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JP2006121465

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This translation is machine-generated. It cannot be guaranteed that it is intelligible, accurate,
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DESCRIPTION JP2006121465
The present invention provides an acoustic sensor that improves noise resistance to an acoustic
signal. An acoustic sensor (100) includes a vibrating electrode (16) formed on a silicon substrate
(52), and a fixed electrode (14) opposite to the vibrating electrode (16) and disposed at a
predetermined interval, and fixed to the vibrating electrode (16). The electrode 14 constitutes a
capacitor. A central direction width T2 of the film (the insulating film 55, the reinforcing film 60,
and the protective film 12) for fixing the fixed electrode 14 to the silicon substrate 52 covers
both surfaces of the fixed electrode 14 and the fixed electrode 14 (protective film 12, the film
thickness T1 of the fixed electrode 14 and the insulating film 55). Further, the film for fixing the
fixed electrode 14 to the silicon substrate 52 is formed of films (reinforcing film 60, insulating
film 55, and protective film 12) of two or more different materials. [Selected figure] Figure 2
Acoustic sensor and method of manufacturing acoustic sensor
[0001]
The present invention relates to an acoustic sensor and a method of manufacturing the acoustic
sensor.
[0002]
Conventionally, a capacitor-type silicon microphone has been proposed as a semiconductor
sensor that detects acoustic vibration (see, for example, Patent Document 1 and Patent Document
2).
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This microphone comprises: a vibrating electrode; and a fixed electrode opposed to the vibrating
electrode and disposed at a predetermined interval, and a capacitor is formed by the vibrating
electrode and the fixed electrode.
[0003]
When sound pressure is applied to the microphone, the vibrating electrode vibrates, and the
capacitance changes due to a change in the distance between the vibrating electrode and the
fixed electrode due to the vibration. Furthermore, an acoustic signal is obtained by electrically
reading a change in voltage between the two electrodes accompanying a change in capacitance.
Japanese Patent Application Publication No. 60-500841 Japanese Patent Application Publication
No. 2002-328117
[0004]
In the above-mentioned microphone, it is important to take measures against noise to measure
the change in capacitance due to vibration. In particular, when the fixed electrode is displaced
due to vibration or the like, accurate capacitance change can not be measured, and there is a
problem that noise is added to the obtained acoustic signal.
[0005]
Then, in view of the above-mentioned subject, the present invention aims at providing a
manufacturing method of an acoustic sensor and an acoustic sensor which improve noise
tolerance to an acoustic signal.
[0006]
In order to achieve the above object, according to a first aspect of the present invention, a
vibrating electrode comprising: a vibrating electrode formed on a semiconductor substrate; and a
fixed electrode opposed to the vibrating electrode and spaced apart by a predetermined distance;
An acoustic sensor comprising a capacitor with a fixed electrode and a fixed electrode fixed to a
semiconductor substrate, wherein the width in the central direction of the acoustic sensor of the
film is greater than the film thickness of the film covering both fixed electrode and fixed
electrode. The gist is that it is a large acoustic sensor.
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[0007]
A film covering both surfaces of the fixed electrode and the fixed electrode (hereinafter referred
to as “film A”.
The force due to the internal stress of) is a film (hereinafter referred to as "film B") for fixing the
fixed electrode to the semiconductor substrate.
This force decreases as the film thickness of the film A decreases. On the other hand, when the
width of the film B increases, the area in which the film B contacts the semiconductor substrate
increases, and as a result, the force due to the internal stress of the film A per unit area
decreases.
[0008]
Therefore, according to the acoustic sensor according to the first feature, the width of the film B
is larger than the film thickness of the film A, so the force due to the internal stress of the film A
per unit area in contact with the semiconductor substrate of the film B decreases. And a high
strength structure. Therefore, the fixed electrode is not displaced, and the noise resistance to the
acoustic signal can be improved.
[0009]
Further, in the acoustic sensor according to the first aspect, the film for fixing the fixed electrode
to the semiconductor substrate is preferably formed of a film of two or more different materials.
Further, it is preferable to use a film different in internal stress state with respect to the
semiconductor substrate as the film made of different materials.
[0010]
According to a second feature of the present invention, a vibrating electrode formed on a
semiconductor substrate and a fixed electrode facing the vibrating electrode and spaced apart by
a predetermined distance are provided, and a capacitor is formed by the vibrating electrode and
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the fixed electrode. A gist is that the film is an acoustic sensor to be configured, and the film for
fixing the fixed electrode to the semiconductor substrate is an acoustic sensor formed of films
different in two or more types of materials.
[0011]
According to the acoustic sensor of the second feature, since the film surrounding the fixed
electrode is formed of films of different materials, the vibration of a frequency that is easily
absorbed by the other material is transmitted against the vibration propagating through the one
material. In order to absorb, it becomes a structure where vibration is hard to propagate.
Therefore, the fixed electrode is not displaced, and noise resistance to the acoustic signal can be
improved.
[0012]
In the acoustic sensor according to the second aspect, it is preferable to use a film different in
internal stress state with respect to the semiconductor substrate as the film made of different
materials. According to this acoustic sensor, internal stress can be effectively offset by combining
a material having a tensile stress that contracts with the semiconductor substrate and a yield
stress that expands with the semiconductor substrate. .
[0013]
A third feature of the present invention is a method of manufacturing an acoustic sensor in which
a capacitor is constituted by a vibrating electrode and a fixed electrode, and (a) forming an etch
stopper on a semiconductor substrate, and (b) an etch stopper Forming a vibrating electrode
thereon, (c) forming a sacrificial film on the vibrating electrode and a reinforced film disposed
with a predetermined distance outside the sacrificial film, and (d) forming a sacrificial film and A
step of insulating the vibrating electrode and the fixed electrode and forming an insulating film
filling the space between the sacrificial film and the reinforcing film on the reinforced film, and
(e) forming a conductive film for forming the fixed electrode on the insulating film. (F) forming a
protective film on the fixed electrode, patterning the protective film, and removing the protective
film of the acoustic hole; g) Selectively etch from the back side of the semiconductor substrate
Exposing a, and summarized in that through (h) sound hole, a manufacturing method of the
acoustic sensor and a step of etching the sacrificial layer to the selected 択的.
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[0014]
According to the method of manufacturing an acoustic sensor according to the third aspect, since
the reinforced film disposed with a predetermined distance outside the sacrificial film is formed,
the periphery of the fixed electrode can be firmly held. .
As a result, the fixed electrode is not displaced, and noise resistance to the acoustic signal can be
improved. In the acoustic sensor manufacturing method according to the third aspect, the
sacrificial film is formed at the same time as the reinforced film is formed, so the acoustic sensor
can be manufactured with the same number of steps as in the prior art.
[0015]
According to the present invention, it is possible to provide an acoustic sensor and a method of
manufacturing an acoustic sensor that improve noise resistance to an acoustic signal.
[0016]
Next, embodiments of the present invention will be described with reference to the drawings.
In the following description of the drawings, the same or similar parts are given the same or
similar reference numerals. However, it should be noted that the drawings are schematic, and the
ratio of each dimension is different from the actual one. Accordingly, specific dimensions and the
like should be determined in consideration of the following description. Moreover, it is a matter
of course that parts having different dimensional relationships and proportions are included
among the drawings.
[0017]
(Acoustic Sensor) As shown in FIGS. 1 and 2, the acoustic sensor 100 according to the present
embodiment faces the vibrating electrode 16 formed on the silicon substrate 52 and the
vibrating electrode 16 and is separated by a predetermined distance. The fixed electrode 14 is
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disposed, and the vibrating electrode 16 and the fixed electrode 14 constitute a capacitor.
Moreover, FIG. 1 is a top view which shows the structure of the acoustic sensor 100 based on
this embodiment, FIG. 2: is an A-A 'sectional view of the acoustic sensor 100 of FIG.
[0018]
The acoustic sensor 100 includes an air gap layer 10, a protective film 12, an insulating film 55,
a reinforcing film 60, a fixed electrode 14, a vibrating electrode 16, a substrate opening 20, an
acoustic hole 22, a pad electrode 24 for vibrating electrode, and a fixed electrode. Pad electrode
26, an etch stopper 50, a silicon substrate 52 and the like. As apparent from FIG. 2, in FIG. 1, the
air gap layer 10 and the like can not be seen directly from the top. However, in order to facilitate
the understanding of the structure, parts that are not directly visible are also shown as
appropriate.
[0019]
The silicon substrate 52 is a substrate of the acoustic sensor 100. As shown in FIG. 2, in the
silicon substrate 52, sound holes are bored from the upper side to the lower side of the silicon
substrate 52. Also, as shown in FIGS. 1 and 2, the substrate opening 20 of the sound hole on the
upper surface of the silicon substrate 52 has a rectangular shape. Also, the upper surface of the
silicon substrate 52 is provided with an etch stopper 50.
[0020]
The vibrating electrode 16 is formed so as to cover the sound hole in the cross section of the
silicon substrate 52, as shown in FIG. Sound pressure is input from the lower side of the sound
hole, and the vibration electrode 16 is configured to be able to vibrate, that is, to be movable by
the sound pressure.
[0021]
The fixed electrode 14 is provided above the vibrating electrode 16 to form a capacitor with the
vibrating electrode 16 as shown in FIG. The capacitor has a characteristic that the value of the
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capacitance changes when the vibrating electrode 16 vibrates due to the sound pressure. The
fixed electrode 14 is also sized to occupy at least a portion of the substrate opening 20, ie, the
sound hole.
[0022]
The protective film 12 is formed so as to cover the vibrating electrode 16 and the fixed electrode
14 as shown in FIG. Here, a space formed between the protective film 12 and the fixed electrode
14 with the vibrating electrode 16 is referred to as an air gap layer 10. Also, the protective film
12 and the fixed electrode 14 form a plurality of acoustic holes 22.
[0023]
The vibrating electrode pad electrode 24 and the fixed electrode pad electrode 26 are
respectively connected to the vibrating electrode 16 and the fixed electrode 14 to apply a
predetermined voltage. Also, if the capacitance of the capacitor due to the vibrating electrode 16
and the fixed electrode 14 changes, the potential difference between the vibrating electrode pad
electrode 24 and the fixed electrode pad electrode 26 also changes, so the changed potential
difference Is output as an audio signal. That is, the vibrating electrode pad electrode 24 and the
fixed electrode pad electrode 26 indirectly detect a change in capacitance of the capacitor. The
output audio signal is, for example, output by a speaker or converted into a digital signal and
stored.
[0024]
Further, in the acoustic sensor 100 according to the present embodiment, as shown in FIG. 2, the
center in the acoustic sensor 100 of the film (the insulating film 55, the reinforcing film 60, the
protective film 12) for fixing the fixed electrode 14 to the silicon substrate 52. The width T2 of
the direction (radial direction when the acoustic sensor 100 is circular) is larger than the film
thickness T1 of the films (the protective film 12 and the insulating film 55) covering both the
fixed electrode 14 and the fixed electrode 14. Therefore, the amount per unit area of the portion
of the film for fixing the fixed electrode 14 to the silicon substrate 52 in contact with the silicon
substrate 52 due to the internal stress caused by the insulating film 55, the fixed electrode 14
and the protective film 12 is small. Become.
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[0025]
In FIG. 2, the film for fixing the fixed electrode 14 to the silicon substrate 52 is formed of a
laminated film of the reinforcing film 60, the insulating film 55, and the protective film 12. The
reinforcing film 60 is a film formed simultaneously with the sacrificial film for forming the air
gap layer 10 later, and is formed of the same material as the sacrificial film, for example, a silicon
oxide film. The insulating film 55 serves to insulate between the sacrificial film and the
reinforcing film 60 while insulating the vibrating electrode 16 and the fixed electrode 14. The
insulating film 55 and the protective film 12 are formed of, for example, a silicon nitride film.
[0026]
The film for fixing the fixed electrode 14 to the silicon substrate 52 is formed of a film of two or
more different materials, such as a silicon oxide film and a silicon nitride film. At this time, it is
preferable to use a film different in internal stress state with respect to the silicon substrate 52
as a film made of different materials.
[0027]
Here, the internal stress state will be described. As shown in FIG. 3, when the film 65 is formed
on the silicon substrate 52, there are a film in which a tensile stress which contracts and a film
which acts in an expanding yield stress. That is, "internal stress state" indicates whether a tensile
stress is applied, a yield stress is applied, or a tensile stress is applied. FIG. 4 shows the material
on which the tensile stress acts and the material on which the yield stress acts. Positive values
indicate tensile stress, and negative values indicate yield stress. In addition, "LP-" in FIG. 4 shows
that it formed by the low pressure CVD method, and "Pe-" shows that it formed by the plasma
CVD method. Examples of materials having tensile stress include SiN, Cu, SiOC and the like, and
materials having yield stress include polysilicon, SiO 2, Al, SiC and the like.
[0028]
The film for fixing the fixed electrode 14 to the silicon substrate 52 is preferably formed by
combining a film made of a material having tensile stress and a film made of a material having
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yield stress as shown in FIG. . In particular, as described above, it is preferable to combine a
silicon nitride film generally used as the insulating film 55 and the protective film 12 with a
silicon oxide film generally used as a sacrificial film.
[0029]
(Method of Manufacturing Acoustic Sensor) Next, a method of manufacturing the acoustic sensor
100 according to the present embodiment will be described with reference to FIGS. 5 to 7
correspond to the A-A 'cross section of the acoustic sensor 100 of FIG. 1 similarly to FIG.
[0030]
First, in step 1 shown in FIG. 5A, an etch stopper 50 is deposited to a thickness of 200 nm on a
double-sided polished silicon substrate 52. The etch stopper 50 later serves as a stopper when
the silicon substrate 52 is etched from the back surface. In general, a silicon nitride film is used
for the etch stopper 50. The gases used in forming the silicon nitride film are monosilane and
ammonia, dichlorosilane and ammonia, etc., and the film forming temperature is 300 to
600.degree.
[0031]
Next, in step 2 shown in FIG. 5B, the vibrating electrode 16 is deposited to 1 μm on the etching
stopper 50. Polysilicon is generally used for the vibrating electrode 16, but other conductive
materials may be used. Then, unnecessary portions of the vibrating electrode 16 are removed by
using a normal photolithography technique and an etching technique.
[0032]
Next, in step 3 shown in FIG. 5C, a sacrificial film 56 of about 3 μm and a reinforced film 60
disposed at a predetermined distance outside the sacrificial film 56 are formed on the vibrating
electrode 16. . Although a silicon oxide film containing phosphorus (P) is generally used as the
sacrificial film 56, any film may be used as long as it is soluble in hydrofluoric acid (HF). The
sacrificial film 56 is a film which is not left in the final structure because it is removed later by
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etching with HF. The periphery of the sacrificial film 56 is removed using a conventional
photolithography technique and an etching technique. Since the film thickness of the sacrificial
film 56 is the final air gap distance between the electrodes, capacitance (C = e * S / t, e: dielectric
constant, S: electrode area, t: air gap distance), That is, it is reflected in the sensitivity, and also
has a great influence on the rigidity of the structure of the acoustic sensor 100. For example, if
the air gap layer is too narrow, the vibrating electrode 16 and the fixed electrode 14 will be in
contact with each other, and sensing will not be possible.
[0033]
Further, the reinforcing film 60 is a film made of the same material as the sacrificial film 56. The
reinforcing film 60 is formed as a film for reinforcing a film for fixing the fixed electrode 14 to be
formed later to the silicon substrate 52, and the distance to the sacrificial film 56 may be less
than twice the film thickness of the insulating film 55. desirable.
[0034]
6 (a)-(c) show a method of manufacturing the acoustic sensor 100 following FIG. 5 (a)-(c).
[0035]
In step 4 shown in FIG. 6A, on the sacrificial film 56 and the reinforcing film 60, an insulating
film 55 for insulating the vibrating electrode 16 and the fixed electrode 14 is formed to a
thickness of 200 nm.
In addition, the insulating film 55 fills the space between the sacrificial film 56 and the
reinforcing film 60. As the insulating film 55, a silicon nitride film is generally used. Then,
unnecessary portions are removed using ordinary photolithography and etching techniques.
[0036]
Next, in step 5 shown in FIG. 6B, a conductive film for forming the fixed electrode 14 is formed
on the insulating film 55. From the viewpoint of mechanical strength, the conductive film is
preferably polysilicon. Then, the unnecessary portions are removed using ordinary
04-05-2019
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photolithography technology and etching technology. At the time of this patterning, acoustic
holes 22 for moving air in the air gap in accordance with the displacement of the vibrating
electrode 16 are simultaneously patterned.
[0037]
Next, in step 6 shown in FIG. 6C, a silicon nitride film as the protective film 12 is formed on the
fixed electrode 14. Then, with respect to the silicon nitride film, unnecessary portions are
removed using ordinary photolithography technology and etching technology. The unnecessary
part here includes not only the peripheral part but also the pad part and the acoustic hole 22. At
this time, although the film thickness T1 of the films (protective film 12 and insulating film 55)
covering both surfaces of the fixed electrode 14 and the fixed electrode 14 is about 2 μm, the
film for fixing the fixed electrode 14 to the silicon substrate 52 The central direction width T2 of
(the insulating film 55, the reinforcing film 60, and the protective film 12) in the acoustic sensor
100 easily becomes larger than 2 μm. That is, the film thickness can be obtained such that T1
<T2.
[0038]
Further, when the protective film 12 is patterned, the positions are aligned with the acoustic
holes 22 processed in advance, and acoustic holes having a diameter smaller than that of the
conductive film are simultaneously formed. Thus, the fixed electrode 14 is not exposed and is not
etched when the silicon substrate 52 is etched later.
[0039]
7 (a) to 7 (c) show a method of manufacturing the acoustic sensor 100 following FIGS. 6 (a) to 6
(c).
[0040]
In step 7 shown in FIG. 7A, pad electrodes for the vibrating electrode pad electrode 24 and the
fixed electrode pad electrode 26 are formed on the pad portion.
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For the pad electrode, low resistance metal films such as aluminum, copper and gold are
particularly suitable. As a forming method, there is also a method using a normal
photolithography technique and an etching technique, but a technique such as a so-called plating
resist method or a resist etching off method may be applied.
[0041]
Next, in step 8 shown in FIG. 7B, an etching mask is formed on the back surface of the silicon
substrate 52, and using this etching mask, an aqueous solution of potassium hydroxide (KOH) or
an aqueous solution of tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) Etc.) with an alkaline etching
solution such as This isotropic etching is automatically stopped by the etch stopper 50 formed in
step 1. Thereafter, the etching stopper 50 in the opened portion is removed from the back side
by an etching solution (for example, phosphoric acid) or dry etching.
[0042]
Next, in step 9 shown in FIG. 7C, the sacrificial film 56 is completely removed by selectively
etching the sacrificial film 56 from the acoustic holes 22 and the back surface side using HF.
Thus, the air gap layer 10 is finally formed.
[0043]
Modified Example Next, a modified example of the acoustic sensor 100 according to the present
embodiment will be described with reference to FIGS.
[0044]
In FIG. 2, although the reinforcement film 60 is formed singularly, as shown in FIG. 8, a plurality
of reinforcement films 60a and 60b may be formed side by side on the silicon substrate 52.
[0045]
Further, although the periphery of the reinforcing film 60 is covered with the insulating film 55
and the protective film 12 in FIG. 2, the insulating film 55 and the protective film 12 may be
stacked on the reinforcing film 60 as shown in FIG. I do not care.
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[0046]
Further, in FIG. 2, the periphery of the reinforcing film 60 is covered with the insulating film 55
and the protective film 12, but as shown in FIGS. 10 and 11, the reinforcing film 60, the
insulating film 55, and the protective film 12 are adjacent to each other. It does not matter if the
film is deposited.
[0047]
As for the arrangement of the reinforcing film 60, as shown in FIG. 12, the entire periphery of
the fixed electrode may be covered, and as shown in FIG. 13, the divided film is arranged to cover
a part of the periphery of the fixed electrode. It may be done.
12 and 13 are also shown as appropriate to FIG. 1 so that the portion that can not be seen
directly from the top surface can be seen appropriately.
[0048]
(Operation and Effect) In the acoustic sensor 100 according to the present embodiment, the
central direction width T2 of the film for fixing the fixed electrode 14 to the silicon substrate 52
covers both the fixed electrode 14 and the fixed electrode 14 ( The total film thickness T1 of the
protective film 12 and the insulating film 55) is larger.
Therefore, the internal stress of the film (protective film 12 and insulating film 55) covering both
surfaces of the fixed electrode 14 and the fixed electrode 14 per unit area in contact with the
silicon substrate 52 of the film fixing the fixed electrode 14 to the silicon substrate 52 The
strength of the structure is reduced, resulting in a high strength structure.
Therefore, according to the acoustic sensor 100 according to the present embodiment, the fixed
electrode is not displaced, and the noise resistance to the acoustic signal can be improved.
[0049]
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Further, in the acoustic sensor 100 according to the present embodiment, the film for fixing the
fixed electrode 14 to the silicon substrate 52 is formed of films of two or more different
materials.
As described above, since the film surrounding the periphery of the fixed electrode 14 is formed
of films of different materials, the structure is high in strength. For this reason, the fixed
electrode 14 is not displaced, and the noise resistance to the acoustic signal can be improved. In
addition, by using two or more different types of films, it is possible to absorb vibration of a
frequency that easily propagates in the film to different films of different materials, and it is
possible to suppress the displacement of the fixed electrode 14.
[0050]
Further, it is preferable to use films different in internal stress state with respect to the silicon
substrate 52 as the films made of different materials. As described above, by combining the
material having the tensile stress that contracts with respect to the silicon substrate 52 and the
yield stress that expands with respect to the silicon substrate 52, the internal stress can be
effectively offset.
[0051]
Further, in the method of manufacturing the acoustic sensor 100 according to the present
embodiment, since the reinforcement film 60 disposed with a predetermined distance outside the
sacrificial film 56 is formed, the periphery of the fixed electrode 14 is firmly held. can do. For
this reason, the fixed electrode 14 is not displaced, and noise resistance to an acoustic signal can
be improved. Further, in this manufacturing method, since the sacrificial film 56 is formed and
the reinforcing film 60 is formed at the same time, the acoustic sensor 100 can be manufactured
with the same number of steps as the conventional method.
[0052]
(Other Embodiments) Although the present invention has been described by the above-described
embodiment, it should not be understood that the statements and drawings that form a part of
this disclosure limit this invention. Various alternative embodiments, examples and operation
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techniques will be apparent to those skilled in the art from this disclosure.
[0053]
For example, as shown in FIG. 2, the central direction width T2 of the film (the insulating film 55,
the reinforcing film 60, the protective film 12) for fixing the fixed electrode 14 to the silicon
substrate 52 in the acoustic sensor 100 is the fixed electrode 14 and the fixed The film which is
larger than the film thickness T1 of the film (protective film 12, insulating film 55) covering both
surfaces of the electrode 14 and which fixes the fixed electrode 14 to the silicon substrate 52 is a
film (reinforcing film 60, Although the acoustic sensor 100 formed of the insulating film 55 and
the protective film 12 has been described, the acoustic sensor 100 according to the present
embodiment may satisfy any one of these conditions. That is, the acoustic sensor 100 according
to the present embodiment may satisfy the film thickness condition of T1 <T2, or may be formed
of films different in material.
[0054]
Thus, it goes without saying that the present invention includes various embodiments that are
not described herein. Accordingly, the technical scope of the present invention is defined only by
the invention-specifying matters according to the scope of claims appropriate from the above
description.
[0055]
It is a top view which shows the structure of the acoustic sensor which concerns on this
embodiment. It is A-A 'sectional drawing of FIG. It is a figure explaining the internal stress state
of the acoustic sensor which concerns on this embodiment. It is a graph explaining the internal
stress state for every material. It is sectional drawing which shows the manufacturing method of
the acoustic sensor which concerns on this embodiment (the 1). It is sectional drawing which
shows the manufacturing method of the acoustic sensor which concerns on this embodiment (the
2). It is sectional drawing which shows the manufacturing method of the acoustic sensor which
concerns on this embodiment (the 3). It is sectional drawing which shows the modification of the
acoustic sensor which concerns on this embodiment (the 1). It is sectional drawing which shows
the modification of the acoustic sensor which concerns on this embodiment (the 2). It is sectional
drawing which shows the modification of the acoustic sensor which concerns on this
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embodiment (the 3). It is sectional drawing which shows the modification of the acoustic sensor
which concerns on this embodiment (the 4). It is a top view which shows arrangement |
positioning of the reinforcement film | membrane of the acoustic sensor which concerns on this
embodiment (the 1). It is a top view which shows arrangement | positioning of the reinforcement
film | membrane of the acoustic sensor which concerns on this embodiment (the 2).
Explanation of sign
[0056]
DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS 10 ... Air gap layer 12 ... Protective film 14 ... Fixed electrode 16 ...
Vibrating electrode 20 ... Substrate opening 22 ... Acoustic hole 24 ... Pad electrode 26 for
vibrating electrodes 26 ... Pad electrode 50 for fixed electrodes 50 ... Etch stopper 52 ... Silicon
substrate 55 ... Insulating film 56 ... sacrificial film 60, 60a, 60b ... reinforced film 100 ... acoustic
sensor
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