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JP2013066039

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DESCRIPTION JP2013066039
Abstract: The present invention provides an artificial earshell which can stably and accurately
measure the characteristics of insertion type earphones and canal type earphones and has
excellent reproducibility of the measurement results. SOLUTION: The hardness and structure of
the ear canal 2 of the artificial earshell 1 are simulated with human ear shell structure, and the
vicinity of the entrance 4 of the ear canal is composed of a soft material and an ear canal of a
hard material from the middle. As a result, even if the insertion pressure of the soft canal type or
insertion type earphone of the earpiece is different, it does not go beyond a certain depth, and it
is possible to improve the reproducibility of the measurement result stably with high accuracy.
Further, by tapering the joint surfaces of the ear canal pipes 5 and 6 with respect to the axis, the
pipe is deformed inwards and outwards by the insertion pressure, and the depth due to the
insertion of the earphone can be easily controlled. Furthermore, by forming a fitting such as a
waveform or the like on the outer peripheral surface of at least one ear canal pipe and the auricle
joint surface and forming the surface treatment portion 7, the air tightness at the time of artificial
ear shell detachment is improved and the mechanical stability is improved. Increase. [Selected
figure] Figure 1
Artificial ear shell
[0001]
The present invention relates to an artificial earshell mounted on a dummy head microphone,
capable of stably and accurately measuring characteristics of an insertion type earphone or a
canal type earphone, and having excellent reproducibility of measurement results.
[0002]
10-05-2019
1
Conventional dummy head microphones have been developed in the middle to the second half of
the 20th century, and at that time there were hardly any soft-insertion earphones and canal-type
earphones that are widely used in recent years. There was no need or requirement for precise
sound measurement.
As a result, the ear canal structure of the artificial auricle to be mounted on the dummy head
microphone and the material of the ear canal are not particularly specified in the international
standard, and a simple hole is formed in the auricle to make an ear canal There were things such
as the one that made up the entire ear canal with metal pipes. In recent years, with the
development of portable audio devices, small earphones have come to be widely used. Among
them, soft-earpiece insertion type earphones and canal type earphones are used in particular
because of the advantage that sound is less likely to leak and the sound quality is excellent. As a
result, from the viewpoint of quality improvement in manufacturing and in terms of quality
control, there has been a demand for a measuring device which can be stably and accurately
measured in a short time and which has good reproducibility of measurement results.
[0003]
On the other hand, due to the problem of preventing hearing loss due to long-term hearing of the
earphones, regulation of the sound pressure reproduced from the headphones / earphones is
performed, and from this viewpoint as well, stable and accurate measurement can be performed,
and reproduction of measurement results A good measuring device has been sought.
Furthermore, the soft-insertion type earphones and canal type earphones of this earpiece are
widely used for noise cancellation earphones, hearing aids, etc. by taking advantage of their
excellent characteristics, and their characteristics can be measured stably and accurately. There
has been a demand for a measurement device with good reproducibility of the results. Although
measurement of characteristics of these earphones and earphone devices is required to be
performed using a dummy head microphone in consideration of actual use conditions,
measurement becomes unstable when measurement is performed using a conventional dummy
head microphone. Inaccurate, and the reproducibility of the measurement results was not good.
Investigating the cause, instabilities and inaccuracies that affect the measurement results of
insert-type earphones and canal-type earphones, and the lack of reproducibility of the
measurement results depend on the structure of the ear canal in particular, and the conventional
artificial ear It has been found that there is a problem with the shell structure. That is, there is a
problem that the measurement is performed using an artificial earshell having a structure which
is largely different from that of the human earshell, as an earphone used by inserting it into the
10-05-2019
2
human earshell.
[0004]
In the following, the conventional ear canal structure of the artificial ear canal, the material
constituting the ear canal, and the surface treatment will be described with reference to FIGS. 2,
3, 4, 5, 6, 7. FIG. In the figure, the auricle main body 1 is generally made of an elastomer such as
rubber, and it is general to make a hole to make an ear canal 2 when molding the auricle. Here,
the ear canal 2 starts from the ear canal entrance point 4 (EEP: Ear canal Entrance Point) located
at the bottom of the auricle oral cavity 3 which is a hollow extending near the entrance of the ear
canal, and ends in a prescribed length. Since the ear canal 2 needs to be airtightly coupled to the
microphone device 10 used by attaching to this end portion, as shown in FIG. 3, the ear canal 2 is
formed of a hard pipe 5 such as metal, As a whole, it was also common to use a structure that
can be detached from the auricle. And there was also a thing in which the surface treatment part
7 to which fitting of a waveform etc. and the degree of adhesion become high was formed in the
fitting part of the auricle and a removable ear canal.
[0005]
Also, most of the earpieces at the tip of the insertion type earphone 8 conventionally used are
hard and large, as shown in FIG. 4 and FIG. There were few things that were used in contact with
and pressed into the ear canal 2. Therefore, little consideration has been given to the structure
and material of the ear canal 2. However, in the case of soft insertion type earphones and canal
type earphones 9 which are widely used in recent years, the housing is also small, and the
insertion of these earphones into the ear canal 2 causes the earpieces of the ends of the
earphones to contract. In the case of being made of a soft material, as shown in FIG. 6, the ear
canal entrance is held by the mutual force which is expanded in the opposite direction. This is the
same as in the case of the actual ear, but there is a disadvantage that the earphone can be
inserted anywhere due to the change in the insertion force. Also, when the artificial ear shell is
made of a hard material and the ear canal is rigid or made of a hard pipe such as metal, the ear
canal does not expand, and only the earpiece of the earphone tip contracts as shown in FIG. Hold
by force. Here, if the outer diameter of the earpiece is small, it will go into the inside as much as
possible, and in addition to holding instability, it is difficult to measure in the original position,
stability and accuracy of measurement, and reproducibility of measurement results An excellent
artificial earshell has never been provided.
10-05-2019
3
[0006]
Patent Application No. 10-548946
[0007]
IEC60959(IEC60381−7) ITUT−P57
[0008]
In the case where the conventional artificial ear canal as described above has a structure in
which only a hole is made in the material constituting the auricle, the hardness of the auricle
material may cause a problem.
That is, if the auricle is made of a soft material, it will stay near the entrance of the ear canal by
adding or removing the force to insert the measured earphone, or it may enter deeply into the
earpiece, and the earpiece of the end of the earphone and the ear The fit with the road changed
and became unstable, and accurate measurement could not be performed, and not only the
reproducibility of the measurement result was poor, but also measurement with the original ear
canal length could not be performed.
On the other hand, if the ear canal is made of a hard material and the ear canal opened there is
hard or if the ear canal is made of a hard pipe like metal, the shape of the ear canal will be the
same even if the earphone is inserted It does not deform, and it becomes compressive
deformation of only the earpiece of the tip of the measured earphone. As a result, depending on
the size of the earpiece, it may not be inserted in the ear canal, or it may go deep into the ear,
and the measurement conditions are different from those in the case where it is inserted in the
human ear. It was unstable and inaccurate, and the reproducibility of the measurement results
was poor, and further, measurement with the original ear canal length could not be performed.
[0009]
Here, considering the human ear canal structure as shown in FIG. 8, the cartilage 11 and the
skull 12 are disposed around the ear canal, and as a result of the ear canal being reinforced at
the outer periphery, the stiffness in the insertion direction of the ear canal As a result, they play a
role as a kind of stopper, and stable holding and positioning of the earphone are performed.
10-05-2019
4
Therefore, the artificial earshells that can be used for measuring the soft insertion type earpieces
and the canal type earphones 9 that are often used in recent years are mechanical operations
when the state when the earphones are inserted is inserted into the human ear canal The
structure which can simulate is preferable. Therefore, the present invention is intended to solve
the problems which such a conventional configuration had, and by inserting the ear canal
structure into the human ear by making it similar to the human earhole, The fitting between the
earpiece at the tip of the earphone and the ear canal is stabilized, and the reproducibility of the
measurement result is improved more accurately, and the stable measurement in the original ear
canal length is realized.
[0010]
In order to solve the above-mentioned subject, the following means are considered. That is, in an
artificial ear shell having an ear canal in the ear shell, an ear canal portion having a diameter of
1.5 mm to 7 mm inward from the ear canal entrance point 4 (EEP) has a Shore “A” hardness of
30 ° or less or An artificial earshell made of a soft material having a hardness of "00" or less at
40 ° and a subsequent ear canal made of a material having a hardness larger than the above
hardness. The ear canal entrance point (EEP: Ear canal Entrance Point) is defined and defined in
Non-Patent Document 2. -In an artificial earshell having an ear canal, the ear canal portion
constituting the above-mentioned ear canal is constituted by a pipe, and the ear canal pipes
having different hardness, length, internal passage, external passage or thickness are connected
Artificial earshells.
[0011]
-In an artificial earshell having an ear canal in the earshell, a population wherein at least one of
the ear canal pipes constituting the above-mentioned ear canal is made of a material constituting
the ear canal and which constitutes a part of the ear canal pipe Ear shell ・ In an artificial ear
shell having an ear canal in the ear shell, the joint surface of the ear canal unit made of the soft
material constituting the above-mentioned ear canal and the ear canal unit made of the hard
material that follows from that An artificial earlobe having an ear canal tapered on an ear canal
entrance side or an inner side of the ear canal with respect to the axis of the ear canal. -In an
artificial earshell having an ear canal in the earshell, a fitting portion such as a wave is formed on
the outer peripheral surface of the at least one ear canal pipe and the earshell joint surface, and
air tightness and machinery at the time of artificial earshell detachment Earlobe designed to
improve physical stability.
10-05-2019
5
[0012]
As a first means for solving the above problems, an artificial earshell having an ear canal in the
earshell focuses on the human earshell structure and has a soft material with a hardness
different from that of the earshell material. The passage part 5 is arranged in the internal
direction from the ear canal entrance point 4 with a length of 1.5 mm or more and 7 mm or less,
and the subsequent ear canal is an ear canal part made of a hard material having the hardness or
more It is a thing. That is, considering the structure of the human ear, although the vicinity of the
entrance is soft, the bones such as the cartilage 11 and the skull 12 are arranged to surround the
ear canal as it goes to the base of the ear canal. This is because the stiffness of the ear canal
increases and functions as a kind of stopper to prevent the earphones from entering the heel.
Here, an elastomer such as urethane, silicone, natural rubber, synthetic rubber or the like is
generally used as a material constituting the auricle, and its hardness is Shore "A" hardness of 30
° or less or Shore "00" hardness. A soft material of 40 ° or less is close to the softness of
human ear shells. In this case, even if the material is the same, the hardness changes largely due
to the additive when curing it, so even if the material of the auricle and the material of the ear
canal part are the same, when the hardness is different Consider different materials. Therefore, in
the case where the auricle 1 is a hard material, a soft material or a soft material which is the
same material as the auricle is arranged from the ear canal entrance point 4 to realize a softness
close to the human canal entrance. Then, the subsequent ear canal is hardened and the
earphones enter and control the chopsticks.
[0013]
The second problem solving means is an artificial earshell having an ear canal in an earshell,
wherein each ear canal portion constituting the above-mentioned ear canal is constituted by a
pipe, and its hardness, length, internal radius, external radius or It can also be realized by
connecting individual ear canal pipes of different thicknesses. By doing so, the stiffness of the
pipe in the direction of inserting the earphone changes as it enters the eyelid from the entrance
regardless of the ear shell material, and the entry of the earphone can be controlled. In addition,
when the earphone is inserted by not dividing the ear canal pipe, but gradually expanding,
reducing, or increasing or decreasing the thickness of the pipe as going to the ear canal The
stiffness of the pipe may be varied to control the entry of the earphone into the ear canal.
[0014]
10-05-2019
6
Further, according to a third problem solving means, in an artificial earlobe having an ear canal
in an earshell, at least one of the plurality of pipes constituting the ear canal is made of a material
constituting the earlobe. Make up the department. That is, when the material that forms the
auricle is as soft as the entrance of a human ear canal, the auricle and the ear canal pipe are not
separated, and a part of the same material is continuous as an ear canal pipe at the entrance of
the canal To form the first ear canal pipe, or conversely, if the ear shell material is hard, the ear
canal pipe of a soft material different in hardness from the ear shell material is disposed at the
entrance of the ear canal, A part of the ear canal may be connected to a part of the ear canal pipe
connected earlier, by connecting an ear canal made of this hard material and an ear canal pipe
formed continuously.
[0015]
The fourth problem solution means is an artificial earshell having an ear canal in the earshell,
and an ear canal portion of an ear canal entrance, which is made of a soft material constituting
the above-mentioned ear canal, and a hard material following thereafter. The artificial earlobe
has an ear canal with the joint surface of the ear canal tapered on the entrance side of the ear
canal or the inner side of the ear canal with respect to the axis of the ear canal. When the road is
deformed in and out, the stiffness of the pipe is changed to be a blocking force, and the insertion
depth can be controlled in balance with the deformation of the earpiece. The ear canal in this
case may be made of a pipe.
[0016]
In the fifth problem solving means, in the artificial auricle having an ear canal in the auricle, the
fitting and the degree of adhesion such as corrugation between the outer peripheral surface of
the at least one of the canal pipes and the auricular junction surface mutually The surface
treatment part which becomes high is formed. This is to ensure the air tightness of the ear canal
and the ear canal when the ear canal pipe is connected to the measurement microphone and
integrally removed from the ear canal.
[0017]
The action according to the first problem solution means realizes softness close to the human ear
10-05-2019
7
canal entrance by arranging an appropriate soft material ear canal section at the entrance of the
ear canal irrespective of the ear shell material, and an earphone Smooth engagement with the tip
of the earpiece. In addition, the hardness of the subsequent ear canal section can be hardened to
control the entry into the ear canal by the earphone insertion pressure.
[0018]
The action according to the second problem solution means that the individual ear canal parts
constituting the ear canal can be made of pipes independently of the auricle material, and a soft
material pipe is inserted at the entrance of the ear canal, and also into the coffin The stiffness of
the pipe in the direction of inserting the earphone can be changed easily and freely by
connecting the ear canal pipes of different hardness, length, inner diameter, outer diameter or
thickness according to Control the entry of
[0019]
According to the third problem solving means, when the material forming the auricle is as soft as
the entrance of the human ear canal, a part of the material of the auricle is continuously formed
as an ear canal pipe at the entrance of the canal Then, by making it a part of the ear canal pipe, it
is possible to easily realize the softness of the human ear canal entrance without making the ear
canal pipe from a particularly soft material.
Conversely, if the ear shell material is hard, place an ear canal pipe of a soft material different in
hardness from the ear shell material at the entrance of the ear canal, and subsequently make a
portion of the ear shell made of a hard material hard. The continuous formation as a part of the
ear canal pipe makes it possible to control the entry of the earphone into the ear canal by the
insertion pressure more easily, even without making the ear canal pipe from a particularly hard
material.
[0020]
The action of the fourth problem solving means is that at least one of the joint surfaces of the
plurality of ear canal pipes having different hardnesses is tapered on the ear canal entrance side
or in the ear canal with respect to the axis of the ear canal, When the ear canal material is
deformed inward and outward by the insertion force of the earphone, the stiffness of the pipe is
changed, and the insertion depth can be controlled by the balance with the deformation of the
earpiece.
10-05-2019
8
[0021]
In the case where the ear canal pipe is connected to and integrated with the measurement
microphone and the structure in which the ear canal pipe is detached from the auricle, the
operation according to the fifth problem solving means fits a waveform or the like on the outer
periphery of the canal pipe and the auricle joint surface. By forming a fitting or surface
treatment, the ear canal pipe can be firmly connected when it is detached from the auricle, and
air tightness can be maintained without causing air leakage, and the accuracy of measurement
Exert the effect of improving
[0022]
As described above, since it is possible to change the softness of the individual parts from the
entrance to the eyelid that constitutes the ear canal of the artificial ear shell of the present
invention, the fitting with the earpiece of the earphone tip is smoothened. It is possible to
approximate the state in which the earphones are inserted, and stable, accurate and repeatable
measurement results can be achieved.
In this case, the individual parts are made of pipes, and by changing the hardness, length, and
thickness of the pipes from the entrance to the heel, the ear canal pipes having different
hardnesses By changing the bonding angle, even if the size of the earpiece at the end of the
earphone changes or the insertion strength changes, it is easy to control the entry, and the
measurement with the original ear canal length can be realized and stable. Measurement that is
accurate and has excellent repeatability of measurement results.
In addition, by forming a fitting such as corrugation on the outer periphery of the ear canal pipe
and the joint surface of the ear canal and forming a surface treatment to maintain the air
tightness, the ear canal pipe is firmly connected when it is detached from the ear shell,
mechanical stability As a result, the effect of preventing air leakage is mainly exhibited, and
stable, accurate and repeatable measurement results can be achieved.
[0023]
Inventive Artificial Earshell Conventional Artificial Earshell-Conventional Artificial Earshell-Partial
Cross-section of Conventional Artificial Earshell and Conventional Earphone-Embodiment of
Conventional Artificial Earshell and Conventional Earpiece Partial sectional view 2-Partial
sectional view showing a problematic embodiment using a conventional artificial earpiece-Partial
10-05-2019
9
sectional view showing a problematic embodiment using a conventional artificial earpieceHuman earshell Sound pressure frequency characteristics when the present invention is carried
out, sound pressure frequency characteristics when the present invention is not carried out,
according to an embodiment of the present invention
[0024]
Hereinafter, an embodiment of the present invention will be described based on FIG. 1, FIG. 9,
and FIG.
In the figure, the auricle main body 1 is made of an elastomer such as silicone rubber, and it has
been customary to form a hole in the prior art to form an auricle, and to use the auris in this
invention. Another ear canal portion is composed of independent members 5, 6 and the like.
Here, the ear canal 2 starts from the ear canal entrance point 4 (EEP: Ear canal Entrance Point)
located at the bottom of the auricle oral cavity 3 which is a hollow extending near the entrance of
the ear canal, and ends in a prescribed length. The ear canal entrance point (EEP: Ear canal
Entrance Point) is defined and defined in Non-Patent Document 2. The ear canal portion of the
present invention has a diameter of 1.5 mm or more and 7 mm or less in the inner direction from
the ear canal entrance point 4 as a first ear canal portion at the entrance of the ear canal.
"Consists of a soft material with a hardness of 40 ° or less. The subsequent ear canal is made of
an ear canal made of a material harder than the above hardness.
[0025]
Here, the individual ear canal parts constituting the above-mentioned ear canal may be
constituted by independent pipes, and individual ear canal pipes of different hardness, length,
inner radius, outer radius or thickness may be connected. It can also be realized by configuring.
By doing so, the stiffness in the direction of inserting the earphone changes as the user enters
the eyelid from the entrance, and the entry of the earphone can be controlled. In addition, when
the earphone is inserted by not dividing the ear canal pipe, but gradually expanding, reducing, or
increasing or decreasing the thickness of the pipe as going to the ear canal The stiffness may be
changed to control the entry of the earphone into the ear canal.
[0026]
10-05-2019
10
Furthermore, at least one of the ear canal pipes constituting the above-mentioned ear canal
constitutes a part of the ear canal pipe by using the material constituting the auricle. That is,
when the material forming the auricle is as soft as the entrance of the human ear canal, a part of
the material of the auricle is continuously formed as an ear canal pipe at the entrance of the ear
canal and a part of the ear canal pipe In the case where the ear shell material is hard, use a soft
material of the ear canal pipe different in hardness from the ear shell material at the entrance of
the ear canal, and then use a hard material for a part of the ear canal pipe that follows The ear
canal may be formed by connecting a continuously formed ear canal pipe with an ear shell made
of
[0027]
Furthermore, when at least one of the joint surfaces of the plurality of ear canal pipes having
different hardnesses that constitute the above-mentioned ear canal is tapered on the ear canal
entrance side or inside the ear canal with respect to the axis of the ear canal, When the force in
the ear canal material is deformed in and out, the stiffness of the pipe is changed, and the
insertion depth can be controlled in balance with the deformation of the earpiece.
[0028]
Further, when the microphone device 10 is attached to the end portion of the ear canal pipe
constituting the above-mentioned ear canal, it is necessary to airtightly connect the ear canal and
the microphone device, as shown in FIG. It is also possible to construct a hard pipe 6 made of
metal or the like and have a structure that is integrated with the microphone device 10 and
detached from the auricle.
When the mechanical stability at the time of desorption is increased mainly by forming the
surface treatment portion 7 in which the fitting of the waveform etc. and the degree of adhesion
become high at the fitting portion between the auricle and the removable ear canal. Exerts the
effect of preventing air leakage. Due to these new inventions, even when measuring soft-insertion
type earpieces and canal type earphones 9 which are often used in recent years, the holding of
these earphones is stable and appropriate as in the case of a real ear. Since the approach is
controlled at the position, it is possible to provide an artificial earshell excellent in the stability
and accuracy of the measurement and the reproducibility of the measurement result.
[0029]
10-05-2019
11
Hereinafter, embodiments of the present invention will be described with reference to FIGS. 1, 9,
10, and 11. FIG. In the figure, the auricle main body 1 is made of silicone rubber having a Shore
"00" hardness of 35 °, which is a type of elastomer. The implemented ear canal is a material
that constitutes the ear canal and does not use a separate ear canal pipe in the embodiment
because the material used for the ear canal is soft and close to the softness of human skin etc. I
made up a part. That is, from the ear canal entrance point 4 (EEP: Ear canal Entrance Point), up
to about 3.5 mm is regarded as the first ear canal, and the ear canal of about 7.5 mm in inner
diameter without separating the ear shell and the ear canal portion. It was molded integrally and
made into the first ear canal. And the subsequent ear canal was made of hard stainless steel. In
this case, the first soft ear canal end and the second hard stainless steel ear canal end created
and connected with each other an inward tapering contact with each other. As a result, when the
earphone is inserted, a force that is pulled toward the center of the ear canal is generated on the
first soft ear canal wall surface, the stiffness of the pipe changes, and the insertion depth can be
controlled in balance with the earpiece deformation. I was able to approach the function of the
human ear canal structure. Also, a waveform fitting was formed at the fitting portion between the
outer ear canal portion and the auricle, which was made of the second stainless steel, to prevent
an increase in mechanical stability at the time of desorption and air leakage. . As a result, the
auricle and the first and second ear canals can be reliably and stably desorbed without air
leakage.
[0030]
Due to these new inventions, even when measuring soft-insertion type earpieces and canal type
earphones 9 which are often used in recent years, the holding of these earphones is stable and
appropriate as in the case of a real ear. Since the approach is controlled at the position, it is
possible to provide an artificial earshell excellent in the stability and accuracy of the
measurement and the reproducibility of the measurement result. The characteristic of the canal
type earphone 9 using artificial earshells according to the present invention, in which five
random sound pressure frequency characteristic measurement results are superimposed, is
shown in FIG. 10, and in FIG. A characteristic obtained by superposing five random sound
pressure frequency characteristic results of the canal-type earphone 9 measured using an
artificial auricle having the created ear canal is shown in FIG. These measurement results show
the superiority of the present invention over the conventional structure.
[0031]
10-05-2019
12
In recent years, with the development of portable audio devices, small earphones have come to
be widely used. Among them, soft earpiece insertion type earphones and canal type earphones
are particularly widely used because they have the advantage that sound is less likely to leak and
that they are excellent in sound quality, and from the viewpoint of manufacturing quality
improvement, quality control points Therefore, there has been a demand for a measuring device
that can measure stably and accurately in a short time and that the measurement result is
reproducible. On the other hand, due to the problem of the occurrence of hearing loss due to
long-term hearing of the earphone, the regulation of the sound pressure reproduced from the
headphone / earphone comes to be carried out, and stable and accurate measurement can be
made, and the measurement result is reproducible. Devices have been sought. In addition, the
soft-insertion type earphones and canal type earphones of this earpiece are widely used for noise
cancellation earphones, hearing aids, etc. by taking advantage of their excellent characteristics,
and their characteristics can be measured stably and accurately, and There has been a demand
for a measuring device with good reproducibility of measurement results.
[0032]
The measurement of the characteristics of these earphones is required to be performed by using
a dummy head microphone in consideration of actual use conditions. However, with the
conventional dummy head microphone, the measurement is unstable and the reproducibility of
the measurement results is good. It was not. Investigating the cause, it has been found that the
shape of the ear depends on the structure of the ear canal, particularly in the insertion type
earphone and the canal type earphone. That is, it has been found that the ear canal structure of
the artificial auricle mounted on a conventional dummy head microphone is largely different
from that of human beings. Therefore, by using the artificial auricle that is the invention of the
present application, it is possible to provide an artificial earlobe stably and accurately in a short
time and having excellent reproducibility of measurement results.
[0033]
-Ear shell main body-Ear canal-Depression that extends near the entrance of the ear canal (auricle
oral cavity)-Ear canal entrance point (EEP: Ear canal Entrance Point)-The ear canal that makes up
the ear canal Pipes, which are placed after the entrance of the ear canal, which make up the road,
fitting parts of the ear shells and the ear canal, conventional insertion type earphones, soft
insertion type of earpieces and canal type earphones, microphone devices, cartilage, skull
10-05-2019
13
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