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JP2007274393

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This translation is machine-generated. It cannot be guaranteed that it is intelligible, accurate,
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DESCRIPTION JP2007274393
PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide a film speaker excellent in conversion efficiency, good in
linearity of response to input, and reduced in distortion of sound. SOLUTION: In a film speaker
10 of the present invention, a bias electrode 12 and a drive electrode 13 are formed on a thin
film 11, and the bias electrode 12 and the drive electrode 13 face each other in parallel mutually
via an air layer. The thin film 11 is formed by being folded in a zigzag manner. The ridges and
valleys of the thin film 11 which has been folded are fixed by fixing plates 15 and 16,
respectively. A predetermined bias voltage is applied to the bias electrode 12, and the Coulomb
force between the drive electrode 13 and the bias electrode 12 based on the drive voltage
according to the audio signal applied to the drive electrode 13 drives the bias electrode 12 and
the drive. The air layer present in the space between the electrodes 13 is pushed out or pulled
back to generate air vibrations to generate sound waves. [Selected figure] Figure 1
Film speaker and method of manufacturing the same
[0001]
The present invention relates to a speaker for converting an electrical signal into an acoustic
wave, and in particular, a bias electrode and a drive electrode are formed on a thin film, and the
bias electrode and the drive electrode are folded to be opposed to each other. The present
invention relates to a film speaker in which an acoustic wave is generated by pushing or pulling
back an air layer existing between these two electrodes, and a method of manufacturing the
same.
[0002]
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1
Conventionally, a capacitor type speaker has been known as a speaker to be an electroacoustic
transducer.
This capacitor-type speaker has a thin film-like vibrating film disposed close to a plate-like fixed
electrode, and a vibrating film is produced by applying an audio voltage to the fixed electrode in
a state where a bias voltage is applied to the vibrating film. Is vibrated and emitted as a sound
wave. By the way, a condenser type speaker generally has a narrow frequency band of sound
generation, and a speaker having a size smaller than a normal size is usually used for highpitched sound. In addition, there is also a speaker in which the frequency band is extended to the
bass range, but such a speaker not only becomes quite large but also holds a diaphragm having a
large area at a fixed distance from the fixed electrode To do was accompanied by considerable
difficulties. Furthermore, in order to radiate the vibration of the vibrating film to the outside as a
sound wave signal, it is necessary to use a part having a large number of holes, called a punching
metal, formed in the fixed electrode, which increases the manufacturing cost.
[0003]
Therefore, a so-called hail type speaker has been proposed as a speaker that can improve the
frequency characteristics of the entire frequency band without increasing the size. For example,
as disclosed in Patent Document 1 (Japanese Patent Publication No. 55-42555), this Heil-type
speaker bends one diaphragm so as to meander and supports both ends of the diaphragm in a
casing, so that vibration is generated. Magnets are arranged on both sides of the plate. In such a
loudspeaker, since the diaphragm is bent in a meandering manner, the total area of the
diaphragm can be increased without increasing the size, and there is an advantage that the bass
range can be covered. .
[0004]
However, in the above-mentioned height loudspeaker, only the both ends of the diaphragm are
supported and the gap between them is made free, so the size of the diaphragm is limited in
order to maintain the shape of the diaphragm in a predetermined shape. there were. Therefore, it
was not possible to sufficiently cover the low range. In addition, since magnets are disposed on
both sides of the diaphragm, the distance between the magnets becomes long, and it is necessary
to form a strong magnetic field that causes the entire diaphragm to vibrate. There was also the
problem of having to
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2
[0005]
Then, the speaker as disclosed by patent document 2 (Unexamined-Japanese-Patent No. 8242498) came to be proposed. In the speaker disclosed in Patent Document 2, a plurality of
plate-like fixed electrodes are arranged in parallel so as to be separated in parallel to constitute
an electrode assembly, and a diaphragm is provided between each of the fixed electrodes. It
clamps via the spacer arrange | positioned at the edge. Further, a bias voltage is applied to the
vibrating membrane, and one end and the other end of the audio voltage generating means for
generating an audio voltage at both ends are alternately connected to the fixed electrode. The
spacer is provided with an opening through which air is discharged from one side of the
electrode assembly and at the same time air is drawn from the other side of the electrode
assembly when the diaphragm swings to the fixed electrode side. To make up.
[0006]
Furthermore, a film speaker is proposed in Patent Document 3 (Japanese Patent Application
Laid-Open No. 2002-27592) which emits sound waves by expanding or shrinking an indentation
of an accordion's fold by a bimorph made by laminating piezoelectric films. It became so.
Japanese Patent Publication No. 55-42555 Japanese Patent Application Laid-Open No. 8-242498
Japanese Patent Application Laid-Open No. 2002-27592
[0007]
However, in the speaker proposed in Patent Document 2 described above, since the vibrating film
(film) and the spacer are stacked in order, the number of steps is increased, which causes a
problem of poor productivity. In addition, since it is necessary to alternately connect one end and
the other end of the signal terminal of the output amplifier to a large number of fixed electrodes,
there is a problem that productivity is also poor. In addition, there is also a problem that the
efficiency is not sufficient because only driving from the fixed electrode provided on the back
side is used.
[0008]
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3
On the other hand, in the film speaker proposed in Patent Document 3 mentioned above, since
the piezoelectric film is used to drive the film, the linearity (linearity) of voltage and deformation
amount is not sufficiently good, and the sound quality is distorted. I have a problem that it looks
like. Therefore, the present invention has been made to solve the above problems, and has a
simple and easy structure, is thin, is excellent in conversion efficiency, and is excellent in linearity
(linearity) of response to input. It is an object of the present invention to provide an inexpensive
film speaker which is low in distortion of sound and easy to manufacture, and a method of
manufacturing the same.
[0009]
In order to achieve the above object, in the present invention, a thin film is formed such that a
bias electrode and a drive electrode are formed on the thin film, and the bias electrode and the
drive electrode face each other in parallel opposite to each other via an air layer. Are folded to
form a film speaker. The peaks and valleys of the folded thin film are fixed, and a predetermined
bias voltage is applied to the bias electrode, and the drive voltage based on the audio signal
applied to the drive electrode is applied. The air layer in the space between the bias electrode
and the drive electrode is pushed out or pulled back by the coulomb force between the drive
electrode and the bias electrode to generate air vibration to generate an acoustic wave. It is
characterized by
[0010]
Thus, the coulomb force between the drive electrode and the bias electrode based on the drive
voltage according to the audio signal applied to the drive electrode pushes the air layer present
in the space between the bias electrode and the drive electrode. When air vibration is generated
by generating or being pulled back to generate a sound wave, the structure is simple, the
conversion efficiency (efficiency of converting an audio signal into a sound wave) is excellent,
and the response linearity to the input ( Linearity) is good, distortion of sound is small, and
manufacture is easy, and it becomes possible to obtain an inexpensive film speaker. In this case,
in consideration of productivity, it is desirable that both the bias electrode and the drive
electrode be made of a conductive film. In addition, when the drive electrode is a two-layer
conductive film formed on the front and back surfaces of the thin film, and the two conductive
films are connected to have opposite polarities to each other, the conversion efficiency is further
improved. Because it is desirable.
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[0011]
In addition, the bias electrode is formed of two conductive films so as to sandwich the thin film,
and when the two conductive films are applied with charges different in polarity, the thin film It
will be driven from both sides on the back side. As a result, the conversion efficiency (the
efficiency of converting an audio signal into a sound wave) is further improved, and the linearity
(linearity) of the response to the input is further improved, and a speaker with less distortion of
sound can be obtained. When the conversion efficiency is excellent, it is not necessary to apply a
high voltage, so it is possible to obtain a thin speaker with reduced power consumption.
[0012]
In addition, the bias electrode is composed of a monopolar electret in which a positive or
negative charge is imparted to the surface of the thin film, or a polarized electret polarized such
that the front and back surfaces of the thin film have different charges. In this case, it is not
necessary to form the electrode directly on the thin film, and it is not necessary to supply the
power for applying the bias voltage, so that it is possible to configure a power saving speaker. In
this case, the drive electrode is a conductive film of two layers formed on the front and back
surfaces of the thin film, and the conductive films of the two layers are connected so as to have
opposite polarities to each other, thereby further improving the conversion efficiency. Because it
is desirable.
[0013]
In addition, the conductive film is a thin film formed of a metal selected from copper, aluminum,
chromium, titanium, gold, nickel, iron, or an alloy thereof, carbon, and conductive selected from
ITO (Indium-Tin-Oxide) Any one of a thin film formed of an inorganic material and a thin film
formed of a conductive resin material in which fine metal powder is dispersed may be selected
and used. In addition, it is desirable that the surface of the conductive film is covered with an
insulating film, since the bias electrode and the drive electrode can be brought into contact with
each other by the vibration of the thin film to prevent the short circuit between the both
electrodes.
[0014]
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In addition, the peak part and the valley part of the folded thin film are formed in a cylindrical or
square tube shape, and the peak part of the peak part and the valley part is fixed to the fixing
plate, the peak part and the valley part And the movement (vibration) of the thin film present
between them is smooth. In addition, a cylindrical or prismatic bending jig may be provided at
the peaks and valleys of the folded thin film. The thin film may be selected from resin films such
as thermoplastic resin films or thermosetting resin films.
[0015]
When producing the above film speaker, an electrode forming step of forming a bias electrode
and a drive electrode on a thin film, and a bias electrode and a drive electrode on the surface side
of the thin film on which the bias electrode and the drive electrode are formed. Jig arrangement
step of arranging a cylindrical or prismatic bending jig between the drive electrode and the bias
electrode on the back surface side of the thin film on which the bias electrode and the drive
electrode are formed; And the bias electrode and the drive electrode are parallel to each other
through the air layer so that the bending jig disposed on the back side of the film and the
bending jig disposed on the surface side of the thin film are mutually tensioned. And a fixing step
of fixing the fixing plate to the top of the peaks and valleys of the folded thin film with an
adhesive or the like. . Accordingly, since it is possible to bend and manufacture one thin film film,
productivity efficiency is improved, and a thin and lightweight speaker can be manufactured.
[0016]
In the present invention, an air layer is present in a space between the bias electrode and the
drive electrode by the Coulomb force between the drive electrode and the bias electrode based
on the drive voltage according to the audio signal applied to the drive electrode. By being pushed
out or pulled back, air vibration is generated to generate a sound wave. As a result, the structure
is simple, easy, thin, excellent in conversion efficiency, good in linearity (linearity) in response to
input, low in distortion of sound, easy manufactured, and inexpensive film speaker It becomes
possible to offer.
[0017]
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6
Hereinafter, the embodiment of the present invention will be described based on FIGS. 1 to 13.
However, the present invention is not limited to this embodiment in any way, and the present
invention is appropriately modified without departing from the scope of the present invention. It
is possible to carry out. FIG. 1 is a cross-sectional view schematically showing a film speaker
according to Example 1 of the present invention, and FIG. 1 (a) is a cross-sectional view
schematically showing a non-driving state, and FIG. 1 (b) is a driving FIG. 1 (c) is a cross-sectional
view schematically showing a state in which the air layer existing between the vibration films on
the surface side is pushed out in the state, and FIG. It is sectional drawing which shows a state
typically.
[0018]
2 to 6 are diagrams schematically showing a method of manufacturing the film speaker of FIG. 1,
(a) is a top view, and (b) is a cross-sectional view showing its AA cross section, (C) (FIG. 5 only) is
a side view seen from the arrow B. FIG. 7 is a view schematically showing a film speaker
according to a modification of the embodiment 1. FIG. 7 (a) is a cross sectional view showing the
first modification, and FIG. 7 (b) is a cross section showing the second modification. It is a
sectional view showing. FIG. 8 is a view schematically showing a manufacturing method of the
film speaker of the modified example of FIG. 7, (a) is a top view, (b) is a cross-sectional view
showing its AA cross section ) Is a side view seen from the arrow B.
[0019]
FIG. 9 is a cross-sectional view schematically showing a film speaker of Example 2 of the present
invention, FIG. 9 (a) is a cross-sectional view schematically showing a non-driven state, and FIG. 9
(b) is a driven state. FIG. 9 (c) is a cross-sectional view schematically showing a state in which the
air layer existing between the vibration films on the surface side is pushed out, and FIG. 9C
shows a state in which the air layer is pulled back between the vibration films on the surface side
in the driven state. It is a sectional view shown typically. FIG. 10 is a cross-sectional view
schematically showing a film speaker of Example 3 of the present invention, and FIG. 10 (a) is a
cross-sectional view schematically showing a non-driven state, and FIG. 10 (b) is a driven state.
FIG. 10C is a cross-sectional view schematically showing a state in which the air layer existing
between the front side vibrating films is pushed out, and FIG. 10C schematically shows a state in
which the air layer is pulled back between the front side vibrating films in the driven state. It is
sectional drawing shown to.
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[0020]
FIG. 11 is a cross-sectional view schematically showing a film speaker according to a fourth
embodiment of the present invention, and FIG. 11 (a) is a cross-sectional view schematically
showing a non-driven state, and FIG. FIG. 11 (c) is a cross-sectional view schematically showing a
state in which the air layer existing between the vibration films on the surface side is pushed out.
FIG. 11C shows a state in which the air layer is pulled back between the vibration films on the
surface side in the driven state. It is a sectional view shown typically. FIG. 12 is a cross-sectional
view schematically showing a film speaker according to Example 5 of the present invention, and
FIG. 12 (a) is a cross-sectional view schematically showing a non-driven state, and FIG. 12 (b) is a
driven state. FIG. 12 (c) is a cross-sectional view schematically showing a state in which the air
layer existing between the vibration films on the surface side is pushed out, and FIG. 12C shows a
state in which the air layer is pulled back between the vibration films on the surface side in the
driven state. It is a sectional view shown typically. FIG. 13 is a cross-sectional view schematically
showing a film speaker according to Example 6 of the present invention, and FIG. 13 (a) is a
cross-sectional view schematically showing a non-driven state, and FIG. FIG. 13 (c) is a crosssectional view schematically showing a state in which the air layer existing between the vibration
films on the surface side is pushed out, and FIG. It is a sectional view shown typically.
[0021]
1. Example 1 As shown in FIG. 1, the film speaker 10 of Example 1 is made of a resin film, and
the diaphragm 11 is made of a resin film which is folded so as to have flexibility in the folding
direction. .. (Or valleys B1, B2, B3...) Of the vibrating film 11 formed of conductive thin film
electrode patterns formed on the surface of one side wall 11 a The bias electrode 12 is formed
on the surface of the electrode 12 and the other side wall 11b which similarly forms the ridges
A1, A2, A3... (Or valleys B1, B2, B3. And a drive electrode 13 composed of a conductive thin film
electrode pattern formed to face each other. In this case, the plurality of bias electrodes 12 are
connected in series, and a bias voltage is applied from an external power supply V thereto. The
plurality of drive electrodes 13 are also connected in series, and an audio signal (Vin) is applied
to this. The plurality of bias electrodes 12 and the plurality of drive electrodes 13 may be
connected in parallel, respectively.
[0022]
The front side bent end 11 c of the vibrating film 11 is fixed to the front side fixing frame 15
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8
with an adhesive or the like, and the back side bent end 11 d of the vibrating film 11 is folded to
the adhesive It is fixed by and so on. The front side fixed frame 15 and the rear side fixed frame
16 are provided with air openings (not shown) through which air can flow in and out. In addition,
the "front side" mentioned above means the listening side when the film speaker 10 is formed,
"the back side" means the opposite side of this, and it is the same also in the following
descriptions. Then, in the non-driven state, the distance X between the bias electrode 12 and the
drive electrode 13 which face each other via the ridges A1, A2, A3... Is via the valleys B1, B2, B3.
The vibrating film 11 is zigzag folded so as to be larger than the distance Y between the facing
drive electrode 13 and the bias electrode 12.
[0023]
Here, as a material of the vibration film 11 made of a resin film, a resin film made of a
thermoplastic resin such as polyimide (Kapton (registered trademark)), nylon, polyester (Mylar
(registered trademark)) or a thermosetting resin is used it can. In addition, as for the thickness of
these resin films, it is desirable that they are 5-500 micrometers. This is because if the thickness
is less than 5 μm, the rigidity is too low to be flexible and thus the predetermined shape can not
be maintained, and the strength is also low and it is easily broken. On the other hand, when the
thickness exceeds 500 μm, the rigidity is too high and it is so hard that displacement as a
diaphragm is hard to occur.
[0024]
The bias electrode 12 and the drive electrode 13 formed of the conductive thin film electrode
pattern are copper (Cu), aluminum (Al), chromium (Cr), titanium (Ti), gold (Au), nickel (Ni), iron
(Fe) Materials such as metals or their alloys, carbon, conductive inorganic materials such as ITO
(Indium-Tin-Oxide), conductive resins in which fine metal particles are dispersed, and the like can
be used. In this case, these bias electrodes 12 and drive electrodes 13 are formed by forming a
metal thin film on the entire surface of the resin film by sputtering, vapor deposition, plating or
the like, and then patterning by etching, or a resist pattern obtained by lithography. A thin film
process such as selectively plating a metal in the opening or forming a metal film on the entire
surface to remove a resist pattern (lift-off method) can be used. In addition, after laminating and
bonding a metal film and a diaphragm film, various methods such as a method of patterning by
etching, a method of coating while patterning a conductive material by a method such as a
printing technique or ink jet, etc. It is possible to form.
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[0025]
The surfaces of the bias electrode 12 and the drive electrode 13 formed of the conductive thin
film electrode pattern are preferably coated with an insulating film (for example, polyimide,
polyester, polypropylene, polyethylene or the like) 14 (see FIG. 4) not shown. This is to prevent
the occurrence of a short circuit in which the bias electrode 12 and the drive electrode 13 are in
direct contact with each other. In this case, it is necessary to remove the insulating film 14 at
these portions so as not to be covered with the insulating film 14 at the portions to be the
connection portions with the wiring.
[0026]
In the film speaker 10 configured as described above, for example, as shown in FIG. 1A, it is
assumed that a positive (+) voltage is applied to the bias electrode 12 from an external power
supply (DC power supply) V. . Then, when an audio signal (Vin) is applied to the drive electrode
13 and a negative (-) voltage is applied to the drive electrode 13 as shown in FIG. 1B, for
example, the peak portions A1, A2, The distance X between the bias electrode 12 and the drive
electrode 13 facing each other via A3... Is the distance between the drive electrode 13 and the
bias electrode 12 facing each other via valleys B1, B2, B3. The vibrating film 11 is folded so as to
be larger than the distance Y. Therefore, according to the audio signal, the driving electrode 13
and the bias electrode 12 which face each other via the valleys B1, B2, B3,. The coulomb force
that will be drawn to will act. As a result, the air layer present in the valleys B1, B2, B3... Is
pushed out (in the direction of the white arrow in FIG. 1B).
[0027]
On the other hand, when an audio signal (Vin) is applied to the drive electrode 13 and a positive
(+) voltage is applied to the drive electrode 13 as shown in FIG. 1C, for example, the valley
portions B1, B2, A coulomb force that acts as a repulsion between the drive electrode 13 and the
bias electrode 12 facing each other through B3... Acts in response to the audio signal. As a result,
the air layer is sucked from the outside into the valley portions B1, B2, B3... (In the direction of
the white arrow in FIG. 1C). Then, when an audio signal (Vin) composed of an alternating voltage
is repeatedly applied to the drive electrode 13, the pushing and pulling back of the air layer
existing between the bias electrode 12 and the drive electrode 13 is repeated, and the wave front
of the sound wave is generated. Will be formed.
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[0028]
Such a slight displacement of the bias electrode 12 and the drive electrode 13 causes a large
amount of air layer to enter and leave the space between each bias electrode 12 and the drive
electrode 13 as in the case of a weir. Air vibration will be produced. This makes it possible to
obtain a loud speaker.
[0029]
Next, a method of manufacturing the film speaker 10 according to the first embodiment having
the above-described configuration will be described in detail below based on FIGS. First, as shown
in FIG. 2, a vibrating film 11 made of a resin film such as polyimide (Kapton), nylon, polyester
(Mylar) or the like having a thickness of 5 to 500 μm is prepared. Then, as shown in FIG. 3,
metals such as copper (Cu), aluminum (Al), chromium (Cr), titanium (Ti), gold (Au), nickel (Ni),
iron (Fe) or alloys thereof The metal thin film made of the above is formed by thin film processes
such as sputtering, vapor deposition and plating, and then patterned by etching to form the bias
electrode 12 and the drive electrode 13.
[0030]
In this case, in addition to the above-described metals, materials such as carbon, conductive
inorganic materials such as ITO (Indium-Tin-Oxide), and conductive resins in which fine metal
particles are dispersed may be used. Also, instead of patterning a metal thin film prepared by a
thin film process (sputtering, vapor deposition, plating, etc.) by etching, after patterning a resist
by lithography, pattern plating a metal or lift-off metal Of the conductive material by pattern
deposition of a metal film, laminating a metal film and a diaphragm film, and patterning by
etching, or a method such as printing technology or ink jet, etc., while coating a conductive
material. Other methods such as the following method may be used.
[0031]
Then, as shown in FIG. 4, an insulating material (for example, polyimide, polyester,
polypropylene, polyethylene or the like) is applied to the entire surface, and the surfaces of the
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bias electrode 12 and the drive electrode 13 are coated with the insulating film 14. In this case,
the insulating film 14 at these portions is removed so as not to be covered with the insulating
film 14 at the portions to be connected to the wiring. Next, as shown in FIG. 5, cylindrical
bending jigs 17 and 18 are alternately arranged between the bias electrodes 12 and the drive
electrodes 13 on the front and back surfaces of the vibrating film 11. In this case, the diameter of
the bending jig 17 disposed on the back surface between the bias electrode 12 and the drive
electrode 13 to form the ridges A1, A2, A3. To be larger than the diameter of the bending jig 18
disposed on the surface between the bias electrode 12 and the drive electrode 13 in order to
form.
[0032]
Then, the bending jig 17 disposed on the back surface between the bias electrode 12 and the
drive electrode 13 is pulled upward, and the bending jig 18 disposed on the surface between the
bias electrode 12 and the drive electrode 13 is downward. The vibrating film 11 is twisted so
that the bias electrode 12 and the drive electrode 13 face each other by pulling. Thus, the
distance X between the bias electrode 12 and the drive electrode 13 facing each other via the
peak portions A1, A2, A3... Is the drive electrode facing each other via the valley portions B1, B2,
B3. It becomes larger than the distance Y between 13 and the bias electrode 12.
[0033]
Next, as shown in FIG. 6, the front fixed frame 15 is disposed at the upper end of the vibrating
membrane 11 in which the bias electrode 12 and the drive electrode 13 are mutually folded so
as to face each other. Placed. Thereafter, the front side bent end 11c of the vibrating membrane
11 was fixed to the front side fixing frame 15 with an adhesive or the like, and the back side
bending end 11d of the vibrating membrane 11 was fixed to the rear side fixing frame 16 with
an adhesive. In this case, the bending jigs 17 and 18 may be removed, or the bending jigs 17 and
18 may be left as they are without being removed.
[0034]
(Modification) In Example 1 described above, when the vibrating film 11 is twisted so that the
bias electrode 12 and the driving electrode 13 are opposed to each other, the bending of the
cylindrical film is alternately performed on the front and back surfaces of the vibrating film 11.
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The fixtures 17 and 18 were arranged to form a bend having a substantially semicircular cross
section. However, the shape of the bending portion is not limited to the semicircular shape, and
various modifications can be considered. For example, FIG. 7A shows a film speaker according to
the first modification of the first embodiment described above, and in the film speaker 20 shown
in FIG. 7A, the bias electrode 22 and the drive electrode 23 are mutually switched. The upper end
portion and the lower end portion of the vibrating membrane 21 are bent in a rectangular shape
so as to be opposite to each other so as to be in a zigzag shape. Also in this case, in the nondriven state, the distance X between the bias electrode 22 and the drive electrode 23 facing each
other via the peak portions A1, A2, A3... Is the valley portions B1, B2, B3. The vibrating film 21 is
zigzag folded so as to be larger than the distance Y between the drive electrode 23 and the bias
electrode 22 facing each other.
[0035]
When forming the film speaker 20 of the first modified example, as shown in FIG. 8, the bending
jig 27 of prismatic shape is alternately provided between the bias electrode 22 on the front and
back surfaces of the vibrating film 21 and the drive electrode 23. , 28 is placed. Then, the
bending jig 27 disposed on the back surface between the bias electrode 22 and the drive
electrode 23 is pulled upward, and the bending jig 28 disposed on the surface between the bias
electrode 22 and the drive electrode 23 is downward. The vibrating film 21 is twisted so that the
bias electrode 22 and the drive electrode 23 face each other by pulling.
[0036]
Also in this case, the width (X) of the bending jig 27 disposed on the back surface between the
bias electrode 22 and the drive electrode 23 to form the peak portions A1, A2, A3,. , B2, B3,..., It
is necessary to be formed larger than the width (Y) of the bending jig 18 disposed on the surface
between the bias electrode 22 and the drive electrode 23. As a result, the width (Y) between the
drive electrode 23 and the bias electrode 22 facing each other via the valleys B1, B2, B3...
Opposes each other via the peaks A1, A2, A3. The width (Y) of the bias electrode 22 and the drive
electrode 23 is shorter than the width (Y).
[0037]
Next, the front side fixing frame 25 is disposed at the upper end portion of the vibrating film 21
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13
folded so that the bias electrode 22 and the drive electrode 23 face each other, and the back side
fixing frame 26 is disposed at the lower end portion. Thereafter, the front side bent end 21c of
the vibrating membrane 21 is fixed to the front side fixing frame 25 with an adhesive or the like,
and the back side bending end 21d of the vibrating membrane 21 is fixed to the rear side fixing
frame 26 with an adhesive. In this case, the bending jigs 27 and 28 may be removed or left as
they are without removing the bending jigs 27 and 28 as shown in the second modification of
the first embodiment of FIG. 7 (b). You may do so.
[0038]
2. Example 2 As shown in FIG. 9, the film speaker 30 of Example 2 is made of a resin film, and
the diaphragm 31 is made of a resin film, and the resin film is serpently folded so as to have
flexibility in the folding direction. .. (Or valleys B1, B2, B3...) Of the vibrating film 31. Bias
consisting of a conductive thin film electrode pattern formed on the surface of one side wall 31 a
forming the ridges A1, A2, A3. .. (And valleys B1, B2, B3...) Similarly formed on the front and back
surfaces of the side wall 31 b which forms the electrode 32 and the ridges A1, A2, A3... (Or
valleys B1, B2, B3. It is comprised from the drive electrode 33 (1st drive electrode 33a, 2nd drive
electrode 33b) which consists of an electroconductive thin film electrode pattern formed so as to
oppose the electrode 32. As shown in FIG.
[0039]
In this case, the plurality of bias electrodes 32 are connected in series, and a bias voltage is
applied from an external power supply V thereto. In addition, the plurality of first drive
electrodes 33a and the plurality of second drive electrodes 33b are also connected in series (in
this case, the first drive electrodes 33a and the second drive electrodes 33b are connected so as
to have opposite polarities to each other) And the audio signal (Vin) is applied to them. The
plurality of bias electrodes 32, the first drive electrodes 33a, and the second drive electrodes 33b
may be connected in parallel.
[0040]
The front bent end 31 c of the diaphragm 31 is fixed to the front fixing frame 35 with an
adhesive or the like, and the back bent end 31 d of the diaphragm 31 is fixed to the back fixing
frame 36. It is fixed by an adhesive or the like. The material of the vibrating film 31 made of a
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14
resin film is the same as that of the first embodiment described above, and the thickness thereof
is made to be 5 to 500 μm as in the first embodiment described above. Further, the bias
electrode 32 is also formed of the same material and the same manufacturing method as those of
the first embodiment described above. The first drive electrode 33a and the second drive
electrode 33b are also formed of the same material and process as those of the first embodiment
described above, and may be formed, for example, on both sides of the resin film as described
above.
[0041]
In the film speaker 30 configured as described above, for example, as shown in FIG. 9A, it is
assumed that a positive (+) voltage is applied to the bias electrode 32 from an external power
supply (DC power supply) V. . Then, an audio signal (Vin) is applied. For example, as shown in
FIG. 9B, a negative (-) voltage is applied to the first drive electrode 33a and a positive (+) voltage
is applied to the second drive electrode 33b. Is applied to each other according to the audio
signal between the bias electrode 32 and the second drive electrode 33b which face each other
via the peak portions A1, A2, A3... Projecting toward the front side. The Coulomb force that acts
like repulsion acts. On the other hand, a coulomb force is exerted between the first drive
electrode 33a and the bias electrode 32 facing each other via valleys B1, B2, B3,. It will be done.
As a result, the air layer present in the valleys B1, B2, B3... Recessed toward the back side is
pushed out (in the direction of the white arrow in FIG. 9B).
[0042]
On the other hand, when the audio signal (Vin) is applied, for example, as shown in FIG. 9C, a
positive (+) voltage is applied to the first drive electrode 33a and a negative (-) voltage is applied
to the second drive electrode 33b. Is applied to each other according to the audio signal between
the bias electrode 32 and the second drive electrode 33b which face each other via the peak
portions A1, A2, A3... Projecting toward the front side. The attractive Coulomb force acts. On the
other hand, a Coulomb force that acts as a repulsion between the first drive electrode 33a and
the bias electrode 32 facing each other according to the audio signal acts via the valleys B1, B2,
B3,. It will be done. As a result, the air layer is sucked into the valleys B1, B2, B3... (The white
arrow direction in FIG. 9C) recessed from the outside toward the back side. Then, when an audio
signal (Vin) composed of an alternating voltage is repeatedly applied to the drive electrodes 33
(33a, 33b), the air layer existing in the valleys B1, B2, B3,. The pushing and pulling back is
repeated to form the wave front of the sound wave.
11-05-2019
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[0043]
Such a slight displacement of the bias electrode 32 and the drive electrodes 33 (33a, 33b) is a
large amount of air layer existing between each of the bias electrodes 32 and the drive electrodes
33 (33a, 33b) like a wedge. This will create ingress and egress, producing loud air vibrations.
This makes it possible to obtain a loud speaker. In this case, since the drive electrode 33 is
composed of the first drive electrode 33a and the second drive electrode 33b, it is more excellent
in conversion efficiency (efficiency for converting an audio signal into a sound wave) than the
first embodiment. The linearity (linearity) of the response is further improved, and a speaker with
less distortion of sound can be obtained.
[0044]
3. Example 3 As shown in FIG. 10, the film speaker 40 of Example 3 is made of a resin film,
and the diaphragm 41 is made of a resin film, and the resin film is zigzag-folded so as to have
flexibility in the folding direction. .. (Or valleys B1, B2, B3...) Of the vibrating film 41. Conductive
thin film electrode patterns formed on the front and back surfaces of one side wall 41a. .. (Or
valleys B1, B2, B3...) Of the vibrating film 41 similarly to the first bias electrode 42 a and the
second bias electrode 42 b, and the other side wall 41 b And a drive electrode 43 formed of a
conductive thin film electrode pattern formed so as to face the bias electrodes 42a and 42b.
Here, the first bias electrode 42a is formed on the surface of the side wall 41a to have one
polarity, and the second bias electrode 42b is formed on the back surface of the side wall 41a to
have the other polarity. .
[0045]
In this case, the plurality of first bias electrodes 42a are connected in series, and a bias voltage is
applied thereto from the first external power supply V1, and the plurality of second bias
electrodes 42b are connected in series, A bias voltage is applied to this from the second external
power supply V2. Further, a plurality of drive electrodes 43 are also connected in series, and an
audio signal (Vin) is applied to this. The plurality of first bias electrodes 42a, the plurality of
second bias electrodes 42b, and the plurality of drive electrodes 43 may be connected in parallel.
11-05-2019
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[0046]
The front bent end 41 c of the diaphragm 41 is fixed to the front fixing frame 45 with an
adhesive or the like, and the back bent end 41 d of the diaphragm 41 is fixed to the back fixing
frame 46. It is fixed by an adhesive or the like. The material of the vibration film 41 made of a
resin film is the same as that of the first embodiment described above, and the thickness thereof
is made to be 5 to 500 μm as in the first embodiment described above. Further, the first bias
electrode 42 a and the second bias electrode 42 b are also formed of the same material and the
same manufacturing method as those of the first embodiment described above, and may be
formed on both sides of the resin film 41, for example. Further, the drive electrode 43 is also
formed of the same material and the same manufacturing method as those of the first
embodiment described above.
[0047]
In the film speaker 40 configured as described above, for example, as shown in FIG. 10A, a
voltage of plus (+) is applied from the first external power supply (DC power supply) V1 to the
first bias electrode 42a, It is assumed that a negative (-) voltage is applied to the second bias
electrode 42b from the second external power supply (DC power supply) V2. Then, an audio
signal (Vin) is applied to the drive electrode 43, and for example, as shown in FIG. 10B, when a
negative (-) voltage is applied to the drive electrode 43, the drive electrode 43 protrudes toward
the front side. A coulomb force is exerted between the second bias electrode 42b and the drive
electrode 43 facing each other via the ridges A1, A2, A3. On the other hand, a coulomb force is
exerted between the drive electrode 43 and the first bias electrode 42a opposed to each other
through the valleys B1, B2, B3,. It will be done. As a result, the air layer present in the valleys B1,
B2, B3... Recessed toward the back side is pushed out (in the direction of the white arrow in FIG.
10B).
[0048]
Further, when an audio signal (Vin) is applied to the drive electrode 43 and, for example, as
shown in FIG. 10C, the drive electrode 43 is applied with a positive (+) voltage, it projects toward
the front side A coulomb force is exerted between the second bias electrode 42b and the drive
electrode 43 facing each other via the mountain portions A1, A2, A3. On the other hand, a
Coulomb force that acts as a repulsion between the drive electrode 43 and the first bias electrode
42a facing each other according to the audio signal acts via the valleys B1, B2, B3,. It will be
11-05-2019
17
done. As a result, the air layer is sucked into the valleys B1, B2, B3... (The white arrow direction
in FIG. 10C) recessed from the outside toward the back side. Then, when an audio signal (Vin)
composed of an alternating voltage is repeatedly applied to the drive electrode 43, the pushing
and pulling back of the air layer present in the valleys B1, B2, B3. The wave front of the sound
wave is formed.
[0049]
Such a slight displacement between the bias electrode 42 (the first bias electrode 42a and the
second bias electrode 42b) and the drive electrode 43 is similar to that of the respective bias
electrodes 42 (the first bias electrode 42a and the second bias electrode). As a result, a large
volume of air vibration is generated by generating a large amount of air layer coming and going
between the drive electrode 42 b) and the drive electrode 43. This makes it possible to obtain a
loud speaker. In this case, since the bias electrode 42 is composed of the first bias electrode 42a
and the second bias electrode 42b, the conversion efficiency (the efficiency of converting an
audio signal into a sound wave) is more excellent than in the first embodiment. The linearity
(linearity) of the response is further improved, and a speaker with less distortion of sound can be
obtained.
[0050]
4. Example 4 As shown in FIG. 11, the film speaker 50 of Example 4 is made of a resin film,
and the diaphragm 51 is made of a resin film, and the resin film is zigzag-folded so as to have
flexibility in the folding direction. (Or valleys B1, B2, B3...) Of the vibrating film 51 formed on the
surface of one side wall 51a formed of unipolar electret bias electrodes 52 .. (Or valleys B1, B2,
B3...) Similarly formed on the surface of the other side wall 51 b forming the ridges A1, A2, A3...
(Or valleys B1, B2, B3. And a drive electrode 53 formed of a conductive thin film electrode
pattern formed to In this case, the plurality of drive electrodes 53 are connected in series and the
audio signal (Vin) is applied thereto, but the plurality of drive electrodes 53 may be connected in
parallel.
[0051]
The front side bent end 51c of the diaphragm 51 is fixed to the front side fixing frame 55 with an
adhesive or the like, and the back side bending end 51d of the diaphragm 51 is adhesively
11-05-2019
18
attached to the back side fixing frame 56 It is fixed by the Then, in the non-driven state, the
distance X between the bias electrode 52 and the drive electrode 53 facing each other via the
peak portions A1, A2, A3... Is via the valley portions B1, B2, B3. The vibrating film 51 is zigzagfolded so as to be larger than the distance Y between the opposing drive electrode 53 and the
bias electrode 52.
[0052]
The material of the vibrating film 51 made of a resin film is the same as that of the first
embodiment described above, and the thickness thereof is made to be 5 to 500 μm as in the
first embodiment described above. Further, the drive electrode 53 is also formed of the same
material and the same manufacturing method as those of the first embodiment described above.
Further, the bias electrode 52 made of a monopolar electret is formed by charging the resin film
51 described above with corona discharged ions to be positively or negatively charged.
[0053]
In the film speaker 50 configured as described above, for example, as shown in FIG. 11A, when
forming a monopolar electret on the vibrating film 51, the bias electrode 52 has a positive (+)
charge. Shall be formed. Then, when an audio signal (Vin) is applied to the drive electrode 53
and, for example, a negative (-) voltage is applied to the drive electrode 53 as shown in FIG. The
distance X between the bias electrode 52 and the drive electrode 53 facing each other via A3... Is
the distance between the drive electrode 53 and the bias electrode 52 facing each other via the
valleys B1, B2, B3. Since the diaphragm 51 is folded so as to be larger than the distance Y, the
drive electrode 53 and the bias electrode 52 facing each other via the valleys B1, B2, B3,... The
coulomb force that will be drawn to will act.
[0054]
As a result, the air layer present in the valleys B1, B2, B3... Is pushed out (in the direction of the
white arrow in FIG. 11B). On the other hand, when the audio signal (Vin) is applied to the drive
electrode 53 and, for example, a positive (+) voltage is applied to the drive electrode 53 as shown
in FIG. 11C, the valleys B1, B2, A coulomb force that acts as a repulsion between the drive
electrode 53 and the bias electrode 52 facing each other through B3... Acts in response to the
audio signal. As a result, the air layer is sucked from the outside into the valley portions B1, B2,
11-05-2019
19
B3... (In the direction of the white arrow in FIG. 11C). Then, when an audio signal (Vin) consisting
of an alternating voltage is repeatedly applied to the drive electrode 53, the pushing and pulling
back of the air layer existing between the bias electrode 52 and the drive electrode 53 is
repeated, and the wave front of the sound wave is generated. Will be formed.
[0055]
Such a slight displacement of the bias electrode 52 and the drive electrode 53 causes a large
amount of air layer to enter and leave between the respective bias electrodes 52 and the drive
electrode 53 as in the case of a weir. Air vibration will be produced. This makes it possible to
obtain a loud speaker. In addition, since the bias electrode 52 is configured by a monopolar
electret, there is no need to form an electrode directly on the thin film, and it is not necessary to
supply power for applying a bias voltage. It is possible to configure a power speaker.
[0056]
5. Example 5 As shown in FIG. 12, the film speaker 60 of Example 5 is made of a resin film,
and the diaphragm 61 is made of a resin film, and the resin film is zigzag-folded so as to have
flexibility in the folding direction. .. (Or valleys B1, B2, B3...) Of the vibrating film 61 formed on
the surface of one side wall 61a formed of unipolar electret bias electrodes 62 .. (Or valleys B1,
B2, B3...) Of the vibrating film 61 similarly formed on the front and back surfaces of the other
side wall 61 b and the bias electrode 62 And a first drive electrode 63a and a second drive
electrode 63b formed of conductive thin film electrode patterns formed to face each other. In this
case, the plurality of first drive electrodes 63a and the plurality of second drive electrodes 63b
are connected in series (in this case, the first drive electrodes 63a and the second drive
electrodes 63b are connected to have opposite polarities to each other) Audio signal (Vin) is
applied to them. The plurality of first drive electrodes 63a and the plurality of second drive
electrodes 63b may be connected in parallel.
[0057]
The front bent end 61 c of the diaphragm 61 is fixed to the front fixing frame 65 with an
adhesive or the like, and the back bent end 61 d of the diaphragm 61 is fixed to the back fixing
frame 66. It is fixed by an adhesive or the like. The material of the vibrating film 61 made of a
resin film is the same as that of the first embodiment described above, and the thickness thereof
11-05-2019
20
is made to be 5 to 500 μm as in the first embodiment described above. Further, the first drive
electrode 63a and the second drive electrode 63b are also formed of the same material and the
same manufacturing method as those of the first embodiment described above, and may be
formed on both sides of the resin film 61, for example. Further, the bias electrode 62 made of a
monopolar electret is formed by being positively or negatively charged by implanting the coronadischarged ions into the resin film 61 described above.
[0058]
In the film speaker 60 configured as described above, for example, as shown in FIG. 12A, when
forming a monopolar electret on the vibrating film 61, the bias electrode 62 is set to have a
positive (+) charge. Shall be formed. Then, an audio signal (Vin) is applied. For example, as shown
in FIG. 12B, a negative (-) voltage is applied to the first drive electrode 63a and a positive (+)
voltage is applied to the second drive electrode 63b. Is applied to each other according to the
audio signal between the bias electrode 62 and the second drive electrode 63b which face each
other via the peak portions A1, A2, A3... Projecting toward the front side. The repulsive Coulomb
force acts. On the other hand, a coulomb which can be drawn to each other according to the
audio signal (Vin) between the first drive electrode 63a and the bias electrode 62 opposed to
each other via the valleys B1, B2, B3. Force will work. As a result, the air layer present in the
valleys B1, B2, B3... Recessed toward the back side is pushed out (in the direction of the white
arrow in FIG. 12B).
[0059]
On the other hand, an audio signal (Vin) is applied to the drive electrode 63, and for example, as
shown in FIG. 12C, a voltage of plus (+) is applied to the first drive electrode 63a and the second
drive electrode 63b. When a negative (-) voltage is applied to the second audio signal (b) between
the bias electrode 62 and the second drive electrode 63b facing each other via the peak portions
A1, A2, A3. Coulomb forces act to attract each other according to Vin). On the other hand, a
coulomb which repels each other according to the audio signal (Vin) between the first drive
electrode 63a and the bias electrode 62 facing each other via the valleys B1, B2, B3. Force will
work. As a result, the air layer is sucked into the valleys B1, B2, B3... Recessed from the outside
toward the back side (in the direction of the outlined arrow in FIG. 12C). Then, when an audio
signal (Vin) consisting of an AC voltage is repeatedly applied to the drive electrodes 63 (63a,
63b), the air layer existing in the valleys B1, B2, B3. The pushing and pulling back is repeated to
form the wave front of the sound wave.
11-05-2019
21
[0060]
Such a slight displacement of the bias electrode 62 and the first drive electrode 63a and a slight
displacement of the bias electrode 62 and the second drive electrode 63b make the respective
bias electrodes 62 and the respective drive electrodes 63a and 63b As a result of the large
amount of air layer coming and going between, a loud air vibration will be produced. This makes
it possible to obtain a loud speaker. In this case, since the drive electrode is composed of the first
drive electrode 63a and the second drive electrode 63b, the conversion efficiency (the efficiency
of converting an audio signal into a sound wave) is more excellent than in the first embodiment
and the response to the input The linearity (linearity) of is further improved, and a speaker with
less distortion of sound can be obtained. In addition, since the bias electrode 62 is configured by
a monopolar electret, it is not necessary to form the electrode directly on the thin film, and it is
not necessary to supply power for applying a bias voltage. It is possible to configure a power
speaker.
[0061]
6. Example 6 As shown in FIG. 13, the film speaker 70 of Example 6 is made of a resin film,
and the diaphragm 71 is made of a resin film and is folded so as to have flexibility in the folding
direction. .. (Or valleys B1, B2, B3...) Of the vibrating film 71 formed on the surface of one side
wall 71a formed of polarization electret film .. 72 (and valleys B1, B2, B3...) Similarly formed on
the surface of the other side wall 71 b forming the peaks A1, A2, A3. And a drive electrode 73
formed of a conductive thin film electrode pattern formed to face the substrate. In this case, the
plurality of drive electrodes 73 are connected in series, and the audio signal (Vin) is applied
thereto. However, the plurality of drive electrodes 73 may be connected in parallel.
[0062]
The front bent end 71 c of the diaphragm 71 is fixed to the front fixing frame 75 with an
adhesive or the like, and the back bent end 71 d of the diaphragm 71 is fixed to the back fixing
frame 76. It is fixed by an adhesive or the like. The material of the vibrating film 71 made of a
resin film is the same as that of the first embodiment described above, and the thickness thereof
is set to 5 to 500 μm as in the first embodiment described above. Further, the drive electrode 73
is also formed of the same material and the same manufacturing method as those of the first
embodiment described above.
11-05-2019
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[0063]
Further, the bias electrode 72 is made of a polarized electret film, and specifically, a polymer film
71 such as polypropylene (PP), polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), tetrafluoroethylene, 6fluoropolypropylene (FEP), etc. For example, by performing corona discharge treatment,
polarization treatment is performed such that charges having different polarities are formed on
the front and back surfaces of the film 71. In this case, as shown in FIG. 13, it is assumed that a
positive (+) charge is formed on the surface 72 a of the film 71 and a negative (−) charge is
formed on the back surface 72 b of the film 71.
[0064]
In the film speaker 70 of the sixth embodiment configured as described above, the audio signal
(Vin) is applied to the drive electrode 73, and for example, as shown in FIG. 13 (b), the drive
electrode 73 is minus (-). Is applied between the bias electrode 72b and the drive electrode 73
facing each other via the peak portions A1, A2, A3... Projecting toward the front side according to
the audio signal (Vin). The repulsive Coulomb force acts. On the other hand, a coulomb force is
drawn between drive electrode 73 and bias electrode 72a facing each other via valleys B1, B2,
B3... Recessed toward the rear side according to the audio signal (Vin). It will work. As a result,
the air layer present in the valleys B1, B2, B3... Recessed toward the back side is pushed out (in
the direction of the white arrow in FIG. 13B).
[0065]
Also, when an audio signal (Vin) is applied to the drive electrode 73 and a positive (+) voltage is
applied to the drive electrode 73, for example, as shown in FIG. 13C, the drive electrode 73
protrudes toward the front side. A coulomb force is exerted between the bias electrode 72b and
the drive electrode 73 facing each other via the mountain portions A1, A2, A3... Such that they
can be drawn to each other according to the audio signal (Vin). On the other hand, the Coulomb
force such as to repel each other according to the audio signal (Vin) between the drive electrode
73 and the bias electrode 72a facing each other via the valleys B1, B2, B3. It will work. As a
result, the air layer is sucked into the valleys B1, B2, B3... (The white arrow direction in FIG. 13C)
recessed from the outside toward the back side. Then, when an audio signal (Vin) composed of an
alternating voltage is repeatedly applied to the drive electrode 73, the pushing and pulling back
11-05-2019
23
of the air layer present in the valleys B1, B2, B3. The wave front of the sound wave is formed.
[0066]
Such a slight displacement of the bias electrode 72 and the drive electrode 73 causes a large
volume of air to move in and out of each bias electrode 72 and the drive electrode 73 as in the
case of a weir. Air vibration will be produced. This makes it possible to obtain a loud speaker. In
this case, since the bias electrode 72 is composed of a polarization electret, it is more excellent in
conversion efficiency (efficiency for converting an audio signal into a sound wave) than that of
the first embodiment, and also has linearity in response to input (linearity). It is improved and a
speaker with less distortion of sound can be obtained. In addition, since the bias electrode 72 is
formed of a polarization electret, it is not necessary to form the electrode directly on the thin
film, and it is not necessary to supply power for applying a bias voltage. It is possible to configure
the speaker of
[0067]
7. Loudspeaker Array (1) Loudspeaker Array by One Unit In the film speakers of the abovedescribed embodiments, an example in which one unit of film speaker is configured by
connecting each drive electrode in series has been described. In the above, it is possible to form a
speaker array of one unit by inputting audio signals of the same phase or different phases
individually to each drive electrode. Therefore, an example in which an audio signal of the same
phase or a different phase is input to each of the drive electrodes of the film speaker 10 of the
first embodiment described above to form a speaker array of one unit will be described below.
[0068]
(First Example) As shown in FIG. 14 (a), an audio signal (Vin) is applied to each of the drive
electrodes A, B, C, D, E individually to connect the speaker array 10a of one unit. Form. Then,
when signals of the same phase are applied to the respective drive electrodes A, B, C, D and E,
sound waves in beam form parallel to the respective drive electrodes A, B, C, D and E of the
speaker array 10a are emitted. It will be sounded. Thereby, the wave front of the sound wave as
shown by the dotted line in FIG. 14 (a) is formed, and the listener (L) sounds as if the sound
source is directly in front of the listener (L).
11-05-2019
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[0069]
Second Example As shown in FIG. 14 (b), an audio signal (Vin) is applied to each of the drive
electrodes A, B, C, D, E individually to connect the speaker array 10b of one unit. Form. Then,
when a signal whose phase advances from the drive electrode A to the drive electrode E is given
to each of the drive electrodes A, B, C, D, and E, the signal from the drive electrode A to the drive
electrode E of the speaker array 10a is increased. A beam-like sound wave whose phase is
advanced will be emitted. As a result, the wave front of the inclined sound wave is formed as
shown by the dotted line in FIG. 14B, and the listener (L) sounds as if there is a sound source on
the drive electrode E side of the speaker array 10b.
[0070]
Third Example As shown in FIG. 15A, the drive electrodes A, B, C, D, and E are connected so as to
individually apply an audio signal (Vin), and a speaker array 10c of one unit is formed. Form.
Then, when a signal delayed in phase from the drive electrode C to the drive electrode A and
from the drive electrode C to the drive electrode E is applied to each of the drive electrodes A, B,
C, D, and E, the drive electrodes of the speaker array 10 c As C moves from the drive electrode A
and from the drive electrode C to the drive electrode E, a sound wave in the form of a beam
delayed in phase is emitted. As a result, a spherical wavefront centered on point P is formed as
shown by the dotted line in FIG. 15A, and the listener (L) has a depth as if there is a sound source
at point P behind the speaker array 10c. It sounds like a certain sound.
[0071]
(Fourth Example) As shown in FIG. 15 (b), an audio signal (Vin) is applied to each of the drive
electrodes A, B, C, D and E individually to connect them, and a speaker array 10d of one unit is
formed. Form. Then, when a signal whose phase advances from the drive electrode C to the drive
electrode A and from the drive electrode C to the drive electrode E is given to each of the drive
electrodes A, B, C, D, E, the drive electrodes of the speaker array 10d A sound wave in the form of
a beam whose phase is advanced from C to the drive electrode A and from the drive electrode C
to the drive electrode E is emitted. As a result, the wavefront of a spherical sound wave is formed
as shown by the dotted line in FIG. 15 (b), so that the sound can be focused only on a specific
listener (L) and not heard by other listeners. become.
11-05-2019
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[0072]
(Fifth Example) As shown in FIG. 16 (a), an audio signal (Vin) is applied to each of the drive
electrodes A, B, C, D, E individually to connect the speaker array 10e of one unit. Form. Then, an
audio signal having a different phase is given to each of the drive electrodes A, B, C, D, and E to
form a spherical wavefront as shown by a dotted line in FIG. (L) sounds like a deep sound as if
there is a sound source at point P behind the speaker array 10e.
[0073]
Sixth Example As shown in FIG. 16 (b), while connecting so as to apply an audio signal (Vin-p) of
P group individually to each drive electrode A, C, E, each drive electrode B, Audio signals (Vin-q)
of Q group are individually connected to D to form a speaker array 10f of one unit. Then, audio
signals (Vin-p) of P groups having different phases are applied to the respective drive electrodes
A, C, E to form a spherical wavefront as shown by a dotted line in FIG. So that audio signals (Vinq) of Q groups having different phases are applied to the respective drive electrodes B and D, so
as to form a spherical wave front as shown by an alternate long and short dash line in FIG. Then,
the listener (L) sounds as if a three-dimensional sound field is formed as if there are sound
sources at different positions of point P and point Q behind the speaker array 10 f.
[0074]
As described above, in order to apply the phase-shifted audio signals to the drive electrodes A, B,
C, D, and E, for example, as disclosed in Japanese Patent Application Laid-Open No. 2005197896. The speaker array system 100 may be used. Specifically, as shown in FIG. 17, according
to the delay control information supplied from directivity control device 102, drive electrodes A,
B, C, and C of each speaker array 10a (10b, 10c, 10d, 10e, 10f). A delay circuit 101 is provided
to delay each of audio signals supplied to D and E. In this case, the directivity control device 102
obtains the delay amount to be given to each of the audio signals so that the focal point is formed
at a desired position, and generates delay control information representing the obtained delay
amounts to obtain a delay circuit. Supply to 101.
[0075]
11-05-2019
26
Specifically, spatial coordinates and focal points of the speaker array 10a (10b, 10c, 10d, 10e,
10f) are compensated so as to compensate for the distance difference from the focal point to the
speaker array 10a (10b, 10c, 10d, 10e, 10f). The respective delay amounts are calculated based
on the space coordinates of Then, the weighting means 103 includes the same number of
multipliers 103-a, 103-b... 103 as the drive electrodes A, B, C, D, E of the speaker array 10 a (10
b, 10 c, 10 d, 10 e, 10 f). A weight is added to each of the audio signals after delay processing
supplied from the delay circuit 101 by a weighting coefficient such as a window function
coefficient or a gain coefficient.
[0076]
The amplification means 104 includes amplifiers 104-a, 104-b... 104-e as many as the drive
electrodes A, B, C, D, E of the speaker array 10a (10b, 10c, 10d, 10e, 10f). Each audio signal to
which a predetermined weight is added by the weighting means 103 is amplified. Thereby, the
audio signal amplified by the amplification means 104 is input to each of the drive electrodes A,
B, C, D, E of the speaker array 10a (10b, 10c, 10d, 10e, 10f) and output as a sound wave. . The
sound waves output from each of the speaker arrays 10a (10b, 10c, 10d, 10e, 10f) are in phase
at an arbitrary point (focus) in space, and the sound pressure in the focal direction is locally high.
Good directivity (hereinafter, narrow directivity) is realized. As described above, according to the
speaker array system 100 using the delay array method, narrow directivity can be realized, and
the directivity direction can be arbitrarily changed only by changing the delay amount.
[0077]
(2) Loudspeaker array in which a plurality of units are connected in one row In each of the
embodiments described above, an example of producing a unit of film speaker using a diaphragm
made of a resin film is described did. However, it is possible to manufacture a plurality of units of
speakers (multi-speaker) using a diaphragm made of one resin film. Next, an example of the
configuration of the multi-speaker will be described based on FIG. In the multi-speaker 80 shown
in FIG. 18, a large number of bias electrodes 82 and drive electrodes 83 are formed on one resin
film 81. Further, a predetermined number (in this case, eight) of bias electrodes 82 are connected
so as to be connected to terminal x, and a predetermined number (in this case, eight) of drive
electrodes 83 are connected to terminal y. The units A1 to A7 are formed by being connected so
as to be connected. The bias electrodes 82 and the drive electrodes 83 are alternately bent along
fold lines (dotted lines shown in FIG. 18) so as to face each other in parallel.
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[0078]
In this case, when a large number of bias electrodes 82 and drive electrodes 83 are formed on
one resin film 81, an etching method, a patterning method, a printing method or the like may be
applied. Further, when connecting the bias electrode 82, connection may be made for each of the
units A1 to A7, or all of the connection may be made at one place on the resin film 81, and may
be combined into one terminal. . Furthermore, it is desirable to be able to control with units
different units of signals for units that collectively perform one movement. In addition, in the
manufacturing method of such a multi speaker, the manufacturing method of Example 1
mentioned above except forming unit A1-A7 which consists of many bias electrodes 82 and the
drive electrode 83 in one resin film is mentioned. Since the process is substantially the same as in
the above, the description of the manufacturing method is omitted.
[0079]
(3) A speaker array in which a plurality of one units are connected in a plurality of lines Further,
in the multi-speaker 90 shown in FIG. 19, a large number of bias electrodes 92 and drive
electrodes 93 are formed on one resin film 91 It is done. In this case, a predetermined number
(in this case, eight) of bias electrodes 92 are connected to terminal x, and a predetermined
number (in this case, eight) of drive electrodes 93 are terminal y. The units A1 to A6, B1 to B6,
and C1 to C6 are formed so as to be connected to each other. The bias electrodes 92 and the
drive electrodes 93 are alternately bent along fold lines (dotted lines shown in FIG. 19) so as to
face each other in parallel.
[0080]
Here, when a large number of bias electrodes 92 and drive electrodes 93 are formed on one resin
film 91, an etching method, a patterning method, a printing method, or the like may be applied.
When the bias electrodes 92 are connected, they may be connected to each of the units A1 to A6,
B1 to B6, C1 to C6, or all of them may be connected at one place on the resin film 91. You may
make it put together in a terminal. Furthermore, it is desirable to be able to control with units
different units of signals for units that collectively perform one movement. In addition, in the
manufacturing method of such a multi-speaker, except forming units A1 to A6, B1 to B6, C1 to
C6 consisting of a large number of bias electrodes 92 and drive electrodes 93 in one resin film,
Since the manufacturing method is substantially the same as that of the first embodiment
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described above, the description of the manufacturing method is omitted.
[0081]
In the embodiment described above, the bias electrode and the drive electrode are formed on the
thin film, and the thin film is twisted so that the bias electrode and the drive electrode face each
other in parallel with the air layer interposed therebetween. An example in which the flat film
speaker is formed by fixing the peaks and valleys of the thin film folded in a spiral shape and in a
serpentine shape by a plate-like fixing plate has been described. However, the film speaker of the
present invention can be formed into various shapes without being limited to a planar shape. For
example, it is possible to form a film speaker having various curved surfaces such as cylindrical,
concave, and spherical shapes. In this case, the thin film is folded in a serpentine fashion so that
the bias electrode and the drive electrode face each other via an air layer, and the peaks and
valleys of the thin film are folded in a cylindrical shape, concave It may be fixed by a plate, a
frame, a beam or the like having a free curved surface such as a spherical shape or a spherical
shape.
[0082]
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS It is sectional drawing which shows typically the film
speaker of Example 1 of this invention, and Fig.1 (a) is sectional drawing which shows a nondriving state typically, FIG.1 (b) is a surface side in a driving state. FIG. 1 (c) is a cross-sectional
view schematically showing a state in which the air layer existing between the vibrating
membranes is pushed out, and FIG. 1 (c) schematically shows a state in which the air layer is
pulled back between the vibrating membranes on the surface side in the driven state. It is a
sectional view showing. FIG. 2 is a view schematically showing one step of a method of
manufacturing the film speaker of FIG. 1, FIG. 2 (a) is a top view, and FIG. 2 (c) is a crosssectional view showing the cross section B-B. FIG. 3 is a view schematically showing one step of a
method of manufacturing the film speaker of FIG. 1, FIG. 3 (a) is a top view, and FIG. 3 (b) is a
cross-sectional view showing its AA cross section 3 (c) is a cross-sectional view showing the cross
section B-B. FIG. 4 is a view schematically showing one step of a method of manufacturing the
film speaker of FIG. 1, FIG. 4 (a) is a top view, and FIG. 4 (b) is a cross-sectional view showing its
AA cross section 4 (c) is a cross-sectional view showing the cross section B-B. FIG. 5 is a view
schematically showing one step of a method of manufacturing the film speaker of FIG. 1, FIG. 5
(a) is a top view, and FIG. 5 (b) is a cross-sectional view showing the AA cross section; 5 (c) is a
cross-sectional view showing the B-B cross section. FIG. 6 is a view schematically showing one
step of a method of manufacturing the film speaker of FIG. 1, FIG. 6 (a) is a top view, and FIG. 6
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(c) is a cross-sectional view showing the cross section B-B. FIG. 6 is a cross-sectional view
schematically showing a film speaker of a modified example of Example 1; FIG. 8A is a top view,
and FIG. 8B is a cross-sectional view showing the A-A cross section, and FIG. 8 (c) is a crosssectional view showing the cross section B-B. FIG. 9 (a) is a cross-sectional view schematically
showing a non-driven state, and FIG. 9 (b) is a front side of the film speaker according to a
second embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 9C is a cross-sectional view schematically
showing a state in which the air layer existing between the vibrating membranes is pushed out,
and FIG. 9C schematically shows a state in which the air layer is pulled back between the
vibrating membranes on the surface side in the driven state. It is a sectional view showing. FIG.
10A is a cross-sectional view schematically showing a non-driven state, and FIG. 10B is a frontside vibration in a driven state. FIG. 10C is a cross-sectional view schematically showing a state in
which the air layer existing between the films is pushed out, and FIG. 10C is a cross-sectional
view schematically showing a state in which the air layer is pulled back between the vibrating
films on the front side in the driven state. FIG.
FIG. 11 (a) is a cross-sectional view schematically showing a non-driven state, and FIG. 11 (b) is a
front side of the film speaker according to a fourth embodiment of the present invention. FIG.
11C is a cross-sectional view schematically showing a state in which the air layer existing
between the vibrating membranes is pushed out. FIG. 11C schematically shows a state in which
the air layer is pulled back between the vibrating membranes on the surface side in the driven
state. It is a sectional view showing. FIG. 12 (a) is a cross-sectional view schematically showing a
non-driven state, and FIG. 12 (b) is a front side of the film speaker in a driven state according to a
fifth embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 12C is a cross-sectional view schematically
showing a state in which the air layer existing between the vibrating membranes is pushed out.
FIG. 12C is a schematic view showing a state in which the air layer is pulled back between the
vibrating membranes on the front side in the driven state. It is a sectional view showing. FIG. 13A
is a cross-sectional view schematically showing a non-driven state, and FIG. 13B is a crosssectional view schematically showing a non-driven state according to a sixth embodiment of the
present invention. FIG. 13 (c) is a cross-sectional view schematically showing a state in which the
air layer existing between the vibrating membranes is pushed out. FIG. 13 (c) schematically
shows a state in which the air layer is pulled back between the vibrating membranes on the
surface side in the driven state. It is a sectional view showing. It is a figure which shows typically
the example which forms the speaker array by 1 unit, and is made to sound-emit, FIG. 14 (a)
shows a 1st example, FIG.14 (b) shows a 2nd example. It is a figure which shows typically the
example which forms the speaker array by 1 unit, and is made to emit sound, and Fig.15 (a)
shows a 3rd example, FIG.15 (b) shows a 4th example. FIG. 16 (a) shows a fifth example and FIG.
16 (b) shows a sixth example, schematically illustrating an example in which a speaker array is
formed by one unit and sound is emitted. It is a block diagram explaining the speaker array
system using a delay array system. It is a figure which shows typically the speaker array which
connected the plurality of 1 units in 1 row, and its example of sound emission. It is a figure which
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shows typically the speaker array which connected so that two or more of 1 unit may become
multiple rows, and its example of sound emission.
Explanation of sign
[0083]
10: film speaker, 11: vibrating membrane (resin film), 11a: one side wall of the vibrating
membrane, 11b: the other side wall of the vibrating membrane, 11c: front side bending end, 11d:
back side bending end, 12 ... Bias electrode 13 Drive electrode 14 Insulating film 15 Front fixed
frame 16 Back fixed frame 17 Bending jig 18 Bending jig 20 Film speaker 21 Vibrating film 21c
Front side Bent end 21d: Back side bent end 22: Bias electrode 23: Drive electrode 25: Front side
fixing frame 26: Back side fixing frame 27: Bending jig 28: Bending jig 30: Film Loudspeaker 31
vibrating membrane (resin film) 31a one side wall of vibrating membrane 31b the other side wall
of vibrating membrane 31c front side bent end 31d back side bent end 32 bias electrode 33a:
first drive electrode, 33b: second Moving electrode, 35: front fixed frame, 36: back fixed frame,
40: film speaker, 41: vibrating membrane (resin film), 41c: front bent end, 41d: back bent end,
42a: first bias Electrode 42b: Second bias electrode 43: Drive electrode 45: Front fixed frame 46:
Back fixed frame 50: Film speaker 51: Vibrating film (resin film) 51c: Front side bent end 51d:
51d Back side bending end portion 52: bias electrode (monopolar electret) 53: drive electrode
55: front side fixed frame 56: back side fixed frame 60: film speaker 61: vibrating film (resin film)
61c: front side Bent end, 61d: Back side bent end, 62: Bias electrode (monopolar electret), 63a:
First drive electrode, 63b: Second drive electrode, 65: Front fixed frame, 66: Back fixed frame, 70
... Film speaker 71: Vibrating film (resin film) 71c: Front side bent end 71d: Back side bent end
72: Bias electrode (polarization electret) 73: Driving electrode 75: Front side fixed frame 76: Back
side fixed frame 80: A speaker array in which a plurality of units are connected in a row 81: a
resin film 82: a bias electrode 83: a drive electrode 90: a plurality of units 1 are arranged in a
plurality of rows Loudspeaker array connected in this manner, 91: resin film, 92: bias electrode,
93: drive electrode, A1, A2, A3: peak portion, B1, B2, B3: valley portion, 10a, 10b, 10c, 10d, 10e,
DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS 10f ... Speaker array, 100 ... Speaker array system, 101 ... Delay
circuit, 102 ... Directionality control apparatus, 103 ... Weighting means, 104 ... Amplification
means
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