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Федеральное агентство по образованию
Санкт-Петербургский государственный
архитектурно-строительный университет
Кафедра иностранных языков
АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК
ЗАДАНИЕ № 111
для студентов II курса специальностей 270102 – промышленное и гражданское
строительство, 270106 – производство строительных материалов, изделий
и конструкций, 270114 – проектирование зданий
Санкт-Петербург
2008
1
Рецензенты: доцент Л. Н. Борисова,
канд. филол. наук, доцент Л. Р. Данилова,
ст. преподаватель В. А. Памфилова
Английский язык. Задание № 111 для студентов II курса спец. 270102 –
промышленное и гражданское строительство, 270106 – производство строительных
материалов, изделий и конструкций, 270114 – проектирование зданий / СПб гос.
архит.-строит. ун-т; Сост.: А. С. Глебовский, Т. А. Денисова. – СПб., 2008. – 96 с.
Под общей редакцией канд. филол. наук, доцента А. С. Глебовского.
Задание предназначено для аудиторного чтения для студентов II курса (осенний семестр) по специальностям 270102 – промышленное и гражданское строительство, 270106 – производство строительных материалов, изделий и конструкций, 270114 – проектирование зданий. Задание составлено на основе оригинальных англоязычных текстов по вопросам строительства зданий.
Цель задания – совершенствование знаний и навыков студентов, необходимых для получения информации в сфере их профессиональной деятельности. Задачи пособия:
– развитие навыков фонологически правильной речи,
– повторение и расширение знаний по грамматике английского языка, необходимых для понимания текстов по специальности,
– расширение словарного минимума по специальности.
Задание состоит из 12 уроков. Каждый урок включает два текста из оригинальной литературы и набор лексических, грамматических и фонетических упражнений к ним. Каждый четвёртый урок содержит, кроме того, текст для домашнего чтения.
Помимо учебных заданий, пособие включает описание знаков транскрипции, словарный минимум по специальности, поурочный список грамматических
тем и список использованной литературы.
СОДЕРЖАНИЕ
Введение
Урок 3.1 ........................................................................................................................ 6
Урок 3.2 ....................................................................................................................... 11
Урок 3.3 ...................................................................................................................... 16
Урок 3.4 ...................................................................................................................... 22
Урок 3.5 ...................................................................................................................... 29
Урок 3.6 ...................................................................................................................... 35
Урок 3.7 ...................................................................................................................... 40
Урок 3.8 ...................................................................................................................... 45
Урок 3.9 ...................................................................................................................... 53
Урок 3.10 .................................................................................................................... 59
Урок 3.11 .................................................................................................................... 65
Урок 3.12 .................................................................................................................... 71
Знаки фонетической транскрипции ........................................................................ 78
Словарный минимум строительных терминов I–III семестров ........................... 80
Распределенгие грамматических тем по урокам ................................................... 94
Библиографический список ..................................................................................... 95
ã Санкт-Петербургский государственный
архитектурно-строительный университет,
2008
2
3
УВАЖАЕМЫЕ ПРЕПОДАВАТЕЛИ И СТУДЕНТЫ!
Грамматическая задача пособия – повторение и расширение знаний по
грамматике английского языка, необходимых для перевода текстов по специальности и правильного изложения их содержания в ответах на вопросы.
Список грамматических тем, которые повторяются или вводятся на каждом
уроке, дан в конце задания.
А. С. Глебовский
Данное задание является элементом комплекса учебно-методических материалов для курса обучения студентов строительных специальностей английскому
языку. Комплекс включает в себя:
· учебные задания по каждому из четырёх семестров обучения,
· краткий справочник по грамматике английского языка,
· сборник тестов для промежуточного контроля качества овладения студентами учебного материала.
Предлагаемое задание по своей структуре и методическим основам является продолжением учебных заданий № 108–109 для I курса.
Задание состоит из 12 уроков. Каждый урок включает:
· основной текст А для самостоятельного перевода со словарём,
· вспомогательный текст В для аудиторного перевода без словаря,
· вспомогательный текст С для домашнего чтения (в уроках 4, 8, 12),
· набор лексических, грамматических и фонологических упражнений.
Тексты A, B и C являются описаниями конструкционных особенностей зданий различных типов и взяты из оригинальных англоязычных текстов по вопросам строительства.
Фонологическая задача пособия – развитие навыков фонологически правильной речи, что подразумевает знание фонетической транскрипции и навыки
пользования словарём.
Лексическая задача пособия – расширение минимально-необходимого набора общеупотребительной и терминологической лексики по строительной специальности.
На основе частотной дифференциации лексического материала текстов был
выделены списки высокочастотной и низкочастотной лексики. Высокочастотная
лексика широко использована во всех типах тренировочных и контрольных заданий. Низкочастотная лексика (1-2 употребления на весь текстовой материал) дана
в виде примечания к тексту с переводом на русский язык. В упражнениях и заданиях она также даётся с переводом. Исключение составляют только фонологические упражнения.
Новая лексика по текстам А и В дается в лексическом упражнении № 1
к соответствующему тексту. Новая лексика по текстам С в основном содержится
в следующем за ним задании. Лексический состав упражнений определяется той,
и только той, лексикой, которая уже была представлена в изученных на данный
момент текстах.
Новая терминологическая лексика дана в словарном минимуме с указанием
текста, в котором она впервые использована.
4
5
Урок 3.1
Фонетическое задание
Прочитайте транскрипцию в списке A, соотнесите её с соответствующим
словом из списка B и переведите слово на русский язык. Учтите, что не все слова
списка В даны в списке А.
A
[breIs]; [bLd]; [pqVst]; [ ¢ brxkqt]; [klIp]; [»OIst]; [ ¢ mPdjHl]; [ ¢ bxtn]; [slqVp];
[ ¢ mJtq]; [gleIz]; [ ¢ xNgql]
B
model
bracket
board
joust
post
clip
slope
module
batten
button
joist
slip
angle
matter
angel
metre
glaze
brace
Текст A
KELDY CASTLE FOREST CABINS, CROPTON, YORKSHIRE,
ENGLAND
In this development, accommodation for visitors to a large forest area is provided
in 58 separate wood cabins of three types.
The cabins are supported by 100´300 mm timber beams which rest on concrete
ground beams or braced timber posts going to ground. The arrangement chosen allows
cabins to be positioned on a sloped site. All cabins are made up from the same
prefabricated panels and parts, only the lengths of floor and roof beams being different
between types. Floor panels, made of joists and floor boards, were fabricated in height
or width modules of one, two or three metres, with a special dished panel for the shower
room; external wall panels were fabricated in modules of one or two metres.
Special panels for each type were made for the gable ends above the 2m module
height line because of the different roof slopes. Roofs consist of rafters. These rafters
support either ply deck with built-up roofing and stones or 50´50 mm battens. The
boards are 150´25 mm in section, placed at 225 mm centres in two layers, which overlap,
and are nailed to the battens.
Connections between the panels and timber beams are generally made by
galvanised steel screws, 3.2 mm in diameter, near the four corners. 12 mm galvanised
steel bolts are used to connect the wall panel to the roof beam above and long screws
connect it to the floor panel below; the floor panel is connected to the floor beam by
galvanised steel straps. Other important connections also have steel straps or clips and
brackets with bolts or screws. Services are connected through the floor of each cabin,
heating and hot water being done electrically.
6
All elements and panels are attached to each other and to the foundations so that
the cabin functions as one unit with wind forces taken by the roof and the wall panels
acting in shear. Wind forces at right angles to the ground posts are taken by the concrete
ground beam.
The shell of each cabin was transported, erected and then glazed all in one day.
Installation of the internal partitions and finishing required a further five days. The
58 cabins were built in a period of 18 months with work in the factory starting two
months earlier than that on site.
Notes:
cabin n. коттедж
dished adj. вогнутый; тарельчатый
forest n. лес
ply deck многослойный настил
shower room душевая комната
strap n. скоба, хомут
Ответьте на вопросы к тексту
1. What kind of development is it?
2. What are the cabins made up from?
3. Why were special panels used?
4. How are the panel and beams connected?
5. Why does the cabin function as one unit with wind forces?
6. How long was the total period of construction on site?
Лексические упражнения
Упражнение 1. Переведите на русский язык приведённые ниже слова
и словосочетания:
accommodation (n.), batten (n.), board (n.), brace (v.), bracket (n.), built-up (adj.), at centres,
choose (v.), clip (n.), diameter (n.), gable end, glaze (v.), ground beam, joist (n.), metre (n.),
module (n.), nail (v.), overlap (v.), post (n.), rafter (n.), rest (v.), shell (n.), slope (n.).
Какие из перечисленных слов могут быть другими частями речи? Какими именно?
Как они в этом случае переводятся на русский язык?
Упражнение 2. Переведите на английский язык приведённые ниже слова
и словосочетания:
винт, вокруг, вполне, временный, высота, дорогой, жёсткость, избегать, из-за,
каждый, кровельное покрытие, ленточная ферма, лесоматериал, лист, надёжный,
неглубокий, отопление, перегородка, поддерживать, полое сечение, поперечная
устойчивость, поэтому, правильный, размещать, сдвиг, сквозь, слой, состоять из,
7
трудность, тщательный, характеристика, чем, электрический, электропроводка.
Упражнение 3. Найдите в тексте термины, обозначающие способы и средства соединения элементов здания. Дайте перевод найденных терминов на русский язык.
Упражнение 4. Определите: есть ли ошибки в переводе представленных ниже
слов. Если ошибки имеются, укажите правильный перевод.
project (v.)
slab
finished
develop
way
settlement
выступать
плита
готовый
разрабатывать
способ
осадка
technique
long
pier
footing
shaft
relative
технология
длинный
вертикальная опора
основание
ствол
относительный
Упражнение 5. Дайте антонимы следующих слов:
connect
simple
remove
temporary
external
narrow
general
the same
above
large
Грамматические упражнения
Упражнение 1. Переведите группы существительных:
timber beams, floor panels, shrinkage cracking, concrete masonry, storey height, roof
slopes, wind forces, cavity wall construction, six-person two-storey house, window size,
floor slab level, south-east side.
Упражнение 2. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на время и залог сказуемого.
1.
2.
3.
4.
The cabins are supported by 100´300 mm timber beams.
The floor panel will be connected to the floor beam by galvanised steel straps.
All cabins were made up from the same prefabricated panels and parts.
By the time the work on site started the work in the factory had been going on for
two months.
5. Floor panels are being fabricated in height or width modules of one, two or three
metres.
6. They have already determined the main properties of concrete.
7. Steel frames will allow installation of all kinds of services.
8
8. The 58 cabins have been built in a period of 18 months.
Упражнение 3. Переведите предложения, выделите подлежащее, сказуемое
и второстепенные члены в каждом из них.
1. All cabins are made up from the same prefabricated panels and parts.
2. Connections in steel can be made by welding or bolting.
3. The development of reliable wood glues has brought in a range of manufactured
products.
4. The polyester resin which is used in the production of GRP hardens and cures.
Упражнение 4. Работа в парах.
Студент C: Задайте 5 вопросов различных типов к тексту А.
Студент D: Ответьте на вопросы к тексту студента C.
Студенты C и D: Поменяйтесь ролями.
Текст B
WPOLSTONE HOUSES, MILTON KEYNES, ENGLAND
This group of houses, part of a larger development of similar construction, is an
example of the application of brickwork in which an external cavity wall construction is
used to protect the inner leaf from the weather, particularly rain.
The six-person two-storey house contains three main walls in the long direction;
these support the two monopitch roofs and the floor above ground level. The house is
unusual in that the main central wall is both an internal and an external wall and is
therefore of cavity construction throughout. The house is well insulated especially in
the roof. Window sizes are moderate except for the large window on the south-east side
where the solar gain into the living room compensates the loss of heat from reduced
insulation. Horizontal timber boarding is used on the south-east face as well as in the
roof gable ends of the living room.
The object of the structural design is to keep the masonry everywhere in
compression, under which it is strong, and reduce tension, under which it is weak. This
is best achieved by applying gravity loads down the centre of walls, as here on the
south-east wall for example, and providing frequent lateral supports to the walls so that
bending and tensile stresses, due to lateral wind forces on walls, are low. The usual
disadvantage of masonry, its instability, a direct result of its low tensile strength, is not
an important factor in buildings at the scale of this house: roofs, floors and walls at right
angles are all available to provide lateral support to the walls. Gravity loads do not cause
the sloping rafters to exert horizontal forces at the top of the support walls but do provide
the necessary lateral support.
Notes:
monopitch roof
односкатная крыша
9
Ответьте на вопросы к тексту
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Why is an external cavity wall construction used?
What do three main walls in the long direction do?
What is the unusual feature of the house?
Why is the window on the south-east side a large one?
What is the object of the structural design?
How is it best achieved?
Why isn’t instability of masonry an important factor in these buildings?
Грамматические упражнения
Упражнение 1. Какие времена использованы в тексте?
Упражнение 2. Найдите в тексте группы существительных.
Упражнение 3. Найдите в тексте пример эмоционального использования
глагола do.
Урок 3.2
Фонетическое задание
Прочитайте транскрипцию в списке A, соотнесите её с соответствующим
словом из списка B и переведите слово на русский язык. Учтите, что не все слова
списка В даны в списке А.
A
[ ¢ trxnspLt]; [ ¢ rIGId]; [Ik ¢ spqVz]; [eG]; [plRnt]; [ ¢ swJdn]; [ ¢ Cxnl];
[ ¢ praIvIt]; [ ¢ feISq]; [rI ¢ ses]; [ ¢ entrqns]; [ ¢ swItsqlqnd];
B
channel
fascia
canal
plant
rigid
expose
recess n., v.
fashion
entrance n.
entrance v.
Switzerland
planet
expense
edge
private
transport n.
transport v.
Sweden
Лексические упражнения
Упражнение 1. Переведите на русский язык приведённые ниже слова и словосочетания. Если Вы не знаете слово, найдите его в словаре. Выпишите из словаря то значение слова, в котором оно использовано в тексте.
TWO PRIVATE HOUSES
overlap n. – overlap v.
rest n. – rest v. – the rest n.
A private house in Commugny, Switzerland is a two-storey house without a
basement. Entrance, staircase and heating plant are in the recess at ground level.
Columns consisting of sections, set in foundation pockets, are located on a
3.75´3.75 m square grid with five columns on each longitudinal and four on each
transverse grid line. The outer columns are continuous through both storeys and are
interconnected longitudinally by I-beams at roof and floor level, forming a rigid-jointed
system. Composite floors, consisting of profiled steel decking with a 10 cm concrete
slab, span in the transverse direction, imposed load being 200 kg/m2. The external boundary
of the floors comprises an exposed fascia beam, assembled from angle sections. The columns
and beams are in weathering steel. Wind forces in the longitudinal direction are absorbed
by portal frame action; in the transverse direction they are transmitted by the floors to
vertical cross-bracings between the internal columns on the three middle grid lines.
Glazed areas on the upper floor consist of storey-height solar heat-resistant glass
in steel frames. The cladding consists of timber units, 3.75´2.47 m ´ 14 cm thick, with
10cm thermal insulation. The recessed bottom storey is of masonry construction.
***
A private house in Landskrona, Sweden consists of two blocks. The living room,
work room and kitchen are in a long low block, to one longitudinal side of which is
connected a square block containing the bedrooms. The entrance hall forms the link
between the two blocks.
To make transport easier and to achieve rapid erection, the long block was divided
into six units. Each unit comprises four corner columns, formed by channel sections,
10
11
boarding (n.), cavity wall, gravity load, scale (n.), solar (adj.), unusual (adj.).
Упражнение 2. Найдите перевод слов списка А в списке В.
A
застройка
этаж
каменная кладка
умеренный
полость
недостаток
похожий
достичь
арматурный прут
дешёвый
Текст A
B
achieve
bar
cavity
cheap
compression
development
disadvantage
estimate
flat
masonry
A
так как
напряжение
прямой
встречаться, иметь место
сжатие
плоский
снабжать
поэтому
оценить
сокращать
B
moderate
occur
provide
reduce
right
similar
since
storey
stress
therefore
Упражнение 3. Напишите предложения с каждым из перечисленных ниже
слов:
which are interconnected by edge beams, at roof and floor level on the two longitudinal
sides so as to form a rigid framed structure. In the transverse direction timber beams,
5´23 cm in section, span between the edge beams at floor and roof level. At the joints
between adjacent units their channel-section corner columns are paired with their webs
in contact and welded together to form I-sections.
Notes:
boundary n. граница, контур
kitchen n. кухня
pair v. соединять по двое
private adj. частный
Ответьте на вопросы к тексту
1. What kind of house is the one in Commugny?
2. How is the rigid-jointed system of the house formed?
3. What is the exterior finish of the house?
4. What is the layout of a private house in Landskrona?
5. Why was the long block divided into six units?
6. How is a rigid framed structure formed?
Лексические упражнения
Упражнение 1. Переведите на русский язык приведённые ниже слова
и словосочетания:
angle section, channel section, cross-bracing (n.), decking (n.), edge beam, entrance
hall, fascia beam, foundation pocket, framed (adj.), heating plant, I-beam, I-section (n.),
imposed load, portal frame, profiled (adj.), recess (n., v.), weathering steel.
Упражнение 2. Переведите на английский язык приведённые ниже слова и
словосочетания:
балочная ферма, включать в себя, вместе, внешний, выбирать, вытянутый, главный,
инженерные сети, квадратный, кирпичная кладка, колонна, лёгкий, лестница,
между, монолитный, особенно, перекрытие, подвал, потеря, приваренный,
прилагать, примыкающий, продольно, разделять, расположение, решётка, связь,
уровень, с расстоянием 2 м между осями.
Упражнение 3. Найдите в тексте термины, обозначающие материалы, используемые в строительстве. Дайте перевод найденных терминов на русский язык.
Упражнение 4. Определите – есть ли ошибки в переводе представленных
ниже слов. Если ошибки имеются, укажите правильный перевод.
12
area
cause
degree
direction
inch
next
площадь
вызывать
степень
направление
каждый
следующий
pour
quantity
shape
sometimes
step
twist
лить
количество
форма
иногда
этап
скручивать
Упражнение 5. Выберите толкование, которое соответствует строительному
термину в левой колонке.
1. A post of timber, steel or reinforced or prestressed
concrete driven into the ground, which enables load
A. COLUMN
from a structure to be carried down to a depth where it
can be safely born by the ground.
2. A condition reached in the loading of a compressed
B. STRUCTURAL
element or structure in which continued deformation
ELEMENT
results in a decrease of load-resisting capacity.
3. A structure made up of beam and column members
C. PILE
joined together in such a manner that the full strength
is transmitted from one member to the other.
4. A wall which in its own plane carries shear forces
D. INSTABILITY
resulting from applied wind, earthquake, or other
transverse loads.
5. A structural member whose function is to carry loads
E. RIGID FRAME
parallel to its longitudinal axis.
6. One of the basic units of construction, such as beams,
F. SHEAR WALL
from which structures are formed.
Грамматические упражнения
Упражнение 1. Прочтите и переведите сокращения:
¼ in, 3.75´3.75 m square grid, 110 °F, 200 kg/mІ, 7.80´7.80 m on plan, 5´23 cm in
section, 10 lb, 1.20 m deep, at 11.20 m centres, 2 ft 4 in, 16 2/3 cm wide, 65 %, outside
temperature -15°C.
Упражнение 2. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на причастия
и причастные обороты.
1. The panels are attached to a supporting framework.
2. The beams rest on braced timber posts going to ground.
3. Having interconnected four corner columns by edge beams the builders formed a
rigid framed structure.
4. The existing building can’t be adapted to changing circumstances.
13
5. The ends comprise two panels, the uprights being spaced at 3.90 m centres.
6. Non-loadbearing internal walls are partitions separating room from room.
7. Using insulation we should remember (помнить) that its degree provided by a
single-layer wall depends on the wall weight.
8. Main structural work was completed in three days, the total construction time
being three weeks.
Упражнение 3. Работа в парах.
Ответьте на вопросы к тексту
1. Who was the structural design of the house made by?
2. What can the building be used for?
3. How does the residential design differ (отличаться, различаться) from the office
one?
4. What are the dimensions of the upper storey?
5. What is the structure supported by?
6. What forms the framework of the building?
7. What are the features of the façades of the building?
Студент C: Задайте 5 вопросов различных типов к тексту А.
Студент D: Ответьте на вопросы к тексту студента C.
Студенты C и D: Поменяйтесь ролями.
Текст B
PRIVATE HOUSE NEAR STALLIKON, SWITZERLAND
The structural design of the house was made by A. Urech, Zurich. It is a
standardised two-storey building which can be used for residential or office
accommodation. The upper storey, comprising residential or office accommodation
together with sanitary facilities, has no internal supports but is raised on external steel
columns. The residential design has a cantilevered balcony at one end. The recessed
bottom storey contains the heating plant and the spiral staircase to the upper floor.
The upper storey is rectangular in plan 16.80´8.00 m with storey height 2.80 m
and ceiling height 2.40 m.
The elevated structure is supported by four external columns fixed in foundation
pockets. It cantilevers at both ends and is composed of four storey-height lattice girders
in the external wall planes. Transverse beams span 7.80m between the lattice girders of
the longitudinal walls at roof and floor level. At both these levels the framework is
stiffened with horizontal cross-bracings (40´10 mm rectangular section or 40´40´4 mm
angle). Wind forces are transmitted to the foundations through four external columns.
The external columns are rectangular hollow sections, 300´150 mm, spaced at 11.20 m
centres in the longitudinal direction. The longitudinal facades are divided into four panels
by uprights spaced at 2.80 m centres between the external columns, plus one cantilevering
bay at each end of the building. The ends comprise two panels, the uprights being spaced
at 3.90 m centres.
Aluminium cladding consists of 50 mm thick sandwich panels (93´280 cm)
incorporating plastic windows or fixed glazing set in rubber gasket strips. The cladding
panels also serve as fire protection to the external structural steelwork.
Notes:
Грамматические упражнения
Упражнение 1. Найдите в тексте причастия I. Определите их функцию
и переведите на русский язык.
Упражнение 2. Найдите в тексте причастный оборот и переведите его на
русский язык.
Лексические упражнения
Упражнение 1. Переведите на русский язык приведённые ниже слова и словосочетания. Если Вы не знаете слово, найдите его в словаре. Выпишите из словаря то значение слова, в котором оно использовано в тексте.
cantilever (v.), cross bracing, glazing (n.), raise (v.), residential (adj.), spiral staircase,
upright (n.)
Упражнение 2. Найдите перевод слов списка А в списке В.
A
оборудование
прямоугольный
также
перемычка
помещение
перекрывать пролёт
потолок
так чтобы
фундамент
высота
B
accommodation
also
bay
both
bottom
ceiling
cladding
comprise
design
elevated
A
обшивка
защита
проект
усиливать
нижний
оба
содержать
стальные конструкции
возвышающийся
секция
B
facilities
foundation
height
protection
rectangular
so as
span
steelwork
stiffen
web
Упражнение 3. Напишите предложения с каждым из перечисленных ниже слов:
cantilever n. – cantilever v.
glaze v. – glazing n.
balcony n. балкон
gasket n. уплотняющая прокладка
14
15
Урок 3.3
Фонетическое задание
Прочитайте транскрипцию в списке A, соотнесите её с соответствующим
словом из списка B и переведите слово на русский язык. Учтите, что не все слова
списка В даны в списке А.
A
[daI ¢ xmItq]; [JC]; [SIq]; [aI ¢ dentIkql]; [frRns]; [ ¢ stxgq]; [q ¢ sembql];
[ IndI ¢ vIGVql]; [ ¢ tjHbjVlq]; [ ¢ aIsqleIt]; [eId]; [saIz]
¢
B
aid
size
add
seize
stagger
share
assemble
itch
isolate
diameter
ensemble
stage
shear
France
identical
tubular
each
individual
bolting these girders together. After erection in the building these edge girders,
interconnected in pairs, form a girder grillage spanning between the columns. The
connections to the external columns are made with the aid of brackets.
Under the columns of the shear wall units there are eight concrete-filled tubular
steel piles, 22 cm dia and 7.0 m deep. The other columns have individual foundations.
Notes:
isolate v. изолировать
mesh mat арматурная сетка
Ответьте на вопросы к тексту
1. How large is this residential development?
2. What are the overall dimensions of an individual block?
3. Which prefabricated units were used for the structural steelwork?
4. Where are floor unit loads transmitted?
5. How were elements of the structure connected?
6. What do the columns bear on?
Текст A
BLOCKS OF FLATS IN ROUEN, FRANCE
Лексические упражнения
This residential development comprises 500 flats in 25 blocks with a total floor
area of 38 500 m2. The blocks, each of which is a five-storey structure without a basement,
are either isolated or arranged in interconnected groups. On the ground floor there are
the entrance hall and heating plant. Each upper floor comprises five flats, with three to
five rooms.
The individual blocks are rectangular on plan with overall dimensions 23.70´19.20 m.
Each block height is 14.60 m above ground level.
Two types of large prefabricated units were used for the structural steelwork:
shear wall assemblies consisting of columns and cross-bracings, extending the full height
of the building, and space frame floor units, each corresponding in size to the floor area
of one flat. After construction of the foundations, two shear wall units in each direction
of the building were erected in such positions that the floor units of the staircase could
be connected to their columns. The other floor units are joined to this stiffened staircase
and transmit their loads to the shear wall units, to continuous columns provided outside
the cladding and to storey-height columns within the flats. Before erection, the large
floor units were assembled from elements of identical size, 3.60´2.40 m, each of which
comprises a top and bottom steel mesh mat. These mats, which are 30 cm apart, are
staggered half a mesh width in relation to one another in both horizontal directions. The
joints in the top and bottom mats are interconnected diagonally by round steel bars,
8 mm dia, to form a space frame. The mats themselves consist of 10mm dia bars at
300 mm centres in both directions. Each floor element is enclosed by 300 mm deep
lattice girders composed of angle sections. The elements are joined to one another by
Упражнение 1. Переведите на русский язык приведённые ниже слова и словосочетания:
16
aid (n.), continuous column, dia (diameter) (n.), edge girder, floor area, ground floor,
identical (adj.), mat (n.), space frame, stagger (v.), tubular (adj.).
Какие из перечисленных слов могут быть другими частями речи? Какими именно?
Как они в этом случае переводятся на русский язык?
Упражнение 2. Переведите на английский язык приведённые ниже слова
и словосочетания:
балочная ферма, вестибюль, возведение, двутавровая балка, диагонально, другой,
жилая застройка, квартира, комната, крепить болтами, кронштейн, круглый,
направление, общий, пара, перекрёстная связь, после, пространственная стержневая
конструкция, размер, ростверк из стальных балок, с расстоянием 30 см друг от
друга, сборный элемент, собственный фундамент, соединяться, соответствовать
по размеру, стальная свая, стена жёсткости, такой, элемент перекрытия.
Упражнение 3. Найдите в тексте термины, обозначающие элементы здания.
Дайте перевод найденных терминов на русский язык.
17
Упражнение 4. Заполните пропуски в тексте, используя слова из приведённого
ниже списка:
also
centres
method
most
together
between
faces
mm
timber beams
wood and masonry
Sixth Form College, Alton, Hampshire, England
The (1)… of construction used here is efficient because the internal volumes are
not large and the principal materials are (2)… . The hall has an octagonal
(восьмиугольный) plan. (3)… areas are covered by trussed rafters (стропильные
фермы), in which all the members are in the same plane and connected (4)… by metal
plates, or by one of eight types of trusses, in which members are in different planes. The
external walls are of double-leaf construction using 100mm thick bricks with a 50 (5)…
cavity (6)… . The internal walls are (7)… 100mm thick. The trussed rafters spanning
5.55m are spaced at 600mm (8)… while the trusses, spanning 7.35m, are at the larger
spacing of 2.70m between centres. The hall has a 13m distance between opposite (9)…
of its octagonal plan and is spanned by four principal 35´495 mm laminated (10)… .
(продолжение текста в упражнении 3 урока 3.6 стр. 37)
Грамматические упражнения
Упражнение 1. Переведите предложения, определите, к какой части речи
относятся подчеркнутые слова.
1.The joints in the top and bottom mats are interconnected diagonally by round
steel bars and form a space frame.
2. The entrance hall forms the link between the two blocks.
3. The individual blocks have rectangular form.
4. All connections are bolted.
5. A 12 mm galvanized steel bolt is used to connect the wall panel to the roof
beam.
6. The members are joined by bolts.
7. After the initial set careful control of temperature and humidity conditions is
necessary.
8. Deflections in double skin panels are easy to control.
9. In general, control conditions on site are worse than those at a factory.
Упражнение 2. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на причастие I
и причастные обороты.
1. The development consists of two blocks containing 78 flats.
2. Increasing the plan area of the tube as much as possible the engineers increased
the effective section area of the cantilever.
18
3. These partitions should possess the necessary strength to support their own
weight and all the loads, including effects of impact loads.
4. Framed buildings frequently have walls which increase structural rigidity, that
is, serving to transmit horizontal loads.
5. Services are connected through the floor of each cabin, heating being done
electrically.
6. Wood has a cellular structure which resembles a number of tubes lying in the
direction of the grain.
7. The forces acting upon the framework are transmitted to the foundation through
the following assemblies of load-bearing members.
8. The two layers are interconnected by stainless steel ties extending through the
insulation.
Упражнение 3. Переведите предложения с оборотом there + to be.
1. There are three general areas of importance in foundation design.
2. There are three basic forms of shallow foundations.
3.There are many cases in which a short compression element is used as a transition
between footing and supported element.
4.There are many different relationships for structural action of walls, columns,
and column foundations.
Упражнение 4. Работа в парах.
Студент C: Задайте 5 вопросов различных типов к тексту А.
Студент D: Ответьте на вопросы к тексту студента C.
Студенты C и D: Поменяйтесь ролями.
Текст B
HIGH-RISE RESIDENTIAL DEVELOPMENT AT BALORNOCK,
SCOTLAND
The development consists of eight multi-storey blocks comprising a total of 1356
flats. The flats, ranging from one to four rooms, are accommodated in two slab blocks
(with 26 and 28 storeys respectively) and in six 31-storey point blocks. Each slab block
has three vertical circulation cores, while each point block has one core.
Slab blocks are 93´11 m overall on plan, rising to 77 m and 71 m above ground
level while four point blocks are 22.90´15.25 m and two point blocks – 30.50´18.30 m
overall on plan with height above ground level being 84 m.
The structural steelwork for all the buildings transmits the vertical loads and also
the horizontal wind forces. Internal and external columns continue through three storeys
and are interconnected in both directions by floor beams. Beams and columns are
of I-section; all connections are bolted. Wind-bracing is achieved by vertical lattice
19
systems in the walls between the flats and by rigid interconnection of floor beams and
columns to multi-storey portal frames in the external walls and in the internal walls near
the cores. Structural co-operation of the portal frames and lattice bracings is ensured by
the rigid floors. To increase rigidity, the external columns and perimeter beams of the point
blocks are encased in concrete up to the 10th floor. For a wind pressure of 150kg/m2
the lateral deflection of the buildings is calculated as less than 1/500 of the height of the
building.
Continuous reinforcement is incorporated over the floor beams. Floor slabs are
connected to the steel beams by means of welded shear studs in pairs at 60cm centres.
In all, 704 reinforced concrete piles with 3.5 m average length were used for
building foundation bearing on sandstone and shale. The piles are 90 cm in diameter.
A
сплошной
многоэтажный
прогиб
увеличивать(ся)
заключать в оболочку
опираться
посредством
пока
вычислять
плита
B
connection
reinforcement
load
continue
multi-storey
pressure
near
rise
external
deflection
A
продолжать(ся)
давление
рядом с
портальная рама
внутренний
нагрузка
подниматься
внешний
соединение
арматура
B
calculate
encase
while
portal frame
internal
slab
bear
by means of
continuous
increase
Упражнение 3. Напишите предложения с каждым из перечисленных ниже
Notes:
слов:
co-operation n. взаимодействие
Ответьте на вопросы к тексту
accommodate – accommodation
interconnect – interconnection
1. How many flats do the blocks comprise?
2. What kinds of blocks does the development consist of?
3. How do the blocks differ (отличаться, различаться) in height?
4. What is the cross section of beams and columns?
5. How is wind-bracing achieved?
6. Why are the external columns and perimeter beams of the point blocks encased in
concrete?
7. What kind of foundation was used?
Грамматическое упражнение
Найдите в тексте причастия I. Определите их функцию и переведите на
русский язык.
Лексические упражнения
Упражнение 1. Переведите на русский язык приведённые ниже слова и словосочетания. Если Вы не знаете слово, найдите его в словаре. Выпишите из словаря то значение слова, в котором оно использовано в тексте.
accommodate (v.), average (adj.), circulation core, interconnection (n.), lattice (n.), point
block, range (v.), respectively (adv.), sandstone (n.), shale (n.), shear stud, slab block.
Упражнение 2. Найдите перевод слов списка А в списке В.
20
21
Урок 3.4
Фонетическое задание
Прочитайте транскрипцию в списке A, соотнесите её с соответствующим
словом из списка B и переведите слово на русский язык. Учтите, что не все слова
списка В даны в списке А.
A
[¢ fLwqd]; [¢ LltqneIt]; [q¢maVnt]; [Ig¢ zIst]; [¢ sPfIt]; [sq¢ pLt]; [smHD];
[Ll¢ tWnIt]; [¢ PpqzIt]; [slaIt];
B
opposed
alternate (adj.) alternative
exit
soffit
alternate (v.)
smother
slight
forward
slit
exist
amount
support
opposite
smooth
Текст A
ELIZABETH HOUSE. LEICESTER, ENGLAND
This residential building is 16 storeys high consisting, on elevation, of cast-inplace concrete end walls and of storey-height precast concrete panels on the long side
walls.
The building consists of the external walls and a series of 175mm internal walls;
the external walls have an overall thickness of 240mm but contain 40mm deep grooves.
There is a 125´500 mm precast concrete edge beam on the east and west sides connecting
the walls together at their ends and helping to support the floor slab. In general the
floors are 150mm thick, comprising a 75mm precast concrete plate with a smooth soffit
and 75mm cast-in-place concrete topping that connects the floor to the walls and edge
beams. The corridor slab is cast-in-place and 100 mm thick, 150 mm thick opposite the
lifts, and is supported by beams on each side of the corridor. At ground floor level, the
cladding consists of vertical precast concrete strips alternating with windows, but at all
levels above this, the precast concrete panels are shaped and contain a window opening
in the centre. All loadbearing walls are founded on heavy ground beams, typically
1200´900 mm in section, which in turn are supported by 750mm large diameter bored
piles; the ground floor slab is supported by these and other ground beams resting on the
piles.
At each typical floor level, there are a total of 15 different types of shaped cladding
panels out of a total of 18 panels at each level. The differences exist mainly in slight
variations in overall width which, in some cases, are taken up by the gap between the
forward vertical edges of adjacent panels; this gap varies between 70 and 175 mm. The
vertical joint itself is set back near the edge of the floor slab and has a constant width of
20 mm. In those cases where the main part of each panel is identical, the panels can be
22
made using the same mould. At roof level, the depth of the panel splay is reduced compared
to that at typical floor levels.
Horizontal forces are taken by the cross walls in the east-west direction and by
the end walls, the staircase wall and lift shaft walls going in the north-south direction;
all these walls sit on the ground beams and piles.
The total period of construction amounted to 24 months.
Notes:
bored pile буронабивная свая
groove n. паз, канавка
splay n. скошенная кромка
Ответьте на вопросы к тексту
1. How many storeys are there in the residential building?
2. What are the features of the external walls?
3. What connects the floor to the walls and edge beams?
4. What makes the 15 types of shaped cladding panels different?
5. What are horizontal forces taken by?
6. How long was the total period of construction?
Лексические упражнения
Упражнение 1. Переведите на русский язык приведённые ниже слова и словосочетания:
alternate (v.), amount (v.), cross wall, end wall, forward (adj., adv.), found (v.), gap
(n.), opposite (adv.), set back (v.), slight (adj.), smooth (adj.), soffit (n.).
Какие из перечисленных слов могут быть другими частями речи? Какими именно?
Как они в этом случае переводятся на русский язык?
Упражнение 2. Переведите на английский язык приведённые ниже слова
и словосочетания:
бетонная плита, в общей сложности, в свою очередь, вариация, верхний, защитный
слой, внутренняя стена, идентичный, использовать, монолитный, несущая стена,
облицовочная панель, опалубка, полоса, помогать, постоянный, свая, серия, случай,
сокращать, соседний, стык, торцевая стена, тяжёлый, фасад, фасонный, фундаментная балка, шахта лифта, ширина.
Упражнение 3. Дайте синонимы следующих слов:
23
gap n.
slight adj.
aid n.
rest v.
exploit v.
attach v.
façade n.
shell n.
Грамматические упражнения
Упражнение 1. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на инфинитив,
а также на объектные и субъектные инфинитивные обороты.
1. The Romans made extensive use of the arch to distribute thrust more evenly.
2. We expect the builders to show good results.
3. The construction of the factory is believed to finish at the end of this year.
4. The usual design technique is to check the footing stresses in order to assure
the adequate thickness.
5. To make a joint watertight certain materials should be used.
6. Galvanised steel bolts are used to connect the wall panel to the roof beam
above.
7. To keep the masonry everywhere in compression is the main object of the
structural design.
8. We know the building technique to be an important branch of modern
construction.
Упражнение 2. Переведите предложения, определите функцию слова that.
1. It is known, that all loadbearing walls are founded on heavy ground beams.
2. At roof level, the depth of the panel is reduced compared to that at typical floor
levels.
3. That the ground floor area is open is due to the buildings being raised off the
ground on pillars.
4. The precast concrete elements, that form structure for each unit, consist of
wall and floor panels.
5. That long precast beam runs along the south side.
6. The work in the factory started two months earlier than that on site.
7. .. The house is unusual in that the main central wall is both an internal and an
external one.
Текст B
HOUSING ESTATE AT TARANTO, ITALY
A uniform structural system was used for all the buildings. In the two longitudinal
facades and on the centre-line columns, consisting of sections ranging from HE 140 A to
HE 180 B, at 3.44 m centres, were built on tapered reinforced concrete columns in the
open bottom storey. In the longitudinal direction the external columns were interconnected
by pin-jointed beams, channel sections U 220, while the central columns were rigidly
interconnected by HE 180 A beams. In the transverse direction secondary beams were
pin-jointed to the columns. All structural connections were bolted. Wind forces are
transmitted through the floors to the reinforced concrete cores and to vertical cross
bracings in the end walls of the wings.
In the construction of the floors reinforced concrete T-beams were used spanning
between outside and central beams. Precast floor units are 5.20 m long, 0.75 m wide and
19cm thick, resting on in-situ reinforced concrete beams. Reinforcement was welded to
the top flanges of the steel beams and structural continuity of the concrete beams over
the central steel beams was ensured by lapping of the reinforcement.
Foundations are bearing on limestone. Pad foundations were used under the
columns. Under the wind bracings in the ends of the buildings strip foundations were
used. Bearing pressure on subsoil is 3 kg/cm2.
Notes:
lapping n. соединение внахлёстку
pillar n. колонна, стойчатая опора
T-beam тавровая балка
Ответьте на вопросы к тексту
1. What kinds of blocks are there in this residential development?
2. What is the difference in the floor plan of the blocks?
3. Why is the ground floor area largely open?
4. What are the features of the structural system of all the buildings?
5. How were structural elements connected?
6. Where were T-beams used?
7. Describe the foundation of the building.
Грамматическое упражнение
Найдите в тексте причастия I. Определите их функцию и переведите на русский язык.
Лексические упражнения
This residential development comprises 460 flats, accommodated in point blocks
four or nine storeys high and long four-storey blocks. The latter, each of which has a
structural core in the middle and two flats per floor, are joined to the point blocks with
central core and three flats per floor. The buildings are raised off the ground on pillars,
so that the ground floor area is largely open and with unrestricted access.
Упражнение 1. Переведите на русский язык приведённые ниже слова и словосочетания. Если Вы не знаете слово, найдите его в словаре. Выпишите из словаря то значение слова, в котором оно использовано в тексте.
24
25
access (n.), bearing pressure, pad foundation, pin-joint (v.), strip foundation, structural
connection, structural continuity, subsoil (n.), taper (v.), unrestricted (adj.), wing (n.).
Упражнение 2. Найдите перевод слов списка А в списке В.
A
B
на этаж
ветровая нагрузка
известняк
однородный
вспомогательная балка
последний
система связей
середина
открытый
включать в себя
… m wide
I-beam
bolt
bracing
channel section
comprise
consist
core
ensure
flange
A
фланец
ствол (высотного здания)
крепить болтом
двутавровая балка
швеллерный профиль
обеспечивать
состоять из
сваривать
передавать
шириной … м
B
limestone
middle
open
per floor
secondary beam
the latter
transmit
uniform
weld
wind force
Упражнение 3. Напишите предложения с каждым из перечисленных ниже
слов:
alternate adj. – alternate v. – alternative n.
Текст C
SPELMAN HALLS, PRINCETON UNIVERSITY, NEW JERSEY, USA
The development is made up of eight-house units. Each house unit is an assembly
of precast concrete elements and glazing, with further internal divisions made by thin
but relatively heavy partition walls, generally 33/8 in (80mm) thick. The precast concrete
elements, that form the enclosure and structure for each unit, consist of wall and floor
panels, stair flights and long precast beams. These 57ft (17.4m) long precast beams run
along the south and east sides, the latter being a prestressed post-tensioned beam which
cantilevers 22ft (6.71m) off an internal cross wall and, at the south-east corner, supports
the former, which is simply supported at this end. Both beams are 8in (203mm) wide at
the top but 11 in (279mm) wide at the bottom, thus making a shelf to support the floor
panels; the floor panels are attached with galvanised steel angles at 4ft 10in (1.47m)
centres using a 3/4in (19mm) bolt that fixes to ferrules cast in a recess in the top of the
slab and in the sides of the beam. Both beams are supported by the internal cross wall.
These internal loadbearing walls are 111/4in (286mm) thick. The other loadbearing wall
panels, including those in the stair core and those supporting the far end of the beams,
are 8in (203mm) thick. All the wall panels rest on an upstand wall on a strip footing,
both the latter being of cast-in-place concrete construction.
The floor panels are 8in (203mm) thick but have different spans, the different slab
strengths, thus required, being provided by post-tensioning. There is no concrete topping.
Most floor panels are attached to the walls by galvanised steel angles at 4ft 10in (1.47 m)
26
centres using 3/4 in (19mm) bolts that fix to ferrules cast in the tops of the floor panels
and the sides of the wall panels. For the joint between the floor panel and the 113/4 in
(286mm) internal cross wall, these ferrules are cast both in the vertical edge of the floor
panel, connecting to bars projecting from the wall panel below, as well as in the top of
the floor panel, connecting by means of steel plates to the adjacent floor panel and by
means of steel angles to the wall panel above. Both types of ferrule are placed at 4ft 10
in (1.47 m) centres.
There are two types of horizontal joint between the wall panel units. The 113/4 in
(286mm) internal cross wall, which supports floor panels on each side, also supports the
wall panel above, initially by bars projecting from the centre of the lower panel, which
are joined through a connector allowing adjustment for height. When in the required
position, the gap between the floor and wall panels is filled with mortar or cast-in-place
concrete. All the other walls support floor panels only on one side, with a ½ in (13mm)
joint, on the other side, between it and the panel above. These panels bear onto steel
plates with a locating pin using plastic shims for height adjustment.
The core walls are planned to provide support to the stairs and floor panels. The
stair core is top lit by ¾ in (19mm) green-tinted toughened (tempered) glass. There were
61 different types of precast element for this house unit. At each typical floor, there are
nine different types of floor panel; the other floors, or the roof, either repeat precisely or
use largely the same floor types. All the panel types in the house unit considered are also
used in other units.
The post-tensioned beam is stressed, from one end only, to a total prestress of
about 160 tons (145 tonnes). Prestressing allows the load applied to be balanced, so that
there is no deflection at the end of the cantilever.
Notes:
ferrule n. муфта
lit v. ( p.p. от light) освещённый
shim n. вкладыш
upstand wall подстенок (выступающий из фундамента)
Ответьте на вопросы к тексту
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
What kind of house are the units?
Which beams are post-tensioned?
How are the floor panels attached to the beams?
What do the wall panels rest on?
What is the thickness of the floor panels?
What is the distance between galvanised steel angles which connect floor panels to
the walls?
7. What is the difference between the two types of horizontal joint connecting the wall
panel units?
8. What are the core walls planned for?
27
9. How is the stair core lit?
10. Why is there no deflection at the end of the cantilever?
Урок 3.5
Лексическое упражнение
Фонетическое задание
В списке А даны некоторые слова и выражения, которые использованы
в тексте для домашнего чтения. Найдите их перевод в списке В.
A
above
adjacent
adjustment
apply
attach
cantilever v.
connector
corner
division
enclosure
far
fix v.
flight
form v.
further
initially
B
строительный раствор
тонированный
замкнутое пространство
перегородка
лестничный марш
подвергать последующему
напряжению (бетон)
первый (из перечисленных)
полка
относительно
ленточный фундамент
дальнейший
консольно выступать
обеспечивать
тонкий
через
точно
28
A
mortar
partition
post-tension v.
precisely
project v.
provide
B
первоначально
элемент
выступать
тот же
прикреплять
тонна
relatively
shelf
strip footing
the former
the same
thin
through
tinted
ton
unit
угол
соединитель
крепить
выше
дальний
применять
образовывать
разделение
регулировка
соседний
Прочитайте транскрипцию в списке A, соотнесите её с соответствующим
словом из списка B и переведите слово на русский язык. Учтите, что не все слова
списка В даны в списке А.
A
[kLd]; [daI¢ xgqnql]; [¢ GIpsqm]; [vOId]; [hqV¢ tel]; [kqm¢ plJt]; [qV¢ mIt];
[kqn¢ venSqnql]; [skJm]; [¢ steIbIlaIz]
B
conventional
compete
gypsum
void
convectional
scheme
hotel
complete
chord
omit
chard
skim
stabilise
gypsy
diagonal
Текст A
HYATT REGENCY HOTEL, LEXINGTON, KENTUCKY, USA
Conventional steel framing is used on the lowest four floors of the hotel, but a
staggered truss system is used in the upper part of the building, where the full-height
trusses make the divisions of the space into hotel rooms. The lower levels have a column
grid of 28´20 ft (8.53´6.10 m) and a framing scheme, which have the main beams
spanning the shorter and the secondary beams the longer dimension of this grid. The
floor slab is of 4 ½ in (114mm) lightweight concrete acting compositely both with the
3in (76mm) metal deck and the steel beams. Above the fifth level, staggered trusses are
used and are spaced at 56ft (17.07m) centres at each floor level, taking the weight of two
floors, one each at the top and bottom, and spanning to columns across the complete
60ft (18.29m) width of the building. Pratt type framing of the trusses, with diagonals in
tension, is used. However, at the centre of the trusses the diagonals are omitted to allow
door openings. The floor here is of prestressed hollow core concrete planks, 8ft (2.44 m)
wide and 8in (203mm) thick, used without a topping. The shear connection between the
floor planks and the top and bottom chords members of the truss is accomplished with
shear studs welded to the chords and attached to reinforcing bars projecting from the
planks. The voids are then grouted up. The external walls consist of various types of
precast concrete cladding units. The internal partitions use gypsum board on metal studs.
Where a truss forms the division, it is clad with two layers of gypsum board on each
face.
As soon as the trusses were erected, the floor planks were used to stabilise them
by welding of a plate embedded in the planks to the chords of the trusses. A typical floor
took less than four days to complete.
29
The staggered truss system is most suitable for narrow shaped buildings which
can accept cross walls and is thus of limited application. It is essentially a high rise
system, going up to 30 stories and more, where, as in other high rise methods, as much
vertical load is transferred to the outside columns to resist wind forces as is necessary
for an economic floor structure. Structural steel used is about 7 lb/ft2 (34 kg/m2) of floor
area.
Notes:
door n. дверь
economic adj. экономичный
gypsum board гипсокартонный лист
plank n. пластина
staggered truss расположение балочных ферм в шахматном порядке
работающее на сдвиг; выступ арматуры работающий на сдвиг; пространство;
перекрывать пролёт; застройка; соединять; конструкционная сталь; быть
пригодным; растяжение; таким образом; пустоты.
Упражнение 3. Определите: есть ли ошибки в переводе представленных ниже
слов. Если ошибки имеются, укажите правильный перевод.
allow
without
lowest
resist
form
attach
позволять
без
низкий
противостоять
образовывать
прикреплять
other
accept
partition
weight
through
compositely
другой
принимать
перегородка
вес
через
совместно
Ответьте на вопросы к тексту
1. What is the difference between the framing scheme of the lowest floors of the hotel
and that of the upper floors?
2. What are the dimensions of the column grid at the lower levels?
3. What kind of concrete are the floor slabs made of?
4. Why are the diagonals at the centre of the trusses omitted?
5. How are the external walls clad?
6. How are the trusses stabilised?
7. Why is the staggered truss system essentially a high rise one?
Лексические упражнения
Упражнение 1. Переведите на русский язык приведённые ниже слова и словосочетания:
chord (n.), clad (adj.), complete (v.), conventional (adj.), diagonal (n.), framing (n.),
framing scheme, stabilise (v.), stud (n.), omit (v.).
Какие из перечисленных слов могут быть другими частями речи? Какими именно? Как они в этом случае переводятся на русский язык?
Упражнение 2. Переведите на английский язык приведённые ниже слова
и словосочетания:
как только; с расстоянием 17 м между осями; пояс фермы; сетка колонн; поперечная
стена; дверной проём; заделывать в; главным образом; поверхность; сторона;
настил из пустотного преднапряжённого бетона; настил перекрытия; заливать
раствором; лист сухой штукатурки; высотный; лёгкий бетон; ограниченное
применение; главный; металлический настил; арматурный стержень; соединения,
30
Упражнение 4. Выберите толкование, которое соответствует строительному
термину в левой колонке.
1. A timber, steel, or reinforced concrete beam of small
A. BEAM
scale or closely spaced in sets.
2. A structural system for a building with braced frames
in one direction and unbraced frames in the other
B. GIRDER
direction by use of storey-deep trusses staggered in
location at alternate frames on every other floor of the
building.
C. JOIST
3. The space that is not occupied by the solid materials.
4. An inclined beam in a roof truss extending from the
D. RAFTER
ridge (конёк крыши) to the supporting wall.
E. STAGGERED 5. A structural element which supports a load across a
TRUSS
gap by bending action.
SYSTEM
6. A term used for larger sizes of beam, especially those
F. VOID
built up from smaller sections.
Грамматические упражнения
Упражнение 1. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на инфинитив
и инфинитивные обороты. Определите функцию инфинитива в предложениях.
1. The method permits high-strength concrete to be used economically.
2. The purpose is to reduce shrinkage cracking.
3. The buildings have to be given additional bracing.
4. The concrete to be used is lightweight.
5. All concrete below the neutral axis is considered to be in tension and cracked,
and therefore ineffective.
31
6. It is impossible to build modern houses without the knowledge of new
techniques.
7. A factor to consider is the space between the roof structure and the ceiling.
8. Non-loadbearing internal walls should possess the necessary strength and
stability to support their own weight.
9. To avoid stresses in the panels due to temperature differences, rigid connections
are provided at the centre of each panel.
10. To apply the prestress the tendons are anchored to the concrete.
11. The precast concrete edge beam helps to support the floor slab.
12. Prestressing allows the load applied to be balanced.
Упражнение 2. Переведите существительные с суффиксом –ion. Определите,
от каких слов они образованы.
accommodation
application
circulation
completion
connection
deflection
erection
expansion
incorporation
interconnection
location
operation
projection
relation
selection
tension
Упражнение 3. Переведите предложения, обратив внимание на функцию
слова it.
1. Galvanised steel bolts are used to connect the wall panel to the roof beam
above and long screws connect it to the floor panel below.
2. It is a standardised two-storey building.
3. Shrinkage is the permanent contraction of concrete caused by loss of water
after it hardens.
4. Even if it is decided to use a square footing, it would need to be larger, since it
also supports part of the wall.
5. It is difficult to concrete a thin wall because the concrete has to be placed in
the narrow opening at the top of the form.
6. In most cases deep foundations are utilized only where it is not possible to
have shallow foundations.
7. It is characteristic of steel-framed buildings that the floor beams transmit the
loads in one direction only.
8. Low temperatures decrease stretch of the fabric but make it easier for tears to
develop.
Упражнение 4. Работа в парах.
Студент C: Задайте 5 вопросов различных типов к тексту А.
Студент D: Ответьте на вопросы к тексту студента C.
Студенты C и D: Поменяйтесь ролями.
32
Текст B
BOULTON HOUSE, CAMBRIDGE, ENGLAND
This is a residential building containing bedrooms for students. The building
structure consists of eighteen precast concrete H-frames around the perimeter and nine
interior cast-in-place concrete columns, all supporting a heavy 9in (225mm) deep concrete
slab at each floor level. The building foundations are piled, all precast columns being
positioned in 2ft (600mm) deep pockets in 3ft (900mm) deep ground beams sitting on
the piles. There are precast concrete infill panels between but set behind the H-frames,
and these panels overlap on the columns each side. Infill panels are also used at right
angles to the H-frames, having the same height as the spandrel of the H-frames.
All infill panels on the east and west sides as well as corner panels and the large
wall panels on the north and south sides are 5in (125mm) thick and incorporate ¾ in
(19mm) of insulation.
The ground floor is set back from the perimeter and enclosed by a cavity brick wall.
Inside, the ground floor has a suspended ceiling 10 in (250mm) below the slab soffit, the
void containing services which then pass upwards through holes in the floor slabs.
Internal columns are mostly at about 11ft (3.35m) centres; they are omitted at one
place where the slab has to span about 22ft (6.71 m). Each floor slab carries the loads at
that level, including the partition walls between bedrooms which are 8in (150mm) heavy
block plastered on both sides. Horizontal forces are taken by frame action.
The total period of construction amounted to 14 months. Precast elements were
made in wooden forms using white aggregates and white cement. The spandrel of the
H-frame has its top sloped back towards the building so that rainwater can be led back
behind the columns instead of running down the face.
Notes:
H-frame n. Н-образная рама\каркас
infill panel панель стенового заполнения
Ответьте на вопросы к тексту
1. Who is this residential building for?
2. What kind of foundation does the building have?
3. What are the concrete slabs at each floor level supported by?
4. How thick is the insulation of the infill panels?
5. What kind of ceiling is used for the ground floor?
6. Where are the internal columns omitted?
7. Why does the spandrel of the H-frame have its top sloped back towards the building?
Грамматическое упражнение
Упражнение 1. Найдите в тексте существительные с суффиксом –ion. Определите, от каких слов они образованы.
33
Лексические упражнения
Урок 3.6
Упражнение 1. Переведите на русский язык приведённые ниже слова и словосочетания. Если Вы не знаете слово, найдите его в словаре. Выпишите из словаря то значение слова, в котором оно использовано в тексте.
back (n., adj., adv.), pocket (n.), spandrel (n.), towards (prep.), upwards (adv.), wooden
(adj.).
Упражнение 2. Найдите перевод слов списка А в списке В.
A
иметь наклон
за, позади
соединять внахлёстку
размещать
подвешивать
цокольный этаж
пропускать, не использовать
устанавливать
B
aggregate
amount
as well as
behind
cavity
ground floor
inside
lead
A
дождевая вода
полость
внутри
составлять
так же, как и
заполнитель
направлять
оштукатуривать
B
omit
overlap
plaster
position
rainwater
set
slope
suspend
Упражнение 3. Напишите предложения с каждым из перечисленных ниже
слов:
wood – wooden
inwards – outwards – towards – upwards
34
Фонетическое задание
Прочитайте транскрипцию в списке A, соотнесите её с соответствующим
словом из списка B и переведите слово на русский язык. Учтите, что не все слова
списка В даны в списке А.
A
[¢ Intq¢ sept]; [¢ tWmIneIt]; [rIq]; [In¢ klaIn]; [¢ xNkqrIG]; [¢ mezqnJn]; [¢ tjHnIs];
[GOInt]; [sI¢ metrIkql]; [Ik¢ stWnl]
B
anchorage
mezzanine
giant
symmetrical
terminal
external
rear
incline v.
incline n.
intercept
rare
terminate
Tunis
interpret
joint
Текст A
HOTEL DE LAC, TUNIS
The hotel with 416 rooms has ten upper storeys which cantilever progressively
outwards like wings. The bedrooms are situated on the south longitudinal side, being
reached by way of a corridor at the rear. The main stairs, lifts and services are in a
concrete core projecting rearwards in the middle of the building. A low podium block
contains the entrance hall and offices.
The overall dimensions of the hotel on plan are as follows: 44.40´12.50 m on the
first floor, increasing to 82.80´12.50 m on the tenth floor.
The structural steel frame consists of pin-jointed members including main columns
in the two longitudinal facades and one internal row of columns, interconnected by floor
beams in the transverse direction. In the longitudinal direction there are continuous
reinforced concrete ribbed floors which are prestressed between anchorages installed at
the ends of the building. The forces from the cantilevered ends of each storey are
transmitted through an inclined strut and the prestressed floors. Under symmetrical
loading the horizontal forces balance each other in each floor. Horizontal forces due to
symmetrical floor loading and to longitudinal wind are transmitted through diagonal
bracings installed in the vertical plane between the internal columns at the centre of the
building. This bracing system terminates in two V-shaped struts on the ground floor.
Wind forces acting in the transverse direction are transmitted through the floor slabs to
diagonal bracings located at four transverse axes and at the two ends of the building.
The columns in the longitudinal facades extend down to the foundations, whereas
the internal columns and the inclined struts at the cantilever ends terminate in the
mezzanine, in which storey-height plate girders and lattice girders span transversely
between the external columns. These transverse girders are interconnected by a
35
longitudinal plate girder located under the internal columns. This longitudinal girder is
additionally supported on V-struts on each side of the entrance hall which absorb the
horizontal thrust exerted by the two inclined struts. Over the entrance two external
columns terminate on, and are structurally intercepted by, a plate girder.
Notes:
by way of посредством
progressively adv. один над другим
V-shaped adj. V-образный
Ответьте на вопросы к тексту
1. What is the characteristic feature of this hotel design?
2. How is vertical circulation within the building provided?
3. How do the overall dimensions of the hotel on plan change from the first to the tenth
floor?
4. What does the structural steel frame consist of?
5. How are the forces from the cantilevered ends of each storey transmitted?
6. How are wind forces transmitted?
7. What is the longitudinal girder supported on?
Лексические упражнения
Упражнение 1. Переведите на русский язык приведённые ниже слова и словосочетания:
anchorage (n.), intercept (v.), mezzanine (n.), plate girder, podium (n.), rear (n.), rearwards
(adv.), ribbed floor, strut (n.), terminate (v.), incline (v.), outwards (adv.).
Какие из перечисленных слов могут быть другими частями речи? Какими именно? Как они в этом случае переводятся на русский язык?
Упражнение 2. Переведите на английский язык приведённые ниже слова
и словосочетания:
ось, поглощать, дополнительно, находиться, следующие, система связей, сплошной,
ствол (высотного здания), направление, друг друга, оказывать действие,
устанавливать, балочная ферма, нагрузка, середина, общий, элемент с шарнирным
соединением, стальная составная балка, ряд, коммуникации, лестница,
заканчиваться, нажим, поперечный, выбирать, верхний, в то время как, ветровая
нагрузка, крыло.
Упражнение 3. Заполните пропуски в тексте, используя слова из приведённого
ниже списка:
36
connections
door
ensuring
forces
functions
intervals
overall
right
stabilised
strip
Sixth Form College, Alton, Hampshire, England
(Продолжение. Начало в упражнении 4 урока 3.3, стр. 18)
The high walls, which form the hall space, are (1)… by the roof and the wall
panels on either side. The floor slab is 125mm thick concrete having (2)… footings
where there are significant loads from the internal masonry walls.
Vertical movement joints are provided in the external walls at (3)… of about 9m
and positioned where weakening occurs because of (4)… openings. As a result the
building (5)… like a series of individual units. The principal problems are in (6)… the
stability of individual walls and the overall resistance of the building to horizontal (7)…
. In this case the individual walls are stabilised by the other walls to which they are
attached and by their (8)… to the ground floor slab and roof. The (9)… resistance of the
building is assured by shear walls, which are in one of two directions at (10)… angles to
each other.
(продолжение текста в упражнении 4 урока 3.9 стр. 55)
Грамматические упражнения
Упражнение 1. Переведите прилагательные с суффиксом –al и наречия
с суффиксом –ly. Определите, от каких слов они образованы. Образуйте от прилагательных наречия с помощью суффикса –ly.
actual
additional
approximately
basical
central
clearly
closely
completely
essential
fully
functional
immediately
independently
industrial
mainly
monolithical
mostly
partial
partly
rarely
Упражнение 2. Переведите сложноподчиненные предложения, определите
тип придаточного предложения.
1. As window openings are necessary for the building, the perimeter structure is
weaker.
2. There are continuous reinforced concrete ribbed floors which are prestressed
between anchorages.
3. They know that structural design was made by G. Covre.
4. The purpose, if tube-type systems are used, is to increase the plan area of the
tube as much as possible.
5. Where a high-rise concrete frame of cast-in-place construction is used, it is
natural to connect the frame with shear walls so that they interact with each
other.
37
6. Non-loadbearing walls should be so designed and attached to the load-bearing
structure of the building that they are not subjected to additional loads which
they are not designed to take.
7. Framed buildings frequently have walls which increase structural rigidity.
8. Timber beams which rest on concrete ground beams support the cabins.
Упражнение 3. Работа в парах.
Студент C: Задайте 5 вопросов различных типов к тексту А.
Студент D: Ответьте на вопросы к тексту студента C.
Студенты C и D: Поменяйтесь ролями.
Текст B
JOLLY HOTEL, ROME
The structural design was made by G. Covre, M. Ferretti, Rome. The hotel has
170 bedrooms on seven upper floors. The building is divided into groups, each comprising
from two to five bedrooms, arranged on both sides and at the ends of a central corridor.
The hotel has an irregular shape on plan with maximum overall dimensions
66.0´29,0 m. The height above ground level is 29.0 m.
The functional division of the building is clearly shown in its construction. In
front of the glazed areas of the individual groups of rooms are columns, each consisting
of two channel sections U 240, spaced at 10.35 and 6.90m centres and interconnected by
facade beams comprising two channels U 450. Along the corridors there are internal
columns HE 300 B with 600 mm deep welded longitudinal plate girders. I 450 cross
beams span between the longitudinal girders and fascia beams in the two outer walls
and I 600 beams in the bedroom walls. Stubs of the cross beams, whose top flanges are
flush with the top flanges of the fascia beams, are welded to the fascia beams to serve as
brackets to support the sun-screens and flower-boxes.
The floors consist of 6.5 cm deep steel sheet troughing with concrete cover of 60
cm, supported by secondary beams IPE 160 spaced at 1.76 m centres and spanning
between the cross beams. The imposed load is 250 kg/m2. Wind forces are transmitted
through the floors to the reinforced concrete walls of the staircases and lift shafts.
Windows have wooden frames and plate glass with high degree of sound insulation.
Spandrel panels, 80cm deep, are faced with safety glass.
Notes:
flower-box цветочный ящик
flush adj. заподлицо, вровень
plate glass листовое стекло
safety glass безосколочное стекло
sun-screen противосолнечный козырёк
38
Ответьте на вопросы к тексту
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Who was the structural design of the hotel made by?
What are the maximum overall dimensions of the hotel?
What is the column spacing?
Why are stubs of the cross beams welded to the fascia beams?
What are the floors made of?
What are they supported by?
How are wind forces transmitted?
Грамматические упражнения
Упражнение 1. Найдите в тексте прилагательные с суффиксом –al и наречия
с суффиксом –ly. Определите, от каких слов они образованы.
Упражнение 2. Найдите в тексте сложноподчинённое предложение и определите его структуру.
Лексические упражнения
Упражнение 1. Переведите на русский язык приведённые ниже слова и словосочетания. Если Вы не знаете слово, найдите его в словаре. Выпишите из словаря то значение слова, в котором оно использовано в тексте.
cross beam, face (v.), stub (n.), troughing (n.)
Упражнение 2. Найдите перевод слов списка А в списке В.
A
стальная составная балка
делить
подоконная панель
проект конструкции
неправильная форма
вдоль
бортовая балка
кронштейн
B
A
along
arrange
bracket
channel section
comprise
cover
cross beam
divide
общие размеры
прилагаемая нагрузка
вспомогательная балка
швеллерный профиль
защитный слой
включать (в себя)
поперечная балка
располагать
B
fascia beam
imposed load
irregular shape
overall dimensions
plate girder
secondary beam
spandrel panel
structural design
Упражнение 3. Напишите предложения с каждым из перечисленных ниже
слов:
face n. – face v.
rear n. – rearwards adv.
39
girders are of box section. Structural connections are welded. Each column was erected
in six units. Each cross-beam consists of two rolled steel sections with 150 mm space
between them for the bolted attachment of the hangers.
Floors are made up of steel decking on floor beams, with 9 cm in-situ concrete
topping provided with reinforcement in upper surface.
Урок 3.7
Фонетическое задание
Прочитайте транскрипцию в списке A, соотнесите её с соответствующим
словом из списка B и переведите слово на русский язык. Учтите, что не все слова
списка В даны в списке А.
A
[kjHb]; [bI¢ jPnd]; [dIs¢ pleIs]; [¢ gWdq]; [haIt]; [raIz]; [¢ pxrIs]; [¢ pLtl]; [¢ stLrI];
[sq¢ spend]
B
rise
hate
cub
Paris
portal
girder
height
displace
suspend
beyond
cube
partial
guide
storey
raise
Текст A
STUDENTS’ HALL OF RESIDENCE, PARIS
It is a residential accommodation for students comprising 96 rooms located on
eight floors. Vertical circulation is provided by two lifts and a services shaft in the internal
reinforced concrete core. The ten-storey high-rise building is rectangular on plan with
overall dimensions of 40.60´10.20 m., the height above ground level being 38.21 m. A
low-rise building, which comprises ground floor and basement and is shaped like two
cubes displaced in relation to each other, is structurally separate from the main building.
Rigid frame system with suspended storeys is used in the construction. Three
steel portal frames, spanning 12.90m at 14.50m centres, each with two transverse girders
is placed at the top and mid-height of the building respectively. At these two levels the
portal frames are rigidly interconnected by longitudinal girders on the centre-lines of
the portal columns and on the centre-line of the building. The longitudinal girders
cantilever 5.80 m beyond the end columns of the portal frames, and the ends of these
cantilevers are joined together by edge girders. Cross-beams arranged at 2.90 m centres
span between the horizontal members. A block comprising four storeys is suspended
from the transverse and longitudinal girders both at the top and mid-height of the building.
The floors of these storeys function as rigid horizontal decks, being braced by lattice
girders arranged around the perimeter. The second and seventh floors of the building are
connected by horizontal abutments to the portal frame columns.
Wind forces in both directions are distributed uniformly by the floors to the rigid
hangers and are transmitted through the floor abutments and upper hanger connections
to the main structural system of the building. The portal columns are fixed at the base,
thus reducing deformation. Portal columns, cross girders, longitudinal girders and edge
40
Notes:
cube n. куб
floor abutment опора перекрытия
Ответьте на вопросы к тексту
1. How many buildings does this development consist of?
2. How is vertical circulation within the building provided?
3. What system is used in the construction?
4. How are cross-beams arranged?
5. How are wind forces transmitted?
6. What was used for the structural connection of the elements?
7. What are floors made up of?
Лексические упражнения
Упражнение 1. Переведите на русский язык приведённые ниже слова и словосочетания:
cross girder, displace (v.), low-rise (adj.), mid-height (n.), portal (n.), rolled steel
Упражнение 2. Переведите на английский язык приведённые ниже слова
и словосочетания:
фиксировать, подвеска, высотное здание, по отношению друг к другу, располагать,
малоэтажное здание, общие размеры, концевая опора, оба, ствол здания
с инженерными сетями, иметь форму, с пролётом … м, настил, поверхность,
подвесной этаж, коробчатое сечение, скреплять, консольно выступать на … м,
распределять, каждый, прямоугольный, болтовое соединение, сокращать, ствол
из железобетона, помещение для проживания, соответственно, отделённый,
равномерно, перемещение в вертикальной плоскости.
Упражнение 3. Переведите данные существительные и образуйте с их помощью группы существительных, характерные для строительной терминологии.
Переведите их на русский язык.
41
beam
core
concrete
floor
grid
ground
panel
precast
shear
steel
truss
wall
Упражнение 4. Выберите толкование, которое соответствует строительному
термину в левой колонке.
Упражнение 2. Образуйте существительные от следующих глаголов,
используя суффикс – ment и переведите их:
adjust, arrange, attach, base, develop, equip, measure, move, place, reinforce,
require, settle.
Упражнение 3. Работа в парах.
A. BRACING
B. CANTILEVER
C. CHORD
D. SPANDREL
E. STRUT
F. TRUSS
1. One of the outer members in a truss.
2. An assembly of ties and struts forming a framework
of linear elements that achieves stability through
triangular (треугольный)formations of the elements
and acts as a beam.
3. A structural element designed to resist compressive
forces and usually forming part of a framed structure.
4. A beam spanning between columns on the exterior of
a building.
5. In structural design usually means the resistance to
movements caused by lateral forces.
6. A beam or framework projecting outwards from a
support.
Грамматические упражнения
Упражнение 1. Переведите предложения и определите функцию причастия
I и II, обратите внимание на независимый причастный оборот.
1. The facades are made of continuous steel mullions of weathering steel, spaced
at 1.20 m centres.
2. Vertical steel bracing is the less expensive solution, especially when arranged
in large bays or panels.
3. The blended cements consist of mixtures of Portland cement and graded
admixtures.
4. Shrinkage when restrained leads to cracking.
5. The structural design of the house made by A. Urech is simple.
6. The residential building has a cantilevered balcony at one end.
7. The elevated structure is supported by four external columns fixed in foundation
pockets.
8. The floor panels have different spans, the different slab strengths, thus required,
being provided by post-tensioning.
9. When in the required position, the gap between the floor and wall panels is
filled with mortar.
10. Pin-jointed to the columns there are secondary beams.
42
Студент C: Задайте 5 вопросов различных типов к тексту А.
Студент D: Ответьте на вопросы к тексту студента C.
Студенты C и D: Поменяйтесь ролями.
Текст B
PHYSICAL EDUCATION COLLEGE, MAGGLINGEN,
SWITZERLAND
The structural design of the physical education college was made by Steelwork
contractors. The classrooms, lecture rooms, administrative offices and technical services
are accommodated in a four-storey podium block partly recessed into the sloping ground.
It is surmounted by a set-back three-storey superstructure containing the main assembly
hall and library. The entrance to both buildings is at terrace level. The podium block has
overall dimensions of 73.36´43.88 m and its height is 13.20m. The superstructure has
overall dimensions of 30.16´22.96 m, the height above terrace being 10.85m. Storey
height is 3.45 m, while ceiling height is 2.45 m.
The framework comprises rolled steel columns and 760 mm deep lattice girders
in both directions. The 11 cm thick in-situ concrete slab is in composite construction
with the girders, the shear connectors being welded studs. Main girders of the structure
are in longitudinal direction of the building, spanning 7.20 m. Secondary girders are in
transverse direction, spanning 14.40m. Top chord comprises channel section, while
bottom chord and diagonal members each consist of two angle sections. Imposed loads
on floor are 300 and 400kg/m2. Wind forces are transmitted through floor slabs to the
concrete core and to concrete retaining walls set in the hillside.
The facades are made of continuous steel mullions of weathering steel, spaced at
1.20m centres. Between them there are storey-height window units with heat-resistant
laminated glass. Spandrel panels are also of weathering steel. The foundation is of
limestone at 4 m below ground level. Its bearing pressure is 7.5 kg/cm2. At the back of
the podium, the walls are anchored into the rock.
Notes:
administrative office административное помещение
laminated glass многослойное стекло
physical education физическое воспитание
43
Ответьте на вопросы к тексту
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Урок 3.8
Who was the structural design of the college made by ?
What are the two main blocks the building consists of?
What does the framework comprise?
What are the imposed loads on floor?
What are the facades made of?
How is the building fixed to the ground?
Фонетическое задание
Грамматическое упражнение
Найдите в тексте причастия II. Определите их функцию и переведите на
русский язык.
Лексические упражнения
Упражнение 1. Переведите на русский язык приведённые ниже слова и словосочетания. Если Вы не знаете слово, найдите его в словаре. Выпишите из словаря то значение слова, в котором оно использовано в тексте.
composite construction, library (n.), retaining wall, shear connector, surmount (v.),
technical services
Упражнение 2. Найдите перевод слов списка А в списке В.
A
актовый зал
атмосферостойкая сталь
известняк
заглублять
иметь уклон
отодвигать назад
наземная часть здания
закреплять
B
A
anchor
angle section
assembly hall
contractor
heat-resistant
hillside
imposed load
in-situ
уголковый профиль
прилагаемая нагрузка
склон холма
средник
теплостойкий
стальной прокат
подрядчик
монолитный
B
limestone
mullion
recess
rolled steel
set-back
slope
superstructure
weathering steel
Упражнение 3. Напишите предложения с каждым из перечисленных ниже
слов:
rigid – rigidly
high – height
44
Прочитайте транскрипцию в списке A, соотнесите её с соответствующим
словом из списка B и переведите слово на русский язык. Учтите, что не все слова
списка В даны в списке А.
A
[¢ xkVrqsI]; [SI¢ kRgqV]; [kq¢ lxps]; [In¢ kLpqreIt]; [¢ qVvqr¢ Ll]; [prI¢ vent];
[¢ prInsIpql]; [¢ slendq]; [sqb¢ stxnSql]; [¢ vxljuqbql]
B
Chicago
accusatory
incorporate
slander
principle
incorporated
overall adj.
overall n.
prevent
printable
accuracy
substantial
collapse
valuable
slender
Текст A
THE HAREWOOD HOTEL, MARYIEBONE, LONDON, ENGLAND.
This hotel is an example of the use of loadbearing masonry.
A thick reinforced concrete raft foundation is used to distribute the column loads
from the cast-in-place concrete framework that goes up to the first accommodation floor,
16ft (4.88 m) above street level. The beams in the floor at this level support loadbearing
brick cross walls, generally at 10ft 3in (3.13 m) centres; these walls form the divisions
for the bedrooms on the six floors above.
The concrete frame takes all vertical and horizontal loads including moderate
wind forces. At the accommodation levels the brick cross walls transmit vertical loads
and wind forces in their own plane. Because the walls are placed in two quite different
directions, here they are at right angles, any possible lateral movements are resisted.
Rotational movements are resisted too. Wind forces in buildings less than about ten
storeys high are small and the necessary overall lateral resistance is easily provided.
However the stability of the individual wall elements needs checking; this is almost
completely dependent on the slenderness ratio, the effective height to the effective width
of the wall. It is this, the sound insulation, accuracy of construction and workmanship
that determine the thickness of the wall rather than the compressive strength of the
masonry. The building incorporates slender reinforced concrete columns at some corners
within the thickness of the brick walls to limit the area of damage and prevent progressive
collapse should a substantial part of a loadbearing wall be damaged. For this purpose,
return and intersecting walls can be valuable.
Construction of a loadbearing masonry building such as this requires the careful
co-ordination of those who lay the bricks for the walls and those who pour the concrete
45
for the floor slabs. A principle is that only the minimum number of walls be constructed
that are necessary to support the floor, these are the loadbearing walls, the other walls,
the non-loadbearing ones, then become part of the finishing work. This building took a
total period of 20 months to complete.
Notes:
accuracy n. точность
collapse n. потеря устойчивости
co-ordination n. координация
rotational adj. вращательный
slenderness ratio коэффициент гибкости
substantial adj. значительный
valuable adj. зд. полезный
workmanship n. качество (выполнения работ)
Ответьте на вопросы к тексту
1. What kind of foundation is used?
2. What is it used for?
3. Which part of the structure is made of masonry?
4. How are lateral and rotational movements resisted?
5. What determines the thickness of the wall?
6. Why does the building incorporate reinforced concrete columns at some corners?
7. Why should only the minimum number of walls that are necessary to support the floor
be constructed?
8. How long was the total period of construction?
Лексические упражнения
Упражнение 1. Переведите на русский язык приведённые ниже слова и словосочетания:
accuracy (n.), effective height, collapse (n.), return wall, rather than.
Какие из перечисленных слов могут быть другими частями речи? Какими именно?
Как они в этом случае переводятся на русский язык?
Упражнение 2. Переведите на английский язык приведённые ниже слова
и словосочетания:
жилой этаж, под прямым углом, тщательный, поперечная стена, зависеть от,
определять, разделение, перегородка, приведённая ширина, отделочные работы,
включать в себя, пересекающиеся стены, сопротивление боковым нагрузкам, класть
кирпичи, умеренный, смещение, нуждаться в проверке, только, плоскость, заливать
46
бетон, цель, вполне, сплошной фундамент, сопротивляться, существенный,
толщина, ограничивать, поддерживать.
Упражнение 3. Дайте антонимы следующих слов:
complete v.
conventional
far adj.
forward
identical
north
omit
pad foundation
slight
the former
Грамматические упражнения
Упражнение 1. Переведите предложения с усилительной конструкцией.
1. It is in 1824 that Portland cement appeared.
2. It is cast-in-place reinforced concrete that can be applied to non-standard areas
and shapes.
3. It was the wall thickness that established a minimum width for the footing.
4. It is in mild climates that footings are often placed a very short distance below
the ground surface.
5. It is high grade steel which is necessary for heavily stressed foundations.
6. It is porous concrete that is the most effective in sound absorption.
7. It is good resistance to most corrosive agents that makes glass so attractive for
builders.
Упражнение 2. Переведите прилагательные с суффиксами – ive и –able.
Определите, от каких слов они образованы.
adaptable
additive
allowable
alternative
comparable
competitive
compressive
desirable
effective
movable
protective
reasonable
reflective
reliable
successive
suitable
Упражнение 3. Переведите предложения обращая внимание на условные
придаточные предложения. Определите тип предложений.
1. If it is decided to use a square footing, it needs to be larger.
2. If built of hollow masonry units they should have the voids filled with concrete.
3. If this distance is great, because of the need to reach adequate soil for bearing,
the walls may be quite high.
4. If the basement floor is a significant distance below grade, major soil pressure
will be exerted horizontally against the outside of the wall.
47
5. If the walls and columns were monolithically constructed, some load sharing
could not be avoided.
6. For the column, if it were freestanding and not in the line of the wall, the
required square footing would be 6 ft2 thick.
Упражнение 4. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на функцию
герундия.
1. The elements are joined to one another by bolting these girders together.
2. Wind-bracing is achieved by vertical lattice systems in the party walls between
the flats.
3. The most effective way of resisting horizontal loads, for any given plan area,
is to use a cantilever with a solid section.
4. A further increase in stiffness can be provided in steel buildings by using a
shear truss.
5. This is best achieved by applying gravity loads down the center of walls.
6. These walls receive a certain amount of vertical load, if only for
counterbalancing the tensile forces that would otherwise be caused by bending
moments.
7. The different slab strengths thus required is provided by post-tensioning.
The 13 cm thick prestressed concrete slabs, 4.0´1.50 m, are connected to the
beams in the transverse frames by welding to the bars left projecting from the concrete.
Joints are filled with in-situ concrete with no floor screed.
The transverse frames for the 16-storey slab block were assembled flat on the
ground and then successively raised to the vertical position. Floor slabs, spandrel panels
and windows were erected in sequence. In this way the structure of one 4 m long section
of building was completed every seven days.
Notes:
construction depth строительная высота
goods lift грузовой лифт
Ответьте на вопросы к тексту
1. How large is the hotel?
2. How is vertical circulation within the building provided?
3. Why is the construction depth of the floors merely the thickness of the prestressed
concrete slabs?
4. What is the column spacing in the transverse direction?
5. What are the dimensions of the prestressed concrete slabs?
6. How were transverse frames assembled?
Упражнение 5. Работа в парах.
Лексические упражнения
Студент C: Задайте 5 вопросов различных типов к тексту А.
Студент D: Ответьте на вопросы к тексту студента C.
Студенты C и D: Поменяйтесь ролями.
Упражнение 1. Найдите перевод слов списка А в списке В.
A
Текст B
ALPHA HOTEL, AMSTERDAM
This hotel with 603 bedrooms has a low-rise podium surmounted by two staggered
slab blocks connected to an 18-storey central core. Vertical circulation comprises four
passenger lifts, two goods lifts and a main staircase in the core, together with two
emergency staircases, one at the end of each block.
The slab blocks comprise transverse frames, spaced at 4.0 m intervals, each
consisting of two columns interconnected by beams, braced by diagonal members in
each storey. Precast prestressed concrete slabs span longitudinally between the beams.
As the columns, beams and diagonal bracing are installed in the walls separating the
rooms, the construction depth of the floors is merely the thickness of the prestressed
concrete slabs. Transverse wind forces are transmitted through the rigid frames;
longitudinal wind forces are transmitted by the floor slabs to the reinforced concrete
core. The columns are spaced at 10.60 m centres in the transverse direction of the building.
Joints in columns are welded, with intermediate steel plates. All other structural
connections are bolted.
48
только
стык
последовательно
сварка
каждые семь дней
промежуточный
разделять
возвышаться над
B
A
as
assemble
connect
emergency staircase
every seven days
flat
install
intermediate
соединять
собирать
так как
пожарная лестница
монолитная цементная стяжка
устанавливать
плоско
оставлять
B
joint
leave
merely
screed
separate
welding
successively
surmount
Упражнение 2. Напишите предложения с каждым из перечисленных ниже
слов:
thick – thickness
distribute – distribution
49
Текст C
BUILDINGS FOR EDUCATION
Technical college at Brugg-Windisch, Switzerland
The college comprises three interconnected buildings serving different purposes:
the four-storey main building, a two-storey building with laboratories and a single-storey
building with the assembly hall. The first two buildings are linked by a bridge at firstfloor level. There are basements under all three buildings, interconnected by two
underground passages.
The same structural system is used in all the buildings. Reinforced concrete
basement is surmounted by tubular columns arranged on a square planning grid of
8.80´8.80 m. The columns are rigidly interconnected in both directions by floor beams,
so as to form one-, two- or four-storey rigid frames to resist the wind forces in the
respective buildings. During erection, the steelwork was assembled with the aid of
temporary bolted connections and subsequently, after final adjustment, all the joints
were welded.
The columns are made of storey height steel tubes 318 mm in diameter. Two
horizontal gusset plates for connecting the top and the bottom chords of the floor beams
are welded to the upper end of each column. Plastic pipes for taking rainwater from the
roof are placed inside the columns.
Curtain wall with storey-height glazing framed in stainless steel sections is used
for the facade. They are made of spandrel sandwich panels externally profiled and
internally smooth stainless steel with foamed plastic insulation. Demountable internal
partitions can be connected to any mullion.
Fire protection is provided by asbestos casing and concrete filling for tubular
steel columns. Plate girders are sprayed with asbestos and suspended ceilings comprise
fireproof panels for the same reason.
High school in Chicago, USA
This school for 3000 pupils comprises an eight-storey classroom block and a
two-storey sports building. The buildings are situated on opposite sides of a street and
are interconnected by a footbridge at first-floor level. Both buildings are based on a
planning module of 1.53´1.53m.
In the transverse direction there is a rigid frame system comprising universal
columns and universal beams. The columns are arranged on a 9.14´9.14m grid and are
spliced every alternate storey. The transverse beams are connected to the columns by
means of end plates and high strength friction-grip bolts. Secondary beams spaced at
3.05 m centres support sheet-steel decking and carry a 12.7 cm lightweight concrete
slab, composite action being ensured by stud shear connectors. Pinned joints are used
for the connections between the secondary beams, the internal columns and main beams
50
but rigid joints for wind resistance are used for the connections to the columns in the
longitudinal facades. The space on the ground floor is free from internal supports and is
spanned in the transverse direction by two box girders, on each of which two of the
columns from the upper seven floors are supported. These box girders are 21´30 mm
deep, span a distance of 27.42 m and are carried by 604´604 mm columns. The footbridge
connecting the two buildings comprises two lattice girders interconnected at floor and
ceiling level by cross beams.
The columns and beams are encased in concrete and sheathed externally with
steel plate, stud shear connectors being used to ensure connection between the sheet and
the concrete. The spandrel is of cavity construction, the internal space being insulated.
The steel framed windows have double glazing.
Both buildings are supported by caissons founded on rock or stable subsoil at
11 m depth.
Notes:
casing n. защитный слой
filling n. наполнение, заполнение
foamed plastic пенопласт
laboratory n. лаборатория
pupil n. учащийся
sheath v. обшивать
universal adj. универсальный
Ответьте на вопросы к тексту
1. What purposes do the three college buildings serve?
2. How is horizontal circulation between the buildings provided?
3. What does the structural system of all the buildings include?
4. What are the features of the columns?
5. What are the facades made of?
6. How is fire protection of the structure provided?
7. What does the high school in Chicago comprise?
8. What does the structural system of the school buildings include?
9. Why are rigid joints used for the the secondary beam connections to the columns
in the longitudinal facades?
10. What is the distance spanned by two box girders?
11. What kind of foundation is used?
Лексическое упражнение
В списке А даны некоторые слова и выражения, которые использованы
в тексте для домашнего чтения. Найдите их перевод в списке В.
51
А
underground passage
friction-grip bolt
double glazing
stud shear connector
tubular column
end plate
footbridge
serve
so as
square
respective
gusset plate
pinned joint
during
B
грунтовое основание
балка коробчатого сечения
нержавеющая сталь
решётка; сетка
сдвигоустойчивый болт
соединять внакрой
навесная стена
соответствующий
свая-колонна
посредством
лёгкий
разборный
пешеходный мост
анкерный
соединительный элемент
А
B
temporary
stainless steel
box girder
caisson
curtain wall
demountable
by means of
cavity
grid
link
splice
lightweight
mullion
subsoil
трубчатая колонна
двойное остекление
так чтобы
полость
подземный переход
служить
средник
в течение
соединять
квадратный
торцевая пластина
усилительная накладка
шарнирное соединение
временный
Урок 3.9
Фонетическое задание
Прочитайте транскрипцию в списке A, соотнесите её с соответствующим
словом из списка B и переведите слово на русский язык. Учтите, что не все слова
списка В даны в списке А.
A
[¢ dIfq¢ renSql]; [pq¢ vIljqn]; [¢ keIbql]; [¢ jVqrqp]; [¢ daVnwqd]; [¢ krLlq]; [¢ gxlqrI];
[¢ qVvq¢ hxN]; [q¢ pRt]; [depT]
B
overhang v.
downward
gallery
depth
differential
debt
Europe
apart
cable
сobble
galley
crawler
overhang n.
downwind
pavilion
Текст A
SPORTS HALL FOR SCHOOL OF GYMNASTICS AND SPORT,
MAGGLINGEN, SWITZERLAND
52
The lowest four metres of the building, which mostly are below ground, are of
concrete construction. The structure above this level is entirely of steel. The roof consists
of seven trusses which are prestressed and have a span to depth ratio of 24, which is
double that of a standard simply supported plane truss. Each of the seven trusses consists
of five longitudinal members, connected by diagonal and transverse members to form a
stable space truss. At each end, the truss is supported by two 406 mm diameter by 25 mm
thick round steel tubular columns and, at the end of the three upper members which
overhang the columns, a vertical prestressing cable is attached, the three cables being
prestressed to a combined force of 300 tonnes and anchored to bedrock. Large-section
steel sheets span between the longitudinal members of the truss and at the gable ends,
where there are secondary steel columns, the sheets span the 4.20m distance between
the truss and the columns and are flexible enough to accept the differential movement
between the two. All columns are fixed at the base either by extending the column
downward from the gallery to the main floor level or by using a very large foundation.
The prestressing cables cause additional tension in the upper members and
compression in the diagonal overhanging members of the truss, which however reduces
bending and deflection in the middle of the span. The trusses then function as if they
were continuous constructions. They are designed to take snow loads of 300 kg per sq
metre. Complete failure of the ties was also considered and was the critical factor in
sizing many members.
Each space truss was erected in three sections, each of these sections in turn being
made up by bolting together transverse members and plane trusses, which were shop
53
fabricated in approximately 18m lengths; the plane trusses are the four containing the
diagonal members of the finished space truss. The three sections were lifted by crawler
cranes and placed on the columns and two temporary trestles before bolting up.
Apart from the prestressing used, this steel frame is also unusual in having no
vertical bracing and no plan bracing in the roof, the former allowed by the fixity of
columns at their base, the latter by the diagonal members of the space truss.
Notes:
crawler crane гусеничный кран
fixity n. закрепление
gymnastics n. гимнастика
trestle n. подмости
Ответьте на вопросы к тексту
1. What is the roof structure made of?
2. What does a truss consist of?
3. What is it supported by?
4. What is achieved by the use of the prestressing cables?
5. What was the construction technique used for space truss erection?
6. What else is unusual about this steel frame?
Лексические упражнения
Упражнение 1. Переведите на русский язык приведённые ниже слова и словосочетания:
cable (n.), differential movement, overhang (v.), plane truss, snow load, space truss.
Какие из перечисленных слов могут быть другими частями речи? Какими именно? Как они в этом случае переводятся на русский язык?
Упражнение 2. Переведите на английский язык приведённые ниже слова
и словосочетания:
решающий фактор, расстояние, вниз, полностью, застройка, гибкий, фронтон,
однако, по очереди, быть в два раза больше, лист большого сечения, поднимать,
заводского изготовления, отношение длины пролёта к высоте, устойчивый, связь,
совокупная нагрузка, сжатие, двутавровая балка, продольный элемент, кабель
преднапряжения, продлевать, уменьшать, необычный, трубчатая колонна,
приблизительно, законченный, позволять, как будто, коренная порода.
Упражнение 3. Определите: есть ли ошибки в переводе представленных ниже
слов. Если ошибки имеются, укажите правильный перевод.
54
bending
in sizing
mostly
space truss
considered
plane trusses
изгибание
определение размера
в основном
плоская ферма
учитывать
пространственная ферма
failure
containing
base
attached
apart from
below
разрушение
содержать
основание
прикреплять
помимо
под
Упражнение 4. Заполните пропуски в тексте, используя слова из приведённого
ниже списка:
due to
forces
is
provide
ratio
single-storey
small
three
total
walls
Sixth Form College, Alton, Hampshire, England
(Окончание. Начало в упражнении 4 урока 3.3, стр. 18
и в упражнении 4 урока 3.6, стр. 37)
There (1)… diagonal bracing in the plane of the roof and in one of the planes
formed by the web members of the roof trusses. The principal truss spanning 7.35m has
members in (2)… separate vertical planes so that the members overlap. The brickwork
(3)… give the required scale to the building, (4)… the enclosure, take gravity loads and
act as shear walls against horizontal (5)… . The tensile stresses that develop in shear
walls (6)… wind or other horizontal forces must be balanced by the gravity loads as in
all loadbearing masonry structures. However, in (7)… buildings, such as this, the tensile
stresses due to wind are extremely (8)… . Timber with a high strength to weight (9)… is
the best choice of material for the roof construction. The (10)… period for construction
was 21 months.
Грамматические упражнения
Упражнение 1. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на формы с
суффиксом -ing.
1. A raft is produced by making the entire bottom of the building as one large
footing.
2. Walls may be used as spanning members, carrying their own weight as well as
some supported loads.
3. There are structural actions of foundation elements, involving internal stresses
and strains.
4. Steel frames are convenient in buildings in which central heating or air
conditioning plant has to be provided.
55
5. The load transmission conditions being approximately the same in both
directions, a planning with a square mesh is often adopted, this being typical
of in-situ concrete construction.
6. The walls of the staircase do not perform a structural function in stiffening the
building.
7. Separate panels can readily be removed without damaging adjacent ones.
8. Rainwater run-off from a concrete roof can be obtained more economically by
sloping the roof beams.
9. The load-carrying structure of an upper floor transmits the loads acting directly
upon it to the supports.
10. This is best achieved by providing frequent lateral supports to the walls so
that bending and tensile stresses are low.
Упражнение 2. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на сослагательное наклонение.
These inner chords are 1.20m apart and are joined to each other near the pyramid corners
by timber cross-members, at right angles to them, thus forming a ‘ladder’. The two
halves of the arch unit are joined to each other at the apex by pin connections between
the two timber ‘ladders’; there is no structural connection between the polycarbonate
pyramids at the apex. Thirty-four such arches placed at 1.40m centres, with a joint between
each one, make up the superstructure.
The arch units are fixed to a raised steel floor structure. It consists of 450mm deep
light steel lattice trusses, which are at 1.40m centres, on the joint lines, and span between
short steel legs at each side and in the centre of the arch span; each leg is made of a
threaded bar and tube which allows adjustment for height. These trusses connect on
each side, in the centre and at two other intermediate points, to other trusses of the same
depth at right angles to them. The floor panels are 1.40m wide and span between the
trusses. They consist of a 55mm deep corrugated steel deck which supports 20mm floor
board through bent metal strips.
Notes:
1. One belt truss would be best placed somewhere between the half and threequarter points in the height of the building.
2. The trusses then function as if they were continuous constructions.
3. These shear walls counterbalance the tensile forces that would otherwise be
caused by bending moments.
4. The unit would not fall out if the pressure were enough.
5. If a high strength steel had been used, it would have produced a lighter structure.
6. Cast-in-place slab system is practical where irregular floor designs would make
it difficult to form similar precast units.
7. If foundation walls are quite high, a basement is required.
Упражнение 3. Работа в парах.
demount v. демонтировать
mould v. формовать
threaded adj. имеющий резьбу
Ответьте на вопросы к тексту
1. Why was this particular design chosen for the structure?
2. What element is the superstructure design based on?
3. How many elements make up the superstructure?
4. What does the floor structure consist of?
5. What kind of steel was used for the deck?
Грамматическое упражнение
Студент C: Задайте 5 вопросов различных типов к тексту А.
Студент D: Ответьте на вопросы к тексту студента C.
Студенты C и D: Поменяйтесь ролями.
Найдите в тексте формы с суффиксом – ing. Определите их функцию и переведите на русский язык.
Лексические упражнения
Текст B
IBM EXHIBITION PAVILION, EUROPE
Part I
The pavilion is specially designed to be easy to demount, transport and re-erect. It
is entirely clad in a transparent plastic, which also doubles up as part of the structure.
The plastic is moulded into units which are light and pyramid-shaped for strength.
The design of the superstructure is practically the design of a single arch element
which, on each side of the arch, consists of six transparent polycarbonate plastic pyramids
with a single outer laminated timber chord, joining the tops of the pyramids together,
and with two inner laminated timber chords, attached to the base corners of the pyramid.
56
Упражнение 1. Переведите на русский язык приведённые ниже слова и словосочетания. Если Вы не знаете слово, найдите его в словаре. Выпишите из словаря то значение слова, в котором оно использовано в тексте.
apex (n.), arch (n.), corrugated (adj.), cross-member (n.), ladder (n.), lattice truss, pavilion
(n.), polycarbonate (n.), pyramid (n.), transparent (adj.).
Упражнение 2. Найдите перевод слов списка А в списке В.
57
A
многослойная древесина
внутренний
полоса
лёгкий
соединять
изогнутый
единый
класть
B
make up
adjustment
entirely
half
re-erect
pin connection
laminated timber
leg
A
опора
половина
регулировка
шарнирное соединение
образовывать
повторно возводить
полностью
внешний
B
light
bent
outer
place
single
inner
join
strip
Упражнение 3. Напишите предложения с каждым из перечисленных ниже
слов:
mould n. – mould v.
double adj. – double v.
Упражнение 4. Составьте план содержания текста B.
Урок 3.10
Фонетическое задание
Прочитайте транскрипцию в списке A, соотнесите её с соответствующим
словом из списка B и переведите слово на русский язык. Учтите, что не все слова
списка В даны в списке А.
A
[trxn¢ spxrqnt]; [¢ eIpeks]; [naI¢ GIqrIq]; [¢ pxrq¢ bPlIk]; [I¢ kwIvqlqnt]; [pIC];
[¢ lxtIs]; [¢ lxdq]; [RC]; [¢ eksI¢ bISqn]
B
apex
ladder
apace
parabola
Nigeria
arch
arc
pitch
transparent
lattice
latter
parabolic
patch
exhibition
equivalent
Текст A
SPORTS CENTRE, SOKOTO, NIGERIA
At spans measuring more than about 50 metres cable trusses can be competitive
with the standard rigid plane truss and have a practical span limit of up to about 150
metres, beyond that of the rigid truss. Because cable steel has about five times the strength
of normal structural steel and because the cable truss does not suffer from instability all
members being prestressed in tension, the cross-sectional areas of the cable truss are
very much less than those of the equivalent rigid truss. This being so the cables are light
but still look strong, the appearance reinforced by their curving lines. In fact their
flexibility gives them a considerable additional load-carrying capacity over the equivalent
rigid structure. One drawback to cables is the cost of anchorages. This design for a
sports centre is a proper solution of these problems: while the inherent advantages of the
cable truss have been fully exploited, the cost of providing anchorages has been overcome
by attaching the cables to the high concrete structure used for the grandstand.
The sports centre can hold 4000 visitors and has an area of 3900 sq m. It contains
a 40´20 m pitch which is set 4.3m below ground level, with its long axis in the northsouth direction. Either side is concrete seating, that nearest being cast directly on the
ground and that farthest away being precast and supported by a cast-in-place concrete
grandstand structure. The cable roof has a clear span of 71 m across this, the cables
running in the long east-west direction of the total plan area covered. This arrangement
lets in natural light at either end of the pitch and allows the use of the grandstand as a
supporting element for the roof. Emergency staircases are provided at the four corners
of the building. The cable roof has eleven cable trusses spaced 5m apart which are
attached to the uprights of the grandstand and tensioned from the outside. The cables are
covered by an insulated sheet metal roof. The roof has a slight parabolic curve in the
58
59
short direction, as well as in the long direction, to allow run-off of rainwater. The seating
of the grandstand is supported by a series of three-pin concrete frames stabilised in the
short direction by nearly vertical concrete walls cast between them.
Working stresses in the cables are 600 newtons per sq mm.
Notes:
cable roof вантовое (висячее) покрытие
cable truss висячая ферма
clear span пролёт в свету/чистоте
grandstand n. трибуна
pitch n. зд. спортивное поле
seating n. места для сидения
Упражнение 3. Определите: есть ли ошибки в переводе представленных ниже
слов. Если ошибки имеются, укажите правильный перевод.
slight
advantage
overcome
while
cost
set
незначительный
преимущество
наступать
хотя
стоимость
устанавливать
drawback
instability
about
times
upright
axis
недостаток
неустойчивость
приблизительно
раз
стойка
арка
Упражнение 4. Выберите толкование, которое соответствует строительному
термину в левой колонке.
Ответьте на вопросы к тексту
1. Why were cable trusses used in the structure?
2. What is the drawback of the cables?
3. How was it overcome?
4. Where is the pitch set?
5. How was concrete seating built?
6. What is the roof structure of the sports centre?
7. What are the working stresses in the cables?
Лексические упражнения
Упражнение 1. Переведите на русский язык приведённые ниже слова и словосочетания:
newton, parabolic (adj.), sheet metal, sq mm, cover (v.), either (adj.), equivalent (adj.),
fully (adv.), nearly (adv.).
Какие из перечисленных слов могут быть другими частями речи? Какими именно? Как они в этом случае переводятся на русский язык?
Упражнение 2. Переведите на английский язык приведённые ниже слова
и словосочетания:
внешний вид, дополнительный, естественное освещение, жёсткая ферма,
изгибаться, измеряться, использовать, конкурировать, направление, неотъемлемый,
несущая способность, отливать, площадь поперечного сечения,
пожарная лестница, правильное решение, предел, прочность, рабочее напряжение,
располагаться на расстоянии … метров друг от друга, расположение, с внешней
стороны, серия, стабилизировать, сток, страдать, так же как и, угол, эквивалентный.
60
A. ARCH
B. CABLE
C. MULLION
D. NEWTON
E. PINNED
1. The unit of force in the Standard International metric
system. It is the force which when applied to a mass of
one kilogram, produces an acceleration (ускорение) of
3 metres per second.
2. A joint between two structural elements enabling them
to rotate (вращаться) freely relative to each other.
3. A structural element spanning a gap and capable of
supporting loads mainly by compressive action.
4. A thin, long, flexible structural element capable of
resisting direct tensile forces but having practically no
compressive or bending strength.
5. A vertical bar sub-dividing a window opening.
JOINT
F. RIGIDITY
6. Quality of resistance to deformation. Structures that
don’t possess the quality are called flexible.
Грамматические упражнения
Упражнение 1. Переведите предложения с независимым причастным
оборотом без причастия.
1. The houses part of a large development, they are of similar construction.
2. In this school two types of corrugated steel panels are used to form the complete
outer shell, with one panel half the length of the other.
3. The building is situated on a slope, its faзade to the sout-east.
4. Each slab block has three vertical circulation cores, with one core to each
point block.
5. The soil not stable, piles were used for the foundation.
61
Упражнение 2. Переведите предложения, определите, к какой части речи
относятся подчеркнутые слова.
1. At spans exceeding about 50 metres cable trusses can be competitive with the
standard rigid plane truss.
2. Large-section steel sheets span between the longitudinal members of the truss
and at the gable ends.
3. The structural design is dominated by the need to allow for thermal movement
of the polycarbonate.
4. This construction doesn’t need any precast elements.
5. The upper members have a link with adjacent trusses.
6. A bridge at first-floor level is to link the first two buildings.
7. Trusses have a practical span limit of up to about 150 metres.
8. The building incorporated slender reinforced concrete columns within the
thickness of the brick walls to limit the area of damage.
Упражнение 3. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на степени
сравнения прилагательных.
1. The weight of the heaviest plate is less than six tonnes.
2. The lower levels have a column grid of 28´20 ft and a framing scheme, which
have the main beams spanning the shorter and the secondary beams the longer
dimension of this grid.
3. A typical floor took less than four days to complete.
4. The staggered truss system is best suited to narrow shaped buildings.
5. Brick is one of the oldest and the first man-made building material.
6. Only the minimum number of loadbearing walls is provided in order to simplify
the scheme and make erection quicker.
7. In practice the highest belt truss is often placed at the top of the building.
8. The higher the floor the smaller is its area.
Текст B
IBM EXHIBITION PAVILION, EUROPE
Part II
The polycarbonate pyramids are formed from 6mm thick, flat sheets, three pyramids
being made from each sheet. The chords are made from laminated timber. Short lengths
are connected together at the cast aluminium nodes, to which the pyramids are attached,
using glued joints. At the top of the pyramids, stainless steel discs are glued in two
places to either side of the polycarbonate and to these is bolted a bent stainless steel
plate, from which a rod with a rubber block cast on it projects radially. The rubber block
has a push with the outer aluminium nodes; it is fixed by an outer cover plate with a
screw fitting to the rod.
Although free to rotate radially, the cross-pin is fixed in the building’s long direction
so that wind forces in this direction are transferred to the ‘ladders’, which act as frames;
the ‘ladders’ are connected to each other at the apex and mid-point on each side of the
building. The cross-members of the ‘ladder’ are attached to the radial members with
bolts. To prevent buckling, the inner radial edges of the pyramids, adjacent to joints, are
stiffened by aluminium channels each side of the polycarbonate; the channels are bolted
together through the polycarbonate, using slotted holes to allow differential thermal
movement, and do not carry any axial load. The joint between the arch units is made
watertight by an internal and external strip of transparent PVC.
The structural design is influenced by the need to allow for thermal movement of
the polycarbonate. As the inner edges of the pyramids increase in length their radius of
curvature also increases. This movement is largely unrestricted because of the pinned
joints used, only secondary moments occurring in the elements.
Notes:
cross-pin n. поперечный штифт
curvature n. кривизна
disc n. диск
push n. толкатель, кнопка
PVC поливинилхлорид
Ответьте на вопросы к тексту
Упражнение 4. Работа в парах.
Студент C: Задайте 5 вопросов различных типов к тексту А.
Студент D: Ответьте на вопросы к тексту студента C.
Студенты C и D: Поменяйтесь ролями.
1. What are the polycarbonate pyramids formed from?
2. How are elements of the pyramids joined?
3. How are wind forces transferred?
4. Why are the inner radial edges of the pyramids stiffened by aluminium channels?
5. How is thermal movement of the polycarbonate allowed for?
Грамматические упражнения
62
Упражнение 1. Найдите в тексте предложения с независимым причастным
оборотом и переведите их на русский язык.
63
Лексические упражнения
Урок 3.11
Упражнение 1. Переведите на русский язык приведённые ниже слова и словосочетания. Если Вы не знаете слово, найдите его в словаре. Выпишите из словаря то значение слова, в котором оно использовано в тексте.
axial load, mid-point (n.), node (n.), radial (adj.), radius (n.), rotate (v.), slotted (adj.).
Упражнение 2. Найдите перевод слов списка А в списке В.
A
отрезок
винт
обе стороны
усиливать
вершина
изогнутый
стержень
пояс балки
B
rod
adjacent
glued joint
unrestricted
occur
cover plate
chord
influence
A
встречаться, иметь место
накладка
неограниченный
влиять
клеевое соединение
водонепроницаемый
потеря продольной устойчивости
примыкающий
B
watertight
buckling
stiffen
bent
screw
apex
either side
length
Упражнение 3. Напишите предложения с каждым из перечисленных ниже
слов:
cover n. – cover v.
near – nearly
Упражнение 4. Составьте план содержания текста B.
64
Фонетическое задание
Прочитайте транскрипцию в списке A, соотнесите её с соответствующим
словом из списка B и переведите слово на русский язык. Учтите, что не все слова
списка В даны в списке А.
A
[¢ reIdIqs]; [¢ xksIql]; [¢ lPGIkql]; [¢ kPrqgeItId]; [¢ speIsq]; [¢ refqrqns]; [rqV¢ teIt];
[nqVd]; [¢ mPdIfaI]; [¢ GWmqnI]
B
logical
spacer
modifier
rotate
radius
refinance
reference
scarce
nod
node
modify
corrugated
axle
axial
Germany
Текст A
LA LUMIERE GYMNASIUM LA PORTE, INDIANA, USA
Traditionally, shell structures of anything more than moderate span have been
built of reinforced concretes, or reinforced cement pastes, with thicknesses varying from
about a quarter to three-quarters of an inch (6mm to 19mm). However even with these
thicknesses the dead weight of the shell forms a major part of the total design load.
A much lighter material such as plastic suffers from its relatively high cost, with variations
in dimension with temperature changes, and its lack of strength especially at joints.
A logical alternative, which is not only lighter than a concrete shell but much cheaper to
erect, is steel sheet. In this school gymnasium, just two types of standard curved corrugated
steel panels are used to form the complete outer shell of a 100ft (30m) wide building,
one panel being half the length of the other. There is an inner shell perforated for acoustic
insulation, but otherwise of similar construction, with insulation provided between the
two shells. All panels are simply bolted together, a 2in (50mm) spacer being used between
the inner and outer shell. The end walls are glass, which determines contact with the
outside.
All arch panels are galvanised steel just over 2ft (600mm) wide and curved to a
70ft (21.35m) radius along their length, with drilled holes around the perimeter to receive
9.5mm bolts for connection to the adjacent panels. There is a double row of holes for the
joint connecting the panel to those above and below it. In the outer shell this joint is
staggered with reference to those in the panels either side. In section the panels are 9 ¼ in
(235mm) deep which gives them considerable effective bending strength. Between the
outer and inner shell there is a 2in (50mm) thick sheet of fibreglass. This acts not only as
thermal insulation, but, with the perforated holes on the inner sheet, as a sound one.
65
The shells are supported at ground level by concreting into a lightly reinforced
edge beam resting on a shallow strip footing.
The curtain wall is supported off a light steel framework which also provides lateral
stiffness at each end of the building. This framework is set in 2ft (600mm) from the end of
the shells and bolted up against them using the modified standard panel bolting detail.
Упражнение 3. Заполните пропуски в тексте, используя слова из приведённого
ниже списка:
Notes:
Schulitz House, Beverly Hills, California, USA
dead weight собственный вес\масса
fibreglass n. стекловолокно
gymnasium n. гимнастический зал
perforated adj. перфорированный
with reference to относительно
1. Why was steel shell structure chosen?
2. What does the shell of the building consist of?
3. How are arch panels joined together?
4. What is there between the outer and inner shell?
5. How are the shells supported at ground level?
6. What is the structure of the building facade?
or
square
street level
support
tolerance
within
Грамматические упражнения
Упражнение 1. Прочтите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на
функцию глагола to have.
Лексические упражнения
Упражнение 1. Переведите на английский язык приведённые ниже слова
и словосочетания:
распорка, всего лишь, оболочковая конструкция, умеренный, цементное тесто,
варьироваться, четверть, дюйм, даже, основной, расчётная нагрузка, пластмасса,
такой как, относительно, размер, температурные изменения, нехватка, изогнутая
панель гофрированной стали, звукоизоляция, в остальном, определять, панель
свода, оцинкованная сталь, просверленное отверстие, ряд, располагать в шахматном
порядке, сечение, фактическая прочность на изгиб, значительный, термоизоляция,
бетонирование, ленточный фундамент мелкого заложения, опираться, краевая
балка, навесная стена, жёсткость, модифицированный, деталь болтового
соединения панелей.
Упражнение 2. Переведите данные существительные и образуйте с их
помощью группы существительных, характерные для строительной терминологии.
Переведите их на русский язык.
sandwich
girder
connection
66
in their turn
insulation
The (1)… is a steel frame with 6 x 6 in (2)… tubular columns that (3)… two main
channel beams (швеллерная балка) on either side; these support steel joists of standard
length, (4)… supporting a metal deck and lightweight concrete floor slab. The four lines
of columns are supported by three rows of concrete columns, cast on top of piles, and by
the retaining wall at (5)… . The columns are stabilised by a grid of reinforced concrete
tie beams cast on the surface of the sloping (6)… . The cladding is of aluminium panels
with (7)… . Window frames are also in aluminium. The dimensions are modular: 4in in
both horizontal directions and 6in vertically. The various building elements must fit
(8)… this modular grid with sufficient (9)… to allow easy erection, and any dimensional
variations or errors whether in construction (10)… in production of the components.
Ответьте на вопросы к тексту
metal
strength
wind
ground
house
deck
resistance
panel
sheet
bolt
plate
1. They have square cross-section and are weakly glued one to the other.
2. The development of reliable wood glues has brought in a range of manufactured
products.
3. Materials have to perform under specific conditions of usage.
4. Fabric structures have been in use for a very long time as temporary forms of
construction.
5. It is important to build with timber which has about the same moisture content
as the one it will have in the building.
6. Wood has decreased strength under long-term loads and at high temperatures.
7. Large spans have quite often to be obtained.
Упражнение 2. Переведите предложения с субъектным инфинитивным
оборотом.
1. This width of the beam is considered to be sufficient.
2. The engineer is said to have changed the design of the roof.
3. Steel is known to be widely used in building.
4. The strength of the fabric is known to depend mainly on the fibre which is
used.
67
5. Wood is expected to have low strength under long term loads and at high
temperatures.
6. The strength of the hardened concrete depends greatly on the water to cement
ratio.
7. Cement powder is believed to be one of the most versatile binders.
8. The design chosen is thought to be the best for owner requirements.
Упражнение 3. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на подчеркнутые
слова.
1. The action of shear unit stresses is complex compared to that of the axial unit
stresses, tension and compression.
2. Various kinds of cement are available, for example, those which harden rapidly.
3. This arrangement allows the structure to be positioned on a steep slope.
4. . The cabins were built in 18 months, work in the factory starting two months
ahead of that on site.
5. Those grades of steel which have higher carbon contents are stronger.
6. That brick is still so popular is largely due to this geometrical idea and the
consequent flexibility it allows in the plan shape of buildings.
7. The six-person two-storey house contains three main walls in the long direction;
these support the two monopitch roofs and the floor above ground level.
8. The house is unusual in that the main central wall is both an internal and an
external wall and is therefore of cavity construction throughout.
9. Different proportions of these materials produce concrete with different strength
and weight.
10. The basic components of a steel structure are steel sections, these usually
prefabricated in a factory.
Упражнение 4. Образуйте существительные от следующих слов, используя
суффикс –ness, и переведите их на русский язык.
thick, stiff, effective, hard, weak, light
Упражнение 5. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на функцию
инфинитива.
1. Glass is a strong material in compression but is only able to realize its full
strength in tension with specimens that are free of scratches.
2. In this case the glass wall is hung from supports to avoid buckling.
3. The wire enables the glass to be transparent and strong at the same time.
4. Wired glass is often used to provide fire resistance for periods of about half an
hour.
5. A film or coating is usually applied to a fabric to increase its life and improve
other properties.
68
6. Other alternatives are synthetic rubber which is easy to stretch and put into
shape but not very durable or thin metal sheet such as stainless steel which is
strong and very stable but hard to get into shape.
7. To achieve the result required prestressed concrete was used.
Упражнение 6. Работа в парах.
Студент C: Задайте 5 вопросов различных типов к тексту А.
Студент D: Ответьте на вопросы к тексту студента C.
Студенты C и D: Поменяйтесь ролями.
Текст B
EISSTADION, BRAUNLAGE, WEST GERMANY
Part I
An asymmetrical but balanced-looking arrangement of masts and cables that cover
this ice-skating stadium are visible from a long way away.
The principal cable-supported frame has two steel masts of rectangular section,
each leaning slightly outwards and supporting twin box-section ridge beams passing
either side of it. The span is 82 metres. The ridge beams have an apex which is nine
metres nearer to the mast on the south side. There are two cables at each suspension
point except the two central points which have four to compensate for the shallower
cable angle there; the cables pass in the gap between the twin beams and are attached to
1.60m diameter steel cylinders which are cut in and welded to the beams.
The cylinders are subsequently filled with concrete to ensure that the cables are
properly anchored to them. Twin 200´1650 mm laminated timber beams span 24m
between the ridge beams and slender steel columns set in from the perimeter; the columns
have pinned connections top and bottom to eliminate any bending moment, which would
increase their size. Timber purlins at 3.75m centres span between the laminated beams
and prevent buckling or twisting; steel angles, in turn, span between the third points of
the purlins and brace them. Each 9m bay of the roof is cross-braced with steel flats.
Galvanised steel sheet, with a plastic coating is attached to the purlins. Timber secondary
roof members were selected being preferred to steel as this was thought to be more
suitable for a building in a holiday area.
Two transverse frames, one at each end, are connected to four concrete columns
at the corners of the building. These columns absorb all torsion on the building as well
as the wind forces in the east-west direction transferred to it by the roof.
Notes:
cross-brace v. соединять крестовыми связями
holiday area зона отдыха
ice-skating stadium ледовый стадион
lean v. наклоняться
suspension point точка подвески
torsion n. кручение
69
Ответьте на вопросы к тексту
Урок 3.12
1. What are the main visible features of the stadium?
2. Why does the structure look asymmetrical?
3. How are cables anchored?
4. What members of the structure was timber used for?
5. Why was timber chosen?
6. What absorbs all torsion on the building?
Фонетическое задание
Грамматические упражнения
Упражнение 1. Найдите в тексте предложение с субъектным инфинитивным
оборотом и переведите его на русский язык.
Упражнение 2. Найдите в тексте местоимения this (these)/that (those) и переведите их на русский язык.
Лексические упражнения
Упражнение 1. Переведите на русский язык приведённые ниже слова и словосочетания. Если Вы не знаете слово, найдите его в словаре. Выпишите из словаря то значение слова, в котором оно использовано в тексте.
asymmetrical (adj.), box-section (n.), cylinder (n.), mast (n.), purlin (n.), ridge beam,
third point, twin (adj.), twisting (n.)
Упражнение 2. Найдите перевод слов списка А в списке В.
A
усиливать
последовательно
видный
основной
издалека
предотвращать
прямоугольный
секция
B
anchor
apex
bay
brace
coating
cut
eliminate
gap
A
исключать
правильно
двойной
закреплять
вершина
слой
промежуток
резать
B
long way away
prevent
principal
properly
rectangular
subsequently
twin
visible adj.
Упражнение 3. Напишите предложения с каждым из перечисленных ниже
слов:
space n. – space v. – spacer n. – spacing n.
Упражнение 4. Составьте план содержания текста B.
70
Прочитайте транскрипцию в списке A, соотнесите её с соответствующим
словом из списка B и переведите слово на русский язык. Учтите, что не все слова
списка В даны в списке А.
A
[traI¢ xNgjVlq]; [hjHG]; [q¢ rJnq]; [¢ pWlIn]; [¢ sIlIndq]; [¢ eIsI¢ metrIkql]; [twIn];
[¢ vIzIbql]; [¢ tLSqn]; [maIld]
B
logical
refinance
modify
spacer
reference
corrugated
modifier
scarce
axle
rotate
nod
axial
radius
node
Germany
Текст A
CROSBY KEMPER ARENA, KANSAS CITY, MISSOURI, USA
When large column free spaces are required, the structure of the building is a
major element in the design. A good example is provided by this arena which has a roof
supported by three huge triangular space trusses. The three space trusses spanning 324ft
are completely self-supporting. The enclosure is set within the space truss structures and
is made up of metal panels which are separated by wide joints.
The space trusses are 27ft high and made of mild steel tubes of 48in diameter and
up to 1¼ in thick for the top chords, 36in and up to 1 in thick for the bottom chords and
30 in and up to 15/8 in thick for the web members. The top chord carries a maximum
working load of approximately 2500 tons (2260 tonnes). This huge compressive member
is restrained against buckling by the inclined web members. At bottom chord level,
cross bracing is provided in each bay by two steel rods of 3in diameter. The space truss
has great rigidity and strength against vertical, horizontal or twisting forces. Suspended
below the space trusses by hangers, are secondary roof trusses, generally at 54ft centres,
the space truss panel length. They are 9ft deep, decreasing to 4ft 6in deep over the 45ft
central parts between trusses. The space trusses are positioned so that they all have
approximately equal loads on them from each side. For the two end trusses, the load
from one side includes the weight of the wall cladding, it being partly supported by the
roof, as well as the roof weight itself. Joists 4ft 5in deep at 9ft centres span the 54ft
between the roof trusses and in turn, support the roof decking. To give the roof surface a
certain amount of stiffness in its own plane, bands of cross-bracing are provided over
the 45 ft central parts between the trusses, going in an east-west direction, and on the
east and west sides of the building, going in a north-south direction. The wall cladding
panels are generally 15ft 6in by 9ft and supported by mullions at 15ft 6in centres, in turn
71
supported by cross beams and then by columns at 18ft centres. The columns are suspended
from the perimeter roof beams so that the cladding panels move with the roof, except the
lower band of panels at the four corners whose mullions are supported on the ground.
Грамматические упражнения
Упражнение 1. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на конструкцию it is/was … that… .
Notes:
1. It is connection of precast concrete units that can be a major construction
problem.
2. It is the reaction of water and cement powder that makes the paste harden.
3. It is the hotel that has ten upper storeys, the office building being a low-rise
one.
4. It was in 1824 that Portland cement appeared.
5. It was the health club with two levels below grade that determined the column
spacings under this playing floor.
6. It was the main staircase that structurally separated the building into two parts.
mild steel низкоуглеродистая сталь
restrained adj. связанный, защемлённый
working load рабочая нагрузка
Ответьте на вопросы к тексту
1. How is column free space for this arena provided?
2. What are the dimensions of the space trusses?
3. Which member of the space truss resists compressive forces?
4. How are secondary roof trusses positioned?
5. What are the differences in the loading of the space trusses?
6. How is stiffness of the roof surface provided?
7. What are the features of the wall cladding?
Упражнение 2. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на неличные
формы глагола.
1. To overcome this flexibility GRP is often used in the form of shaped or double
skin panels.
2. The load transmission conditions being approximately the same in both
directions, a planning grid with a square mesh was adopted.
3. Steel was thought to be more suitable for a building in an industrial area.
4. The builder uses different construction materials to produce the finished
structure.
5. This period of time is necessary to allow the concrete to gain sufficient strength
before it has to support itself.
6. . The slab may be composed of a system of two-way ribs joined together by a
thin top layer of concrete, the latter being described as a waffle slab.
7. These cements generate such heat after setting that they may cause thermal
cracking.
8. The space above the ceiling is not accessible without locally destroying the
ceiling.
9. Having been advised by the consulting engineer to increase the strength of the
foundation they decided to change its design.
10. The area having few sunny days, all the living rooms face (смотрят на) south.
Лексические упражнения
Упражнение 1. Переведите на русский язык приведённые ниже слова и словосочетания:
arena (n.), huge (adj.), triangular (adj.), web member.
Какие из перечисленных слов могут быть другими частями речи? Какими именно?
Как они в этом случае переводятся на русский язык?
Упражнение 2. Переведите на английский язык приведённые ниже слова
и словосочетания:
арена, вес, внешняя балка покрытия, вспомогательная балка, двигаться, кроме,
наклонный, настил, ограждающая конструкция, огромный, панель стеновой
облицовки, перекрёстная связь, подвешивать, полоса, потеря продольной
устойчивости, пояс фермы, пример, жилая застройка, пространственная ферма,
равный, размещать, самонесущий, свободное от колонн пространство, сжатый
элемент, скручивать, стойка фахверка, стык, уменьшаться, хомут.
Упражнение 3. Прочтите и переведите следующее:
Упражнение 3. Дайте синонимы следующих слов:
/3; ½; ¼; 1/8; 3/8; 1¼ in thick; 35/8 m wide; 0.9 ft deep; 15.24 cm deep; 45.72 cm by
274.32 cm; 0.415 kg per sq m; 2.26 mm; 2,625 tons.
1
division n.
complete v.
rear n.
terminate v.
faced adj.
collapse n.
link n.,v. (2)
apart from adv.
fully adv.
72
let v.
think v.
huge adj.
73
Упражнение 4. Работа в парах.
Студент C: Задайте 5 вопросов различных типов к тексту А.
Студент D: Ответьте на вопросы к тексту студента C.
Студенты C и D: Поменяйтесь ролями.
Текст B
EISSTADION, BRAUNLAGE, WEST GERMANY
Part II
The effect of the masts and cables is to more than double the span of this same
frame without cables. The shape of the cable-stayed frame follows the general pattern of
the bending movement in a portal frame with pinned feet and deep haunches. The snow
load of 410 kg per sq m is taken by axial forces in the cables and bending of the ridge
beam and, if the load is asymmetrical, causes some cables to go slack. Load effects then
become non-linear, that is the effects of different load cases may not be simply added
together. Linear analysis is sufficiently good for the analysis of dead load effects however.
The masts receive compression forces of up to 1100 tonnes from the cables. With wind
forces acting at right angles to the main axis of the building, the lateral stabilising system
allows the cable anchorage points to move up to 226mm in the east-west direction. As in
any large structure, the increase of forces due to temperature variations is decreased as
far as possible, in this case by pinned connections and sliding joints. However the main
cable-stayed frame is internally indeterminate and has to absorb these forces; the
transverse frames are flexible and bend under temperature stresses so that the concrete
corner supports do not receive excessive horizontal force.
The total period of construction was 24 months. Steelwork was brought onto site
in large sections and welded up in position.
With heavy snow loading a structure of strength and rigidity was required. However
reasonable economy has been achieved by the elimination of ground anchors, the use of
a continuous ridge member and the careful selection of angles and prestressing force in
the cables. Higher prestressing forces would have increased the size of the ridge beam.
4. What was the total period of construction?
5. How has reasonable economy of the construction been achieved?
Грамматические упражнения
Упражнение 1. Найдите в тексте неличные формы глагола и переведите их
на русский язык.
Лексические упражнения
Упражнение 1. Найдите перевод слов списка А в списке В.
A
вызывать
главная ось
достаточно
жёсткость
исключение
коньковая балка
место анкеровки
портальная рама
прямой угол
система
B
anchorage point
angle
cause
corner support
dead load
double
elimination
excessive
follow
main axis
A
следовать за
собственный вес
увеличивать
угловая опора
угол
удваивать
умеренный
форма
чрезмерный
шарнирное соединение
B
pattern
pinned connection
portal frame
reasonable
ridge beam
increase
right angle
rigidity
shape
sufficiently
Упражнение 2. Напишите предложения с каждым из перечисленных ниже
слов:
twist v. – twisting n.
symmetrical – asymmetrical
Упражнение 4. Составьте план содержания текста B.
Notes:
axial force осевая сила
cable-stayed frame балочно-вантовый каркас
haunch n. консольный выступ
indeterminate adj. неопределённый
linear adj. линейный
go slack провисать
sliding joint подвижное соединение
Ответьте на вопросы к тексту
1. What is the effect of the masts and cables?
2. When do cables go slack?
3. How is the effect of forces due to temperature variations decreased?
74
Текст C
LEVELING THE PLAYING FIELD
The site for the new 18,800-seat Target Center sports arena was a difficult one.
While most of the site was limestone bedrock, the northwest corner extended into a
preglacial river channel. These soil conditions made a single-foundation design not
practical. So the engineers used three footing types.
Typical spread footings were placed away from the channel, where the limestone
was in place. They bear directly on the limestone with a pressure of 20 tons/sq ft, which
reduces the need to remove bedrock. Because the shale below the limestone was of
lower strength, minimum thicknesses of limestone were required between the footing
75
and shale. Where the limestone thickness was inefficient, footings were extended to the
sandstone. About half of the arena is supported on 180 spread footings.
Drilled piers designed for founding on sandstone because of the limited limestone
thickness, were placed near the channel’s edge. The sandstone in this area functioned as
the bearing stratum because of limited limestone thickness. Ranging in diameter from 36
to 78 in and in length from 5 to 50 ft, these piers support 78 columns. The 5 ft piers are
founded on good-quality limestone that extends beyond the estimated edge of the channel.
In the channel, concrete-filled 95/8 in diameter pipe piles carry 80–100 tons per pile.
Protective conical points helped the piles embed themselves into the sandstone-bearing
stratum. There are from three to 20 piles per group driven to the depth of 50–130 ft.
The arena has the first structurally supported, elevated, movable floor in the U.S.
It was the health club with two levels below grade that determined the column spacings
beneath this playing floor. The engineers used a 15´22 ft concrete column grid pattern
to support the 500 lb/sq ft live load.
The movable floor area (228´90 ft) is two levels above the lowest slab. When
lowered, movable seats pull out on all four sides for basketball and concerts. In the up
position the seats pull back and the floor is lifted with a series of 98 jacks.
The top 6 in of concrete on the floor contains the coolant piping for the ice hockey
slab. Directly below this slab is 6in rigid insulation and a 10in structural slab of
conventionally reinforced cast-in-place concrete.
When lowered, the floor functions as a one-way structural slab that spans between
the jack support beams. In the up position, it functions as a two-way slab supported on
the 98 jacks. The jacks are supported by a series of conventionally reinforced cast-inplace beams that, in turn, are supported by the cast-in-place columns. The dead load of
the movable floor is 2,625 tons, with a live-load capacity of 2,625 tons when lifted up
and 5,250 tons when lowered.
The trusses of the roof system are 30 ft deep at the ends and slope to 32 ft deep at
the centre. They are made of W14 sections rotated with the weak axis vertical. The top
and bottom chords are grade 50 steel with web members grade 36 steel.
The trusses were all fully preassembled with the drilled bolt connection shop
fabricated then disassembled and transported to the site. This eliminated fitting problems
during erection. The 330 ft trusses weighed an average of 250 tons each. All truss
connections were bolted in-situ with 1in diameter A325 bolts.
Ответьте на вопросы к тексту
1. Why was the site a difficult one?
2. What were the three footing types the engineers used?
3. What did the use of spread footings result in?
4. Why were drilled piers placed near the channel’s edge?
5. What is the structure of the arena floor?
6. How do the cast-in-place columns under the floor area function?
7. What are the trusses of the roof system made of?
8. How are they joined?
Лексическое упражнение
В списке А даны некоторые слова и выражения, которые использованы
в тексте для домашнего чтения. Найдите их перевод в списке В.
А
B
bear
bearing stratum
bedrock
column spacing
conical point
conventionally
elevated
embed
fitting
grade
column grid pattern
in turn
inefficient
jack
в свою очередь
вертикальная опора
песчаник
верхнее положение
временная нагрузка
грунт
домкрат
заглублять
известняк
иметь наклон
коническое остриё
коренная порода
марка
недостаточный
А
limestone
live load
lower
movable floor
pier
sandstone
shale
site
slope
soil
spread footing
two-way slab
up position
while
Notes:
coolant piping n. система труб охлаждения
disassemble v. демонтировать
drilled pier буронабивная свая-столб
health club оздоровительный клуб
ice hockey хоккей на льду
live-load capacity допустимая временная нагрузка
pipe pile трубчатая свая
preglacial river channel русло доледниковой реки
support beam опорная балка
76
77
B
обычный
опираться
опускать
отдельный фундамент
площадка
подвижной пол
подгонка
приподнятый
сланец
схема сетки колонн
хотя
шаг колонн
грунтовое несущее основание
плита с перекрёстной рабочей
арматурой
ЗНАКИ ФОНЕТИЧЕСКОЙ ТРАНСКРИПЦИИ
Произношение в упражнениях задания и словаре даётся по международной
фонетической системе.
Ударение в фонетической транскрипции ставится перед ударным слогом.
Второстепенное ударение ставится внизу перед ударным слогом.
Гласные звуки
J – долгий и
I – краткий, открытый и
e – как э в словах этот, эти
· – очень открытый э, как ударный гласный в слове бяка
± – долгий, глубокий а, как ударный гласный в слове палка
P – краткий, открытый о
O – долгий о
V – краткий у
H – долгий у
µ – краткий а, как в словах варить, мосты
W – как долгое ё в словах Фёкла, свёкла
q – безударный гласный, похожий на русский безударный гласный в словах нужен,
голос, карета
q – безударный гласный, может произноситься или не произноситься
Двугласные звуки
eI – эй
OI – ой
у
qV – э
Iq – иа
й
aI – а
eq – эа
у
aV – а
Vq – уа
Согласные звуки
p–п
b–б
m–м
w – звук образуется, когда губы, в положении как при свисте, резко раздвигаются.
Напоминает звук у.
f–ф
v–в
T – (без голоса)
оба звука образуются при помощи языка,
D – (с голосом)
кончик которого помещается между
передними зубами
s–с
z–з
t – т, но при произношении кончик языка касается дёсен, а не зубов
d–д
~
~
~
~
78
n–н
~
~
~
~
l–л
~
~
~
~
r – нераскатистое, краткое, слабое р (кончик языка немного завёрнут назад)
S – мягкое ш
Z – мягкое ж
C–ч
» – очень мягкое слитное дж
k–к
g–г
N – произнесённый задней частью спинки языка звук н
h – простой резкий выдох
j – слабый звук й
79
СЛОВАРНЫЙ МИНИМУМ СТРОИТЕЛЬНЫХ ТЕРМИНОВ I – III
СЕМЕСТРОВ
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
Урок
РАСПРЕДЕЛЕНИЕ ГРАММАТИЧЕСКИХ ТЕМ ПО УРОКАМ
Новые
грамматические темы
Повторение
Части речи и члены предложения
Группа существительных
3.1
Времена глагола в действительном и
страдательном залоге
Усилительное слово do
Participle I и причастные обороты
3.2
Числительные
Participle I и причастные обороты
3.3
Оборот there + to be
Конверсия
Инфинитив и инфинитивные обороты
3.4
Функции слова that
Инфинитив и инфинитивные обороты
3.5
Функции слова it
Суффикс существительных -ion
Сложноподчиненное предложение
3.6
Суффикс прилагательных –al
Суффикс наречий –ly
Participle II и причастные обороты
3.7
Суффикс существительных – ment
Усилительная
Герундий
3.8 конструкция it + to be Суффиксы прилагательных -able, -ive
Условные предложения
… that/who
Gerund, Participle I, герундий и
3.9
Отглагольное существительное
Сослагательное наклонение
Независимые причастные обороты без
причастия
3.10
Степени сравнения прилагательных и
наречий
Конверсия
Суффикс существительных – ness
Субъектный
Инфинитив
3.11 инфинитивный оборот
Функции глагола have
Функции слова that
Неличные формы глагола и обороты с ними
Дробные числа
3.12
Усилительная конструкция it + to be …
that/who
94
Библиографический список
1. Orton, Andrew. The Way We Build Now. Wokingham, 1988, ISBN 0-74760-011-2.
2. Hart, Franz. Multi-storey Building in Steel. London, 1978, ISBN 0-258-96974-1.
3. Francis, Arthur J. Structural Design of Tall Steel Buildings. New York, 1979,
ISBN 0-07-022701-5.
4. Advances in Tall Buildings. Ed. by Beedle, Lynn S. New York, 1986, ISBN 0442-21599-1.
5. Ambrose, James. Building Structures. New York, 1988, ISBN 0-471-83094-1.
6. Civil Engineering 1997 – 10 # 1 p.50-53
7. Мюллер В.К. Новый англо-русский словарь. Москва, Русский язык, 2003,
ISBN 5-200-03176-1.
8. Новый большой англо-русский словарь под общим руководством
Э.М. Медниковой и Ю.Д. Апресяна в 3-х томах, Москва, Русский язык, 1993,
ISBN 5-200-01848-X.
9. Корчемкин С.Н., Кашкин С.К., Курбатов С.В. Англо-русский строительный словарь. Москва, Русский язык, 1995, ISBN 5-200-02313-0.
10. Фоменко В.Я., Любимцев А.Н., Любимцева С.Н. Русско-английский разговорник для строителей. Москва, Русский язык, 1990, ISBN 5-200-00758-5.
11. Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English. Longman Dictionaries,
Harlow, 2005, ISBN 1-405-81126-9.
95
АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК
Задание № 111
для студентов II курса специальностей 270102 – промышленное и гражданское
строительство, 270106 – производство строительных материалов, изделий
и конструкций, 270114 – проектирование зданий
Составители: Глебовский Александр Сергеевич
Денисова Татьяна Алексеевна
Редактор В. И. Грицук
Компьютерная верстка И. А. Яблоковой
Подписано к печати 28.07.08. Формат 60´80 1/16. Бум. офсетная.
Усл.печ.л. 5,58. Тираж 500 экз. Заказ 61. «С» 28.
Санкт-Петербургский государственный архитектурно-строительный университет.
190005, Санкт-Петербург, ул. 2-я Красноармейская, 4.
Отпечатано на ризографе. 190005, Санкт-Петербург, 2-я Красноармейская ул., 5.
96
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