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JP2002100820

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DESCRIPTION JP2002100820
[0001]
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 1. Field of the Invention The present invention relates to an
energy conversion element using a piezoelectric element and a method of driving the energy
conversion element. The present invention also relates to an electronic device using an energy
conversion element. For example, it is a piezoelectric device, that is, an actuator, a sensor, a
transformer, a buzzer, a speaker, a filter, and the like, and an electronic device using the
piezoelectric device.
[0002]
2. Description of the Related Art In recent years, various piezoelectric devices (for example,
actuators, sensors, transformers, filters, etc.) have been actively used in various electronic
devices. For example, among actuators, ultrasonic motors have attracted attention, and
applications in various fields have been attempted. Generally as a drive system of an ultrasonic
motor, a system which adheres a piezoelectric element to a plate-like vibrator, and converts
expansion-contraction movement (by the piezoelectric transverse effect) of a piezoelectric
element into bending vibration is adopted widely. For example, Japanese Patent Publication No.
8-107686 describes an example of such an ultrasonic motor. Further, in this example, the
piezoelectric element is divided into two regions, and either one region is used according to the
driving direction of the movable body to obtain the driving force.
[0003]
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1
When it is intended to generate bending vibration (displacement) in other actuators, sensors,
transformers, buzzers, speakers, etc. or to obtain a signal by bending vibration (displacement),
the piezoelectric element is used as such in the elastic member. Bonding is generally performed.
[0004]
For example, in the case of a piezoelectric transformer, polarization processing (thickness
direction and longitudinal direction) different in direction but often composed of the piezoelectric
element itself has been performed to obtain predetermined performance.
[0005]
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION In the case where the above-described system is adopted, since
the thin piezoelectric element must be bonded to the vibrator, the workability is poor, and in
some cases, the piezoelectric element may be broken Even a crack).
And it was easy to produce the characteristic variation between products by the unevenness of
adhesives.
Furthermore, since the motion of the piezoelectric element is transmitted to the vibrator through
the adhesive, energy loss occurs in the adhesive. Moreover, the use environment such as
temperature and humidity may be restricted from using an adhesive. Furthermore, there is a
problem that high output drive is difficult due to peeling of the adhesive layer.
[0006]
In the case of the ultrasonic motor described above, there is a problem that the number of active
parts of the piezoelectric element actually used for driving is small and the output is small.
[0007]
Further, in the conventional piezoelectric transformer, residual distortion occurs at the time of
polarization because the polarization direction is different, and when it is used at high output,
destruction may occur, and electrodes are provided on the front and back surfaces and side
surfaces (end surfaces) of the piezoelectric element. However, the manufacturing process was
complicated.
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[0008]
Therefore, it is an object of the present invention to excite predetermined vibrations by using
only a piezoelectric element and to increase the practical use of the piezoelectric element to
achieve high output of actuators, sensors, transformers and the like and simplification of
manufacturing. I assume.
[0009]
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION The present invention has a piezoelectric element polarized in a
thickness direction, and applies an electric field between a plurality of electrodes provided in at
least one surface of the piezoelectric element. Is an electro-mechanical transducer characterized
in that a driving force is obtained.
[0010]
By providing an electrode on one side, the electric field of the piezoelectric element can be
applied on one side.
[0011]
According to the present invention, there is provided a mechanical-electrical conversion element
comprising a piezoelectric element polarized in a thickness direction and detecting a signal from
between a plurality of electrodes provided on at least one surface of the piezoelectric element. It
is.
[0012]
Since an electrode provided on one side detects a signal, a detection signal can be taken out from
one side of the piezoelectric element.
[0013]
The present invention is an electro-mechanical transducer or a mechanical-electrical transducer
in which the directions of polarization are all the same.
[0014]
Polarization can be easily performed by making the polarization directions the same.
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[0015]
The present invention has a plurality of electrodes provided on one surface of the electromechanical transducer in the circumferential direction at intervals of 1/2 wavelength of the
oscillating wave excited by the electro-mechanical transducer. The ultrasonic motor is
characterized in that the movable body is driven by applying a drive signal between the adjacent
electrodes.
[0016]
According to the present invention, on the other surface of the electro-mechanical transducer
element, a plurality of electrodes shifted from the plurality of electrodes provided on the one
surface by 1/4 wavelength with respect to the circumferential direction It is an ultrasonic motor
which it has.
[0017]
According to the present invention, on one surface of the electro-mechanical transducer element,
a plurality of electrodes provided at intervals of 1⁄4 wavelength of the oscillating wave excited by
the electro-mechanical transducer element are adjacent to each other. According to another
aspect of the present invention, there is provided an ultrasonic motor comprising: a plurality of
electrode groups in which two electrodes form one set; and a drive signal is applied between the
adjacent electrode groups to drive the movable body.
[0018]
In the present invention, the direction of polarization of the electro-mechanical transducer is
reversed at an interval of 1/2 wavelength of the oscillating wave excited by the electromechanical transducer, and one side of the electro-mechanical transducer is used. A plurality of
electrodes are provided at intervals of 1⁄4 wavelength of the vibration wave, and a moving body
is driven by applying a driving signal between the adjacent electrodes.
[0019]
According to the present invention, in the ultrasonic motor driving the moving body by the
vibration wave excited by the electro-mechanical transducer, the projection for transmitting the
driving force of the vibration wave to the moving body has a base portion, and the base It is an
ultrasonic motor characterized in that a part of the part is guided and fixed to a guide part
provided on the electro-mechanical transducer.
[0020]
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The present invention has a piezoelectric element polarized in the thickness direction, and a
driving signal is provided between the driving electrode provided on one side of the piezoelectric
element and the driving electrode provided on the other side. And an output signal is obtained
from a detection electrode provided on one surface of the piezoelectric element.
[0021]
The present invention is an electronic apparatus equipped with an ultrasonic motor,
characterized by comprising an electro-mechanical transducer or a mechanical-electrical
transducer.
[0022]
BEST MODE FOR CARRYING OUT THE INVENTION Embodiments of an energy conversion device,
a method of driving the same, and an electronic device using the same according to the present
invention will be described in detail below with reference to the drawings.
The present invention is not limited by the embodiment.
{First Embodiment} First, a structural example of an ultrasonic motor applicable to the present
invention will be described with reference to FIG.
The vibrator of the ultrasonic motor is formed of a disc-shaped piezoelectric element 1 and a
through hole is formed in the center of the piezoelectric element 1.
The through hole is supported by a central shaft 3 fixed to the support plate 4 at the center.
A plurality of projecting members 2 are provided on the upper surface of the piezoelectric
element.
The projecting member 2 enlarges the vibration displacement of the vibrating body consisting
only of the piezoelectric element 1 and applies a rotational force to the moving body 5.
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The plurality of projections 2a are composed of a base 2b coupled at one end thereof and a
projection 2c which protrudes from a part of the base 2b and is accommodated in a guide
surface 1a in the inner diameter of the piezoelectric element 1.
The projecting members 2 are integrally formed of, for example, an engineering plastic having
wear resistance, and joined to the piezoelectric element 1 by adhesion or the like.
Here, the protrusions 2a may be directly bonded to the piezoelectric element 1 individually.
The piezoelectric element 1 serving as a vibrating body is fixed by the central axis 3 via the
protrusion 2 c.
Here, the protrusion member 2 is bonded to the piezoelectric element 1, but unlike the bonding
of the piezoelectric element and the vibrating body in the conventional example, the bonding
strength here may be any mechanical strength as long as a certain degree of mechanical strength
can be obtained. The protrusion member 2 is adhered on the piezoelectric element 1 having a
structure capable of obtaining a predetermined vibration, which causes an unbalance in the
vibration of the vibrator and does not cause a variation among products.
[0023]
The moving body 5 is disposed above the piezoelectric element 1.
A through hole is made in the center of the movable body 5, and the bearing 6 is fitted into the
through hole and fixed by adhesion or the like. The center shaft 3 guides the center of the
bearing 6.
Therefore, the movable body 5 can rotate around the central axis 3 as a rotation center.
Further, on the lower surface of the movable body 5, a friction member 5a which contacts the
projection member 2 of the piezoelectric element 1 is provided.
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[0024]
The spring member 7 is provided above the bearing 6 so as to guide the central shaft 3, and the
upper portion is fixed with a screw that matches the screw groove received at the central portion
of the central shaft 3.
By doing this, the inner ring of the bearing 6 can be pressurized, and an appropriate contact
pressure can be applied between the projection 2 a of the piezoelectric element 1 and the friction
member 5 a of the moving body 5.
Therefore, the electrical energy applied to the piezoelectric element 1 becomes an oscillating
wave excited in the oscillator by the piezoelectric effect of the piezoelectric element 1. This
vibrational wave is converted to mechanical energy as the rotational force of the movable body 5
through the frictional force generated between the projection 2 a and the friction member 5 a of
the movable body 5.
[0025]
Next, the operation principle of the ultrasonic motor according to the first embodiment will be
described with reference to FIG. 2 and FIG. FIG. 2 shows the electrode configuration of the
piezoelectric element in this embodiment. FIG. 2A shows the first surface of the piezoelectric
element 1 and FIG. 2B shows the second surface. Here, the first surface and the second surface
have a front-back relationship.
[0026]
Electrodes 8a and 8b are disposed on the first surface of the piezoelectric element 1. The
electrodes 8a and 8b are equally divided in the circumferential direction of the piezoelectric
element 1 at a 1⁄2 wavelength interval of the vibration wave which the piezoelectric element 1
excites. The electrodes 8a and 8b are spaced apart from each other so as not to contact each
other.
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[0027]
Electrodes 9a and 9b are also provided on the second surface of the piezoelectric element 1 in
the same manner as the first surface.
[0028]
At this time, the electrodes 8a and 8b provided on the first surface and the electrodes 9a and 9b
provided on the second surface have a half pitch relative to the circumferential direction as
viewed from the first surface or the second surface. It is made to shift (1⁄4 wavelength).
[0029]
FIG. 3 shows the drive principle in this embodiment.
The piezoelectric element 1 is polarized in one direction in the direction indicated by the arrow P
with respect to the thickness direction.
The protrusions 2a are joined at equal intervals to the second surface at a position 1/8
wavelength shifted from the node of the standing wave excited by the electrodes 8a, 8b, 9a and
9b. When a drive signal is applied between the electrodes 8a and 8b on the first surface, an
electric field is applied from the electrode 8b toward the electrode 8a at a certain moment as
shown by the arrow 100. Due to this electric field, the direction of the electric field acts in the
thickness direction near the electrodes 8a and 8b with respect to the thickness direction of the
piezoelectric element 1, that is, near the surface, and the piezoelectric element 1 expands and
contracts according to the relationship between the direction of the electric field and the
polarization direction. . In addition, in the vicinity of the boundary between the electrodes 8a and
8b, in particular, in the portion in which the electric field penetrates from the surface, the electric
field works in the direction perpendicular to the polarization direction P, so that sliding vibration
is also generated. However, since the strength of the electric field becomes strong only on the
first surface (electrodes 8a and 8b) side of the piezoelectric element 1, displacement associated
with this also occurs on the first surface side. Therefore, a bending standing wave is generated in
which a portion bent upward from the resting position as shown in FIG. 3B and a portion bent
downward from the resting position appear. At this time, since the protrusion 2a is located on the
right side with respect to the apex of the bending standing wave, the raised protrusion 2a is
inclined to the right. On the other hand, the lowered projection 2a is inclined to the left. Since the
projection 2a is in contact with the moving body 5 according to FIG. 1, the moving body 5 whose
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raised projection 2a does not show the moving body moves or rotates from left to right in the
figure.
[0030]
On the other hand, FIG. 3C shows the case where a drive signal is applied between the electrodes
9a and 9b provided on the second surface. When an electric field is applied from the electrode
9b toward the electrode 9a, a bending standing wave is generated in which a portion bent
upward from the resting position and a portion bent downward from the resting position appear.
At this time, since the protrusion 2a is located on the left side with respect to the apex of the
bending standing wave, the raised protrusion 2a is inclined to the left, while the lowered
protrusion 2a is inclined to the right. Therefore, the moving body 5 moves or rotates from right
to left in the drawing.
[0031]
Thus, the moving direction of the movable body 5 can be varied depending on which of the
electrodes 8a and 8b on the first surface and the electrodes 9a and 9b on the second surface is
applied. In addition, although the example which used the standing wave above was shown, you
may generate a traveling wave in the piezoelectric element 1 used as a vibrating body. At this
time, the phase of the signal applied between the electrodes 8a and 8b and the signal applied
between the electrodes 9a and 9b may be changed, for example, by 90 degrees. Further, in the
present embodiment, the vibrator is constituted only by the piezoelectric element 1, but of
course, the vibrator may be constituted by being bonded to another elastic member.
[0032]
As described above, in the present embodiment, bending is generated only by the piezoelectric
element 1 without adhesion to the elastic member, and productivity is improved by setting the
polarization directions in the same direction. be able to. Further, by polarization in the same
direction, there is no boundary where the polarization direction is reversed, and the breaking
strength is also increased. Further, by applying a drive signal to the entire electrode provided on
one surface of the piezoelectric element 1 to drive it, thickness-slip with a high electromechanical coupling coefficient as well as stretching vibration due to the piezoelectric lateral
effect of the piezoelectric element 1 Since vibration is used, it is possible to obtain an ultrasonic
04-05-2019
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motor with high output and high reliability. Furthermore, since the drive signal may be applied to
the entire electrode provided on one surface, the conduction structure for applying a signal to
the piezoelectric element, that is, the lead extraction structure is simplified.
[0033]
As described above, the piezoelectric element 1 of the present embodiment works as an electromechanical conversion element that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. Second
Embodiment The second embodiment of the present invention will be described with reference to
FIG. Hereinafter, since the generation mechanism of the driving force and the effect thereof are
substantially the same as those shown in the first embodiment, only portions different from the
first embodiment such as the configuration will be described.
[0034]
The piezoelectric element 1 is polarized in one direction in the direction of the arrow P with
respect to the thickness direction. The lower surface of the piezoelectric element 1 is provided
with electrodes 8c, 8d, 8e, 8f equally divided at 1/4 wavelength intervals of the vibration wave
which the piezoelectric element 1 excites in the circumferential direction of the piezoelectric
element 1. The electrodes 8 c, 8 d, 8 e, 8 f may be provided on the top surface of the
piezoelectric element 1. The protrusion 2a is joined to a portion corresponding to the center of
each of the electrodes 8d and 8f. When a drive signal is applied between the electrodes 8c and
8d and the electrodes 8e and 8f, a standing wave as shown in FIG. 4B is generated. At this time,
since the protrusion 2a is positioned on the right with respect to the apex of the bending
standing wave, the raised protrusion 2a is inclined to the right, and the moving body 5 moves or
rotates from left to right in the drawing.
[0035]
When a drive signal is applied between the electrodes 8d and 8e and the electrodes 8c and 8f, a
standing wave as shown in FIG. 4C is generated. At this time, since the protrusion 2a is located
on the left side with respect to the apex of the bending standing wave, the raised protrusion 2a is
inclined to the left, and the moving body 5 moves or rotates from right to left in the drawing.
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[0036]
Thus, the moving direction of the movable body 5 can be varied by selecting the combination of
the electrodes with respect to the drive signal.
[0037]
As described above, the piezoelectric element 1 of the present embodiment works as an electromechanical conversion element that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy.
Third Embodiment The third embodiment of the present invention will be described with
reference to FIG. The piezoelectric element 1 is polarized in the direction of arrow P in the
thickness direction. At this time, the direction is made to be symmetrical every half wavelength of
the vibration wave which the piezoelectric element 1 excites. For example, when a portion is
polarized from the lower surface to the upper surface, a portion separated from the portion by
1⁄2 wavelength of the oscillating wave is polarized from the upper surface to the lower surface.
The lower surface of the piezoelectric element 1 is provided with electrodes 8g and 8h which are
divided at intervals of 1⁄4 wavelength of the vibration wave which the piezoelectric element 1
excites in the circumferential direction of the piezoelectric element 1. Therefore, the polarization
direction is reversed at a half wavelength interval at the boundary between the electrodes 8 h
and 8 g.
[0038]
For example, the projection 2a is joined to the center of the electrode 8h. When a drive signal is
applied between the electrodes 8g and 8h, a standing wave as shown in FIG. 5B is generated. At
this time, since the protrusion 2a is located on the left side with respect to the apex of the
bending standing wave, the raised protrusion 2a is inclined to the left, and the moving body 5
moves or rotates from right to left in the drawing.
[0039]
Here, the length of the electrodes 8g and 8h is 1⁄4 wavelength, which is short, the electric field
exerted by the drive signal on the piezoelectric element 1 is large, and high-output driving can be
performed at low voltage.
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[0040]
As described above, the piezoelectric element 1 of the present embodiment works as an electromechanical conversion element that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy.
{Fourth embodiment} A fourth embodiment of the present invention will be described with
reference to FIGS. The fourth embodiment relates to an electro-mechanical transducer
comprising the piezoelectric element 1 of the present invention, a piezoelectric transformer using
a mechanical-electrical transducer, and an electronic apparatus using the piezoelectric
transformer.
[0041]
In FIG. 6A, the rectangular plate-shaped piezoelectric element 1 is provided with electrodes 8i
and 8j on the half surface from the center to one end of both the front and back surfaces. In
addition, electrodes 8k and 8l are provided at positions from the center to the other end where
the electrode 8i on one surface of the piezoelectric element 1 is not provided. The arrow P in the
figure indicates the polarization direction, and the polarization direction is reversed across the
dotted line. When a drive signal is applied to the electrodes 8i and 8j by the drive circuit 10, a
displacement distribution shown by a curve 21 in FIG. 6B is obtained. The piezoelectric element
1 stretches and vibrates in the longitudinal direction with the center in the longitudinal direction
as a node. At this time, a voltage larger than the input voltage is output from the electrodes 8 k
and 8 l to drive the drive target 11. The drive target 11 corresponds to, for example, a backlight
of a liquid crystal display and a circuit for driving the same, and is mounted, for example, in a
personal computer (not shown).
[0042]
Here, since all the polarization processing is performed in the thickness direction, the voltage
required for the polarization can be low, and it becomes difficult to be restricted by the
production equipment etc., and the manufacture becomes easy. The electrodes 8m and 8n are
electrodes used in polarization, and may be integrated with the electrode 8j. Also, in some cases,
the post-polarization voltages 8m and 8n may be removed. Furthermore, since the polarization
direction is constant even in the vicinity of the central portion where the stress is maximum, it is
resistant to breakage even when used at high power. Furthermore, since the sizes and positions
04-05-2019
12
of the electrodes 8k and 8l and the gap between the electrodes can be freely set, it is possible to
adjust the output impedance according to the impedance of the driven object 11 to be a load, and
set an arbitrary boost ratio. Is possible. Further, since the polarization direction is only the
thickness direction, the electrodes may be provided only on the front and back surfaces of the
piezoelectric element 1, and the lamination of the piezoelectric element 1 can be easily realized.
By doing so, various characteristic parameters such as input impedance, output impedance, stepup ratio can be freely set, and the degree of freedom in design can be expanded. {Fifth
Embodiment} FIG. 7 shows an example of another embodiment. In the fifth embodiment, the
description of the parts common to the contents described in the fourth embodiment will be
omitted, and only the differences will be described. As shown by a curve 22 in FIG. 7A, electrodes
8i and 8j are provided on a half surface from the center to one end of both the front and back
surfaces of the rectangular plate-shaped piezoelectric element 1. In addition, electrodes 8k and 8l
are provided in the area from the center to the other end where the electrode 8i on one surface
of the piezoelectric element 1 is not provided. Arrow P in the figure indicates the polarization
direction, and polarization processing is performed in one thickness direction across the entire
piezoelectric element 1. When drive signals are applied to the electrodes 8i and 8j by the drive
circuit 10, the piezoelectric element 1 stretches and vibrates in the longitudinal direction with
two points in the longitudinal direction as nodes as shown in the displacement distribution
shown in FIG. 7B. At this time, a voltage larger than the input voltage is output from the
electrodes 8k and 8 to drive the driving target 11. The drive target 11 corresponds to, for
example, a backlight of a liquid crystal display and a circuit for driving the same, and is mounted,
for example, in a personal computer (not shown).
[0043]
Here, since all the polarization processing is performed in the thickness direction, the voltage
required for the polarization can be low, and it becomes difficult to be restricted by the
production equipment etc., and the manufacture becomes easy. Furthermore, since the
polarization direction is uniform and has no boundary, it is resistant to breakage and can be
driven to achieve high output.
[0044]
Further, a common electrode may be provided in the piezoelectric element 1 so that the GND of
the drive circuit 10 and the GND of the driven object 11 are common. Furthermore, the
modification of the present embodiment is optional. For example, although the drive electrodes
8i and 8j and the detection electrodes 8k and 8l are provided on the left and right with the center
04-05-2019
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of the piezoelectric element 1 as a boundary, the drive electrodes 8i and 8j are provided. May be
provided at a position including the central portion of the piezoelectric element 1, and the
detection electrodes 8k and 8l may be provided at the other portions.
[0045]
As described above, the piezoelectric element 1 of the present embodiment is an electromechanical conversion element that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy, and a
machine that converts mechanical energy into electrical energy. It has both of the electrical
conversion elements. Therefore, a sensor for measuring acceleration or pressure can be easily
realized by using the mechanical-electrical conversion element according to the present
embodiment. {Sixth Embodiment} FIG. 8 is a block diagram of a fifth embodiment in which the
ultrasonic motor using the electro-mechanical transducer according to the present invention is
applied to an electronic device.
[0046]
The present electronic apparatus comprises a movable body 5 driven by the vibrator and the
vibrator including the piezoelectric element 1 described above, a pressure means 7 for applying a
contact pressure to the movable body 5 and the vibrator, and the movable body 5 A transmission
mechanism 12 which moves in an interlocking manner, and an output mechanism 13 which
moves based on the operation of the transmission mechanism 12 are characterized.
[0047]
Here, as the transmission mechanism 12, for example, a transmission wheel such as a gear wheel
or a friction wheel is used, and this is formed directly on the moving body 5.
The transmission mechanism 12 may be omitted and the direct output mechanism 13 may be
provided. The output mechanism 12 is, for example, a pointer or pointer drive mechanism, a
display board such as a calendar drive mechanism, or a display board drive mechanism as shown
in FIG. In the camera or video camera, use a shutter drive mechanism, a diaphragm drive
mechanism, a lens drive mechanism, a film winding mechanism, etc. A slit plate or filter that
transmits only light of a specific wavelength, a contact mechanism or gap plate that changes
resistance value or capacitance value for a volume of an acoustic device, or the like, and a pickup
drive mechanism for a hard disk or an optical disk.
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[0048]
Further, if an output shaft is attached to the moving body 5 and a power transmission
mechanism for transmitting torque from the output shaft is provided, the drive mechanism can
be realized by the ultrasonic motor itself.
[0049]
By applying the ultrasonic motor of the present invention to an electronic device, it is possible to
realize lower voltage, lower power consumption, smaller size, and lower cost of the electronic
device.
Naturally, since the ultrasonic motor is used, it has a feature that is not influenced by magnetism
and does not generate harmful magnetic noise.
[0050]
As described above, according to the present invention, a driving force is obtained by applying an
electric field between a plurality of electrodes provided on at least one surface of a piezoelectric
element polarized in the thickness direction. To configure the actuator. According to this, since
the bending vibration can be generated by the piezoelectric element alone, the adhesion with
other elastic members is not required, the reliability is excellent, and an inexpensive product with
little variation among products becomes possible. Furthermore, since no adhesive is used, the
mechanical strength is increased, and the output is also increased because the drive signal is
applied to the entire electrode provided on one side of the piezoelectric element.
[0051]
In the case of a sensor or a transformer, the same configuration is used. In this case, the signal is
detected from between the electrodes (it may be an input in the case of a transformer), resulting
in a small and large (boost in the case of a transformer). (High ratio) signal is obtained.
[0052]
Furthermore, according to the present invention, an electronic device provided with the above-
04-05-2019
15
described electro-mechanical conversion element or mechanical-electrical conversion element
can be realized, and downsizing of the electronic device, power saving, and the like can be
realized.
[0053]
Brief description of the drawings
[0054]
1 shows an example of the structure of the ultrasonic motor of the present invention.
[0055]
2 shows the electrode pattern of the piezoelectric element of the ultrasonic motor of the present
invention.
[0056]
3 shows a first example of the drive principle of the ultrasonic motor of the present invention.
[0057]
4 shows a second example of the drive principle of the ultrasonic motor of the present invention.
[0058]
5 shows a third example of the drive principle of the ultrasonic motor of the present invention.
[0059]
6 shows an example of the structure and operation principle of the piezoelectric transformer of
the present invention.
[0060]
7 shows another example of the structure and operation principle of the piezoelectric
transformer of the present invention.
[0061]
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8 is a block diagram of an electronic device using the ultrasonic motor of the present invention.
[0062]
Explanation of sign
[0063]
DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS 1 Piezoelectric element 2 Protrusion member 3 Central axis 4
Support plate 5 Moving body 6 Bearing 7 Pressurizing mechanism 8, 9 electrode
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