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JP2013146022

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DESCRIPTION JP2013146022
Abstract: A variable range of directivity characteristics of an electrostatic transducer is
broadened. A shape memory alloy is adhered to an electrostatic speaker. The electrostatic
loudspeaker 1 is provided with broken lines so as to go around the central portion. When a
current is supplied to the shape memory alloy, the shape memory alloy is deformed, and the
central portion protrudes from the edge-side strip portion. When the electrostatic speaker 1 is in
a flat state, the sound to be emitted is a flat wave, so it is difficult to diffuse and goes straight.
When the central portion protrudes, the sound emitted from the electrostatic speaker 1 becomes
a spherical wave, and the sound spreads not only in the horizontal direction but also in the
vertical direction in plan view. [Selected figure] Figure 5
Electrostatic transducer
[0001]
The present invention relates to electrostatic transducers.
[0002]
As a transducer for controlling the directional characteristic of the sound to be emitted, there is,
for example, a speaker device disclosed in Patent Document 1.
This speaker device is capable of controlling the positions of the four corners of a flexible
rectangular and flat capacitor speaker, and deforming it into a flat, concave or convex surface.
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According to this speaker device, when the capacitor speaker is in the shape of a convex curved
surface, sound can be emitted over a wide range, and when the capacitor speaker is in the shape
of a concave curved surface, the sound can be concentrated at one point.
[0003]
JP, 2007-158658, A
[0004]
The speaker device of Patent Document 1 creates a convex curved surface or a concave curved
surface by changing the positions of the right side and the left side of the rectangular with
respect to the sound emission direction when deforming a rectangular capacitor speaker (FIG. 1).
For this reason, when viewed in the left and right direction in the figure, the center is convex or
concave, and the sound converges or diffuses in the left and right direction. On the other hand,
when viewed in the vertical direction in the figure, the central portion does not become convex or
concave, so that the sound can not be converged or diffused in the vertical direction, and the
variable range of the directivity characteristic is limited.
[0005]
The present invention has been made under the above-described background, and an object of
the present invention is to provide a technique for widening the variable range of the directivity
characteristic of an electrostatic transducer.
[0006]
In order to achieve the above-mentioned object, the present invention is an electrostatic
transducer comprising a flexible electrode, and a vibrator which is flexible and which faces the
electrode at a distance from each other. And the vibrator has a cut at a common position as
viewed from the electrode side, and the electrode and the vibrator deform together along the cut,
thereby providing an electrostatic transducer.
[0007]
In the present invention, the movable portion that deforms into a predetermined shape by
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heating is provided along the cut line, and when the movable portion is deformed into the
predetermined shape, the electrostatic transducer is determined in advance. It may be configured
to be deformed in a convex shape or a concave shape in the other direction.
[0008]
In the present invention, a movable portion which is deformed into a predetermined shape by
heating is provided along the cut line, and when the movable portion is deformed into the
predetermined shape, the electrostatic transducer is formed into a flat plate shape. It may be
configured to be deformed.
[0009]
Further, in the present invention, the cut may be provided so as to go around a predetermined
site.
[0010]
The present invention also includes a first and a second electrostatic transducer unit having a
flexible electrode, and a vibrator having flexibility and facing the electrode at a distance, and a
second static type. The electroconductive transducer unit is annular, and the first electrostatic
transducer unit is located inside the outer periphery of the second electrostatic transducer unit
as viewed from the second electrostatic loudspeaker unit, and the center of the annular is An
electrostatic transducer is provided, characterized in that it is movable in the direction of the axis.
[0011]
According to the present invention, it is possible to widen the variable range of the directivity
characteristic of the electrostatic transducer.
[0012]
FIG. 1 is an external view of an electrostatic loudspeaker 1 according to a first embodiment of the
present invention.
The exploded view of electrostatic type speaker 1.
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1. AA sectional view taken on the line of FIG.
FIG. 2 shows a configuration of a drive circuit 100.
The top view, the side view, and the front view of the electrostatic speaker 1 which deform |
transformed.
FIG. 7 is an external view of an electrostatic speaker 1A according to a second embodiment.
The exploded view of electrostatic speaker 1A.
The BB sectional drawing of FIG. The top view, side view, and front view of electrostatic type
speaker 1A. FIG. 2 shows a configuration of a drive circuit 100A. The block diagram of the
structure which moves a movable part using an actuator in 2nd Embodiment. The front view of
the electrostatic-type speaker which concerns on a modification. The top view of the
electrostatic-type speaker which concerns on a modification. The figure which showed the
structure of the microphone 2 and the acoustic signal generation circuit 200 which concern on a
modification.
[0013]
First Embodiment FIG. 1 is an external view of an electrostatic speaker 1 (electrostatic
transducer) according to a first embodiment of the present invention, FIG. 2 is an exploded view
of the electrostatic speaker 1, and FIG. It is the sectional view on the AA line of FIG. In the figure,
the directions are indicated by the orthogonal X-axis, Y-axis, and Z-axis, and the horizontal
direction when the electrostatic speaker 1 is viewed from the front is the X-axis direction, and the
depth direction is the Y-axis direction. The height (up and down) direction is the direction of the
Z axis. In the following description, for convenience of description, the positive direction side of
the Z axis may be referred to as the upper surface side, and the negative direction side of the Z
axis may be referred to as the lower surface side. The dimensions of the respective members in
the drawing are different from the actual dimensions so that the shapes and positional
relationships of the respective members can be easily understood.
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[0014]
As shown in the figure, the electrostatic loudspeaker 1 has a vibrator 10, electrodes 20U and
20L, elastic members 30U and 30L, and movable portions 41A and 41B. In the present
embodiment, the configurations of the electrode 20U and the electrode 20L are the same, and
the configurations of the elastic member 30U and the elastic member 30L are the same. For this
reason, in these members, when it is not particularly necessary to distinguish between a member
having a suffix “U” and a member having a suffix “L”, the descriptions such as “L” and
“U” are omitted. .
[0015]
(Configuration of Each Part of Electrostatic Speaker 1) First, each part of the electrostatic speaker
1 will be described. The vibrator 10 is conductive on one side of a film (insulating layer) of an
insulating and flexible (or flexible) synthetic resin such as PET (polyethylene terephthalate) or PP
(polypropylene). It has a sheet-like configuration in which a conductive film (conductive layer) is
formed by vapor-depositing a certain metal. In the present embodiment, the conductive film is
formed on one side of the film, but may be formed on both sides of the film. The vibrating body
10 may have a configuration in which a conductive metal is rolled to form a film. The vibrator 10
is provided with a cut as shown in FIG. 2, and a first vibrating portion 11 surrounded by four
sides when viewed from the upper surface side, and a strip-like second vibrating portion
connected to the first vibrating portion 11 And 12. The second vibrating portion 12 has a
polygonal line shape so as to go around the first vibrating portion 11 along the outer edge of the
first vibrating portion 11 from one of four corners of the first vibrating portion 11 when viewed
from the upper surface side It has become. Note that the second vibration unit 12 may be
configured to turn around the first vibration unit 11 only once, but as in the present
embodiment, it is possible to change directivity characteristics by turning in a plurality of spirals.
It is preferable because the range can be broadened.
[0016]
The electrode (fixed electrode) 20 uses a film (insulating layer) of insulating synthetic resin such
as PET or PP as a base material, and a conductive metal is deposited on one surface of the film to
form a conductive film (conductive layer) ) Is formed. The electrode 20 has a plurality of holes
penetrating from the upper surface to the lower surface to allow air and sound to pass
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therethrough. In the drawings, the illustration of the holes is omitted. The electrode 20 is
provided with a cut as shown in FIG. 2, and a first conductive portion 21 surrounded by four
sides when viewed from the upper surface side, and a strip-like second conductive portion 22
connected to the first conductive portion 21. And. The second conductive portion 22 has a
polygonal shape so as to go around the first conductive portion 21 along the outer edge of the
first conductive portion 21 from one of four corners of the first conductive portion 21 when
viewed from the upper surface side It has become. In the present embodiment, the length of the
first conductive portion 21 in the X-axis direction is longer than the length of the first vibrating
portion 11 in the X-axis direction, and the length of the first conductive portion 21 in the Y-axis
direction is also the first vibration. It is longer than the length of the portion 11 in the Y-axis
direction. Further, the width W 2 of the second conductive portion 22 when viewed from the
upper surface side is wider than the width W 1 of the second vibrating portion 12. As in the case
of the vibrator 10, the electrode 20 may also be formed into a film by rolling a conductive metal.
[0017]
The elastic member 30 is a non-woven fabric in the present embodiment and can pass air and
sound without passing electricity, and its shape is rectangular when viewed from the top side.
The elastic member 30 has elasticity, and deforms when an external force is applied, and returns
to its original shape when an external force is removed. The elastic member 30 is provided with a
cut as shown in FIG. 2 and has a first elastic portion 31 and a band-like second elastic portion 32
surrounded by four sides when viewed from the upper surface side. The second elastic portion
32 has a polygonal line shape so as to go around the first elastic portion 31 along the outer edge
of the first elastic portion 31 from one of four corners of the first elastic portion 31 when viewed
from the upper surface side. It has become. In the present embodiment, the length of the first
elastic portion 31 in the X-axis direction is the same as the length of the first conductive portion
21 in the X-axis direction, and the length of the first elastic portion 31 in the Y-axis direction is
also The length of the first conductive portion 21 is the same as the length in the Y-axis direction.
Further, the width of the strip-like second elastic portion 32 is the same as the width W 2 of the
second conductive portion 22 when viewed from the upper surface side.
[0018]
The movable portions 41A and 41B are wires of shape memory alloy. The movable portions 41A
and 41B have surfaces that are insulated and deform into a predetermined shape when current
flows. As shown in FIG. 2, the movable portions 41A and 41B are in the shape of a broken line
along the second conductive portion 22 of the electrode 20L when viewed from the upper
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surface side.
[0019]
(Structure of Electrostatic Speaker 1) Next, the structure of the electrostatic speaker 1 will be
described. In the electrostatic speaker 1, the vibrator 10 is disposed between the lower surface
side of the elastic member 30U and the upper surface side of the elastic member 30L. The
adhesive is applied to the elastic member 30U and the elastic member 30L with a width of
several mm from the edge to the inner side of the vibrating body 10, and the elastic member 30U
and the elastic member 30L are inside the portion to which the adhesive is applied. It is in the
state of not being fixed to In addition, the adhesive is applied to the elastic member 30U and the
elastic member 30L with a width of several mm from the edge to the inside, and they are fixed to
each other. The vibrating body 10 is disposed at the position of the alternate long and short dash
line shown on the elastic member 30L in FIG. When viewed from the upper surface side, the
second vibrating portion 12 is positioned inward of the second elastic portion 32, and the first
vibrating portion 11 is positioned inward of the first elastic portion 31, so that the vibrating body
10 is an elastic member. It will be pinched | interposed between 30U and 30 L of elastic
members, and as shown in FIG. 3, it will not expose outside.
[0020]
The electrode 20U is adhered to the upper surface side of the elastic member 30U, and the
electrode 20L is adhered to the lower surface side of the elastic member 30L. The electrode 20U
is coated with an adhesive with a width of several mm from the edge and adhered to the elastic
member 30U, and the electrode 20L is coated with an adhesive with a width of several mm from
the edge with an elastic member 30L Glued to. The electrode 20 is in a state where it is not fixed
to the elastic member 30 inside the portion to which the adhesive is applied. The electrode 20U
is in contact with the elastic member 30U at the side with the conductive film, and the electrode
20L is in contact with the elastic member 30L at the side with the conductive film. That is, the
conductive film of the electrode 20 and the vibrator 10 face each other with the elastic member
30 interposed therebetween. Thus, when the electrode 20, the elastic member 30, and the
vibrator 10 are stacked, the cut of each member becomes a common position when viewed from
the upper surface side, and becomes a cut that goes around the central portion. Since each
member is flexible (or flexible) and there is a cut at a common position in each member, the
electrode 20, the elastic member 30, and the vibrating body 10 are deformed and are deformed
along the cut. Thus, the electrostatic speaker 1 can be deformed into a convex shape or a
concave shape in a spiral shape in the Z-axis direction. In addition, since the break is configured
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to go around the central portion, the electrostatic loudspeaker 1 can deform the cross-sectional
shape along the X-axis and the cross-sectional shape along the Y-axis.
[0021]
The movable portions 41A and 41B are bonded to the lower surface side of the electrode 20L.
Specifically, the movable portion 41A is bonded to the electrode 20L along the edge on the outer
peripheral side of the second conductive portion 22 and the edge of the first conductive portion
21. The movable portion 41 B is bonded to the electrode 20 L along the inner peripheral edge of
the second conductive portion 22.
[0022]
Electrical Configuration of Electrostatic Speaker 1 Next, an electrical configuration of the
electrostatic speaker 1 will be described. FIG. 4 is a diagram showing the configuration of a drive
circuit 100 for driving the electrostatic speaker 1. As shown in FIG. 4, the drive circuit 100 for
driving the electrostatic speaker 1 includes an amplification unit 130, a transformer 110, a DC
power supply 111, resistors R11 to R13, a conduction unit 150, an operation unit 160, and a
female type. The first connector 140 is provided.
[0023]
The amplification unit 130 is an amplification unit that amplifies and outputs an input acoustic
signal. The amplification unit 130 is connected to the terminal T14 and the terminal T15 of the
primary side coil of the transformer 110 via the resistor R11 and the resistor R12. The AC
acoustic signal amplified by the amplification unit 130 is supplied to the transformer 110. The
transformer 110 boosts the acoustic signal supplied from the amplification unit 130. One
terminal T11 of the secondary coil of the transformer 110 is connected to the first terminal of
the first connector 140, and the other terminal T12 of the secondary coil of the transformer 110
is the third terminal of the first connector 140. It is connected to the. Further, the center tap T13
of the secondary coil of the transformer 110 is connected to the ground GND which is the
reference potential of the drive circuit 100.
[0024]
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The direct current power supply 111 is a power supply for applying a direct current voltage (bias
voltage) to the vibrating body 10. The DC power supply 111 is connected to the fifth terminal of
the first connector 140 via the resistor R13. The operation unit 160 includes a button switch,
and is connected to the power supply unit 150. The energizing unit 150 is connected to the sixth
and seventh terminals of the first connector 140. The energizing unit 150 functions as a power
source for causing current to flow to the movable portions 41A and 41B. When the button switch
of the operation unit 160 is pressed, the energizing unit 150 outputs an electrical signal for
causing current to flow to the movable units 41A and 41B to the sixth and seventh terminals of
the first connector 140, and outputs the electrical signal. After a predetermined time has elapsed
since the start of the output of the electrical signal is stopped. The second and fourth terminals of
the first connector 140 are connected to the ground GND of the drive circuit 100.
[0025]
Next, in the electrostatic speaker 1, the first terminal of the male second connector 141 is
connected to the electrode 20U by a cable, and the third terminal of the second connector 141 is
connected to the electrode 20L by a cable. The fifth terminal of the second connector 141 is
connected to the vibrating body 10 by a cable. The sixth terminal of the second connector 141 is
connected to one end of the movable portions 41A and 41B, and the seventh terminal of the
second connector 141 is connected to the other end of the movable portions 41A and 41B. In the
first connector 140 and the second connector 141, the terminals are insulated.
[0026]
(Operation of Embodiment) Next, the operation of this embodiment will be described. When
driving the electrostatic speaker 1, first, the male second connector 141 is fitted to the female
first connector 140. When the second connector 141 is fitted in the first connector 140, the
terminals of the same number of each connector are connected, the terminal T11 and the
electrode 20U are electrically connected, and the terminal T12 and the electrode 20L are
electrically connected. . Since the center tap T13 of the transformer 110 is connected to the
ground GND, the voltages of the terminals T11 and T12 are 0 V when the amplitude of the
acoustic signal input to the amplification unit 130 is 0 V. Further, the DC power supply 111 is
electrically connected to the vibrating body 10 via the resistor R13, and a DC voltage (bias
voltage) is applied to the vibrating body 10.
04-05-2019
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[0027]
In addition, when the connectors are fitted, both ends of the movable portions 41A and 41B are
connected to the conducting unit 150 through the sixth and seventh terminals of each connector.
If current does not flow from the conducting part 150 to the movable parts 41A and 41B and the
movable parts 41A and 41B are at a temperature below the transformation point of the shape
memory alloy, the movable parts 41A and 41B can be deformed by hand. Therefore, as shown in
FIG. 1, the electrostatic speaker 1 can be deformed into a flat plate shape.
[0028]
On the other hand, when the button switch of the operation unit 160 is pressed, an electric signal
is output from the conduction unit 150 for a predetermined time, and the conduction unit 150 →
the 6th terminal of the first connector 140 and the second connector 141 → the movable unit
41A , 41B → the seventh terminal of the first connector 140 and the second connector 141 →
the current passing portion 150. When current flows in the movable portions 41A and 41B, the
movable portions 41A and 41B generate heat by Joule heat, and the temperature becomes a
temperature higher than the transformation point of the shape memory alloy. The movable
portions 41A and 41B deform into a predetermined shape when heated to a temperature above
the transformation point. When the movable parts 41A and 41B are deformed, the electrode 20,
the elastic member 30, and the vibrator 10 are deformed with the deformation of the movable
parts 41A and 41B.
[0029]
FIG. 5 is a view showing the plane, the side, and the front of the electrostatic speaker 1 after the
movable portions 41A and 41B are energized and deformed. In FIG. 5, the movable portions 41A
and 41B are not shown in order to prevent the drawings from being complicated. When the
movable portions 41A and 41B are deformed, as shown in FIG. 5, while the strip portions of the
electrode 20, the elastic member 30, and the vibrating body 10 are integrally overlapped, they
are deformed so as to have a step in the Z axis direction. The central portion of the electrode 20,
the elastic member 30, and the vibrator 10 most protrudes in the positive direction of the Z axis.
[0030]
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Next, the case where the amplitude of the acoustic signal changes from 0 V will be described.
When an AC acoustic signal is input to the amplification unit 130, the input acoustic signal is
amplified and supplied to the primary side of the transformer 110. The acoustic signal boosted
by the transformer 110 as boosting means and output from the terminal T12 is boosted by the
transformer 110 and has the same amplitude as that of the acoustic signal output from the
terminal T11 and the polarity of the signal is reverse.
[0031]
As a positive acoustic signal is input to the amplification unit 130, the polarity of the acoustic
signal output from the terminal T11 on the secondary side of the transformer 110 becomes
positive, and the polarity of the acoustic signal output from the terminal T12 becomes negative.
In this case, while the electrostatic attractive force between the vibrator 10 and the electrode
20U is weakened, the electrostatic attractive force between the vibrator 10 and the electrode 20L
is strengthened. Then, the vibrator 10 is displaced toward the electrode 20L (in the negative
direction of the Z axis) according to the difference between the electrostatic attraction acting on
the electrode 20U side and the electrostatic attraction acting on the electrode 20L side.
[0032]
In addition, since the negative acoustic signal is input to the amplification unit 130, the polarity
of the acoustic signal output from the terminal T11 on the secondary side of the transformer 110
becomes negative, and the polarity of the acoustic signal output from the terminal T12 is When it
becomes positive, the electrostatic attractive force between the vibrator 10 and the electrode 20L
is weakened, while the electrostatic attractive force between the vibrator 10 and the electrode
20U is stronger. Then, the vibrating body 10 is displaced to the electrode 20U side (the positive
direction of the Z axis) according to the difference between the electrostatic attractive force
acting on the electrode 20U side and the electrostatic attractive force acting on the electrode 20L
side.
[0033]
Thus, the vibrating body 10 is displaced in the positive direction of the Z-axis and the negative
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direction of the Z-axis in accordance with the acoustic signal, and becomes a vibration by
sequentially changing its displacement direction (vibration frequency, amplitude, Sound waves
corresponding to the phase) are generated from the vibrator 10. The generated sound wave
passes through the elastic member 30 having sound permeability and the electrode 20 and is
emitted as sound to the outside of the electrostatic speaker 1.
[0034]
When the electrostatic speaker 1 is flat as shown in FIG. 1, the positions of the first vibrating
portion 11 and the second vibrating portion 12 in the Z-axis direction are the same. In this case,
since the sound emitted from the electrostatic speaker 1 is a flat wave, it is difficult to diffuse and
goes straight. On the other hand, when the electrostatic loudspeaker 1 is deformed into a convex
shape (concave shape in the negative direction of the Z axis) as shown in FIG. 5, the first
vibrating portion 11 and the second vibrating portion 12 are in phase with each other. Although
driven, the position in the Z-axis direction when driven is different. As described above, when the
positions of the first vibrating portion 11 and the second vibrating portion 12 differ in the
direction in which the sound is emitted, the sound emitted from the electrostatic speaker 1 is the
first vibrating portion 11 and the second vibrating portion. In accordance with the convex shape
formed by T.12, the wave is spherical with respect to the positive direction of the Z axis. The
sound of a spherical wave emitted in the positive direction of the Z axis diffuses around the
electrostatic speaker 1, so the sound is widely spread in the direction of the X axis and in the
direction of the Y axis as compared with the state of FIG. Can deliver. In the negative direction of
the Z-axis, the central portion of the electrostatic speaker 1 is recessed from the band-like
portion, so the sound emitted from the electrostatic speaker 1 converges and is narrower than
the state of FIG. It will deliver sound to the range.
[0035]
Second Embodiment Next, a second embodiment of the present invention will be described. 6 is
an external view of an electrostatic speaker 1A (electrostatic transducer) according to a second
embodiment of the present invention, FIG. 7 is an exploded view of the electrostatic speaker 1A,
and FIG. It is a B line sectional view. As shown in the figure, the electrostatic speaker 1A includes
vibrators 10A to 10C, electrodes 20UA to 20UC, 20LA to 20LC, elastic members 30UA to 30UC,
30LA to 30LC, and movable parts 42A to 42C. .
[0036]
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(Configuration of Each Part of Electrostatic Loudspeaker 1A) The vibrators 10A to 10C are, like
the vibrator 10 of the first embodiment, one of films of a synthetic resin having insulation and
flexibility (or flexibility). It has a sheet-like configuration in which a conductive film is formed by
vapor deposition of a conductive metal on the surface. With regard to the shape of each vibrating
body, the vibrating body 10A is rectangular as viewed from the top as shown in FIG. The
vibrators 10B and 10C have a rectangular frame shape when viewed from the upper surface side.
When viewed from the upper surface side, the length in the X-axis direction and the length in the
Y-axis direction of the edge on the inner peripheral side of the vibrating body 10B are the length
in the X-axis direction and the Y-axis direction of the edge on the outer peripheral side of the
vibrating body 10A, respectively. It can be longer than the length and can be disposed outside
the vibrating body 10A with a gap from the vibrating body 10A. Further, when viewed from the
upper surface side, the length in the X-axis direction and the length in the Y-axis direction of the
edge on the inner peripheral side are the length in the X-axis direction of the edge on the outer
peripheral side of the vibrator 10B and the Y-axis It can be longer than the length in the
direction, and can be disposed outside the vibrating body 10B at an interval from the vibrating
body 10B.
[0037]
Like the electrode 20 of the first embodiment, the electrodes 20UA to 20UC and the electrodes
20LA to 20LC have a configuration in which a conductive metal is formed on one surface of a
synthetic resin film having insulating properties to form a conductive film. It has become. Each of
the electrodes 20UA to 20UC and the electrodes 20LA to 20LC has a plurality of holes
penetrating from the upper surface to the lower surface, so that air and sound can pass
therethrough. In the drawings, the illustration of the holes is omitted. The electrodes 20UA and
20LA are rectangular when viewed from the top as shown in FIG. The length in the X-axis
direction of the electrode 20UA is the same as the length in the X-axis direction of the electrode
20LA, and the length in the Y-axis direction of the electrode 20UA is also the same as the length
in the Y-axis direction of the electrode 20LA. Further, the electrodes 20UA and 20LA have a
length in the X-axis direction and a length in the Y-axis direction longer than a length in the Xaxis direction and a length in the Y-axis direction of the vibrator 10A, respectively, as compared
to the vibrator 10A. ing.
[0038]
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The electrodes 20UB, 20UC, 20LB, and 20LC have a rectangular frame shape when viewed from
the upper surface side. In the electrode 20UB (electrode 20LB), the lengths in the X-axis direction
and the Y-axis direction of the inner peripheral edge viewed from the upper surface are the Xaxis direction and the Y-axis direction of the outer peripheral edge of the electrode 20UA
(electrode 20LA) It can be longer than the length and disposed outside the electrode 20UA
(electrode 20LA). In the electrode 20UC (electrode 20LC), the lengths in the X-axis direction and
Y-axis direction of the inner peripheral edge viewed from the upper surface are the X-axis
direction and Y-axis direction of the outer peripheral edge of the electrode 20UB (electrode
20LB) It can be longer than the length and disposed outside the electrode 20UB (electrode
20LB).
[0039]
The width of electrodes 20UB and 20LB from the outer peripheral side to the inner peripheral
side in the X-axis direction is wider than the width from the outer peripheral side to the inner
peripheral side in the X-axis direction of vibrator 10B, from the outer peripheral side in the Yaxis direction. The width to the inner peripheral side is also wider than the width from the outer
peripheral side to the inner peripheral side in the Y-axis direction of the vibrating body 10B. The
electrodes 20UC and 20LC also have a width from the outer periphery to the inner periphery in
the X-axis direction that is wider than the width from the outer periphery to the inner periphery
in the X-axis direction from the outer periphery in the Y-axis direction The width to the inner
peripheral side is also wider than the width from the outer peripheral side to the inner peripheral
side in the Y-axis direction of the vibrating body 10C.
[0040]
The elastic members 30 </ b> UA to 30 </ b> UC and the elastic members 30 </ b> LA to 30 </
b> LC are formed of non-woven fabric as in the elastic member 30 of the first embodiment. The
elastic members 30UA and 30LA are rectangular when viewed from the top as shown in FIG. The
length of the elastic member 30UA in the X-axis direction and the length of the elastic member
30LA in the X-axis direction are the same, and the length of the elastic member 30UA in the Yaxis direction and the length of the elastic member 30LA in the Y-axis direction are also the
same. . The elastic members 30UB, 30LB, 30UC, and 30LC have a rectangular frame shape when
viewed from the upper surface side. The elastic member 30UB (elastic member 30LB) has a
length in the X-axis direction and a Y-axis direction of the inner peripheral edge viewed from the
upper surface side is the X-axis direction of the outer peripheral edge of the elastic member
30UA (elastic member 30LA) and It can be longer than the length in the Y-axis direction, and can
04-05-2019
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be disposed outside the elastic member 30UA (elastic member 30LA). The elastic member 30UC
(elastic member 30LC) has a length in the X-axis direction and a Y-axis direction of the inner
peripheral edge viewed from the upper surface side is the X-axis direction of the outer peripheral
edge of the elastic member 30UB (elastic member 30LB) and It can be longer than the length in
the Y-axis direction, and can be disposed outside the elastic member 30UB (elastic member
30LB).
[0041]
The dimensions of the elastic members 30UA to 30UC are the same as the dimensions of the
electrodes 20UA to 20UC except for the thickness in the Z-axis direction, and the dimensions of
the elastic members 30LA to 30LC are also electrodes other than the thickness in the Z-axis
direction. It is the same as the dimensions of 20LA to 20LC. The thickness in the Z-axis direction
of the elastic member is greater than the thickness of the electrode.
[0042]
The movable parts 42A to 42C are formed of an elastic synthetic resin (for example, sponge-like
polyurethane). The movable portion 42A is rectangular when viewed from the upper surface side
as shown in FIG. The movable portions 42B and 42C have a rectangular frame shape when
viewed from the upper surface side. In the movable portion 42B, the length in the X axis
direction of the edge on the inner peripheral side is shorter than the length in the X axis
direction of the movable portion 42A when viewed from the upper surface side, and the length in
the Y axis direction of the inner peripheral side edge It is shorter than the length of the movable
portion 42A in the Y-axis direction. The movable portion 42C, when viewed from the upper
surface side, has a length in the X axis direction of the edge on the inner peripheral side shorter
than a length in the X axis direction of the edge on the outer peripheral side of the movable
portion 42B. The axial length is also shorter than the length in the Y-axis direction of the outer
peripheral edge of the movable portion 42A. Since each movable portion has elasticity, the
movable portion 42A can be fitted on the inner circumferential side of the movable portion 42B
to fix the position, and the movable portion 42B is fitted on the inner circumferential side of the
movable portion 42C It can be fixed.
[0043]
04-05-2019
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(Structure of Electrostatic Speaker 1A) Next, the structure of the electrostatic speaker 1A will be
described. In electrostatic speaker 1A, vibrating body 10A is disposed between the lower surface
side of elastic member 30UA and the upper surface side of elastic member 30LA. The adhesive is
applied to the elastic member 30UA and the elastic member 30LA with a width of several mm
from the edge to the inside of the vibrating member 10A, and the elastic member 30UA and the
elastic member 30LA are inside the portion to which the adhesive is applied. It is in the state of
not being fixed to In addition, the adhesive is applied to the elastic member 30UA and the elastic
members 30LA with a width of several mm from the edge to the inside, and they are fixed to
each other.
[0044]
The vibrating body 10B is disposed between the lower surface side of the elastic member 30UB
and the upper surface side of the elastic member 30LB, and is bonded to the elastic members
30UB and 30LB. The elastic member 30UB and the elastic member 30LB are also adhered to
each other. The vibrating body 10C is disposed between the lower surface side of the elastic
member 30UC and the upper surface side of the elastic member 30LC, and is bonded to the
elastic members 30UC and 30LC. The elastic member 30UC and the elastic member 30LC are
also adhered to each other.
[0045]
The vibrator 10A is located inside the edges of the elastic members 30UA and 30LA when
viewed from the upper surface side, and is exposed to the outside because the edge portions are
covered by the elastic members 30UA and 30UL as shown in FIG. I have not. The vibrator 10B is
also located inside the edges of the elastic members 30UB and 30LB when viewed from the
upper surface side, and is exposed to the outside because the edge portions are covered by the
elastic members 30UB and 30LB as shown in FIG. The vibrator 10C is also located inside the
edge of the elastic members 30UC and 30LC when viewed from the upper surface side, and the
edge is covered by the elastic members 30UC and 30LC as shown in FIG. There is no exposure to
[0046]
The electrodes 20UA to 20UC are bonded to the upper surface side of the elastic members 30UA
to 30UC, and the electrodes 20LA to 20LC are bonded to the lower surface side of the elastic
04-05-2019
16
members 30LA to 30LC. In each electrode, the side with the conductive film is in contact with the
elastic member. Movable parts 42A-42C are pasted up to the undersurface side of electrodes
20LA-20LC.
[0047]
In this configuration, a rectangular electrostatic speaker (first electrostatic transducer unit) is
positioned above the movable portion 42A, and a frame-shaped electrostatic speaker (second
electrostatic speaker (second electrostatic) is positioned above the movable portions 42B and
42C. Type transducer unit) will be located. Here, for convenience of explanation, the electrostatic
loudspeaker on the upper surface side of the movable portion 42A is the electrostatic
loudspeaker 1A-1, and the annular electrostatic loudspeaker on the upper surface side of the
movable portion 42B is the electrostatic loudspeaker 1A-2 The annular electrostatic speaker
located on the upper surface side of the movable portion 42C is referred to as an electrostatic
speaker 1A-3. The electrostatic speakers 1A-1 to 1A-3 have the same center, and the electrostatic
speaker 1A-2 is disposed so as to surround the electrostatic speaker 1A-1, so as to surround the
electrostatic speaker 1A-2. The electrostatic speaker 1A-3 is disposed on the That is, one
electrostatic speaker is disposed to surround the other electrostatic speaker.
[0048]
The movable portions 42A to 42C are separate members, and can change the position in the Zaxis direction individually. FIG. 9 is a view showing an example of a state in which the positions
of the movable parts 42A and 42B are moved from the position of the movable part 42C to the
positive direction side of the Z axis. It shows. As shown in FIG. 9, the movable portion 42B is
moved to the positive side (front side) of the Z axis with respect to the movable portion 42C, and
the movable portion 42A is to the positive side (front side) of the Z axis with respect to the
movable portion 42B. When moved, the electrostatic speaker 1A-2 protrudes from the
electrostatic speaker 1A-3 in the positive direction of the Z axis (in the direction of the central
axis of the annular electrostatic speaker 1A-2,3), The type speaker 1A-1 protrudes from the
electrostatic type speaker 1A-2 toward the positive direction side of the Z-axis (the direction of
the central axis of the annular electrostatic type speaker 1A-2, 3).
[0049]
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17
(Electrical Configuration of Electrostatic Loudspeaker 1A) Next, an electrical configuration of the
electrostatic loudspeaker 1A will be described. FIG. 10 is a diagram showing the configuration of
a drive circuit 100A that drives the electrostatic speaker 1A. The drive circuit 100A differs from
the drive circuit 100 of the first embodiment in that the drive circuit 100A does not include the
energizing unit 150 and the operation unit 160, and the other configuration is the same as the
drive circuit 100. On the other hand, in the electrostatic loudspeaker 1A, the electrodes 20UA to
20UC are connected to the first terminal of the second connector 141, and the electrodes 20LA
to 20LC are connected to the third terminal of the second connector 141. Also, the vibrators 10A
to 10C are connected to the fifth terminal of the second connector 141.
[0050]
In this configuration, the same acoustic signal is supplied to the electrodes 20UA to 20UC, and
the same acoustic signal is supplied to the electrodes 20LA to 20LC. Further, the same bias
voltage is applied to the vibrators 10A to 10C. Therefore, the directions in which the vibrators
10A to 10C are displaced in accordance with the acoustic signal are the same.
[0051]
(Operation of Embodiment) When the electrostatic loudspeaker 1A is flat as shown in FIG. 6, the
positions of the vibrating bodies 10A to 10C in the Z-axis direction are the same. In this case,
since the sound emitted from the electrostatic speaker 1A is a flat wave, it is difficult to diffuse
and goes straight. On the other hand, when the electrostatic loudspeaker 1A is deformed as
shown in FIG. 9, the vibrators 10A to 10C are different in the position in the Z-axis direction. As
described above, when the positions of the vibrators 10A to 10C are different, the sound emitted
from the electrostatic speaker 1A in the positive direction of the Z-axis becomes a spherical wave.
The spherical wave emitted in the positive direction of the Z axis diffuses around the electrostatic
speaker 1A, and therefore, the sound is widely delivered in the direction of the X axis or the
direction of the Y axis, as compared with the state of FIG. be able to. In the present embodiment,
three electrostatic speakers 1A-1 to 1A-3 are provided, but the number of the provided speakers
may be two, or four or more. It may be. The movable portions 42B and 42C may be moved not
only in the positive direction of the Z axis but also in the negative direction. That is, the
electrostatic speaker 1A may be moved to the lower surface side (back side) as viewed from the
electrostatic speaker 1A-2, and the electrostatic speaker 1A-3 may be moved to the lower surface
as viewed from the electrostatic speaker 1A-3 You may move it to the side (back side). Further, in
the present embodiment, when viewed from the upper surface side, the shape of the electrostatic
speaker 1A-1 may be circular, and the shape of the electrostatic speakers 1A-2 and 1A-3 may be
04-05-2019
18
annular.
[0052]
In the present embodiment, a gap is provided between the outer periphery of the movable
portion 42A and the inner periphery of the movable portion 42B, and between the outer
periphery of the movable portion 42B and the inner periphery of the movable portion 42C. The
portions 42A to 42C may be moved in the positive direction or the negative direction of the Z
axis. FIG. 11 is a block diagram showing a configuration for moving the movable parts 42A to
42C using an actuator. In this configuration, the drive circuit 100A includes an operation unit
160 and a drive unit 170. Further, actuators 170A to 170C are connected to the drive circuit
100A. The actuators 170A to 170C move the movable part. The actuator 170A is connected to
the movable portion 42A, the actuator 170B is connected to the movable portion 42B, and the
actuator 170C is connected to the movable portion 42C. The operation unit 160 has the same
configuration as the operation unit 160 of the first embodiment. The drive unit 170 is connected
to the operation unit 160. The drive unit 170 drives the actuators 170A to 170C when the
button switch of the operation unit 160 is operated. When the actuators 170A to 170C are
driven, the movable parts 42A to 42C move to be in the state shown in FIG.
[0053]
In the operation unit 160, a slide volume corresponding to each movable unit is provided, and
when the slide volume is operated, the position of the corresponding movable unit in the Z-axis
direction moves according to the operation amount of the slide volume. The actuator may be
controlled.
[0054]
[Modifications] Although the embodiment of the present invention has been described above, the
present invention is not limited to the above-described embodiment, and can be practiced in
various other forms.
For example, the above-described embodiment may be modified as follows to implement the
present invention. The above-described embodiment and the following modifications may be
combined with each other.
04-05-2019
19
[0055]
(Modification 1) In the first embodiment described above, the electrostatic speaker 1 is deformed
using the movable portions 41A and 41B which are shape memory alloys, but the movable
portions 41A and 41B are not shape memory alloys The shape of each member of the
electrostatic speaker 1 may be deformed by a member (for example, a wire) that is plastically
deformed and the member is deformed by hand.
[0056]
(Modification 2) In the first embodiment described above, the movable portions 41A and 41B of
shape memory alloy are disposed on the lower surface side of the electrode 20U, but the upper
surface side of the electrode 20U is also similar to the movable portions 41A and 41B. The shape
memory alloy may be disposed along the first conductive portion 21.
In this configuration, when current flows through the shape memory alloy disposed on the upper
surface side of the electrode 20U, the central portion of the electrostatic speaker 1 may be most
protruded in the negative direction of the Z axis. According to this configuration, when current is
supplied to the movable portions 41A and 41B, the sound emitted in the positive direction of the
Z axis becomes a spherical wave, and the sound in the positive direction of the Z axis is the
electrostatic speaker 1 Spread in the center. On the other hand, when current flows in the shape
memory alloy disposed on the electrode 20U side, the sound emitted from the electrostatic
speaker 1 converges in the positive direction of the Z-axis to narrow the range of delivering the
sound. it can.
[0057]
(Modification 3) In the first embodiment described above, when current flows through the
movable portions 41A and 41B, the central portion of the electrostatic speaker 1 protrudes in the
positive direction side of the Z axis, and the X axis It may move in the direction or in the direction
of the Y axis. Further, in the first embodiment, when current is supplied to the movable portions
41A and 41B, the movable portions 41A and 41B may be deformed such that the first vibrating
portion 11 is inclined with respect to the XY plane.
[0058]
04-05-2019
20
(Modification 4) In the second embodiment described above, the electrostatic speakers 1A-1 to
1A-3 are bonded to the movable portion, but the electrostatic speaker 1A-1 and the electrostatic
speaker 1A- 2 may be connected by a thread, and the electrostatic speaker 1A-2 and the
electrostatic speaker 1A-3 may be connected by a flexible thread. FIG. 12 is a front view of the
electrostatic loudspeaker according to the present modification. As shown in the figure, the
electrostatic speaker 1A-3 is connected to the electrostatic speaker 1A-2 by the yarn 50, and the
electrostatic speaker 1A-2 is connected to the electrostatic speaker 1A-1 by the yarn 50. It is
connected. For example, when the electrostatic speaker 1A-3 is disposed on the ceiling of a room,
the electrostatic speaker 1A-2 and the electrostatic speaker 1A-1 are lowered in the negative
direction of the Z axis by their own weight and suspended by the thread 50 It will be in the state
of being Here, the electrostatic speaker 1A-2 protrudes from the electrostatic speaker 1A-3 in the
negative direction of the Z axis, and the electrostatic speaker 1A-1 is negative in the Z axis from
the electrostatic speaker 1A-2. It will be in the state where it projected to the direction side. In
this case, the sound emitted from the electrostatic speaker in the negative direction of the Z axis
is a spherical wave, and the spherical wave emitted in the negative direction of the Z axis is
diffused around the electrostatic speaker. Do. The thread may be changed to a shape memory
alloy and deformed into a convex shape, a concave shape, or a flat shape.
[0059]
(Modification 5) In the above-described first embodiment, as shown in FIG. 1, the rectangular
electrostatic speaker 1 is configured to be provided with a broken line-shaped break, but the
break is not limited. The embodiment is not limited to that of FIG. For example, as shown in (a) of
FIG. 13, a cut provided from the side on the positive direction side of the Y axis toward the side
on the negative direction side and the side from the side on the negative direction side of the Y
axis on the positive direction The cut provided toward the side may be alternately provided in the
X-axis direction. In addition, in (a) of FIG. 13, the shape and position of the vibrating body 10 are
shown with the broken line. In this configuration, the electrostatic speaker has a shape in which
the strip is bent in the direction of the Y-axis in the shape of a ninety-nine fold, and each of the
strip portions can be directed in various directions. Can be focused or focused.
[0060]
In addition, for example, as shown in (b) to (e) of FIG. In the configuration of FIG. 13 (b), the
central portion is provided with a cut at which the straight line intersects at a right angle, and if
04-05-2019
21
the central portion is made to project in the positive direction of the Z axis, the vibrator 10 faces
in a plurality of directions. Therefore, the sound can be diffused. Further, in the configuration of
FIG. 13 (c), a cut is provided such that a plurality of straight lines cross at right angles in one
straight line, and the tip of the comb-like portion is projected in the positive direction of the Z
axis. Then, since the vibrator 10 faces in a plurality of directions, sound can be diffused. Further,
in the configuration of (d) of FIG. 13, there is provided a cut in which one straight line is made
into a ninety-nine fold shape, and if the tip of the comb-like portion is made to project in the
positive direction of Z axis Since the vibrator 10 faces in a plurality of directions, sound can be
diffused. Further, in the configuration of (e) of FIG. 13, a cut in the shape of a triangular wave is
provided, and if the tip of the comb-like portion is made to project in the positive direction of the
Z axis, the vibrator 10 is plural. The sound can be diffused because it is directed. Further, the
shape of the electrostatic speaker as viewed from the upper surface side is not limited to a
rectangular shape, and may be, for example, circular as shown in (f) of FIG.
[0061]
(Modification 6) In the embodiment described above, the electrostatic speaker is a push-pull type,
but the electrostatic speaker is a single type that does not have an electrode on the upper surface
side or an electrode on the lower surface side. It is also good. In the case of the push-pull type, a
pair of signals having the same amplitude and different polarities are supplied to the electrostatic
speaker, but in the case of the single electrostatic speaker, the signal output from the terminal
T11 or the terminal T12 To the electrode.
[0062]
(Modification 7) In the embodiment described above, although the configuration in which the
electrode, the vibrator and the elastic member are stacked is used as a speaker for converting an
acoustic signal to sound, this configuration is an electrostatic for converting sound to an acoustic
signal. It is also possible to use a microphone of the type (electrostatic transducer). FIG. 14 is a
diagram showing a configuration of a microphone 2 according to the present modification and an
acoustic signal generation circuit 200 that generates an acoustic signal representing a sound
collected by the microphone 2. In this modification, the microphone 2 has the same configuration
as the electrostatic speaker 1 described above, and therefore the members constituting the
microphone 2 are given the same reference numerals as the members of the electrostatic speaker
1, and the description thereof Omit. Further, since the configuration of the acoustic signal
generation circuit 200 is the same as that of the drive circuit 100 except that the direction in
which the signal flows is different from that of the drive circuit 100, components included in the
04-05-2019
22
acoustic signal generation circuit 200 are components included in the drive circuit 100 The same
reference numerals are given and the description of each part is omitted. The transformation
ratio of the transformer 110 and the resistance values of the resistors R11 to R13 are
appropriately adjusted.
[0063]
The electrode 20, which is a conductor, and the vibrating body 10, which is a conductor, face
each other at a distance, and the electrode 20 and the vibrating body 10 function as a capacitor
formed of parallel flat conductors. Since a bias voltage is applied to the vibrator 10, when no
sound reaches the microphone, a constant charge is accumulated in the capacitor. When the
sound reaches the microphone 2, the vibrator 10 vibrates by the reached sound. When the
vibrating body 10 vibrates, the distance between the vibrating body 10 and the electrodes 20U
and 20L changes, so that the capacitance between the vibrating body 10 and the electrode 20
changes.
[0064]
For example, when the vibrating body 10 is displaced toward the electrode 20U, the distance
between the electrode 20U and the vibrating body 10 is shortened, and the capacitance between
the electrode 20U and the vibrating body 10 is increased. Further, the distance between the
electrode 20L and the vibrating body 10 becomes longer, and the capacitance between the
electrode 20L and the vibrating body 10 becomes smaller. Thus, when the capacitance changes,
the potential of the electrode 20U changes so that the potential difference between the electrode
20U and the vibrating body 10 decreases, and the potential of the electrode 20L such that the
potential difference between the electrode 20L and the vibrating body 10 increases. Changes.
Here, since a potential difference occurs between the electrode 20U and the electrode 20L,
current flows in the secondary coil of the transformer 110.
[0065]
Further, when the vibrating body 10 is displaced to the electrode 20L side, the distance between
the electrode 20L and the vibrating body 10 becomes short, and the capacitance between the
electrode 20L and the vibrating body 10 becomes large. Further, the distance between the
electrode 20U and the vibrating body 10 becomes longer, and the capacitance between the
04-05-2019
23
electrode 20U and the vibrating body 10 becomes smaller. Then, the potential of the electrode
20L changes so that the potential difference between the electrode 20L and the vibrating body
10 becomes smaller, and the potential of the electrode 20U changes so that the potential
difference between the electrode 20U and the vibrating body 10 becomes larger. Here, a
potential difference occurs between the electrode 20U and the electrode 20L, and a current flows
in the secondary coil of the transformer 110 in the direction opposite to that when the vibrating
body 10 is displaced in the direction of the electrode 20U.
[0066]
When current flows in the secondary coil of the transformer 110, current also flows in the
primary coil of the transformer 110 in response to this current. The signal that has flowed to the
primary coil is amplified by the amplifier 130 and the amplified signal is output from the
amplifier 130 as an acoustic signal representing the sound collected by the microphone 2.
[0067]
In the present modification, when the impedance of the transformer 110 is low, the frequency
characteristic at a low frequency may be degraded due to the influence of the load capacity of
the microphone 2. In this case, in place of the transformer 110, an amplifier with high impedance
may be connected to the electrodes 20U and 20L to suppress a decrease in frequency
characteristics.
[0068]
DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS 1 ... Electrostatic type speaker, 2 ... Microphone, 10, 10A-10C ...
Vibrator, 11 ... 1st vibration part, 12 ... 2nd vibration part, 20, 20 U, 20 L, 20 UA-20 UC, 20 LA20 LC ... Electrode, DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS 21 ... 1st electroconductive part, 22 ... 2nd
electroconductive part, 30, 30U, 30L, 30UA-30UC, 30LA-30LC ... Elastic member, 31 ... 1st elastic
part, 32 ... 2nd elastic part, 41A, 41B ... movable Parts, 42A to 42C: movable part, 50: thread,
100: drive circuit, 110: transformer, 111: DC power supply, 130: amplification part, 140: first
connector, 141: second connector, 150: conduction part, 160: Operation unit, 180A to 180C:
Actuator, 200: Acoustic signal generation circuit, R11 to R13: Resistor
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