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JP2009049959

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DESCRIPTION JP2009049959
PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide an external sound perception apparatus capable of
accurately perceiving the direction of a sound source. SOLUTION: A vibration signal generating
means 20 for individually generating a vibration signal by modulating a carrier signal of an
ultrasonic wave based on a sound signal inputted to each directional microphone 10, 10, and
based on each vibration signal. The external sound perception apparatus 1 is provided with a
plurality of transducers 30 for transmitting ultrasonic vibration to a living body, and the
vibration signal generation means 20 is a level difference of the sound signal between the
plurality of directional microphones 10 and 10 and / or A parameter calculation means 21 for
calculating a time difference to acquire a space characteristic parameter, and an output
correction means 24 for correcting at least one of each vibration signal based on the space
characteristic parameter. [Selected figure] Figure 2
External sound perception device
[0001]
The present invention relates to an external sound perception apparatus for perceiving external
sound such as voice and environmental sound by ultrasonic vibration.
[0002]
As an example of the external sound perception device, a hearing aid for the deaf person is
known.
10-05-2019
1
Hearing aids include air-conduction-type hearing aids in which the vibration of sound is
transmitted to the brain's auditory organs via the tympanic membrane, and bone-conduction-type
hearing aids in which sound vibration is transmitted directly to the human body from the skull
etc. without passing through the tympanic membrane. In recent years, a bone-conduction
ultrasound type hearing aid has been known in which external sound can be perceived by
transmitting ultrasound vibration to the brain's auditory organs via a transducer.
[0003]
In connection with such a bone conduction ultrasound type hearing aid, according to Non-Patent
Documents 1 and 2, when a vibrator is attached to the mastoid of both ears to present amplitudemodulated bone conduction ultrasound. It is disclosed that the sound image in the head changes
due to the interaural time difference of the amplitude envelope and the interaural level
difference. In addition, in the case of presenting each of the bone conduction ultrasonic waves
amplitude-modulated by the external sound input to the two directional microphones with the
two transducers mounted on the binaural mastoid in Patent Document 1, It is disclosed that the
direction of a sound source can be recognized by performing unique modulation for each
external sound input from each directional microphone. Tateya Hotehama, Seiji Nakagawa, “The
in-head localization perception of AM bone conduction ultrasound-ITD discrimination threshold
of amplitude envelope,” Journal of the Japanese Association of Auditory Research, 36, pp. 627632, 2006 Tateya Hotehama, Seiji Nakagawa, “AM bone guidance Ultrasound in-head
localization perception-IID detection threshold, "Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the
Acoustical Society of Japan Fall 2006 Conference, pp. 351-352, 2006 Japanese Laid-Open Patent
Publication 2006-304020
[0004]
As described above, conventional studies on the perceptual characteristics of bone conduction
ultrasound suggest that it is possible to obtain a sense of direction by wearing a bone conduction
ultrasound type hearing aid in the vicinity of both ears. However, when the inventors conducted
a test using the device disclosed in Patent Document 1, the perceptual characteristics are
different from those of air conduction sound, and the position of the perceived sound image and
the actual sound source position It became clear that there was a divergence between the
[0005]
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2
That is, when a modulation signal of external sound is presented by the external sound
perception apparatus disclosed in Patent Document 1, the inter-aural level difference, which is
one of the clues of direction localization, is compressed and reduced by performing modulation.
As a result, the sound image perceived by this device may shift to the median plane side from the
actual sound source direction.
[0006]
Also, the discrimination threshold of interaural time difference of amplitude-modulated bone
conduction ultrasound with an external sound is much larger than the discrimination threshold
of interaural time difference of the external sound itself, and this is the reason There is also a
possibility that a sound image may be perceived on the median plane side from the sound source
direction of.
[0007]
Then, an object of this invention is to provide the external sound perception apparatus which can
perceive the direction of a sound source correctly.
[0008]
The object of the present invention is to individually modulate vibration signals by modulating
ultrasonic carrier signals based on a plurality of directional microphones to which external sound
is input, and sound signals input to the directional microphones. An external sound perception
apparatus comprising: vibration signal generation means for generating; and a plurality of
transducers for transmitting ultrasonic vibration to a living body based on each of the vibration
signals, wherein the vibration signal generation means comprises a plurality of the directivity
Parameter calculation means for calculating a level difference and / or time difference of the
sound signal between microphones to obtain a space characteristic parameter; and an output
correction means for correcting at least one of the vibration signals based on the space
characteristic parameter. This is achieved by the provided external sound perception device.
[0009]
In this external sound perception apparatus, the output correction means may have a transfer
characteristic parameter corresponding to a level difference and / or a time difference of the
vibration signal among the plurality of vibrators, a value obtained by multiplying the space
characteristic parameter by a correction coefficient So that the vibration signal can be corrected.
[0010]
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3
When the space characteristic parameter includes both the level difference and the time
difference of the sound signal, the output correction means may have a transfer characteristic
parameter corresponding to the level difference of the vibration signal between the plurality of
vibrators. The vibration signal is corrected so as to be calculated by adding a value obtained by
multiplying the time difference of the sound signal by the reciprocal of a predetermined timeintensity exchange ratio to a value obtained by multiplying the level difference of the sound
signal by a correction coefficient. be able to.
[0011]
In the external sound perception apparatus, the parameter adjustment means capable of
adjusting the transfer characteristic parameter by the user in a state where the vibration signal is
output from the plurality of vibrators, and the external where the spatial characteristic parameter
is known It is preferable to further include correction coefficient setting means for setting the
correction coefficient based on the transfer characteristic parameter determined by the user
operating the adjusting means so as to match the sense of direction of the sound.
[0012]
According to the external sound perception apparatus of the present invention, the direction of
the sound source can be accurately perceived.
[0013]
Hereinafter, the actual mode of the present invention will be described with reference to the
attached drawings.
FIG. 1 is a schematic block diagram of an external sound perception apparatus according to an
embodiment of the present invention, and FIG. 2 is a block diagram thereof.
As shown in FIGS. 1 and 2, the external sound perception apparatus generates a vibration signal
based on a plurality of directional microphones 10, 10 to which an external sound is input, and
an input sound signal. 20, and a plurality of vibration transmission units 30, 30 for transmitting
mechanical vibration based on the vibration signal.
In FIG. 1, only one directional microphone 10 and the vibration transfer unit 30 are shown.
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4
[0014]
The directional microphones 10, 10 are respectively provided at both ends of the elastically
deformable hair band type mounting member 2, and each of the directional microphones 10, 10
is mounted in the head of the user as shown in FIG. It is arranged so that the main axis is directed
outwards in the vicinity of the ear.
Further, the vibration transmitting portions 30, 30 are supported by the supporting portions 4
respectively branched from the both end portions of the mounting member 2, and arranged in
the vicinity of the left and right milk like projections.
The external sound input to each of the directional microphones 10 and 10 is input to the
vibration signal generation unit 20 after amplification processing is performed.
[0015]
The vibration signal generation unit 20 includes a parameter calculation unit 21 for acquiring a
space characteristic parameter of the input sound signal between the plurality of directional
microphones 10 and 10, and carrier signal generation units 22 and 22 for generating a carrier
signal. Carrier signal modulators 23 and 23 that generate a vibration signal by modulating a
carrier signal based on sound signals input from the directional microphones 10 and 10, and
vibration signals generated by the carrier signal modulators 23 and 23 And an output correction
unit 24 that corrects the vibration of each of the directional microphones 10 and 10 individually
to generate vibration signals and output the vibration signals to the vibration transmission units
30 and 30, respectively.
The frequency of the carrier signal is preferably 20 to 100 kHz, more preferably 20 to 50 kHz,
which is an ultrasonic region, so that even a high-grade deaf person can obtain a good sound
sensing state.
In addition, although the modulation method is amplitude modulation in the present
embodiment, it may be frequency modulation or phase modulation.
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5
[0016]
The space characteristic parameter acquired by the parameter calculation unit 21 is a parameter
related to the space information of the sound source obtained from the signal input to each of
the directional microphones 10, 10, and in the present embodiment, between the respective
directional microphones 10, 10. Both the sound pressure level difference and the time difference
in the space are used as space characteristic parameters.
The parameter calculation unit 21 compares the input sound from each of the directional
microphones 10 and 10 to calculate the level difference and time difference of the sound signal
between both ears. For example, when the sound signal input to the two directional microphones
10 and 10 is a voice "KEISATSU" as shown in FIG. 4A, the parameter calculation unit 21
determines the level difference ILD0 of the sound signal. For example, while calculating based on
the sound pressure level difference between channels, time difference ITD0 of sound signals is
calculated based on, for example, the delay time of the maximum peak of the cross correlation
function between channels, and each value (for example, 10 ( Obtain dB), 500 (μs)). These are
input to the output correction unit as spatial characteristic parameters. The cross correlation
function may divide the input signal into a plurality of frequency bands and calculate the
corresponding bands among the channels.
[0017]
The output correction unit 24 corrects the vibration signal generated by the carrier signal
modulation units 23 and 23 based on the space characteristic parameter. The sound pressure
level difference of the sound signal input to each of the directional microphones 10 and 10 is
amplitude-modulated by the carrier signal modulation units 23 and 23 so that the level
difference is compressed as shown in FIG. 4B. Become smaller. Also, the discrimination threshold
for the interaural time difference of the amplitude envelope after amplitude modulation of the
input sound signal is higher than the discrimination threshold for the time difference of the
original sound signal, and the direction of the perceived sound source Also shift to the median
plane side. Therefore, the output correction unit 24 calculates the level difference ILD1 and time
difference ITD1 of the vibration signal, which are transfer characteristic parameters, using the
level difference ILD0 and time difference ITD0 of the sound signal, which are space characteristic
parameters. The vibration signal is corrected so as to occur between the vibration signals. The
transfer characteristic parameter is a parameter for transmitting information corresponding to
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6
the spatial information of the sound source to the vibration transfer units 30, 30, and is
calculated by multiplying the spatial characteristic parameter by the correction coefficient as
follows.
[0018]
First, in the output correction unit 24, the level difference ILD1 of the vibration signal output to
each of the vibration transfer units 30, 30 is a value obtained by multiplying the level difference
ILD0 of the sound signal by the correction coefficient a set in advance. , Correct the sound
pressure level of one vibration signal. That is, as shown in FIG. 4C, the level difference ILD1 of
the vibration signal after being corrected by the output correction unit 24 becomes proportional
to the level difference ILD0 of the sound signal, and the following equation 1 is established.
[Expression 1] ILD1 = a × ILD0 Also, the output correction unit 24 sets the time difference ITD1
of the vibration signal output to each of the vibration transfer units 30, 30 to the time difference
ITD0 of the external sound with the correction coefficient b set in advance. The output timing of
one of the vibration signals is corrected by the delay circuit so as to obtain the multiplied value.
That is, as shown in FIG. 4C, the time difference ITD1 of the vibration signal after being corrected
by the output correction unit 24 becomes proportional to the time difference ITD0 of the
external sound, and the following equation 2 is established. ITD1 = b × ITD0 The delay circuit
for generating the time difference ITD1 of the vibration signal is provided such that the vibration
signal after amplitude modulation by the carrier signal modulation unit 23 passes as in this
embodiment. Alternatively, a sound signal before being input to the carrier signal modulation
unit 23 may be provided to pass through. Further, the correction of the vibration signal not only
targets the vibration signal of one of the vibration transmission units 30 as in the present
embodiment, but also targets both of the vibration signals output from the respective vibration
transmission units 30 and 30. It is also possible.
[0019]
The correction coefficients a and b are preferably set in advance as standard values and stored in
a memory unit (not shown). The correction coefficient a corresponding to the level difference is
preferably set in the range of 0.5 to 10, and the correction coefficient b corresponding to the
time difference is preferably set in the range of 10 to 100. The correction coefficient b is
preferably set so that the calculated time difference ITD1 of the vibration signal is in the range of
0 to 10 ms.
10-05-2019
7
[0020]
Further, the vibration signal generation unit 20 sets the correction coefficients a and b based on
the adjustment result of the transmission characteristic parameter, and the parameter adjustment
unit 25 that allows the user to adjust the transmission characteristic parameter in the state
where the vibration signal is output. A coefficient setting unit 26 is provided, and the correction
coefficients a and b set in advance can be optimized according to the user. As shown in FIG. 1,
the parameter adjustment unit 25 includes a level difference inspection button 25a, a time
difference inspection button 25b, a volume switch 25c for adjusting the transfer characteristic
parameter, and a determination button 25d for determining the transfer characteristic
parameter. These are provided in a casing that accommodates the vibration signal generation
unit 20. The specific setting method of the correction coefficients a and b will be described later.
[0021]
The vibration transfer units 30, 30 each include a vibrator for transmitting a vibration signal to
the outside as mechanical vibration, and each vibrator is associated with each of the plurality of
directional microphones 10, 10, and any one of the directivity is The external sound input to the
sexual microphone 10 is transmitted from the corresponding vibrator.
[0022]
As shown in FIG. 3, each vibration transmitting unit 30 includes a cylindrical case 32 in which
the vibrator 31 is accommodated, and is configured by attaching a suction disk 34 to the opening
edge of the case 32.
[0023]
The vibrator 31 is supported swingably around two axes orthogonal to each other by a gimbal
mechanism.
That is, the vibrator 31 is fixed to the first frame 40 so as to expose the vibration surface, and the
first frame 40 is fixed to the second frame 44 through the first support shaft 42. It is swingably
supported.
The second frame 44 is swingably supported inside the case 32 via a second support shaft 46
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8
orthogonal to the first support shaft 42. The vibrating surface of the vibrator 31 slightly
protrudes from the opening of the case 32, and when the suction disk 34 is adsorbed to a
predetermined attachment site, the vibrating surface of the vibrator 31 is configured to contact
and press the adsorption surface. It is done. A communication hole 32a is formed at the center of
the bottom of each case 32 (the upper part in the drawing), and a spherical bag-like body 48 is
connected to the communication hole 32a. The bag-like body 48 is made of an elastic material
such as a rubber material, and is configured to be elastically deformable by pressing. The internal
space of the bag-like body 48 is in communication with the inside of the case 32 through the
communication hole 32a.
[0024]
Next, the operation of the external sound perception apparatus will be described. First, the user
mounts the mounting member 2 on the head, and mounts the plurality of vibration transmitting
units 30, 30 on predetermined portions of the human body (e.g., in the vicinity of the left and
right mastoid projections). Each vibrator 31 can be reliably brought into contact with the human
body by the gimbal mechanism by pressing the suction cup 34 against a predetermined portion
in a state where the bag-like body 48 is picked by hand. After that, when the hand which has
been picked up is released, the inside of the case 32 becomes a negative pressure by the shape
restoring force of the bag-like body 48 and the adsorption force is obtained, so that the
attachment of the vibrator 31 can be ensured.
[0025]
Thereafter, when the switch of the external sound perception apparatus is turned on and an
external sound is input to the directional microphones 10, 10, a sound signal is input from the
directional microphones 10, 10 to the vibration signal generation unit 20. The directional
microphones 10 and 10 have different input sensitivities to the same sound source because the
principal axes of the directivity are different from each other.
[0026]
In the vibration signal generation unit 20, the carrier signal generation units 22, 22 generate a
carrier signal having a predetermined amplitude and frequency, and the carrier signal
modulation units 23, 23 modulate the carrier signal based on the sound signal. Thus, the
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9
vibration signal corresponding to the input sound to each directional microphone 10, 10 is
generated. When the sound signals input from the directional microphones 10 and 10 to the
carrier signal modulation units 23 and 23 pass through the parameter calculation unit 21, the
level difference ILD0 of the sound signals and the time difference ITD0 are acquired as space
characteristic parameters. . The space characteristic parameter is input to the output correction
unit 24 described later.
[0027]
The vibration signal generated by the carrier signal modulation units 23 and 23 is corrected by
the output correction unit 24 according to the transfer characteristic parameter calculated based
on the space characteristic parameter and the correction coefficients a and b as described above,
and each vibration transfer unit Output from 30, 30 respectively.
[0028]
The vibration transmitting units 30, 30 vibrate the vibrators 31, 31 based on the input vibration
signal.
As a result, based on the external sound input to each of the directional microphones 10,
ultrasonic vibration is transmitted to the human body from the corresponding vibration
transmitting unit 30, 30, respectively. The carrier signal modulators 23 and 23 control so as not
to output a vibration signal during a period in which no sound signal is input.
[0029]
According to the external sound perception apparatus of the present embodiment, the parameter
calculation unit 21 acquires the space characteristic parameter having the spatial information of
the sound source from the external sound input to each of the directional microphones 10 and
10, and the output correction unit 24 Since the vibration signal after modulation is corrected
based on the space characteristic parameter, there is no possibility that the spatial information of
the sound source is lost due to the modulation, and the sense of direction of the sound is assured
via each of the vibration transmission parts 30 and 30 Can be transmitted to Furthermore, along
with such effects, effects such as improvement of speech clearness and speech discrimination
ability, improvement of sound quality, prevention of delayed deafness (reduction of speech
discrimination ability of non-wearing ear), improvement of tinnitus etc. Can also be expected.
10-05-2019
10
[0030]
Also, by setting the correction coefficients a and b to appropriate values in advance, a sense of
direction similar to the sense of direction of external sound can be obtained by bone conduction
sound, and the direction of the sound source can be more accurately perceived. Is possible. Since
the correction coefficients a and b are considered to vary depending on the user depending on
the user, in the present embodiment, the correction coefficients a and b can be set as follows
according to the user's perceptual characteristics. .
[0031]
First, the user is presented with a predetermined audible band sound (voice, band noise, etc.)
with a predetermined sound pressure level difference (eg, ± 5, ± 10, ± 15 dB, etc.), and the
audible band sound is the same. The sound pressure level difference is input between the
directional microphones 10 and 10. Then, when the user presses the level difference inspection
button 25a, the vibration signal modulated by the audible band sound is transmitted from each
of the vibration transfer units 30, 30. This vibration signal may be presented at the same time as
the audible band sound or may be presented alternately with the audible band sound. Then,
when the user operates the volume switch 25c to adjust the sound pressure level difference in
the vibration signal and presses the determination button 25d when the user feels equivalent to
the level difference in the audible band sound, the vibration at this time The level difference of
the signal is input to the correction coefficient setting unit 26. Since the level difference of the
input sound is known, the correction coefficient setting unit 26 sets the correction coefficient a
based on the equation 1 and stores the correction coefficient a in the memory (not shown) of the
output correction unit 24.
[0032]
The setting of the correction coefficient b related to the time difference can be similarly
performed, and the user is presented with a predetermined audible band sound with a
predetermined time difference (for example, ± 100, ± 200, ± 300 μs, etc.) Band sounds are
input between the directional microphones 10 with the same time difference. Then, when the
user presses the time difference inspection button 25b, the vibration signal modulated by the
audible band sound is transmitted from each of the vibration transfer units 30, 30. Then, when
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11
the user operates the volume switch 25c to adjust the time difference in the vibration signal and
presses the decision button 25d when the user feels equivalent to the time difference of the
audible band sound, the time difference of the vibration signal at this time becomes It is input to
the correction coefficient setting unit 26. Since the time difference of the input sound is known,
the correction coefficient setting unit 26 sets the correction coefficient b based on Equation 2
and stores the correction coefficient b in the memory (not shown) of the output correction unit
24.
[0033]
As described above, the correction coefficient setting unit 26 corrects the correction coefficient
based on the transfer characteristic parameter determined by the user operating the parameter
adjustment unit 25 so as to match the sense of direction of the external sound whose spatial
characteristic parameter is known. By setting a and b to be set, it is possible to prevent the
decrease in the accuracy of the sense of sound image direction caused by the difference in the
perceptual characteristics for each user and the variation in the attachment position of the
vibration transfer units 30.
[0034]
The method of determining the correction coefficients a and b is not limited to the above method.
For example, the direction of arrival of sound is at an angle (for example, 30 °, 60 °, 90 ° left
and right with the front as 0 °). A space characteristic parameter that generally feels like a
certain one is measured in advance and stored in the memory, and the user operates the
parameter adjustment unit 25 so that the user feels a sense of direction at the same angle, May
be determined.
Also in this case, since the spatial characteristic parameter corresponding to the determined
transfer characteristic parameter is known, the correction coefficients a and b can be determined,
which is particularly suitable for a user who is difficult to hear an audible band sound.
[0035]
As mentioned above, although one embodiment of the present invention was explained in full
detail, the concrete mode of the present invention is not limited to the above-mentioned
embodiment. For example, in the present embodiment, both the level difference and the time
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12
difference of the sound signal are calculated as the space characteristic parameter, and the level
difference and the time difference of the vibration signal obtained by multiplying each by the
correction coefficient are used as the transfer characteristic parameter. According to their
research, it has become clear that, for amplitude-modulated signals, it is possible to compensate
for the displacement of the in-head sound image due to the interaural time difference with the
interaural level difference. Therefore, by utilizing such time-intensity exchange action, the
transfer characteristic parameter of only the level difference of the vibration signal is acquired
from the space characteristic parameter consisting of the level difference of the sound signal and
the time difference to correct the vibration signal. It is also possible.
[0036]
That is, both the level difference ILD0 and the time difference ITD0 are calculated from the
sound signals of the directional microphones 10, 10 as shown in FIG. 5A, and the vibration signal
after amplitude modulation shown in FIG. 5B is corrected. For this purpose, the level difference
ILD1 of the vibration signal as the transfer characteristic parameter is calculated from the
following equation 3. [Expression 3] ILD1 = a × ILD0 + (1 / c) × ITD0 Here, c is a time-intensity
exchange ratio (μs / dB), which is a preset value. As a result, as shown in FIG. 5C, the vibration
signal after correction is one in which only the level difference ILD1 is adjusted.
[0037]
Thus, by utilizing the time-intensity exchange action, spatial information of the sound source
possessed by the spatial characteristic parameter consisting of both the level difference and the
time difference of the sound signal is reproduced by the transfer characteristic parameter of only
the level difference of the vibration signal. As a result, it is possible to avoid perceptual
unnaturalness that may occur due to excessive time difference of the vibration signals, and to
simplify the configuration without providing a delay circuit for generating time differences of the
vibration signals. can do.
[0038]
Similar to the correction coefficients a and b, the time-intensity exchange ratio c can be
configured so that the user can determine an optimal value by operating the parameter
adjustment unit 25.
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13
For example, in a state where a vibration signal having a predetermined time difference is
presented, the user operates the parameter adjustment unit 25 to adjust the level difference of
the vibration signal, and determines the level difference such that the arrival direction of sound
feels in front. . Alternatively, the user may operate the parameter adjustment unit 25 to adjust
and determine the time difference of the vibration signal while presenting the vibration signal
having a predetermined level difference. In any case, the time-intensity exchange ratio c can be
calculated.
[0039]
Moreover, in this embodiment, although both the level difference and time difference of a sound
signal are acquired as a space characteristic parameter, only any one may be sufficient. Also in
this case, as in the present embodiment, the transfer characteristic parameter can be acquired to
correct the vibration signal, and the direction of the sound source can be accurately perceived.
(A) input signal, (b) vibration signal before correction, and (c) vibration signal after correction
when the spatial characteristic parameter is the level difference of the sound signal and the time
difference of the external sound An example of the time waveform of is shown in FIG. 6 and FIG.
[0040]
The external sound perception apparatus of the present invention is extremely useful in knowing
from which direction external sounds such as voices and environmental sounds are heard, and is
used in various situations such as daily life, disaster sites, construction sites, and car driving can
do.
[0041]
The arrangement of each directional microphone 10, 10 is preferably in the vicinity of both ears
as in this embodiment, but if it is arranged so that the principal axis directions of directivity are
different, the arrangement of this embodiment is not necessarily required. It is not limited to.
For example, the directional microphones may be disposed on the front, rear, left, and right,
respectively, outside the automobile so that external sounds can be distinguished and detected.
This makes it possible to reliably grasp the direction of a sound source such as a siren of an
emergency vehicle that needs to be recognized during driving.
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[0042]
It is a schematic block diagram of the external sound perception apparatus which concerns on
one Embodiment of this invention. It is a block diagram of the said external sound perception
apparatus. It is sectional drawing of the vibration transmission part in the said external sound
perception apparatus. It is a figure which shows an example of a time waveform about the (a)
input signal in the said external sound perception apparatus, the vibration signal before (b)
correction | amendment, and the vibration signal after (c) correction | amendment. It is a figure
which shows the other example of the time waveform shown in FIG. It is a figure which shows
the further another example of the time waveform shown in FIG. It is a figure which shows the
further another example of the time waveform shown in FIG.
Explanation of sign
[0043]
10 directional microphone 20 vibration signal generation unit 21 parameter calculation unit 22
carrier signal generation unit 23 carrier signal modulation unit 24 output correction unit 25
parameter adjustment unit 26 correction coefficient setting unit 30 vibration transmission unit
31 vibrator
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