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JP2009194442

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DESCRIPTION JP2009194442
The present invention provides an electrostatic speaker which can be freely changed in shape
when not in use, and is deformed into a predetermined shape in use. In the electrostatic speaker
1, members are sequentially stacked in the order of a conductive cloth 20L, an elastic member
30L, a vibrator 10, an elastic member 30U, and a conductive cloth 20U, and a thread 40
penetrates the stacked members. The members are sewn together. In addition, shape memory
members 45A to 45D are arranged at the edge portion of the conductive cloth 20U so as to be
deformed into a predetermined shape by heat generation by energization. When a current is
supplied to the shape memory members 45A to 45D, the shape memory members 45A to 45D
are deformed into a linear shape, and the electrostatic speaker 1 is expanded into a rectangular
shape. On the other hand, when no current flows in the shape memory members 45A to 45D, the
shape memory members 45A to 45D become soft and can be freely deformed, and the
electrostatic speaker 1 can be freely deformed, for example, folded or contracted. . [Selected
figure] Figure 3
Electrostatic speaker
[0001]
The present invention relates to an electrostatic speaker.
[0002]
In the field of loudspeakers, there are loudspeakers called electrostatic loudspeakers.
04-05-2019
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This electrostatic speaker is composed of two electrodes facing each other at intervals and a
sheet-like vibrator having conductivity inserted between the two electrodes, and the
predetermined vibration When a bias voltage is applied and the voltage applied to the electrode
is changed, the electrostatic force acting on the vibrating body is changed, and thereby the
vibrating body is displaced. If this applied voltage is changed according to the input acoustic
signal, the vibrator repeats displacement (i.e. vibrates) accordingly, and a reproduction wave
corresponding to the sound signal is generated from the vibrator. In such an electrostatic
speaker, as described in Non-Patent Document 1, a flexible type in which two electrodes and a
vibrator are made of soft materials and can be deformed into various shapes. An electrostatic
speaker and an electrostatic speaker using a soft cloth as an electrode as described in Non-Patent
Document 2 have also been devised.
[0003]
Takeoka Adult, 5 others, "1 bit wavefront recording and reproducing system using condenser
microphone / speaker", Technical report of IEICE. EA, Applied Acoustics, The Institute of
Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers, June 2005, pp. 25-30 <A & V Festa
2006 report: 1 bit audio> Exhibiting a 1 bit delivery system using IEEE 1394, [online], September
21, 2006, Phil-web editorial department, [August 23, 2007 search], Internet,
<http://www.phileweb.com/news/d-av/200609/21/16653.html>
[0004]
By the way, in the flexible electrostatic loudspeakers described in Non-Patent Documents 1 and
2, the peripheral portion is edgeless without being constrained, and the electrodes and the
vibrator can be freely bent because they are not constrained. It can also be folded and stored
when not in use. On the other hand, it is necessary to be unfolded and freely bent, so that it is
necessary to manually unfold it after bending and to be used again, and the shape of the surface
is maintained in use. It is necessary to fix the shape.
[0005]
The present invention has been made under the above-described background, and it is an object
of the present invention to provide an electrostatic speaker which can be freely changed in shape
when not in use, and is deformed into a predetermined shape in use.
04-05-2019
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[0006]
In order to solve the problems described above, according to the present invention, a cloth-like
first electrode having conductivity, and a cloth-like second electrode having conductivity and
spaced apart from the first electrode, A vibrator having conductivity, located between the first
electrode and the second electrode, and located between the vibrator and the first electrode, and
having insulating property, elasticity and acoustic transparency A first elastic member, a second
elastic member located between the vibrator and the second electrode and having insulation
properties, elasticity and acoustic transparency, the first electrode, the first elastic member, A
restraining member for restraining the vibrator, the second elastic member, and the second
electrode so as not to be displaced from each other, and a conductive material that deforms into
a predetermined memory shape by heat generation during energization, and is free when not
energized And a shape memory member that can be deformed, and the shape memory member
generates heat and deforms into a predetermined memory shape The first electrode with the
deformation to come, the first elastic member, the vibrator, the second elastic member, and the
second electrode to provide an electrostatic speaker which is characterized by deformation.
[0007]
In the present invention, when the shape memory member is deformed, it expands, and when the
shape memory member becomes freely deformable, it contracts and contracts the first electrode,
the first elastic member, the vibrator, and the second member. It may further have an elastic
member, and a contraction member that contracts the second electrode.
Further, in the present invention, when the bias current flows through the vibrator, the current
also flows through the shape memory member, and when the bias current does not flow through
the vibrator, the current does not flow through the shape memory member You may
[0008]
According to the present invention, it is possible to deform the electrostatic speaker into a
predetermined shape at the time of use while making it possible to freely change the shape when
not in use.
[0009]
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FIG. 1 is a view schematically showing the appearance of an electrostatic speaker 1 according to
an embodiment of the present invention, and FIG. 2 is a view schematically showing a cross
section and an electrical configuration of the electrostatic speaker 1. FIG. 3 is an exploded
perspective view of the electrostatic speaker 1.
As shown in the figure, this electrostatic speaker 1 is composed of a vibrator 10, conductive
cloths 20U and 20L, elastic members 30U and 30L, a thread 40, shape memory members 45A to
45D, and a conducting wire 46.
In FIGS. 2 and 3, illustration of the yarn 40 is omitted. In the present embodiment, since the
configurations of the elastic members 30U and 30L are the same, the descriptions of "L" and "U"
will be omitted unless there is a need to distinguish between the two. Further, the dimensions of
the respective components such as the vibrator and the conductive cloth in the drawing are
different from the actual dimensions so that the shapes of the components can be easily
understood. Further, in the drawings, those in which “•” is described in “o” means an arrow
directed from the back to the front of the drawing, and those in which “x” is described in “o”
are the front of the drawing. It means the arrow from the back to the back.
[0010]
(Configuration of Each Part of Electrostatic Speaker 1) First, each part of the electrostatic speaker
1 will be described. The vibrating body 10 is, for example, a film made of PET (polyethylene
terephthalate, polyethylene terephthalate), PP (polypropylene, polypropylene) or the like, with a
metal film deposited or coated with a conductive paint, and the thickness thereof is several μm
to The thickness is about several tens of μm.
[0011]
The elastic member 30 is formed by applying heat and compressing the batting, and has
elasticity and air permeability, and its shape is rectangular. The elastic member 30 deforms when
an external force is applied, and returns to its original shape when the external force is removed.
In the present embodiment, the lengths in the X and Y directions of the elastic member 30 are
longer than the lengths in the X and Y directions of the conductive cloth 20L, and the X and Y
directions of the vibrating body 10 It is longer than the length of Further, the heights of the
elastic member 30U and the elastic member 30L in the Z direction are the same. The elastic
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member 30 is a material that deforms when an external force is applied and returns to its
original shape when an external force is removed, and may be a material other than batting as
long as it is breathable. For example, the synthetic resin may be in the form of sponge or nonwoven cloth.
[0012]
The shape memory members 45A to 45D are members obtained by covering the surface of a
linear shape memory alloy having a circular cross section with a synthetic resin having insulation
properties and heat resistance. Between the shape memory member 45A and the shape memory
member 45B, between the shape memory member 45B and the shape memory member 45C, and
between the shape memory member 45C and the shape memory member 45D, the surface is
made of synthetic resin having insulation properties and heat resistance. Are connected by a
coated conductor 46. Here, this shape memory alloy is, for example, a shape memory alloy
disclosed in Japanese Patent Application Laid-Open No. 2002-20848, and stores a linear state.
When current flows, the shape memory members 45A to 45D rise in temperature due to Joule
heat, and are deformed so as to be hard contracted and memorized. On the other hand, when the
flow of the current is stopped, the temperature of the shape memory members 45A to 45D
decreases, and they become soft and can be easily deformed.
[0013]
The conductive cloths 20U and 20L are cloths in which warps having conductivity and wefts
having conductivity are woven. Since the conductive cloths 20U and 20L are plain weaved to
allow passage of air, sound transmission is ensured. In addition, although the shape of the
conductive cloth 20L is rectangular, since the conductive cloth 20U is bent to wrap the shape
memory members 45A to 45D, the conductive cloth 20U is rectangular as shown in FIG. 3 before
assembling. It has a beveled shape at the four corners of. The yarn 40 is a yarn (restraint
member) for sewing the conductive cloths 20U and 20L, the elastic member 30, and the vibrator
10 together, and the material thereof is a material having no conductivity such as cotton.
[0014]
(Method of assembling electrostatic speaker 1) Next, a method of assembling the electrostatic
speaker 1 will be described. When assembling the electrostatic speaker 1, first, the elastic
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member 30L is placed on the conductive cloth 20L such that each side of the elastic member
30L is positioned outside each side of the conductive cloth 20L. Next, the vibrator 10 is placed
on the elastic member 30L. When the vibrating body 10 is placed on the elastic member 30L, the
sides of the vibrating body 10 are placed on the elastic member 30L so as to be positioned inside
the sides of the elastic member 30L.
[0015]
Then, the elastic member 30U is placed on the vibrating body 10 so that the positions of the four
corners of the elastic member 30U and the elastic member 30L overlap while the sides of the
elastic member 30U are positioned outside the sides of the vibrating body 10 Put on. Here, since
the lengths in the X and Y directions of the elastic member 30 are longer than the lengths in the
X and Y directions of the vibrating body 10, each side of the rectangular vibrating body 10
corresponds to the elastic member 30U and the elastic member 30L. And between the elastic
members 30U and 30L.
[0016]
Next, shape memory members 45A to 45D are arranged along each side of conductive cloth 20U,
and the edge of conductive cloth 20U is bent so as to wrap shape memory members 45A to 45D
and conductive wire 46, and then conductive cloth with yarn 40 The edge of 20U is sewed to the
conductive cloth 20U. In the present embodiment, the shape memory members 45A to 45D are
arranged on the conductive cloth 20U by wrapping the shape memory members 45A to 45D
with the edge portion of the conductive cloth 20U. However, the shape memory members 45A to
45D are made of the conductive cloth 20U with an adhesive or adhesive tape. You may make it
adhere | attach and arrange | position.
[0017]
Next, a conductive cloth 20U having shape memory members 45A to 45D and conductors 46 at
the edges is placed on the elastic member 30U. When placing the conductive cloth 20U on the
elastic member 30U, positions of the four corners of the conductive cloth 20U and the
conductive cloth 20L are Z while each side of the conductive cloth 20U is positioned inward of
each side of the elastic member 30U. The conductive cloth 20U is placed on the elastic member
30U so as to overlap in the direction.
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[0018]
Then, after the conductive cloths 20U and 20L, the vibrator 10 and the elastic member 30 have
been stacked, the respective members are sewn together with the thread 40. As shown in FIG. 1,
the members are sewn together and restrained by the thread 40 penetrating each member, so
that the conductive cloths 20U and 20L, the elastic member 30, and the vibrator 10 do not shift
even if deformed. The elastic member 30 having the insulating property is larger in area than the
vibrator 10 and the conductive cloths 20U and 20L, and each side of the elastic member 30 is
outside of each side of the vibrator 10 and the conductive cloths 20U and 20L. Therefore, the
conductive cloths 20U and 20L and the vibrator 10 do not contact and short circuit.
[0019]
(Electrical Configuration of Electrostatic Speaker 1) Next, the electrical configuration of the
electrostatic speaker 1 will be described. As shown in FIG. 2, the electrostatic speaker 1 includes
a transformer 50, an input unit 60 to which an acoustic signal is input from the outside, and a
bias power supply 70 for applying a DC bias to the vibrator 10. The bias power supply 70 is
connected to the vibrating body 10 and the middle point on the output side of the transformer
50, and the two conductive cloths 20U and 20L are connected to one end and the other end of
the output side of the transformer 50, respectively. . Further, the electrostatic speaker 1 includes
a power supply 80 for causing current to flow to the shape memory members 45A to 45D, and a
switch 81. The power source 80 is connected to the shape memory member 45D and one end of
the terminal of the switch 81, and the terminal of the switch 81 not connected to the power
source 80 is connected to the shape memory member 45A.
[0020]
(Operation of Electrostatic Type Speaker 1) In the electrostatic type speaker 1, there is no
conduction between the power source 80 and the shape memory member 45A when the switch
81 is off, and current flows from the power source 80 to the shape memory members 45A to
45D. Not flowing. The shape memory members 45A to 45D are softened and freely deformable
when no current flows, and the vibrator 10, the conductive cloths 20U and 20L and the elastic
member 30 are flexible so that they are folded when not in use. It can be deformed freely, for
example. On the other hand, when the switch 81 is turned on, current flows from the power
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supply 80 to the shape memory members 45A to 45D, and when current flows in the shape
memory members 45A to 45D, the temperature of each shape memory member rises due to
Joule heat. When the temperature rises, the shape memory members 45 </ b> A to 45 </ b> D
contract hard and deform into the memorized linear shape. Here, in the electrostatic speaker 1,
since the shape memory members 45A to 45D are located along the sides of the conductive
cloths 20U and 20L, when the shape memory members 45A to 45D are deformed in a straight
line, the human Even if the shape is not adjusted by hand, each side becomes linear, and the
electrostatic speaker 1 spreads in a rectangular shape.
[0021]
When an acoustic signal is input to the input unit 60 in a state in which the electrostatic speaker
1 is expanded in a rectangular shape, a voltage corresponding to the input acoustic signal is
applied to the conductive cloths 20U and 20L. Then, when a potential difference is generated
between the conductive cloth 20U and the conductive cloth 20L by the applied voltage, an
electrostatic force acts on the vibrating body 10 so as to be drawn to either side of the
conductive cloth 20U or the conductive cloth 20L. That is, the vibrating body 10 is displaced in
the Z direction (deflection) according to the acoustic signal, and the displacement direction is
successively changed to become vibration, and the sound corresponding to the vibration state
(frequency, amplitude, phase) It originates from the vibrating body 10. The generated sound
passes through at least one of the conductive cloths 20U and 20L and is emitted to the outside of
the electrostatic speaker 1.
[0022]
In the present embodiment, the vibrator 10, the conductive cloths 20U and 20L, and the elastic
member 30 constituting the electrostatic speaker 1 are restrained by the thread 40, so the switch
81 is turned off and the electrostatic speaker 1 is Even if deformed, the conductive cloths 20U
and 20L, the elastic member 30, and the vibrator 10 do not shift. In addition, since the vibrating
body 10, the conductive cloths 20U and 20L, and the elastic member 30 are flexible and the
shape memory members 45A to 45D can be softened and freely deformed when no current
flows, the switch 81 is turned off. When the electrostatic speaker 1 is not in use, it can be freely
deformed, and can be small and stored. On the other hand, when the switch 81 is turned on, the
electrostatic memory speaker 1 can be expanded to a predetermined rectangle and used by the
shape memory members 45A to 45D without bothering the human hand.
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[0023]
[Modifications] Although the embodiment of the present invention has been described above, the
present invention is not limited to the above-described embodiment, and can be practiced in
various other forms. For example, the above-described embodiment may be modified as follows
to implement the present invention.
[0024]
In the present invention, the shape memory alloy forming the shape memory members 45A to
45D is other than the shape memory alloy described above as long as the temperature rises and
the shape is memorized by the flow of the current. It may be a shape memory alloy.
[0025]
In the embodiment described above, the shape memory members 45A to 45D are linearly
deformed when heat is generated, but may be curved.
According to this configuration, the electrostatic speaker 1 can be curved at the time of use.
[0026]
In the above-described embodiment, although two power supplies are required for the bias
power supply 70 and the power supply 80, the bias power supply 70 divides voltage so that
current flows to the shape memory members 45A to 45D to make one power supply. You may In
this configuration, if the current flows from the bias power supply 70 by the switch only when
the electrostatic speaker 1 is used, the electrostatic speaker 1 can be expanded simply by turning
on the electrostatic speaker 1. Further, in the state where the bias power supply 70 is not turned
on and the electrostatic speaker 1 can not generate sound, no current flows in the shape memory
members 45A to 45D, so the electrostatic speaker 1 is extended uselessly when not generating
sound. Power consumption can be reduced without
[0027]
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Further, in the present invention, the shapes of the conductive cloths 20U and 20L, the elastic
member 30, and the vibrating body 10 are not limited to rectangles, and may be other shapes
such as polygons, circles, and ovals. Further, in the present invention, in order to prevent an
electric shock or a short circuit, the whole of the electrostatic speaker 1 may be covered with a
non-conductive and sound-permeable cloth.
[0028]
In the embodiment described above, each member is sewn together with the thread 40, but the
edge portion of each member is restrained with a tape (restraint member) covering the edge
portion of each member from the conductive cloth 20U to the conductive cloth 20L. The
respective members may not shift when the mold speaker 1 is deformed.
[0029]
The conductive cloths 20U and 20L according to the present invention may be yarns in which
only one of the warp yarns and weft yarns has conductivity.
Further, in the warps and wefts of the conductive cloths 20U and 20L, it is possible to weave
conductive yarns every few yarns, instead of using all the conductive yarns. In the present
invention, the conductive cloths 20U and 20L may be formed by plain-weaving a non-conductive
yarn and plating a conductive metal on the plain-woven cloth. In the present invention, the
conductive cloths 20U and 20L may be formed by weaving threads plated with a conductive
metal. Furthermore, in the present invention, the conductive cloths 20U and 20L may be formed
by weaving a cored wire with a tin-plated copper foil wound around it. The conductive cloths
20U and 20L according to the present invention may be non-woven fabrics as long as they have
conductivity. Alternatively, the shape memory alloy described above may be formed into a thread
and woven into the conductive cloths 20U and 20L, and current may be supplied to the thread
shape memory alloy to be deformed linearly.
[0030]
In the embodiment described above, the shape memory members 45A to 45D are located along
the sides of the conductive cloth 20U, but only the shape memory members 45B and 45D along
the X direction are arranged at the edge portion of the conductive cloth 20U. Alternatively, only
04-05-2019
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shape memory members 45A and 45C along the Y direction may be arranged at the edge portion
of conductive cloth 20U. In the embodiment described above, the shape memory members 45A
to 45D are located along the sides of the conductive cloth 20U, but the shape memory members
may be located along the diagonals of the conductive cloth 20U. . Further, a plurality of shape
memory members may be positioned between conductive cloth 20U and elastic member 30U in
parallel with shape memory members 45B, 45D, and a plurality of shape memory members in
parallel with shape memory members 45A, 45C. The member may be located between the
conductive cloth 20U and the elastic member 30U. Further, the shape memory members 45A to
45D are disposed not only at the edge portion of the conductive cloth 20U but also at the edge
portion of the conductive cloth 20L so that the electrostatic speaker 1 can be spread using both
sides of the electrostatic speaker 1. May be Further, the shape memory members 45A to 45D
may be arranged not on the conductive cloths 20U and 20L but on both the elastic members 30U
and 30L or the elastic members 30U and 30L.
[0031]
Further, the end portions of the shape memory members 45E and 45F which are formed of the
same material as the shape memory members 45A to 45D and longer than the length of the
diagonal when not energized are fixed to the diagonal apex portions of the conductive cloth 20L.
When using the type | mold speaker 1, you may make it supply with electricity to shape-memory
member 45E, 45F. In this configuration, the midpoint of the shape memory member 45E may be
fixed to the midpoint of the shape memory member 45F. In this configuration, when the shape
memory members 45E, 45F are energized, the temperature of the shape memory members 45E,
45F rises. When the temperature rises, the shape memory members 45E and 45F are deformed
into the memorized linear shape, and the apex portion of the electrostatic speaker 1 is spread in
the diagonal direction.
[0032]
In the shape memory members 45E and 45F, the end is fixed to the surface of the conductive
cloth 20U opposite to the surface in contact with the elastic member 30U, and the length when
deformed into a linear shape is longer than the length of the diagonal It may be In this
configuration, the shape memory members 45E and 45F try to deform linearly when energized,
but as shown in FIG. 4, the end is fixed to the apex of the electrostatic speaker 1A and the
diagonal Since it is longer than the length, the shape memory members 45E and 45F do not
become linear but warp. Here, the shape memory members 45E and 45F can be used by
expanding the apex portion of the electrostatic speaker 1A in the diagonal direction by the force
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to become linear and expanding it into a predetermined rectangle.
[0033]
In the embodiment described above, while the shape memory members 45A and 45C are
positioned along two sides along the Y direction, the metal coil spring 47 (contraction member)
in a contracted state is made to be along the Y direction. The end portions of the coil spring 47
may be fixed to both end portions of the electrostatic speaker 1 in the Y direction. In the
electrostatic speaker 1B of this configuration, in a state where current flows in the shape
memory members 45A, 45C, the shape memory members 45A, 45C resist the contraction force
of the coil spring 47 and straight as shown in FIG. It is deformed into a shape and spread in the Y
direction. On the other hand, when current does not flow to the shape memory members 45A
and 45C from this state, the shape memory members 45A and 45C become soft and can be freely
deformed. When the shape memory members 45A and 45C become soft and deformable, the coil
spring 47 that was expanding when the current was flowing to the shape memory members 45A
and 45C is contracted, and the force of the coil spring 47 makes the electrostatic type The
speaker 1 is contracted in the Y direction.
[0034]
Further, as shown in FIG. 6, while fixing one end of the shape memory member 48 to the floor
surface, the other end of the shape memory member 48 is fixed to one side of the electrostatic
speaker 1C, One side opposite to the side to which the shape memory member 48 is fixed in 1 C
may be fixed to the ceiling. In the present modification, the electrostatic speaker 1C includes the
coil spring 47 as the electrostatic speaker 1B does, but does not include the shape memory
members 45A to 45D. The shape memory member 48 is, for example, a coil-shaped member
formed of a shape memory alloy disclosed in JP-A-2002-20848. In this configuration, when
current flows in the shape memory member 48, the temperature of the shape memory member
48 rises, and the shape memory member 48 contracts to the stored length against the
contraction force of the coil spring 47. When the shape memory member 48 contracts, as shown
in FIG. 6, the electrostatic speaker 1C is expanded from the ceiling to the floor direction, and
becomes flat to enable sound generation. On the other hand, when the current does not flow to
the shape memory member 48, the temperature of the shape memory member 48 is lowered to
be softened. Here, the coil spring 47 which has been expanded when the current flows in the
shape memory member 48 is contracted, and the shape memory member 48 is expanded
regardless of the human hand, and the electrostatic speaker 1C is contracted.
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[0035]
In the above-described configuration, the electrostatic speaker is contracted by the coil spring 47
when the electrostatic speaker 1 is not used, but the elastic member such as a rubber band, for
example, which is elastic and stretches / contracts is replaced by the coil spring 47 You may
[0036]
FIG. 1 is a schematic view of an electrostatic loudspeaker 1 according to an embodiment of the
present invention.
FIG. 2 is a cross-sectional view of the electrostatic speaker 1; FIG. 2 is an exploded perspective
view of the electrostatic speaker 1; It is a schematic diagram of electrostatic-type speaker 1A
which concerns on the modification of this invention. It is a schematic diagram of electrostatictype speaker 1B which concerns on the modification of this invention. It is the figure which
showed the side of the electrostatic-type speaker 1C which concerns on the modification of this
invention, and the example of arrangement | positioning.
Explanation of sign
[0037]
1, 1A to 1C: electrostatic speaker, 10: vibrator, 20U, 20L: conductive cloth (first electrode, second
electrode), 30U, 30L: elastic member (first elastic Member, second elastic member), 40: thread
(restraint member), 45A to 45F: shape memory member, 46: conductive wire, 47: coil spring, 48:
shape memory member, 50 · · Transformer, 60 · · · input section, 70 · · · bias power, 80 · · power
supply, 81 · · · switch.
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