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Федеральное агентство по образованию
Санкт-Петербургский государственный
архитектурно-строительный университет
Кафедра иностранных языков
АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК
ЗАДАНИЕ № 112
для студентов II курса специальностей 270102 – промышленное и гражданское
строительство, 270106 – производство строительных материалов, изделий
и конструкций, 270114 – проектирование зданий
Санкт-Петербург
2008
1
Рецензенты: доцент Л. Н. Борисова,
канд. филол. наук, доцент Л. Р. Данилова,
ст. преподаватель В. А. Памфилова
Английский язык. Задание № 112 для студентов II курса спец. 270102 –
промышленное и гражданское строительство, 270106 – производство строительных
материалов, изделий и конструкций, 270114 – проектирование зданий / СПб гос.
архит.-строит. ун-т; Сост.: А. С. Глебовский, Т. А. Денисова. – СПб., 2008. – 90 с.
Под общей редакцией канд. филол. наук, доцента А. С. Глебовского.
Задание предназначено для аудиторного чтения для студентов II курса (весенний семестр) по специальностям 270102 – промышленное и гражданское строительство, 270106 – производство строительных материалов, изделий и конструкций, 270114 – проектирование зданий. Задание составлено на основе оригинальных англоязычных текстов по вопросам строительства зданий.
Цель задания - совершенствование знаний и навыков студентов, необходимых для получения информации в сфере их профессиональной деятельности. Задачи пособия:
- развитие навыков фонологически правильной речи,
- повторение и расширение знаний по грамматике английского
языка, необходимых для понимания текстов по специальности,
- расширение словарного минимума по специальности.
Задание состоит из 12 уроков. Каждый урок включает два текста из оригинальной литературы и набор лексических, грамматических и фонетических упражнений к ним. Каждый четвёртый урок содержит, кроме того, текст для домашнего чтения.
Помимо учебных заданий пособие включает: описание знаков транскрипции, словарный минимум по специальности, поурочный список грамматических
тем и список использованной литературы.
СОДЕРЖАНИЕ
Урок 4.1 ........................................................................................................................ 6
Урок 4.2 ...................................................................................................................... 10
Урок 4.3 ...................................................................................................................... 15
Урок 4.4 ...................................................................................................................... 20
Урок 4.5 ...................................................................................................................... 27
Урок 4.6 ...................................................................................................................... 32
Урок 4.7 ...................................................................................................................... 37
Урок 4.8 ...................................................................................................................... 42
Урок 4.9 ...................................................................................................................... 49
Урок 4.10 .................................................................................................................... 54
Урок 4.11 .................................................................................................................... 59
Урок 4.12 .................................................................................................................... 64
Знаки фонетической транскрипции ........................................................................ 71
Словарный мимнимум строительных терминов
I – IV семестров ........................................................................................................ 73
Распределение грамматических тем по урокам ..................................................... 88
Библиографический список ..................................................................................... 89
ã Санкт-Петербургский государственный
архитектурно-строительный университет,
2008
2
3
УВАЖАЕМЫЕ ПРЕПОДАВАТЕЛИ И СТУДЕНТЫ!
Данное задание является элементом комплекса учебно-методических материалов для курса обучения студентов строительных специальностей английскому
языку. Комплекс включает в себя:
· учебные задания по каждому из четырёх семестров обучения,
· краткий справочник по грамматике английского языка,
· сборник тестов для промежуточного контроля качества овладения студентами учебного материала.
Предлагаемое Вашему вниманию задание по своей структуре и методическим основам является продолжением учебных пособий № 108–111 для I–II курсов.
Задание состоит из 12 уроков. Каждый урок включает:
· основной текст А для самостоятельного перевода со словарём,
· вспомогательный текст В для аудиторного перевода без словаря,
· вспомогательный текст С для домашнего чтения (в уроках 4, 8, 12),
· набор лексических, грамматических и фонологических упражнений.
Тексты A, B и C являются описаниями конструкционных особенностей зданий различных типов и взяты из оригинальных англоязычных текстов по вопросам строительства.
Фонологическая задача пособия – развитие навыков фонологически правильной речи, что подразумевает знание фонетической транскрипции и навыки
пользования словарём.
Лексическая задача пособия – расширение минимально-необходимого набора общеупотребительной и терминологической лексики по строительной специальности.
На основе частотной дифференциации лексического материала текстов был
выделен список высокочастотной лексики и список низкочастотной лексики. Высокочастотная лексика широко использована во всех типах тренировочных и контрольных заданий. Низкочастотная лексика (1-2 употребления на весь текстовой
материал) дана в виде примечания к тексту с переводом на русский язык. В упражнениях и заданиях она также даётся с переводом. Исключение составляют только
фонологические упражнения.
Лексический состав упражнений определяется той, и только той, лексикой, которая уже была представлена в изученных на данный момент текстах.
Новая терминологическая лексика дана в словарном минимуме с указанием
текста, в котором она впервые использована.
Грамматическая задача пособия – повторение и расширение знаний по
грамматике английского языка, необходимых для перевода текстов по специальности и навыками правильного изложения их содержания в ответах на вопросы.
4
Список грамматических тем, которые повторяются или вводятся на каждом
уроке дан в конце задания.
Особенностью данного задания в сравнении с предыдущими пособиями
комплекса являются упражнения, направленные на развитие навыков краткого
изложения содержания прочитанного текста на английском языке.
А. С. Глебовский
5
Ответьте на вопросы к тексту
Урок 4.1
Текст A
MULTI-STOREY CAR PARK IN BREMEN, GERMANY
This multi-storey car park has 748 parking bays on seven floors. On the six upper
floors the parking bays are positioned at right angles to two access roads. Vehicles entering
the park use a semi-helical ramp built at one end of the building; a second semi-helical
ramp, protruding from one of the longitudinal faces, is used by leaving vehicles. Staircases
are accommodated in two cores, one of which additionally contains two lifts.
The overall dimensions of the car park are 78.06´32.77 m. The height above
ground level is 20.80 m. The external radius of the semi-helical ramps is 11.60 m, the
radius of centre-line is 9.05 m, the gradient being 9 %.
Layout comprises two 6.00 m wide access roads. On each side of them there are
5.00 m deep rows of parking bays on each upper floor. Corresponding to this layout the
structural system has been designed as a pin-jointed framework comprising a row of
columns in each of the two longitudinal facades, a row of columns extending along the
longitudinal centre-line, and floor beams spanning 16.00 m from the central to the external
columns. Columns are spaced at 2.50 m centres longitudinally, corresponding to the
width of a parking bay. External columns consist of HE 180 A and B, internal columns
of HE 300 A and B, floor beams of IPE 450. Floors are of composite construction
comprising 10 cm thick precast concrete slabs (2.50´8.07 m) spanning between the
floor beams and interconnecting the structural steelwork in the longitudinal direction.
Composite action is ensured by stud shear connectors and in-situ concrete in the joints.
The imposed load on floors is 350 kg/m2. Wind forces are transmitted through floors to
vertical diagonal bracing in the end and longitudinal walls.
Semi-helical ramps are structurally separate from the main building. The ramp
structure comprises inner and outer columns, radially placed floor beams and an in-situ
concrete deck slab. Horizontal forces due to wind and traffic are transmitted by three
groups of bracing erected between the outer columns.
Spandrel panels of 8 mm thick asbestos cement, 1.20 m high are used for the
facades. Above these are horizontal slats. The end walls and the two semi-helical ramps
feature cladding consisting of plastic-coated sheet-steel troughing units.
Notes:
deck slab
enter v.
gradient n.
parking bay
protrude v.
semi-helical adj.
опорная плита
въезжать в
уклон
парковочный карман
выступать
полуспиральный
6
1. What kind of building is it?
2. How is access to and from the parking bays provided?
3. What are the overall dimensions of the car park?
4. What does its structural system correspond to?
5. What does the framework of the building comprise?
6. How is composite action ensured?
7. How are wind forces withstood?
8. What are the structural features of the semi-helical ramps?
Фонетическое задание
Найдите в тексте слова, транскрипция которых дана ниже, и переведите их
на русский язык.
[¢ xkSqn]; [bJm]; [bI¢ twJn]; [kL]; [Ik¢ stWnl]; [¢ reIdIqs]; [¢ vJIkql]; [¢ vWtIkql]
Лексические упражнения
Упражнение 1. Переведите на русский язык приведённые ниже словосочетания.
horizontal slat, in-situ concrete deck slab, leaving vehicles, longitudinal centre-line,
main building, multi-storey car park, overall dimensions, parking bay, plastic-coated
sheet-steel troughing unit, structural steelwork.
Упражнение 2. Переведите следующие слова и словосочетания на английский
язык:
анкерный соединительный элемент, асбестоцемент, вдоль, верхний этаж, ветровая
нагрузка, включать в себя, внешний радиус, гарантировать, из-за, каркас
с шарнирным соединением, перемычка, подъездная дорога, полуспиральный
пандус, приложенная нагрузка, продольный фасад, прямой угол, размещаться, ряд,
с расстоянием … между осями, состоять из, стык, схема, торцевая стена,
характеризоваться, центральный ствол.
Упражнение 3. Составьте максимальное количество пар синонимов и антонимов из приведённого ниже списка слов:
accommodate
be­tween
built
each
erect
every
external
in-situ
internal
narrow
place
7
precast
through
wide
Грамматические упражнения
Текст B
INDUSTRIAL PAVILION AT THE HANOVER FAIR, GERMANY
Упражнение 1. Переведите следующие словосочетания:
semi-basement level, concrete basement structure, foundation pocket, ventilation plant,
in-situ concrete deck slab, temperature movement, car park design, metal stud, precast
concrete infill panel, hollow core concrete plank, cavity brick wall.
Упражнение 2. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на
функцию глагола to have.
1. The structural system has been designed as a pin-jointed framework.
2. The car park area has no structural fire protection.
3. Cores for tall buildings have to be constructed with thicker walls and more
reinforcement than necessary for the fire protection of the services within cores.
4. This multi-storey car park has 748 parking bays.
5. They had to find a safe method of construction.
6. The foundation had been completed by June and the construction of the
superstructure began.
7. This method will have to be used due to difficult soil condition.
Упражнение 3. Определите, к какой части речи относятся следующие слова
и переведите их:
longitudinal, efficiently, independent, capability, dimension, additionally, external,
structure, builder, characteristic, respective, direction, basement, stainless, brightness.
Упражнение 4. Переведите следующие предложения, выделите главные и
второстепенные члены.
1. The end walls have cladding consisting of plastic-coated sheet-steel troughing
units.
2. Connections between the panels and timber beams are generally made by galvanised
steel screws.
3. Columns are spaced at 2.50 m centres longitudinally.
Упражнение 5. Работа в парах.
Студент C: Задайте 5 вопросов различных типов к тексту А.
Студент D: Ответьте на вопросы к тексту студента C.
Студенты C и D: Поменяйтесь ролями.
8
The structural design of this pavilion includes two rectangular pavilion blocks
displaced parallel to each other, comprising 690 m2 of exhibition space in all. Main
stairs are located between the two blocks. In addition, there is a spiral staircase between
ground floor and upper floor.
The characteristic feature of the structure is the arrange­ment of the upper storeys,
which are suspended from three rows of tubular steel columns, so that they span over the
ground floor and cantilever a distance of 7.0 m and 14.0 m, respectively, at the ends. The
upper storey of each block comprises two Vierendeel girders integral with the longitudinal
facades and interconnected by cross beams at roof and floor level. The girders are pinjointed to brackets on the columns, which are spaced at 14 m centres in both directions.
There is horizontal lattice bracing in longitudinal direction at roof level and transverse
bracing in the end faces of the upper storeys. Steel trough decking serves to stiffen the
upper floors. Wind forces are transmitted by the eight external columns fixed in foundation
pockets in the reinforced concrete basement structure. The 1800 mm dia tubular columns
are of welded construction, from 15 mm thick plate, stiffened with internal diaphragms.
The Vierendeel girders, which are 4.24 m deep, comprise welded I-section chords, 620
mm deep, and HE 600 M uprights spaced at 3.50 m centres. Due to transport restrictions
the Vierendeel girders had to be brought to the site in pieces, field joints being made at
the mid-point of the depth of the uprights. Transverse beams are spaced at 1.75 centres
and have bolted connections.
The ground floor is glazed. The Vierendeel girders in upper storeys have stainless
steel cladding with opening windows provided with double glazing.
Notes:
restriction n. ограничение
Vierendeel girder безраскосная ферма, ферма Виренделя
Задания по тексту
1. Переведите текст.
2. Составьте план текста из 6-8 пунктов.
3. Пользуясь составленным Вами планом, кратко изложите содержание текста на
русском языке.
Лексическое упражнение
Упражнение 1. Переведите на русский язык приведённые ниже слова и словосочетания. Если Вы не знаете слово, найдите его в словаре. Дайте синонимы
подчёркнутых слов и антонимы слов, выделенных курсивом.
arrange­ment, bracket, cantilever, comprise, displace, double glazing, fair (n.), feature,
field joint, foundation pocket, I-section chord, locate, rectangular, respectively, spiral
staircase, stainless steel cladding, suspend, transverse bracing, trough decking, upper.
9
Ответьте на вопросы к тексту
Урок 4.2
Текст A
SOUTH HOLLAND CENTRE, SPALDING, ENGLAND
Generally the building has cast-in-place concrete floors supported by brickwork
walls and columns, although outside, on the north-west elevation, the six columns and
the two large columns on either side of the entrance are concrete with a brick surround
and in the middle unit of the building, the floor of the main hall is precast concrete.
The structure of the middle unit consists of two 381 mm thick brick cavity walls
with the main hall floor and roof spanning them. These side walls are buttressed by piers
at 4.21 m centres giving an overall depth at pier positions of 954 mm; the main hall floor
consists of prestressed precast concrete floor units, with a 50 mm cast-in-place topping;
adjacent units are welded together by means of steel inserts at 2.40 m centres along the
edges, the floor thus forming a rigid diaphragm. The strip foundations to the side walls
are taken below a soft clay layer to sand. The stability of the whole middle unit of the
building is assured by four 225 mm thick return walls, about three metres long, on one
side or other of the wall on the south-west elevation, all being founded on the same wall
strip; the two inner return walls terminate at the main hall level. All other ground floor
walls at right angles to the side walls are separated from the main loadbearing walls by
vertical movement joints and have separate strip foundations. The back unit of the building
is similar in principle to the middle unit but the two loadbearing walls run across the
building in a north-west direction with cast-in-place floor slabs spanning between them;
at the hall level, the slab cantilevers over the wall on the south-east elevation. The
foundations for these loadbearing walls run in a continuous strip under the four walls of
the unit with a minimum width of 2.35 m.
The front unit of the building is founded on a 450 mm concrete raft at basement
level which is stiffened by concrete basement walls that in general are 300 mm thick. This
was necessary because the unit contains a number of structural forms which all work
together and cannot withstand differential movement. The concrete columns on the north­west elevation appear to be separate but, although they rest on strip foundations outside
the raft foundation, they are in fact tied back to the basement by concrete shear walls
below ground level and this prevents differential movement.
Notes:
buttress v. поддерживать
insert n. закладная деталь
soft adj. мягкий
10
1. What building materials were used in the superstructure?
2. What elements of the building was each of them used for?
3. What kinds of foundation does the superstructure bear on?
4. What soil is there underneath the structure?
5. How is the stability of the middle unit assured?
6. Why does the front unit have a concrete raft foundation stiffened by concrete basement
walls?
Фонетическое задание
Найдите в тексте слова, транскрипция которых дана ниже, и переведите их
на русский язык.
[Ll¢ DqV]; [¢ beIsmqnt]; [¢ elI¢ veISqn]; [graVnd]; [hLl]; [prI¢ vent]; [raIt]; [DJz]
Лексические упражнения
Упражнение 1. Переведите на русский язык приведённые ниже словосочетания.
cast-in-place concrete floor, brick cavity wall, prestressed precast concrete floor unit,
225mm thick return wall, vertical movement joint, differential movement, main hall
floor, ground floor wall.
Упражнение 2. Переведите следующие слова и словосочетания на английский
язык:
боковая стена, в основном, вход, двутавровая балка, жёсткая диафрагма,
заканчиваться, край, между, оба, опирать, опорная фундаментная плита,
поддерживать, подобный, полоса, посредством, противостоять, ряд, несколько,
вертикальная опора, слой, слой износа из монолитного бетона, смежные элементы,
снаружи, соединять (пролётом), фасад, характеризоваться, хотя.
Упражнение 3. Выберите толкование, которое соответствует строительному термину в левой колонке и переведите его на русский язык.
Дайте однокоренные слова к терминам, помеченным звёздочкой (*).
11
A. BASEMENT*
B. CLAY
C. DIAPHRAGM
D. LONGITUDINAL
E. PRESTRESS*
F. STIFFNESS*
1. A thin transverse plate used to stiffen a thinwalled structure such as a shell or box girder.
2. A measure of resistance of a structure or structural
element to direct bending, or other type of
deformation.
3. General name for soil of very fine grain (частица)
size and highly cohesive (когезионный) nature.
Change in water content causes change from soft
to hard.
4. Enclosed space within a building part or whole of
which is below the level of the ground surface.
5. In the direction of the longer plan dimension.
6. To apply loads to a structure or structural element
for the purpose of increasing the state of internal
stress on a permanent basis.
Упражнение 4. Определите, есть ли ошибки в переводе представленных ниже
слов. Если ошибки имеются, укажите правильный перевод.
across
additionally
each other
face
from
height
поперёк, через
дополнительный
друг друга
фасад
от
высота
piece
prevent
so that
thus
whole
wide
часть
препятствовать
так что
этот
весь
широкий
Грамматические упражнения
Упражнение 1. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на
причастные обороты.
1. 57 ft long precast beams run along the south and east sides, the latter being a
prestressed post-tensioned beam.
2. Vehicles entering the park use a semi-helical ramp built at one end of the building.
3. Both beams are supported by the internal cross wall, a 19 mm thick fin neoprene
pad with a central pin being provided here in order to spread the load and avoid
cracking.
4. The tubular columns are of welded construction, its 15 mm thick plate walls
stiffened with internal diaphragms.
5. The floor panels are 8 in thick but have different spans, the different slab strengths,
thus required, being provided by post-tensioning.
6. The erection of the precast elements took 8 weeks, the maximum weight of one
element being 19 tons.
12
7. Floors are of composite construction comprising 10 cm thick precast concrete
slabs spanning between the floor beams and interconnecting the structural
steelwork in the longitudinal direction.
8. Total time for construction was fifteen months, all steelwork being erected within
four months.
Упражнение 2. Работа в парах.
Студент C: Задайте 5 вопросов различных типов к тексту А.
Студент D: Ответьте на вопросы к тексту студента C.
Студенты C и D: Поменяйтесь ролями.
Текст B
MOTORWAY RESTAURANT NEAR MONTEPULCIANO, ITALY
It is a two-storey elevated structure spanning a motorway. On both sides of the
motorway there is access through a core comprising two lifts and two staircases. The
overall dimensions of the superstructure are 79.50´15.00 m with the clearance over
motorway being 5.50m.
The striking appearance of this elevated restaurant is largely due to the two singleleg rigid frames which support the building and which are in weathering steel. The main
girder of each of these frames cantilevers 17.50 m rearwards from the tapered leg, while
in the other direction it extends across the width of the motorway, rests on the concrete
core on the opposite side and cantilevers 14.00 m beyond it. At roof level the girders are
interconnected at intervals of 4.00 m by cross girders from which the two storey
superstructure is suspended. The depth of main girder is 3800 mm over the leg, decreasing
to 1700 mm at each end with the width of the flange – 900 mm. Each frame is of welded
plate construction, the webs being stiffened by welded plates at each cross girder
connection, while the leg is pin-jointed at its base to a concrete footing. The cross girders
are plate girders with a maximum depth of 1410 mm at mid-span, but the cross girder
over the concrete core on which the longer arms of the main girders of the frames are
supported is of box section.
The transverse beams in the upper floor of the superstructure are 400 mm deep
rolled steel sections which are suspended from each cross girder by two inner hangers
and two outer hangers, the latter being in the two longitudinal facades. Both floors have
longitudinal secondary beams, spaced at 2.60 m centres, carrying steel trough decking
laid transversely and filled with in-situ concrete. The roof and floors are stiffened with
horizontal cross bracings.
Notes:
arm n. плечо
clearance n. просвет
motorway n. автомагистраль
13
Задания по тексту
1. Переведите текст.
2. Составьте план текста из 6–8 пунктов.
3. Пользуясь составленным Вами планом, кратко изложите содержание текста
на русском языке.
Лексическое упражнение
Упражнение 1. Переведите на русский язык приведённые ниже слова и словосочетания. Если Вы не знаете слово, найдите его в словаре. Дайте синонимы
подчёркнутых слов и антонимы слов, выделенных курсивом.
at mid-span, cross girder, decrease, elevated structure, extend, hanger, interconnected,
opposite side, over, rearwards, single-leg rigid frame, stiffen, striking appearance,
superstructure, tapered leg, the latter, trough decking, weathering steel,
welded plate construction, which.
Урок 4.3
Текст A
GROUP OF EXHIBITION PAVILIONS IN TORONTO, CANADA
The development includes exhibition and recreation grounds laid out on three
artificial islands in Lake Ontario. In a bay enclosed by the islands there is a group of five
pavilions built on stilts in the water and so arranged that the bridges linking the pavilions
to the islands and to one another are joined to the corners of these structures, which are
square on plan.
One of the pavilions contains a restaurant and a hall. The four other pavilions
contain 3000 m2 of exhibition floor space. Visitors walk through the buildings at various
levels on footbridges which intersect them in the two diagonal directions. External
staircases are provided at the corners and there are ramps along the sides of the pavilions.
The pavilions are erected at a height of 10.30 m above water level on 32 m high columns.
At the centre of each pavilion there are four 762 mm dia tubular columns arranged
in a square with a side length of 3.55 m. At 20.0 m above water level, four pairs of lattice
girders are connected to these columns. The lattice girders extend to the four corners of
the square structure and their ends are tied back by inclined cable stays to the tops of the
columns protruding above roof level. The top chords of the lattice girders are
interconnected by an edge girder and by floor beams running longitudinally and
transversely.
The lower-level floor beams, which are interconnected to form a grillage, are
attached on the inside to the four tubular columns, while the outer ends are suspended
by vertical hangers from the ends of the lattice girders and additionally supported by
inclined cables in the facades. The intersections of the floor beams are supported by
externally exposed trussed bracings.
The rectangular hollow section beams at top and bottom level carry steel trough
decking with 13 cm in-situ concrete slab with the imposed load on floors being 488 kg/
m2. Wind forces are transmitted through the floor slabs and through horizontal cross
bracings between the pairs of lattice girders to the four tubular columns, which are set in
open caisson foundations and are interconnected by vertical bracings.
Ducts accommodating various services are installed between the lattice girders,
which are spaced 3.55 m apart. The footbridges inside the pavilions are suspended from
the lattice girders.
Notes:
cable stay ванта, канатная стяжка
caisson foundation кессонный фундамент
island n. остров
recreation n. отдых, развлечение
trussed bracing решётчатые связи
walk v. идти
14
15
Ответьте на вопросы к тексту
1. What kind of development is it?
2. How is circulation within the buildings provided?
3. What is the function of the tubular columns at the centre of each pavilion?
4. What are the top chords of the lattice girders interconnected by?
5. How are the lower-level floor beams supported?
6. What do the rectangular hollow section beams carry?
7. How are wind forces transmitted?
8. Where are service ducts installed?
Фонетическое задание
Грамматические упражнения
Найдите в тексте слова, транскрипция которых дана ниже, и переведите их
на русский язык.
[In¢ saId]; [¢ Intq¢ sekSqn]; [GOIn]; [¢ sWvIs]; [speIs]; [skweq]; [TrH]; [trPf]
Лексические упражнения
Упражнение 1. Переведите на русский язык приведённые ниже слова и словосочетания.
artificial island, diagonal direction, exhibition pavilion, imposed load, inside (n.),
intersection, lattice girder, rectangular hollow section beam, square (n.), water level.
Упражнение 2. Переведите следующие слова и словосочетания на английский
язык:
бухта; верхний пояс; выступать вперёд; застройка; канал, жёлоб; квадрат;
квадратный в плане; краевая балка; между; наклонять; наружная лестница;
пересекать; пересечение; пешеходный мост; подвешивать; поперечный;
располагать; решётка; связывать; содержать; соединять; стойка; трубчатая колонна.
Упражнение 3. Заполните пропуски в тексте, используя слова из приведённого
ниже списка:
adequately
as
enough
forces
in order to
include
may
minimum
to the wall, horizontal forces that act parallel to the wall, creep, shrinkage, and differential
thermal (2)… . These (3)… act separately or in combinations. Beams, serving (4)… the
flange or chord of a horizontal diaphragm must have continuous reinforcement (5)…
resist the (6)… resulting from the horizontal diaphragm action. To provide that continuity
the reinforcement must be (7)… spliced. If the diaphragm chord is a timber member,
bolted splices must be designed so that the total axial tensile force can be transferred
across the joint. On the other edges of the diaphragm, the connection must be strong (8)…
to transfer the total direct shear stresses carried from the diaphragm web into the wall. The
(9)… design shear force to be transferred from diaphragm to shear wall is 200 lb/ft2. Shear
transfer from wood diaphragms can be accomplished with shear bolts and (10)… .
tensile chord stresses
ties
Connection Resistance
The forces to be considered when designing connections (1)… gravity loads,
temporary erection loads, those caused by differential settlements, horizontal loads normal
16
Упражнение 1. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание
на конверсию.
1. In this place connections were made with steel angles or plates.
2. Three steel portal frames, each with two transverse girders, are placed at the top
of the building.
3. The entrance to both buildings is at terrace level.
4. Before erection, the large floor units were levelled and assembled from elements
of identical size.
5. Wind forces are transmitted to the foundations.
6. It is made in order to force the vertical wind-bracing.
7. The hotel has ten upper storeys which cantilever outwards like wings.
8. The ends of these cantilevers are joined together by edge girders.
Упражнение 2. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на
причастия.
1. The floor is of prestressed hollow core concrete planks, 8 ft wide and 8 in thick,
used without a topping.
2. As soon as they were erected, the floor flanks were used to stabilize the trusses by
welding of a plate embedded in the planks to the chords of the trusses.
3. Ranging in diameter from 36 to 78 in and in length from 5 to 50 ft, those piers
support 78 columns.
4. The cladding consists of vertical precast concrete strips alternating with windows.
5. Structural steel used is about 7 lb/ft2 of floor area.
6. The building foundations are piled, all precast columns being positioned in 2 ft
deep pockets in 3 ft deep ground beams sitting on the piles.
7. Drilled piers with an end-bearing pressure of 50 tons/sq ft were placed near the
channels edge.
8. Inside the ground floor has a suspended ceiling 10 in below the slab soffit.
17
Упражнение 3. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на оборот
there + to be.
1.
2.
3.
4.
There was a heavy 9in deep concrete slab at each floor level.
There were ribs between the grooves with overall depth of 40 mm.
There is a 125´500 mm precast concrete edge beam on the east and west sides.
There were some 20 concrete roof slabs, laid in situ or composed of precast
concrete units.
Текст B
Лексическое упражнение
Упражнение 1. Переведите на русский язык приведённые ниже слова и словосочетания. Если Вы не знаете слово, найдите его в словаре. Дайте синонимы
подчёркнутых слов и антонимы слов, выделенных курсивом.
apex, batten, channel section, connect, each, edge beam, entrance hall, equal, hip rafter,
in front of, incline, measure (v.), pair, link (v.), portal frame, adjacent, subdivide, support
(v.), underground passage, unit.
LIBRARY IN PANTIN, FRANCE
This library is accommodated in a two-storey building subdivided into five equal
units: the central unit and four other units which are connected in pairs to two opposite sides
of the central one. Under the central unit there is a basement with underground passages to
link it to the other units. The main staircase is in the entrance hall, while two spiral staircases
are located on the outside of the building. Each unit measures 12.60´12.60 m on plan.
Each of the five units composing the building is supported by four intersecting
rigid portal frames. The frames of adjacent units comprise columns shared in common,
while on the free sides the columns are located at the quarter points of these sides and
stand 60cm in front of the facade. The portal frames span 12.60 m and are 6.30 m apart.
In one direction the upper floor comprises beams pin-jointed to the portal frame columns
and supported at the centre by a column. In the other direction beams span only between
these floor beams and the portal frame columns. The edge beams are IPE 300. These
beams support a reinforced concrete slab, 18 cm thick, enclosed at its outer edge within
a U 230 channel section.
Each unit has a roof in the form of a 1.75 m high pyramid set diagonally so that
the inclined surfaces are parabolic hyperboloids. A cold-formed edge beam is connected
through brackets to the columns of the portal frames and is, at the centre of each face of
the building, tied back to the intersection points of the upper portal frame beams. The
four hip rafters, each composed of two U 200 channel sections, are connected at the
apex of the roof, their lower ends being supported on the edge beams. The edge beams
and hip rafters support timber beams which in turn carry rafters and battens.
Notes:
hyperboloid n. гиперболоид
shared in common действующий совместно (поддерживающий смежные элементы)
Задания по тексту
1. Переведите текст.
2. Составьте план текста из 6-8 пунктов.
3. Пользуясь составленным Вами планом, кратко изложите содержание текста на
русском языке.
18
19
Ответьте на вопросы к тексту
Урок 4.4
Текст A
TERMINAL BUILDING AT ORLY AIRPORT, FRANCE
The building is an airport passenger terminal. It can be used by eight aircraft at
the same time at two pier­heads, these being situated on each side of a main building to
which they are connected by two-storey link buildings. The latter each terminate at one
corner of the pierhead structure which is square on plan and of which the three other
corners have short projecting structures from which access to and from the aircraft is
provided by telescopic gangways. Other gangways are connected to the four sides of the
pierhead structure.
The pierheads are of three-storey construction plus a basement under the whole
area of the building. The first two storeys are connected to the main terminal building by
two walkways for passengers. The basement is linked to the main building by an
underground passage. The recessed top storey contains technical equipment, the
passengers having access to the roof terrace around it. The square pierhead buildings
measure 45.20´45.20 m overall.
The reinforced concrete basement is surmounted by a steel frame comprising twostorey high columns that are rigidly connected in both directions by floor beams. All
wind forces are transmitted by portal frame action. Columns are spaced on 8.28 m square
grid and consist of HE 300A sections, some parts of which are strengthened with welded
plates. All columns are fixed at the base. The main floor girders are rigidly connected to
the columns by means of end plates. Structural continuity of the four girders meeting at
a joint is further ensured by 25 mm thick gusset plates bolted to their top and bottom
flanges, the columns extending continuously through holes formed in the gusset plates.
Girders on the first floor cantilever 1.90 m, those of the second floor – 6.40 m, beyond
the external columns. The ends of the girders are interconnected by edge beams.
In one direction, secondary girders are connected midway between the main girders.
In the other direction, floor beams at 1.04 m centres carry a floor consisting of 3 cm
thick precast concrete slabs and 4 cm thick in-situ concrete topping. The imposed load is
500 kg/m2.
The subsoil is fine to medium sand, the water table being below foundation level.
The foundation consists of pad footings under columns and strip footings under basement
walls. The bearing pressure on soil is 2.5 kg/cm2.
Notes:
aircraft n. самолёт
airport passenger terminal аэровокзал
pier­head n. пирс
telescopic gangway телескопический трап
walkway n. пешеходная дорожка
20
1. What buildings does the airport passenger terminal consist of?
2. How is circulation within the buildings provided?
3. What does the superstructure consist of?
4. What are the wind forces transmitted by?
5. What is the structure of the floor of the building?
6. What are the features of the building substructure (подземная часть здания)?
Фонетическое задание
Найдите в тексте слова, транскрипция которых дана ниже, и переведите их
на русский язык.
[¢ xkses]; [¢ kPlqm]; [faVn¢ deISqn]; [¢ gWdq]; [¢ lxtq]; [¢ mJdIqm]; [¢ pxsIG];
[¢ preSq]
Лексические упражнения
Упражнение 1. Переведите на русский язык приведённые ниже словосочетания.
basement wall, bearing pressure, gusset plate, in-situ concrete topping, pad footing,
strip footing, structural continuity, terminal building, two-storey link building, welded
plate.
Упражнение 2. Переведите следующие слова и словосочетания на английский
язык:
балка перекрытия; весь; возвышаться над; выступать; главная балка; грунт; за,
позади; заглублять; заканчивать(ся); крепить болтом; наружная колонна;
одновременно; под; подземный проход; подход, доступ; последний (из
перечисленных); при помощи; прилагаемая нагрузка; соединять; техническое
оборудование.
Упражнение 3. Переведите данные существительные и образуйте с их
помощью группы существительных, характерные для строительной терминологии.
Переведите их на русский язык.
basement
concrete
cross
footing
girder
joint
lattice
movement
pad
21
steel
strip
topping
Грамматические упражнения
Упражнение 1. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на модальные
глаголы и их заменители.
1. The diagonal tubes could not be taken to street level between the columns, for
planning reasons, and therefore heavy cross-bracing has had to be provided outside
the columns at this level.
2. The secondary beams span to the cast steel brackets and may easily be changed in
position.
3. Compared to precast elements cast-in-place concrete does not have to be field
connected to tie the structure together.
4. Differential movements between trusses should be accepted.
5. Floor beams ought to have pinned connections with the truss at each end to allow
this movement to occur.
6. This causes considerable bending in the columns, which they must be designed to
resist.
7. The slab is still able to act as a continuous horizontal diaphragm spanning between
the gable walls.
Упражнение 2. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание
на подчеркнутые слова.
1. This slab cantilevers over the wall on the south-east elevation.
2. These are supported by two outer hangers only, located in the longitudinal facades.
3. The building is founded on a concrete raft, which is stiffened by concrete basement
walls that in general are 300 mm thick.
4. The depth of main girder is much more than that of secondary girders.
5. Those are the beams that stiffen both floors.
6. The terminal can be used by eight aircraft at two pierheads, these being situated
on each side of the main building.
7. A steel frame comprises two-storey high columns that are connected in both
directions by floor beams.
8. These floor trusses had to be heavy and comparable in size to those of a bridge.
Упражнение 3. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание
на инфинитив.
1. Steel trough decking serves to stiffen the upper floors.
2. The concrete columns on the north-west elevation appear to be separate.
3. The slab cantilevered out at ground floor level to carry the weight of the new
boundary wall.
4. To support the longer arms of the main girders of the frames the cross girder is of
box section.
22
5. The lower-level floor beams, which are interconnected to form a grillage, are
attached on the inside to the four tubular columns.
6. The building to connect the blocks is two-storey.
7. To prevent a premature set and ensure a proper cure is the main problem of
concreting in hot weather.
Текст B
MOUNTAIN REFUGE IN THE STELVIO PASS, ITALY
This accommodation for mountain climbers is situated in the Alps. On plan the
building comprises four wings enclosing a square core.
To withstand the high wind and snow loads the steel structure was designed as a
rigid portal frame system in both directions. Each of the four sides of the core comprises
two frames with hinged feet, one upon the other, interconnected at their corners by the
cantilevering portal cross beams and stiffened by horizontal bracings. The bottom portal
frame extends 7.80 m through two storeys but the top portal frame is only one storey in
height. The span of the frames is 10.00 m. The floor beams, the cantilevers and the roof
structure are attached to this square portal frame system. Two main beams span in each
direction across the space between the cross beams of the portal frames and cantilever
5.60 m beyond them. At the points of intersection of these beams in the interior of the
structure they are rigidly connected to four columns.
Spanning between the main beams are second­ary beams to which galvanised
steel troughing units are welded which serve to carry the timber floor. Beams also span
across the space between the cross beams of the top portal frames and cantilever beyond
them. The main beams of the roof structure are connected to the ends of these cantilevers.
The four sloping sections of the roof are staggered vertically in relation to one another
so that the steel purlins at the top of the roof are connected at different levels to columns
which transmit their load to the beams of the floor below or to the four internal columns
The purlins in turn carry rafters consisting of rolled steel sections.
The cladding of the facade consists of timber panels with internal thermal insulation
and vertical window openings with double glazing.
Notes:
the Alps Альпийские горы
hinged adj. шарнирный
mountain climber альпинист
Задания по тексту
1. Переведите текст.
2. Составьте план текста из 6-8 пунктов.
3. Пользуясь составленным Вами планом, кратко изложите содержание текста на
русском языке.
23
Лексическое упражнение
Упражнение 1. Переведите на русский язык приведённые ниже слова и словосочетания. Если Вы не знаете слово, найдите его в словаре. Дайте синонимы
подчёркнутых слов.
across, attach, cladding, double glazing, galvanised steel, horizontal bracing, in relation
to, in turn, point, rolled steel section, second­ary beam, situated, snow load, space (v.),
steel purlin, thermal insulation, timber panel, window opening, wing,
withstand.
Текст C
CENTRE GEORGES POMPIDOU, PARIS, FRANCE
The building contains an exhibition of Modern Art, a library, offices and terraces
contained in the steel superstructure. Below it is a concrete substructure occupying an
area on plan of 160´100 m.
The superstructure has fourteen plane frames, six storeys high, with a typical
floor height of 7 m. Each frame consists of two 850mm diameter round tubular columns,
48 m apart, each column supporting six cast steel brackets which have a pinned connection
with the column; each bracket takes a downward load, at its inner end, from the deep
lattice truss supporting the floor, and this is balanced by the tension force in the tie
attached at its outer end. The main lattice truss spanning 44.8 m in the east-west direction
has a mid-span depth of 2.82 m between the top of the twin 419 mm diameter tubular top
chords and the bottom of the twin 225 mm diameter solid rod bottom chords. Single
alternating tubular and solid diagonal members, taking compression and tension
respectively, are attached to the top and bottom chords by welding to the cast steel
connections that are at nodes on the chords. The cast steel nodes on the top chord also
receive ordinary rolled steel I-beams, generally 500 mm deep, spanning in the northsouth direction between the trusses. The I-beams and a 110 mm deep concrete floor slab
above it act compositely. Under vertical loading each internal frame functions
independently of the others and joints are provided in the slab and in the steel beams to
allow each truss to deflect independently. Resistance against horizontal forces is provided,
on the east and west facades, by 62 mm diameter high strength, pretensioned diagonal
bars; the cross-bracing is in panels two storeys high and connected to the columns and
floor deck by horizontal tubular bracing in alternate bays at every other floor level.
Horizontal forces transferred to the gable ends are resisted by the main lattice trusses
which are connected together by diagonal tubes. The diagonal tubes could not be taken
to street level between the columns, for planning reasons, and therefore heavy crossbracing has had to be provided outside the columns at this level. In general, solid round
bars take tension and tubular sections take compression.
Other important elements in the composition of the facades are the secondary
beams and columns. The secondary beams consist of two steel channels usually
24
strengthened by steel flats in tension and tubes in compression that make it into a truss;
the secondary columns consist of four steel angles symmetrically placed and connected
to each other through spacers. The secondary beams span to the cast steel brackets and
may easily be changed in position.
The truss and bracket arrangement at each level is based on a Gerber system. With
a distance of 48 m between column centre lines and a live load of 5 kilonewtons per sq
m, these floor trusses had to be heavy and comparable in size to those of a bridge.
Double members were used for the top and bottom chords of the truss to minimize the
truss depth and to provide it with some stability when in position. In spite of its size,
large vertical movements of the truss, and therefore differential movements between
trusses, had to be accepted. A result of this is that, in alternate bays of the building, floor
beams have to have pinned connections with the truss at each end to allow this movement
to occur; in the remaining bays the floor beams have fixed connections with trusses in
order to stabilise the trusses against torsion. At this scale another movement which obtains
great importance is the shortening of the top boom of any of the trusses under load; this
causes considerable bending in the columns, which they must be designed to resist.
Considering all these movements, the concrete floor slab is split into separate panels by
5 mm joints running in the east-west and north-south directions, thus preventing stresses
in the slab.
Concrete panels over the truss are precast but the rest of the floor slab is cast in
place. In spite of the movement joints, the slab is still able to act as a continuous horizontal
diaphragm spanning between the gable walls, because the cast-in-place panels are attached
to each other by steel connectors at intervals.
Notes:
cast steel литая сталь
gable wall фронтонная стена
Gerber system система Гербера
kilonewton килонъютон
plane frame плоская рама
pretensioned adj. предварительно напряжённый
Ответьте на вопросы к тексту
1. What kind of building is it?
2. What are the main elements of its superstructure?
3. What is the structure of the plane frames?
4. How is resistance against horizontal forces provided?
5. What are the features of the secondary beams and columns?
6. Why did the floor trusses have to be heavy?
7. How were differential movements between trusses accepted?
8. Why is the concrete floor slab split into separate panels by joints?
9. How much was precasting used?
10. Why is the slab able to act as a continuous horizontal diaphragm?
25
Лексическое упражнение
Урок 4.5
В списке А даны некоторые слова и выражения, которые использованы
в тексте для домашнего чтения. Найдите их перевод в списке В.
А
bending
boom
bracket
considerable
deflect
differential movement
distance
floor deck
floor truss
i-beam
in spite of
independently
inner
lattice truss
live load
movement joint
B
А
B
верхний пояс
внутренний
временная нагрузка
двутавровая балка
деформационный шов
значительный
изгибание
иметься
кронштейн
кручение
настил перекрытия
независимо
неравномерное
смещение
несмотря на
остальной
node
occur
pinned connection
prevent
shortening
split
steel flat
strengthen
substructure
the rest
therefore
thus
top chord
полосовая сталь
поэтому
пояс (балки)
препятствовать
прогибать(ся)
разъединять
расстояние
таким образом
трубчатая колонна
трубчатая связь
узловой элемент
укорочение
усиливать
torsion
tubular bracing
подземная часть
здания
tubular column
ферма перекрытия
ферма с параллельными
поясами
шарнирное соединение
Текст A
HAVAS CONSEIL OFFICES, NEUILIY, FRANCE
The building is held by six two-storey high steel box portal frames, these frames
being supported by a separate concrete substructure with six basement floors below
street level. Prestressed composite steel beams are used for the main building spans.
The glazed cylinder, placed asymmetrically, about one third down the length of
the building, forms a counterpoint for the rest of the building and contains lifts, stairs
and ducts for vertical distribution of services. It is constructed of one central steel tubular
column 457 mm in diameter with twelve 300 mm diameter steel tubular columns around
the periphery supporting ring and radial steel beams; these support the floor slab which
consists of a 15 m diameter concrete. The columns are filled with concrete. The rest of
the building is supported by six external portal frames which are heavily loaded. The
portal frames consist of heavy box-section steel columns, 700´1200 mm in section,
resting on 740´1 000´48 mm neoprene pads at street level, and a box-section transverse
member of the same size overhanging the top of each column by 3.50 m. The two middle
portal frames, in the larger of the two rectangular parts of the building, have heavy
longitudinal beams rigidly connecting the tops of the columns together. In the storeys
above this, there are rigid internal frames in the same plane as the main, street-level
portals, to which they are welded; these frames are attached to each other by internal
longitudinal beams. The longitudinal beams are prestressed composite steel beams with
an overall depth of 650 mm. Parallel to them are the facade beams which have a 1200
mm deep I-section shape.
A 160mm concrete slab spans the 5.40 m between these longitudinal beams, resting
on top of the internal beams and on shelf angles on the facade beams, the angles being
welded to the inner face of the facade beams at mid-depth. Because of the number of
portal frames, the longitudinal beams have to span large distances, up to a maximum of
23.40 m for the facade beams and 15.30 m for the internal beams.
The ground floor portals were shop fabricated in three parts and welded together
on site at joints near the top of each column. The internal box-section columns were
brought to site in sections either three or four storeys high and then site welded to beams,
cross-bracing being used before the welding was complete.
Notes:
box portal frame портальная рама коробчатого сечения
counterpoint n. контрапункт
neoprene n. неопрен
ring beam кольцевая балка
shelf angle уголковый ригель фахверка
26
27
Ответьте на вопросы к тексту
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
What is the building held by?
What is the structure of the glazed cylinder?
What do the portal frames consist of?
What are the features of the two middle portal frames?
Why do the longitudinal beams have to span large distances?
What are the features of the ground floor portals?
What elements of the structure required welding?
A. BENDING*
B. CREEP
Фонетическое задание
Найдите в тексте слова, транскрипция которых дана ниже, и переведите их
на русский язык.
[kqm¢ plJt]; [kqn¢ strµkt]; [¢ dIstrI¢ bjHSqn]; [dµkt]; [pq¢ rIfqrI]; [¢ sepqrIt];
[tq¢ geDq]; [trxnz¢ vWs]
Лексические упражнения
C. DEFLECTION*
D. DISPLACEMENT*
E. FAILURE*
F. FATIGUE
Упражнение 1. Переведите на русский язык приведённые ниже словосочетания.
prestressed composite steel beam, steel tubular column, box-section steel column, rigid
internal frame, street-level portal, internal longitudinal beam, facade beam, ground floor
portal.
Упражнение 2. Переведите следующие слова и словосочетания на английский
G. FORCE
H. LOAD EFFECTS
язык:
асимметричный, вокруг, изготовлять, из-за, канал, количество, нависать над,
нагружать, общая глубина, опираться на, остеклять, периферийный, плоскость,
подвальный этаж, поддерживать, пролёт, прямоугольный, радиальная балка, рамная
конструкция высотой в два этажа, распределение, строительная площадка, тяжёлый,
уголок, устанавливать, характеризоваться.
Упражнение 3. Выберите толкование, которое соответствует строительному
термину в левой колонке, и переведите его на русский язык.
Дайте однокоренные слова к терминам, помеченным звёздочкой (*).
I. SETTLEMENT*
J. SHEAR
Упражнение 4. Определите, есть ли ошибки в переводе представленных ниже
слов. Если ошибки имеются, укажите правильный перевод.
also
every other
hold
28
1. A force effect that is lateral (perpendicular) to
the major axis of a structure, or one that involves
a slipping (сдвиг) effect. Wind and earthquake
forces are sometimes considered to be shear
effects on a building because they are
perpendicular to the major vertical (gravity) axis
of the building.
2. A structural failure that occurs as the result of a
load applied and removed repeatedly through a
large number of cycles (циклы).
3. Generally refers to the lateral movement of a
structure caused by loads, such as the vertical
bending of a beam, the bowing (искривление)
of a surface under wind pressure, or the lateral
sway (колебание) of a tower.
4. Moments (моменты), shears, and axial forces in
a member due to loads or other actions.
5. Movement away from some fixed point.
6. Result of distribution of stress over a certain
area. A reaction that develops in a member due
to a load.
7. The condition of losing capability to perform a
particular function. May have partial
(частичный) as well as total effects in
structures. For example, a single connection may
fail but the structure might not collapse because
the load is redistributed.
8. The general downward movement of a
foundation caused by the loads and the reactions
(реакция) of the supporting soil materials.
9. The slow change in dimensions of concrete
under a sustained (длительная) load, primarily
in the direction in which the load acts.
10. Turning action that causes change in the
curvature (кривизна) of a linear (линейный)
element. Causes the development of internal
stresses of compression and tension opposite to
each other.
также
каждый второй
вмещать
still
the other
the same
29
всё же
другой
тот же
near
около
one upon the other один над другим
respectively
соответственно
then
together
up to
затем
вместе
до, вплоть до
Грамматические упражнения
Упражнение 1. Переведите предложения, определите степень сравнения
прилагательных.
1. Shell constructions of anything more than moderate span have been built of
reinforced concretes.
2. A logical alternative, which is not only lighter than a concrete shell but much
cheaper to erect, is steel sheet.
3. The most common types of shallow foundations are wall and column footings.
4. With two flights per storey this is the most common form of construction and
takes up the least space on plan.
5. There are two cables at each suspension point except the two central points which
have four to compensate for the shallower cable angle there.
6. The thickness of the shell was the smallest.
7. The larger the span that is required and designed the greater is the deflection to be
taken into account.
8. The second project is less interesting.
exposed outside the longitudinal facades of each building and interconnected in the
transverse direction by floor beams. Each upper floor comprises a central longitudinal
beam resting on pin-jointed columns which are supported on transverse girders spanning
over the entire width of the ground floor. Every alternate external column is intercepted
and carried by an edge girder at first floor level. Thus, while the tubular columns are
spaced at 3.00 m centres at ground level, they are, like the transverse floor beams, at
1.50 m centres in the storeys above. Wind forces are transmitted through the floors to the
concrete cores, to which the floor booms are connected. Connections between the ends
of the beams and the anchor plates embedded in the concrete absorb wind forces elastically
and also allow up to 8 mm change in length in the building as a result of thermal expansion.
The tubular columns are 219 mm dia ´ 25 mm thick on the ground floor and 168
mm dia ´ 6.3 and 4.5 mm thick in the upper storeys.
Notes:
Faculty of Sciences факультет естественных наук
thermal expansion температурное расширение
Задания по тексту
1. Переведите текст.
2. Составьте план текста из 6-8 пунктов.
3. Пользуясь составленным Вами планом, кратко изложите содержание текста на
английском языке.
Упражнение 2. Переведите прилагательные. Определите, от каких слов они
образованы.
Лексическое упражнение
suitable, dependent, protective, compressive, comparable, additive, allowable, axial,
basical, maintainable, massive, movable, principal, different, proportional, resistant,
usable.
Упражнение 1. Переведите на русский язык приведённые ниже слова и словосочетания. Если Вы не знаете слово, найдите его в словаре. Дайте синонимы
подчёркнутых слов и антонимы слов, выделенных курсивом.
Текст B
FACULTY OF SCIENCES COMPLEX, UNIVERSITY OF PARIS
a number of, absorb, anchor plate, change (n.), effective floor area, elastically, embed,
entire, expose, intercept, intersection, like (adv.), piloti, pin-jointed column, rest (v.),
spiral staircase, subdivide, sur­mount, vertical circulation, width.
The Faculty of Sciences is a number of buildings with 400 000 m2 of effective
floor area. The site, measuring 333´275 m, is subdivided into rectangular bays, five in
each direction. Vertical circulation cores, of reinforced concrete construction, connected
to the five-storey buildings which are raised on pilotis, are located at the intersections of
the grid lines. Each of the 33 vertical cores contains two spiral staircases, lifts and shafts
for services.
The longer buildings are 53.6´18.0 m, while the shorter buildings are 41.6´18.0
m. The vertical cores are 9.50 m in diameter.
The reinforced concrete basements are sur­mounted by the circulation cores. The
latter are linked by structural steel frames consisting of two rows of tubular columns,
30
31
Ответьте на вопросы к тексту
Урок 4.6
Текст A
SUPERMARKET AT INTERLAKEN, SWITZERLAND
The supermarket with 1350 m2 area and a restaurant for 120 people is
accommodated in a two-storey building. Store rooms and technical services are in the
basement. The recessed upper storey comprises a restaurant. Vertical circulation facilities
comprise two staircases and three lifts in the interior of the building. There is also an
escalator and one outside staircase leading up from the arcade.
Rectangular on plan with recessed corners the supermarket has overall dimensions
of 55.80´35.70 m. The height above ground level is 11.50 m. The planning grid of the
supermarket is 5.85´5.85 m. The edge of the roof projects 5.55 m on all sides.
The reinforced concrete basement (mushroom floor slab and columns with simple
bases) is surmounted by a composite framework. A reinforced concrete floor is supported
on 28 external columns and nine internal columns. The column spacings are 5.85 and
11.70 m. This floor is rigidly connected to the internal columns by means of anchor bars
and capping plates and is supported along its edges by brackets attached to the external
columns. The floor slab is enclosed by an edge beam channel section.
Wind forces are resisted by portal frame action and are transmitted through the
framework and the floor slab to the concrete core containing one of the staircases. The
striking roof structure for the restaurant on the upper floor comprises square mushroomshaped units, each of which consists of a downward-tapering column carrying a cap in
the shape of an inverted pyramid. Each mushroom cap comprises four hip rafters
fabricated from IPE 400 sections and rigidly bolted to the outer flange of the four members
forming the column. The mushroom hip rafters, which taper towards their ends, are
interconnected by purlins and edge beams. The purlins and edge beams are stressed, not
only in bending by the roof loading, but also in tension, as a result of the geometric
deformation of the mushroom head. The purlins carry lightweight concrete slabs, the
soffit being clad with aluminium panels.
The foundation is made of 40 cm thick reinforced concrete foundation slab. As
the water table is 2.50 m above the soffit of the basement floor, the basement was to be
constructed as a watertight concrete tank. The subsoil is gravel with calculated bearing
pressure being 2.0 kg/cm2.
Notes:
anchor bar анкерная тяга
cap n. капитель, ростверк
capping plate анкерная головка, / покрывающая плита
geometric adj. геометрический
inverted adj. перевёрнутый
mushroom floor slab плита безбалочного железобетонного перекрытия
store room склад
tank n. резервуар
32
1. What are the main functional features of the development?
2. How large is the building?
3. What does the reinforced concrete floor bear on?
4. How are wind forces resisted?
5. What does the roof structure comprise?
6. What is the structure of mushroom caps?
7. What does the substructure of the building feature?
Фонетическое задание
Найдите в тексте слова, транскрипция которых дана ниже, и переведите их
на русский язык.
[¢ kPmpqzIt]; [kqm¢ praIz]; [eG]; [¢ qVvqr¢ Ll]; [rek¢ txNgjVlq]; [¢ steqkeIs];
[¢ tenSqn]; [tq¢ wLdz]
Лексические упражнения
Упражнение 1. Переведите на русский язык приведённые ниже словосочетания.
column spacing, composite framework, downward-tapering column, edge beam channel
section, planning grid, portal frame action, reinforced concrete foundation slab, square
mushroom-shaped unit, vertical circulation facility, watertight con­crete tank.
Упражнение 2. Переведите следующие слова и словосочетания на английский
язык:
размещать(ся), сводчатая галерея, прикреплять, база колонны, кронштейн, вмещать
включать, окружать, высота, накосная стропильная нога, внутреннее пространство,
вести к, плита из лёгкого бетона, внешний фланец, выступать, выдаваться, прогон
(крыши), двутавровая балка, сопротивляться, сторона, нижняя поверхность (свода),
подвергать напряжению, поразительный, суживаться, зеркало грунтовых вод.
Упражнение 3. Заполните пропуски в тексте, используя слова из приведённого
ниже списка:
each
holds
in
span
system
them
33
to
tons
two
will provide
Larry Criffis
THE GREAT AMERICAN PYRAMID
The sloping walls of the arena are supported on a (1)… of structural-steel openweb joists (балки с решётчатой стенкой), beams and trusses. The four corners are
framed with box trusses 14 ft wide and 18 ft deep, meeting at the apex of the pyramid.
(2)… box truss consists of wide-flange chord members and double-angle web members.
(3)… of the box trusses contain steel stairs fabricated inside them on the ground before
truss erection. The stairs (4)… access to the observation level (обзорная площадка)
from the ground.
Each box truss is supported on a massive concrete buttress wall (контрфорсная
стена) 24 (5)… thick and two storeys tall. Secondary trusses (6)… from additional
concrete buttress foundation walls to the box truss above. Steel brace beams are spaced
every 30 ft up the slope, connecting to each box truss and secondary truss. The secondary
trusses are spaced at 56 ft across each face of the pyramid, with 32in deep, long-span
joists between (7)… .
Diagonal joist bridging (распорка) (8)… the joists in an inclined plane
perpendicular to the face of the cladding. The 24 secondary trusses vary from 6.5ft deep
at the buttresses (9)… 11.6 ft at the box-truss connection. They weigh between 11 and
68 (10)…, depending on length.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
The width of the foundation is 3.60 m.
The back unit of the building is similar in principle to the middle unit.
It is a two-storey elevated structure spanning a motorway.
Rigid frames are to support the building.
Wind forces are transmitted in the two concrete cores.
Упражнение 3. Образуйте существительные с помощью словообразовательных суффиксов и переведите их.
a.
от следующих глаголов с помощью суффиксов – ion, -ment:
accommodate, arrange, circulate, compress, deflect, distribute, divide, found, install,
move, place, protect, reinforce, require, settle;
b.
от следующих прилагательных с помощью суффиксов - ness, - (i)ty:
complex, conductive, dense, durable, elastic, flexible, hard, humid, like, plastic, quick,
rigid, stable, stiff, thick.
Переведите образованные существительные на русский язык.
Грамматические упражнения
Упражнение 1. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание
на время и залог сказуемого.
1. The raft forms the foundation of the rest of the building.
2. The structure will be constructed of one central steel tubular column with twelve
similar columns around the perimeter.
3. The deflection was limited because the beams had been prestressed.
4. These frames are being supported by a separate concrete substructure.
5. This eliminated fitting problems during erection.
6. Underground waters had decreased the bearing qualities of the subsoil limestone
and sandstone.
7. With only small openings the core structure will not be affected.
8. Diagonal truss tubes have been built both in steel and concrete.
9. High tensile strength will be accomplished in several ways.
10.These floors will have been completed by next week.
Упражнение 2. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание
на функцию глагола to be.
1. The strip foundations to the side walls are taken below a soft clay layer to sand.
2. The basement was to be constructed watertight.
34
Текст B
OFFICE BUILDING FOR ADMINISTRATION OF STUDENT AFFAIRS,
TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY OF BRUNSWICK, GERMANY
This office building is a two-storey one with a basement. Its overall dimensions
are 30.25´15.25 m, while its height above ground level is 6.48 m. Each storey height is
3.06 m, the ceiling height being 2.60 m. The basement of the building is partly above
ground level.
In transverse direction the structure is made up of three-storey rigid frames,
comprising three 5 m bays spaced at 5 m centres, so that the columns are arranged on a
square grid. In the longitudinal direction temporary underfloor beams subsequently
removed after the floors were concreted were used as an aid for erection. Wind forces
are transmitted transversely by rigid frame action and longitudinally by rigid
interconnection of two transverse frames.
The external columns are rectangular box-section members (200´240 mm with
8 mm plate thickness) placed 65 mm outside the plane of the facade. The internal columns
are rolled sections; transverse beams for the rigid frames are I 60 to 320. The bottom
beams are pin-jointed to the external columns in order to reduce the bending moments in
these columns in the bottom storey. Rigid frames of the structure were erected with the
aid of fitted and high-strength friction-grip bolts. Reinforced concrete ribbed floors span
between transverse beams, the imposed load on floors being 500 kg/m2.
35
For the facades timber cladding units strengthened by vertical steel sections were
used. The units are 13.5 cm thick and have a high value of a thermal resistance.
As the site subsoil consists of fine and medium sand to 2.00 m below the surface
with permissible bearing pressure 4 kg/cm3 the col­umns have pad foundations while
the basement walls are supported on strip footings.
Урок 4.7
Текст A
TRADA OFFICES, HIGH WYCOMBE, ENGLAND
Notes:
fitted bolt
монтажный болт
Задания по тексту
1. Переведите текст.
2. Составьте план текста из 6-8 пунктов.
3. Пользуясь составленным Вами планом, кратко изложите содержание текста на
английском языке.
Лексическое упражнение
Упражнение 1. Переведите на русский язык приведённые ниже слова и словосочетания. Если Вы не знаете слово, найдите его в словаре. Дайте синонимы
подчёркнутых слов и антонимы слов, выделенных курсивом.
aid, bay, ceiling, concrete (v.), façade, fine sand, friction-grip bolt, permissible, ribbed,
floor, rigid, rolled section, so that, strengthen, subsequently, subsoil, temporary, thermal
resistance, timber, transverse, underfloor (adj.).
There is office accommodation of up to three storeys in this building. The top two
storeys are of timber construction and have stressed skin panel external walls, made of
ply on softwood studs but, inside, have a timber framework using hardwood columns
and joists. There is a basement storey below this which is of brick construction.
As the site slopes towards the north-east, the basement storey occupies only that
part of the plan area on the north-east side. The timber ground floor above this occupies
the full plan area and is supported by 200´100 mm exposed hardwood beams on the
long south-west and north-east sides and by a reinforced concrete retaining wall which
provides a line support in the middle. The hardwood beams, at the back rest on concrete
filled pipe sections and at the front, on the basement brick walls. The hardwood joists of
the first floor and roof are supported by 600 or 750 mm deep beams at window head
level on the long sides of the building and by a line of hardwood posts and beams in the
middle. The panel beams are nailed on to the wall panels below and covered on the outside
by a horizontal band of wood boards. All panels use ply, only 9.5 mm thick, nailed and
glued to 50´75 mm softwood studs. The joints between the wall panels are covered on the
outside by softwood vertical strips. Ventilation ducts and other services run in a suspended
ceiling in the corridor. Because of the difficulty of providing a flat ceiling soffit with long
span beams, softwood battens are nailed to the underneath and provide a fixing for the
ceiling boards as well as space for wiring. A polythene vapour barrier is provided on the
inside of the wall to prevent condensation within the wall which would reduce the insulation
value and could lead to high moisture content in the timber.
The post and beam construction on the middle line takes gravity loads but no
wind loads so that only simple beam-to-column connections are required. The wall panels
take the remaining gravity load and all wind loads. This arrangement provides clear
space inside and is a good strategy against fire as well; the post and beam frame is of
thick section and protected by charring of their surface while the more vulnerable but
less heavily loaded panel walls still have their ply sheets and studs protected by mineral
wool insulation and the internal lining board.
Notes:
beam-to-column connection балочно-стоечное сопряжение
char v. обжигать
condensation n. конденсация
insulation value коэффициент изоляции
lining board обшивка, облицовочная плита
mineral wool минеральная вата
ply n. зд. фанера
polythene n. полиэтилен
36
37
Ответьте на вопросы к тексту
1. How high is the office?
2. What materials were used in the structure?
3. What elements of the structure was each material used for?
4. Why does the basement storey occupy only the north-east part of the plan area?
5. Where were nails used for fixing?
6. What was done to avoid high moisture content in the timber?
7. What are gravity and wind loads taken by?
cast-in-place
cavity
concrete
cross
curtain
deck
end
floor
loadbearing
A. BEDROCK
Найдите в тексте слова, транскрипция которых дана ниже, и переведите их
на русский язык.
B. COMPRESSION*
C. CONNECTION*
Лексические упражнения
Упражнение 1. Переведите на русский язык приведённые ниже словосочетания.
clear space, window head, stressed skin panel external wall, exposed hardwood beam,
softwood vertical strip, vapour barrier, post and beam construction, mineral wool,
insulation, flat ceiling soffit, reinforced concrete retaining wall.
Упражнение 2. Переведите следующие слова и словосочетания на английский
язык:
D. DEAD LOAD
E. FOUNDATION*
F. LIVE LOAD
G. ELASTIC
MODULUS
также; полоса; обрешетина; крепление; клеить; сильно нагруженный; вспомогательная балка; линейная опора; балка пролёта; влагосодержание; крепить
гвоздями; площадь горизонтального сечения; так же, как и; стойка; опираться на;
строительная площадка; иметь наклон; стойка каркаса из хвойной древесины;
подвесной потолок; верхний; под; вентиляционный канал; уязвимый;
электропроводка.
slab
foundation
wall
Выберите из приведённого ниже списка слов те, которые соотносятся с этими
терминами. Переведите полученные словосочетания на русский язык.
38
H. SHEAR STUD
I. SLAB
J. TENSION*
Упражнение 3. Вам даны три термина:
raft
retaining
return
shallow
shear
square
strip
support
waffle
Упражнение 4. Выберите толкование, которое соответствует строительному
термину в левой колонке, и переведите его на русский язык.
Дайте однокоренные слова к терминам, помеченным звёздочкой (*).
Фонетическое задание
[bLd]; [¢ sJlIN]; [¢ hRdwVd]; [GOIst]; [¢ mOIsCq]; [¢ ventI¢ leISqn]; [¢ vAlnqrqbql];
[¢ waIqrIN]
masonry
pad
partition
pocket
1. A measure of elastic deformation, defined
(определяемый) as the stress required to produce
a unit strain.
2. Force action that tends to separate adjacent
particles (частицы) of a material or pull attached
elements apart. Produces effects which make an
object straight and elongated.
3. The element, or system of elements, that provides
the transition between a supported structure and
the ground.
4. A structural element capable of spanning a
horizontal gap, like a beam, but extended laterally
to cover an area.
5. The joining of two or more separate elements.
6. The level at which a large rock mass is considered
to be solid, stable, and strong. Is typically lying
below the masses that are less stable and strong
due to weathering.
7. A short steel rod with flat head (оголовок), welded
to a steel member, to transfer shear force between
steel and surrounding concrete.
8. Force that tends to push (сжимать) adjacent
particles (частицы) of a material together and
causes overall shortening of objects in the
direction of its action.
9. Load of vehicles, people, equipment, wind, etc.,
which is not permanently acting on a structure.
10. The actual weight of the structural elements and
tension opposite to each other.
Грамматические упражнения
Упражнение 1. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на
герундий.
39
1. Steel may be protected by insulating with concrete, sheet materials or special
paint.
2. Timber elements allow using nails for fixing them.
3. Incorporating reinforcement into concrete produces a much stronger building
material
4. Connections in steel can be made by welding or bolting.
5. The tendons may be stretched with jacks or by electrical heating.
6. Sometimes concrete is prestressed principally to prevent cracking.
7. The full cross section of a prestressed concrete beam is effective in bending.
8. Wires are used for prestressing much more frequently than bars because of their
greater strength.
9. Shrinkage depends on time but not on stresses due to external loading.
10. Two methods are used in producing prestressed beams.
Упражнение 2. Переведите следующие предложения с усилительной
конструкцией it is … that… .
1. It is a basement storey that is of brick construction.
2. It was laminated timber that all panels are made of.
3. It is relative movement between the structural frame and the external wall that
should be paid attention to.
4. It is concrete or masonry that foundation walls are typically built of.
5. It was in 1824 when Portland cement appeared.
Текст B
AN OFFICE BUILDING IN WASHINGTON DC, USA
The building contains more than 230 000 sq ft (21 360 sq m) of usable office
space as well as parking for more than 250 cars in three basement levels.
At a typical office floor, the maximum spans are approximately 54, 36 and 54 ft
(16.46, 10.97 and 16.46 m), these large spans being required both to allow flexibility in
the layout of the offices and to give the clear spaces in the basement necessary for efficient
circulation in a large car park. The floor area in the basements is slightly larger than that
at a typical office level, the floor slab spiralling downward and spanning to the retaining
walls instead of the perimeter columns, but the structural arrangement is otherwise similar.
Floors from levels 4 to 11 are identical. Prestressed beams at 20 ft 4in (6.20 m) centres
are 2 ft ´ 1 ft 8in (600´500 mm) deep, the slab is 5.5in (139 mm) deep and interior
columns are 2ft (600 mm) square with external columns 2 ft x 1 ft 6in (600´450 mm) in
section. The beams are not continuous across the three bays but stopped at third points
in the middle bay, which provides both space for horizontal ducts and a convenient
position for the anchorages of some of the prestressing strands in the beam. Other
prestressing cables in the beam are continuous across the complete width of the building
and run in the slab depth over the middle third of the centre bay. The total prestressing
40
force in the two outer bays is typically about 260 tons and that in the centre bay about
160 tons. The stressing of the cables takes place from anchorage points around the
perimeter of the floor structure. The floor slab, which spans 20 ft 4in (6.20 m), is also
prestressed, at a level of 7.5 tons per ft run.
The building has precast concrete spandrel panels alternating with bands of window
and column cladding.
Notes:
middle third средняя треть
spiral v. спиралеобразно изгибаться
strand n. арматурная прядь
Задания по тексту
1. Переведите текст.
2. Составьте план текста из 6-8 пунктов.
3. Пользуясь составленным Вами планом, кратко изложите содержание текста на
английском языке.
Лексическое упражнение
Упражнение 1. Переведите на русский язык приведённые ниже слова и словосочетания. Если Вы не знаете слово, найдите его в словаре. Дайте синонимы
подчёркнутых слов и антонимы слов, выделенных курсивом.
alternate, anchorage, as well as, bay, complete width, convenient, duct, flexibility, instead
of, layout, level (n.), otherwise, outer, require, run (n.), slightly, stressing (n.), structural
arrangement, ton, usable.
41
Ответьте на вопросы к тексту
Урок 4.8
Текст A
BANK AND OFFICE BUILDING IN MILAN, ITALY
This seven-storey office building is situated on a corner site between two streets
at their junction with a public square.
The ground floor and mezzanine are set back to form an arcade, 8.70 m high,
extending round the front. These floors and the first floor are occupied by a bank. The
other floors contain individual offices arranged on both sides of a central corridor. Two
basement levels provide parking facilities for 40 cars. Two vertical circulation cores,
each containing a spiral staircase and three lifts, can be reached through separate entrances
on each side of the main hall of the bank and are interconnected on each upper storey by
a central corridor. In addition, there is a lift connecting the main hall and the first floor.
The arcades are designed as portal frames, surmounted by a pin-jointed framework
stiffened by two concrete cores, the frames following the polygonal outline on plan.
Each horizontal part of the cross beams in the portal frames supports two radial beams,
5.90 m apart, which cantilever 1.0 m beyond the cross beams and carry the columns of
the storeys above.
These external columns, which are HE 300 B sections, are connected at each
upper floor by transverse beams to a longitudinal beam, cranked on plan, which is
supported on the intermediate columns. These radial transverse beams are interconnected
by secondary beams at 2 m centres. A generally similar arrangement of main beams,
secondary beams and edge beams occupies the space between the cranked longitudinal
beam and the rear facade of the building. The beams are stiffened by horizontal cross
bracings. All the structural connections are bolted and are treated as pin-joints for the
purpose of structural analysis.
The arcade portal frames are composed of welded I-sections, spanning 11 m. Their
height is 8.35 m. The web depth of columns is 600 mm and that of the horizontal members –
710 mm. Each portal frame column has a 60 mm thick base plate held down by four
42 mm dia bolts to the reinforced concrete walls of the basement.
Floor beams carry steel trough decking, plastered on the underside and carrying
a layer of tar-bonded crushed rock and 4 cm reinforced concrete topping.
Cranked purlins and straight rafters of I-section (parallel to the external facade)
are used for the roof structure. The covering of the roof consists of 0.8 mm copper sheet
on softboard.
Notes:
base plate опорная плита
polygonal outline n. многоугольный контур
softboard n. доска из хвойной древесины
tar-bonded adj. связанный гудроном
underside n. нижняя\оборотная сторона
42
1. What are the location features of the site?
2. How is circulation within the building provided?
3. What is the design of the arcades?
4. How do transverse beams function in the structure?
5. What is used for structural connections?
6. What are floor beams surmounted by?
7. What is the roof made of?
Фонетическое задание
Найдите в тексте слова, транскрипция которых дана ниже, и переведите их
на русский язык.
[q¢ reInG]; [haIt]; [¢ GANkSqn]; [¢ PkjVpaI]; [prq¢ vaId]; [¢ pWpqs]; [rIq];
[sq¢ maVnt]
Лексические упражнения
Упражнение 1. Переведите на русский язык приведённые ниже словосочетания.
copper (n.), cross bracing, intermediate column, parking facility, pin-jointed, framework,
portal frame column, radial trans­verse beam, steel trough decking, treat, welded I-section.
Упражнение 2. Переведите следующие слова и словосочетания на английский
язык:
административное здание, вспомогательная балка, вход, главная балка, глубина
перемычки, задний фасад, изогнутый прогон, консольно выступать, краевая балка,
крепить болтом, оштукатуренный, пересечение, поперечная балка, придавать
жёсткость, продольная балка, простираться, тянуться, радиальная балка, следовать,
составлять, компоновать, стропило, увенчивать, утапливать, центральный, щебень.
Упражнение 3. Определите, есть ли ошибки в переводе представленных ниже
слов. Если ошибки имеются, укажите правильный перевод.
about
as
because of
both
in addition
like
приблизительно
так как
потому что
оба
кроме того
подобно
raise
round
than
through
towards
while
43
поднимать
вокруг
чем
через
к
в то время как
Грамматические упражнения
Упражнение 1. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на формы с
окончанием – ing.
1. On plan the building comprises four wings enclosing a square core, the wings
projecting farther outwards with increase in height.
2. Spanning between the main beams are secondary beams, spaced at 1.50 m centres.
3. The four sloping sections of the roof are staggered vertically in relation to one
another.
4. The concrete floor slab is split into separate panels, thus preventing stresses
being induced (вызывать) in the slab.
5. Because of the difficulty of providing satisfactory (удовлетворительный) strength
by strip foundation pad was considered.
6. After erecting the steel framework enclosure work begins.
7. Two rectangular pavilion blocks are parallel to each other, comprising 690 m2 of
exhibition space in all.
8. Horizontal forces due to wind and traffic being strong, they are transmitted by
three groups of bracing erected between the outer columns.
9. One should be careful when working with glass.
10. The construction was still being continued on some sites when the company
began a new redevelopment (реконструкция) project.
In the other direction, the rigid frames are linked by edge beams just behind the
longitudinal facades and by floor beams between the internal columns. The cross beams
of the frames in each storey carry an in-situ concrete floor slab.
Double glazing is fitted between mullions and transoms con­sisting of steel
sections. The low spandrel walls and window heads are clad with bronze-tinted glass, so
that the overall effect from the exterior is of glazing extending the full height of each
storey. The edges of floors are faced with weathering steel sheet.
Notes:
capping member каптаж / обвязочный брус
spandrel wall подоконная часть стены
Задания по тексту
1. Переведите текст.
2. Составьте план текста из 6-8 пунктов.
3. Пользуясь составленным Вами планом, кратко изложите содержание текста на
английском языке.
Лексическое упражнение
Упражнение 1. Переведите на русский язык приведённые ниже слова и словосочетания. Если Вы не знаете слово, найдите его в словаре. Дайте синонимы
подчёркнутых слов и антонимы слов, выделенных курсивом.
Текст B
OFFICE BUILDING FOR AN INSURANCE COMPANY
IN BRUSSELS, BELGIUM
The building has a square podium block surmounted by an eight-storey
superstructure in the shape of a symmetrical cross on plan. The four wings of the building
extend from a central core and are supported on a substructure raised above the podium.
The four wings are supported over the reinforced concrete podium block by a
substructure, which, under each of the four wings, comprises two longitudinal rows
each consisting of three reinforced concrete columns extending down through the podium
to the foundation. Each row of columns carries a longitudinal capping member comprising
a pair of reinforced concrete girders, each 2.20 m deep and 1.25 m wide, spaced 1.44 m
apart and joined together over each column. Built into these twin longitudinal concrete
girders are ten pairs of transverse steel girders spaced at 3.50 m centres and comprising
two welded channel sections spaced 300 mm apart. Each of these transverse girders
supports an eight-storey rigid frame consisting of two external columns, arranged in
front of the longitudinal faces of the wings, and two internal columns, all of which are
rigidly interconnected at each upper floor by cross beams with spans of 8.05, 2.90 and
8.05 m. All these cross beams comprise twin channels U 300.
44
be clad, behind, bronze-tinted, channel sections, cross (n.), facades, linked, low, mullions,
over, pair, shape, square podium, storey, superstructure, transom, twin girder, weathering
steel.
Текст C
Joseph F.Brockette, Gary W. Stowe
DOME OVER ORLANDO
With municipal services that should have been under one roof situated in several
build­ings, Orlando clearly needed a new City Hall.
The new City Hall is now under construction. This $32.5 million structure is a
nine-storey reinforced concrete tower, clad in granite-aggregate precast concrete panels
and surmounted by a 120 ft diameter copper dome.
While the dome is the structure’s most important visual feature, the view at ground
level will be impressive as well. The main entrance will be through the “Great Room”, a
circular space 80 ft in diameter and 35 ft tall. Beneath the main tower is a basement
added for structural rather than architectural reasons.
45
The soil at the City Hall site is quite dense, fine sand down to about 38 ft, with a
mix of sand and clay of increasing hardness below. Ground water was about 12 ft below
the surface.
We designed a system of 60 and 125 ton capacity precast concrete piles, with each
pile group rigidly connected to individual columns by 5,000 psi reinforced concrete pile
caps about 5 ft deep. The design required for the piles to be driven about 100 ft below
ground.
The only shallow foundation feasible was a mat foundation. It was placed by
Brasfield & Gorrie General Contractor, Inc., Orlando. To make the site ready, they
dewatered the soil to a minimum of 30 ft below ground level for 2 weeks before
excavation. After compacting the soil at the bottom of the excavation, they poured a thin
concrete mat to provide a good surface for steel placement.
We designed the foundation for a maximum allowable gross bearing pressure of
5,000 psf. The mat had to be 4½ ft thick, with a concrete strength of 7,000 psi. Some
4,400 cu yd of concrete were placed in all, along with 290 tons of reinforcement. The
mat was concreted in a single, 13-hour continuous pour without construction joints.
The attached low-rise section rests on individual spread footings. This part of the
building was constructed after the tower was finished, in order to minimize differential
settlements. A construction joint with dowels and reinforcement connects the two sections.
The typical floor plate in the tower is square, varying from 154 ft at the fourth
floor to 148 ft 4in at the ninth. The building perimeter steps inward at the third, fourth,
sixth, eighth and ninth floors. From the fourth to the ninth, the interior framing for each
floor is basically the same. However, the perimeter framing cantilevers outward on all
four sides, with spans varying from 15 ft at the fourth floor to 12 ft 2in at the ninth.
The framing scheme is a reinforced concrete joist system with post-tensioned
girders. By prestressing the girders, we were able to span longer distances. For wind
resistance, wind beams spanning parallel to the joists and located on column grids serve
as lateral-force-resisting beams and are post-tensioned at the perimeter cantilevers.
We designed two adjacent bays north and south of the interior core for significantly
higher loads. These areas measure 52 ft by 36 ft and can be used for heavier rooms.
Above the large space of the Great Room, a tower column rises seven floors to the
domed roof. To transfer the load from the tower column, two perpendicular pairs of
long-span, post-tensioned girders are supported on tall, slender columns.
The four long-span transfer girders work together to support the tower column.
We designed each with the proper amount of prestress force and reinforcement for its
part of the transferred load from the column. Because of the high level of prestress force
required for the final service load, stage stressing was to be used.
Framing of City Hall’s 120 ft copper dome began in mid-October. The dome’s
skin rests on structural steel trusses, supported by a centre circular steel frame with 12
columns bearing on a reinforced concrete frame. The frame rises 21 ft 8in above roof
level. A perimeter circular steel frame with 12 columns bearing directly on the roof
girders also supports the trusses.
46
Notes:
City Hall здание муниципалитета
dewater v. осушать
dome n. купол
domed roof купольное покрытие
excavation n. земляные работы (при строительстве здания)
granite n. гранит
gross bearing pressure совокупное опорное давление
impressive adj. впечатляющий
make ready подготовить
municipal adj. муниципальный
view n. вид
visual adj. визуальный
Ответьте на вопросы к тексту
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Why does Orlando need a new City Hall?
What are the features of the new building?
What kind of soil is there on the site?
What types of foundation were used?
What preliminary (предварительная)work did the construction of the mat
foundation require ?
6. How was mat foundation produced?
7. What are the characteristics of the low-rise section foundation?
8. What does the building perimeter feature?
9. What is the framing scheme of the structure?
10. Why were the girders of the frame prestressed?
11. How is the load from the tower column transferred?
12. What is the structure of the dome?
Лексические упражнения
В списке А даны некоторые слова и выражения, которые использованы
в тексте для домашнего чтения. Найдите их перевод в списке В.
А
adjacent
ag­gregate
amount
basically
bear
circular
clay
compact v.
cu yd
B
опираться
осадка
перпендикулярный
плотный
по существу
прямо
свайная насадка
сетка
смесь
А
mat
measure
mix n.
perpendicular
pile cap
placement
pour v.
proper
scheme
47
B
возможный
высотное здание
глина
грунт
дюбель
неделя
заполнитель
иметь размеры
количество
dense
directly
dowel
feasible
fine
grid
hardness
соседний
структура
твёрдость
тонкий
увенчивать
укладка
уплотнять
settlement
skin
slender
soil
surmount
tower
week
круглый
кубический ярд
мат
мелкий
надлежащий
оболочка
заливать
Урок 4.9
Текст A
THE SEARS TOWER, CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, USA
Part I
This office block is important not for its extreme height but for the original and
simple method by which it resists the huge wind loads on it. The building is 1450 ft
(442 m) high, with 109 storeys above ground, and has a gross floor area of 4.4 million sq
ft (408 760 sq m).
The building was designed to have maximum repetition of elements and building
methods and this was a major factor in successfully achieving the required cost and
speed of construction.
From street level up to level 50, the building is made up of nine 75 ft (22.86 m)
square area modules which combine to form a larger square with sides having an overall
dimension of 225 ft (68.58 m). Below, occupying a larger plan area than the office
tower, are three basement floors formed inside 2 ft 6in (750 mm) thick concrete walls in
a nearly square shape; these walls support the basement floors and are braced by them.
At level 50 the building is stepped back, two of the corner area modules being omitted.
The other two corner area modules are omitted at level 66, leaving five area modules in
a cruciform plan shape, and another three area modules - at level 90, leaving only two
going to the full height. The framed tube of each module consists of deep built-up columns
at 15 ft (4.57 m) centres welded to deep built-up beams at the floor to floor distances,
typically 12 ft 10in (3.91 m). Typical column and beam depths were 3 ft 3in (1.00 m) and
3 ft 6in (1.06 m) respectively. Major columns, those on grid line intersections, have
flanges varying in area from 24´4in (600´19 mm) at the top to 24´4in (600´100 mm) in
the box sections at the bottom; beam flanges vary from 10´1in (250´25 mm) to 16´2.7
in (400´69 mm). Two adjacent framed tubes share one set of beams and columns.
Two-level high belt trusses are provided on grid lines below levels 66 and 90,
which are set-back levels; four-level belt trusses are provided below level 33 and at the
very top of the building. The trusses serve to spread out the concentrations of gravity
force that occur in members at set-back levels, to reduce the effect of differential column
shortening under the wind and gravity loads and to increase the overall lateral stiffness
of the building by some 15%. The floor is made composite with the truss by shear studs.
Every six floors the span direction of the trusses is altered by 90 degrees to equalize
loading on the columns.
Notes:
cruci­form adj. крестообразный
gravity force сила тяжести
repetition n. повторение
48
49
First International Building, Dallas, Texas, USA
Ответьте на вопросы к тексту
1. Why is the office block important?
2. How was the required cost and speed of construction achieved?
3. How many area modules is the building made up of up to the level 50?
4. How does the number of the area modules change at the upper levels?
5. What does the basement structure feature?
6. What does the framed tube of each module consist of?
7. What are the two and four-level trusses used for?
8. Why is the span direction of the trusses altered every six floors?
Фонетическое задание
Найдите в тексте слова, транскрипция которых дана ниже, и переведите их
на русский язык.
[q¢ CJv]; [q¢ GeIsqnt]; [¢ Lltq]; [flxnG]; [hjHG]; [¢ meIGq]; [¢ mPdjHl];
[¢ tIpIkql]
This fifty-six (1)… office tower uses a simple and efficient form for resisting
wind forces on high-rise buildings.
The central (2)… of the building contains the lifts and all services. Between the
core and the outside, a clear 40 ft wide space is used for (3)…. The exterior skin is a
double-glazed (4)… wall set in a grid of aluminium mullions and spandrels.
The building structure (5)… columns on the external wall at 25 ft centres with
spandrel beams (ригельная балка) at a floor to floor height of 12 ft 6in. Diagonal members
are incorporated into the wall and intersect with the columns every four floors. (6)… a
large horizontal bracing member connecting the two diagonals at these levels. Under
gravity load the member acts as a tie, helping to (7)… the gravity load evenly between
all the columns and the diagonals. This in turn means that the external columns can all
be of a similar size. Under (8)… load the diagonal members are prevented from going
into tension by the gravity load on them. A stub girder floor system is used in which the
concrete (9)… and metal deck are separated from the bottom girder with stub pieces.
The stubs have shear connectors on their top to ensure (10)… with the slab.
Грамматические упражнения
Лексические упражнения
Упражнение 1. Переведите на русский язык приведённые ниже словосочетания.
Упражнение 1. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание
на функцию инфинитива.
corner area modules, beam depths, grid line intersections, two-level high belt trusses,
set-back levels, four-level belt trusses, differential column shortening, overall lateral
stiffness, span direction, gross floor area.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Упражнение 2. Переведите следующие слова и словосочетания на английский
5.
язык:
6.
административное здание, ветровая нагрузка, добиться, иметь (совместно), делить,
комплект, композитный, концентрация, нагрузка от собственного веса конструкций,
огромный, очень большой, почти, пояс (балки), пропускать, противостоять,
распределять, расстояние, скорость, скреплять, соединять, составная колонна,
стоимость, требовать, уменьшать, элемент коробчатого сечения
7.
8.
A thick reinforced concrete raft foundation is used to distribute the column loads.
To increase its strength the building includes reinforced concrete columns.
This building took a total period of 20 months to complete.
The truss system is best suited to narrow shaped buildings which can accept cross
walls.
To lead the rainwater back behind the columns instead of running down the face
was the reason for sloping the frame back towards the building.
Ceilings to be built of 16 mm thick slabs with joints will be suspended from
blocks.
To facilitate transport and to achieve rapid erection, the long block was divided
into six units.
The trusses serve to spread out concentrations of gravity force.
Упражнение 2. Прочтите и переведите следующие сокращения:
Упражнение 3. Заполните пропуски в тексте, используя слова из приведённого
ниже списка:
composite action
consists of
core
curtain
distribute
offices
50
slab
storey
there is
wind
1450 ft high; 4.4 million sq ft; 22.86 m; 2 ft 6in; 750 mm thick; 3 ft 3in; 24´4in;
600´100 mm; 408760 sq m; at 3.75 m centres; the 18th floor; 2000 mm in depth;
500 kg/m2; 16 % gradient; an area of 1600´100 m; 1480 lb; spanning 44.8 m; snow
loads of 300 kg per sq metre.
51
Текст B
OFFICE BUILDING FOR MEMBERS OF PARLIAMENT. BONN
Offices for members of the Bundestag are situated in a 30-storey building raised
on pilotis.
There is a podium from the basement to the third storey. One longitudinal side of
this low-rise building is set forward from the base of the high-rise block, while its other
three sides are recessed beneath it.
The rectangular concrete core braces the building and supports the inner ends of
the floor beams, which are spaced at 3.75 m centres and span from the core walls to the
external columns, which are of 650´650 mm square box section. The core is not situated
in the centre of the building and the span of the beams on the two narrower faces and on
one of the longitudinal faces is 7.50 m. On the other longitudinal face the distance from
the core to the external columns is 15.00 m, which is halved by an additional row of
internal columns carrying longitudinal beams. Above the 18th floor of the building these
internal columns have been moved 3.75 m inwards towards the core in order to obtain
more depth for the halls. These columns are supported on a storey-height lattice girder
in the 18th storey.
At third floor level every alternate external column is intercepted by, and supported
on, a box girder 2000 mm in depth. The columns under this girder, spaced at 7.50 m
centres, have a length of 13.20 m on three sides of the building, that is, where the podium
building is recessed under the main high rise block.
The floor beams carry 12 cm thick precast concrete slabs spanning 3.75 m. For
structural and fire protection reasons it was necessary to ensure continuity of the floor
slabs. So the slabs were recessed at the top to have projecting reinforcement exposed at
the supports. Additional reinforcement was introduced here and the joint completed
with in-situ concrete.
Лексическое упражнение
Упражнение 1. Переведите на русский язык приведённые ниже слова и
словосочетания. Если Вы не знаете слово, найдите его в словаре. Дайте синонимы
подчёркнутых слов и антонимы слов, выделенных курсивом.
pilotis, low-rise building, high-rise block, recessed, rectangular, inwards, in order to,
lattice girder, intercept, reason (n.), ensure, so (conj.), expose, introduce, base, beneath.
Notes:
Bundestag Бундестаг
continuity n. непрерывность
half v. делить пополам
Задания по тексту
1. Переведите текст.
2. Составьте план текста из 6–8 пунктов.
3. Пользуясь составленным Вами планом, кратко изложите содержание текста
на английском языке.
52
53
hexagonal adj. гексагональный
shear lag n. поперечная инерция
sub-assembly n. монтажный блок
‘tree’ n. древовидная конструкция
web frame решётчатый каркас
sway n. колебание
Урок 4.10
Текст A
THE SEARS TOWER, CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, USA
Ответьте на вопросы к тексту
Part II
Each column on the grid lines is supported by a caisson of about 7 to 10 ft (2.13 to
3.05 m) in diameter and 120 ft (36.58 m) length cored into rock. The tops of the caisson
are tied together by a 5 ft (1.52 m) deep concrete mat which also serves to transfer a
design horizontal wind force of 4500 tons (4080 tonnes) to a stratum of clay. For vertical
transportation the building is divided into three zones, each 30 to 40 storeys high. Double
deck lifts serve these ‘main’ floors from which ‘local’ lifts function, stopping at each
floor in the zone The steelwork structure is clad with a black aluminium skin and has
bronze-tinted glass.
Under wind loads, the structure works in a similar manner to a tube without
openings cantilevering from ground level. The bundled tube system provides two internal
web frames in each grid direction, in addition to those on the outside. The effect is to
reduce shear lag on the flange frames, so there is a more uniform distribution of axial
load among those columns on lines perpendicular to the wind force. An even distribution
indicates good cantilever efficiency. The bundled tube system makes good use of the
internal columns to increase the building’s stiffness. The wind sway is about 0.3in
(7.5 mm) per storey, the design wind pressure being 65 lb per sq ft (317 kg per sq m) at
the top. The exterior columns were clad with 4in (100 mm) of insulation and had gravity
circulation of inside air around them in order that at a design temperature of -20°F
(-29°C) outside, the column was within 7°F(3.8°C) of the inside temperature of 75° F
(24°C).
The steelwork was brought on to site as ‘tree’ sub-assemblies consisting of a twostorey column and half-length beams on either side. The ‘trees’ weigh 15 tons (13.84
tonnes) and are bolted together at beam mid-points, these connections being designed
for shear only. The column connections above and below are welded and are mid-height
between the floors. Almost all the welding necessary was done at the factory and this
welding was extensively tested.
The bundled tube system is applied to very high buildings which can be split into
tubes. The tubes may have different areas or shapes in plan. Of the completely regular
ways of subdividing a plan shape into identical area modules, apart from the square,
only hexagonal and triangular modules are possible.
Notes:
bundled tube system система пучка труб
even adj. равномерный
flange frame каркас с фланцем
54
1. How do the caissons and the concrete mat function?
2. How is vertical transportation within the building provided?
3. What was done to resist wind loads?
4. Why did the exterior columns have gravity circulation of inside air around them?
5. What form was the steelwork brought to site in?
6. What are the possible shapes of identical area modules?
Фонетическое задание
Найдите в тексте слова, транскрипция которых дана ниже, и переведите их
на русский язык.
[¢ kxntIlJvq]; [klxd]; [daI¢ xmItq]; [¢ dAbql]; [Ik¢ stensIvlI]; [aI¢ dentIkql]; [SIq];
[¢ jHnIfLm]
Лексические упражнения
Упражнение 1. Переведите на русский язык приведённые ниже словосочетания.
design horizontal wind force, double deck lift, bronze-tinted glass, grid direction, bundled
tube system, two-storey column, half-length beam, triangular module, beam mid-point,
black aluminium skin.
Упражнение 2. Переведите следующие слова и словосочетания на английский
язык:
кроме; применять; осевая нагрузка; свая-колонна; соединение; врезать, заглублять;
распределение; делить; эффективность; активно; функционировать, действовать;
гравитационная циркуляция; линия сетки; модули одинаковой площади; так же,
как; отверстие; одинаковый; сдвиг, срез; разделять; пласт, слой; проверять;
передавать; равномерный; способ, образ действий.
Упражнение 3. Выберите толкование, которое соответствует строительному
термину в левой колонке, и переведите его на русский язык.
55
Дайте однокоренные слова к терминам, помеченным звёздочкой (*).
A. FOOTING
1. One of the separate elements of a structure.
2. A building in which columns are closely spaced
B. MAT
around the perimeter of the building and
FOUNDATIO N*
interconnected by stiff spandrel beams to achieve
N*
stiffness against lateral loads.
3. A structure used to brace a vertical cut (выемка
C. MEMBER
грунта), or a change in elevation of the ground surface.
4. Any material that can be reduced to individual
D. REINFORCE
particles by the actions of water and minimum
shock.
5. A shallow, bearing-type foundation element
E. RETAINING
consisting typically of concrete that is poured
WALL
directly into an excavation (котлован).
6. A floor level beam in the face of a building, usually
F. ROCK
supporting the edges of the floor slabs.
G. SOIL
7. To strengthen, usually by adding something.
8. Capability of a structure to develop force resistance
H. SPANDREL
as a property of its form, type of connections,
BEAM
methods of support, etc.
9. A very large bearing-type foundation. When the
I. STABILITY*
entire bottom of a building is constituted as a single
element, it is also called a raft foundation.
10. Any material that is generally not affected in its
structural properties by a change in water content
J. TUBE
and that possesses considerable resistance to
SYSTEM
excavation (выемка грунта) or to separation into
individual particles (частицы).
Грамматические упражнения
Упражнение 1. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание
на причастия.
1. The building is a 30-storey suspended structure.
2. The floor beams are supported at their inner ends in pockets formed in the concrete
core.
3. When prestressed the girders can span longer distances.
4. The vertical forces are transmitted to the core through the special brackets provided.
5. Assembled from these relatively slender steel members, the system performs the
load-bearing function.
6. When placed on permanent formwork, such as precast concrete units, in-situ
56
concrete with smaller tolerances is obtained.
7. Prefabricated floors are particularly feasible in order to reduce construction time.
8. The fire resistance of a floor required can be achieved in various ways.
Упражнение 2. Определите, к какой части речи относятся подчеркнутые
слова.
1. The two buildings house more than 16,000 office workers.
2. This house is important not for its extreme height but for the original technique of
construction.
3. They designed the building to have maximum repetition of elements.
4. In spite of its vast size, only a limited number of design drawings were done.
5. The design of the floor was made composite with the truss by shear studs.
6. The building is made up of nine square area modules.
7. Building methods used helped to achieve the required cost and speed of construction.
8. The building consists of square units which combine to form a larger square.
Текст B
OFFICE BUILDING FOR INSURANCE COMPANY IN LONDON,
ENGLAND
The building is a 30-storey suspended structure containing 26100 m2 of office
space. The entrance hall extends through a height of two storeys.
In each storey, the floor beams are supported at their inner ends in pockets formed
in the concrete core, while their outer ends are attached to steel hangers in the facades.
At about mid-height and at the top of the building the hangers transmit their loads, from
the twelve storeys below these levels to a cantilever frame built out from the core. Wind
forces are also transmitted to the core, through the floor slabs.
The 13 cm thick lightweight concrete floor slabs are in composite construction
with the floor beams, welded studs being used as shear connectors. The hangers are flat
bars, 228 mm wide, increasing in thickness with height from 19 to 51 mm.
The hangers in the facades are suspended from edge girders, those parallel to the
two longer sides of the core being plate girders, while those in the other direction being
two-storey high lattice girders. From these edge girders the vertical forces exerted by
the hangers are transmitted through diagonal ties and horizontal struts to the core of the
building. The horizontal forces transmitted by the cantilever frames to each side of the
core balance one another, the diagonal ties being interconnected by prestressed hightensile steel ties linking their upper points of attachment, while the struts transmit their
thrust through the floor slabs within the core. The vertical forces from the ties are
transmitted to the core through the special brackets provided. The bottom chords of the
two-storey high lattice girders are of welded I-section, 1220 mm deep, with plate
thicknesses up to 62 mm.
57
Notes:
cantilever frame каркас с консолями
Урок 4.11
Задания по тексту
1. Переведите текст.
2. Составьте план текста из 6-8 пунктов.
3. Пользуясь составленным Вами планом, кратко изложите содержание текста
на английском языке.
Лексическое упражнение
Упражнение 1. Переведите на русский язык приведённые ниже слова и словосочетания. Если Вы не знаете слово, найдите его в словаре. Дайте синонимы
подчёркнутых слов и антонимы слов, выделенных курсивом.
at mid-height, bottom chord, bracket, cantilever frame, composite construction, exert,
extend, flat bar, high-tensile steel tie, horizontal strut, lightweight concrete, pocket, point
of attachment, shear connector, steel hanger, suspended structure, thrust, welded I-section,
welded stud, within.
Текст A
SABAH FOUNDATION HEADQUARTERS,
KOTA KINABALU, SABAH, MALAYSIA
Suspended by umbrella trusses at two levels from a circular core, this building is
32-storey.
The floors are circular in plan, the office space surrounding a reinforced concrete
core which consists of two connected circular walls, approximately 1 ft (300 mm)
thick. Thirteen floors are hung off each of the two umbrella structures, each floor being
supported at 24 points around its perimeter by hanging bars which reduce in size or
number at each floor level going down. The floors are reinforced concrete slabs using
24 radial beams supported by the hanging bars at one end and the core at the other end.
Each umbrella structure consists of 24 steel triangular trusses. The core is supported by
a concrete raft 9 ft 3in (2.82 m) deep and 68 ft (20.72 m) across resting on 232 steel
piles. The building is clad in a reflective glass.
Half the floor load at each level is supported by the hanging bars, taken up to the
umbrella and there transferred to ground down the core. With two umbrellas, instead of
one, this load path is relatively short but still longer than in conventional column
construction. All the wind loads, as well as the gravity loads, are taken by the core
acting as a cantilever. Compared to a conventional arrangement, where outside columns
taken to ground would be used instead of the hanging bars, the gravity load in the core
of the hanging building is doubled and either the vertical prestress doubles or, if the wall
thickness is doubled, the section modulus doubles.
After construction of the mat foundation, the slipforming of the 376 ft (115 m)
high core walls started. The top umbrella was constructed at ground level and raised by
twelve 150 ton (138 tonne) jacks placed at the top of the core. The 24 hanging bars were
attached to the umbrella at one end and to the preassembled nineteenth floor, the lowest
floor supported by the top umbrella at the other end. After being raised to the top, the
umbrella was fixed in position and the construction of floors continued upwards from
the nineteenth floor, with traditional formwork. The procedure was repeated for the
lower half of the building. Floors are built up to 13/4 in (44 mm) high at the perimeter to
allow for elastic extension of the hanging bars and the shortening of the core, these two
deformations being additive.
Notes:
elastic extension упругое удлинение
hanging bar навесной стержень
load path линия нагрузки
section modulus момент сопротивления сечения
58
59
Steel Piles
slipforming n. бетонирование в скользящей опалубке
umbrella truss ферма в форме зонта
Ответьте на вопросы к тексту
1. What are the floors of the building supported by?
2. What does the core bear on?
3. How does the loading in the umbrella structure differ (отличаться) from that in the
conventional column construction?
4. What was the sequence of operations in the construction of the top umbrella?
5. Why are the floors built up to 44mm high at the perimeter?
6. How is the building clad?
Фонетическое задание
Найдите в тексте слова, транскрипция которых дана ниже, и переведите их
на русский язык.
[¢ xdItIv]; [¢ sWkjVlq]; [kqn¢ venSqnql]; [paIl]; [prq¢ sJGq]; [reIz]; [rI¢ djHs];
[traI¢ xNgjVlq]
Упражнение 1. Переведите на русский язык приведённые ниже слова и словосочетания.
additive (adj.), concrete raft, floor load, hanging bar, mat foundation, preassembled floor,
reflective glass, reinforced concrete core, umbrella structure, vertical prestress.
Упражнение 2. Переведите следующие слова и словосочетания на английский
язык:
учитывать; так же, как и; по сравнению с; общепринятая схема; деформация;
удваивать; закреплять в положении; опалубка; подвешивать; вместо; домкрат;
нижняя половина; устанавливать; процесс; сравнительно; укорочение; пространство; стальная свая; всё же; подвесной; треугольная ферма; вверх.
Упражнение 3. Заполните пропуски в тексте, используя слова из приведённого ниже списка:
causes
each other
is required
number
60
spacing
sufficient
Грамматические упражнения
Упражнение 1. Переведите следующие словосочетания.
Лексические упражнения
although
below
Steel pipes and H-sections are widely used for piles, especially where great length
or load capacity (1)… or where driving is difficult and requires excessive driving force.
(2)… the piles are expensive their higher load capacity, and the relative ease of cutting
or splicing (наращивание) them may be (3)… advantages for their use. As with timber
piles of great length, their relative flexibility (4)… the problems of assuring straightness
during driving.
Rusting above the ground water level can be a problem. One solution is (5)… a
concrete jacket (оболочка) around the steel pile down to a point (6)… the water level.
When placed in groups, piles are driven as close to (7)… as possible. The spacing
allowable is related to the pile size and the driving technique. Ordinary (8)… is 2 ft 6in.
for small timber piles and 3 ft for most other piles of the size range used in building
foundations. Pile layouts typically follow conventional patterns, based on the (9)… of
piles in the group.
Pile caps function like column footings, and will generally be of a size close to
(10)… of a column footing for the same total load with a relatively high soil pressure.
that
to cast
давление грунтовых вод, ленточный фундамент, уровень третьего этажа, балка
перекрытия, стена центрального ствола здания, система бетонных балок, периметр
здания, толщина плиты, навесная стена, сооружение стоимостью 30 миллионов
долларов, плитный фундамент, здание малой этажности, несущая способность,
шов бетонирования.
Упражнение 2. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на глагол would.
1. At this scale many effects which would not be significant in a smaller span structure
must be considered.
2. Engineers supposed that this building would be an interesting alternative to a
series of trusses across the shorter dimension on plan.
3. Higher prestressing forces would have increased the size of the beam.
4. The simple cast-in-place slab floor system is used where there are irregular floor
designs that would make it difficult to form similar precast units.
5. If it were decided to use a square footing, it would need to be larger, since it
would also have to support part of the wall.
6. It is estimated that with laminated timber replaced by steelwork, which would
normally be desirable, the weight of steelwork would amount to 35 kg per sq m.
61
Текст B
ADMINISTRATIVE BUILDING
FOR AN ALUMINIUM CONCERN IN SAN FRANCISCO, USA
actually, addi­tional stiffening, arrange, be located, by means of, characteristic feature,
comprise, cross-section, curtain wall, distance, earthquake zone, in­corporate, infilling,
interior, lateral deflection, position (v.), right angle, spaced at … centres, thickness,
transom.
The building is located in an earthquake zone, the horizontal seismic forces being
much greater than the wind forces. To cope with them, the structure is provided with
diagonal bracings, left externally exposed as characteristic features of the elevational
treatment. In front of each faзade there are lattice panels comprising continuous columns
and two sets of diagonal members. This lattice system stiffens the building against lateral
deflection. Addi­tional stiffening of the building is provided by rigid frames in the central
core which can resist 25% of the seismic forces. The external lattice system consists of
welded box-sections with plate thicknesses up to 100 mm. The diagonals are 410´410 mm
in cross-section, being arranged at a distance of 350 mm from the facade. The columns,
which are 960´510 mm in cross-section, are in­corporated into the facade. Each corner
column is actually a pair of columns, connected at right angles to one another.
Floor loads are supported in the interior by the core walls and at the periphery of
the building by the external columns and by hangers. The latter are connected, at every
sixth floor, to the intersection points of the diagonal elevation of the building. Floor
edge beams positioned just behind the facade are connected to the columns and hangers
by means of brackets. The floors span without intermediate columns between these edge
beams and the walls of the core. Each floor comprises main and secondary beams and a
6.5 cm thick in-situ concrete slab on steel trough decking.
Curtain wall with mullions and transoms of aluminium sections are attached to
the edges of the floor. Mullions are spaced at 1.57 m centres, while transoms are at
1.98 m. Infilling consists of double glazing.
Notes:
cope (with) v. зд. противодействовать
elevational treatment отделка фасада
seismic forces сейсмические силы/воздействия
Задания по тексту
1. Переведите текст.
2. Составьте план текста из 6-8 пунктов.
3. Пользуясь составленным Вами планом, кратко изложите содержание текста на
английском языке.
Лексическое упражнение
Упражнение 1. Переведите на русский язык приведённые ниже слова и словосочетания. Если Вы не знаете слово, найдите его в словаре. Дайте синонимы
подчёркнутых слов и антонимы слов, выделенных курсивом.
62
63
Ответьте на вопросы к тексту
Урок 4.12
Текст A
XEROX CENTER, CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, USA
This office block has 40 storeys and a gross floor area of 880 000 sq ft (81 750 sq m).
Except at the rounded corner, the column grid in both the east-west and northsouth directions is 22 ft 6in (6.86 m) in each end bay and 20 ft (6.10 m) in the intermediate
bays. An 8in (200 mm) thick reinforced concrete flat slab spans between the columns at
each floor level. However there is a 2 ft (0.60 m) deep beam connecting the perimeter
columns and at the top of all the interior columns. Interior columns are square and
perimeter columns are circular, both increasing in size down the building. At street level
the interior columns are 3´3 ft (0.91´0.91 m) and are made with 6000 psi (42 newtons
per sq mm) strength concrete. Lateral stability is provided by core walls which increase
in thickness down the building and interact with the perimeter frames. The core walls
are all about one foot thick at mid-height.
The feature of this design is the enclosure. There are horizontal bands of double
glazing, of green colour from the outside, alternating with insulated aluminium panels
coated with a fluoropolymer which is white. Transom and mullion pieces are in the same
aluminium. The cladding all comes as pre-assembled panels 5 ft (1.52 m) wide by 11 ft
(3.53 m) high. The horizontal joint between each panel is put above the glazing. The
wind pressure on the cladding at the top of the building, where it is not protected by the
surrounding buildings, is expected to reach up to 60 lb/ft2 (294 kg/m2). Each column is
founded on a caisson and the core walls - on a series of caissons. The caissons have a
diameter of 4 ft 6in (1.37 m) and extend some 50 or 70 ft (15 or 20 m) to the bedrock.
The flat slab floor has relatively small depth allowing room for horizontal service
runs, the principal reinforcement being provided along column lines. Because the slab is
relatively flexible, compared to the perimeter beam, that part of the lateral load not
taken by the core structure is taken by the perimeter frames rather than the internal
construction. The action of the perimeter frame is most effective near the top of the
building.
The total construction time was 24 months. The floor slab at each level took
approximately one week to complete. Two tower cranes, taken through the north and
south parts of the building, were used.
Notes:
deep beam балка-стенка
fluoropolymer n. фторсодержащий полимер
rounded adj. закруглённый
tower crane башенный кран
64
1. What is the difference in column grid dimensions between the end bays and the
intermediate bays?
2. How does the size of interior and perimeter columns change with the height of the
building?
3. How is lateral stability provided?
4. What does the enclosure of the building feature?
5. What do the core walls and columns bear on?
6. Where is the action of the perimeter frame most effective?
7. What was the total construction time?
8. How many cranes were used?
Фонетическое задание
Найдите в тексте слова, транскрипция которых дана ниже, и переведите их
на русский язык.
[¢ LltqneIt]; [beI]; [¢ keIsqn]; [¢ fJCq]; [In¢ tIqrIq]; [¢ Intq¢ mJdIqt]; [GOInt];
[¢ mAljqn]
Лексические упражнения
Упражнение 1. Переведите на русский язык приведённые ниже словосочетания.
at street level, column grid, column line, construction time, east-west and north-south
directions, perimeter beam, pre-assembled panel, reinforced concrete flat slab, service
run, wind pressure.
Упражнение 2. Переведите следующие слова и словосочетания на английский
язык:
чередоваться, коренная порода, круглый, облицовка, покрывать, заканчивать,
ограждающая конструкция, крайняя секция, особенность, гибкий, опирать (на),
угол, общая площадь этажа здания, горизонтальная полоса, тем не менее,
увеличивать(ся), взаимодействовать, поперечная устойчивость, основной, а не,
достигать (какой-либо величины), арматура, серия, тот же самый.
Упражнение 3. Вам даны три термина:
beam
column
65
frame
Выберите из приведённого ниже списка слов те, которые соотносятся с этими
терминами. Переведите полученные словосочетания на русский язык.
box-section
continuous
cross
edge
external
façade
floor
intermediate
internal
longitudinal
main
perimeter
pin-jointed
portal
radial
rigid
secondary
steel
timber
transverse
tubular
Грамматическое упражнение
Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на неличные формы глагола и обороты с ними.
1. The basement is supposed to transfer horizontal load on the building into the clay
nearer the ground surface.
2. The connections between these columns are designed to transmit both tension
and compression.
3. The aluminium anchor is likely to be slightly rotated.
4. The central core is triangular with sides of 48.30 m, the distance from the facades
to the walls of the core being 13.80 m.
5. The wind sway is about 0.3in per storey, the design wind pressure being 65 lb per
sq ft at the top.
6. The umbrella being raised to the top, the construction of floors proceeded upwards
from the nineteenth floor.
7. The tensile strength is still low and this is a major disadvantage of the material
resulting in cracking.
8. The aggregates must be strong and durable materials to take the applied loads and
must not react chemically with the cement paste.
9. Important factors considered in deciding on a safety factor are given here.
10. The structural system is to comprise four transverse three-storey frames rigidly
interconnected in the longi­tudinal direction by edge beams.
Текст B
HEAD OFFICE BUILDING FOR
A STEEL COMPANY IN PITTSBURGH, USA
On plan the building has the shape of an equilateral triangle, the length of side
being 67.32 m. The height above ground level is 256 m. The central core is also triangular
with sides of 48.30 m, the distance from the facades to the walls of the core being 13.80 m.
The design of the building has been based on a 1.32 m module.
The structural system for this high-rise building is determined essentially by the
method of transmitting the wind forces to the foundations. The walls of the triangular
66
core are formed with lattice panels which are shear-connected to each other at the corners
and whose columns are rigidly fixed to the foundation structure, thus forming a triangular
tube functioning as a vertical cantilever which absorbs and transmits all horizontal forces.
At the top of the building a rigid space frame ‘hat’ connects the core to the
21 external columns which are located 91 cm in front of the facades. The connections
between these columns and the space frame are designed to transmit both tension and
compression. Thus the top of the building can undergo lateral displacement, but no
rotation, so that its deflections are reduced and extreme movements due to temperature
variations are also prevented. At every third floor the external columns are joined to one
another by horizontal stubs projecting from the facade, which are rigidly connected to
them. The beams supporting these floors are connected directly to these stubs. The beams
for the intermediate floors, secondary floors, are connected at their outer ends to twostorey high columns which stand, just inside the facades, on the beams for the primary
floors. The inner ends of all the floor beams are supported in the core walls.
The external columns and the horizontal stubs in front of the facades are of boxsection.
Notes:
displacement n. смещение
equilateral triangle равносторонний треугольник
rotation n. поворот
undergo v. подвергаться
Задания по тексту
1. Переведите текст.
2. Составьте план текста из 6-8 пунктов.
3. Пользуясь составленным Вами планом, кратко изложите содержание текста на
английском языке.
Лексическое упражнение
Упражнение 1. Переведите на русский язык приведённые ниже слова и словосочетания. Если Вы не знаете слово, найдите его в словаре. Дайте синонимы
подчёркнутых слов и антонимы слов, выделенных курсивом.
absorb, compression, connect, determine, directly, essentially, form (v.), function (v.),
ground level, head office building, in front of, join, prevent, project (v.), room, space
frame, stub (n.), temperature variations, tension, vertical cantilever.
67
Текст C
THE HONGKONG AND SHANGHAI
BANKING CORPORATION HEADQUARTERS, HONG KONG
The building has four basement levels and 43 storeys above ground to the top of
the highest steel masts, with a helipad structure rising above this giving the building an
overall height of 179 m. The structure consists of only eight masts, some of which are
visible on elevation. The masts consist of four round vertical tubes and plan cross-bracing
connecting them together at the storey-height intervals of 3.90 m. There are four lines of
masts running in the east-west direction, the two masts on each line supporting, at intervals
in the building’s height, a pair of double-storey height suspension trusses which span
33.60 m between the masts and cantilever 10.80 m beyond them. In the three bay areas
between the outer column lines, the floors terminate at levels 30, 37 and 43 in the south,
north and central bays respectively. There are suspension trusses at all these three levels,
as well as further down at levels 11 and 20. The trusses effectively divide the building
over its height into five independent structures.
The floors in each of these five horizontal zones are supported by vertical hangers
attached to the suspension trusses above. All the trusses have a similar form but the
trusses on the exposed north and south faces do not have the top boom in the central
span that is included in the others. At the suspension truss levels, the masts are also
connected in the north-south direction, at each side of the building by cross-bracing
two-storey high running on the inner line of the mast tubes only. Three-storey high
cross-bracing, in the same plan position, is provided across the two central columns of
the atrium between levels 5 and 8. The floor structure consists of 900 mm deep plate
girder primary beams in the east-west direction running along the mast tube lines,
supported between the masts and the hangers. These support secondary beams at 2.40 m
centres which support 54 mm deep metal decks with 100 mm of concrete topping. Each
mast is taken down to the lowest basement level where it is supported, vertically, by four
3 m diameter caissons taken to rock, one under each leg. Horizontal support is provided
by the basement floor structure one level below ground. The masts, suspension trusses,
hangers and any other exposed or important elements are given corrosion protection by
a 12 mm thick sprayed cement coat containing a polymer additive and 5% by weight of
stainless steel fibres.
The external skin of the building consists of aluminium cladding and mainly glass
curtain walls and is unusually complex. All visible structural elements are clad. There
are four main types of cladding. The first type, for office areas, is a glass curtain wall,
seen particularly on the north and south elevations. It comprises aluminium mullions at
1.20 m centres with sill rails at storey heights into which are fixed 12 mm thick toughened
(tempered) glass sheets. A steel T-section anchor, attached to the floor through vertically
slotted holes and to an aluminium bracket with horizontally slotted holes, allows the
aluminium bracket, which supports the sill and mullions to be precisely positioned. The
glazing, therefore, only needs to allow for tolerances.
68
An inner wall of lightly tinted glass is provided inside the external glazing.
A horizontal joint at each storey allows for floor deflections and thermal movements.
The second type of cladding consists of glass panels in a metal grid cladding the stairs
on the east and west sides. The panel size is 2.40 m wide by a storey height consisting of
four panes of 12 mm toughened (tempered) glass attached to the aluminium sub-frame
by a structural silicon sealant. The third type consists of laminated panels of the same
size, for the service modules and ‘risers’ (здесь - ступени) on the east and west sides.
The panel is 25 mm thick and consists of aluminium sheets. The panel is glued and
riveted to an aluminium sub-frame which interlocks with adjacent panels. The fourth
type consists of the curved and flat sheet metal panels which clad the structure; they are
6mm thick aluminium sheets welded to aluminium edge sections.
Notes:
atrium n. атриум
helipad n. вертолётная площадка
pane n. оконное стекло
plate girder primary beam стальная составная основная балка
rivet v. заклёпывать
service module инженерный отсек
silicon sealant силиконовый герметик
sill rail нижняя направляющая остекления
sub-frame n. обрешетина (под облицовку)
suspension truss висячая ферма
T section однотаврового сечения/ Т-образного сечения
Ответьте на вопросы к тексту
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
What does the structure consist of?
What is a mast made of?
How is each mast support provided?
How do suspension trusses function?
What does the floor structure consist of?
How are important elements of the building protected against corrosion?
What makes the external skin of the building unusually complex?
How are office areas clad?
What does the cladding of the stairs on the east and west sides feature?
How are the service modules and ‘risers’ clad?
What is the fourth type of cladding?
Лексические упражнения
В списке А даны некоторые слова и выражения, которые использованы в
тексте для домашнего чтения. Найдите их перевод в списке В.
69
А
additive n.
attach
boom
corrosion
cross-bracing
curtain wall
curved
deck
glue
independent
interlock
laminated
leg
lightly
mast
overall
B
навесная стена
видимый
лестница
допуск
защита
круглый
заканчиваться
подрамок
точно
слой износа
соответственно
лист
мачтовая опора
поэтому
прорезь
коррозия
А
precisely
protection
respectively
rise v.
round adj.
sheet
slotted hole
spray
stair
sub-frame
terminate
therefore
tolerance
topping
toughened glass
visible
B
слегка
настил
распылять
закалённое стекло
независимый
перекрёстная связь
пояс балки
многослойный
закругленный
общий
подниматься
прикреплять
соединяться
добавка
опора
склеивать
ЗНАКИ ФОНЕТИЧЕСКОЙ ТРАНСКРИПЦИИ
Произношение в упражнениях задания и словаре даётся по международной
фонетической системе.
Ударение в фонетической транскрипции ставится перед ударным слогом.
Второстепенное ударение ставится внизу перед ударным слогом.
Гласные звуки
J – долгий и
I – краткий, открытый и
e – как э в словах этот, эти
· - очень открытый э, как ударный гласный в слове бяка
± - долгий, глубокий а, как ударный гласный в слове палка
P - краткий, открытый о
L - долгий о
V – краткий у
H – долгий у
µ - краткий а, как в словах варить, мосты
W – как долгое ё в словах Фёкла, свёкла
q – безударный гласный, похожий на русский безударный гласный в словах нужен,
голос, карета
q – безударный гласный может произноситься или не произноситься
Двугласные звуки
eI - эй
qV - эу
aI - ай
aV - ау
OI - ой
Iq - иа
eq - эа
Vq - уа
Согласные звуки
p–п
b–б
m–м
w – звук образуется, когда губы, в положении, как при свисте, резко раздвигаются.
Напоминает звук у.
f-ф
v-в
T - (без голоса)
оба звука образуются при помощи языка,
D - (с голосом)
кончик которого помещается между
передними зубами
s-с
z-з
t – т, но при произношении кончик языка касается дёсен, а не зубов
70
71
d–д
~
~
~
~
n–н
~
~
~
~
l–л
~
~
~
~
r – нераскатистое, краткое, слабое р (кончик языка немного завёрнут назад)
S - мягкое ш
Z - мягкое ж
C-ч
» - очень мягкое слитное дж
k-к
g-г
N - произнесённый задней частью спинки языка звук н
h – простой резкий выдох
j – слабый звук й
72
СЛОВАРНЫЙ МИНИМУМ СТРОИТЕЛЬНЫХ ТЕРМИНОВ
I – IV СЕМЕСТРОВ
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
Библиографический список
Урок
РАСПРЕДЕЛЕНИЕ ГРАММАТИЧЕСКИХ ТЕМ ПО УРОКАМ
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7
4.8
4.9
4.10
4.11
4.12
Новые
грамматические темы
Повторение
Части речи и члены предложения.
Группа существительных.
Функции глагола have
Причастные обороты
Participle I & II.
Оборот there + to be.
Конверсия
Инфинитив.
Функции слов this/that.
Модальные глаголы и их эквиваленты
Суффиксы прилагательных.
Степени сравнения прилагательных
Суффиксы существительных.
Времена глагола в действительном и
страдательном залоге.
Функции глагола to be
Герундий.
Усилительная конструкция it + to be …
that/who
Формы с окончанием - ing
Инфинитив.
Числительные
Participle II.
Конверсия
Сослагательное наклонение.
Группа существительных
1. Orton, Andrew. The Way We Build Now. Wokingham, 1988, ISBN 0-74760-011-2.
2. Hart, Franz. Multi-storey Building in Steel. London, 1978, ISBN 0-258-96974-1.
3. Francis, Arthur J. Structural Design of Tall Steel Buildings. New York, 1979,
ISBN 0-07-022701-5.
4. Advances in Tall Buildings. Ed. by Beedle, Lynn S. New York, 1986,
ISBN 0-442-21599-1.
5. Ambrose, James. Building Structures. New York, 1988, ISBN 0-471-83094-1.
6. Ambrose, James. Simplified Design of Building Founations. New York.1988.
ISBN 0-471-85898-6.
7. Civil Engineer 1998 – 6 # 11 pp. 56-58.
8. Civil Engineer 2000 – 1 #5 p.50-53
9. Мюллер В.К. Новый англо-русский словарь. – М.: Русский язык, 2003.
ISBN 5-200-03176-1.
10. Новый большой англо-русский словарь. Под общим руководством Э.М. Медниковой и Ю.Д. Апресяна. В 3 т. – М.: Русский язык, 1993.
ISBN 5-200-01848-X.
11. Корчемкин С.Н., Кашкин С.К., Курбатов С.В. Англо-русский строительный словарь. – М.: Русский язык, 1995. ISBN 5-200-02313-0
12. Фоменко В.Я., Любимцев А.Н., Любимцева С.Н. Русско-английский разговорник для строителей. – М.: Русский язык, 1990. ISBN 5-200-00758-5.
13. Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English. Longman Dictionaries,
Harlow, 2005, ISBN 1-405-81126-9
Неличные формы глагола и обороты с ними
88
89
АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК
Задание № 112
для студентов II курса специальностей 270102 – промышленное и гражданское
строительство, 270106 – производство строительных материалов, изделий
и конструкций, 270114 – проектирование зданий.
Составители: Глебовский Александр Сергеевич
Денисова Татьяна Алексеевна
Редактор В. И. Грицук
Компьютерная верстка И. А. Яблоковой
Подписано к печати 28.07.08. Формат 60´80 1/16. Бум. офсетная.
Усл.печ.л. 5,23. Тираж 500 экз. Заказ 63. «С» 29.
Санкт-Петербургский государственный архитектурно-строительный университет.
190005, Санкт-Петербург, ул. 2-я Красноармейская, 4.
Отпечатано на ризографе. 190005, Санкт-Петербург, 2-я Красноармейская ул., 5.
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