɬɶ ɭɫɬɚɧɚɜɥɢɜɚɬɶɫɹɧɚɱɢɧɚɬɶɫɹset off from ɨɬ
ɞɟɥɹɬɶɜɵɞɟɥɹɬɶɨɛɨɫɨɛɥɹɬɶset out ɧɚɦɟɪɟɜɚɬɶɫɹɫɨɛɢɪɚɬɶɫɹɱɬɨ-ɥɞɟ
ɥɚɬɶset problem ɫɬɚɜɢɬɶɡɚɞɚɱɭ set the pattern ɞɚɜɚɬɶɩɪɢɦɟɪ ɫɥɭɠɢɬɶ
ɩɪɢɦɟɪɨɦset up ɫɬɚɜɢɬɶɜɵɞɜɢɝɚɬɶɩɪɟɞɥɚɝɚɬɶɩɨɞɧɢɦɚɬɶ ɭɫɬɚɧɚɜɥɢ
ɜɚɬɶɫɬɚɜɢɬɶa
setting ['setIN] n ɨɤɪɭɠɟɧɢɟɨɤɪɭɠɚɸɳɚɹɨɛɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɚɨɛɪɚɦɥɟɧɢɟɮɨɧ
ɨɩɪɚɜɚɨɮɨɪɦɥɟɧɢɟb
settlement ['setlmqnt] n ɩɨɫɟɥɟɧɢɟa
several ['sevqrql] a 1. ɧɟɫɤɨɥɶɤɨ 2. ɪɚɡɧɵɣɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɣb
severe [sI'vIq] a ɫɬɪɨɝɢɣɫɭɪɨɜɵɣɠɺɫɬɤɢɣɬɹɠɺɥɵɣseverely adv
ɫɢɥɶɧɨɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ1.4c
shade [SeId] n ɨɬɬɟɧɨɤɬɨɧɬɟɧɶɩɪɨɯɥɚɞɚɲɬɨɪɚɤɨɡɵɪɺɤɷɤɪɚɧ v ɡɚ
ɬɟɧɹɬɶɡɚɳɢɳɚɬɶɡɚɫɥɨɧɹɬɶɨɬɫɜɟɬɚɫɨɥɧɰɚ); shading n ɡɚɬɟɧɟɧɢɟɫɨɡɞɚ
ɧɢɟɬɟɧɢb
shadow ['SxdqV] n ɬɟɧɶ ɨɬɬɟɧɨɤb
shaft [SRft] n ɫɬɜɨɥɫɬɟɪɠɟɧɶɧɚɩɪɤɨɥɨɧɧɵ); air shaft ɫɜɟɬɨɜɚɹɲɚɯɬɚa
shape [SeIp] n ɮɨɪɦɚɜɢɞɨɱɟɪɬɚɧɢɟɨɛɥɢɤɨɛɪɚɡtake shape ɫɤɥɚɞɵ
ɜɚɬɶɫɹɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɬɶɫɹv ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɬɶɩɪɢɞɚɜɚɬɶɮɨɪɦɭ-shaped [SeIpt]
(ɤɨɦɩɨɧɟɧɬɫɥɨɠɧɵɯɫɥɨɜ) ɢɦɟɸɳɢɣɬɚɤɭɸ-ɬɨɮɨɪɦɭ-ɜɢɞɧɵɣb
share [Seq] v ɪɚɡɞɟɥɹɬɶɫɨɜɦɟɫɬɧɨɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɬɶshared a ɫɨɜɦɟɫɬɧɨɝɨɩɨɥɶ
ɡɨɜɚɧɢɹɨɛɳɢɣɤɨɥɥɟɤɬɢɜɧɵɣ2.1a
sharp [SRp] a ɨɬɱɺɬɥɢɜɵɣɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɺɧɧɵɣ ɬɨɧɤɢɣɨɫɬɪɵɣadv ɪɟɡɤɨ
ɨɫɬɪɨ ɱɟɬɤɨb
shed [Sed] n ɧɚɜɟɫv ɦɟɧɹɬɶɫɛɪɚɫɵɜɚɬɶa
sheet [SJt] n ɥɢɫɬɲɢɪɨɤɚɹɩɨɥɨɫɚb
shell [Sel] n 1. ɨɛɨɥɨɱɤɚɫɜɨɞ ɫɥɨɣɨɛɲɢɜɤɚɤɚɪɤɚɫɨɫɬɨɜɡɞɚɧɢɹ) 1.11a
shelter ['Seltq] n ɤɪɨɜɩɪɢɫɬɚɧɢɳɟɩɪɢɸɬɭɛɟɠɢɳɟ ɡɚɳɢɬɚ; v 1. ɞɚɬɶ
ɩɪɢɸɬɩɪɢɫɬɚɧɢɳɟɭɤɪɵɜɚɬɶɫɥɭɠɢɬɶɩɪɢɸɬɨɦ 2. ɩɪɢɤɪɵɜɚɬɶ (ɫɹ), ɡɚɳɢ
ɳɚɬɶ (ɫɹ)ɭɤɪɵɜɚɬɶ (ɫɹ)ɩɪɹɬɚɬɶ (ɫɹ) 1.6b
shopping ['SPpIN] n ɩɨɤɭɩɤɚɬɨɜɚɪɨɜɩɨɫɟɳɟɧɢɟɦɚɝɚɡɢɧɚ a ɬɨɪɝɨɜɵɣb
shore [SL] n ɛɟɪɟɝb
show [SqV] v ɩɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɬɶɭɤɚɡɵɜɚɬɶ 1.1b
shrine [SraIn] n ɝɪɨɛɧɢɰɚɭɫɵɩɚɥɶɧɢɰɚɦɟɫɬɨɩɨɤɥɨɧɟɧɢɹɫɜɹɬɵɧɹ1.2a
298
299
side [saId] n ɫɬɨɪɨɧɚɱɚɫɬɶɨɛɥɚɫɬɶɤɪɚɣɛɨɤɛɨɤɨɜɚɹɱɚɫɬɶɫɤɥɨɧ
a ɛɨɤɨɜɨɣb
sidewalk ['saIdwLk] n ɬɪɨɬɭɚɪb
sight [saIt] n ɜɢɞɡɪɟɥɢɳɟb
sign [saIn] n ɩɪɢɡɧɚɤɫɜɢɞɟɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɨɜɵɜɟɫɤɚɭɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɶa
significance [sIg'nIfIkqns] n 1. ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟɫɦɵɫɥɜɚɠɧɨɫɬɶɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɶ
ɡɧɚɱɢɦɨɫɬɶ 1.1b
significant [sIg'nIfIkqnt] a ɜɚɠɧɵɣɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɣɜɵɪɚ
ɡɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣ2.4a
silhouette ["sIlV'et] n ɫɢɥɭɷɬɨɱɟɪɬɚɧɢɹ v ɜɵɪɢɫɨɜɵɜɚɬɶɫɹɧɚɮɨɧɟc
similar ['sImIlq] a ɩɨɯɨɠɢɣɩɨɞɨɛɧɵɣɫɯɨɠɢɣsimilarity ["sImI'lxrItI] n
ɫɯɨɞɫɬɜɨɫɯɨɞɧɚɹɱɟɪɬɚb
simplicity [sIm'plIsItI] n ɩɪɨɫɬɨɬɚɫɤɪɨɦɧɨɫɬɶɧɟɡɚɬɟɣɥɢɜɨɫɬɶa
since [sIns] adv ɫɬɟɯɩɨɪprep ɫɫɨcj ɬɚɤɤɚɤɩɨɫɤɨɥɶɤɭb
single ['sINgql] a ɨɞɢɧɚɪɧɵɣ ɨɞɢɧɨɱɧɵɣɟɞɢɧɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣɨɞɢɧɨɬɞɟɥɶ
ɧɵɣɜɡɹɬɵɣɜɨɬɞɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢɨɛɨɫɨɛɥɟɧɧɵɣsingle use ɨɞɧɨɰɟɥɟɜɨɟɢɫɩɨɥɶ
ɡɨɜɚɧɢɟa
sit [sIt] v ɫɢɞɟɬɶɧɚɯɨɞɢɬɶɫɹɫɬɨɹɬɶsitting room ɝɨɫɬɢɧɚɹɨɛɳɚɹɤɨɦ
ɧɚɬɚ2.5a
site [saIt] n ɦɟɫɬɨɭɱɚɫɬɨɤɩɥɨɳɚɞɤɚ ɫɬɪɨɣɩɥɨɳɚɞɤɚ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɹɫɬɪɨɢ
ɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɚɦɟɫɬɨɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɟɦɟɫɬɨɧɚɯɨɠɞɟɧɢɟv ɪɚɫɩɨɥɚɝɚɬɶɫɹɪɚɡɦɟ
ɳɚɬɶɫɹɧɚɯɨɞɢɬɶɫɹoff-site ɡɚɩɪɟɞɟɥɚɦɢɩɥɨɳɚɞɤɢon-site ɧɚɦɟɫɬɟɪɚ
ɛɨɬ); greenfield site ['grJnfJld saIt] ɭɱɚɫɬɨɤɩɟɪɜɢɱɧɨɣɡɚɫɬɪɨɣɤɢ siting
ɪɚɡɦɟɳɟɧɢɟɪɚɡɛɢɜɤɚɡɞɚɧɢɣɧɚɦɟɫɬɧɨɫɬɢɪɚɫɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɟɡɞɚɧɢɣɧɚ
ɦɟɫɬɧɨɫɬɢa
situate ['sICVeIt] n ɪɚɡɦɟɳɚɬɶɪɚɫɩɨɥɚɝɚɬɶa
situation ["sICV'eISqn] n ɦɟɫɬɨɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɟɪɚɫɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɟɦɟɫɬɧɨɫɬɶ2.6b
sizable ['saIzqbql] a ɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɯɪɚɡɦɟɪɨɜɩɨɞɯɨɞɹɳɟɝɨɪɚɡɦɟɪɚa
size [saIz] n ɪɚɡɦɟɪɵɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɚɨɛɴɺɦsized [saIzd] (ɤɨɦɩɨɧɟɧɬɫɥɨɠɧɵɯ
ɫɥɨɜ) ɢɦɟɸɳɢɣɬɚɤɨɣ-ɬɨɪɚɡɦɟɪb
skill [skIl] n ɦɚɫɬɟɪɫɬɜɨɢɫɤɭɫɧɨɫɬɶɬɚɥɚɧɬɞɚɪɦɚɫɬɟɪɫɬɜɨɭɦɟɧɢɟ
ɧɚɜɵɤb
skin [skIn] n ɨɛɨɥɨɱɤɚɨɛɥɢɰɨɜɤɚɨɛɲɢɜɤɚɤɨɠɚdouble-skin ɞɜɨɣɧɚɹ
ɨɛɲɢɜɤɚa
skylight ['skaIlaIt] n ɮɨɧɚɪɶɜɟɪɯɧɟɝɨɫɜɟɬɚɫɜɟɬɨɜɨɣɮɨɧɚɪɶɧɚɤɪɵɲɟ);
skylit ['skaIlIt] a ɫɟɫɬɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɦɨɫɜɟɳɟɧɢɟɦa
skyline ['skaIlaIn] n ɫɢɥɭɷɬɨɱɟɪɬɚɧɢɹɧɚɮɨɧɟɧɟɛɚɥɢɧɢɹɝɨɪɢɡɨɧɬɚc
slant [slRnt] v ɧɚɤɥɨɧɹɬɶ(ɫɹ) 4.3a
slate [sleIt] n (ɤɪɨɜɟɥɶɧɵɣɫɥɚɧɟɰ ɲɢɮɟɪ 4.1b
slender ['slendq] a ɬɨɧɤɢɣɭɡɤɢɣɝɪɚɰɢɨɡɧɵɣc
slight [slaIt] n ɩɪɟɧɟɛɪɟɠɟɧɢɟɧɟɭɜɚɠɟɧɢɟa ɧɟɛɨɥɶɲɨɣɥɺɝɤɢɣɫɥɚɛɵɣ
ɧɟɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣslightly adv ɫɥɟɝɤɚɧɟɦɧɨɝɨɟɞɜɚɱɭɬɶa
slope [slqVp] n ɫɤɥɨɧɧɚɤɥɨɧɭɤɥɨɧ v ɢɦɟɬɶɧɚɤɥɨɧsloping a ɧɚɤɥɨɧɧɵɣ
ɩɨɤɚɬɵɣɩɨɥɨɝɢɣa
slot [slPt] n ɭɡɤɚɹɩɪɨɪɟɡɶɨɤɧɚc
smart [smRt] a ɦɨɞɧɵɣ, ɷɥɟɝɚɧɬɧɵɣ; smart board ɫɦ board 4.2b
smooth [smHD] a ɝɥɚɞɤɢɣɪɨɜɧɵɣ3.12c
so [sqV] adv ɬɚɤɬɚɤɢɦɩɨɞɨɛɧɵɦɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ ɬɚɤɞɨɬɚɤɨɣɫɬɟɩɟɧɢɫɬɨɥɶ
ɬɚɤɱɬɨɩɨɷɬɨɦɭɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɬɚɤɨɣeven so ɜɫɟ-ɬɚɤɢɜɫɟɠɟso as
ɱɬɨɛɵɞɥɹɬɨɝɨɱɬɨɛɵɫɬɟɦɱɬɨɛɵnot so much... as/that ɧɟɫɬɨɥɶɤɨ
ɫɤɨɥɶɤɨ ɧɟɬɚɤɤɚɤso much ɧɚɫɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɞɨɬɚɤɨɣɫɬɟɩɟɧɢso that ɞɥɹ
ɬɨɝɨɱɬɨɛɵ ɬɚɤɱɬɨpron ɬɚɤ 1.4b
social ['sqVSql] a 1. ɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɣɛɵɬɨɜɨɣɫɜɟɬɫɤɢɣ; socially adv ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨ 1.1b
society [sq'saIItI] n ɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɨ ɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣɫɬɪɨɣ 1.12b
socio- [sqVsIqV/ sqVSIqV] prefix ɫɨɰɢɨ- 2.6b
soft [sPft] a ɦɹɝɤɢɣɝɥɚɞɤɢɣɧɟɠɧɵɣɩɨɥɨɝɢɣɪɨɜɧɵɣɛɟɡɜɪɟɞɧɵɣ
ɱɢɫɬɵɣɥɟɝɤɢɣɧɟɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɧɵɣɧɟɬɨɱɧɵɣɧɟɹɫɧɵɣɬɨɧɤɢɣɥɺɝɤɢɣɟɥɟ
ɭɥɨɜɢɦɵɣ soften ['sPfqn] v ɫɦɹɝɱɚɬɶɨɫɥɚɛɥɹɬɶb
soften ɫɦ soft 3.1b
Soho [sqV'hqV] n ɋɨɯɨɪɚɣɨɧɛɨɝɟɦɵɜɅɨɧɞɨɧɟ) 2.4c
solar ['sqVlq] n ɫɨɥɧɟɱɧɚɹ ɷɧɟɪɝɢɹ; a ɫɨɥɧɟɱɧɵɣ; solar blind ɠɚɥɸɡɢ, ɫɬɚɜɧɢ;
solar gain ɫɨɥɧɟɱɧɵɟ (ɬɟɩɥɨ)ɩɨɫɬɭɩɥɟɧɢɹ; solar panel ɫɨɥɧɟɱɧɚɹ ɩɚɧɟɥɶ; solar power plant ɫɨɥɧɟɱɧɚɹ ɷɥɟɤɬɪɨɫɬɚɧɰɢɹ, ɝɟɥɢɨɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɚ 3.3a
solid ['sPlId] a ɫɩɥɨɲɧɨɣɰɟɥɵɣɨɞɧɨɪɨɞɧɵɣ ɩɪɨɱɧɵɣɤɪɟɩɤɢɣɦɚɫ
ɫɢɜɧɵɣ1.4a
solution [sq'lHSqn] n ɪɟɲɟɧɢɟɪɚɡɪɟɲɟɧɢɟ 1.12a
somewhat ['sAmwPt] adv ɞɨɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɨɣɫɬɟɩɟɧɢɧɟɫɤɨɥɶɤɨɨɬɱɚɫɬɢ 1.11a
sort [sLt] n ɜɢɞɬɢɩɪɚɡɧɨɜɢɞɧɨɫɬɶb
source [sLs] n ɢɫɬɨɱɧɢɤ; v ɩɨɥɭɱɚɬɶ, ɩɪɢɨɛɪɟɬɚɬɶ; ground-source heat pump
ɫɦground 2.12b
southern ['sADqn] a ɸɠɧɵɣb
space [speIs] n ɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɨɨɛɥɚɫɬɶɡɨɧɚɦɟɫɬɨɪɚɫɫɬɨɹɧɢɟɩɪɨɦɟɠɭ
ɬɨɤɢɧɬɟɪɜɚɥv ɪɚɫɫɬɚɜɥɹɬɶɫɩɪɨɦɟɠɭɬɤɚɦɢspaced a ɪɚɫɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɧɵɟɧɚ
ɪɚɫɫɬɨɹɧɢɢɞɪɭɝɨɬɞɪɭɝɚb
span [spxn] n 1. ɩɪɨɥɺɬ ɲɢɪɢɧɚv 1. ɩɟɪɟɤɪɵɜɚɬɶɩɪɨɥɺɬɩɪɨɫɬɢ
ɪɚɬɶɫɹɨɯɜɚɬɵɜɚɬɶɫɨɟɞɢɧɹɬɶ1.8a
spatial ['speISql] a ɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɚɥɶɧɵɣspatially adv ɩɪɨ
ɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɜɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɦɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɢ 2.6b
special ['speSql] a ɨɫɨɛɵɣɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɵɣ ɫɩɟɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɣɢɧɞɢɜɢɞɭɚɥɶɧɵɣ 1.8a
specialise (AmE specialize) ['speSqlaIz] v ɫɩɟɰɢɚɥɢɡɢɪɨɜɚɬɶɫɹ 2.4b
specific [spI'sIfIk] a ɨɫɨɛɵɣɤɨɧɤɪɟɬɧɵɣɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɺɧɧɵɣb
specify ['spesIfaI] v ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɬɶɧɚɡɵɜɚɬɶɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɡɨɜɚɬɶ1.9a
spine [spaIn] n ɰɟɧɬɪɚɥɶɧɚɹɥɢɧɢɹɨɫɶɝɨɪɧɵɣɯɪɟɛɟɬɝɪɟɛɟɧɶa
spiral ['spaIqrql] n ɫɩɢɪɚɥɶ v ɞɜɢɝɚɬɶɫɹɩɨɫɩɢɪɚɥɢ a ɫɩɢɪɚɥɶɧɵɣɜɢɧɬɨɜɨɣc
300
301
spire ['spaIq] n ɲɩɢɥɶb
splendid ['splendId] a ɪɨɫɤɨɲɧɵɣɛɨɝɚɬɵɣɩɵɲɧɵɣɜɟɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣ ɩɪɟ
ɤɪɚɫɧɵɣɜɟɥɢɤɨɥɟɩɧɵɣ1.4a
splendour ['splendq] n ɜɟɥɢɤɨɥɟɩɢɟɜɟɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɫɬɶɜɟɥɢɱɢɟɛɥɚɝɨ
ɪɨɞɫɬɜɨa
sport [spLt] n ɫɩɨɪɬɜɢɞɫɩɨɪɬɚv ɜɵɫɬɚɜɥɹɬɶɧɚɩɨɤɚɡɳɟɝɨɥɹɬɶɱɟɦ-ɥ) 3.1a
spread [spred] v 1. ɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɹɬɶɪɚɡɜɺɪɬɵɜɚɬɶɪɚɫɯɨɞɹɬɫɹɪɚɫɤɢɞɵ
ɜɚɬɶɫɹ 1.1a
spring [sprIN] n ɧɢɠɧɹɹɱɚɫɬɶɚɪɤɢɫɜɨɞɚɧɚɱɚɥɨɢɫɬɨɱɧɢɤɤɥɸɱ
ɪɨɞɧɢɤv ɩɨɞɧɢɦɚɬɶɫɹɜɨɡɜɵɲɚɬɶɫɹa
spruce [sprHs] n ɟɥɶɤɚɧɚɞɫɤɚɹɟɥɶɯɜɨɣɧɚɹɞɪɟɜɟɫɢɧɚa
square [skweq] n ɩɥɨɳɚɞɶɤɜɚɞɪɚɬɩɪɹɦɨɭɝɨɥɶɧɢɤa ɤɜɚɞɪɚɬɧɵɣ
ɩɪɹɦɨɭɝɨɥɶɧɵɣ squarish ['skweqrIS] a ɩɨɱɬɢɩɪɹɦɨɭɝɨɥɶɧɵɣ 1.2a
St. Paul’s Cathedral [seInt'pLlz kq"TJdrql] ɤɚɮɟɞɪɚɥɶɧɵɣɫɨɛɨɪɫɜɉɚɜɥɚ 1.11a
stability [stq'bIlItI] n ɩɨɫɬɨɹɧɫɬɜɨɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɨɫɬɶɫɬɚɛɢɥɶɧɨɫɬɶa
stack [stxk] v ɫɤɥɚɞɵɜɚɬɶɫɬɚɜɢɬɶɞɪɭɝɧɚɞɪɭɝɚ) 3.8c
staff [stRf] n ɩɟɪɫɨɧɚɥɫɨɬɪɭɞɧɢɤɢb
stage [steIG] n 1. ɩɟɪɢɨɞɫɬɚɞɢɹɷɬɚɩɫɰɟɧɚa
stainless steel ["steInlIs 'stJl] ɧɟɪɠɚɜɟɸɳɚɹ ɫɬɚɥɶ 4.5a
stair (pl stairs) [steq(z)] n 1. ɥɟɫɬɧɢɰɚ 2. ɥɟɫɬɧɢɱɧɵɣ ɦɚɪɲ 3. ɫɬɭɩɟɧɶɤɚ; access stairs ['xkses "steqz] ɥɟɫɬɧɢɰɚ ɦɟɠɞɭ ɷɬɚɠɚɦɢ; stair-room ['steqrHm]
ɥɟɫɬɧɢɱɧɨɟ ɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɨ 3.12a
staircase ['steqkeIs] n ɥɟɫɬɧɢɰɚ 1.8c
stand [stxnd] v ɧɚɯɨɞɢɬɶɫɹ, ɛɵɬɶ ɪɚɫɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɧɵɦ, ɫɬɨɹɬɶ; stand out ɜɵɞɟ
ɥɹɬɶɫɹ, ɜɵɫɬɭɩɚɬɶ; stand up to ɛɵɬɶ ɧɚ ɜɵɫɨɬɟ, ɧɟ ɭɫɬɭɩɚɬɶ; standing-seam
roof ['stxndIN 'sJmrHf] ɮɚɥɶɰɟɜɚɹ ɤɪɨɜɥɹ 1.3b
start [stRt] n ɧɚɱɚɥɨat the start ɢɡɧɚɱɚɥɶɧɨv ɧɚɱɢɧɚɬɶɫɹɩɪɢɫɬɭɩɚɬɶ
(ɤɱɟɦɭ-ɥ); starting point ɨɬɩɪɚɜɧɚɹɬɨɱɤɚ2.1b
state [steIt] n ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɨɲɬɚɬv ɡɚɹɜɥɹɬɶɭɬɜɟɪɠɞɚɬɶɝɥɚɫɢɬɶb
static ['stxtIk] a ɫɬɚɬɢɱɧɵɣɧɟɩɨɞɜɢɠɧɵɣa
statue ['stxCH] n ɫɬɚɬɭɹɦɨɧɭɦɟɧɬɢɡɜɚɹɧɢɟ 1.4a
steel [stJl] n ɫɬɚɥɶ a ɫɬɚɥɶɧɨɣsteelframed ['stJlfreImd@ɫɬɚɥɶɧɵɦɤɚɪɤɚɫɨɦ
a ɫɬɚɥɶɧɨɤɚɪɤɚɫɧɵɣɫɨɫɬɚɥɶɧɵɦɤɚɪɤɚɫɨɦ 1.12a
steep [stJp] a ɤɪɭɬɨɣɨɬɜɟɫɧɵɣ steeply adv ɤɪɭɬɨɨɛɪɵɜɢɫɬɨa
step [step] n ɫɬɭɩɟɧɶɫɬɭɩɟɧɶɤɚɭɫɬɭɩɥɟɫɬɧɢɰɚɩɨɞɴɟɦɩɨɫɬɭɩɶv ɩɨɞɧɢ
ɦɚɬɶɫɹɨɩɭɫɤɚɬɶɫɹɜɵɫɬɭɩɚɬɶɨɬɫɬɭɩɚɬɶɭɫɬɭɩɚɦɢɫɬɭɩɟɧɹɦɢɹɪɭɫɚɦɢ
stepped a ɫɬɭɩɟɧɱɚɬɵɣɭɫɬɭɩɱɚɬɵɣɹɪɭɫɧɵɣ 1.4b
stiff [stIf] a ɡɚɫɬɵɜɲɢɣɠɺɫɬɤɢɣɠɺɫɬɤɢɣɤɪɟɩɤɢɣb
stiffen ['stIfqn] v ɩɪɢɞɚɜɚɬɶɠɺɫɬɤɨɫɬɶɭɫɢɥɢɜɚɬɶb
still [stIl] adv ɞɨɫɢɯɩɨɪɟɳɺɩɨ-ɩɪɟɠɧɟɦɭɤɪɨɦɟɬɨɝɨcj ɜɫɺɠɟɬɟɦɧɟ
ɦɟɧɟɟɨɞɧɚɤɨa
stone [stqVn] n ɤɚɦɟɧɶ ɤɚɦɟɧɧɵɣɛɥɨɤ a ɤɚɦɟɧɧɵɣ1.4a
302
store [stL] n ɦɚɝɚɡɢɧɯɪɚɧɢɥɢɳɟ department store ɫɦ department; v ɫɨ
ɯɪɚɧɹɬɶɯɪɚɧɢɬɶɡɚɩɚɫɚɬɶɫ
storefront ['stLfrAnt] n ɜɢɬɪɢɧɚ 3.11b
storey ['stLrI] n ɷɬɚɠ, ɹɪɭɫ 1.11a
straight [streIt] a ɩɪɹɦɨɣc
strain [streIn] n ɧɚɩɪɹɠɟɧɢɟɧɚɝɪɭɡɤɚv ɫɬɪɟɦɢɬɶɫɹɫɬɚɪɚɬɶɫɹɢɡɨɜɫɟɯɫɢɥ
ɪɜɚɬɶɫɹb
strange ['streInG] a ɫɬɪɚɧɧɵɣɧɟɨɛɵɱɧɵɣɱɭɞɧɨɣstranger n ɧɟɡɧɚɤɨɦɟɰ
ɩɨɫɟɬɢɬɟɥɶɝɨɫɬɶstrangeness ['streInGnIs] n ɫɬɪɚɧɧɨɫɬɶ 2.4c
strategic [strq'tJGIk] a ɫɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɜɚɠɧɵɣc
strategy ['strxtIGI] n ɫɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɹɦɟɬɨɞɢɤɚɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɩɨɞɯɨɞb
strengthen ['streNTqn] v ɭɤɪɟɩɥɹɬɶɭɫɢɥɢɜɚɬɶE
stress [stres] v ɩɨɞɱɺɪɤɢɜɚɬɶɞɟɥɚɬɶɚɤɰɟɧɬɧɚa
stretch [streC] v ɪɚɫɬɹɝɢɜɚɬɶɫɹɜɵɬɹɝɢɜɚɬɶɫɹɭɞɥɢɧɹɬɶɫɹoutstretched
["aVt'streCt] with … arms ɫɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɟɪɬɵɦɢɨɛɴɹɬɢɹɦɢc
strict [strIkt] a ɬɨɱɧɵɣɫɬɪɨɝɢɣstrictly adv ɫɬɪɨɝɨ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɺɧɧɨb
striking ['straIkIN] a ɩɨɪɚɡɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣɢɡɭɦɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣɡɚɦɟɱɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɣɪɚ
ɡɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣa
strip [strIp] n ɩɨɥɨɫɚɩɨɥɨɫɤɚɥɟɧɬɚɭɡɤɚɹɞɨɫɤɚɪɟɣɤɚɩɥɚɧɤɚɭɱɚ
ɫɬɨɤɡɨɧɚa
strong [strPN] a ɷɧɟɪɝɢɱɧɵɣɜɵɪɚɡɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣɹɫɧɵɣɫɢɥɶɧɵɣɨɩɪɟɞɟ
ɥɺɧɧɵɣ ɫɢɥɶɧɵɣɜɟɫɤɢɣɭɛɟɞɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣɩɪɨɱɧɵɣɛɨɝɚɬɵɣɦɨɳɧɵɣ
strongly adv ɨɱɟɧɶɜɟɫɶɦɚɱɪɟɡɜɵɱɚɣɧɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨa
structural ['strAkCqrql] a ɫɬɪɨɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɬɢɜɧɵɣɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɨɧɧɵɣ
structurally adv ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɬɢɜɧɨ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɧɨ 1.8a
structure ['strAkCq] n ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɹɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɬɢɜɧɚɹɫɢɫɬɟɦɚɡɞɚɧɢɹɫɨ
ɨɪɭɠɟɧɢɹɫɨɨɪɭɠɟɧɢɟɡɞɚɧɢɟɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɚv ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɢɪɨɜɚɬɶɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɨ
ɜɵɜɚɬɶ 1.1a
stucco ['stAkqV] n 1. ɥɟɩɧɚɹɪɚɛɨɬɚɥɟɩɧɢɧɚɞɟɤɨɪ 2. (ɧɚɪɭɠɧɚɹɲɬɭɤɚɬɭɪɤɚ1.4a
studio ['stjHdIqV] n ɫɬɭɞɢɹɤɜɚɪɬɢɪɚ-ɫɬɭɞɢɹɦɚɫɬɟɪɫɤɚɹɯɭɞɨɠɧɢɤɚ 3.6b
study ['stAdI] n ɢɡɭɱɟɧɢɟɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɟɨɛɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɟstudy (roomɪɚɛɨ
ɱɢɣɤɚɛɢɧɟɬv ɢɡɭɱɚɬɶɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɶb
style [staIl] n ɫɬɢɥɶɦɚɧɟɪɚɜɤɭɫa
stylobate ['staIlqbeIt] n ɫɬɢɥɨɛɚɬɜɟɪɯɧɹɹɩɨɜɟɪɯɧɨɫɬɶɫɬɭɩɟɧɱɚɬɨɝɨɰɨɤɨɥɹ
ɞɪɟɜɧɟɝɪɟɱɟɫɤɨɝɨɯɪɚɦɚɧɚɤɨɬɨɪɨɣɫɨɨɪɭɠɚɥɚɫɶɤɨɥɨɧɧɚɞɚ) 1.4b
subordinate [sq'bLdInqt] a ɜɬɨɪɨɫɬɟɩɟɧɧɵɣ ɜɬɨɪɢɱɧɵɣb
substance ['sAbstqns] n ɫɭɳɧɨɫɬɶɫɭɬɶɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɟ1.1a
substantial [sqb'stxnSql] a ɩɪɨɱɧɵɣɤɪɟɩɤɢɣɫɨɥɢɞɧɵɣɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣ
ɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣsubstantially adv ɩɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɭɜɨɫɧɨɜɧɨɦɜɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɣ
ɫɬɟɩɟɧɢɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨa
substitute ['sAbstItjHt] n ɡɚɦɟɧɚv ɡɚɦɟɧɹɬɶɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɬɶɜɦɟɫɬɨ1.1a
suburb ['sAbWb] n ɨɤɪɚɢɧɚɩɪɢɝɨɪɨɞɩɪɟɞɦɟɫɬɶɹgarden suburb ɩɚɪɤɨɜɚɹ
ɡɨɧɚɡɟɥɺɧɵɣɩɪɢɝɨɪɨɞsuburban [sq'bWbqn] a ɩɪɢɝɨɪɨɞɧɵɣa
303
successful [sqk'sesfql] a 1. ɭɞɚɱɧɵɣ, ɭɫɩɟɲɧɵɣ 2. ɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɵɣ; successfully
adv ɭɫɩɟɲɧɨ 1.11a
successive [sqk'sesIv] a ɩɨɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɣɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɣɨɞɢɧɡɚɞɪɭɝɢɦɩɨɫɥɟɞɨ
ɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɣsuccessively adv ɩɨɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɨb
sufficient [sq'fISqnt] a ɞɨɫɬɚɬɨɱɧɵɣ ɚɞɟɤɜɚɬɧɵɣɩɨɞɯɨɞɹɳɢɣb
suggest [sq'Gest] v ɩɪɟɞɥɚɝɚɬɶɫɨɜɟɬɨɜɚɬɶɨɡɧɚɱɚɬɶɧɚɜɨɞɢɬɶɧɚ
ɦɵɫɥɶɜɵɡɵɜɚɬɶɦɵɫɥɶɢɬɩ) 2.6a
suite [swJt] n ɚɩɚɪɬɚɦɟɧɬɵ ɧɨɦɟɪɥɸɤɫ ɚɧɮɢɥɚɞɚɤɨɦɧɚɬ3.6a
summit ['sAmIt] n ɜɟɪɲɢɧɚɜɟɪɯɧɚɢɜɵɫɲɚɹɬɨɱɤɚ 1.8a
sunlight ['sAnlaIt] n ɫɨɥɧɟɱɧɵɣ ɫɜɟɬ 3.3a
sunny ['sAnI] a 1. ɫɨɥɧɟɱɧɵɣɨɫɜɟɳɺɧɧɵɣɫɨɥɧɰɟɦ 2. ɜɟɫɺɥɵɣɠɢɡɧɟɪɚɞɨɫɬ
ɧɵɣ1.4a
support [sq'pLt] n ɨɩɨɪɚɨɩɨɪɧɚɹɫɬɨɣɤɚɩɨɞɞɟɪɠɤɚɩɨɦɨɳɶv ɩɨɞ
ɞɟɪɠɢɜɚɬɶɧɟɫɬɢɩɨɞɩɢɪɚɬɶɨɛɫɥɭɠɢɜɚɬɶɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɢɜɚɬɶa
suppress [sq'pres] v ɫɤɪɵɬɶɫɤɪɵɜɚɬɶɡɚɬɟɧɹɬɶb
surface ['sWfIs] n ɩɨɜɟɪɯɧɨɫɬɶ ɩɥɨɫɤɨɫɬɶ surface area ɩɥɨɳɚɞɶɩɨɜɟɪɯɧɨɫɬɢ 1.8a
surmount [sq'maVnt] v ɭɜɟɧɱɢɜɚɬɶa
surpass [sq'pRs] v ɩɪɟɜɨɫɯɨɞɢɬɶb
surround [sq'raVnd] v ɨɤɪɭɠɚɬɶɨɤɪɭɠɢɬɶɨɛɧɨɫɢɬɶɨɤɚɣɦɥɹɬɶb
surroundings [sq'raVndINz] n pl ɨɤɪɟɫɬɧɨɫɬɢɨɤɪɭɠɟɧɢɟɫɪɟɞɚb
surveillance [sq'veIlqns] n ɨɛɡɨɪ, ɨɫɦɨɬɪ 2.6b
survey ['sWveI] n ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɟɨɛɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɟ>sq'veI] v ɨɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɬɶɢɡɭ
ɱɚɬɶa
survive [sq'vaIv] v ɜɵɠɢɬɶɭɰɟɥɟɬɶɫɨɯɪɚɧɹɬɶɫɹ2.4a
suspended [sq'spendId] a ɩɨɞɜɟɲɟɧɧɵɣɩɨɞɜɟɫɧɨɣɜɢɫɹɱɢɣb
sustain [sq'steIn] v ɩɨɞɞɟɪɠɢɜɚɬɶɩɨɞɩɢɪɚɬɶɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɢɜɚɬɶ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɫɬɜɨ
ɜɚɬɶɡɚɳɢɳɚɬɶa
sustainable [sq'steInqbql] a ɝɚɪɦɨɧɢɱɧɵɣɷɤɨɪɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɣɪɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɣ
sustainability [sq"steInq'bIlItI] n ɝɚɪɦɨɧɢɱɧɨɫɬɶɷɤɨɪɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɶ2.1a
symbol ['sImbql] n ɡɧɚɤɫɢɦɜɨɥɷɦɛɥɟɦɚ2.4c
symbolic [sIm'bPlIk] a ɫɢɦɜɨɥɢɱɟɫɤɢɣɫɢɦɜɨɥɢɱɧɵɣ1.1a
symbolize ['sImbqlaIz] AmE v ɫɢɦɜɨɥɢɡɢɪɨɜɚɬɶD
symmetrical [sI'metrIkql] a ɫɢɦɦɟɬɪɢɱɧɵɣ 1.8c
symmetry ['sImItrI] n ɫɢɦɦɟɬɪɢɹ, ɫɢɦɦɟɬɪɢɱɧɨɫɬɶ, ɫɨɪɚɡɦɟɪɧɨɫɬɶ 1.4b
sympathetic ["sImpq'TetIk] a ɛɥɢɡɤɢɣɩɨɞɭɯɭD
system ['sIstqm] n ɫɢɫɬɟɦɚɫɩɨɫɨɛɦɟɬɨɞa
systematic ["sIstI'mxtIk] a ɦɟɬɨɞɢɱɧɵɣɩɥɚɧɨɦɟɪɧɵɣ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɣɪɟ
ɝɭɥɹɪɧɵɣb
tactile ['txktaIl] a ɨɫɹɡɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɣɬɚɤɬɢɥɶɧɵɣɨɫɹɡɚɟɦɵɣɨɳɭɬɢɦɵɣa
tall [tLl@ɜɵɫɨɤɢɣɢɦɟɸɳɢɣɜɵɫɨɬɭɜɵɫɨɬɨɣc
tank [txNk] n ɪɟɡɟɪɜɭɚɪɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣɜɨɞɨɺɦ4.7a
taper ['teIpq] v ɫɭɠɚɬɶɫɹɫɭɠɢɜɚɬɶɫɹɤɤɨɧɰɭa
304
task [tRsk] n ɡɚɞɚɱɚɡɚɞɚɧɢɟb
taste [teIst] n ɜɤɭɫ, ɩɨɧɢɦɚɧɢɟ 1.3a
teaching ['tJCIN] n ɨɛɭɱɟɧɢɟ 4.2b
team [tJm] n ɝɪɭɩɩɚɛɪɢɝɚɞɚɚɪɬɟɥɶɤɨɦɚɧɞɚa
technical ['teknIkql] a ɬɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɤɢɣtechnical room ɬɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɤɨɟɩɨɦɟɳɟɧɢɟ
adv ɬɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɤɢc
technique [tek'nJk] n ɫɩɨɫɨɛɦɟɬɨɞɦɟɬɨɞɢɤɚɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɹ2.1a
technology [tek'nPlqGI] n ɬɟɯɧɢɤɚɬɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɤɢɟɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɚɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɹa
tectonic [tek'tPnIk] a ɚɪɯɢɬɟɤɬɭɪɧɵɣɬɟɤɬɨɧɢɱɟɫɤɢɣb
temperate ['tempqrIt] a ɭɦɟɪɟɧɧɵɣɨɤɥɢɦɚɬɟɫ
temple ['tempql] n ɯɪɚɦɯɪɚɦɨɜɚɹɩɨɫɬɪɨɣɤɚɰɟɪɤɨɜɶa
tend [tend] v ɜɨɛɨɪɨɬɚɯɜɫɨɱɟɬɚɧɢɢɫɝɥɚɝɨɥɨɦɨɡɧɚɱɚɟɬɨɛɵɱɧɨɤɚɤɩɪɚ
ɜɢɥɨa
tendency ['tendqnsI] n ɬɟɧɞɟɧɰɢɹɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɫɜɨɣɫɬɜɨɢɞɟɹɡɚɦɵɫɟɥ1.4c
tension ['tenSqn] n ɧɚɩɪɹɠɟɧɢɟ ɞɪɚɦɚɬɢɡɦ ɪɚɫɬɹɠɟɧɢɟɭɫɢɥɢɟɧɚɬɹɠɟ
ɧɢɹa
term [tWm] n ɬɟɪɦɢɧɫɥɨɜɨpl ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɹcome to terms with ɞɚɬɶɨɬɜɟɬ
ɧɚɫɩɪɚɜɢɬɶɫɹɫin terms of ɫɬɨɱɤɢɡɪɟɧɢɹɜɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɢterms of reference
ɤɨɦɩɟɬɟɧɰɢɹɜɟɞɟɧɢɟv ɧɚɡɵɜɚɬɶ 1.7a
terminate ['tWmIneIt] v ɡɚɜɟɪɲɚɬɶɫɹɤɨɧɱɚɬɶɫɹɨɛɪɵɜɚɬɶɫɹa
terrace ['terqs] n 1. ɬɟɪɪɚɫɚɜɟɪɚɧɞɚ ɨɬɤɪɵɬɚɹɝɚɥɟɪɟɹɛɚɥɤɨɧɩɪɨɝɭɥɨɱ
ɧɚɹɚɥɥɟɹɩɥɨɫɤɚɹɤɪɵɲɚterraced a ɬɟɪɪɚɫɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɣterraced cottages
ɪɹɞɫɬɚɧɞɚɪɬɧɵɯɤɨɬɬɟɞɠɟɣɜɞɨɥɶɭɥɢɰɵ 1.8c
terra-cotta ["terq'kPtq] n ɬɟɪɪɚɤɨɬɚ (ɤɟɪɚɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɟɧɟɝɥɚɡɭɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɟɢɡɞɟɥɢɹ
ɢɡɰɜɟɬɧɨɣɝɥɢɧɵɫɩɨɪɢɫɬɵɦɫɬɪɨɟɧɢɟɦ) 1.4a
terrain [te'reIn] n ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɹɦɟɫɬɧɨɫɬɶɪɟɥɶɟɮɦɟɫɬɧɨɫɬɢa
territory ['terItqrI] n ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɹ, ɪɚɣɨɧ 2.6a
texture ['teksCq] n ɬɟɤɫɬɭɪɚ, ɮɚɤɬɭɪɚ, ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɚ; textured a ɨɛɴɺɦɧɵɣ, ɪɟɥɶ
ɟɮɧɵɣ 3.2a
Thames [temz] n ɪɌɟɦɡɚD
than [Dxn] cj ɱɟɦother than ɤɪɨɦɟɩɨɦɢɦɨD
thatched [TxCt] a ɫɨɥɨɦɟɧɧɵɣɬɪɨɫɬɧɢɤɨɜɵɣɨɤɪɵɲɟ 2.5b
theme [TJm] n ɬɟɦɚɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɧɚɹɱɟɪɬɚ2.4b
then [Den] adv ɩɨɫɥɟɩɨɬɨɦɡɚɬɟɦɬɨɝɞɚɜɬɚɤɨɦɫɥɭɱɚɟ ɜɬɨɜɪɟɦɹ
since then ɫɬɟɯɩɨɪa
therefore ['DeqfL] adv ɩɨɷɬɨɦɭɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɜɫɥɟɞɫɬɜɢɟɷɬɨɝɨ2.4c
thermal ['TWmql] a ɬɟɦɩɟɪɚɬɭɪɧɵɣɬɟɩɥɨɜɨɣthermal imagining camera
['TWmql I'mxGInIN 'kxmqrq] ɬɟɩɥɨɜɢɡɨɪ thermal mass ɬɟɪɦɚɥɶɧɚɹɦɚɫɫɚ
ɬɟɩɥɨɺɦɤɨɫɬɶa
thick [TIk] a ɬɨɥɫɬɵɣ a foot thick ɬɨɥɳɢɧɨɣɜɨɞɢɧɮɭɬD
thin [TIn] a ɬɨɧɤɢɣ ɦɟɥɤɢɣ 1.4a
though [DqV] cj ɯɨɬɹɧɟɫɦɨɬɪɹɧɚɜɫɺɠɟ 1.4a
threshold ['TreShqVld] n ɩɨɪɨɝ, ɜɯɨɞ 4.12b
305
through [TrH] prep ɱɟɪɟɡɫɤɜɨɡɶɢɡ-ɡɚɩɨɩɪɢɱɢɧɟɛɥɚɝɨɞɚɪɹɩɨ
ɱɟɪɟɡɩɭɬɺɦɩɨɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɨɦ1.1a
throughout [TrH'aVt] adv ɩɨɜɫɸɞɭɜɟɡɞɟ prep 1. ɩɨɜɫɟɣɩɥɨɳɚɞɢɬɟɪɪɢ
ɬɨɪɢɢɜɬɟɱɟɧɢɟɜɫɟɝɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɢ 1.1a
thrust [TrAst] n ɧɚɝɪɭɡɤɚɛɨɤɨɜɨɟɨɫɟɜɨɟɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ v ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɢɬɶɨɤɚɡɵ
ɜɚɬɶɨɫɟɜɨɟɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɟb
thus [DAs] adv ɬɚɤɬɚɤɢɦɨɛɪɚɡɨɦɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɦɨɛɪɚɡɨɦɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɨ
ɢɬɚɤɜɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɢɢɫɷɬɢɦɬɚɤɢɦɨɛɪɚɡɨɦɩɨɷɬɨɦɭa
tie [taI] v ɫɜɹɡɵɜɚɬɶɫɨɟɞɢɧɹɬɶc
tile [taIl] n ɨɛɥɢɰɨɜɨɱɧɚɹɩɥɢɬɤɚ; ceramic-tiled [sq'rxmIk"taIld] a ɨɛɥɢɰɨ
ɜɚɧɧɵɣɤɟɪɚɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɩɥɢɬɤɨɣc
timber ['tImbq] n ɞɪɟɜɟɫɢɧɚɥɟɫɨɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥa ɞɟɪɟɜɹɧɧɵɣa
time [taIm] n ɜɪɟɦɹɜɪɟɦɟɧɚɩɨɪɚɪɚɡɫɥɭɱɚɣat one time ɨɞɧɨɜɪɟɦɹ
ɤɨɝɞɚ-ɬɨin early times ɜɩɪɟɠɧɟɟɜɪɟɦɹ in time ɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɟɦit is time ɩɨɪɚb
tip [tIp] n (ɨɫɬɪɵɣɤɨɧɟɰɨɤɨɧɟɱɧɨɫɬɶa
together [tq'geDq] adv ɜɦɟɫɬɟɫɨɜɦɟɫɬɧɨɨɞɧɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɜɦɟɫɬɟɫɜɞɨ
ɛɚɜɥɟɧɢɟɤɧɚɪɹɞɭɫɞɪɭɝɫɞɪɭɝɨɦɜɨɟɞɢɧɨɜɦɟɫɬɟɜɡɹɬɵɟcome together ɫɯɨɞɢɬɶɫɹɫɨɛɪɚɬɶɫɹɜɦɟɫɬɟɨɛɴɟɞɢɧɢɬɶɫɹput together ɫɨɟɞɢɧɹɬɶ
ɫɨɛɪɚɬɶɜɨɟɞɢɧɨb
tomb [tHm] n ɝɪɨɛɧɢɰɚɧɚɞɝɪɨɛɢɟb
tone [tqVn] n ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɫɬɢɥɶ v ɝɚɪɦɨɧɢɪɨɜɚɬɶb
tool [tHl] n ɢɧɫɬɪɭɦɟɧɬɨɪɭɞɢɟɫɪɟɞɫɬɜo 2.7a
top [tPp] n ɜɟɪɯɭɲɤɚɜɟɪɲɢɧɚɜɟɪɯɧɹɹɱɚɫɬɶɜɟɪɯon top ɩɨɜɟɪɯ
ɫɜɟɪɯɭa ɜɟɪɯɧɢɣtop light ɜɟɪɯɧɢɣɫɜɟɬɫɜɟɬɨɜɨɣɥɸɤtop-lit ɫɜɟɪɯɧɟɣɩɨɞ
ɫɜɟɬɤɨɣflat-topped ɫɩɥɨɫɤɢɦɜɟɪɯɨɦ1.4c
topography [tP'pPgrqfI] n ɪɟɥɶɟɮɬɨɩɨɝɪɚɮɢɹa
total ['tqVtl] a ɨɛɳɢɣɩɨɥɧɵɣɫɨɜɨɤɭɩɧɵɣɜɟɫɶin total ɜɰɟɥɨɦtotally adv
ɩɨɥɧɨɫɬɶɸɚɛɫɨɥɸɬɧɨɜɨɛɳɟɦɜɰɟɥɨɦc
toward(s) [tq'wLd(z)/tLrd(z)] prep ɤɩɨɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɸɤɧɚɧɚɜɫɬɪɟɱɭ
ɜɫɬɨɪɨɧɭɩɨɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɸɤɞɥɹ1.4c
tower ['taVq] n ɛɚɲɧɹɤɨɥɨɤɨɥɶɧɹɧɟɛɨɫɤɪɺɛɜɵɫɨɬɧɨɟɡɞɚɧɢɟɡɞɚɧɢɟ
ɜɵɲɟɷɬɚɠɟɣ); the Tower ɌɚɭɷɪɜɅɨɧɞɨɧɟ) 1.3a
townscape ['taVn"skeIp] n ɝɨɪɨɞɫɤɨɣɩɟɣɡɚɠɝɨɪɨɞɫɤɨɣɥɚɧɞɲɚɮɬ2.4b
trace [treIs] n pl ɫɥɟɞɵɨɫɬɚɬɤɢɩɪɢɡɧɚɤɢ v 1. ɩɪɨɫɥɟɞɢɬɶɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɢɬɶ
2. ɧɚɣɬɢɫɥɟɞɵɩɪɢɡɧɚɤɢɧɚɯɨɞɢɬɶɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɢɜɚɬɶɜɵɱɟɪɱɢɜɚɬɶ 1.1b
tradition [trq'dISqn] n ɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɹɫɬɚɪɵɣɨɛɵɱɚɣɩɪɢɜɵɱɤɚ 1.12b
traditional [trq'dISqnql] a ɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɨɧɧɵɣɨɛɵɱɧɵɣɤɥɚɫɫɢɱɟɫɤɢɣɢɫɬɨɪɢɱɟ
ɫɤɢɣɢɫɬɨɪɢɱɟɫɤɢɫɥɨɠɢɜɲɢɣɫɹ traditionally adv ɨɛɵɱɧɨɤɚɤɩɪɚɜɢɥɨ 1.8c
traffic ['trxfIk] n ɬɪɚɧɫɩɨɪɬ ɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɟtraffic lights ['trxfIklaIts] ɫɜɟɬɨɮɨɪ 1.8c
transfer ['trxnsfW] n ɩɟɪɟɯɨɞɩɟɪɟɧɨɫɩɟɪɟɞɚɱɚ [trxns'fW] v ɩɟɪɟɧɨ
ɫɢɬɶɩɟɪɟɤɥɚɞɵɜɚɬɶb
transform [trxns'fLm] v ɬɪɚɧɫɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɬɶɩɪɟɨɛɪɚɡɢɬɶɩɪɟɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɵ
ɜɚɬɶɢɡɦɟɧɹɬɶɫɹa
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transformation ["trxnsfq'meISqn] n ɬɪɚɧɫɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɹɬɪɚɧɫɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ
ɩɪɟɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɧɢɟɩɪɟɜɪɚɳɟɧɢɟ ɩɟɪɟɯɨɞa
transit ['trxnzIt] v ɩɪɨɟɡɠɚɬɶ; a ɬɪɚɧɡɢɬɧɵɣ 2.3a
transition [trxn'zISqn/trxn'sIZqn] n ɩɟɪɟɯɨɞ, ɫɦɟɧɚ, ɩɟɪɟɦɟɧɚ 2.12a
translate [trxns'leIt] v ɩɪɟɜɪɚɳɚɬɶɩɪɟɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɵɜɚɬɶɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɥɹɬɶɩɪɟ
ɬɜɨɪɹɬɶɜɠɢɡɧɶa
transmit [trxnz'mIt] v ɩɟɪɟɞɚɜɚɬɶɩɟɪɟɧɨɫɢɬɶb
transparency [trxn'spxrqnsI] n ɩɪɨɡɪɚɱɧɨɫɬɶɫɜɟɬɨɩɪɨɧɢɰɚɟɦɨɫɬɶɨɬ
ɤɪɵɬɨɫɬɶɨɬɤɪɵɬɵɣɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪa
transparent [trxn'spxrqnt] a ɫɜɟɬɨɩɪɨɧɢɰɚɟɦɵɣ, ɩɪɨɡɪɚɱɧɵɣ; transparently
adv ɩɪɨɡɪɚɱɧɨ 3.1a
transport ['trxnspLt] n. ɬɪɚɧɫɩɨɪɬ a ɬɪɚɧɫɩɨɪɬɧɵɣ [trxn'spLt] v. ɬɪɚɧɫ
ɩɨɪɬɢɪɨɜɚɬɶɩɟɪɟɜɨɡɢɬɶ 2.3a
transverse [trxnz'vWs] a ɩɨɩɟɪɟɱɧɵɣɪɚɫɩɨɥɚɝɚɬɶɫɹɩɨɩɟɪɟɤb
trapezium [trq'pJzIqm] n ɬɪɚɩɟɰɢɹb
traverse ['trxvWs] v ɩɟɪɟɫɟɤɚɬɶɞɜɢɝɚɬɶɫɹɩɪɨɯɨɞɢɬɶa
tread [tred] n ɩɪɨɫɬɭɩɶɫɬɭɩɟɧɢɥɟɫɬɧɢɰɵ); v ɢɞɬɢɯɨɞɢɬɶɩɨɱɟɦɭ-ɥ) 2.8a
treat [trJt] v ɨɛɪɚɛɚɬɵɜɚɬɶɨɬɞɟɥɵɜɚɬɶɪɟɲɚɬɶɡɚɞɚɱɭɬɪɚɤɬɨɜɚɬɶ
ɪɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɬɶa
treatment ['trJtmqnt] n ɨɬɞɟɥɤɚɨɛɪɚɛɨɬɤɚɩɨɞɯɨɞɥɟɱɟɧɢɟa
triangular [traI'xNgjVlq] a ɬɪɟɭɝɨɥɶɧɵɣ 1.8a
triangulated [traI'xNgjVleItId] a ɬɪɢɚɧɝɭɥɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɣ 3.8c
triple ['trIpql] a ɬɪɨɣɧɨɣ 1.12c
triumph ['traIqmf] n ɩɨɛɟɞɚ, ɬɪɢɭɦɮ; v ɨɞɟɪɠɢɜɚɬɶ ɩɨɛɟɞɭ 1.1a
triumphal [traI'Amfql] a ɬɪɢɭɦɮɚɥɶɧɵɣ 1.6b
tropical ['trPpIkql] a ɬɪɨɩɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ 4.4b
true[trH] a ɜɟɪɧɵɣɩɪɚɜɢɥɶɧɵɣɩɪɚɜɞɢɜɵɣ 1.8a
tube [tjHb] n ɬɪɭɛɚ, ɬɪɭɛɤɚ; fluorescent tube ɫɦ. fluorescent 3.9a
tuck [tAk] v ɩɪɹɬɚɬɶɡɚɩɪɹɬɚɬɶɡɚɫɨɜɵɜɚɬɶb
turn [tWn] n in turn ɜɫɜɨɸɨɱɟɪɟɞɶv ɩɨɜɨɪɚɱɢɜɚɬɶɫɹturn inside out ɜɵ
ɜɟɪɧɭɬɶɧɚɢɡɧɚɧɤɭ turn into smthɩɪɟɜɪɚɳɚɬɶɫɹɜɨɱɬɨ-ɥɫɬɚɧɨɜɢɬɶɫɹɱɟɦɥ turn one's back on smb ɩɪɟɧɟɛɪɟɝɚɬɶɤɟɦ-ɥ turn off ɜɵɤɥɸɱɚɬɶ turn on
ɜɤɥɸɱɚɬɶ turn over ɩɟɪɟɜɨɪɚɱɢɜɚɬɶ turn to ɨɛɪɚɳɚɬɶɫɹɤɱɟɦɭ-ɥ 1.1a
twist [twIst] v ɢɡɝɢɛɚɬɶ ɩɨɜɨɪɚɱɢɜɚɬɶɡɚɤɪɭɱɢɜɚɬɶ ɫɤɪɭɱɢɜɚɬɶ 3.6b
type [taIp] n ɬɢɩɜɢɞɪɨɞɤɥɚɫɫa
typical ['tIpIkql] a ɬɢɩɢɱɧɵɣɬɢɩɢɱɟɫɤɢɣɫɢɦɜɨɥɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ 1.4c
Tyrolean [tI'rqVlIqn] a ɬɢɪɨɥɶɫɤɢɣ 3.12b
ultimate ['AltImIt] a ɨɤɨɧɱɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɣɨɫɧɨɜɧɨɣɩɟɪɜɢɱɧɵɣɦɚɤɫɢɦɚɥɶ
ɧɵɣultimately adv ɜɤɨɧɟɱɧɨɦɫɱɺɬɟɜɤɨɧɰɟɤɨɧɰɨɜɨɤɨɧɱɚɬɟɥɶɧɨa
unbroken [An'brqVkqn] a ɫɩɥɨɲɧɨɣɰɟɥɶɧɵɣɧɟɩɪɟɪɵɜɧɵɣa
uncover [An'kAvq] v ɨɬɤɪɵɜɚɬɶɨɛɧɚɠɚɬɶ uncovered a ɛɟɡɨɬɞɟɥɤɢɨɬɤɪɵ
ɬɵɣb
under ['Andq] a ɧɢɠɧɢɣɧɚɯɨɞɹɳɢɣɫɹɜɧɢɡɭadv ɜɧɢɡɭɧɢɠɟɩɨɞprep
307
ɩɨɞɩɪɢɜɷɩɨɯɭɜɨɜɪɟɦɹ under consideration ɪɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɟɦɵɣɨɛ
ɫɭɠɞɚɟɦɵɣunder construction ɜɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɟɫɬɪɨɢɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɚɫɬɪɨɹɳɢɣɫɹ1.4a
undergo ["Andq'gqV] v ɢɫɩɵɬɵɜɚɬɶɩɨɞɜɟɪɝɚɬɶɫɹ1.1a
underground ['AndqgraVnd] n ɧɢɠɧɢɟ ɫɥɨɢ ɝɪɭɧɬɚ; a ɩɨɞɡɟɦɧɵɣ 3.11a
underlie ["Andq'laI] v ɥɟɠɚɬɶɩɨɞɱɟɦ-ɥɥɟɠɚɬɶɜɨɫɧɨɜɟa
underneath ["Andq'nJT] adv ɜɧɢɡɭɫɧɢɡɭ prep ɩɨɞa
understanding ["Andq'stxndIN] n 1. ɨɛɴɹɫɧɟɧɢɟɢɧɬɟɪɩɪɟɬɚɰɢɹɩɨɧɢɦɚ
ɧɢɟɫɨɱɭɜɫɬɜɢɟ2.1b
undulating ['AndjVleItIN] a ɯɨɥɦɢɫɬɵɣɜɨɥɧɢɫɬɵɣɜɨɥɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɧɵɣa
uniform ['jHnIfLm] a ɨɞɧɨɪɨɞɧɵɣ ɟɞɢɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɧɵɣ ɨɞɢɧɚɤɨɜɵɣɩɨɫɬɨ
ɹɧɧɵɣɫɩɥɨɲɧɨɣɨɩɨɤɪɵɬɢɢ) 3.10a
unify ['jHnIfaI] v ɨɛɴɟɞɢɧɹɬɶɫɨɟɞɢɧɹɬɶunified a ɟɞɢɧɵɣɨɛɴɟɞɢɧɺɧɧɵɣa
unique [jH'nJk] a ɧɟɨɛɵɤɧɨɜɟɧɧɵɣɭɞɢɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣɭɧɢɤɚɥɶɧɵɣɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɵɣ
uniquely adv ɭɧɢɤɚɥɶɧɨ2.5b
unit ['jHnIt] n ɷɥɟɦɟɧɬɫɟɤɰɢɹɛɥɨɤɰɟɥɨɟɟɞɢɧɢɰɚa
unite [jH'naIt] v ɨɛɴɟɞɢɧɹɬɶɫɨɟɞɢɧɹɬɶa
unity ['jHnItI] n ɟɞɢɧɫɬɜɨɟɞɢɧɟɧɢɟɫɨɝɥɚɫɢɟ 1.4c
universal ["jHnI'vWsql] a 1. ɭɧɢɜɟɪɫɚɥɶɧɵɣɜɫɟɨɛɳɢɣɨɛɳɟɩɪɢɧɹɬɵɣ
ɜɫɟɦɢɪɧɵɣɝɥɨɛɚɥɶɧɵɣ 1.1b
unobstructed ["Anqb'strAktId] a ɫɜɨɛɨɞɧɵɣ ɨɬɩɪɟɩɹɬɫɬɜɢɣ 3.6b
until [An'tIl] prep ɞɨcj ɞɨɬɟɯɩɨɪɩɨɤɚɩɨɤɚɧɟ 1.1a
unusual [An'jHZVql] a ɧɟɨɛɵɤɧɨɜɟɧɧɵɣɧɟɨɛɵɱɧɵɣ1.12c
up [Ap] adv ɜɜɟɪɯɧɚɜɟɪɯ prep ɜɜɟɪɯ ɜɧɚɩɨbe up to ɨɬɜɟɱɚɬɶɫɨɨɬɜɟɬ
ɫɬɜɨɜɚɬɶ up to ɜɩɥɨɬɶɞɨɜɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɢɢɫ 1.4a
upper ['Apq] a ɜɟɪɯɧɢɣ 1.11a
uppermost ['ApqmqVst] a ɫɚɦɵɣɜɟɪɯɧɢɣE
upward ['Apwqd] adv ɜɜɟɪɯ ɤɜɟɪɯɭa ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɧɵɣɜɜɟɪɯɜɨɫɯɨɞɹɳɢɣa
urban ['Wbqn] a ɝɨɪɨɞɫɤɨɣ2.1a
use [jHs] n 1. ɭɩɨɬɪɟɛɥɟɧɢɟɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɟɩɪɢɦɟɧɟɧɢɟ 2. ɰɟɥɶɧɚɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟ
[jHz] v 1. 1. ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɬɶ ɭɩɨɬɪɟɛɥɹɬɶɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɬɶɫɹɩɪɢɦɟɧɹɬɶ; make use
of ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɬɶ ɜɨɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɬɶɫɹused to ɨɛɵɱɧɨ 1.1b
useful ['jHsfql] a ɩɨɥɟɡɧɵɣɩɪɢɝɨɞɧɵɣ 2. ɩɪɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɣɩɪɢɤɥɚɞɧɨɣ 1.1b
user ['jHzq] n ɩɨɬɪɟɛɢɬɟɥɶɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɬɟɥɶ2.1a
utilitarian [jH"tIlI'teqrIqn] a ɭɬɢɥɢɬɚɪɧɵɣɩɪɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɣɩɪɚɝɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɣa
utility [jH'tIlItI] n ɩɨɥɟɡɧɨɫɬɶɩɪɚɤɬɢɱɧɨɫɬɶ 1.1b
utmost ['AtmqVst] a ɤɪɚɣɧɢɣɩɪɟɞɟɥɶɧɵɣɜɟɥɢɱɚɣɲɢɣa
vacant ['veIkqnt] a ɩɭɫɬɨɣɧɟɡɚɩɨɥɧɟɧɧɵɣɫɜɨɛɨɞɧɵɣb
valley ['vxlI] n ɞɨɥɢɧɚɩɨɣɦɚ1.1a
value ['vxljH] n ɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɶɜɚɠɧɨɫɬɶ ɩɨɥɟɡɧɨɫɬɶɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟɫɦɵɫɥa
vantage point ['vRntIG pOInt@ɦɟɫɬɨɨɛɡɨɪɚɬɨɱɤɚɧɚɛɥɸɞɟɧɢɹb
variety [vq'raIqtI] n ɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɟɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɧɨɫɬɶɪɚɡɧɨɜɢɞɧɨɫɬɶ
ɦɧɨɠɟɫɬɜɨa
308
various ['veqrIqs] a ɪɚɡɧɵɣɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɣɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɧɵɣ variously adv ɩɨ-ɪɚɡ
ɧɨɦɭɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɦɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ1.1a
vary ['veqrI] v ɦɟɧɹɬɶɫɹɢɡɦɟɧɹɬɶɫɹɪɚɡɧɢɬɶɫɹɨɬɥɢɱɚɬɶɫɹvaried a ɪɚɡ
ɥɢɱɧɵɣɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɧɵɣvarying a ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɣɢɡɦɟɧɹɸɳɢɣɫɹ1.4c
vast [vRst] a ɨɛɲɢɪɧɵɣɨɝɪɨɦɧɵɣɝɪɨɦɚɞɧɵɣɝɪɚɧɞɢɨɡɧɵɣɦɧɨɝɨɱɢɫ
ɥɟɧɧɵɣ 1.8c
vault [vLlt] n 1. ɫɜɨɞɫɤɥɟɩv ɩɨɤɪɵɜɚɬɶɫɜɨɞɨɦɜɨɡɜɨɞɢɬɶɫɜɨɞvaulting
['vLltIN] n ɫɜɨɞɜɨɡɜɟɞɟɧɢɟɫɜɨɞɚ1.1a
vegetation ["veGI'teISqn] n ɪɚɫɬɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɶa
vehicular [vJ'hIkjVlq] a 1. ɚɜɬɨɦɨɛɢɥɶɧɵɣ ɝɭɠɟɜɨɣɬɪɚɧɫɩɨɪɬ)(ɜɢɞɞɨɪɨɠ
ɧɨɝɨɬɪɚɧɫɩɨɪɬɚɜɤɨɬɨɪɨɦɩɨɜɨɡɤɢɩɪɢɜɨɞɹɬɫɹɜɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɟɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɦɢ) 1.8c
veneer [vI'nIq] n 1. ɩɪɢɫɥɨɧɧɚɹɤɚɦɟɧɧɚɹɨɛɥɢɰɨɜɤɚɫɬɟɧɵɛɟɡɫɬɟɧɧɨɣɩɟɪɟ
ɜɹɡɤɢɲɩɨɧɮɚɧɟɪɚ 1.8c
Venice ['venIs] n ȼɟɧɟɰɢɹb
vent [vent] n ɜɟɧɬɢɥɹɰɢɨɧɧɨɟɨɬɜɟɪɫɬɢɟa
ventilate ['ventIleIt] v ɩɪɨɜɟɬɪɢɜɚɬɶɜɟɧɬɢɥɢɪɨɜɚɬɶa
ventilation ["ventI'leISqn] n ɜɟɧɬɢɥɹɰɢɹɜɟɧɬɢɥɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟɩɪɨɜɟɬɪɢɜɚɧɢɟa
veranda [vq'rxndq] n ɜɟɪɚɧɞɚɬɟɪɪɚɫɚɫ
version ['vWSqn] n ɜɚɪɢɚɧɬɜɟɪɫɢɹc
vertical ['vWtIkql] a ɜɟɪɬɢɤɚɥɶɧɵɣɨɬɜɟɫɧɵɣɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɧɵɣɜɜɟɪɯvertical
circulation ɜɟɪɬɢɤɚɥɶɧɨɟɩɟɪɟɦɟɲɢɜɚɧɢɟvertically adv ɜɟɪɬɢɤɚɥɶɧɨ1.4c
vestibule ['vestIbjHl] n ɜɟɫɬɢɛɸɥɶa
via ['vaIq/'vJq] prep ɱɟɪɟɡɫɩɨɦɨɳɶɸɩɨɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɨɦa
viability ["vaIq'bIlItI] n ɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɶɠɢɡɧɟɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɨɫɬɶɩɟɪɫɩɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɶ
2.2b
viable ['vaIqbql] a ɠɢɡɧɟɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɵɣɩɪɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɢɦɵɣ2.4b
vibrant ['vaIbrqnt] a ɷɧɟɪɝɢɱɧɵɣɩɨɥɧɵɣɠɢɡɧɢɫɢɥɷɧɟɪɝɢɢb
view [vjH] n ɜɢɞɩɟɣɡɚɠɩɚɧɨɪɚɦɚɨɛɡɨɪɩɟɪɫɩɟɤɬɢɜɚɩɪɨɟɤɰɢɹ
ɜɡɝɥɹɞɦɧɟɧɢɟɫɭɠɞɟɧɢɟɬɨɱɤɚɡɪɟɧɢɹ point of view ['pOIntqv'vjH] ɬɨɱɤɚ
ɡɪɟɧɢɹ v ɨɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɬɶɢɡɭɱɚɬɶɪɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɬɶviewer ['vjHq] ɡɪɢɬɟɥɶ
ɧɚɛɥɸɞɚɬɟɥɶ2.5b
villa ['vIlq] n ɨɫɨɛɧɹɤ ɡɚɝɨɪɨɞɧɵɣɞɨɦɞɚɱɚɜɢɥɥɚa
virtually ['vWCVqlI] adv ɮɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɩɪɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɩɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɭɜɫɭɳɧɨɫɬɢb
visible ['vIzIbql] a ɜɢɞɢɦɵɣɡɪɢɦɵɣɜɢɡɭɚɥɶɧɵɣɹɜɧɵɣɨɱɟɜɢɞɧɵɣb
vista ['vIstq] n ɩɟɪɫɩɟɤɬɢɜɚɨɬɤɪɵɜɚɸɳɢɣɫɹɜɢɞɚɥɥɟɹ2.1b
visual ['vIZVql] a ɡɪɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣɜɢɡɭɚɥɶɧɵɣɨɩɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ visually adv ɡɪɢ
ɬɟɥɶɧɨɜɢɡɭɚɥɶɧɨ2.4a
vitality [vaI'txlItI] n ɠɢɡɧɟɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɨɫɬɶɠɢɜɨɫɬɶɷɧɟɪɝɢɹɷɧɟɪɝɢɱɧɨɫɬɶ2.4b
void [vOId] n 1. ɩɭɫɬɨɬɚɜɚɤɭɭɦɩɭɫɬɨɟɦɟɫɬɨɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɨɩɨɥɨɫɬɶɫɜɨ
ɛɨɞɧɨɟɩɨɦɟɳɟɧɢɟ void slab ɦɧɨɝɨɩɭɫɬɨɬɧɚɹɩɥɢɬɚc
volume ['vPljHm] n ɨɛɴɟɦɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɨɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɚɪɚɡɦɟɪɵb
walk [wLk] v ɯɨɞɢɬɶɝɭɥɹɬɶɩɪɨɝɭɥɢɜɚɬɶɫɹ2.5b
walkway ['wLkweI] n ɩɟɲɟɯɨɞɧɚɹɞɨɪɨɠɤɚɤɪɵɬɵɣɩɟɪɟɯɨɞɝɚɥɟɪɟɹa
309
wall [wLl] n ɫɬɟɧɚɫɬɟɧɤɚɩɟɪɟɝɨɪɨɞɤɚcurtain wall ɧɟɧɟɫɭɳɚɹɧɚɜɟɫɧɚɹ
ɧɚɪɭɠɧɚɹɫɬɟɧɚɫɬɟɧɚɢɡɥɺɝɤɢɯɧɚɜɟɫɧɵɯɩɚɧɟɥɟɣdry wall ɫɬɟɧɚɢɡɫɭɯɨɣ
ɤɚɦɟɧɧɨɣɤɥɚɞɤɢend wall ɬɨɪɰɨɜɚɹɫɬɟɧɚunpierced wall [An'pIqst 'wLl]
ɝɥɭɯɚɹɫɬɟɧɚb
warmth [wLmT] n ɬɟɩɥɨɬɟɩɥɨɬɚa
wartime ['wLtaIm] n ɜɨɟɧɧɨɟɜɪɟɦɹb
waste [weIst] n ɩɭɫɬɚɹɧɟɧɭɠɧɚɹɬɪɚɬɚɨɬɯɨɞɵɦɭɫɨɪ2.7b
water table ['wLtq"teIbl@ɭɪɨɜɟɧɶɝɪɭɧɬɨɜɵɯɜɨɞa
wave [weIv] n ɜɨɥɧɚ a ɜɨɥɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɧɵɣɜɨɥɧɨɜɨɣa
way [weI] n ɩɭɬɶɞɨɪɨɝɚɨɛɪɚɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹɦɟɬɨɞɫɩɨɫɨɛɬɨɤɚɤall the
way from ɨɬɫɚɦɨɝɨall the way to ɞɨɫɚɦɨɝɨhalf way between ɫɪɟɞɧɢɣɜɫɟ
ɪɟɞɢɧɟin no way ɧɢɤɨɢɦɨɛɪɚɡɨɦb
weaken ['wJkqn] v ɨɫɥɚɛɥɹɬɶa
wealth [welT] n ɛɨɝɚɬɫɬɜɨɢɡɨɛɢɥɢɟb
weave [wJv] v ɫɨɟɞɢɧɹɬɶɫɩɥɟɬɚɬɶɩɟɪɟɩɥɟɬɚɬɶɜɩɥɟɬɚɬɶ 4.7a
web [web] n ɫɟɬɶɫɩɥɟɬɟɧɢɟɩɚɭɬɢɧɚdouble-web Macrolon panel ɞɜɭɯɫɥɨɣ
ɧɵɟɩɚɧɟɥɢɢɡɩɨɥɢɤɚɪɛɨɧɚɬɚ 2.1b
wedge [weG] n ɤɥɢɧ wedge-shaped ['weGSeIpt] a ɤɥɢɧɨɜɢɞɧɵɣ v ɜɬɢɫɤɢ
ɜɚɬɶɫɹɜɤɥɢɧɢɬɶɫɹb
weight [weIt] n ɜɟɫɦɚɫɫɚE
welcome ['welkqm] n ɪɚɞɭɲɧɵɣɩɪɢɟɦv ɪɚɞɭɲɧɨɜɫɬɪɟɬɢɬɶɩɪɢɜɟɬ
ɫɬɜɨɜɚɬɶɨɞɨɛɪɹɬɶɜɨɫɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɬɶɫɨɞɨɛɪɟɧɢɟɦwelcoming a ɝɨɫɬɟɩɪɢɢɦ
ɧɵɣɞɨɛɪɨɠɟɥɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɣa
western ['westqn] a ɡɚɩɚɞɧɵɣ 1.1a
wheel [wJl] n ɤɨɥɟɫɨ 4.12a
whether ['weDq] cj ɥɢ 2.4a
whole [hqVl] n 1. ɰɟɥɨɟ 2. ɢɬɨɝ, ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬ 3. ɜɫɺ; a 1. ɜɟɫɶ, ɰɟɥɵɣ 2. ɰɟɥɶɧɵɣ;
ɰɟɥɵɣ; as a whole ɜ ɰɟɥɨɦ, ɰɟɥɢɤɨɦ; make whole ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɬɶ ɟɞɢɧɨɟ ɰɟɥɨɟ 1.4a
wholly ['hqVllI] adv ɩɨɥɧɨɫɬɶɸɰɟɥɢɤɨɦɜɩɨɥɧɟɫɨɜɫɟɦ 1.1a
wide [waId] a ɲɢɪɨɤɢɣɨɝɪɨɦɧɵɣwidely adv ɲɢɪɨɤɨD
widen ['waIdn] v ɪɚɫɲɢɪɹɬɶɫɹ 3.12c
width [wIdT] n 1. ɲɢɪɢɧɚ 2. pl ɪɚɡɦɟɪɵ 1.11a
wind [waInd] v ɜɢɬɶɫɹɢɡɜɢɜɚɬɶɫɹɨɝɢɛɚɬɶb
wind [wInd] n ɜɟɬɟɪ; windy ['wIndI] a ɜɟɬɪɟɧɵɣ; wind shield ['wIndSJld] ɜɟɬ
ɪɨɡɚɳɢɬɧɵɣ ɷɤɪɚɧ 3.3a
wing [wIN] n ɤɪɵɥɨɮɥɢɝɟɥɶɤɪɵɥɨɡɞɚɧɢɹɤɭɥɢɫɵɫɰɟɧɵ) 3.2b
-wise [waIz] suffix ɨɛɪɚɡɭɟɬɫɨɫɬɚɜɧɵɟɧɚɪɟɱɢɹɨɛɪɚɡɚɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹɫɨɡɧɚɱɟ
ɧɢɟɦ ɩɨa
wish [wIS] n ɜɨɥɹɠɟɥɚɧɢɟ v ɠɟɥɚɬɶɯɨɬɟɬɶa
within [wID'In] adv ɜɧɭɬɪɢɫɜɧɭɬɪɟɧɧɟɣɫɬɨɪɨɧɵprep ɜɜɧɭɬɪɢɜɩɪɟ
ɞɟɥɚɯɜɪɚɦɤɚɯfrom within ɢɡɧɭɬɪɢa
without [wID'aVt] adv ɛɟɡɱɟɝɨ-ɥ); prep ɧɟɬɚɤɱɬɨɛɵɧɟ2.1a
witness ['wItnIs] n ɫɜɢɞɟɬɟɥɶɨɱɟɜɢɞɟɰɩɨɞɬɜɟɪɠɞɟɧɢɟɫɜɢɞɟɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɨ
ɞɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɨ v ɛɵɬɶɫɜɢɞɟɬɟɥɟɦb
wonderful ['wAndqfql] a ɱɭɞɟɫɧɵɣɡɚɦɟɱɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɣɩɨɪɚɡɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣɭɞɢɜɢ
ɬɟɥɶɧɵɣ1.5a
wooden ['wVdn] a ɞɟɪɟɜɹɧɧɵɣ 1.5b
workmanship ['wWkmqnSIp] n 1. (ɩɪɨɮɟɫɫɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɟɦɚɫɬɟɪɫɬɜɨɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɨa
World War ["wWld'wL@ɦɢɪɨɜɚɹɜɨɣɧɚb
worship ['wWSIp] n ɩɨɱɢɬɚɧɢɟɩɨɤɥɨɧɟɧɢɟɤɭɥɶɬa
wrap [rxp] v ɨɯɜɚɬɵɜɚɬɶɨɤɪɭɠɚɬɶɨɤɭɬɵɜɚɬɶɩɨɤɪɵɜɚɬɶc
yard [jRd] n ɹɪɞɦɟɪɚɞɥɢɧɵ ɮɭɬɚ§ɫɦɞɜɨɪcourt yard
ɜɧɭɬɪɟɧɧɢɣɞɜɨɪb
yet [jet] adv ɬɟɦɧɟɦɟɧɟɟɜɫɺɠɟɟɳɺcj ɜɫɺɠɟɬɟɦɧɟɦɟɧɟɟɨɞɧɚɤɨE
zone [zqVn] n ɡɨɧɚɪɚɣɨɧɨɛɥɚɫɬɶɭɱɚɫɬɨɤE
310
311
3.8
Ɏɪɚɡɨɜɵɟɝɥɚɝɨɥɵ
Appendix 3. Grammar Topics
Part III
Unit
Introduced
3.1
Ɉɛɨɪɨɬthere + to be
Ʉɨɧɜɟɪɫɢɹ
Participle II
ɋɥɨɜɨɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɧɢɟɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ
3.2
3.3
ɋɨɝɥɚɫɨɜɚɧɢɟ
ɜɪɟɦɺɧ
3.4
Ɉɛɴɟɤɬɧɵɣɢɧɮɢɧɢ
ɬɢɜɧɵɣɨɛɨɪɨɬ
ɇɟɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɵɣ ɩɪɢ
ɱɚɫɬɧɵɣ ɨɛɨɪɨɬ ɛɟɡ
ɩɪɢɱɚɫɬɢɹ
3.5
3.9
Ɉɛɨɪɨɬthere + to be
Participle II
Ɉɬɪɢɰɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɟɩɪɢɫɬɚɜɤɢ
3.10
ɇɟɥɢɱɧɵɟɮɨɪɦɵɝɥɚɝɨɥɚ
Ɏɪɚɡɨɜɵɟɝɥɚɝɨɥɵ
Ɏɭɧɤɰɢɢthat
3.11
ɋɥɨɜɨɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɧɢɟɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ
ɋɥɨɠɧɨɩɨɞɱɢɧɺɧɧɵɟɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹ
Gerund, Participle I
3.12
ɂɧɮɢɧɢɬɢɜɢɢɧɮɢɧɢɬɢɜɧɵɟɨɛɨɪɨɬɵ
Ɏɭɧɤɰɢɢit
Ɏɭɧɤɰɢɢɝɥɚɝɨɥɨɜhave ɢbe
Revised
ɂɧɮɢɧɢɬɢɜɢɢɧɮɢɧɢɬɢɜɧɵɟɨɛɨɪɨɬɵ
ɑɚɫɬɢɪɟɱɢɢɱɥɟɧɵɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹ
Ƚɪɭɩɩɚɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ
ȼɪɟɦɟɧɚɝɥɚɝɨɥɚɜɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɦɢɫɬɪɚ
ɞɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɦɡɚɥɨɝɟ
ɋɥɨɜɨɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɧɢɟɩɪɢɥɚɝɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ
Ɇɨɞɚɥɶɧɵɟɝɥɚɝɨɥɵɢ ɢɯɡɚɦɟɧɢɬɟɥɢ
Participle I
ɋɭɮɮɢɤɫɧɚɪɟɱɢɣ-ly
Ɏɭɧɤɰɢɢit
ɋɨɫɥɚɝɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɟɧɚɤɥɨɧɟɧɢɟ
ɗɦɨɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨ-ɭɫɢɥɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɟ ɷɦɮɚɬɢɱɟ
ɫɤɢɟɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɢ
ɋɪɚɜɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɟɨɛɨɪɨɬɵ
Ɏɭɧɤɰɢɢthat
ɋɥɨɠɧɨɩɨɞɱɢɧɺɧɧɵɟɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹ
ɋɬɟɩɟɧɢ ɫɪɚɜɧɟɧɢɹ ɩɪɢɥɚɝɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɢ
ɧɚɪɟɱɢɣ
Ɉɬɪɢɰɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɟɦɟɫɬɨɢɦɟɧɢɹ
3.6
Gerund, Participle I
Ɏɭɧɤɰɢɢɝɥɚɝɨɥɨɜhave ɢbe
Ƚɪɭɩɩɚɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ
3.7
Participle II
Ɂɚɜɢɫɢɦɵɣ ɢ ɧɟɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɵɣ ɩɪɢɱɚɫɬɧɵɣ
ɨɛɨɪɨɬ
ɉɨɪɹɞɤɨɜɵɟɱɢɫɥɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɟ
ɋɬɪɚɞɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɣɡɚɥɨɝ
312
Ɏɭɧɤɰɢɢone
Ʉɨɧɜɟɪɫɢɹ
ɋɥɨɜɨɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɧɢɟɩɪɢɥɚɝɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ
Part IV
Unit
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
Introduced
Revised
ɑɚɫɬɢɪɟɱɢɢɱɥɟɧɵɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹ
Ƚɪɭɩɩɚɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ
ɋɥɨɠɧɨɩɨɞɱɢɧɺɧɧɵɟɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹ
ɋɭɮɮɢɤɫɧɚɪɟɱɢɣ-ly
ȼɪɟɦɟɧɚɝɥɚɝɨɥɚɜɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɦɢɫɬɪɚ
ɞɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɦɡɚɥɨɝɟ
ɑɢɫɥɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɟ
Ʉɨɧɜɟɪɫɢɹ
Ɏɭɧɤɰɢɢone
ɋɬɟɩɟɧɢɫɪɚɜɧɟɧɢɹɩɪɢɥɚɝɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɯɢɧɚɪɟ
ɱɢɣ
Gerund, Participle I
ɋɥɨɜɨɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɧɢɟɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ
Ɂɚɜɢɫɢɦɵɣɢɧɟɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɵɣɩɪɢɱɚɫɬɧɵɣɨɛɨ
ɪɨɬ
Ɉɛɨɪɨɬthere + to be
Ɏɭɧɤɰɢɢit
Ɏɭɧɤɰɢɢthat
313
4.5
Participle II
ɇɟɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɺɧɧɵɟɢɨɬɪɢɰɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɟɦɟɫɬɨ
ɢɦɟɧɢɹ
Ɏɪɚɡɨɜɵɟɝɥɚɝɨɥɵ
4.6
Ɉɬɪɢɰɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɟɩɪɢɫɬɚɜɤɢ
Ɏɨɪɦɵɫɨɤɨɧɱɚɧɢɟɦ– ing
ɋɥɨɜɨɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɧɢɟɩɪɢɥɚɝɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ
4.7
4.8
4.9
4.10
4.11
4.12
ɋɨɫɥɚɝɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɟɧɚɤɥɨɧɟɧɢɟ
ɂɧɮɢɧɢɬɢɜɢɢɧɮɢɧɢɬɢɜɧɵɟɨɛɨɪɨɬɵ
Ɏɭɧɤɰɢɢone
Ɏɭɧɤɰɢɢɝɥɚɝɨɥɨɜhave ɢbe
ɋɨɝɥɚɫɨɜɚɧɢɟɜɪɟɦɺɧ
Participle I & II
Ʉɨɧɜɟɪɫɢɹ
ɋɬɪɚɞɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɣɡɚɥɨɝ
Ɏɭɧɤɰɢɢit
Ɏɭɧɤɰɢɢthat
Ƚɪɭɩɩɚɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ
Ɉɬɪɢɰɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɟɩɪɢɫɬɚɜɤɢ
ɇɟɥɢɱɧɵɟɮɨɪɦɵɝɥɚɝɨɥɚ
ɗɦɨɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨ-ɭɫɢɥɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɟɷɦɮɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ
ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɢ
Ɉɛɨɪɨɬthere + to be
ȼɪɟɦɟɧɚɝɥɚɝɨɥɚɜɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɦɢɫɬɪɚ
ɞɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɦɡɚɥɨɝɟ
Appendix 4. GrammarReview
1. ɑɚɫɬɢ ɪɟɱɢ ɢ ɱɥɟɧɵ ɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹ (Parts of speech and parts of
sentence)
ɑȺɋɌɂɊȿɑɂȼȺɇȽɅɂɃɋɄɈɆɂɊɍɋɋɄɈɆəɁɕɄȿ
ɑɚɫɬɶ
ɪɟɱɢ
ɜ
ɉɪɢɦɟɪ
ɚɧɝɥɢɣɫɤ
ɨɦɹɡɵɤɟ
Noun
house
Adjective
white
Numeral
one
first
Pronoun
he
his
Verb
ask
asked
Verbals:
Infinitive
314
to read
ɏɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɫɬɢɤɚ
ɉɪɢɦɟɪ
ɑɚɫɬɶɪɟɱɢ
ɜɪɭɫɫɤɨɦɹɡɵɤɟ
Ɉɛɨɡɧɚɱɚɟɬ
ɂɦɹ
ɩɪɟɞɦɟɬ
ɞɨɦ
ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɟ
Ɉɬɜɟɱɚɟɬɧɚɜɨɩɪɨɫ
ɤɬɨɱɬɨ
Ɉɛɨɡɧɚɱɚɟɬɩɪɢɡɧɚɤ
ɂɦɹ
ɩɪɟɞɦɟɬɚ
ɛɟɥɵɣ
ɩɪɢɥɚɝɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɟ
Ɉɬɜɟɱɚɟɬɧɚɜɨɩɪɨɫ
ɤɚɤɨɣɤɚɤɚɹ
Ɉɛɨɡɧɚɱɚɟɬ
ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɨɢɥɢ
ɨɞɢɧ
ɂɦɹ
ɩɨɪɹɞɨɤɩɪɢɫɱɺɬɟ
ɩɟɪɜɵɣ
ɱɢɫɥɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɟ
Ɉɬɜɟɱɚɟɬɧɚɜɨɩɪɨɫ
ɫɤɨɥɶɤɨɤɨɬɨɪɵɣ
Ɂɚɦɟɧɹɟɬ
ɨɧ
Ɇɟɫɬɨɢɦɟɧɢɟ
ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɟ
ɟɝɨ
ɢɥɢɩɪɢɥɚɝɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɟ.
Ɉɛɨɡɧɚɱɚɟɬ
ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟɢɥɢ
ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɟ
ɩɪɨɫɢɬ
Ɉɬɜɟɱɚɟɬɧɚɜɨɩɪɨɫ
ɩɪɨɫɢɥ
Ƚɥɚɝɨɥ
ɱɬɨɞɟɥɚɟɬɱɬɨ
ɩɨɩɪɨɫɢɬ
ɞɟɥɚɥɱɬɨɛɭɞɟɬ
ɞɟɥɚɬɶ
ɋɨɱɟɬɚɸɬ
ɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɫɜɨɣɫɬɜɚ
ɇɟɥɢɱɧɵɟɮɨɪɦɵ
ɝɥɚɝɨɥɚɢɞɪɭɝɢɯ
ɝɥɚɝɨɥɚ
ɱɚɫɬɟɣɪɟɱɢ
ɋɨɱɟɬɚɟɬɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ
ɧɟɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɺɧɧɨɫɜɨɣɫɬɜɚɝɥɚɝɨɥɚɢ ɩɪɨɫɢɬɶ
ɥɢɱɧɚɹɮɨɪɦɚ
ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɝɨ
315
-
-
Adverb
well
easily
at home
Preposition
in
on
Conjunction
when
if
Article
a, the
ɍɤɚɡɵɜɚɟɬɧɚ
ɨɛɫɬɨɹɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɚ
ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ
Ɉɬɜɟɱɚɟɬɧɚɜɨɩɪɨɫ
ɤɚɤɝɞɟɤɨɝɞɚɢɬɞ
ɉɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɟɬ
ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɟ
ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɝɨ
ɢɥɢɦɟɫɬɨɢɦɟɧɢɹɤ
ɞɪɭɝɢɦɫɥɨɜɚɦɜ
ɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɢ
ɋɨɟɞɢɧɹɟɬɱɥɟɧɵ
ɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹɢɥɢ
ɱɚɫɬɢɫɥɨɠɧɨɝɨ
ɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹ
-
ɯɨɪɨɲɨ
ɪɚɧɨ
ɞɨɦɚ
ɞɟɟɩɪɢɱɚɫ
ɬɢɟ
ɇɚɪɟɱɢɟ
ɜ
ɧɚ
ɉɪɟɞɥɨɝ
ɤɨɝɞɚ
ɟɫɥɢ
ɋɨɸɡ
-
-
ɋɥɨɜɚɪɧɵɣɫɨɫɬɚɜɹɡɵɤɚɤɥɚɫɫɢɮɢɰɢɪɭɟɬɫɹɧɚɪɚɡɪɹɞɵɧɚɡɵ
ɜɚɟɦɵɟɱɚɫɬɢɪɟɱɢɑɚɫɬɢɪɟɱɢɜɚɧɝɥɢɣɫɤɨɦɢɪɭɫɫɤɨɦɹɡɵɤɟɜɨɫ
ɧɨɜɧɨɦɫɨɜɩɚɞɚɸɬ
ɋɥɨɜɚɜɵɩɨɥɧɹɸɬɜɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɢɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɟɮɭɧɤɰɢɢȼɡɚɜɢ
ɫɢɦɨɫɬɢɨɬɮɭɧɤɰɢɢɤɨɬɨɪɭɸɨɧɢɜɵɩɨɥɧɹɸɬɫɥɨɜɚɦɨɝɭɬɛɵɬɶɪɚɡ
ɥɢɱɧɵɦɢɱɥɟɧɚɦɢɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹ. ɑɥɟɧɵɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹɜɚɧɝɥɢɣɫɤɨɦ
ɢɪɭɫɫɤɨɦɹɡɵɤɟɫɨɜɩɚɞɚɸɬ
316
Ʉɚɬɟɝɨɪɢɹ
reading
ɋɨɱɟɬɚɟɬ
ɝɥɚɝɨɥɶɧɵɟ
ɩɪɢɡɧɚɤɢɫ
ɮɭɧɤɰɢɹɦɢ
ɩɪɢɥɚɝɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɝɨ
ɢɥɢɧɚɪɟɱɢɹ
ɋɨɱɟɬɚɟɬɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ
ɩɪɢɡɧɚɤɢɝɥɚɝɨɥɚɢ
ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɝɨ
-
ɑɅȿɇɕɉɊȿȾɅɈɀȿɇɂəȼȺɇȽɅɂɃɋɄɈɆɂɊɍɋɋɄɈɆ
əɁɕɄȿ
Ƚɥɚɜɧɵɟɱɥɟɧɵ
ɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹ
Gerund
ɏɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɫɬɢɤɚ
ɑɚɫɬɶ
ɪɟɱɢ
ɉɪɢɦɟɪ
ɜɪɭɫɫɤɨɦ
ɹɡɵɤɟ
ɩɪɨɫɹɳɢɣ ɩɪɢɱɚɫɬɢɟ
ɤɨɬɨɪɨɝɨ
ɩɪɨɫɢɥɢ
ȼɬɨɪɨɫɬɟɩɟɧɧɵɟɱɥɟɧɵ
ɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹ
ɑɚɫɬɶɪɟɱɢ
ɜ
ɉɪɢɦɟɪ
ɚɧɝɥɢɣɫɤɨɦ
ɹɡɵɤɟ
Participle
asking
asked
ɑɥɟɧ
ɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹ
Ɉɬɜɟɱɚɟɬɧɚ
ɜɨɩɪɨɫ
ɉɪɢɦɟɪɧɚ
ɪɭɫɫɤɨɦɹɡɵɤɟ
ɉɪɢɦɟɪɧɚ
ɚɧɝɥɢɣɫɤɨɦ
ɹɡɵɤɟ
ɉɨɞɥɟɠɚɳɟɟ
Subject
ɤɬɨɱɬɨ
Ɇɨɣɛɪɚɬ ɛɵɥ My brother was
who, what
ɫɬɭɞɟɧɬɨɦ
a student.
ɱɬɨɛɭɞɟɬɞɟ
ɋɤɚɡɭɟɦɨɟ
ɥɚɬɶɱɬɨɞɟ Ɇɨɣɛɪɚɬɠɢɜɺɬ My brother lives
here.
ɡɞɟɫɶ
Predicate
ɥɚɟɬɱɬɨɞɟ
(ɩɪɨɫɬɨɟɫɨ ɥɚɥɨɩɨɞɥɟɠɚ Ɇɨɣɛɪɚɬɛɵɥ My brother was
a student.
ɫɬɭɞɟɧɬɨɦ.
ɫɬɚɜɧɨɟɢɦɟɧ
ɳɟɟ
My brother must
Ɇɨɣɛɪɚɬ
ɧɨɟɫɨɫɬɚɜɧɨɟ
what
come.
ɝɥɚɝɨɥɶɧɨɟ)
will/does/did ɞɨɥɠɟɧɩɪɢɣɬɢ.
subject do, etc.
ɤɨɝɨɱɬɨ
Ɇɨɣɛɪɚɬɤɭɩɢɥ
My brother
Ⱦɨɩɨɥɧɟɧɢɟ
ɢɬɞ
ɤɧɢɝɭ.
bought a book.
Object
who, what, etc.
Ɉɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɟ
ɤɚɤɨɣɱɟɣ
Ɇɨɣ ɛɪɚɬɛɵɥ My brother was
Attribute
which, whose
ɫɬɭɞɟɧɬɨɦ
a student.
Ɉɛɫɬɨɹɬɟɥɶ
My brother
Ɇɨɣɛɪɚɬɤɭɩɢɥ
ɫɬɜɨ
bought a book
ɤɧɢɝɭ ɡɞɟɫɶ.
ɝɞɟɤɨɝɞɚɤɚɤ
Adverbial modihere.
ȼɱɟɪɚ ɨɧɤɭɩɢɥ
ɢɬɞ
fier
Yesterday he
ɤɧɢɝɭ
where, when,
ɦɟɫɬɚɜɪɟ
bought a book.
Ɉɧɛɟɝɚɟɬ
how, etc.
ɦɟɧɢɨɛɪɚɡɚ
He runs quickly.
ɛɵɫɬɪɨ.
ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹɢɬɞ
ɋɦɬɚɤɠɟɪɚɡɞɟɥɵ-9.2
ɂɦɹɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɟNoun)
Ɉɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɦɧɨɠɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɱɢɫɥɚ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ
(Plural of noun)
Ɏɨɪɦɚɦɧɨɠɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨɱɢɫɥɚɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɝɨɨɛɪɚɡɭɟɬɫɹɫ
ɩɨɦɨɳɶɸɨɤɨɧɱɚɧɢɹes/s:
bay – bays
column – columns
317
side – sides.
a) Ɋɹɞɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɯɢɦɟɟɬɧɟɫɬɚɧɞɚɪɬɧɵɟɮɨɪɦɵɦɧɨɠɟ
ɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨɱɢɫɥɚ
axis – axes
man – men
tooth – teeth
b) ɉɪɚɜɨɩɢɫɚɧɢɟɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɯɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɯɜɨɦɧɨɠɟɫɬɜɟɧ
ɧɨɦɱɢɫɥɟɢɡɦɟɧɹɟɬɫɹ
quality – qualities
motif – motives
c)
ɉɪɨɢɡɧɨɲɟɧɢɟɨɤɨɧɱɚɧɢɹɦɧɨɠɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨɱɢɫɥɚes/s ɡɚɜɢɫɢɬ
ɨɬɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɟɝɨɡɜɭɤɚɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɝɨɜɮɨɪɦɟɟɞɢɧɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨ
ɱɢɫɥɚ
x ɩɨɫɥɟɝɥɭɯɢɯɫɨɝɥɚɫɧɵɯɡɜɭɤɨɜɨɤɨɧɱɚɧɢɟɩɪɨɢɡɧɨɫɢɬɫɹ–
>V@ɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɪbrick [brIk] – bricks [brIks]
x ɩɨɫɥɟɡɜɨɧɤɢɯɫɨɝɥɚɫɧɵɯɢɝɥɚɫɧɵɯɡɜɭɤɨɜɨɤɨɧɱɚɧɢɟɩɪɨ
ɢɡɧɨɫɢɬɫɹ– [z@ɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɪcurve [kWv] – curves [kWvz];
year [jIq] – years [jIqz]
x ɩɨɫɥɟɡɜɭɤɨɜ>s], [z], [C], [G@ɨɤɨɧɱɚɧɢɟɩɪɨɢɡɧɨɫɢɬɫɹ–
[Iz@ɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɪsize [saIz] – sizes [saIzIz]
ɉɪɢɬɹɠɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɣɩɚɞɟɠɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɯGenitive case)
ɂɦɹ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɟ ɢɦɟɟɬ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɨɞɢɧ ɤɨɫɜɟɧɧɵɣ ɩɚɞɟɠ –
ɩɪɢɬɹɠɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɣ
engineer’s plan – ɩɥɚɧ ɢɧɠɟɧɟɪɚ
engineers’ plan – ɩɥɚɧ ɢɧɠɟɧɟɪɨɜ
Ʉɚɤɩɪɚɜɢɥɨɩɪɢɬɹɠɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɣɩɚɞɟɠɢɦɟɸɬɬɨɥɶɤɨɨɞɭɲɟɜɥɺɧ
ɧɵɟɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɟ
Ƚɪɭɩɩɚɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ1RXQJURXS
Ƚɪɭɩɩɨɣɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɯɧɚɡɵɜɚɸɬɫɹɞɜɚɢɛɨɥɟɟɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɢ
ɬɟɥɶɧɵɯɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɯɨɞɢɧɡɚɞɪɭɝɢɦɛɟɡɚɪɬɢɤɥɟɣɢɥɢɦɟɫɬɨɢɦɟɧɢɣ
ɜɧɭɬɪɢ ɝɪɭɩɩɵ ɉɨɫɥɟɞɧɟɟ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɟ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɨɩɨɪɧɵɦ ɢ
ɩɟɪɟɜɨɞɜɫɟɣɝɪɭɩɩɵɪɟɤɨɦɟɧɞɭɟɬɫɹɧɚɱɢɧɚɬɶɫɧɟɝɨɋɭɳɟɫɬɜɢɬɟɥɶ
ɧɵɟɫɬɨɹɳɢɟɩɟɪɟɞɨɩɨɪɧɵɦɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹɟɝɨɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɟɦ
ɍɤɚɡɚɧɧɵɟɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɹɦɨɝɭɬɩɟɪɟɜɨɞɢɬɶɫɹɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤ
a) ɩɪɢɥɚɝɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɦ
ring road ɤɨɥɶɰɟɜɚɹɞɨɪɨɝɚ
b) ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɦɜɪɨɞɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɦɩɚɞɟɠɟ
energy conservation – ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɟɷɧɟɪɝɢɢ
318
c) ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɦɫɩɪɟɞɥɨɝɨɦ
truss roof ɤɪɵɲɚɢɡɫɬɪɨɩɢɥɶɧɵɯɮɟɪɦ
d) ɫɨɱɟɬɚɧɢɟɦɩɟɪɟɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɵɯɫɩɨɫɨɛɨɜ
downtown shopping mall – ɬɨɪɝɨɜɵɣɰɟɧɬɪɜɞɟɥɨɜɨɣ
ɱɚɫɬɢɝɨɪɨɞɚ
Ɇɧɨɝɢɟɝɪɭɩɩɵɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɯɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɵɦɢɫɨɱɟ
ɬɚɧɢɹɦɢɢɜɤɥɸɱɚɸɬɫɹɜɫɩɟɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɟɬɟɪɦɢɧɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɟɫɥɨɜɚɪɢ
3. ɋɬɟɩɟɧɢ ɫɪɚɜɧɟɧɢɹ ɩɪɢɥɚɝɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɢ ɧɚɪɟɱɢɣ (Degrees of
comparison of adjectives and adverbs)
3.1. Ɉɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɟɣ ɫɪɚɜɧɟɧɢɹ (Formation of degrees of
comparison)
ɂɦɟɧɚɩɪɢɥɚɝɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɟɢɧɚɪɟɱɢɹɢɦɟɸɬɩɨɥɨɠɢɬɟɥɶɧɭɸɫɪɚɜ
ɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɭɸɢɩɪɟɜɨɫɯɨɞɧɭɸɫɬɟɩɟɧɢɂɦɟɟɬɫɹɞɜɚɫɩɨɫɨɛɚɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚ
ɧɢɹɫɪɚɜɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɣɢɩɪɟɜɨɫɯɨɞɧɨɣɫɬɟɩɟɧɢɂɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɟɩɟɪɜɨɝɨ
ɢɥɢɜɬɨɪɨɝɨɫɩɨɫɨɛɚɫɬɪɨɝɨɡɚɜɢɫɢɬɨɬɱɢɫɥɚɫɥɨɝɨɜɜɩɪɢɥɚɝɚɬɟɥɶ
ɧɨɦɢɥɢɧɚɪɟɱɢɢ
Ʉɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɨ ɉɨɥɨɠɢɬɟɥɶɧɚɹ
ɫɥɨɝɨɜ
ɫɬɟɩɟɧɶ
ɨɞɢɧ
simple
ɞɜɚ
heavy
ɞɜɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ
difficult
ɋɪɚɜɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɚɹ ɉɪɟɜɨɫɯɨɞɧɚɹ
ɫɬɟɩɟɧɶ
ɫɬɟɩɟɧɶ
simpler
(the) simplest**
heavier
(the) heaviest
more difficult
(the) most difficult
ɋɸɞɚɨɬɧɨɫɹɬɫɹɩɪɢɥɚɝɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɟ ɫɭɞɚɪɟɧɢɟɦɧɚɩɟɪɜɨɦɫɥɨɝɟɢɨɤɨɧ
ɱɚɧɢɟɦ ɧɚ ɫɨɝɥɚɫɧɭɸ y ɢ ɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɞɪɭɝɢɟ ɞɜɭɫɥɨɠɧɵɟ ɩɪɢɥɚɝɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɟ
ɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɪnarrow, shallow, simple, clever, quiet.
ȺɪɬɢɤɥɶWKHɜɩɪɟɜɨɫɯɨɞɧɨɣɫɬɟɩɟɧɢɫɬɚɜɢɬɫɹɬɨɥɶɤɨɩɟɪɟɞɩɪɢɥɚɝɚ
ɬɟɥɶɧɵɦɢ
Ɋɹɞɩɪɢɥɚɝɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɯɢɧɚɪɟɱɢɣɢɦɟɟɬɧɟɫɬɚɧɞɚɪɬɧɵɟɮɨɪɦɵɨɛ
ɪɚɡɨɜɚɧɢɹɫɬɟɩɟɧɟɣɫɪɚɜɧɟɧɢɹ
ɉɨɥɨɠɢɬɟɥɶɧɚɹ
ɫɬɟɩɟɧɶ
good
ɯɨɪɨɲɢɣ
well
ɯɨɪɨɲɨ
bad
ɩɥɨɯɨɣ
badly
ɩɥɨɯɨ
many
ɦɧɨɝɨ
much
ɋɪɚɜɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɚɹɫɬɟɩɟɧɶ
better
ɥɭɱɲɟ
worse
ɯɭɠɟ
more
ɛɨɥɶɲɟ
319
ɉɪɟɜɨɫɯɨɞɧɚɹɫɬɟɩɟɧɶ
(the)
best
(the)
worst
(the)
most
ɥɭɱɲɢɣ
ɯɭɞɲɢɣ
ɫɚɦɵɣɛɨɥɶɲɨɣ
little
ɦɚɥɟɧɶɤɢɣ
ɦɚɥɨ
far
ɞɚɥɟɤɢɣ
ɞɚɥɶɧɢɣ
ɞɚɥɟɤɨ
less
fɚrther
further
ɦɟɧɶɲɟ
(the)
ɦɟɧɟɟ
least
ɞɚɥɶɲɟ
(the)
ɜɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɟ farthest
ɞɚɥɶɲɟ
(the)
ɜɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɢ furthest
ɧɚɢɦɟɧɶɲɢɣ
ɫɚɦɵɣ ɞɚɥɶɧɢɣ
ɜɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɟ
ɫɚɦɵɣ ɞɚɥɟɤɢɣ
ɜɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɢ
ɋɪɚɜɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɟɨɛɨɪɨɬɵComparative structures)
ɉɪɢ ɫɪɚɜɧɟɧɢɢ ɞɜɭɯ ɩɪɢɥɚɝɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɢɥɢ ɧɚɪɟɱɢɣ ɦɨɝɭɬ ɭɩɨ
ɬɪɟɛɥɹɬɶɫɹ
1. ɫɨɸɡthan (ɱɟɦɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɪ
The architects were interested more in
form than in construction.
Ⱥɪɯɢɬɟɤɬɨɪɨɜɛɨɥɶɲɟɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɨɜɚɥɚ
ɮɨɪɦɚɱɟɦ ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɹ
2ɚɬɚɤɠɟɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɢ
2 a. as … as … (ɬɚɤɨɣɠɟ«ɤɚɤ«ɬɚɤɠɟ«ɤɚɤ«ɧɚɩɪɢ
ɦɟɪ
Greek architecture is as beautiful as
that of Rome.
Ƚɪɟɱɟɫɤɚɹɚɪɯɢɬɟɤɬɭɪɚɬɚɤ ɠɟ
ɩɪɟɤɪɚɫɧɚɤɚɤ ɚɪɯɢɬɟɤɬɭɪɚɊɢɦɚ
2 b. not as … as … (ɧɟɬɚɤɨɣ«ɤɚɤ«ɧɟɬɚɤ«ɤɚɤ«),
ɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɪ
Ɉɧɪɚɛɨɬɚɟɬɧɟɬɚɤ ɛɵɫɬɪɨɤɚɤ
ɨɧɚ
He doesn’t work as fast as she does.
2 c. twice/three times as … as … (ɜɞɜɚɬɪɢɪɚɡɚ « ɱɟɦ «)
ɢɬ ɩɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɪ
His house is three times as big as ȿɝɨ ɞɨɦ ɜ ɪɚɡɚ ɛɨɥɶɲɟ ɱɟɦ
mine.
ɦɨɣ
2 d. the … the … (ɱɟɦ«ɬɟɦ«ɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɪ
The thicker the wall the greater the ɑɟɦ ɬɨɥɳɟ ɫɬɟɧɚ ɬɟɦ ɛɨɥɶɲɟ ɟɺ
strength.
ɩɪɨɱɧɨɫɬɶ
320
ɑɢɫɥɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɟNumerals)
ɄɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɟɱɢɫɥɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɟCardinals)
1 - one
7 - seven
13 - thirteen
22 - twenty-two
2 - two
8 - eight
14 - fourteen
30 - thirty
3 - three
9 - nine
15 - fifteen
40 - forty
4 - four
10 - ten
16 - sixteen
50 - fifty
5 - five
11 - eleven
20 - twenty
60 - sixty
6 - six
12 - twelve
21 - twenty-one 100 - a hundred
101 – one hundred (and) one
121 – one hundred (and) twenty-one
1001 – one thousand (and) one
1121 – one thousand one hundred (and) twenty-one
121212 – one hundred twenty-one thousand two hundred (and) twelve
4.2. ɉɨɪɹɞɤɨɜɵɟ ɱɢɫɥɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɟ (Ordinals)
the first
the second
the third
the fourth
the fifth
the sixth
the seventh
the eighth
the ninth
the tenth
the eleventh
the twelfth
the thirteenth
the twentieth
the twenty-first
the hundredth
4.3. Ⱦɚɬɵ (Dates)
1800 – eighteen hundred
1997 – nineteen ninety-seven
2005 – twenty-oh [qV]-five
24th March 2010 – the twenty-fourth of March, twenty ten
March 24th 2010 – March the twenty-fourth twenty ten.
ɇɨɦɟɪɚɬɟɥɟɮɨɧɨɜɫɬɪɚɧɢɰɤɨɦɧɚɬɢɬɞPhone, page, room
numbers)
a) ɧɨɦɟɪ ɬɟɥɟɮɨɧɚ: 575-05-21 – five seven five oh five two one
b) ɧɨɦɟɪ ɫɬɪɚɧɢɰɵ: 248 – two four eight
c) ɧɨɦɟɪ ɤɨɦɧɚɬɵ: 416 – four one six
4.5. Ⱦɪɨɛɧɵɟ ɱɢɫɥɚ (Fractions)
½ – (a/one) half
ѿ – (a/one) third
¼ – (a/one) quarter/one fourth
Ҁ– two thirds
Ǫ – three eighths
ɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɪ: ò ѿ – ¼ = 7 / 1 2
321
a half plus a third minus a quarter equals seven
twelfths
ɧɨ I have half a kilo of tea and a quarter of a kilo of coffee.
ɍɦɟɧɹɩɨɥɤɢɥɨɱɚɹɢɱɟɬɜɟɪɬɶɤɢɥɨɝɪɚɦɦɚɤɨɮɟ
0.5 – point five
5.127 – five point one two seven
5. ɆɟɫɬɨɢɦɟɧɢɟPronoun)
Ɇɟɫɬɨɢɦɟɧɢɹɭɤɚɡɵɜɚɸɬɧɚɩɪɟɞɦɟɬɵɢɥɢɢɯɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɚɧɟɧɚɡɵ
ɜɚɹ ɢɯ Ɇɟɫɬɨɢɦɟɧɢɹ ɦɨɝɭɬ ɛɵɬɶ ɥɢɱɧɵɦɢ ɜɨɩɪɨɫɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɦɢ
ɭɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɦɢɩɪɢɬɹɠɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɦɢ ɢɞɪ
Ʌɢɱɧɵɟɩɪɢɬɹɠɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɟɢɜɨɡɜɪɚɬɧɵɟɦɟɫɬɨɢɦɟɧɢɹ
(Personal, possessive & reflexive pronouns)
ɉɪɢɬɹɠɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɟ
ɦɟɫɬɨɢɦɟɧɢɹ
Ʌɢɱɧɵɟɦɟɫɬɨɢɦɟɧɢɹ
ɂɦɟɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣ
ɩɚɞɟɠ
I
he
she
it
we
Ʉɨɫɜɟɧɧɵɣ ɩɚ
ɞɟɠ
me
him
her
it
us
my
his
her
its
our
you
you
your
they
them
their
ȼɨɡɜɪɚɬɧɵɟ
ɦɟɫɬɨɢɦɟɧɢɹ
myself
himself
herself
itself
ourselves
yourself
yourselves**
themselves
ȼɷɬɨɣɮɨɪɦɟɥɢɱɧɵɟɦɟɫɬɨɢɦɟɧɢɹɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɸɬɫɹɤɨɝɞɚɧɟɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ
ɩɨɞɥɟɠɚɳɢɦɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹɬɟɨɧɚɜɤɥɸɱɚɟɬɜɫɟɛɹɜɫɟɩɚɞɟɠɢɪɭɫɫɤɨɝɨɹɡɵɤɚ
ɤɪɨɦɟɢɦɟɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɝɨ
** ɉɟɪɜɚɹɮɨɪɦɚɨɬɧɨɫɢɬɫɹɤɨɞɧɨɦɭɱɟɥɨɜɟɤɭɚɜɬɨɪɚɹ– ɤɝɪɭɩɩɟɥɸɞɟɣ
ɇɟɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɺɧɧɵɟɢɨɬɪɢɰɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɟɦɟɫɬɨɢɦɟɧɢɹ
(Indefinite & negative pronouns)
ɇɟɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɺɧɧɵɟɦɟɫɬɨɢɦɟɧɢɹSOME, ANY
Ɇɟɫɬɨɢɦɟɧɢɹ some, any ɭɤɚɡɵɜɚɸɬ ɧɚ ɧɟɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɱɟɥɨ
ɜɟɤɚɥɸɞɟɣɢɥɢɩɪɟɞɦɟɬɩɪɟɞɦɟɬɵ
322
Ɇɟɫɬɨɢɦɟɧɢɟ some ɨɛɵɱɧɨ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɟɬɫɹ ɜ ɭɬɜɟɪɞɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ
ɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹɯɢɩɟɪɟɜɨɞɢɬɫɹɤɚɤɧɟɫɤɨɥɶɤɨɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɤɚɤɨɣ-ɬɨ
ɧɟɦɧɨɝɨ ɜɷɬɨɦɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɢɩɟɪɟɜɨɞɮɚɤɭɥɶɬɚɬɢɜɟɧ
Some man phoned.
ɉɨɡɜɨɧɢɥɤɚɤɨɣ-ɬɨɱɟɥɨɜɟɤ
There are some problems.
ȿɫɬɶɧɟɫɤɨɥɶɤɨɩɪɨɛɥɟɦ
We added some water.
Ɇɵɞɨɛɚɜɢɥɢɧɟɦɧɨɝɨɜɨɞɵ
Ɇɟɫɬɨɢɦɟɧɢɟany ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɟɬɫɹɜɭɬɜɟɪɞɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɯɨɬɪɢɰɚɬɟɥɶ
ɧɵɯɢɜɨɩɪɨɫɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɯɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹɯȼɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨɫɬɢ ɨɬɬɢɩɚɩɪɟɞ
ɥɨɠɟɧɢɹ ɨɧɨ ɩɟɪɟɜɨɞɢɬɫɹ ɤɚɤ ɥɸɛɨɣ ɜɫɹɤɢɣ ɤɚɤɨɣ-ɥɢɛɨ ɧɢɤɚɤɨɣ
ɢɥɢɧɟɩɟɪɟɜɨɞɢɬɫɹ
Beams can withstand any unit Ȼɚɥɤɢ ɦɨɝɭɬ ɜɵɞɟɪɠɢɜɚɬɶ
stress …
ɥɸɛɨɟɧɚɩɪɹɠɟɧɢɟ«
Are there any changes?
ȿɫɬɶɥɢɤɚɤɢɟ-ɥɢɛɨɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɹ"
There aren’t any changes.
ɇɟɬɧɢɤɚɤɢɯɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɣ
There isn’t any water here.
Ɂɞɟɫɶɧɟɬɜɨɞɵ
ɈɬɪɢɰɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɟɦɟɫɬɨɢɦɟɧɢɟNO
Ɇɟɫɬɨɢɦɟɧɢɟno ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɟɬɫɹɜɨɬɪɢɰɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɯɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹɯ
ɢɩɟɪɟɜɨɞɢɬɫɹɤɚɤɧɟɧɟɬ«ɧɢɤɚɤɨɣɧɟɬɧɢɨɞɢɧ«ɧɟ:
Ɇɵɧɟɩɨɥɭɱɢɥɢɧɢɤɚɤɢɯ
We got no results.
ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɨɜ
There are no absolutely safe
ɇɟɬɚɛɫɨɥɸɬɧɨɧɚɞɺɠɧɵɯ
methods.
ɦɟɬɨɞɨɜ
ɇɢɨɞɢɧɢɧɠɟɧɟɪɧɟɦɨɠɟɬɷɬɨ
No engineer can do that.
ɫɞɟɥɚɬɶ
ɉɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɧɵɟɨɬɦɟɫɬɨɢɦɟɧɢɣSOME, ANY, NO, EVERY
Ɇɟɫɬɨɢɦɟɧɢɹ some, any, no ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɟ ɦɟɫɬɨ
ɢɦɟɧɢɟ every ɤɚɠɞɵɣ ɜɫɹɤɢɣ ɨɛɪɚɡɭɸɬ ɫɨ ɫɥɨɜɚɦɢ thing, one,
body, where ɫɥɨɠɧɵɟɦɟɫɬɨɢɦɟɧɢɹ
thing
one
some
something
ɱɬɨ-ɬɨ
ɱɬɨ-ɧɢɛɭɞɶ
someone
ɤɬɨ-ɬɨ
ɤɬɨ-ɧɢɛɭɞɶ
any
anything
ɜɫɺɱɬɨ-ɬɨ
ɱɬɨ-ɧɢɛɭɞɶ
anyone
ɜɫɟɤɬɨ-ɬɨ
ɤɬɨ-ɧɢɛɭɞɶ
323
no
nothing
ɧɢɱɬɨ/ɧɢɱɟɝɨ
«ɧɟ
no one
ɧɢɤɬɨ«ɧɟ
every
everything
ɜɫɺ
everyone
ɜɫɟ
body
where
somebody
ɤɬɨ-ɬɨ
ɤɬɨ-ɧɢɛɭɞɶ
somewhere
ɝɞɟ-ɬɨ
ɤɭɞɚ-ɬɨ
anybody
ɜɫɟɤɬɨ-ɬɨ
ɤɬɨ-ɧɢɛɭɞɶ
anywhere
ɜɟɡɞɟ
ɝɞɟ-ɧɢɛɭɞɶ
nobody
ɧɢɤɬɨ«ɧɟ
everybody
ɜɫɟ
nowhere
ɧɢɝɞɟ/ɧɢɤɭɞɚ
«ɧɟ
everywhere
ɜɟɡɞɟɩɨ
ɜɫɸɞɭ
ȽɥɚɝɨɥVerb)
ȽɥɚɝɨɥɨɛɨɡɧɚɱɚɟɬɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟɢɥɢɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɟɎɨɪɦɵɝɥɚɝɨɥɚɞɟ
ɥɹɬɫɹɧɚɥɢɱɧɵɟɢɧɟɥɢɱɧɵɟɢɧɮɢɧɢɬɢɜɩɪɢɱɚɫɬɢɟɝɟɪɭɧɞɢɣɈɫ
ɧɨɜɧɵɟɮɨɪɦɵɝɥɚɝɨɥɚɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɟ
x ɢɧɮɢɧɢɬɢɜInfinitive)
x ɩɪɨɫɬɨɟɩɪɨɲɟɞɲɟɟɜɪɟɦɹPast Simple)
x ɩɪɢɱɚɫɬɢɟɩɪɨɲɟɞɲɟɝɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɢPast Participle/Participle II)
ɇɚɩɪɢɦɟɪto speak – spoke – spoken
ȼɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨɫɬɢɨɬɫɩɨɫɨɛɚɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɧɢɹɮɨɪɦPast Simple ɢPast
Participle ɝɥɚɝɨɥɵɞɟɥɹɬɫɹɧɚɬɪɢɝɪɭɩɩɵ
x ɩɪɚɜɢɥɶɧɵɟɝɥɚɝɨɥɵ
x ɧɟɩɪɚɜɢɥɶɧɵɟɝɥɚɝɨɥɵ
x ɝɥɚɝɨɥɵɫɦɟɲɚɧɧɨɝɨɬɢɩɚ
Ɋɹɞ ɝɥɚɝɨɥɨɜ ɢɦɟɟɬ ɫɩɟɰɢɮɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɫɬɢɤɢ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ
ɜɵɞɟɥɹɸɬɢɯɢɡɱɢɫɥɚɨɫɧɨɜɧɨɣɦɚɫɫɵɝɥɚɝɨɥɨɜɋɸɞɚɨɬɧɨɫɹɬɫɹ
x ɝɥɚɝɨɥto be ɫɦɪɚɡɞɟɥ2.1)
x ɝɥɚɝɨɥto have ɫɦɪɚɡɞɟɥ2.3)
x ɦɨɞɚɥɶɧɵɟɝɥɚɝɨɥɵɫɦɪɚɡɞɟɥ
Ɍɢɩɵɝɥɚɝɨɥɨɜ
x
ɩɨɫɥɟɡɜɨɧɤɢɯɫɨɝɥɚɫɧɵɯɢɝɥɚɫɧɵɯɡɜɭɤɨɜɨɤɨɧɱɚɧɢɟɩɪɨ
ɢɡɧɨɫɢɬɫɹ– [d@ɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɪdesign [dI'zaIn] – designed
[dI'zaInd]; transfer [trxns'fW] – transferred [trxns'fWd]
x
ɩɨɫɥɟɡɜɭɤɨɜ>t], [d@ɨɤɨɧɱɚɧɢɟɩɪɨɢɡɧɨɫɢɬɫɹ– [Id@ɧɚɩɪɢ
ɦɟɪact [xkt] – act ['xktId]; grade [greId] – graded
['greIdId]
bɉɪɚɜɨɩɢɫɚɧɢɟɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɯɝɥɚɝɨɥɨɜɩɪɢɞɨɛɚɜɥɟɧɢɢɨɤɨɧɱɚ
ɧɢɹɢɡɦɟɧɹɟɬɫɹ
carry – carried
dry – dried
ɧɨ: play – played;
stop – stopped
plan – planned
occur – occurred
control – controlled
ɧɨ: appear – appeared
6.1.2. ɇɟɩɪɚɜɢɥɶɧɵɟɝɥɚɝɨɥɵ
Ɏɨɪɦɵ Past Simple ɢ Past Participle ɷɬɢɯ ɝɥɚɝɨɥɨɜ ɨɛɪɚɡɭɸɬɫɹ
ɫɩɨɦɨɳɶɸɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɹɤɨɪɧɹɫɥɨɜɚɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɪ
bear – bore – borne
lose – lost – lost
see – saw – seen
ɋɩɢɫɨɤɧɟɩɪɚɜɢɥɶɧɵɯɝɥɚɝɨɥɨɜɞɚɧɜɪɚɡɞɟɥɟ
Ƚɥɚɝɨɥɵɫɦɟɲɚɧɧɨɝɨɬɢɩɚ
ɎɨɪɦɵPast Simple ɢPast Participle ɷɬɢɯɝɥɚɝɨɥɨɜɨɛɪɚɡɭɸɬɫɹɫ
ɩɨɦɨɳɶɸɨɤɨɧɱɚɧɢɹed/dɇɚɩɪɢɦɟɪadd – added, step – stepped, produce – produced.
Dɉɪɨɢɡɧɨɲɟɧɢɟɨɤɨɧɱɚɧɢɹɡɚɜɢɫɢɬɨɬɩɪɟɞɲɟɫɬɜɭɸɳɟɝɨɟɦɭ
ɡɜɭɤɚ
x
ɩɨɫɥɟɝɥɭɯɢɯɫɨɝɥɚɫɧɵɯɡɜɭɤɨɜɨɤɨɧɱɚɧɢɟɩɪɨɢɡɧɨɫɢɬɫɹ–
[t@ɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɪplace [pleIs] – placed [pleIst]
ɎɨɪɦɚPast Simple ɷɬɢɯɝɥɚɝɨɥɨɜɨɛɪɚɡɭɸɬɫɹɫɩɨɦɨɳɶɸɨɤɨɧ
ɱɚɧɢɹed/dɚɮɨɪɦɚPast Participle – ɫɩɨɦɨɳɶɸɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɹɤɨɪɧɹ
ɫɥɨɜɚɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɪ
show – showed – shown
Ʌɢɱɧɵɟɮɨɪɦɵɝɥɚɝɨɥɚ
Ƚɥɚɝɨɥɜɥɢɱɧɨɣɮɨɪɦɟɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɡɭɟɬɫɹ
x ɱɢɫɥɨɦɟɞɢɧɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɦɦɧɨɠɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɦɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɪ
ɈɧɱɢɬɚɟɬɆɵɱɢɬɚɟɦ
x ɥɢɰɨɦ-ɟɥɢɰɨ-ɟɥɢɰɨ-ɟɥɢɰɨɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɪ
əɱɢɬɚɸɌɵɱɢɬɚɟɲɶɈɧɱɢɬɚɟɬ.
x ɧɚɤɥɨɧɟɧɢɟɦɢɡɴɹɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɦɩɨɜɟɥɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɦɢɫɨɫɥɚɝɚ
ɬɟɥɶɧɵɦɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɪ
324
325
ɉɪɚɜɢɥɶɧɵɟɝɥɚɝɨɥɵ
Ɉɧɱɢɬɚɟɬɑɢɬɚɣȿɫɥɢɛɵ ɨɧɱɢɬɚɥ.
x ɡɚɥɨɝɨɦɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɦ$FWLYH9RLFHɢɫɬɪɚɞɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɦ
(Passive Voice))
Ɉɧɱɢɬɚɟɬɉɢɫɶɦɨɱɢɬɚɸɬ
x ɜɪɟɦɟɧɟɦ
Perfect
Progressive
Perfect
Progressive
Simple
ȼɪɟɦɟɧɚɝɥɚɝɨɥɚɜɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɦɡɚɥɨɝɟActive Voice)
Present
Past
Future
I(you, we, they) ask,
he(she, it) asks
ɫɩɪɚɲɢɜɚɸɫɩɪɚɲɢ
ɜɚɟɬ
ɫɩɪɚɲɢɜɚɟɦɫɩɪɚɲɢ
ɜɚɸɬ
asked
ɫɩɪɨɫɢɥ
ɫɩɪɨɫɢɥɢ
will ask
ɫɩɪɨɲɭɫɩɪɨɫɢɬ
ɫɩɪɨɫɢɬɟɫɩɪɨɫɢɦ
ɫɩɪɨɫɹɬ
am
is
are
asking
ɫɩɪɚɲɢɜɚɸɫɩɪɚɲɢ
ɜɚɟɬɫɩɪɚɲɢɜɚɟɦɫɩɪɚ
ɲɢɜɚɸɬ
have
has
asked
ɫɩɪɨɫɢɥɫɩɪɨɫɢɥɚ
ɫɩɪɨɫɢɥɢ
have
has
been asking
ɫɩɪɚɲɢɜɚɸɫɩɪɚɲɢ
ɜɚɟɬɫɩɪɚɲɢɜɚɟɦɫɩɪɚ
ɲɢɜɚɸɬ
Ɍɢɩɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹ
ɍɬɜɟɪɞɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɟ
Ɉɬɪɢɰɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɟ
ȼɨɩɪɨɫɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɟ
Present Simple
Past Simple
1-ɟ-ɟɥɢɰɨ
ɟɞɢɧɢɦɧɨɠ
3-ɟɥɢɰɨ
ɱɢɫɥɚ
You (I, we, they) He (she, it) de- You (I, he, she, it,
design.
signs.
we, they) designed.
You did not (I, he,
He does not
You do not (I, we,
(she, it) deshe, it, we, they) dethey) design.
sign.
sign.
Do you (I, we,
Does he (she, Did you (I, he, she,
they) design?
it) design?
it, we, they) design?
ȼɨɬɪɢɰɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɯɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹɯɱɚɫɬɨɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɸɬɫɹɫɬɹɠɺɧɧɵɟɮɨɪɦɵɜɫɩɨ
ɦɨɝɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɝɨɝɥɚɝɨɥɚɢɨɬɪɢɰɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɣɱɚɫɬɢɰɵdon’t, doesn’t, didn’t.
6.2.3. Ƚɥɚɝɨɥ to be
Ɏɨɪɦɵ ɝɥɚɝɨɥɚ to be ɜɨ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɚɯ Present Simple ɢ Past Simple
ɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɟ:
was
were
asking
ɫɩɪɚɲɢɜɚɥ
ɫɩɪɚɲɢɜɚɥɢ
asking
ɫɩɪɚɲɢɜɚɸɫɩɪɚɲɢ
ɜɚɟɬɫɩɪɚɲɢɜɚɟɦ
ɫɩɪɚɲɢɜɚɸɬ
had asked
ɫɩɪɨɫɢɥɫɩɪɨ
ɫɢɥɚɫɩɪɨɫɢɥɢ
will have asked
ɫɩɪɨɲɭɫɩɪɨɫɢɬ
ɫɩɪɨɫɢɬɟɫɩɪɨɫɢɦ
ɫɩɪɨɫɹɬ
had been asking
ɫɩɪɚɲɢɜɚɥ
ɫɩɪɚɲɢɜɚɥɢ
will have been asking
ɛɭɞɭɛɭɞɟɬɟɛɭɞɟɬ
ɛɭɞɭɬɛɭɞɟɦɫɩɪɚ
ɲɢɜɚɬɶ
ɈɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɢɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɧɢɹɮɨɪɦPresent Simple ɢPast Simple
ȼ ɨɬɪɢɰɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɣ ɢ ɜɨɩɪɨɫɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɣ ɮɨɪɦɚɯ 3UHVHQW 6LPSOH ɢ
3DVW6LPSOHɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɟɬɫɹɜɫɩɨɦɨɝɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɣɝɥɚɝɨɥto doɎɨɪɦɚɝɥɚ
ɝɨɥɚto do ɡɚɜɢɫɢɬɨɬɥɢɰɚɢɜɪɟɦɟɧɢɨɫɧɨɜɧɨɝɨɝɥɚɝɨɥɚɫɤɨɬɨɪɵɦ
ɨɧɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɪ
326
Present Simple
I
am
he, she, it
is
we, you, they
are
Past Simple
I, he, she, it
we, you, they
was
were
Ƚɥɚɝɨɥto be ɢɦɟɟɬɬɪɢɮɭɧɤɰɢɢ
x
ɫɦɵɫɥɨɜɨɣɝɥɚɝɨɥɤɨɬɨɪɵɣɢɦɟɟɬɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟɛɵɬɶɧɚɯɨ
ɞɢɬɶɫɹɧɨɜɧɚɫɬɨɹɳɟɦɜɪɟɦɟɧɢɨɛɵɱɧɨɧɟɩɟɪɟɜɨɞɢɬɫɹ,
ɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɪ
He is there. Ɉɧ – ɬɚɦ.
He was there. Ɉɧɛɵɥ ɬɚɦ.
x
ɝɥɚɝɨɥ-ɫɜɹɡɤɚɤɨɬɨɪɵɣɢɦɟɟɬɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟɛɵɬɶɹɜɥɹɬɶɫɹ,
ɧɨɜɧɚɫɬɨɹɳɟɦɜɪɟɦɟɧɢɨɛɵɱɧɨɧɟɩɟɪɟɜɨɞɢɬɫɹɧɚɩɪɢ
ɦɟɪHe is a studentɈɧ– ɫɬɭɞɟɧɬ
He was a student. Ɉɧ ɛɵɥ ɫɬɭɞɟɧɬɨɦ.
x
ɜɫɩɨɦɨɝɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɣɝɥɚɝɨɥɤɨɬɨɪɵɣɱɚɫɬɨɧɟɩɟɪɟɜɨɞɢɬɫɹ
ɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɪ
We are building. Ɇɵ ɫɬɪɨɢɦ.
x
ɦɨɞɚɥɶɧɵɣɝɥɚɝɨɥɤɨɬɨɪɵɣɢɦɟɟɬɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟɞɨɥɠɟɧ.
ȼɷɬɨɣɮɭɧɤɰɢɢɩɨɫɥɟto be ɜɫɟɝɞɚɫɥɟɞɭɟɬɝɥɚɝɨɥɫɱɚ
ɫɬɢɰɟɣto.ɇɚɩɪɢɦɟɪ
We are to build. Ɇɵɞɨɥɠɧɵ ɩɨɫɬɪɨɢɬɶ.
ɋɦɬɚɤɠɟɪɚɡɞɟɥ
327
Ɉɛɨɪɨɬthere + to be
Ɉɛɨɪɨɬ there + to be ɩɟɪɟɜɨɞɢɬɫɹ ɧɚ ɪɭɫɫɤɢɣ ɹɡɵɤ ɝɥɚɝɨɥɚɦɢ
ɛɵɬɶɧɚɯɨɞɢɬɶɫɹɢɦɟɬɶɫɹɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɨɜɚɬɶ ɜɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɸɳɟɣɜɪɟ
ɦɟɧɧɨɣɮɨɪɦɟɉɟɪɟɜɨɞɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɣɫɨɛɨɪɨɬɨɦthere + to be ɧɚɞɨ
ɧɚɱɢɧɚɬɶɫɨɛɫɬɨɹɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɚɦɟɫɬɚɨɛɫɬɨɹɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɚɜɪɟɦɟɧɢɢɥɢɟɫɥɢ
ɨɧɢɨɬɫɭɬɫɬɜɭɸɬɫɨɫɤɚɡɭɟɦɨɝɨɇɚɩɪɢɦɟɪ:
There were no windows in this room.
ȼɷɬɨɣ ɤɨɦɧɚɬɟ ɨɤɨɧɧɟɛɵɥɨ.
There will be a new street block here.
Ɂɞɟɫɶɛɭɞɟɬɧɨɜɵɣɝɨɪɨɞɫɤɨɣɤɜɚɪɬɚɥ
There are three main goals of urban ɋɭɳɟɫɬɜɭɟɬ ɬɪɢ ɝɥɚɜɧɵɟ ɡɚɞɚɱɢ
design.
ɝɪɚɞɨɫɬɪɨɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɝɨɩɪɨɟɤɬɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ
ȼ ɜɨɩɪɨɫɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɦ ɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɢ ɝɥɚɝɨɥ ɜ ɥɢɱɧɨɣ ɮɨɪɦɟ ɫɬɚ
ɜɢɬɫɹɩɟɪɟɞthere.
Were there any windows in this
room.?
ȼɷɬɨɣɤɨɦɧɚɬɟɛɵɥɢɨɤɧɚ?
ɋɦɬɚɤɠɟɪɚɡɞɟɥɵɢ
6.2.5Ƚɥɚɝɨɥto have
Ƚɥɚɝɨɥto have ɢɦɟɟɬɬɪɢɮɭɧɤɰɢɢ
x
ɫɦɵɫɥɨɜɨɣɝɥɚɝɨɥɫɨɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟɦɢɦɟɬɶɜɥɚɞɟɬɶ
He has a book. ɍɧɟɝɨɟɫɬɶ ɤɧɢɝɚ.
ȼɷɬɨɣɮɭɧɤɰɢɢɝɥɚɝɨɥɚɜɜɨɩɪɨɫɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɦɢɨɬɪɢɰɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɦɩɪɟɞɥɨ
ɠɟɧɢɢɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɟɬɫɹɜɫɩɨɦɨɝɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɣɝɥɚɝɨɥdo.
Do you have a book? I don’t have a book.
ɑɚɫɬɨɫɷɬɢɦɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟɦɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɟɬɫɹɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɹhave got.
He has got a book. ɍ ɧɟɝɨ ɟɫɬɶ ɤɧɢɝɚ.
x
ɜɫɩɨɦɨɝɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɣɝɥɚɝɨɥɤɨɬɨɪɵɣɧɟɩɟɪɟɜɨɞɢɬɫɹɧɚɪɭɫ
ɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤ
They have finished this work. Ɉɧɢɡɚɤɨɧɱɢɥɢɷɬɭɪɚɛɨɬɭ.
x
ɦɨɞɚɥɶɧɵɣɝɥɚɝɨɥɤɨɬɨɪɵɣɢɦɟɟɬɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟɞɨɥɠɟɧ.
ȼɷɬɨɣɮɭɧɤɰɢɢɩɨɫɥɟto have ɜɫɟɝɞɚɫɥɟɞɭɟɬɝɥɚɝɨɥ
ɫɱɚɫɬɢɰɟɣto.*
ȼɷɬɨɣɮɭɧɤɰɢɢɝɥɚɝɨɥɚɜɜɨɩɪɨɫɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɦɢɨɬɪɢɰɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɦɩɪɟɞ
ɥɨɠɟɧɢɢɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɟɬɫɹɜɫɩɨɦɨɝɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɣɝɥɚɝɨɥdo.
Do we have to use steel? We didn’t have to use steel.
ɋɦɬɚɤɠɟɪɚɡɞɟɥ
6.2.6ɋɬɪɚɞɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɣɡɚɥɨɝPassive Voice)
ɋɬɪɚɞɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɣɡɚɥɨɝɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɟɬɫɹɤɨɝɞɚɩɨɞɥɟɠɚɳɟɟɩɪɟɞɥɨ
ɠɟɧɢɹɧɟɜɵɩɨɥɧɹɟɬɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟɚɩɨɞɜɟɪɝɚɟɬɫɹɟɦɭ
Active Voice
(ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣ ɡɚɥɨɝ)
Passive Voice
(ɫɬɪɚɞɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɣɡɚɥɨɝ)
The Greeks employed a new principle of
design.
Ƚɪɟɤɢɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɥɢɧɨɜɵɣɩɪɢɧɰɢɩ
ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɢ.
This new principle of design was first
employed by the Greeks.
ɗɬɨɬɧɨɜɵɣɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɢ
ɛɵɥɜɩɟɪɜɵɟɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɝɪɟɤɚɦɢ.
Ɏɨɪɦɵɫɬɪɚɞɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɝɨɡɚɥɨɝɚɨɛɪɚɡɭɸɬɫɹɫɩɨɦɨɳɶɸɜɫɩɨɦɨ
ɝɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɝɥɚɝɨɥɚ to be ɋɦɵɫɥɨɜɨɣ ɝɥɚɝɨɥ ɜɫɟɝɞɚ ɫɬɨɢɬ ɜ ɮɨɪɦɟ
Participle II ɋɦ ɬɚɛɥɢɰɭ ɜɪɟɦɟɧ ɝɥɚɝɨɥɚ ɜ ɫɬɪɚɞɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɦ ɡɚɥɨɝɟ
ɈɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɧɢɟParticiple II – ɫɦɪɚɡɞɟɥ
ɉɨɫɥɟ ɝɥɚɝɨɥɚ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɭɤɚɡɵɜɚɬɶɫɹ ɢɫɩɨɥɧɢɬɟɥɶ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ ɫ
ɩɪɟɞɥɨɝɨɦbyɤɨɬɨɪɵɣɜɵɪɚɠɚɟɬɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɟɬɜɨɪɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɝɨɩɚɞɟɠɚ
ɤɟɦɱɟɦ:
The house was built by our
company.
Ⱦɨɦɛɵɥɩɨɫɬɪɨɟɧɧɚɲɟɣ
ɤɨɦɩɚɧɢɟɣ.
ȼ ɫɢɥɭ ɪɹɞɚ ɩɪɢɱɢɧ ɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹ ɜ ɫɬɪɚɞɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɦ ɡɚɥɨɝɟ
ɜɫɬɪɟɱɚɸɬɫɹɜ ɚɧɝɥɢɣɫɤɨɦɹɡɵɤɟɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɱɚɳɟɱɟɦ ɜɪɭɫ
ɫɤɨɦ
ɋɩɨɫɨɛɵɩɟɪɟɜɨɞɚɫɬɪɚɞɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɝɨɡɚɥɨɝɚɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤɫɥɟ
ɞɭɸɳɢɟ
1. ɫɤɚɡɭɟɦɨɟɩɟɪɟɜɨɞɢɬɫɹɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɸɳɟɣɮɨɪɦɨɣɝɥɚɝɨɥɚ
ɜɫɬɪɚɞɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɦɡɚɥɨɝɟ
The house was built. Ⱦɨɦ ɛɵɥ ɩɨɫɬɪɨɟɧ.
2. ɫɤɚɡɭɟɦɨɟɩɟɪɟɜɨɞɢɬɫɹɝɥɚɝɨɥɨɦɫɨɤɨɧɱɚɧɢɟɦɫɹɫɶ
The houses are built. Ⱦɨɦɚ ɫɬɪɨɹɬɫɹ.
3. ɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɟɩɟɪɟɜɨɞɢɬɫɹɤɚɤɧɟɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɺɧɧɨ-ɥɢɱɧɨɟɬ ɟ
ɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɟɛɟɡɩɨɞɥɟɠɚɳɟɝɨ
We had to use steel. Ɇɵɞɨɥɠɧɵɛɵɥɢ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɬɶɫɬɚɥɶ.
328
329
The houses are built.
Ⱦɨɦɚɫɬɪɨɹɬ.
Many houses have been built. Ȼɵɥɨɩɨɫɬɪɨɟɧɨ ɦɧɨɝɨɞɨɦɨɜ.
4. ɟɫɥɢɭɤɚɡɚɧɢɫɩɨɥɧɢɬɟɥɶɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɟɦɨɠɟɬɩɟ
ɪɟɜɨɞɢɬɶɫɹɜɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɦɡɚɥɨɝɟ.
Several houses are being built
by our company now.
ɇɚɲɚɤɨɦɩɚɧɢɹɫɟɣɱɚɫ
ɫɬɪɨɢɬɧɟɫɤɨɥɶɤɨɞɨɦɨɜ.
ȿɫɥɢɩɨɫɥɟɝɥɚɝɨɥɚɜɫɬɪɚɞɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɦɡɚɥɨɝɟɫɥɟɞɭɟɬɩɪɟɞɥɨɝɜ
ɪɭɫɫɤɨɦɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɢɨɧɫɬɚɜɢɬɫɹɧɚɩɟɪɜɨɟɦɟɫɬɨ
This project is much spoken about. Ɉɛ ɷɬɨɦɩɪɨɟɤɬɟɦɧɨɝɨɝɨ
ɜɨɪɹɬ
The engineer was sent for.
Ɂɚ ɢɧɠɟɧɟɪɨɦɩɨɫɥɚɥɢ.
ȼɪɟɦɟɧɚɝɥɚɝɨɥɚɜɫɬɪɚɞɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɦɡɚɥɨɝɟ(Passive Voice)
Perfect
Progressive
Simple
Present
am
is
are
added
ɞɨɛɚɜɥɹɸɬɞɨɛɚɜɥɹ
ɟɬɫɹɞɨɛɚɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ
am
being
is
added
are
ɞɨɛɚɜɥɹɸɬɞɨɛɚɜɥɹ
ɟɬɫɹɞɨɛɚɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ
have
been added
has
ɞɨɛɚɜɢɥɢ
ɛɵɥɞɨɛɚɜɥɟɧ
ɛɵɥɢɞɨɛɚɜɥɟɧɵ
Past
was
were
Future
added
ɞɨɛɚɜɢɥɢ
ɛɵɥɞɨɛɚɜɥɟɧ
ɛɵɥɢɞɨɛɚɜɥɟɧɵɞɨ
ɛɚɜɥɹɥɢɫɶ
was
were
being added
ɞɨɛɚɜɥɹɥɢ
ɞɨɛɚɜɥɹɥɢɫɶ
had been added
ɞɨɛɚɜɢɥɢ
ɛɵɥɞɨɛɚɜɥɟɧ
ɛɵɥɢɞɨɛɚɜɥɟɧɵ
will be added
ɞɨɛɚɜɹɬ
ɛɭɞɟɬɞɨɛɚɜɥɟɧ
ɛɭɞɭɬɞɨɛɚɜɥɟɧɵ
ɛɭɞɭɬɞɨɛɚɜɥɹɬɶɫɹ
ɗɬɚɮɨɪɦɚɝɥɚɝɨɥɚ
ɜPassive Voice
ɧɟɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɟɬɫɹ
will have been
added
ɞɨɛɚɜɹɬ,
ɛɭɞɟɬɞɨɛɚɜɥɟɧ
ɛɭɞɭɬɞɨɛɚɜɥɟɧɵ
ɆɨɞɚɥɶɧɵɟɝɥɚɝɨɥɵModal verbs)
Ɇɨɞɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɝɥɚɝɨɥɵ ɜ ɪɭɫɫɤɨɦ ɢ ɚɧɝɥɢɣɫɤɨɦ ɹɡɵɤɚɯ ɨɛɨɡɧɚ
ɱɚɸɬɧɟɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟɚɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɟɤɧɟɦɭɝɨɜɨɪɹɳɟɝɨɢɜɵɪɚɠɚɸɬɫɩɨ
ɫɨɛɧɨɫɬɶ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɶ ɞɨɩɭɫɬɢɦɨɫɬɶ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨɫɬɶ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ
ɋɚɦɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟɜɵɪɚɠɚɟɬɫɹɫɦɵɫɥɨɜɵɦɝɥɚɝɨɥɨɦɜɮɨɪɦɟ ɢɧɮɢɧɢ
ɬɢɜɚɧɟɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɺɧɧɨ-ɥɢɱɧɨɣɮɨɪɦɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɣɫɥɟɞɭɟɬɩɨɫɥɟɦɨɞɚɥɶ
ɧɵɯɝɥɚɝɨɥɨɜ
330
We must use strong materials.
Ɇɵɞɨɥɠɧɵ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɬɶ ɩɪɨɱɧɵɟɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɵ
Ɇɨɞɚɥɶɧɵɟɝɥɚɝɨɥɵɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹɧɟɞɨɫɬɚɬɨɱɧɵɦɢɩɨɬɨɦɭɱɬɨɤɨ
ɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɨ ɢɯ ɮɨɪɦ ɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɟɧɨ Ɍɚɤ ɝɥɚɝɨɥɵ can. may, must ɧɟ ɢɫ
ɩɨɥɶɡɭɸɬɫɹɜɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɚɯProgressive ɢPerfectɚɜɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɚɯSimple
ɢɦɟɸɬɥɢɲɶɱɚɫɬɶɮɨɪɦ
Present Simple
can
may
must
Past Simple
could
might
-
Future Simple
-
Ɇɨɞɚɥɶɧɵɟɝɥɚɝɨɥɵɜɵɪɚɠɚɸɳɢɟɞɨɥɠɟɧɫɬɜɨɜɚɧɢɟ
1.
Must – ɞɨɥɠɟɧȾɨɥɠɟɧɫɬɜɨɜɚɧɢɟɧɟɢɦɟɟɬɞɨɩɨɥɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ
ɨɬɬɟɧɤɨɜɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɹ
The designer must make new plans.
ɉɪɨɟɤɬɢɪɨɜɳɢɤɞɨɥɠɟɧ ɫɞɟɥɚɬɶɧɨɜɵɟɩɥɚɧɵ
2.
Have to – ɞɨɥɠɟɧɩɪɢɲɥɨɫɶɜɵɧɭɠɞɟɧȾɨɥɠɟɧɫɬɜɨɜɚɧɢɟ–
ɫɥɟɞɫɬɜɢɟɜɧɟɲɧɢɯɭɫɥɨɜɢɣɨɛɫɬɨɹɬɟɥɶɫɬɜ
ɉɪɨɟɤɬɢɪɨɜɳɢɤɭɩɪɢɲɥɨɫɶɫɞɟɥɚɬɶ
ɧɨɜɵɟɩɥɚɧɵ
ɢɥɢɉɪɨɟɤɬɢɪɨɜɳɢɤɜɵɧɭɠɞɟɧɛɵɥɫɞɟɥɚɬɶ
The designer had to
ɧɨɜɵɟɩɥɚɧɵ
make new plans.
ɢɥɢɉɪɨɟɤɬɢɪɨɜɳɢɤɞɨɥɠɟɧɛɵɥɫɞɟɥɚɬɶ
ɧɨɜɵɟɩɥɚɧɵ
3.
Be to – ɞɨɥɠɟɧɩɪɟɞɫɬɨɢɬȾɨɥɠɟɧɫɬɜɨɜɚɧɢɟ– ɫɥɟɞɫɬɜɢɟ
ɩɪɟɞɜɚɪɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɣɞɨɝɨɜɨɪɺɧɧɨɫɬɢɢɥɢɩɥɚɧɚ
ɉɪɨɟɤɬɢɪɨɜɳɢɤɭɩɪɟɞɫɬɨɹɥɨɫɞɟɥɚɬɶ
ɧɨɜɵɟɩɥɚɧɵ
The designer was
to make new plans. ɢɥɢɉɪɨɟɤɬɢɪɨɜɳɢɤɞɨɥɠɟɧɛɵɥɫɞɟɥɚɬɶ
ɧɨɜɵɟɩɥɚɧɵ
4.
Should – ɞɨɥɠɟɧɫɥɟɞɭɟɬɨɛɹɡɚɧȼɵɪɚɠɚɟɬɫɨɜɟɬɢɥɢɦɨ
ɪɚɥɶɧɵɣɞɨɥɝ
The designer
should make new
plans.
ɉɪɨɟɤɬɢɪɨɜɳɢɤɭɫɥɟɞɭɟɬɫɞɟɥɚɬɶ
ɧɨɜɵɟɩɥɚɧɵ
ɢɥɢɉɪɨɟɤɬɢɪɨɜɳɢɤɞɨɥɠɟɧɫɞɟɥɚɬɶ
ɧɨɜɵɟɩɥɚɧɵ
331
5.
Ought to – ɞɨɥɠɟɧɨɛɹɡɚɧȼɵɪɚɠɚɟɬɦɨɪɚɥɶɧɵɣɞɨɥɝ
The designer
ought to make new
plans.
ɉɪɨɟɤɬɢɪɨɜɳɢɤɨɛɹɡɚɧɫɞɟɥɚɬɶɧɨɜɵɟ
ɩɥɚɧɵ
ɢɥɢɉɪɨɟɤɬɢɪɨɜɳɢɤɞɨɥɠɟɧɫɞɟɥɚɬɶɧɨɜɵɟ
ɩɥɚɧɵ
Ɇɨɞɚɥɶɧɵɟɝɥɚɝɨɥɵɜɵɪɚɠɚɸɳɢɟɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɨɫɬɶɢɥɢɜɨɡ
ɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɶ
1.
Can – ɦɨɱɶɭɦɟɬɶɛɵɬɶɜɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɢɢɦɟɬɶɜɨɡɦɨɠ
ɧɨɫɬɶ
A dome can be supported
Ʉɭɩɨɥɦɨɠɟɬɨɩɢɪɚɬɶɫɹɧɚ
on the summits of four
ɜɟɪɲɢɧɵɱɟɬɵɪɟɯɚɪɨɤ
arches.
Conditions can be different. ɍɫɥɨɜɢɹɦɨɝɭɬɪɚɡɥɢɱɚɬɶɫɹ
2. Be able to – ɦɨɱɶɭɦɟɬɶɛɵɬɶɜɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɢ
We are able to trace to
Greek art the origin of
Roman architecture.
The river course will be
better able to serve
water transportation..
Ɇɵ ɦɨɠɟɦ ɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɢɬɶɢɫɬɨɤɢɪɢɦɫɤɨɣ
ɚɪɯɢɬɟɤɬɭɪɵɜɝɪɟɱɟɫɤɨɦɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɟ.
Ɋɟɱɧɨɟɪɭɫɥɨɫɦɨɠɟɬɥɭɱɲɟɫɥɭɠɢɬɶ
ɬɪɚɧɫɩɨɪɬɢɪɨɜɤɟɩɨɜɨɞɟ
May – ɦɨɱɶɢɦɟɬɶɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɶ
You may examine the
building.
The material may fail.
2.
ɉɪɚɜɢɥɨɫɨɝɥɚɫɨɜɚɧɢɹɜɪɟɦɺɧɞɟɣɫɬɜɭɟɬɩɪɢɩɟɪɟɞɚɱɟɩɪɹɦɨɣ
ɪɟɱɢɜɜɢɞɟɤɨɫɜɟɧɧɨɣɪɟɱɢɜɮɨɪɦɟɫɥɨɠɧɨɩɨɞɱɢɧɺɧɧɨɝɨɩɪɟɞɥɨ
ɠɟɧɢɹɄɨɝɞɚɫɤɚɡɭɟɦɨɟɝɥɚɜɧɨɝɨɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹɫɬɨɢɬɜɨɞɧɨɦɢɡɩɪɨ
ɲɟɞɲɢɯ ɜɪɟɦɺɧ, ɜɪɟɦɹ ɫɤɚɡɭɟɦɨɝɨ ɜ ɩɪɢɞɚɬɨɱɧɨɦ ɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɢ
ɜɫɪɚɜɧɟɧɢɢɫɨ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɟɦɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹɜɩɪɹɦɨɣɪɟɱɢɫɞɜɢɝɚɟɬɫɹɧɚ
ɨɞɢɧɲɚɝɜɩɪɨɲɥɨɟɇɚɩɪɢɦɟɪ
1. I design buildings.
1a. He said he designed
buildings.
əɩɪɨɟɤɬɢɪɭɸɡɞɚɧɢɹ
Ɉɧɫɤɚɡɚɥɱɬɨɨɧɩɪɨɟɤɬɢɪɭɟɬ
ɡɞɚɧɢɹ
2. I designed a building.
əɫɩɪɨɟɤɬɢɪɨɜɚɥɡɞɚɧɢɟ
2a. He said he had designed a Ɉɧɫɤɚɡɚɥɱɬɨɨɧɫɩɪɨɟɤɬɢɪɨɜɚɥ
building.
ɡɞɚɧɢɟ
3. I will design a building.
ə ɫɩɪɨɟɤɬɢɪɭɸ ɡɞɚɧɢɟ.
3a. He said he would design a Ɉɧɫɤɚɡɚɥɱɬɨɨɧɫɩɪɨɟɤɬɢɪɭɟɬ
building.
ɡɞɚɧɢɟ
ȼɪɭɫɫɤɨɦɹɡɵɤɟɩɨɞɨɛɧɨɝɨɝɪɚɦɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨɩɪɚɜɢɥɚɧɟɬɉɪɢ
ɩɟɪɟɜɨɞɟ ɤɚɤ ɜɢɞɧɨ ɢɡ ɩɪɢɦɟɪɚ ɨɫɨɛɭɸ ɬɪɭɞɧɨɫɬɶ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɬ
ɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹɬɢɩɚa.
ɌɊȺɇɋɎɈɊɆȺɐɂəȼɊȿɆȬɇɉɊɂɋɈȽɅȺɋɈȼȺɇɂɂ
Ɇɨɞɚɥɶɧɵɟɝɥɚɝɨɥɵɜɵɪɚɠɚɸɳɢɟɪɚɡɪɟɲɟɧɢɟɢɥɢɜɨɡ
ɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɶ
1.
6.4. ɋɨɝɥɚɫɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɜɪɟɦɺɧ (Sequence of tenses)
ȼɵɦɨɠɟɬɟɨɛɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɶɡɞɚɧɢɟ
ɢɥɢȼɚɦɪɚɡɪɟɲɟɧɨɨɛɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɶɡɞɚɧɢɟ
Ɇɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɦɨɠɟɬɪɚɡɪɭɲɢɬɶɫɹ
ɢɥɢȼɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɪɚɡɪɭɲɟɧɢɟɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɚ
Be allowed to – ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɬɶɪɚɡɪɟɲɚɬɶ
You will be allowed to examine
the building.
Reinforcement does not allow the
material to fail.
ȼɚɦɛɭɞɟɬɪɚɡɪɟɲɟɧɨ
ɨɛɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɶɡɞɚɧɢɟ
Ⱥɪɦɚɬɭɪɚɧɟɞɚɟɬɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɭ
ɪɚɡɪɭɲɢɬɶɫɹ
332
Present
Past
Future
Future-in-the-Past*
Simple
Progressive
Perfect
Perfect
Progressive
ȼɪɟɦɟɧɚ )XWXUH-in-the-Past ɨɛɪɚɡɭɸɬɫɹ ɬɚɤ ɠɟ ɤɚɤ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɚ )XWXUH ɧɨ
ɜɦɟɫɬɨ ɜɫɩɨɦɨɝɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɝɥɚɝɨɥɚ will ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɟɬɫɹ ɮɨɪɦɚ ɷɬɨɝɨ ɝɥɚɝɨɥɚ –
would.
333
ɋɨɫɥɚɝɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɟɧɚɤɥɨɧɟɧɢɟSubjunctive mood)
ɍɫɥɨɜɧɵɟɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹ,,ɢ,,,ɬɢɩɚɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɱɚɫɬɧɵɦɫɥɭɱɚɟɦ
ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹɫɨɫɥɚɝɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɝɨɧɚɤɥɨɧɟɧɢɹɋɨɫɥɚɝɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɟɧɚɤɥɨ
ɧɟɧɢɟɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɡɭɟɬɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟɤɚɤɠɟɥɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɟɢɥɢɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɟɩɪɢ
ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɺɧɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ ȼ ɪɭɫɫɤɨɦ ɹɡɵɤɟ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɭɟɬ ɨɞɧɚ ɮɨɪɦɚ
ɫɨɫɥɚɝɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɝɨɧɚɤɥɨɧɟɧɢɹɤɨɬɨɪɚɹɢɦɟɟɬɜɫɜɨɟɦɫɨɫɬɚɜɟɫɨɱɟɬɚ
ɧɢɟ ɱɚɫɬɢɰɵ ɛɵ ɫ ɝɥɚɝɨɥɨɦ ɜ ɩɪɨɲɟɞɲɟɦ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɢ ȼ ɚɧɝɥɢɣɫɤɨɦ
ɹɡɵɤɟ ɬɚɤɢɦ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɟɦ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɜɫɩɨɦɨɝɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɣ ɝɥɚɝɨɥ would
ɢɝɥɚɝɨɥcould ɜɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɢɦɨɝɥɢɛɵ.
The builder would use bricks but
the owner insisted on the use of
concrete.
This method could be better than
the method they chose.
ɋɬɪɨɢɬɟɥɶɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɥɛɵ ɤɢɪɩɢɱɢ
ɧɨɜɥɚɞɟɥɟɰɧɚɫɬɚɢɜɚɥɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɧɟɧɢɢ
ɛɟɬɨɧɚ
ɗɬɨɬɦɟɬɨɞɦɨɝɛɵ ɛɵɬɶɥɭɱɲɟɱɟɦ
ɦɟɬɨɞɤɨɬɨɪɵɣɨɧɢɜɵɛɪɚɥɢ
ɍɫɥɨɜɧɵɟɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹConditional sentences)
Ⱥɧɝɥɢɣɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤ
I
Ɋɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤ
ȿɫɥɢɫɬɨɢɦɨɫɬɶɷɬɨɝɨɦɚɬɟɪɢ
If the cost of this material is
ɚɥɚ ɛɭɞɟɬ ɧɢɡɤɨɣ ɦɵ ɜɵɛɟ
low we will choose it.
ɪɟɦ ɟɝɨ
Ɍɢɩ
ɭɫɥɨɜɧɨɝɨ
II
ɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹ
If the cost of this material
were low we would choose
ȿɫɥɢ ɛɵ ɫɬɨɢɦɨɫɬɶ ɷɬɨɝɨ ɦɚ
it.
ɬɟɪɢɚɥɚɛɵɥɚ ɧɢɡɤɨɣɦɵɜɵ
If the cost of this material ɛɪɚɥɢɛɵ ɟɝɨ
III had been low we would
have chosen it.
ɉɨɦɢɦɨ ɫɨɸɡɚ if ɜ ɭɫɥɨɜɧɵɯ ɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹɯ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɸɬɫɹ
ɫɨɸɡɵ
unless – ɟɫɥɢ«ɧɟ«
in case – ɜɫɥɭɱɚɟɟɫɥɢ
provided (providing) – ɩɪɢ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɢ ɟɫɥɢ.
ɎɪɚɡɨɜɵɟɝɥɚɝɨɥɵPhrasal verbs)
Ɏɪɚɡɨɜɵɟɝɥɚɝɨɥɵɜɚɧɝɥɢɣɫɤɨɦɹɡɵɤɟɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɬɫɨɛɨɣɫɨ
ɱɟɬɚɧɢɟɝɥɚɝɨɥɚɫɩɪɟɞɥɨɝɨɦɢɥɢɧɚɪɟɱɢɟɦɚɢɧɨɝɞɚɢɫɬɟɦɢɞɪɭɝɢɦ
ɨɞɧɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨ
ɝɥɚɝɨɥɩɪɟɞɥɨɝ
ɝɥɚɝɨɥɧɚɪɟɱɢɟ
ɝɥɚɝɨɥɩɪɟɞɥɨɝɢɧɚɪɟɱɢɟ
Ɍɚɤɨɟɫɨɱɟɬɚɧɢɟɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹɟɞɢɧɨɣɫɟɦɚɧɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɟɞɢɧɢɰɟɣɤɨɬɨɪɚɹ
ɜ ɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɢ ɜɵɫɬɭɩɚɟɬ ɨɞɧɢɦ ɱɥɟɧɨɦ Ɍɪɢ ɷɬɨɦ ɜ ɛɨɥɶɲɢɧɫɬɜɟ
ɫɥɭɱɚɟɜɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟɬɚɤɨɝɨɝɥɚɝɨɥɚɢɦɟɟɬɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɟɨɬɥɢɱɢɹɨɬɩɟ
ɪɟɜɨɞɚɟɞɢɧɢɱɧɨɝɨɝɥɚɝɨɥɚ-ɨɫɧɨɜɵ
ɇɚɩɪɢɦɟɪ
break ɥɨɦɚɬɶ
give ɞɚɜɚɬɶ
break down into ɞɟɥɢɬɶ
give off ɢɡɥɭɱɚɬɶ
break with ɩɨɪɜɚɬɶ ɫ
give up ɨɬɤɚɡɵɜɚɬɶɫɹ
carry ɧɟɫɬɢ
carry out ɜɵɩɨɥɧɹɬɶ
carry up ɜɨɡɜɨɞɢɬɶ
stand ɫɬɨɹɬɶ
stand out ɜɵɞɟɥɹɬɶɫɹ
stand up to ɧɟ ɭɫɬɭɩɚɬɶ
7. ɇɟɥɢɱɧɵɟɮɨɪɦɵɝɥɚɝɨɥɚVerbals)
ɍɫɥɨɜɧɵɟ ɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹ ɫɥɨɠɧɨɩɨɞɱɢɧɺɧɧɵɟ ɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹ
ɫɩɪɢɞɚɬɨɱɧɵɦɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɜɵɪɚɠɚɸɬɪɟɚɥɶɧɵɟɦɚɥɨɜɟɪɨɹɬɧɵɟɢɧɟ
ɪɟɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹȼɚɧɝɥɢɣɫɤɨɦɹɡɵɤɟɢɦɟɟɬɫɹɬɪɢɬɢɩɚɭɫɥɨɜɧɵɯ
ɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɣɈɧɢɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɸɬɞɜɭɦɬɢɩɚɦɭɫɥɨɜɧɵɯɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟ
ɧɢɣɜɪɭɫɫɤɨɦɹɡɵɤɟ
Ʉɚɤɢɜɪɭɫɫɤɨɦɹɡɵɤɟɭɫɥɨɜɧɨɟɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɟɦɨɠɟɬɧɟɢɦɟɬɶ
ɫɨɸɡɚ ȼ ɷɬɨɦ ɫɥɭɱɚɟ ɩɨɪɹɞɨɤ ɫɥɨɜ ɜ ɩɪɢɞɚɬɨɱɧɨɦ ɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɢ –
ɨɛɪɚɬɧɵɣɇɚɩɪɢɦɟɪ
Were I there I would help you.
Ȼɭɞɶ ɹɬɚɦɹɛɵɩɨɦɨɝɬɟɛɟ
334
ɇɟɥɢɱɧɵɟɮɨɪɦɵɝɥɚɝɨɥɚɫɨɱɟɬɚɸɬɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɫɜɨɣɫɬɜɚɝɥɚɝɨɥɚɢ
ɞɪɭɝɢɯɱɚɫɬɟɣɪɟɱɢɄɧɟɥɢɱɧɵɦɮɨɪɦɚɦɝɥɚɝɨɥɚɨɬɧɨɫɹɬɫɹɢɧɮɢ
ɧɢɬɢɜInfinitiveɩɪɢɱɚɫɬɢɹParticiple I, IIɢɝɟɪɭɧɞɢɣ*HUXQG
ɂɧɮɢɧɢɬɢɜ7KH,QILQLWLYH
ɂɧɮɢɧɢɬɢɜɨɛɥɚɞɚɟɬɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɦɢɫɜɨɣɫɬɜɚɦɢɝɥɚɝɨɥɚɢɫɭɳɟ
ɫɬɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɂɧɮɢɧɢɬɢɜ ɢɦɟɟɬ ɧɟɫɤɨɥɶɤɨ ɮɨɪɦ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɩɪɢɜɟ
ɞɟɧɵɧɢɠɟɜɬɚɛɥɢɰɟɇɚɢɛɨɥɟɟɱɚɫɬɨɬɧɵɟɢɡɧɢɯɨɬɦɟɱɟɧɵɡɜɺɡɞɨɱ
ɤɨɣ
335
Active
Passive
Present Infinitive
to ask*
to be asked*
Present Progressive Infinitive
to be asking
-
Perfect Infinitive
to have asked
to have been asked
Perfect Progressive Infinitive
to have been asking
-
ɉɟɪɟɜɨɞɢɧɮɢɧɢɬɢɜɚɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤɡɚɜɢɫɢɬɨɬɬɨɣɮɭɧɤɰɢɢ
ɤɨɬɨɪɭɸɨɧɜɵɩɨɥɧɹɟɬɜɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɢ
Ɉɛɫɬɨɹɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɨɰɟɥɢ
ȼɷɬɨɣɮɭɧɤɰɢɢɢɧɮɢɧɢɬɢɜɨɬɜɟɱɚɟɬɧɚɜɨɩɪɨɫɞɥɹɱɟɝɨɫ ɤɚ
ɤɨɣɰɟɥɶɸ.
To create the framework of the
city plan a new technique was
used.
Ⱦɥɹ ɫɨɡɞɚɧɢɹ ɨɫɧɨɜɵɝɨɪɨɞɫɤɨɝɨ
ɩɥɚɧɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹɛɵɥ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɧɨɜɵɣ
ɦɟɬɨɞ
Landscape can be used to unify a
group of buildings.
Ʌɚɧɞɲɚɮɬɦɨɠɟɬɛɵɬɶɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧ
ɞɥɹɬɨɝɨɱɬɨɛɵɨɛɴɟɞɢɧɢɬɶ ɝɪɭɩɩɭ
ɡɞɚɧɢɣ
Ɏɭɧɤɰɢɢɢɧɮɢɧɢɬɢɜɚ
ɂɧɮɢɧɢɬɢɜɦɨɠɟɬɜɵɩɨɥɧɹɬɶɜɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɢɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɟɮɭɧɤ
ɰɢɢ
ɉɨɞɥɟɠɚɳɟɟ
ɂɧɮɢɧɢɬɢɜɨɬɜɟɱɚɟɬɧɚɜɨɩɪɨɫɱɬɨ.
To build a modern house is not easy.
ɉɨɫɬɪɨɢɬɶ ɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɣɞɨɦ– ɧɟɥɟɝɤɨ
ɑɚɫɬɶɫɤɚɡɭɟɦɨɝɨ
ɂɧɮɢɧɢɬɢɜɨɬɜɟɱɚɟɬɧɚɜɨɩɪɨɫɱɬɨɫɞɟɥɚɬɶ.
We must choose a material.
I want to change the design.
Ɇɵ ɞɨɥɠɧɵ ɜɵɛɪɚɬɶ ɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥ.
əɯɨɱɭɢɡɦɟɧɢɬɶɩɪɨɟɤɬ
Ⱦɨɩɨɥɧɟɧɢɟ
ɂɧɮɢɧɢɬɢɜɨɬɜɟɱɚɟɬɧɚɜɨɩɪɨɫɱɬɨɦɵɪɟɲɢɥɢɫɞɟɥɚɬɶ.
The architects continued to employ Gothic style.
Ⱥɪɯɢɬɟɤɬɨɪɵɩɪɨɞɨɥɠɚɥɢɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɬɶ ɝɨɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɣɫɬɢɥɶ
Ɉɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɟ
ȼɷɬɨɣɮɭɧɤɰɢɢɢɧɮɢɧɢɬɢɜɨɬɜɟɱɚɟɬɧɚɜɨɩɪɨɫɤɚɤɨɣɤɚɤɚɹ
ɤɚɤɢɟɇɚɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤɢɧɮɢɧɢɬɢɜɜɮɭɧɤɰɢɢɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɹɩɟɪɟɜɨ
ɞɢɬɫɹ ɩɪɢɞɚɬɨɱɧɵɦ ɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɟɦ ɫ ɫɨɸɡɨɦ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɣɚɹɨɟɵɟ
ɉɪɢɞɚɬɨɱɧɨɟɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɟɜɫɟɝɞɚɢɦɟɟɬɨɬɬɟɧɨɤɞɨɥɠɟɧɫɬɜɨɜɚɧɢɹɢ
ɛɭɞɭɳɧɨɫɬɢ
The building to be designed is a school.
Ɂɞɚɧɢɟɤɨɬɨɪɨɟɧɭɠɧɨɩɪɨɟɤɬɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ – ɲɤɨɥɚ
336
ɂɧɮɢɧɢɬɢɜɧɵɟɨɛɨɪɨɬɵ
7.1.2.1. Ɉɛɴɟɤɬɧɵɣɢɧɮɢɧɢɬɢɜɧɵɣɨɛɨɪɨɬ
ȼɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɢɫɨɛɴɟɤɬɧɵɦɢɧɮɢɧɢɬɢɜɧɵɦɨɛɨɪɨɬɨɦɈɂɈ
ɢɧɮɢɧɢɬɢɜ ɫɬɨɢɬ ɩɨɫɥɟ ɞɨɩɨɥɧɟɧɢɹ ɋɤɚɡɭɟɦɨɟ ɜɫɟɝɞɚ ɧɚɯɨɞɢɬɫɹ
ɜɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɦɡɚɥɨɝɟ
ɉɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹɫɈɂɈɩɟɪɟɜɨɞɹɬɫɹɤɚɤɫɥɨɠɧɨɩɨɞɱɢɧɺɧɧɵɟȾɨ
ɩɨɥɧɟɧɢɟɢɢɧɮɢɧɢɬɢɜɚɧɝɥɢɣɫɤɨɝɨɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹɫɬɚɧɨɜɹɬɫɹɩɨɞɥɟ
ɠɚɳɢɦɢɫɤɚɡɭɟɦɵɦɪɭɫɫɤɨɝɨɩɪɢɞɚɬɨɱɧɨɝɨɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹɫɫɨɸɡɚɦɢ
ɱɬɨɱɬɨɛɵɤɚɤ.
They want concrete to be
strong.
Ɉɧɢɯɨɬɹɬɱɬɨɛɵɛɟɬɨɧɛɵɥ
ɩɪɨɱɧɵɦ.
We know the columns of the
Parthenon to have holes for
iron bars.
Ɇɵɡɧɚɟɦɱɬɨɤɨɥɨɧɧɵɉɚɪɮɟɧɨɧɚ
ɢɦɟɥɢɨɬɜɟɪɫɬɢɹɞɥɹɠɟɥɟɡɧɨɣ
ɚɪɦɚɬɭɪɵ
ɈɂɈɭɩɨɬɪɟɛɥɹɟɬɫɹɩɨɫɥɟɝɥɚɝɨɥɨɜ
believe
ɯɨɬɟɬɶ
want
think
ɩɨɥɚɝɚɬɶ
suppose
ɨɠɢɞɚɬɶ
expect
make
consider ɫɱɢɬɚɬɶɩɨɥɚɝɚɬɶ cause
ɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɬɶɫɹ
prove
allow
ɫɱɢɬɚɬɶɩɨɥɚɝɚɬɶ
ɞɭɦɚɬɶɫɱɢɬɚɬɶ
ɡɚɫɬɚɜɥɹɬɶ
ɡɚɫɬɚɜɥɹɬɶ
ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɬɶ
ɢɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɯɞɪɭɝɢɯ
ɉɨɫɥɟɝɥɚɝɨɥɨɜmake, cause, allow ɈɂɈɧɟɩɟɪɟɜɨɞɢɬɫɹɪɚɡɜɺɪ
ɧɭɬɵɦɩɪɢɞɚɬɨɱɧɵɦɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɟɦ
This technique allowed us to build faster.
ɗɬɚɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɹɩɨɡɜɨɥɢɥɚɧɚɦɫɬɪɨɢɬɶ ɛɵɫɬɪɟɟ
337
ɉɨɫɥɟ ɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɝɥɚɝɨɥɨɜ ɢɧɮɢɧɢɬɢɜ ɭɩɨɬɪɟɛɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɛɟɡ ɱɚ
ɫɬɢɰɵto.
We didn’t see him enter the
room.
This made me change my
plans.
Ɇɵɧɟɜɢɞɟɥɢɤɚɤɨɧɜɨɲɺɥɜ
ɤɨɦɧɚɬɭ
ɗɬɨɡɚɫɬɚɜɢɥɨɦɟɧɹɢɡɦɟɧɢɬɶɫɜɨɢ
ɩɥɚɧɵ
ɋɭɛɴɟɤɬɧɵɣɢɧɮɢɧɢɬɢɜɧɵɣɨɛɨɪɨɬ
ȼɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɢɫɫɭɛɴɟɤɬɧɵɦɢɧɮɢɧɢɬɢɜɧɵɦɨɛɨɪɨɬɨɦɋɂɈ
ɢɧɮɢɧɢɬɢɜ ɫɬɨɢɬ ɩɨɫɥɟ ɫɤɚɡɭɟɦɨɝɨ ɋɤɚɡɭɟɦɨɟ ɱɚɳɟ ɜɫɟɝɨ ɧɚɯɨ
ɞɢɬɫɹɜɫɬɪɚɞɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɦɡɚɥɨɝɟ
ɉɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹ ɫ ɋɂɈ ɩɟɪɟɜɨɞɹɬɫɹ ɤɚɤ ɫɥɨɠɧɨɩɨɞɱɢɧɺɧɧɵɟ
ɋɤɚɡɭɟɦɨɟɚɧɝɥɢɣɫɤɨɝɨɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹɫɬɚɧɨɜɢɬɫɹɝɥɚɜɧɵɦɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟ
ɧɢɟɦɤɨɬɨɪɨɟɜɫɟɝɞɚɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹɧɟɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɺɧɧɨ-ɥɢɱɧɵɦɉɨɞɥɟɠɚɳɟɟ
ɢ ɢɧɮɢɧɢɬɢɜ ɚɧɝɥɢɣɫɤɨɝɨ ɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹ ɫɬɚɧɨɜɹɬɫɹ ɩɨɞɥɟɠɚɳɢɦ
ɢɫɤɚɡɭɟɦɵɦɪɭɫɫɤɨɝɨɩɪɢɞɚɬɨɱɧɨɝɨɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹɫɫɨɸɡɚɦɢɱɬɨ.
Form was considered to be the
product of function.
The temple is said to be built
in the fifth century.
Wood is known to be widely
used in building.
ɉɨɥɚɝɚɥɢɱɬɨɮɨɪɦɚ ɡɚɜɢɫɢɬ
ɨɬ ɧɚɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɹ.
Ƚɨɜɨɪɹɬɱɬɨɯɪɚɦɩɨɫɬɪɨɟɧɜ
ɩɹɬɨɦɜɟɤɟ.
ɂɡɜɟɫɬɧɨɱɬɨɞɟɪɟɜɨɲɢɪɨɤɨ
ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɟɬɫɹɜɫɬɪɨɢɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɟ
ɇɚɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤɨɛɨɪɨɬɩɟɪɟɜɨɞɢɬɫɹɩɪɢɞɚɬɨɱɧɵɦɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟ
ɧɢɟɦɢɥɢɧɟɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɺɧɧɨ-ɥɢɱɧɨɣɮɨɪɦɨɣɝɥɚɝɨɥɚ
We waited for the foundation
Ɇɵɠɞɚɥɢɤɨɝɞɚɩɨɫɬɪɨɹɬ
to be built.
ɮɭɧɞɚɦɟɧɬ.
The problem was for us to
Ɋɟɲɢɬɶɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɭɞɨɥɠɧɵɛɵɥɢ
solve.
ɦɵ.
It was necessary for the pillars ɇɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨɛɵɥɨ, ɱɬɨɛɵɨɩɨɪɵ
to be independent.
ɛɵɥɢɧɟɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɵɦɢ.
ɉɪɢɱɚɫɬɢɟ7KHParticiple)
ɉɪɢɱɚɫɬɢɟ ɫɨɱɟɬɚɟɬ ɩɪɢɡɧɚɤɢ ɝɥɚɝɨɥɚ ɫ ɩɪɢɡɧɚɤɚɦɢ ɩɪɢɥɚɝɚ
ɬɟɥɶɧɨɝɨɢɥɢɧɚɪɟɱɢɹ
ȼɚɧɝɥɢɣɫɤɨɦɹɡɵɤɟɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɭɟɬɞɜɚɜɢɞɚɩɪɢɱɚɫɬɢɣParticiple
I ɢParticiple II. Participle I ɢɦɟɟɬɧɟɫɤɨɥɶɤɨɮɨɪɦParticiple II ɢɦɟɟɬ
ɨɞɧɭ ɮɨɪɦɭ ɤɨɬɨɪɚɹ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɨɞɧɨɣ ɢɡ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɵɯ ɮɨɪɦ ɝɥɚɝɨɥɚ
ɫɦ ɪɚɡɞɟɥ ɉɟɪɟɜɨɞ ɩɪɢɱɚɫɬɢɹ ɧɚ ɪɭɫɫɤɢɣ ɹɡɵɤ ɡɚɜɢɫɢɬ ɨɬ ɬɨɣ
ɮɭɧɤɰɢɢɤɨɬɨɪɭɸɨɧɨɜɵɩɨɥɧɹɟɬɜɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɢ
Participle I
Active
adding
Simple
ɋɂɈɭɩɨɬɪɟɛɥɹɟɬɫɹɩɨɫɥɟɝɥɚɝɨɥɨɜ
say
know
suppose
ɝɨɜɨɪɢɬɶ
ɡɧɚɬɶ
ɩɪɟɞɩɨɥɚɝɚɬɶ
expect
consider
believe
ɨɠɢɞɚɬɶ
ɫɱɢɬɚɬɶ
ɩɨɥɚɝɚɬɶ
Participle II
Passive
being added
ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɟ
ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɟ
ɞɨɛɚɜɥɹɸɳɢɣ
ɞɨɛɚɜɥɹɸɳɢɣɫɹ
ɞɨɛɚɜɥɹɜɲɢɣ
ɞɨɛɚɜɥɹɟɦɵɣ
ɨɛɫɬɨɹɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɨ
ɨɛɫɬɨɹɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɨ
ɞɨɛɚɜɥɹɹ
ɛɭɞɭɱɢɞɨɛɚɜɥɟɧɧɵɦ
having added
Perfect
ɨɛɫɬɨɹɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɨ
ɞɨɛɚɜɢɜ
having been added
ɨɛɫɬɨɹɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɨ
ɤɨɝɞɚɩɨɫɥɟɬɨɝɨɤɚɤ
ɛɵɥɞɨɛɚɜɥɟɧɞɨɛɚɜɢɥɢ
added
ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɟ
ɞɨɛɚɜɥɟɧɧɵɣ
ɞɨɛɚɜɥɹɟɦɵɣ
ɨɛɫɬɨɹɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɨ
ɤɨɝɞɚɬɚɤɤɚɤ
ɞɨɛɚɜɢɥɢ
ɢɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɯɞɪɭɝɢɯ
ɂɧɮɢɧɢɬɢɜɧɵɣɨɛɨɪɨɬfor … to
ɂɧɮɢɧɢɬɢɜɧɵɣɨɛɨɪɨɬfor … to ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɡɭɟɬɫɹɫɨɱɟɬɚɧɢɟɦ
x ɩɪɟɞɥɨɝɚfor
x ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɝɨɢɥɢɥɢɱɧɨɝɨɦɟɫɬɨɢɦɟɧɢɹɜɤɨɫɜɟɧɧɨɦɩɚ
ɞɟɠɟ
x ɢɧɮɢɧɢɬɢɜɚɫɱɚɫɬɢɰɟɣto.
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ɎɭɧɤɰɢɢParticiple I
Participle I ɦɨɠɟɬ ɜɵɩɨɥɧɹɬɶ ɜ ɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɢ ɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɟ
ɮɭɧɤɰɢɢ
ɑɚɫɬɶɫɤɚɡɭɟɦɨɝɨ
ȼ ɷɬɨɣ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɢ Participle I ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɟɬɫɹ ɜɨ ɜɫɟɯ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɚɯ
3URJUHVVLYH ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɢ ɫɬɪɚɞɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɡɚɥɨɝɚ ɢ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɚɯ
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3HUIHFW3URJUHVVLYHɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɝɨɡɚɥɨɝɚɢɩɟɪɟɜɨɞɢɬɫɹ ɜɫɨɨɬɜɟɬ
ɫɬɜɢɢɫɩɪɚɜɢɥɚɦɢɩɟɪɟɜɨɞɚɷɬɢɯɜɢɞɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɯɮɨɪɦɫɦɪɚɡɞɟɥɵ
ɢ
Ɉɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɟ
ȼɷɬɨɣɮɭɧɤɰɢɢParticiple I ɨɬɜɟɱɚɟɬɧɚɜɨɩɪɨɫɵɤɚɤɨɣɤɚɤɚɹ
ɤɚɤɢɟ ɢɦɨɠɟɬɫɬɨɹɬɶ
x ɩɟɪɟɞɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɟɦɵɦɫɥɨɜɨɦ
The niches do not weaken the encircling wall.
ɇɢɲɢɧɟɨɫɥɚɛɥɹɸɬɨɤɪɭɠɚɸɳɭɸɫɬɟɧɭ
The structure being built here will be a school.
ɋɨɨɪɭɠɟɧɢɟɤɨɬɨɪɨɟɡɞɟɫɶɫɬɪɨɢɬɫɹɛɭɞɟɬɲɤɨɥɨɣ
ɢɥɢɋɬɪɨɹɳɟɟɫɹɡɞɟɫɶɫɨɨɪɭɠɟɧɢɟɛɭɞɟɬɲɤɨɥɨɣ
x ɢ ɩɨɫɥɟ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɟɦɨɝɨ ɫɥɨɜɚ:
The columns sustaining the roof produce a marvellous effect
Ʉɨɥɨɧɧɵɩɨɞɞɟɪɠɢɜɚɸɳɢɟ ɤɪɵɲɭɢɡɭɦɢɬɟɥɶɧɵ
Ɉɛɫɬɨɹɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɨ
ȼɷɬɨɣɮɭɧɤɰɢɢParticiple I ɨɬɜɟɱɚɟɬɧɚɜɨɩɪɨɫɵɤɨɝɞɚɩɨɱɟɦɭ
ɤɚɤɢɬ ɞ:
Designing a foundation we must consider many factors.
ɉɪɨɟɤɬɢɪɭɹ ɮɭɧɞɚɦɟɧɬɦɵɞɨɥɠɧɵɭɱɢɬɵɜɚɬɶɦɧɨɝɢɟɮɚɤ
ɬɨɪɵ
ɢɥɢɉɪɢɩɪɨɟɤɬɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɢ ɮɭɧɞɚɦɟɧɬɚɦɵɞɨɥɠɧɵɭɱɢɬɵɜɚɬɶ
ɦɧɨɝɢɟɮɚɤɬɨɪɵ
ɢɥɢɄɨɝɞɚ ɦɵɩɪɨɟɤɬɢɪɭɟɦ ɮɭɧɞɚɦɟɧɬɦɵɞɨɥɠɧɵɭɱɢɬɵɜɚɬɶ
ɦɧɨɝɢɟɮɚɤɬɨɪɵ
Being heavy the column required extensive footing.
Ɍɚɤɤɚɤ ɤɨɥɨɧɧɚɛɵɥɚ ɬɹɠɺɥɨɣɨɧɚɩɨɬɪɟɛɨɜɚɥɚɛɨɥɶɲɨɝɨ
ɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɢɹ
ɢɥɢȻɭɞɭɱɢ ɬɹɠɺɥɨɣɤɨɥɨɧɧɚɩɨɬɪɟɛɨɜɚɥɚɛɨɥɶɲɨɝɨɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɢɹ
The colonnades covered large segments of the city, affording sheltered
communication in every direction.
Ʉɨɥɨɧɧɚɞɵɨɯɜɚɬɵɜɚɥɢɛɨɥɶɲɢɟɱɚɫɬɢɝɨɪɨɞɚɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɢɜɚɹ ɤɪɵ
ɬɵɟɩɟɪɟɯɨɞɵɜɥɸɛɨɦɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɢ
The house looks light as if hovering over the downhill landscape.
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Ⱦɨɦɜɵɝɥɹɞɢɬɥɟɝɤɢɦɤɚɤɛɭɞɬɨɨɧɩɚɪɢɬ ɧɚɞɪɚɫɩɨɥɨɠɟɧ
ɧɵɦɜɨɤɪɭɝɯɨɥɦɚɥɚɧɞɲɚɮɬɨɦ
ɉɟɪɟɞParticiple I ɜɮɭɧɤɰɢɢɨɛɫɬɨɹɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɚɦɨɝɭɬɫɬɨɹɬɶɫɨɸɡɵ
when (ɤɨɝɞɚɢɥɢwhile (ɤɨɝɞɚɜɬɨɜɪɟɦɹɤɚɤɋɩɨɫɨɛɵɩɟɪɟɜɨɞɚ
Participle I ɫɷɬɢɦɢɫɨɸɡɚɦɢɢɛɟɡɧɢɯɩɪɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɨɞɢɧɚɤɨɜɵ
While designing a foundation we must consider many factors.
ɉɪɨɟɤɬɢɪɭɹ ɮɭɧɞɚɦɟɧɬɦɵɞɨɥɠɧɵɭɱɢɬɵɜɚɬɶɦɧɨɝɢɟɮɚɤ
ɬɨɪɵ
ɢɥɢɉɪɢɩɪɨɟɤɬɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɢ ɮɭɧɞɚɦɟɧɬɚɦɵɞɨɥɠɧɵɭɱɢɬɵɜɚɬɶ
ɦɧɨɝɢɟɮɚɤɬɨɪɵ
ɢɥɢɄɨɝɞɚ ɦɵɩɪɨɟɤɬɢɪɭɟɦ ɮɭɧɞɚɦɟɧɬɦɵɞɨɥɠɧɵɭɱɢɬɵɜɚɬɶ
ɦɧɨɝɢɟɮɚɤɬɨɪɵ
ɉɟɪɮɟɤɬɧɵɟɮɨɪɦɵParticiple I ɦɨɝɭɬɜɵɩɨɥɧɹɬɶɬɨɥɶɤɨɮɭɧɤ
ɰɢɸ ɨɛɫɬɨɹɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɚ ɉɪɢ ɷɬɨɦ ɨɧɢ ɜɵɪɚɠɚɸɬ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟ ɤɨɬɨɪɨɟ
ɩɪɟɞɲɟɫɬɜɭɟɬɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɸɫɤɚɡɭɟɦɨɝɨ ɢɨɬɜɟɱɚɸɬɧɚɜɨɩɪɨɫɱɬɨɫɞɟɥɚɜ.
Having used this admixture the engineers obtained the concrete
with the necessary properties.
ɂɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɜ ɷɬɭɞɨɛɚɜɤɭɢɧɠɟɧɟɪɵɩɨɥɭɱɢɥɢɛɟɬɨɧɫɧɟɨɛ
ɯɨɞɢɦɵɦɢɫɜɨɣɫɬɜɚɦɢ
ɢɥɢɉɨɫɥɟɬɨɝɨɤɚɤ ɢɧɠɟɧɟɪɵɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɥɢ ɷɬɭɞɨɛɚɜɤɭɨɧɢ
ɩɨɥɭɱɢɥɢɛɟɬɨɧɫɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɵɦɢɫɜɨɣɫɬɜɚɦɢ
ɎɭɧɤɰɢɢParticiple II
Participle II ɦɨɠɟɬɜɵɩɨɥɧɹɬɶɜɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɢɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɟɮɭɧɤɰɢɢ
ɑɚɫɬɶɫɤɚɡɭɟɦɨɝɨ
ȼɮɭɧɤɰɢɢɱɚɫɬɢɫɤɚɡɭɟɦɨɝɨParticiple II ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɟɬɫɹɜɨɜɫɟɯ
ɜɪɟɦɟɧɚɯ ɫɬɪɚɞɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɡɚɥɨɝɚ ɢ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɚɯ 3HUIHFW ɢ 3HUIHFW
3URJUHVVLYH ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɡɚɥɨɝɚ ɢ ɩɟɪɟɜɨɞɢɬɫɹ ɜ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɢɢ
ɫɩɪɚɜɢɥɚɦɢɩɟɪɟɜɨɞɚɷɬɢɯɜɢɞɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɯɮɨɪɦɫɦɪɚɡɞɟɥɵ
ɢ
Ɉɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɟ
ȼɷɬɨɣɮɭɧɤɰɢɢParticiple II ɨɬɜɟɱɚɟɬɧɚɜɨɩɪɨɫɵɤɚɤɨɣɤɚɤɚɹ
ɤɚɤɢɟ ɢɦɨɠɟɬɫɬɨɹɬɶɩɟɪɟɞɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɟɦɵɦɫɥɨɜɨɦ
The chosen material is very strong.
ȼɵɛɪɚɧɧɵɣ ɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥ – ɨɱɟɧɶɩɪɨɱɧɵɣ
341
ɢɩɨɫɥɟɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɟɦɨɝɨɫɥɨɜɚ
Aggregates reduce the volume
changes caused by shrinkage
of concrete.
Ɂɚɩɨɥɧɢɬɟɥɢɭɦɟɧɶɲɚɸɬ
ɨɛɴɺɦɧɵɟɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɹɜɵɡɜɚɧɧɵɟ
ɭɫɚɞɤɨɣɛɟɬɨɧɚ
Ɉɛɫɬɨɹɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɨ
ȼɷɬɨɣɮɭɧɤɰɢɢParticiple II ɨɛɵɱɧɨɫɨɩɪɨɜɨɠɞɚɟɬɫɹɫɨɸɡɚɦɢ
when, if, though, etc. ɢɨɬɜɟɱɚɟɬɧɚɜɨɩɪɨɫɵɤɨɝɞɚɩɪɢɤɚɤɨɦɭɫɥɨɜɢɢ
ɢɬ ɞ
When made the panels will Ʉɨɝɞɚɩɚɧɟɥɢɫɞɟɥɚɸɬɢɯ
be sent to the site.
ɨɬɩɪɚɜɹɬɧɚɫɬɪɨɣɩɥɨɳɚɞɤɭ
If overloaded the beam may ȿɫɥɢɛɚɥɤɚɩɟɪɟɝɪɭɠɟɧɚɨɧɚ
fail.
ɦɨɠɟɬɪɚɡɪɭɲɢɬɶɫɹ
Though cracked, the beam
ɏɨɬɹɛɚɥɤɚɬɪɟɫɧɭɥɚɨɧɚɫɦɨɠɟɬ
will be able to carry load for ɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɨɟɜɪɟɦɹɧɟɫɬɢɧɚɝɪɭɡɤɭ
some time.
ɋɦɬɚɤɠɟɪɚɡɞɟɥ
ɌɪɭɞɧɨɫɬɢɩɟɪɟɜɨɞɚParticiple II
ɇɟɥɢɱɧɚɹɮɨɪɦɚɝɥɚɝɨɥɚParticiple II ɧɟɨɬɥɢɱɚɟɬɫɹɨɬɝɥɚɝɨɥɶ
ɧɨɣɮɨɪɦɵPast Simple ɩɪɚɜɢɥɶɧɵɯɢɱɚɫɬɢɧɟɩɪɚɜɢɥɶɧɵɯɝɥɚɝɨɥɨɜ
ɫɦɪɚɡɞɟɥɵɢɈɬɫɸɞɚɜɟɥɢɤɚɜɟɪɨɹɬɧɨɫɬɶɩɪɢɧɹɬɶɨɞɧɭ
ɮɨɪɦɭɡɚɞɪɭɝɭɸɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɪParticiple II ɡɚPast Simple ɢɧɟɜɟɪɧɨɩɟ
ɪɟɜɟɫɬɢɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɟ
The decision made allowed to shorten the construction time.
ɉɪɢɧɹɬɨɟ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɟɩɨɡɜɨɥɢɥɨɫɨɤɪɚɬɢɬɶɜɪɟɦɹɫɬɪɨɢɬɟɥɶ
ɫɬɜɚ
The wall finished surface required no further treatment.
ɋɬɟɧɚɫɡɚɤɨɧɱɟɧɧɨɣ ɨɬɞɟɥɤɨɣɧɟɬɪɟɛɨɜɚɥɚɞɚɥɶɧɟɣɲɟɣɨɛ
ɪɚɛɨɬɤɢ
Ⱦɥɹɬɨɝɨɱɬɨɛɵɢɡɛɟɠɚɬɶɨɲɢɛɨɤɫɥɟɞɭɟɬɩɨɦɧɢɬɶ
a) Participle II ɨɛɵɱɧɨɢɦɟɟɬɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟɫɬɪɚɞɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɝɨɡɚɥɨɝɚ,
ɚɩɨɯɨɠɚɹɧɚɧɟɝɨɮɨɪɦɚPast Simple – ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɝɨɡɚɥɨɝɚ
Participle II
Ƚɥɚɝɨɥ
The designer changed column
spacing.
ɉɪɨɟɤɬɢɪɨɜɳɢɤɢɡɦɟɧɢɥɲɚɝ
ɤɨɥɨɧɧ
The design changed was adopted.
ɂɡɦɟɧɺɧɧɵɣɩɪɨɟɤɬɛɵɥɩɪɢɧɹɬ
342
b) ɩɟɪɟɞParticiple II ɜɮɭɧɤɰɢɹɯɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɹɢɥɢɨɛɫɬɨɹɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɚ
ɧɟɦɨɠɟɬɫɬɨɹɬɶɜɫɩɨɦɨɝɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɣɝɥɚɝɨɥ
was adopted – ɝɥɚɝɨɥ ɜ Past Simple Passive (Participle II –
ɱɚɫɬɶ ɫɤɚɡɭɟɦɨɝɨ)
c) ɩɟɪɟɞParticiple II ɜɮɭɧɤɰɢɢɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɹɦɨɠɟɬɫɬɨɹɬɶɚɪ
ɬɢɤɥɶ
The changed design … .
ɂɡɦɟɧɺɧɧɵɣ ɩɪɨɟɤɬ … .
ɉɪɢɱɚɫɬɧɵɟɨɛɨɪɨɬɵ
Ɂɚɜɢɫɢɦɵɟɩɪɢɱɚɫɬɧɵɟɨɛɨɪɨɬɵ
ɉɪɢɱɚɫɬɢɟ ɫ ɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɵɦɢ ɫɥɨɜɚɦɢ ɨɛɪɚɡɭɟɬ ɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɵɣ ɩɪɢ
ɱɚɫɬɧɵɣɨɛɨɪɨɬɌɚɤɨɣɨɛɨɪɨɬɦɨɠɟɬɩɟɪɟɜɨɞɢɬɶɫɹɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤ
ɩɪɢɞɚɬɨɱɧɵɦɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɟɦɜɤɨɬɨɪɨɦɫɤɚɡɭɟɦɵɦɫɬɚɧɨɜɢɬɫɹɩɪɢ
ɱɚɫɬɢɟ ɚ ɩɨɞɥɟɠɚɳɢɦ – ɩɨɞɥɟɠɚɳɟɟ ɚɧɝɥɢɣɫɤɨɝɨ ɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹ
Ɍɚɤɤɚɤɩɨɞɥɟɠɚɳɟɟɜɝɥɚɜɧɨɦɢɩɪɢɞɚɬɨɱɧɨɦɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹɯɫɨɜɩɚ
ɞɚɸɬɜɝɥɚɜɧɨɦɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɢɪɭɫɫɤɨɝɨɩɟɪɟɜɨɞɚɨɧɨɡɚɦɟɧɹɟɬɫɹɦɟ
ɫɬɨɢɦɟɧɢɟɦ
Many towns owe their existence to water, being located on a navigable river.
Ɇɧɨɝɢɟɝɨɪɨɞɚɫɜɨɢɦɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɨɜɚɧɢɟɦɨɛɹɡɚɧɵɜɨɞɟɬɚɤɤɚɤ
ɨɧɢ ɪɚɫɩɨɥɚɝɚɸɬɫɹ ɧɚɫɭɞɨɯɨɞɧɵɯɪɟɤɚɯ.
When placed on the ground the floor slab is cast monolithically
with footings.
Ʉɨɝɞɚɩɥɢɬɚɩɨɥɚɪɚɡɦɟɳɚɟɬɫɹ ɧɚɡɟɦɥɟ, ɨɧɚ ɨɬɥɢɜɚɟɬɫɹɦɨ
ɧɨɥɢɬɧɨɫɮɭɧɞɚɦɟɧɬɨɦ
ɋɦɨɬɪɢɬɟɬɚɤɠɟɩɪɢɦɟɪɵɜɪɚɡɞɟɥɟ
ɇɟɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɵɟɩɪɢɱɚɫɬɧɵɟɨɛɨɪɨɬɵ
ɈɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɢɧɟɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨɝɨɩɪɢɱɚɫɬɧɨɝɨɨɛɨɪɨɬɚɇɉɈɫɥɟɞɭ
ɸɳɢɟ
a) ɇɉɈɢɦɟɟɬɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɟɩɨɞɥɟɠɚɳɟɟ
b) ɇɉɈɜɫɟɝɞɚɨɬɞɟɥɹɟɬɫɹɡɚɩɹɬɨɣ
ɉɟɪɟɜɨɞɇɉɈɡɚɜɢɫɢɬɨɬɟɝɨɦɟɫɬɚɜɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɢ
a) ɟɫɥɢɨɛɨɪɨɬɫɬɨɢɬɜɧɚɱɚɥɟɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹɨɧɩɟɪɟɜɨɞɢɬɫɹ
ɤɚɤɩɪɢɞɚɬɨɱɧɨɟɫɫɨɸɡɚɦɢɤɨɝɞɚɬɚɤɤɚɤɩɨɫɥɟɬɨɝɨɤɚɤ
ɢɬ ɞ
343
The development of science having resulted in new discoveries,
there appeared new building materials.
Ɍɚɤɤɚɤ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɟɧɚɭɤɢɩɪɢɜɟɥɨ ɤɧɨɜɵɦɨɬɤɪɵɬɢɹɦɩɨɹɜɢ
ɥɢɫɶɧɨɜɵɟɫɬɪɨɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɟɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɵ
The work being finished, they went home.
Ʉɨɝɞɚ ɪɚɛɨɬɚɛɵɥɚɡɚɤɨɧɱɟɧɚɨɧɢɩɨɲɥɢɞɨɦɨɣ
b) ɟɫɥɢɨɛɨɪɨɬɫɬɨɢɬɜɤɨɧɰɟɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹɨɧɩɟɪɟɜɨɞɢɬɫɹ
ɤɚɤɫɥɨɠɧɨɫɨɱɢɧɺɧɧɨɟɫɫɨɸɡɚɦɢɚɢɩɪɢɱɺɦ ɢɬ ɞ
Brittle materials may be highly elastic, a good example being
glass.
ɏɪɭɩɤɢɟɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɵɦɨɝɭɬɛɵɬɶɨɱɟɧɶɷɥɚɫɬɢɱɧɵɦɢɢ ɯɨɪɨ
ɲɢɦɩɪɢɦɟɪɨɦɷɬɨɝɨɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɫɬɟɤɥɨ.
A minimum width for the footing is established by the wall thickness, the footing being made wider than the wall.
Ɇɢɧɢɦɚɥɶɧɚɹɲɢɪɢɧɚɮɭɧɞɚɦɟɧɬɚɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɟɬɫɹɬɨɥɳɢɧɨɣ
ɫɬɟɧɵɩɪɢɱɟɦ ɮɭɧɞɚɦɟɧɬɞɟɥɚɟɬɫɹ ɲɢɪɟɱɟɦɫɬɟɧɚ
The complex was built in two stages, the first structure being completed in 1949.
Ʉɨɦɩɥɟɤɫɛɵɥɩɨɫɬɪɨɟɧɜɞɜɚɷɬɚɩɚɩɪɢɱɺɦ ɩɟɪɜɨɟɫɨɨɪɭɠɟ
ɧɢɟɛɵɥɨɡɚɤɨɧɱɟɧɨ ɜɝɨɞɭ.
ɇɟɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɵɟɩɪɢɱɚɫɬɧɵɟɨɛɨɪɨɬɵɛɟɡɩɪɢɱɚɫɬɢɹ
ȼɇɉɈɩɪɢɱɚɫɬɢɟɦɨɠɟɬɨɩɭɫɤɚɬɶɫɹɌɚɤɨɣɨɛɨɪɨɬɨɛɵɱɧɨɩɟ
ɪɟɜɨɞɢɬɫɹ ɩɪɢɞɚɬɨɱɧɵɦ ɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɟɦ ɂɧɨɝɞɚ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɟɧ ɩɟɪɟɜɨɞ
ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɦɫɩɪɟɞɥɨɝɚɦɢɫɩɪɢ.
Construction over, the crane was dismantled.
Ʉɨɝɞɚɫɬɪɨɢɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɨɡɚɤɨɧɱɢɥɨɫɶɤɪɚɧɛɵɥɪɚɡɨɛɪɚɧ
The flat is on the fifth, with its windows to the south.
Ʉɜɚɪɬɢɪɚɧɚɯɨɞɢɬɫɹɧɚɩɹɬɨɦɷɬɚɠɟɫɨɤɧɚɦɢɧɚɸɝ.
Externally two storeys can be seen, the upper storey merely a
screen to hide the clearstory buttresses.
ɋɧɚɪɭɠɢɜɢɞɧɵɞɜɚɷɬɚɠɚɩɪɢɷɬɨɦɜɟɪɯɧɢɣɷɬɚɠ– ɷɬɨ
ɜɫɟɝɨɥɢɲɶɷɤɪɚɧɡɚɤɪɵɜɚɸɳɢɣɨɩɨɪɵɜɟɪɯɧɟɝɨɪɹɞɚɨɤɨɧ
Ƚɟɪɭɧɞɢɣ7KHGerund)
obtaining – ɩɨɥɭɱɟɧɢɟ
mixing – ɫɦɟɲɢɜɚɧɢɟ
ɎɨɪɦɵɝɟɪɭɧɞɢɹɢɞɟɧɬɢɱɧɵɮɨɪɦɚɦParticiple Iɧɨɨɧɜɨɬɥɢ
ɱɢɟɨɬɩɪɢɱɚɫɬɢɹɦɨɠɟɬɜɵɩɨɥɧɹɬɶɜɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɢɩɪɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɥɸ
ɛɭɸɮɭɧɤɰɢɸ
Active
Passive
Simple Gerund
adding
being added
Perfect Gerund
having added
having been added
Ɏɭɧɤɰɢɢɝɟɪɭɧɞɢɹ
ȽɟɪɭɧɞɢɣɱɚɫɬɨɩɟɪɟɜɨɞɢɬɫɹɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɦɊɟɠɟ– ɧɟɨɩɪɟ
ɞɟɥɺɧɧɨ-ɥɢɱɧɨɣ ɮɨɪɦɨɣ ɝɥɚɝɨɥɚ ɞɟɟɩɪɢɱɚɫɬɢɟɦ ɢɥɢ ɩɪɢɞɚɬɨɱɧɵɦ
ɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɟɦ
Ƚɟɪɭɧɞɢɣɦɨɠɟɬɜɵɩɨɥɧɹɬɶɜɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɢɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɟɮɭɧɤɰɢɢ
7.3.1.1. ɉɨɞɥɟɠɚɳɟɟ
ȼɷɬɨɣɮɭɧɤɰɢɢɝɟɪɭɧɞɢɣɨɬɜɟɱɚɟɬɧɚɜɨɩɪɨɫɱɬɨ
Buttressing was widely used
ɍɤɪɟɩɥɟɧɢɟɤɨɧɬɪɮɨɪɫɚɦɢ
by the Byzantines.
ɲɢɪɨɤɨɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɥɨɫɶ
ɜɢɡɚɧɬɢɣɰɚɦɢ
Doubling the height of the
ɍɜɟɥɢɱɟɧɢɟɜɵɫɨɬɵɤɭɩɨɥɚɜ
dome was a difficult task.
ɞɜɚɪɚɡɚɛɵɥɨɫɥɨɠɧɨɣɡɚɞɚɱɟɣ.
ɑɚɫɬɶɫɤɚɡɭɟɦɨɝɨ
ȼɷɬɨɣɮɭɧɤɰɢɢɝɟɪɭɧɞɢɣɨɬɜɟɱɚɟɬɧɚɜɨɩɪɨɫɱɬɨɞɟɥɚɬɶ
My hobby is travelling. Ɇɨɺɥɸɛɢɦɨɟɡɚɧɹɬɢɟ– ɩɭɬɟɲɟɫɬɜɢɟ
(ɢɥɢɩɭɬɟɲɟɫɬɜɨɜɚɬɶ.
They began building a Ɉɧɢɧɚɱɚɥɢɫɬɪɨɢɬɶɡɞɟɫɶ
block of flats here.
ɦɧɨɝɨɤɜɚɪɬɢɪɧɵɣɠɢɥɨɣɞɨɦ
Ⱦɨɩɨɥɧɟɧɢɟ
ȼ ɷɬɨɣ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɢ ɝɟɪɭɧɞɢɣ ɨɬɜɟɱɚɟɬ ɧɚ ɜɨɩɪɨɫɵ ɱɬɨ ɜ ɱɺɦ
ɨɱɺɦ ɢɬ ɞ
Ƚɟɪɭɧɞɢɣ ɫɨɱɟɬɚɟɬ ɩɪɢɡɧɚɤɢ ɝɥɚɝɨɥɚ ɢ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɝɨ
Ɉɛɵɱɧɨɨɧɨɛɨɡɧɚɱɚɟɬɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɜɵɩɨɥɧɟɧɢɹɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ
344
345
City planning
requires structuring.
Concrete must be
prevented from
drying out too fast.
Ƚɨɪɨɞɫɤɨɟɩɥɚɧɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟɧɭɠɞɚɟɬɫɹ
ɜɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɢ.
ɇɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨɩɪɟɩɹɬɫɬɜɨɜɚɬɶ
ɫɥɢɲɤɨɦɛɵɫɬɪɨɦɭɬɜɟɪɞɟɧɢɸ
ɛɟɬɨɧɚ
ɢɥɢ ɇɟɥɶɡɹɩɨɡɜɨɥɢɬɶɛɟɬɨɧɭɬɜɟɪɞɟɬɶ
ɫɥɢɲɤɨɦɛɵɫɬɪɨ
7.3.1.4. Ɉɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɟ
ȼɮɭɧɤɰɢɢɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɹɝɟɪɭɧɞɢɣɨɬɜɟɱɚɟɬɧɚɜɨɩɪɨɫɵɤɚɤɨɣ
ɤɚɤɚɹɤɚɤɢɟȼɨɬɥɢɱɢɟɨɬParticiple I ɝɟɪɭɧɞɢɣɜɷɬɨɣɮɭɧɤɰɢɢ
a. ɦɨɠɟɬɫɬɨɹɬɶɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɩɨɫɥɟ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɟɦɨɝɨɫɥɨɜɚ
b. ɜɫɟɝɞɚɢɦɟɟɬɩɟɪɟɞɫɨɛɨɣɩɪɟɞɥɨɝ.
Byzantine architecture used
a new method of covering.
ȼɢɡɚɧɬɢɣɫɤɚɹɚɪɯɢɬɟɤɬɭɪɚ
ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɥɚɧɨɜɵɣɦɟɬɨɞ
ɩɨɤɪɵɬɢɹ.
A new trend is to find means ɇɨɜɚɹɬɟɧɞɟɧɰɢɹɡɚɤɥɸɱɚɟɬɫɹɜ
of reviving the city centre.
ɩɨɢɫɤɟɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɜɨɡɪɨɠɞɟɧɢɹ
ɝɨɪɨɞɫɤɨɝɨɰɟɧɬɪɚ.
Ɉɛɫɬɨɹɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɨ
ȼɮɭɧɤɰɢɢɨɛɫɬɨɹɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɚɝɟɪɭɧɞɢɣɨɬɜɟɱɚɟɬɧɚɜɨɩɪɨɫɵɤɨ
ɝɞɚɤɚɤ ɢɜɫɟɝɞɚɢɦɟɟɬɩɟɪɟɞɫɨɛɨɣɩɪɟɞɥɨɝȼɨɬɥɢɱɢɟɨɬParticiple
I ɝɟɪɭɧɞɢɣɜɷɬɨɣɮɭɧɤɰɢɢ
a. ɜɫɟɝɞɚɢɦɟɟɬɩɟɪɟɞɫɨɛɨɣɩɪɟɞɥɨɝ.
b. ɧɟɦɨɠɟɬɢɦɟɬɶɩɟɪɟɞɫɨɛɨɣɫɨɸɡɵwhen ɢwhileɢɫɩɨɥɶ
ɡɭɟɦɵɟɫParticiple I ɜɮɭɧɤɰɢɢɨɛɫɬɨɹɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɚ
A high drum provided more light than could be obtained by piercing the little domes.
ȼɵɫɨɤɢɣɛɚɪɚɛɚɧɤɭɩɨɥɚɞɚɜɚɥɛɨɥɶɲɟɫɜɟɬɚɱɟɦɦɨɝɥɨɛɵ
ɛɵɬɶɩɨɥɭɱɟɧɨɡɚɫɱɟɬɫɨɡɞɚɧɢɹɨɬɜɟɪɫɬɢɣ ɜɦɚɥɟɧɶɤɢɯ
ɤɭɩɨɥɚɯ
Formwork is used for casting concrete units.
Ɉɩɚɥɭɛɤɚɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɟɬɫɹɞɥɹɨɬɥɢɜɤɢ ɛɟɬɨɧɧɵɯɷɥɟɦɟɧɬɨɜ
The modification of the floor space can be done without dismantling the partitions.
Ɇɨɞɢɮɢɤɚɰɢɹɩɥɨɳɚɞɢɷɬɚɠɚɦɨɠɟɬɛɵɬɶɜɵɩɨɥɧɟɧɚɛɟɡ
ɞɟɦɨɧɬɚɠɚ ɩɟɪɟɝɨɪɨɞɨɤ.
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ɉɟɪɮɟɤɬɧɵɟɮɨɪɦɵɝɟɪɭɧɞɢɹ
ɉɟɪɮɟɤɬɧɵɟ ɮɨɪɦɵ ɝɟɪɭɧɞɢɹ ɜɵɪɚɠɚɸɬ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟ ɤɨɬɨɪɨɟ
ɩɪɟɞɲɟɫɬɜɭɟɬ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɸ ɫɤɚɡɭɟɦɨɝɨ ȼ ɨɬɥɢɱɢɟ ɨɬ ɩɟɪɮɟɤɬɧɵɯ
ɮɨɪɦParticiple I ɫɦɪɚɡɞɟɥɨɧɢɦɨɝɭɬɜɵɩɨɥɧɹɬɶɜɩɪɟɞɥɨ
ɠɟɧɢɢɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɟɮɭɧɤɰɢɢ
He admitted having made a
mistake.
Ɉɧɩɪɢɡɧɚɥɱɬɨɫɨɜɟɪɲɢɥ
ɨɲɢɛɤɭ
We heard of the experiment
having been started last week.
Ɇɵɫɥɵɲɚɥɢɨɬɨɦɱɬɨ
ɷɤɫɩɟɪɢɦɟɧɬɧɚɱɚɥɫɹɧɚ
ɩɪɨɲɥɨɣɧɟɞɟɥɟ
8. ɋɥɨɜɨɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɧɢɟWord Formation)
ɄɨɧɜɟɪɫɢɹConversion)
ȼɚɧɝɥɢɣɫɤɨɦɹɡɵɤɟɜɫɢɥɭɧɟɪɚɡɜɢɬɨɫɬɢɫɩɟɰɢɮɢɱɟɫɤɢɯɫɭɮ
ɮɢɤɫɨɜɢɨɤɨɧɱɚɧɢɣɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɯɱɚɫɬɟɣɪɟɱɢɲɢɪɨɤɨɟɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟ
ɧɢɟɩɨɥɭɱɢɥɚɤɨɧɜɟɪɫɢɹ– ɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɧɢɟɨɬɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɭɸɳɟɝɨɫɥɨɜɚɧɨ
ɜɨɝɨɨɬɧɨɫɹɳɟɝɨɫɹɤɞɪɭɝɨɣɱɚɫɬɢɪɟɱɢ
base n. – ɛɚɡɚɨɫɧɨɜɚ
base v. – ɡɚɤɥɚɞɵɜɚɬɶɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɢɟ
base adj. – ɧɢɡɦɟɧɧɵɣ
ɉɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɹɦɢɬɨɝɨɤɤɚɤɨɣɱɚɫɬɢɪɟɱɢɨɬɧɨɫɢɬɫɹɞɚɧɧɨɟɫɥɨɜɨɹɜ
ɥɹɸɬɫɹ
a) ɨɤɨɧɱɚɧɢɟ
x ɨɤɨɧɱɚɧɢɟ-es/s ɨɡɧɚɱɚɟɬɱɬɨɫɥɨɜɨɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹɥɢɛɨɫɭɳɟ
ɫɬɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɦɜɨɦɧɨɠɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɦɱɢɫɥɟɢɥɢɝɥɚɝɨɥɨɦɜ
Present Simple Active
Several forms were used.
Ȼɵɥɨɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɨɧɟɫɤɨɥɶɤɨ
ɮɨɪɦ.
The plate forms the foundation.
ɉɥɢɬɚɨɛɪɚɡɭɟɬɮɭɧɞɚɦɟɧɬ
x ɨɤɨɧɱɚɧɢɟ–ed ɨɡɧɚɱɚɟɬɱɬɨɫɥɨɜɨɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹɝɥɚɝɨɥɨɦ
ɜ Past Simple Active
The building housed two shops.
ȼɡɞɚɧɢɢɪɚɡɦɟɳɚɥɢɫɶ ɞɜɚɦɚɝɚɡɢɧɚ
b) ɦɨɞɚɥɶɧɵɟɝɥɚɝɨɥɵ– ɩɨɫɥɟɦɨɞɚɥɶɧɵɯɝɥɚɝɨɥɨɜɫɦɪɚɡɞɟɥ
ɫɥɟɞɭɟɬɝɥɚɝɨɥɢɥɢɧɚɪɟɱɢɟɝɥɚɝɨɥ
347
We must design carefully.
We must always design carefully.
Ɇɵɞɨɥɠɧɵɩɪɨɟɤɬɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ
ɬɳɚɬɟɥɶɧɨ
Ɇɵɞɨɥɠɧɵɜɫɟɝɞɚ
ɩɪɨɟɤɬɢɪɨɜɚɬɶɬɳɚɬɟɥɶɧɨ
c) ɚɪɬɢɤɥɶɢɥɢɭɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɟɦɟɫɬɨɢɦɟɧɢɟthis, that,
these,those) – ɩɨɫɥɟɧɢɯɦɨɠɟɬɫɬɨɹɬɶ
x ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɟ
The house is beautiful.
Ⱦɨɦ – ɤɪɚɫɢɜɵɣ
x ɩɪɢɥɚɝɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɟɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɟ
This new house was built last year.
ɗɬɨɬɧɨɜɵɣ ɞɨɦ ɩɨɫɬɪɨɢɥɢɜɩɪɨɲɥɨɦɝɨɞɭ
x ɝɪɭɩɩɚɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ
These apartment houses are being built now.
ɗɬɢɦɧɨɝɨɤɜɚɪɬɢɪɧɵɟɞɨɦɚ ɫɟɣɱɚɫɫɬɪɨɹɬɫɹ
x ɩɪɢɱɚɫɬɢɟɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɟ
That steel-framed house has 16 storeys.
Ɍɨɬɫɬɚɥɶɧɨ-ɤɚɪɤɚɫɧɵɣɞɨɦ ɢɦɟɟɬɷɬɚɠɟɣ
d) ɩɨɪɹɞɨɤɫɥɨɜɜɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɢɫɦɪɚɡɞɟɥ
Don’t trouble trouble until trouble troubles you.
ɫɤɚɡɭɟɦɨɟɞɨɩɨɥɧɟɧɢɟɩɨɞɥɟɠɚɳɟɟɫɤɚɡɭɟɦɨɟ
ɇɟɛɭɞɢɥɢɯɨɩɨɤɚɫɩɢɬɬɢɯɨ
Ȼɭɤɜɚɥɶɧɨɇɟɬɪɟɜɨɠɶ ɛɟɞɭɩɨɤɚɛɟɞɚ ɧɟɩɨɬɪɟɜɨɠɢɬ ɬɟɛɹ
I didn’t mean mean.
ɫɤɚɡɭɟɦɨɟɞɨɩɨɥɧɟɧɢɟ
əɧɟɢɦɟɥɜɜɢɞɭ ɧɢɱɟɝɨɩɥɨɯɨɝɨ.
ȼɩɪɢɜɟɞɺɧɧɵɯɩɪɢɦɟɪɚɯɡɧɚɧɢɟɩɪɹɦɨɝɨɩɨɪɹɞɤɚɫɥɨɜɜɭɬɜɟɪ
ɞɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɦ ɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɢ ɩɨɦɨɝɚɟɬ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɢɬɶ ɢ ɱɚɫɬɶ ɪɟɱɢ ɫɥɨɜ
trouble ɢ meanɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɦɨɝɭɬɛɵɬɶɤɚɤ ɝɥɚɝɨɥɨɦ ɬɚɤɢɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɢ
ɬɟɥɶɧɵɦ
ɋɥɨɜɨɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɟɚɮɮɢɤɫɵDerivational Affixes)
ɋɥɨɜɨɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɟɚɮɮɢɤɫɵ– ɷɬɨɩɪɟɮɢɤɫɵɢɫɭɮɮɢɤɫɵ
ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɸɬɫɹɞɥɹɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɧɢɹɧɨɜɵɯɫɥɨɜɨɬɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɭɸ
ɳɟɣ ɨɫɧɨɜɵ ɇɢɠɟ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɵ ɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɱɚɫɬɨ ɜɫɬɪɟɱɚɸɳɢɟɫɹ
ɚɮɮɢɤɫɵ
348
ɋɥɨɜɨɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɟɚɮɮɢɤɫɵɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ
Ⱥɮɮɢɤɫ
-(t)ion
-sion
-er
-(i)or
-ment
-(i)ty
-ness
-ance
-ence
re-
ɂɫɯɨɞɧɨɟɫɥɨɜɨ
construct – ɫɬɪɨɢɬɶ
express – ɜɵɪɚɠɚɬɶ
own – ɜɥɚɞɟɬɶ
supply – ɩɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɬɶ
arrange – ɪɚɫɩɨɥɚɝɚɬɶ
develop – ɪɚɡɜɢɜɚɬɶ
active – ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɵɣ
capable – ɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɵɣ
light – ɥɺɝɤɢɣ
rich – ɛɨɝɚɬɵɣ
exist – ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɨɜɚɬɶ
resist – ɫɨɩɪɨɬɢɜɥɹɬɶɫɹ
use – ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɟ
union – ɫɨɸɡ
ɉɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɧɨɟɫɥɨɜɨ
construction – ɫɬɪɨɢɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɨ
expression – ɜɵɪɚɠɟɧɢɟ
owner – ɜɥɚɞɟɥɟɰ
supplier – ɩɨɫɬɚɜɳɢɤ
arrangement – ɪɚɫɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɟ
development – ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɟ
activity – ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɶ
capability – ɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɨɫɬɶ
lightness – ɥɺɝɤɨɫɬɶ
richness – ɛɨɝɚɬɫɬɜɨ
existence – ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɨɜɚɧɢɟ
resistance – ɫɨɩɪɨɬɢɜɥɟɧɢɟ
re-use – ɩɨɜɬɨɪɧɨɟɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɟ
reunion – ɜɨɫɫɨɟɞɢɧɟɧɢɟ
ɋɥɨɜɨɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɟɚɮɮɢɤɫɵɩɪɢɥɚɝɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ
Ⱥɮɮɢɤɫ
ɂɫɯɨɞɧɨɟɫɥɨɜɨ
ɉɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɧɨɟɫɥɨɜɨ
-able
-ible
allow – ɪɚɡɪɟɲɚɬɶ
suit – ɝɨɞɢɬɶɫɹ
allowable – ɞɨɩɭɫɬɢɦɵɣ
suitable – ɝɨɞɧɵɣ
- ous
continue – ɩɪɨɞɨɥɠɚɬɶ
vary – ɢɡɦɟɧɹɬɶɫɹ
continuous – ɧɟɩɪɟɪɵɜɧɵɣ
various – ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɣ
-ful
care – ɡɚɛɨɬɢɬɶɫɹ
use – ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɬɶ
careful – ɜɧɢɦɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɣ
useful – ɩɨɥɟɡɧɵɣ
-less
care – ɡɚɛɨɬɢɬɶɫɹ
use – ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɬɶ
careless – ɧɟɜɧɢɦɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɣ
useless – ɛɟɫɩɨɥɟɡɧɵɣ
-al
addition – ɞɨɩɨɥɧɟɧɢɟ
structure – ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɚ
additional – ɞɨɩɨɥɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣ
structural – ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɧɵɣ
-ant
-ent
differ – ɪɚɡɥɢɱɚɬɶɫɹ
resist – ɫɨɩɪɨɬɢɜɥɹɬɶɫɹ
different – ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɣ
resistant – ɫɬɨɣɤɢɣ
inirnonun-
active – ɚɤɬɢɜɧɵɣ
regular – ɫɬɚɧɞɚɪɬɧɵɣ
damaging – ɜɪɟɞɧɵɣ
suitable – ɩɪɢɝɨɞɧɵɣ
inactive – ɩɚɫɫɢɜɧɵɣ
irregular – ɧɟɨɛɵɱɧɵɣ
non-damaging – ɛɟɡɜɪɟɞɧɵɣ
unsuitable – ɧɟɩɪɢɝɨɞɧɵɣ
349
It is necessary to study this
problem.
One should check the strength of
this material.
ɋɥɨɜɨɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɟɚɮɮɢɤɫɵɝɥɚɝɨɥɚ
Ⱥɮɮɢɤɫ
ɂɫɯɨɞɧɨɟɫɥɨɜɨ
ɉɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɧɨɟɫɥɨɜɨ
-ize
-ise
minimal – ɦɢɧɢɦɚɥɶɧɵɣ
standard – ɫɬɚɧɞɚɪɬɧɵɣ
minimize – ɫɜɨɞɢɬɶɤɦɢɧɢɦɭɦɭ
standardise –
ɫɬɚɧɞɚɪɬɢɡɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ
re-
build – ɫɬɪɨɢɬɶ
place – ɩɨɦɟɳɚɬɶ
rebuild – ɩɟɪɟɫɬɪɚɢɜɚɬɶ
replace – ɡɚɦɟɧɹɬɶ
pre-
stress – ɧɚɝɪɭɠɚɬɶ
cast – ɨɬɥɢɜɚɬɶ
prestress – ɩɪɟɞɜɚɪɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ
ɧɚɩɪɹɝɚɬɶ
precast – ɩɪɟɞɜɚɪɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ
ɨɬɥɢɜɚɬɶ
ɇɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨɢɡɭɱɢɬɶɷɬɭ
ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɭ
ɋɥɟɞɭɟɬɩɪɨɜɟɪɢɬɶɩɪɨɱɧɨɫɬɶ
ɷɬɨɝɨɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɚ
ɢɥɢɦɨɠɟɬɩɟɪɟɜɨɞɢɬɶɫɹɤɚɤɞɪɭɝɨɣɱɥɟɧɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹ
He wasn’t told about the exam.
ɩɨɞɥɟɠɚɳɟɟ
We were offered a ten day leave.
ɩɨɞɥɟɠɚɳɟɟ
ȿɦɭɧɟɫɤɚɡɚɥɢɨɛɷɤɡɚɦɟɧɟ
ɞɨɩɨɥɧɟɧɢɟ
ɇɚɦ ɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɢɥɢ ɞɟɫɹɬɢɞɧɟɜɧɵɣ
ɨɬɩɭɫɤ
ɞɨɩɨɥɧɟɧɢɟ
ɋɦɨɬɪɢɬɟɬɚɤɠɟɪɚɡɞɟɥɵɢ
ɉɨɪɹɞɨɤɫɥɨɜWord Order)
ɋɥɨɜɨɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɣɚɮɮɢɤɫɧɚɪɟɱɢɹ
Ⱥɮɮɢɤɫ
ɂɫɯɨɞɧɨɟɫɥɨɜɨ
ɉɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɧɨɟɫɥɨɜɨ
-ly
quick – ɛɵɫɬɪɵɣ
efficient – ɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɵɣ
quickly – ɛɵɫɬɪɨ
efficiently – ɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɨ
ɋɬɪɨɝɢɣɩɨɪɹɞɨɤɫɥɨɜɜɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɢɨɡɧɚɱɚɟɬɮɢɤɫɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɨɟ
ɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɟɱɥɟɧɨɜɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹɨɬɧɨɫɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɞɪɭɝɞɪɭɝɚ
a. ɜɭɬɜɟɪɞɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɦɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɢ– ɷɬɨɩɪɹɦɨɣɩɨɪɹɞɨɤ
ɫɥɨɜ
ɩɨɞɥɟɠɚɳɟɟ – ɫɤɚɡɭɟɦɨɟ – ɞɨɩɨɥɧɟɧɢɟ
He was a student.
Ɉɧɛɵɥɫɬɭɞɟɧɬɨɦ
They have changed the plan.
ɋɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɚɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹ6HQWHQFH6WUXFWXUH
ɍɬɜɟɪɞɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɟɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɟDeclarative Sentence)
ɏɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɧɨɣ ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɚɧɝɥɢɣɫɤɨɝɨ ɹɡɵɤɚ ɜ ɨɬɥɢɱɢɟ ɨɬ
ɪɭɫɫɤɨɝɨɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ
x ɨɬɫɭɬɫɬɜɢɟɛɟɡɥɢɱɧɵɯɢɧɟɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɺɧɧɨ-ɥɢɱɧɵɯɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟ
ɧɢɣ
x ɫɬɪɨɝɢɣɩɨɪɹɞɨɤɫɥɨɜɜɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɢ
x
x
Ɍɪɭɞɧɵɟɫɥɭɱɚɢɩɟɪɟɜɨɞɚɩɨɞɥɟɠɚɳɟɝɨ
Ɉɬɫɭɬɫɬɜɢɟɛɟɡɥɢɱɧɵɯɢɧɟɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɺɧɧɨ-ɥɢɱɧɵɯɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɣ
ɨɡɧɚɱɚɟɬɱɬɨɜɭɬɜɟɪɞɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɦɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɢɜɫɟɝɞɚɢɦɟɟɬɫɹɩɨɞ
ɥɟɠɚɳɟɟɧɨɜɪɹɞɟɫɥɭɱɚɟɜɨɧɨɧɟɩɟɪɟɜɨɞɢɬɫɹɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤ
350
Ɉɧɢɢɡɦɟɧɢɥɢɩɥɚɧ
b. ɜɜɨɩɪɨɫɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɦɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɢ– ɷɬɨɨɛɪɚɬɧɵɣɩɨɪɹɞɨɤ
ɫɥɨɜ
ɫɤɚɡɭɟɦɨɟ– ɩɨɞɥɟɠɚɳɟɟ– ɞɨɩɨɥɧɟɧɢɟ
Was he a student?
Ɉɧɛɵɥɫɬɭɞɟɧɬɨɦ"
ɱɚɫɬɶɫɤɚɡɭɟɦɨɝɨI – ɩɨɞɥɟɠɚɳɟɟ– ɱɚɫɬɶɫɤɚɡɭɟɦɨɝɨII –
ɞɨɩɨɥɧɟɧɢɟ
Have they changed the plan?
Ɉɧɢɢɡɦɟɧɢɥɢɩɥɚɧ"
Ɍɵɦɨɠɟɲɶɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɶɦɧɟ
ɩɪɨɟɤɬ"
Can you show me the design?
x
ɜɨɩɪɨɫɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɟɫɥɨɜɨ – ɫɤɚɡɭɟɦɨɟ– ɩɨɞɥɟɠɚɳɟɟ– ɞɨɩɨɥɧɟ
ɧɢɟ
When was he a student?
Ʉɨɝɞɚɨɧɛɵɥɫɬɭɞɟɧɬɨɦ"
351
x
ɜɨɩɪɨɫɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɟɫɥɨɜɨ – ɱɚɫɬɶɫɤɚɡɭɟɦɨɝɨI – ɩɨɞɥɟɠɚɳɟɟ–
ɱɚɫɬɶɫɤɚɡɭɟɦɨɝɨII – ɞɨɩɨɥɧɟɧɢɟ
ɉɨɱɟɦɭɨɧɢɢɡɦɟɧɢɥɢɩɥɚɧ"
Why have they changed the
plan?
Where can you show me the
design?
Ƚɞɟɬɵɦɨɠɟɲɶɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɶɦɧɟ
ɩɪɨɟɤɬ"
ȼɬɨɪɨɣ ɢ ɱɟɬɜɺɪɬɵɣ ɜɚɪɢɚɧɬɵ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɵ ɜɨɩɪɨɫɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ
ɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɣɜɫɬɪɟɱɚɟɬɫɹɱɚɳɟɑɚɫɬɶɫɤɚɡɭɟɦɨɝɨ I – ɷɬɨɜɫɩɨɦɨɝɚ
ɬɟɥɶɧɵɣɢɥɢɦɨɞɚɥɶɧɵɣɝɥɚɝɨɥɑɚɫɬɶɫɤɚɡɭɟɦɨɝɨII – ɷɬɨɫɦɵɫɥɨ
ɜɨɣɝɥɚɝɨɥɢɥɢɜɬɨɪɨɣɜɫɩɨɦɨɝɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɣɫɦɵɫɥɨɜɨɣɝɥɚɝɨɥ
ɋɭɳɟɫɬɜɭɸɬ ɫɥɭɱɚɢ ɨɬɫɬɭɩɥɟɧɢɹ ɨɬ ɩɪɹɦɨɝɨ ɩɨɪɹɞɤɚ ɫɥɨɜ
ɜɭɬɜɟɪɞɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɦɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɢɢɨɛɪɚɬɧɨɝɨɩɨɪɹɞɤɚɫɥɨɜɜɜɨɩɪɨ
ɫɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɦɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɢɋɦɨɬɪɢɬɟɪɚɡɞɟɥɵɢ
ȼɨɩɪɨɫɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɟɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɟ (Interrogative Sentence)
ɋɭɳɟɫɬɜɭɸɬɱɟɬɵɪɟɬɢɩɚɜɨɩɪɨɫɨɜ
1. ɨɛɳɢɟ(general questions)
2. ɫɩɟɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɟ (special questions)
3. ɚɥɶɬɟɪɧɚɬɢɜɧɵɟ (alternative questions)
4. ɪɚɡɞɟɥɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣ (disjunctive questions).
ɈɛɳɢɟɜɨɩɪɨɫɵGeneral questions)
Ɉɛɳɢɣɜɨɩɪɨɫ– ɷɬɨɜɨɩɪɨɫɤɫɤɚɡɭɟɦɨɦɭɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹɉɪɢɟɝɨ
ɩɨɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɟ ɧɚ ɩɟɪɜɨɟ ɦɟɫɬɨ ɜɵɧɨɫɢɬɫɹ ɜɫɩɨɦɨɝɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɣ ɢɥɢ ɦɨ
ɞɚɥɶɧɵɣɝɥɚɝɨɥ
Is this school being built now?
ɗɬɚɲɤɨɥɚɫɟɣɱɚɫɫɬɪɨɢɬɫɹ"
Should the plan be changed?
ɉɥɚɧɫɥɟɞɭɟɬɢɡɦɟɧɢɬɶ"
ɂɫɤɥɸɱɟɧɢɟ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɬ ɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹ ɫ ɝɥɚɝɨɥɨɦ ɜ ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɟ
ɫɤɚɡɭɟɦɨɝɨ
Is he a builder?
Ɉɧ ɫɬɪɨɢɬɟɥɶ?
Ɉɛɪɚɬɢɬɟ ɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟ ɧɚ ɩɨɫɬɪɨɟɧɢɟ ɜɨɩɪɨɫɚ ɤ ɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɸ
ɫ ɨɛɨɪɨɬɨɦ there + to be.
There are different kinds of ɋɭɳɟɫɬɜɭɸɬɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɟɬɢɩɵ
concrete.
ɛɟɬɨɧɚ
Are there different kinds of ɋɭɳɟɫɬɜɭɸɬɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɟɬɢɩɵ
concrete?
ɛɟɬɨɧɚ"
352
Ɉɛɳɢɣɜɨɩɪɨɫɬɪɟɛɭɟɬɤɪɚɬɤɨɝɨɨɬɜɟɬɚyes ɢɥɢno.
Is he a builder?
Yes, he is.
Should the plan be changed?
No, it should not.
Are there different kinds of
concrete?
Yes, there are.
Does he speak English?
No, he does not.
ȺɥɶɬɟɪɧɚɬɢɜɧɵɟɜɨɩɪɨɫɵAlternative questions)
Ⱥɥɶɬɟɪɧɚɬɢɜɧɵɣ ɜɨɩɪɨɫ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɛɵɬɶ ɡɚɞɚɧ ɤ ɥɸɛɨɦɭ ɱɥɟɧɭ
ɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹ
x ɜɨɩɪɨɫɤɩɨɞɥɟɠɚɳɟɦɭ
Do you live in this town or does your brother live there?
ȼɷɬɨɦɝɨɪɨɞɟɠɢɜɺɲɶɬɵɢɥɢ ɬɜɨɣɛɪɚɬ"
x ɜɨɩɪɨɫɤɫɤɚɡɭɟɦɨɦɭ
Do you live or stay in this town?
Ɍɵɠɢɜɺɲɶɜɷɬɨɦɝɨɪɨɞɟɩɨɫɬɨɹɧɧɨɢɥɢ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨ"
x ɜɨɩɪɨɫɤɞɨɩɨɥɧɟɧɢɸ
Do you like town or the country?
Ɍɵɥɸɛɢɲɶɝɨɪɨɞɢɥɢ ɞɟɪɟɜɧɸ"
x ɜɨɩɪɨɫɤɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɸ
Do you live in a new or in an old town?
Ɍɵɠɢɜɺɲɶɜɧɨɜɨɦɢɥɢ ɫɬɚɪɨɦɝɨɪɨɞɟ"
x ɜɨɩɪɨɫɤɨɛɫɬɨɹɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɭ
Do you live in town or in the country?
Ɍɵɠɢɜɺɲɶɜɝɨɪɨɞɟɢɥɢ ɞɟɪɟɜɧɟ"
Ⱥɥɶɬɟɪɧɚɬɢɜɧɵɣɜɨɩɪɨɫɬɪɟɛɭɟɬɪɚɡɜɺɪɧɭɬɨɝɨɨɬɜɟɬɚ
Do you live in town or in the country?
I live in town.
9.2.3. Ɋɚɡɞɟɥɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɟ/«ɯɜɨɫɬɨɜɵɟ» ɜɨɩɪɨɫɵ (Disjunctive/Tag
questions)
Ɋɚɡɞɟɥɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣɜɨɩɪɨɫ– ɷɬɨɜɨɩɪɨɫɤɫɤɚɡɭɟɦɨɦɭɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟ
ɧɢɹȼɨɩɪɨɫɫɨɫɬɨɢɬɢɡɭɬɜɟɪɠɞɟɧɢɹɢɨɬɪɢɰɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɝɨɜɨɩɪɨɫɚɢɥɢ
ɧɚɨɛɨɪɨɬ
x ɭɬɜɟɪɠɞɟɧɢɟ– ɨɬɪɢɰɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɣɜɨɩɪɨɫ>– (-)]
353
You speak English, don’t Ɉɧɝɨɜɨɪɢɬɩɨ-ɚɧɝɥɢɣɫɤɢɧɟɬɚɤɥɢ"
you?
They are engineers aren’t Ɉɧɢ-ɢɧɠɟɧɟɪɵɧɟɬɚɤɥɢ"
they?
He can drive, can’t he?
Ɉɧɭɦɟɟɬɜɨɞɢɬɶɦɚɲɢɧɭɧɟɬɚɤ
ɥɢ"
x ɨɬɪɢɰɚɧɢɟ– ɭɬɜɟɪɞɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣɜɨɩɪɨɫ>-) – (+)]
You don’t speak English, do
you?
They aren’t engineers, are
they?
He can’t drive, can he?
Ɉɧɧɟɝɨɜɨɪɢɬɩɨ-ɚɧɝɥɢɣɫɤɢɧɟɬɚɤ
ɥɢ"
Ɉɧɢ-ɧɟɢɧɠɟɧɟɪɵɧɟɬɚɤɥɢ"
Ɉɧɧɟɭɦɟɟɬɜɨɞɢɬɶɦɚɲɢɧɭɧɟ
ɬɚɤɥɢ"
Ɉɛɪɚɬɢɬɟɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟɧɚɜɨɩɪɨɫɵɫɨɛɨɪɨɬɨɦthere + to be.
There was a book on the table,
ɇɚɫɬɨɥɟɛɵɥɚɤɧɢɝɚɧɟɬɚɤ
wasn’t there?
ɥɢ"
There wasn’t a book on the table,
ɇɚɫɬɨɥɟɧɟɛɵɥɨɤɧɢɝɢɧɟɬɚɤ
was there?
ɥɢ"
Ɋɚɡɞɟɥɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣɜɨɩɪɨɫɬɪɟɛɭɟɬɤɪɚɬɤɨɝɨɨɬɜɟɬɚyes ɢɥɢnoɧɨ
ɫɥɟɞɭɟɬɩɨɦɧɢɬɶɱɬɨɨɬɜɟɬyes ɨɡɧɚɱɚɟɬɫɨɝɥɚɫɢɟɫɭɬɜɟɪɞɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɣ
ɱɚɫɬɶɸɜɨɩɪɨɫɚɚɨɬɜɟɬ no – ɫɨɬɪɢɰɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɣɱɚɫɬɶɸ
Yes, he can. Ⱦɚɬɟɭɦɟɟɬɜɨɞɢɬɶ
He can’t drive, can he?
No, he can’t. ɇɟɬɬɟɧɟɭɦɟɟɬ
ɜɨɞɢɬɶ
ɋɩɟɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɟɜɨɩɪɨɫɵSpecial questions)
ɋɩɟɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɣɜɨɩɪɨɫɦɨɠɟɬɛɵɬɶɡɚɞɚɧɤɥɸɛɨɦɭɱɥɟɧɭɩɪɟɞ
ɥɨɠɟɧɢɹɉɨɪɹɞɨɤɫɥɨɜ– ɬɚɤɨɣɠɟɤɚɤɜɨɛɳɟɦɜɨɩɪɨɫɟɧɨɧɚɩɟɪ
ɜɨɦɦɟɫɬɟɫɬɨɢɬɜɨɩɪɨɫɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɟɫɥɨɜɨ
Who can you show the design?
Ʉɨɦɭɬɵɦɨɠɟɲɶɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɶ
ɩɪɨɟɤɬ"
What have they changed?
ɑɬɨɨɧɢɢɡɦɟɧɢɥɢ"
Who lives here?
Ʉɬɨɡɞɟɫɶɠɢɜɺɬ"
Whose house is being repaired?
ɑɟɣɞɨɦɪɟɦɨɧɬɢɪɭɟɬɫɹ"
Ɉɛɪɚɬɢɬɟ ɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟ ɧɚ ɬɨ ɱɬɨ ɜɨɩɪɨɫ ɤ ɩɨɞɥɟɠɚɳɟɦɭ ɦɨɠɟɬ
ɛɵɬɶɬɨɥɶɤɨɜɟɞɢɧɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɦɱɢɫɥɟ.
Peter and Mary live here.
ɁɞɟɫɶɠɢɜɭɬɉɢɬɟɪɢɆɷɪɢ
Who lives here?
Ʉɬɨɡɞɟɫɶɠɢɜɺɬ?
ɇȿȼȿɊɇɈ: - Who live here?
ɇȿȼȿɊɇɈ- Ʉɬɨɡɞɟɫɶɠɢɜɭɬ?
ȼɨɩɪɨɫɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɟɫɥɨɜɨɡɚɜɢɫɢɬɨɬɬɨɝɨɤɤɚɤɨɦɭɱɥɟɧɭɩɪɟɞɥɨ
ɠɟɧɢɹɡɚɞɚɺɬɫɹɜɨɩɪɨɫ
x ɜɨɩɪɨɫɤɩɨɞɥɟɠɚɳɟɦɭ
Who
Ʉɬɨ
Who opened the door?
Ʉɬɨɨɬɤɪɵɥɞɜɟɪɶ"
What
ɑɬɨ
What was changed?
ɑɬɨɛɵɥɨɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɨ"
x ɜɨɩɪɨɫɤɫɤɚɡɭɟɦɨɦɭ
What
ɑɬɨ
What must he do?
ɑɬɨɨɧɞɨɥɠɟɧɫɞɟɥɚɬɶ"
What is she doing?
ɑɬɨɨɧɚɞɟɥɚɟɬ"
What did they do?
ɑɬɨɨɧɢɫɞɟɥɚɥɢ"
x ɜɨɩɪɨɫɤɞɨɩɨɥɧɟɧɢɸ
Who
Ʉɨɝɨ
ɤɨɦɭ
ɤɟɦ
Who did you meet?
Ʉɨɝɨɬɵɜɫɬɪɟɬɢɥ"
What
ɑɬɨ
ɱɟɦɭ
ɱɟɦ
What will they discuss?
ɑɬɨɨɧɢɨɛɫɭɞɹɬ"
ȼɫɟɤɨɫɜɟɧɧɵɟɮɨɪɦɵɜɨɩɪɨɫɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɯɦɟɫɬɨɢɦɟɧɢɣɤɬɨɱɬɨ.
ɂɫɤɥɸɱɟɧɢɟɦɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹɜɨɩɪɨɫɵɤɩɨɞɥɟɠɚɳɟɦɭɢɟɝɨɨɩɪɟɞɟ
ɥɟɧɢɸɜɤɨɬɨɪɵɯɩɨɪɹɞɨɤɫɥɨɜɩɪɹɦɨɣ
354
355
x ɜɨɩɪɨɫɤɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɸ
Whose
ɑɟɣ
ɱɶɹ
ɱɶɢ
What
Which
What kind of
Ʉɚɤɨɣɤɚɤɨɝɨɬɢɩɚ
How far
Ʉɚɤɞɚɥɟɤɨ
What colour
Ʉɚɤɨɝɨɰɜɟɬɚ
How long
Ʉɚɤɞɨɥɝɨ
How quickly
Ʉɚɤɛɵɫɬɪɨ
How wide
Ʉɚɤɚɹɲɢɪɢɧɚ
Whose book is this?
ɑɶɹɷɬɨɤɧɢɝɚ"
Ʉɚɤɨɣ
ɤɚɤɢɟ
What units will be
used?
Ʉɚɤɢɟɷɥɟɦɟɧɬɵɛɭɞɭɬ
ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɵ"
How fast
Ʉɚɤɛɵɫɬɪɨ
How heavy
Ʉɚɤɨɣɜɟɫ
How often
Ʉɚɤɱɚɫɬɨ
How many*
ɋɤɨɥɶɤɨ
Ʉɚɤɨɣ
ɤɚɤɢɟ
Which house is it?
Ʉɚɤɨɣɷɬɨɞɨɦ"
How old
ɋɤɨɥɶɤɨɥɟɬ
How much**
ɋɤɨɥɶɤɨ
x ɜɨɩɪɨɫɤɨɛɫɬɨɹɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɭ
When
Ʉɨɝɞɚ
When will you come?
Ʉɨɝɞɚɬɵɩɪɢɞɺɲɶ"
Where
Ʉɭɞɚ
Where did he swim to?
Ʉɭɞɚɨɧɩɨɩɥɵɥ"
Where
Ƚɞɟ
Where was the method
used?
Ƚɞɟɛɵɥɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧ
ɷɬɨɬɦɟɬɨɞ"
Why
ɉɨɱɟɦɭ
Why was the plan
changed?
ɉɨɱɟɦɭɢɡɦɟɧɢɥɢɩɥɚɧ"
How
Ʉɚɤ
How was it done?
Ʉɚɤɷɬɨɛɵɥɨɫɞɟɥɚɧɨ"
ȼɨɬɥɢɱɢɟɨɬɪɭɫɫɤɨɝɨɹɡɵɤɚɜɨɩɪɨɫɤɞɨɩɨɥɧɟɧɢɸɜɚɧɝɥɢɣ
ɫɤɨɦɹɡɵɤɟɧɟɧɚɱɢɧɚɟɬɫɹɫɩɪɟɞɥɨɝɚɚɡɚɤɚɧɱɢɜɚɟɬɫɹɢɦ
Ɉɱɺɦɨɧɢɝɨɜɨɪɹɬ"
What are they talking about?
ɇɚɤɨɝɨɨɧɫɫɵɥɚɥɫɹ"
Who did he refer to?
ɋɤɟɦɬɵɨɛɫɭɞɢɲɶɩɪɨɟɤɬ"
Who will you discuss the design
with?
* ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɟɬɫɹɜɜɨɩɪɨɫɚɯɨɛɢɫɱɢɫɥɹɟɦɵɯɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɯKRXVHVWUHHW
ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɟɬɫɹɜɜɨɩɪɨɫɚɯɨɧɟɢɫɱɢɫɥɹɟɦɵɯɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɯZDWHU
concrete).
ɋɩɟɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɟɜɨɩɪɨɫɵɨɛɵɱɧɨɬɪɟɛɭɸɬɪɚɡɜɺɪɧɭɬɨɝɨɨɬɜɟɬɚ
What are they speaking about?
They are speaking about plan for the summer.
ɋɥɨɠɧɨɩɨɞɱɢɧɟɧɧɨɟɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɟThe Complex Sentence)
ɋɥɨɠɧɨɩɨɞɱɢɧɺɧɧɨɟ ɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɟ ɫɨɫɬɨɢɬ ɢɡ ɝɥɚɜɧɨɝɨ ɢ ɨɞ
ɧɨɝɨɢɥɢɛɨɥɟɟɩɪɢɞɚɬɨɱɧɵɯɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɣɤɚɠɞɨɟɢɡɤɨɬɨɪɵɯɢɦɟɟɬ
ɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɟɝɥɚɜɧɵɟɱɥɟɧɵ– ɩɨɞɥɟɠɚɳɟɟɢɫɤɚɡɭɟɦɨɟɉɪɢɞɚɬɨɱ
ɧɨɟɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɟɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɵɦɨɬɝɥɚɜɧɨɝɨɬɚɤɤɚɤɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜ
ɥɹɟɬɫɨɛɨɣɪɚɡɜɺɪɧɭɬɵɣɱɥɟɧɝɥɚɜɧɨɝɨɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹȼɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨɫɬɢ
ɨɬɬɨɝɨɤɚɤɢɦɱɥɟɧɨɦɝɥɚɜɧɨɝɨɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹɩɪɢɞɚɬɨɱɧɨɟ
ɨɧɨɜɜɨɞɢɬɫɹɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɦɢɫɨɸɡɚɦɢɇɢɠɟɩɪɢɜɟɞɟɧɵɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɫɨ
ɸɡɵɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɟɦɵɟɜɫɥɨɠɧɨɩɨɞɱɢɧɺɧɧɵɯɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹɯ
ɇɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɢɡɩɟɪɟɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɵɯɜɵɲɟɫɥɨɜɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɸɬɫɹɬɚɤɠɟ
ɜɜɨɩɪɨɫɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɯɫɥɨɜɨɫɨɱɟɬɚɧɢɹɯ
356
357
It is Gagarin who is the first cosmonaut.
ɂɦɟɧɧɨȽɚɝɚɪɢɧɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹɩɟɪɜɵɦɤɨɫɦɨɧɚɜɬɨɦ
ɢɥɢɉɟɪɜɵɦɤɨɫɦɨɧɚɜɬɨɦɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹɢɦɟɧɧɨȽɚɝɚɪɢɧ.
It was yesterday that Peter told me about your arrival.
Ʉɚɤɪɚɡɜɱɟɪɚɉɢɬɟɪɪɚɫɫɤɚɡɚɥɦɧɟɨȼɚɲɟɦɩɪɢɟɡɞɟ
ɢɥɢɉɢɬɟɪɪɚɫɫɤɚɡɚɥɦɧɟɨȼɚɲɟɦɩɪɢɟɡɞɟɤɚɤɪɚɡɜɱɟɪɚ.
Ɍɪɭɞɧɨɫɬɶ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɬ ɫɥɨɠɧɨɩɨɞɱɢɧɺɧɧɵɟ ɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹ
ɫɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɦɩɪɢɞɚɬɨɱɧɵɦȼɚɧɝɥɢɣɫɤɨɦɹɡɵɤɟɜɧɢɯɱɚɫɬɨ
ɨɬɫɭɬɫɬɜɭɸɬɫɨɸɡɵthat, who, which.
I don’t know the man you met at the conference.
əɧɟɡɧɚɸɱɟɥɨɜɟɤɚɤɨɬɨɪɨɝɨɬɵɜɫɬɪɟɬɢɥɧɚɤɨɧɮɟɪɟɧɰɢɢ
The technique we’ll use has already been applied in other countries.
Ɍɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɹɤɨɬɨɪɭɸɦɵɛɭɞɟɦɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɬɶɭɠɟɩɪɢɦɟɧɹ
ɥɚɫɶɜɞɪɭɝɢɯɫɬɪɚɧɚɯ.
The film you told me about is very interesting.
Ɏɢɥɶɦɨ ɤɨɬɨɪɨɦɬɵɪɚɫɫɤɚɡɚɥɦɧɟ – ɨɱɟɧɶɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɧɵɣ.
Ɉɛɪɚɬɢɬɟɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟɧɚɩɪɟɞɥɨɝɜɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɟɦɩɪɢɦɟɪɟɉɪɢɩɟ
ɪɟɜɨɞɟɨɧɫɬɚɜɢɬɫɹɩɟɪɟɞ ɫɨɸɡɨɦɤɨɬɨɪɵɣ.
10. ɉɪɢɥɨɠɟɧɢɟ$SSHQGL[
ɍɫɢɥɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɟɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɢEmphatic Constructions)
ɍɫɢɥɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɟɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɢɢɫɥɨɜɚɫɥɭɠɚɬɞɥɹɭɫɢɥɟɧɢɹɡɧɚ
ɱɟɧɢɹɨɞɧɨɝɨɢɡɱɥɟɧɨɜɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹɢɜɵɞɟɥɟɧɢɹɟɝɨɩɨɫɪɚɜɧɟɧɢɸ
ɫɨɫɬɚɥɶɧɵɦɢɱɥɟɧɚɦɢɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹ
ɍɫɢɥɢɬɟɥɶɧɚɹɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɹIT + TO BE … THAT/WHO
ɍɫɢɥɢɬɟɥɶɧɚɹɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɹit + to be … that/who ɫɥɭɠɢɬɞɥɹɜɵ
ɞɟɥɟɧɢɹ ɢ ɭɫɢɥɟɧɢɹ ɬɨɝɨ ɱɥɟɧɚ ɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɣ ɧɚɯɨɞɢɬɫɹ
ɜɧɭɬɪɢɧɟɺȼɪɭɫɫɤɨɦɹɡɵɤɟɞɥɹɩɟɪɟɞɚɱɢɬɚɤɨɝɨɭɫɢɥɟɧɢɹɢɫɩɨɥɶ
ɡɭɸɬɫɹ
x ɫɥɨɜɚɢɦɟɧɧɨɤɚɤɪɚɡ,
x ɩɨɪɹɞɨɤɫɥɨɜɩɪɢɤɨɬɨɪɨɦɜɵɞɟɥɟɧɧɵɣɱɥɟɧɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟ
ɧɢɹɫɬɚɜɢɬɫɹɜɟɝɨɤɨɧɰɟ
x ɫɨɱɟɬɚɧɢɟɦɜɵɲɟɧɚɡɜɚɧɧɵɯɫɩɨɫɨɛɨɜ
358
It was the invention of the Bessemer process steel that resulted in
sharp increase of steel production.
ɂɦɟɧɧɨɢɡɨɛɪɟɬɟɧɢɟɛɟɫɫɟɦɟɪɨɜɫɤɨɝɨɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɚɩɪɢɜɟɥɨ
ɤɪɟɡɤɨɦɭɭɜɟɥɢɱɟɧɢɸɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜɚɫɬɚɥɢ
ɢɥɢɄɪɟɡɤɨɦɭɭɜɟɥɢɱɟɧɢɸɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜɚɫɬɚɥɢɩɪɢɜɟɥɨɢɡɨɛ
ɪɟɬɟɧɢɟɢɦɟɧɧɨɛɟɫɫɟɦɟɪɨɜɫɤɨɝɨɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɚ.
ɍɫɢɥɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɟɫɥɨɜɨDO
ɍɫɢɥɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɟɫɥɨɜɨdo (does, did) ɜɭɬɜɟɪɞɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɯɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟ
ɧɢɹɯɫɥɭɠɢɬɞɥɹɜɵɞɟɥɟɧɢɹɢɭɫɢɥɟɧɢɹɫɤɚɡɭɟɦɨɝɨȼɪɭɫɫɤɨɦɹɡɵɤɟ
ɞɥɹɩɟɪɟɞɚɱɢɬɚɤɨɝɨɭɫɢɥɟɧɢɹɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɸɬɫɹɫɥɨɜɚɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ
ɛɟɡɭɫɥɨɜɧɨ.
This plan does require careful analysis.
ɗɬɨɬɩɥɚɧɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɬɪɟɛɭɟɬɬɳɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɝɨɚɧɚɥɢɡɚ
ɂɧɜɟɪɫɢɹ
Ⱦɥɹɷɦɨɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɝɨɭɫɢɥɟɧɢɹɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɟɬɫɹɢɧɜɟɪɫɢɹɬɨɟɫɬɶ
ɧɚɪɭɲɟɧɢɟ ɩɪɹɦɨɝɨ ɩɨɪɹɞɤɚ ɫɥɨɜ ɜ ɚɧɝɥɢɣɫɤɨɦ ɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɢ ɩɪɢ
ɤɨɬɨɪɨɦɫɤɚɡɭɟɦɨɟɫɬɚɜɢɬɫɹɩɟɪɟɞɩɨɞɥɟɠɚɳɢɦɂɧɜɟɪɫɢɹɱɚɫɬɨɫɨ
ɱɟɬɚɟɬɫɹɫ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɟɦɜɧɚɱɚɥɟɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹ ɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɯɧɚɪɟ
ɱɢɣɫɨɸɡɧɵɯɫɥɨɜɢɫɥɨɜɨɫɨɱɟɬɚɧɢɣɚɬɚɤɠɟɭɫɢɥɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɝɨɫɥɨɜɚ
do (does, did):
x Only – ɬɨɥɶɤɨ
Only when the idea of beauty is added to the idea of use, does
a structure become a work of architecture.
Ɍɨɥɶɤɨɤɨɝɞɚɩɨɧɹɬɢɟɭɬɢɥɢɬɚɪɧɨɫɬɢɞɨɩɨɥɧɹɟɬɫɹɩɨɧɹɬɢɟɦ
ɤɪɚɫɨɬɵ ɫɨɨɪɭɠɟɧɢɟ ɫɬɚɧɨɜɢɬɫɹ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɟɞɟɧɢɟɦ ɚɪɯɢɬɟɤ
ɬɭɪɵ
x Never – ɧɢɤɨɝɞɚ
Never has the mastery of proportion and detail of the Greek temples
been surpassed.
359
Ɇɚɫɬɟɪɫɬɜɨ ɩɪɨɩɨɪɰɢɣ ɢ ɞɟɬɚɥɟɣ ɝɪɟɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɯɪɚɦɨɜ ɬɚɤ
ɢɨɫɬɚɥɨɫɶɧɟɩɪɟɜɡɨɣɞɺɧɧɵɦ
x Rarely – ɪɟɞɤɨ
Rarely did the architects of the Renaissance set themselves constructive problems of great difficulty.
Ɉɱɟɧɶ ɫɥɨɠɧɵɟ ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɨɧɧɵɟ ɡɚɞɚɱɢ ɚɪɯɢɬɟɤɬɨɪɵ ȼɨɡ
ɪɨɠɞɟɧɢɹɩɟɪɟɞɫɨɛɨɣɧɟɫɬɚɜɢɥɢ
x Nowhere – ɧɢɝɞɟ
x Not only… but – ɧɟɬɨɥɶɤɨ«ɧɨɢ
Not only do we find direct reproductions of Greek architecture, but
we are able to trace to Greek art the origin of Roman, Byzantine, and
Gothic architecture.
Ɇɵɧɟɬɨɥɶɤɨɧɚɯɨɞɢɦɩɪɹɦɨɟɤɨɩɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟɝɪɟɱɟɫɤɨɣɚɪɯɢɬɟɤ
ɬɭɪɵɧɨɢɫɚɦɢɢɫɬɨɤɢɪɢɦɫɤɨɣɜɢɡɚɧɬɢɣɫɤɨɣɢɝɨɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ
ɚɪɯɢɬɟɤɬɭɪɵɤɚɤɦɵɦɨɠɟɦɭɜɢɞɟɬɶɜɨɫɯɨɞɹɬɤɝɪɟɱɟɫɤɨɦɭ
ɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɭ
ɆɧɨɝɨɮɭɧɤɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɟɫɥɨɜɚMultifunctional Words)
ɎɭɧɤɰɢɢɫɥɨɜɚIT
1. Ʉɨɝɞɚit ɡɚɦɟɧɹɟɬɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɟɜɟɞɢɧɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɦɱɢɫɥɟɨɧɨ
ɦɨɠɟɬɛɵɬɶ
x ɥɢɱɧɵɦɦɟɫɬɨɢɦɟɧɢɟɦɤɨɬɨɪɨɟ ɩɟɪɟɜɨɞɢɬɫɹ – ɨɧɨɧɚ
ɨɧɨ ɢɥɢɤɨɫɜɟɧɧɵɟɮɨɪɦɵɷɬɢɯɦɟɫɬɨɢɦɟɧɢɣ– ɟɦɭɟɣ
ɟɝɨɟɺ ɢɬ ɞ
I have found the key. It was in my pocket. I had put it there
yesterday.
əɧɚɲɺɥɤɥɸɱɈɧ ɛɵɥɜɦɨɺɦɤɚɪɦɚɧɟəɩɨɥɨɠɢɥɟɝɨ
ɬɭɞɚɜɱɟɪɚ
x ɭɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɦɦɟɫɬɨɢɦɟɧɢɟɦɷɬɨ
It is John.
ɗɬɨ –Ⱦɠɨɧ
It was a large room.
ɗɬɨɛɵɥɚɛɨɥɶɲɚɹɤɨɦɧɚɬɚ
2. Ʉɨɝɞɚit ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹɮɨɪɦɚɥɶɧɵɦɩɨɞɥɟɠɚɳɢɦɨɧɨɧɟɩɟɪɟɜɨ
ɞɢɬɫɹɧɚɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤɄɚɤɮɨɪɦɚɥɶɧɨɟɩɨɞɥɟɠɚɳɟɟit ɦɨɠɟɬ
ɛɵɬɶ
x ɛɟɡɥɢɱɧɵɦɫɦɪɚɡɞɟɥ
360
It is cold.
ɏɨɥɨɞɧɨ
It is a long way to the station.
Ⱦɨɫɬɚɧɰɢɢɞɚɥɟɤɨ
x ɜɜɨɞɧɵɦɬ ɟɜɜɨɞɢɬɶɪɟɚɥɶɧɨɟɩɨɞɥɟɠɚɳɟɟɫɦɪɚɡ
ɞɟɥɵ
It is necessary to study
ɇɭɠɧɨɢɡɭɱɚɬɶɦɚɬɟɦɚɬɢɤɭ
mathematics.
It is forbidden to enter this room.
ȼɯɨɞɢɬɶɜɷɬɭɤɨɦɧɚɬɭ
ɡɚɩɪɟɳɟɧɨ
x ɭɫɢɥɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɦɫɦɪɚɡɞɟɥ
It will be John who will go there.
ɂɦɟɧɧɨȾɠɨɩɨɟɞɟɬɬɭɞɚ
ɎɭɧɤɰɢɢɫɥɨɜɚONE
1. Ʉɚɤɧɟɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɺɧɧɨɟɦɟɫɬɨɢɦɟɧɢɟɫɨɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟɦɜɫɟɥɸɞɢ
ɤɚɠɞɵɣɱɟɥɨɜɟɤ ɫɥɨɜɨone:
x ɜɮɭɧɤɰɢɢɮɨɪɦɚɥɶɧɨɝɨɩɨɞɥɟɠɚɳɟɝɨɧɟɩɟɪɟɜɨɞɢɬɫɹ
One must be careful.
ɇɭɠɧɨɛɵɬɶɨɫɬɨɪɨɠɧɵɦ
x ɜɮɭɧɤɰɢɢɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɹɩɟɪɟɜɨɞɢɬɫɹ– ɫɜɨɣɫɜɨɢ
One should perfect one’s professional skills.
ɇɭɠɧɨɫɨɜɟɪɲɟɧɫɬɜɨɜɚɬɶɫɜɨɢ ɩɪɨɮɟɫɫɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɟɧɚɜɵɤɢ
2. Ʉɚɤɫɥɨɜɨ-ɡɚɦɟɧɢɬɟɥɶone ɢɦɟɟɬɮɨɪɦɭɦɧɨɠɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨɱɢɫɥɚ
(onesɇɚɪɭɫɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤone ɦɨɠɟɬaɩɟɪɟɜɨɞɢɬɶɫɹɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɢ
ɬɟɥɶɧɵɦɤɨɬɨɪɨɟɨɧɨɡɚɦɟɧɹɟɬbɩɟɪɟɜɨɞɢɬɶɫɹɬɨɤɨɬɨɪɨɟ
ɬɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɢɬɞcɧɟɩɟɪɟɜɨɞɢɬɶɫɹ
Whose books are these?
ɑɶɢɷɬɨɤɧɢɝɢ"
The ones on the table are
Petrov’s, the ones on the
shelf are Ivanov’s.
ɌɟɄɧɢɝɢɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɧɚɫɬɨɥɟ–
ɉɟɬɪɨɜɚɚɬɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɧɚɩɨɥɤɟ
–ɂɜɚɧɨɜɚ
Which coat did you buy?
The green one.
Ʉɚɤɨɟɩɚɥɶɬɨɬɵɤɭɩɢɥ"
Ɂɟɥɺɧɨɟ
3. ȼɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɟɱɢɫɥɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɝɨone ɩɟɪɟɜɨɞɢɬɫɹɤɚɤɨɞɢɧ.
He has got one child.
ɍɧɟɝɨɨɞɢɧ ɪɟɛɺɧɨɤ
361
ɎɭɧɤɰɢɢɫɥɨɜɚTHAT
ɇɟɩɪɚɜɢɥɶɧɵɟɝɥɚɝɨɥɵ
1. Ʉɚɤɭɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɟɦɟɫɬɨɢɦɟɧɢɟɬɨɬɬɚɬɨ ɢɧɨɝɞɚɷɬɨɬ
ɷɬɚɷɬɨɫɥɨɜɨthat ɢɦɟɟɬɮɨɪɦɭɦɧɨɠɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨɱɢɫɥɚ
those – ɬɟ ɢɧɨɝɞɚɷɬɢɢɨɛɵɱɧɨɫɬɨɢɬɩɟɪɟɞɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɢɬɟɥɶ
ɧɵɦ
He lives in that house.
Ɉɧɠɢɜɺɬɜɬɨɦ ɞɨɦɟ
Those books you gave me are
interesting.
Ɍɟ ɤɧɢɝɢɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɬɵɞɚɥɦɧɟ–
ɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɧɵɟ
2. Ʉɚɤɨɬɧɨɫɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɟɦɟɫɬɨɢɦɟɧɢɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɣɤɨɬɨɪɚɹɤɨɬɨɪɨɟ
ɫɥɨɜɨthat ɜɜɨɞɢɬɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɟɩɪɢɞɚɬɨɱɧɵɟɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟ
ɧɢɹ ɢɨɛɵɱɧɨɫɬɨɢɬɩɨɫɥɟɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɝɨ
The house that is being built
here is made of concrete.
They saw a car that stopped.
Ⱦɨɦɤɨɬɨɪɵɣ ɡɞɟɫɶɫɬɪɨɹɬ
ɫɞɟɥɚɧɢɡɛɟɬɨɧɚ
Ɉɧɢɭɜɢɞɟɥɢɦɚɲɢɧɭɤɨɬɨɪɚɹ
ɨɫɬɚɧɨɜɢɥɚɫɶ
3. Ʉɚɤɫɨɸɡɱɬɨ ɫɥɨɜɨthat ɜɜɨɞɢɬɞɨɩɨɥɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɟ ɩɪɢɞɚɬɨɱɧɵɟ
ɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹ
I’m sure that he will come in time.
əɭɜɟɪɟɧɱɬɨ ɨɧɩɪɢɞɺɬɜɨɜɪɟɦɹ
4. Ʉɚɤɫɨɸɡɬɨɱɬɨɫɥɨɜɨthat ɜɜɨɞɢɬɩɪɢɞɚɬɨɱɧɵɟɩɨɞɥɟɠɚɳɟɟ
ɢɫɤɚɡɭɟɦɨɟɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹ
That glass is durable is undoubtful.
Ɍɨɱɬɨɫɬɟɤɥɨɞɨɥɝɨɜɟɱɧɨ– ɧɟɫɨɦɧɟɧɧɨ
5. Ʉɚɤɫɥɨɜɨ-ɡɚɦɟɧɢɬɟɥɶ that/those ɡɚɦɟɧɹɟɬɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɟɜ
ɟɞɢɧɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɦɦɧɨɠɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɦɱɢɫɥɟɢɩɟɪɟɜɨɞɢɬɫɹɷɬɢɦɫɭ
ɳɟɫɬɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɦɢɥɢɧɟɩɟɪɟɜɨɞɢɬɫɹ
This technique is more effective than that one.
ɗɬɚɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɹɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɟɟɱɟɦɬɚ ɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɹ
362
choose [CHz]
chose [CqVz]
cost [kPst]
cut [kAt]
do [dH]
cost [kPst]
cut [kAt]
did [dId]
drive [draIv]
drove [drqVv]
fall [fLl]
find [faInd]
get [get]
give [gIv]
go [gqV]
hang [hxN]
have [hxv]
hold [hqVld]
keep [kJp]
know [nqV]
lay [leI]
lead [lJd]
leave [lJv]
let [let]
lie [laI]
lose [lHz]
make [meIk]
mean [mJn]
meet [mJt]
overcome
["qVvq'kAm]
overhang
["qVvq'hxN]
precast
["prJ'kRst]
put [pVt]
rise [raIz]
fell [fel]
found [faVnd]
got [gPt]
gave [geIv]
went [went]
hung [hAN]
had [hxd]
held [held]
kept [kept]
knew [njH]
laid [leId]
led [led]
left [left]
let [let]
lay [leI]
lost [lPst]
made [meId]
meant [ment]
met [met]
overcame
["qVvq'keIm]
overhung
["qVvq'hAN]
precast
["prJ'kRst]
put [pVt]
rose [rqVz]
chosen
['CqVzqn]
cost [kPst]
cut [kAt]
done [dAn]
driven
['drIvqn]
fallen ['fLlqn]
found [faVnd]
got [gPt]
given ['gIvqn]
gone [gPn]
hung [hAN]
had [hxd]
held [held]
kept [kept]
known [nqVn]
laid [leId]
led [led]
left [left]
let [let]
lain [leIn]
lost [lPst]
made [meId]
meant [ment]
met [met]
overcome
["qVvq'kAm]
overhung
["qVvq'hAN]
precast
["prJ'kRst]
put [pVt]
risen ['rIzqn]
363
ɜɵɛɢɪɚɬɶ
ɫɬɨɢɬɶ
ɪɟɡɚɬɶ
ɞɟɥɚɬɶ
ɜɛɢɜɚɬɶ
ɩɚɞɚɬɶ
ɧɚɯɨɞɢɬɶ
ɩɨɥɭɱɚɬɶ
ɞɚɜɚɬɶ
ɢɞɬɢ
ɜɢɫɟɬɶ
ɢɦɟɬɶ
ɞɟɪɠɚɬɶ
ɯɪɚɧɢɬɶ
ɡɧɚɬɶ
ɤɥɚɫɬɶ
ɜɟɫɬɢ
ɭɯɨɞɢɬɶ
ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɬɶ
ɥɟɠɚɬɶ
ɬɟɪɹɬɶ
ɞɟɥɚɬɶ
ɡɧɚɱɢɬɶ
ɜɫɬɪɟɱɚɬɶ
ɩɪɟɨɞɨɥɟɜɚɬɶ
ɧɚɜɢɫɚɬɶ
ɩɪɟɞɜɚɪɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ
ɨɬɥɢɜɚɬɶ
ɤɥɚɫɬɶ
ɩɨɞɧɢɦɚɬɶɫɹ
run [rAn]
say [seI]
see [sJ]
set [set]
show [SqV]
ran [rxn]
said [sed]
saw [sL]
set [set]
showed [SqVd]
speak [spJk]
spoke [spqVk]
split [splIt]
spread [spred]
stand [stxnd]
take [teIk]
tell [tel]
think [TINk]
withstand
[wID'stxnd]
split [splIt]
spread [spred]
stood [stVd]
took [tVk]
told [tqVld]
thought [TLt]
withstood
[wID'stVd]
run [rAn]
said [sed]
seen [sJn]
set [set]
shown [SqVn]
spoken
['spqVkqn]
split [splIt]
spread [spred]
stood [stVd]
taken [tVk]
told [tqVld]
thought [TLt]
withstood
[wID'stVd]
ɛɟɠɚɬɶ
ɫɤɚɡɚɬɶ
ɜɢɞɟɬɶ
ɜɢɞɟɬɶ
ɩɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɬɶ
ɝɨɜɨɪɢɬɶ
ɪɚɫɳɟɩɢɬɶ
ɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɹɬɶ
ɫɬɨɹɬɶ
ɛɪɚɬɶ
ɪɚɫɫɤɚɡɵɜɚɬɶ
ɞɭɦɚɬɶ
ɜɵɞɟɪɠɢɜɚɬɶ
ȼ ɫɩɢɫɨɤ ɜɤɥɸɱɟɧɵ ɧɟɩɪɚɜɢɥɶɧɵɟ ɝɥɚɝɨɥɵ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɱɚɫɬɨ ɜɫɬɪɟɱɚ
ɸɬɫɹɜɬɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɥɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɟɩɨɫɬɪɨɢɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɭ
364
CONTENTS
Introduction ............................................................................................................... 3
3DUWௗ. Civil Architecture.......................................................................................... 6
Unit 3.1 ...................................................................................................................... 6
Unit 3.2 .................................................................................................................... 14
Unit 3.3 .................................................................................................................... 23
Unit 3.4 .................................................................................................................... 32
Test 7 ....................................................................................................................... 42
Unit 3.5 .................................................................................................................... 45
Unit 3.6 .................................................................................................................... 55
Unit 3.7 .................................................................................................................... 64
Unit 3.8 .................................................................................................................... 73
Test 8 ....................................................................................................................... 84
Unit 3.9 .................................................................................................................... 87
Unit 3.10.................................................................................................................. 95
Unit 3.11................................................................................................................ 103
Unit 3.12................................................................................................................ 112
Test 9 ..................................................................................................................... 123
3DUWௗ. Residential and Civil Architecture............................................................ 127
Unit 4.1 .................................................................................................................. 127
Unit 4.2 .................................................................................................................. 134
Unit 4.3 .................................................................................................................. 142
Unit 4.4 .................................................................................................................. 150
Test 10 ................................................................................................................... 161
Unit 4.5 .................................................................................................................. 164
Unit 4.6 .................................................................................................................. 172
Unit 4.7 .................................................................................................................. 180
Unit 4.8 .................................................................................................................. 188
Test 11 ................................................................................................................... 199
Unit 4.9 .................................................................................................................. 202
Unit 4.10................................................................................................................ 210
Unit 4.11................................................................................................................ 218
Unit 4.12................................................................................................................ 227
Test 12 ................................................................................................................... 238
Bibliography.......................................................................................................... 242
Appendices ............................................................................................................ 243
Appendix 1. Pronunciation Table.......................................................................... 243
Appendix 2. Vocabulary ....................................................................................... 245
Appendix 3. Grammar Topics............................................................................... 312
365
Appendix 4. Grammar Review.............................................................................. 315
1. ɑɚɫɬɢ ɪɟɱɢ ɢ ɱɥɟɧɵ ɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹ ..................................................... 315
(Parts of speech and parts of sentence)
2. ɂɦɹ ɋɭɳɟɫɬɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɟ (Noun)............................................................ 317
3. ɋɬɟɩɟɧɢ ɫɪɚɜɧɟɧɢɹ ɩɪɢɥɚɝɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɢ ɧɚɪɟɱɢɣ............................... 319
(Degrees of comparison of adjectives and adverbs)
ɑɢɫɥɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɟNumerals)................................................................... 321
ɆɟɫɬɨɢɦɟɧɢɟPronoun) ...................................................................... 322
ȽɥɚɝɨɥVerb) ....................................................................................... 324
ɇɟɥɢɱɧɵɟɮɨɪɦɵɝɥɚɝɨɥɚ(Verbals) ................................................... 335
ɋɥɨɜɨɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɧɢɟWord formation) ................................................. 347
ɋɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɚɉɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹ6HQWHQFHstructure) ................................... 350
ɉɪɢɥɨɠɟɧɢɟ$SSHQGL[..................................................................... 358
ɍɱɟɛɧɨɟɢɡɞɚɧɢɟ
Ƚɥɟɛɨɜɫɤɢɣ Ⱥɥɟɤɫɚɧɞɪɋɟɪɝɟɟɜɢɱ
ɉɪɨɰɭɬɨ Ɇɚɪɢɧɚȼɥɚɞɢɦɢɪɨɜɧɚ
ȺɇȽɅɂɃɋɄɂɃəɁɕɄ
ɞɥɹɫɬɭɞɟɧɬɨɜ-ɚɪɯɢɬɟɤɬɨɪɨɜ
ɍɱɟɛɧɢɤ
Часть II
ɄɨɦɩɶɸɬɟɪɧɚɹɜɟɪɫɬɤɚɂȺəɛɥɨɤɨɜɨɣ
ɉɨɞɩɢɫɚɧɨɤɩɟɱɚɬɢ15.01.2018ɎɨɪɦɚɬަȻɭɦɨɮɫɟɬɧɚɹ
ɍɫɥɩɟɱɥ21,4. ɌɢɪɚɠɷɤɡɁɚɤɚз 2. ©ɋ» 2.
ɋɚɧɤɬ-ɉɟɬɟɪɛɭɪɝɫɤɢɣɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣɚɪɯɢɬɟɤɬɭɪɧɨ-ɫɬɪɨɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣ ɭɧɢɜɟɪɫɢɬɟɬ
ɋɚɧɤɬ-ɉɟɬɟɪɛɭɪɝ-ɹɄɪɚɫɧɨɚɪɦɟɣɫɤɚɹ ул.д. Ɉɬɩɟɱɚɬɚɧɨɧɚɪɢɡɨɝɪɚɮɟɋɚɧɤɬ-ɉɟɬɟɪɛɭɪɝɭɥȿɝɨɪɨɜɚɞɥɢɬȺ
366
367
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368
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