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JP2018518910

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DESCRIPTION JP2018518910
Abstract Sonotrodes are used to inspect materials based on acoustic levitation. In order to obtain
reproducible measurement results or to extend the possible use of this type of device, each
sonotrode has to meet the full range of requirements. The precise adjustment of the frequency
and the unrestricted interaction between the sonotrode and the frequency generator are
particularly important. The invention proposes to provide the sound horn and the sonotrode
body separately. In this case, in particular on the body or on the body for operation at low
voltage, in particular so that the amplitude or operating voltage is kept below a relatively low
maximum low voltage value, in particular below 50 Vpp. An acoustic horn can be attached inside.
In this way heat formation can be prevented. The invention further relates to a control method or
manufacturing method for a sonotrode device of this kind. In this case, it is possible to expand
the range of use and improve the reproducibility or the quality of the measurement results,
respectively.
Acoustic levitation sonotrode apparatus and apparatus, control apparatus and control method
[0001]
The invention relates in particular to a sonotrode or sonotrode apparatus and an apparatus
comprising such a sonotrode apparatus, respectively, for testing by acoustic levitation, and a
controller or control method respectively for controlling a sonotrode / sonotrode apparatus or
apparatus respectively. About. In particular, the present invention relates to a sonotrode device
comprising at least the following components: a substrate and an acoustic horn fastened to the
substrate for emitting sound waves. In particular, the invention also relates to the use of a
sonotrode / sonotrode device adjusted according to the invention and a method of manufacturing
04-05-2019
1
a sonotrode device.
[0002]
The sonotrode can be regarded as a kind of loudspeaker arranged between the frequency
generator, the amplifier and, for example, the reflector or the second sonotrode. Sonotrodes have
very specific natural frequencies which depend on several factors, which are, for example, the
alloy constituents of the material or the geometrical manufacturing tolerances, which in most
cases are totally influenced. There is nothing to do. Sonotrodes usually operate in the natural
frequency range, ie resonance. A traveling acoustic wave can be generated between the
sonotrode and the reflector.
[0003]
The sonotrode can in particular comprise the following components: a substrate having a specific
shape and mass, and an acoustic horn for emitting sound waves in the direction of the reflector,
the acoustic horn using the substrate Can be provided. Acoustic horns are known to be
permanently mounted on a substrate. Furthermore, an electrically contactable unit for
transmitting sound is provided, which is connected to or integrated with the substrate, in
particular having at least one vibrating element / exciter (preferably of the ceramic). It can be
provided. In order to adjust the natural frequency of the sonotrode, measures can be taken on the
unit for transmitting sound or even on the substrate.
[0004]
Patent document 1 describes the enclosure apparatus and method for acoustic levitation, and the
mass density of the test fluid is set larger than the mass density of carrier fluid. As a result, the
test fluid is properly kept in the range of the standing wave, and will be examined for a longer
time. Temperature control means are provided to ensure an adequate temperature. The
frequency generator, the acoustic transducer and the reflecting device are described as a set of
three parts and are provided to form a wave field. The three parts are placed in an encapsulation
/ housing that also generates a wave field. Acoustic transducers are placed directly on the
frequency generator. The structure of the acoustic transducer is not described in detail.
04-05-2019
2
[0005]
It is sensible to adjust the natural frequency of the sonotrode as precisely as possible, with regard
to the correct setting of the sonotrode, or with respect to the appropriate test or reproducible
results, respectively. Depending on the type or structure of the sonotrode, different measures can
be taken or the parameters can be changed. Some problems in using sonotrodes for acoustic
levitation are briefly described below. The invention makes it possible to remedy these problems
only in respect of their individual problems or also in respect of all these problems.
[0006]
In many cases, sonotrode can not be easily configured. Tuning or fine-tuning for manufacturing
tolerances or for specific use cases or environmental conditions is often not possible or labor
intensive. However, it may be desirable for such tuning or fine tuning, as minimal variations (eg,
small burrs on the touch point) may already affect the natural frequency of the sonotrode.
[0007]
In most cases, the sonotrode can only be operated for a long time, but this can be easily
overheated by the sonotrode, so it needs to be cooled again or it must be actively cooled using
the cooling capacity. It is because it does not. In particular, under high voltages (e.g., in the range
of at least 300 V), heat generation or noise is generated, which requires cooling of the sonotrode
and rapid power off.
[0008]
The specification of U.S. Pat. No. 5,959,015 describes a device with a plate-like flexible material
mounted on a shaft. The specification of U.S. Pat. No. 5,959,015 describes an apparatus in which
the end piece is mounted to the substrate in a flat state. US Pat. No. 5,958,014 describes a
holding element having a suction hole, in particular in conjunction with a fixing element. Patent
Document 5 shows the temperature dependency of the sonotrode natural frequency. U.S. Pat. No.
5,958,015 describes various shapes of the sound emitting end piece. It has been found that the
described arrangement can be improved, in particular with regard to the tuning of the natural
frequency and the achievable accuracy.
04-05-2019
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[0009]
German Patent No. 1995 6336 Patent U.S. Patent No. 4,757,227 German Patent No. 1207123
Patent Publication WO 02/090222 Pamphlet U.S. Patent Publication No. 2003/0154 790
German Patent Application Publication No. 102011015973 Specification
[0010]
The object of the present invention is to facilitate the inspection or to improve the accuracy or
the reproducibility of the inspection by providing a sonotrode or a device for the inspection of
substances (especially fluids) by acoustic levitation.
This object can also be considered as expanding the scope / use of the application of sonotrodes
or instruments, ie providing universally usable instruments as possible for several different tests
or substances. . In addition, the object of the invention is to provide a device which can be
adjusted very precisely, whereby a very wide range of applications can be developed. Another
purpose is to configure the sonotrode or instrument so that the inspection / measurement can be
performed reproducibly or easily at a high professional level. In particular, the object of the
present invention is to provide methods relating to at least some of these aspects.
[0011]
At least one of these objects is achieved by the sonotrode device according to claim 1 and the
device or mounting kit according to the respective dependent claims of the device and the
method according to the dependent claims of the method. The features of the exemplary
embodiments described below are combinable with one another, unless explicitly stated
otherwise.
[0012]
There is provided a sonotrode device for providing acoustic waves for inspection by acoustic
levitation, which comprises a substrate and an acoustic horn for emitting / emitting the acoustic
waves, in particular in the direction of the reflector. According to the invention, it is proposed
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that the acoustic horn and the substrate are different parts and that the acoustic horn can be
attached to the fastening point at the installation depth (Einbautiefe) on or in the substrate. . In
other words, the substrate and the acoustic horn together form at least two parts, in particular
two directly connected parts, and can be provided as a kind of mounting kit. As a result, each
sonotrode, in particular the natural frequency of the sonotrode can be adjusted individually. It
has been demonstrated that even removal of material with sandpaper can affect the natural
frequency. In particular, in a sonotrode device according to the invention, which can operate at a
low voltage or at a low voltage source, precise tuning of the natural frequency is very useful. The
user or service provider or vendor of the sonotrode device can also fine-tune the slight
manufacturing tolerances that are acceptable. The sonotrode device or final product can be
optimized substantially independently of the quality of the intermediate product from the
supplier. Each sonotrode can also be optimized in terms of the range of specific applications.
Adjustment or optimization of sonotrode properties can be facilitated.
[0013]
In general, in the past it has been possible to tune or influence the properties of the sonotrode by
means of the measures applied to the substrate. At present, the acoustic horn is realized
separately, so that precise tuning or fine adjustment is possible even at the connection or
fastening point between the substrate and the acoustic horn, in particular as deep as possible in
the recess. It is. For example, the acoustic horn can be screwed to the substrate with a specific
torque, or the absolute length or mass of the acoustic horn can be changed at a minimum.
Optionally, another acoustic horn may be used, in particular without the need to replace the
substrate. The material of the acoustic horn can also be selected regardless of the material of the
substrate.
[0014]
It is not necessary to focus on the exact shape, but a separate acoustic horn allows to change the
shape and also change the sound characteristics of the sonotrode device, at least to a small
extent, so as to facilitate the sonotrode device Can be optimized.
[0015]
Because the acoustic horn is realized in a compact, simple and preferably integral part, precise
tuning with the acoustic horn can be greatly expected.
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Furthermore, it has been confirmed that the measures in the area where the sound is emitted are
very effective.
[0016]
The installation depth on or in the substrate requires that the fastening points be displaced
towards the inside. In essence, it is necessary to distinguish between the two variants. That is, the
installation depth is measured from the front of the substrate facing the sound reflector (the
fastening point is further from the reflector) or from the free end of the shaft of the acoustic horn
to the fastening point in the shaft (The fastening point is close to the reflector). In the latter
variant, the substrate comprises, for example, studs. Both measures have the same effect, ie
acoustic and thermal or acoustic or thermal separation from the substrate and more effective or
finer tuning (especially at natural frequencies) of the acoustic horn There is.
[0017]
The acoustic horn does not necessarily have to be reversibly attachable. The removal function,
for example, facilitates replacement of the acoustic horn, but is not necessary. However, the
acoustic horn may be reversibly attachable. That is, the connection position or fastening point
can be configured to correspond to both repetitive installation (removal) and repetitive
subsequent tuning (e.g. re-adjustment of screwing torque).
[0018]
The fastening points can include one or more fastening points. The fastening points can extend
along an axial (wave expansion direction) section, either along the shaft of the acoustic horn or
along a recess or joint of the substrate. The fastening points can be provided in the individual
circumferential sections and circumferentially, or in the individual circumferential sections or
circumferentially.
[0019]
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The separate acoustic horn further enables better or more direct or tunable coupling to the
means for transmitting sound. The connection mechanism or coupling between these parts can
be designed individually.
[0020]
Because the acoustic horn is formed separately, the heat generation in the sonotrode device can
also be reduced. The low input voltage and optimized geometry of the sonotrode device have
been found to be a particularly effective measure to reduce heat generation. A separate acoustic
horn is advantageous here. The shaft of the acoustic horn can play a role in separating the
acoustical properties of the acoustic horn from the acoustical properties of the substrate, thereby
enabling more focused tuning, in a manner that may be particularly independent of the substrate.
It was confirmed to be possible.
[0021]
In a second step, the control program or control device can also optionally be adjusted to the
sonotrode device optimized by the connection point / connection point between the substrate
and the acoustic horn. In this way, software adjustments can also take shape adjustments into
account. Here, the control device can specifically control the frequency generator or amplifier
depending on the specific natural frequency of the sonotrode / sonotrode device. By being able
to influence the natural frequency of the sonotrode device by the configuration of the acoustic
horn, the control device, the sonotrode device as well as the frequency generator can be adjusted
relative to one another in a particular precise manner. Thus, the control program may, for
example, also relate to the natural frequency, in particular to the tightening torque of the
acoustic horn, to the cover or flange of the high pressure screw or sonotrode device, or to
pressure, temperature, or also to external environmental influences on the sonotrode device. ,
Adjustable. These parameters affect the natural frequency.
[0022]
Here, the control device can also be in communication with the amplifier of the device. The
amplifier can operate, for example, at a fundamental frequency in the range of 50 kHz. Thus, it
has been ascertained that not only fluids but also crystals, particles or other substances can be
properly examined using the sonotrode device according to the invention. Here, the choice of
04-05-2019
7
fluid is extremely wide. For example, air bubbles in the liquid can also be examined.
[0023]
It has also been found that the sonotrode device according to the invention is particularly
suitable for examinations that do not have to be switched off, in particular over long periods of
time (e.g. hours or even days). Here, a separate acoustic horn operating in conjunction with the
recess / cavity, in particular in the coupling position, provides a beneficial effect. It has been
found that the recess provides the advantage that vibrations are not easily transmitted to further
components, in particular the housing. As a result, vibrations can be more efficiently transmitted
to the acoustic horn, particularly in high pressure applications. Also, depending on the shape of
the substrate or the choice of material, the maximum operating time may be affected or the
cooling effort may be reduced. According to a variant of the invention, no cooling is necessary.
[0024]
The invention also relates to high pressure (e.g., in the range of up to 2x10 <7> Pa (200 bar) or
1x10 <8> Pa (1000 bar) applications. Higher pressures are also feasible. For example, certain
high pressures can be achieved by sealing (especially O-rings) and / or magnetic coupling. The
high pressure can be formed, for example, by CO2 gas. The invention also relates especially to a
wide temperature range, for example a range of temperatures well above -20 ° C. to 180 ° C.
(eg temperatures of well above 400 ° C. or even 400 ° C.). Sonotrode devices are configured to
be used in a wide range of pressure and temperature spectra, or in a wide range of pressure or
temperature spectra. A sonotrode device can correspond, for example, to a temperature spectrum
of -20 ° C to 180 ° C or 250 ° C.
[0025]
It is preferred to use waves from a frequency above 20 kHz to a range of ultrasound (e.g. any
frequency in the range of 40 kHz (fundamental frequency), for example above 20 kHz). Another
characteristic of the wave is its amplitude. The amplitude can be expressed in units [Vpp], where
Vpp represents the voltage difference between two voltage peaks ("peak-to-peak"). The amplitude
may, for example, be in the range of 50 Vpp (base voltage), corresponding to the initial voltage of
a frequency generator of, for example 10 Vpp, for example increased by a factor of 5 by the
amplifier. Here, the frequency generator can comprise a low voltage source.
04-05-2019
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[0026]
Here, as an acoustic horn, from which an acoustic wave is initially emitted, i.e. emitting an
acoustic wave into the environment (in particular the examination room), respectively, parts or
elements or component parts will be understood. Acoustic horns can also be described as
acoustic transducers or transducer plates.
[0027]
As already mentioned in the patent document 1, the acoustic horn can have various shapes.
According to the invention, the acoustic horn preferably comprises a conical shape, or
alternatively is conical at one end. At the other end, the acoustic horn may be rod-shaped or
shaft-shaped, in particular it may also be referred to as a "pin", since it is formed as a round bar.
Between one end and the other, a tapered or fluctuating continuous transition or run can be
provided. In other words, the diameter of the acoustic horn can be progressively larger towards
the end of the conical shape. The acoustic horn can be constructed or shaped in the form of a
valve with a valve plate and can be arranged upstream of the injection chamber in the
combustion engine. Here, the plate-shaped end has a function of emitting or reflecting sound.
According to one variant, the acoustic horn can comprise a shoulder on the shaft, on which the
acoustic horn can be fixed to the front face of the substrate. The shaft advantageously comprises
the same diameter at least in cross section. The shaft advantageously comprises a centering part.
The acoustic horn does not necessarily have to include an especially long shaft, but it can also be
formed essentially by a transducer plate or a plate, eg containing only relatively short pins or
extensions. Depending on the field of application, it has been found that relatively long shafts
(e.g. those having a length at least corresponding to the diameter of the plate) can facilitate
tuning. This is because the relatively long shaft allows the fixed point of the acoustic horn to be
displaced inside the substrate or even away from the front surface of the substrate in the
direction of the reflector. The relatively long shaft offers considerable options for precise
adjustment of the natural frequency, ie largely independent of the specific design of the
substrate, in particular in conjunction with the recesses in the substrate or in the shaft. According
to one variant, the shaft is longer than the width of the substrate.
[0028]
04-05-2019
9
Used in conjunction with the sonotrodes according to the invention advantageously used at low
voltages below 100 V, preferably even below the amplitude of 50 Vpp, the most accurate tuning
of the natural frequency is particularly advantageous. As a result, it is possible to provide a
highly efficient configuration. The high efficiency configuration means that even if it emits noise
it operates only slightly, preferably without noise, and with minimal heat buildup, no cooling
required, and can be used continuously over long operating times It is a structure. A number of
advantages can be achieved by precise calibration of the natural frequency coupled to the low
voltage, as compared to the conventional high voltages so far (especially above 300 V).
[0029]
Also, low voltage or small amplitude below 50 Vpp allows human contact without danger. You
can touch the device. A large amount of energy is not input to the test sample. This adds new
areas of application.
[0030]
The acoustic horn is preferably made of titanium (material) so that it can be used in a broad
spectrum, especially in terms of temperature and pressure. If the acoustic horns are one-piece,
each formed integrally and comprise a relatively long shaft arranged in the recess of the base,
tuning in a relatively simple manner is possible. The acoustic horn can also be made up of several
parts, but tuning may be more difficult, or there may be further modifications that are first to be
understood. For example, the plate may be configured separately from the shaft, thereby
providing further options in terms of adjustment, and may also provide advantages in mounting.
The shaft may also be formed on the substrate, eg, integrally with the substrate / integrally with
the substrate, in which case the portion of the acoustic horn as a separate body may, for example,
comprise only the plate or the plate and Includes short appendages in the form of shafts. This
can also be advantageous when attaching the sonotrode or when placing the sonotrode outside
the examination room (in particular the high pressure observation cell) or outside the high
temperature examination room. In other words, the exact embodiment of the acoustic horn needs
to be specified by the situation. However, it is important that the intersection between the
substrate and the shaft be adjustable in a precise manner. This is because it has been found that
the synchronization between the substrate and the shaft is particularly influential or effective.
The shaft integrally connected with the substrate further displaces the tuning position towards
the plate, which may not be very effective. Nevertheless, this configuration may also be
advantageous in individual cases.
04-05-2019
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[0031]
According to one exemplary embodiment, the acoustic horn comprises a shaft with coupling
means, which can be attached to the fastening point at the installation depth on or in the
substrate. This facilitates separation.
[0032]
According to an exemplary embodiment, the shaft of the acoustic horn / the above-mentioned
shaft comprises a contact surface on the front side, said contact surface being formed
corresponding to the contact surface on the substrate. The front side contact surface can also be
formed in a recess of the shaft. Corresponding contact surfaces facilitate the transmission of the
solid-borne sound in a definable manner. At the fastening points, the corresponding contact
surfaces can be brought into contact with one another, in particular by means of a
predeterminable biasing or contact force (pressure or surface pressure).
[0033]
The acoustic horn can be formed integrally with the plate and the shaft, in particular conical in
shape. The acoustic horn may be rigid / inflexible, in particular completely metal or at least some
metal material.
[0034]
According to one exemplary embodiment, the sonotrode device comprises a high pressure
resistant housing and at a high pressure of more than 2 × 10 <7> Pa (200 bar), in particular up
to 1 × 10 <8> Pa (1000 bar) It is configured to work. Furthermore, the sonotrode device can be
configured to provide an acoustic wave at a low voltage, in particular such that the amplitude of
the emitted acoustic wave continues below 50 Vpp. The sonotrode device can comprise a low
voltage source.
[0035]
04-05-2019
11
According to one exemplary embodiment, the acoustic horn is centered on the substrate, in
particular centered on the shaft of the acoustic horn. This allows for very precise alignment of
the acoustic horn, even at relatively long shafts or relatively deep installation depths. Preferably,
the centering portion is provided in the recess. The centering part can be provided by coupling
means.
[0036]
According to one exemplary embodiment, the fastening points are configured to perform form-fit
and pressure-fit fastening, or form-fit or press-fit fastening, in particular reversible fastening.
This allows for a variety of variations and provides high flexibility in tuning. The acoustic horn
can, for example, be screwed onto the substrate with a predefined torque. Therefore, it is
advantageous if a working surface for the tool, in particular a wrench flat for an open-end
wrench, is provided on the acoustic horn (preferably on the conical part of the plate). Here, the
fastening point also advantageously comprises both and / or a coupling and a centering part.
Both measures allow very precise alignment of the acoustic horn.
[0037]
According to an exemplary embodiment, the substrate comprises a cavity or recess for fastening
/ coupling the acoustic horn at the fastening point, in particular the coupling means are
preferably shape-fit and / or pressure-fit. For example, including coupling means including
cavities or recesses, including screws (in particular, internal threads). Alternatively or
additionally, the acoustic horn may comprise coupling means, in particular an external thread
adapted to correspond to an internal thread. A screw or similar mechanical connection of the
coupling means can, for example, be provided at the blind hole. The fastening point can be
defined by the hole.
[0038]
The recess may have various shapes, in particular depending on the shape of the shaft. For
example, the shell surface of the shaft extends parallel to the inner shell surface of the recess, at
least in cross section. The inner shell surface of the recess may, for example, be cylindrical. The
04-05-2019
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recess may be deep rather than wide, or wider than deep, depending on the configuration of the
substrate and the acoustic horn. The bottom of the recess may be wider than the diameter of the
shaft, which facilitates the separation.
[0039]
It has been determined that cavities or depressions can result in acoustic separation from the
substrate. For example, the use of a cavity or recess can more absorb vibrations. The cavity may,
for example, be provided by a hole. The cavity may also include a plurality of recesses or
shoulders that are continuous with one another in a cascade-like manner. Similarly, the recess
may also include shoulders or shoulders, particularly at the periphery.
[0040]
In addition, the bond may be displaced further towards the interior of the substrate, between the
acoustic horn and the substrate. As a result, it is advantageous when tuning. The fastening points
of the acoustic horn can be displaced inwards, in particular by means of the relatively long shaft
of the acoustic horn. As a result, the distance between the acoustic horn and the unit for
transmitting sound can be influenced.
[0041]
The coupling means may comprise a highly freely selectable connection / fastening type, such as,
for example, a bayonet mechanism, a screwing, a latch mechanism and / or a joint type.
According to an exemplary embodiment, the fastening point or coupling means comprise a joint,
in particular a press-in joint or an interference fit. For example, the diameter of the shell surface
of the acoustic horn can be defined relative to the inner diameter of the hole in the substrate. The
fittings can be used to align the acoustic horn very precisely. The coupling can be provided in
addition to or as an alternative to the centering part.
[0042]
According to one variant, alternatively or additionally, a recess can be provided on the acoustic
04-05-2019
13
horn, in particular in connection with a female screw hole. Each recess may, for example, be
provided by a hole. Each recess may have, for example, an inner diameter 1.2 to 3 times larger
than the diameter of the female screw hole. Since in some cases it may be a thin shaft, it is
advantageous to form the recess on the substrate.
[0043]
According to an exemplary embodiment, the sonotrode device comprises an electrically
contactable unit for transmitting sound, in particular including at least one vibrating element,
preferably of ceramic. The unit is connected to a base, which includes fastening means for
fastening / coupling the unit for transmitting sound, the fastening means preferably being a
form-fit or press-fit. So far, the properties of sonotrode could be influenced at best only by the
tuning of the unit to transmit the sound (e.g. the fastening of the unit on the substrate). Presently,
the fact that the acoustic horn is configured separately allows precise tuning or precise
adjustment to multiple connection points or junctions. Here, the acoustic horn can be fastened to
the substrate and a unit for transmitting sound can also be fastened to the substrate, in particular
on the other side of the acoustic horn on the opposite front side of the substrate. Optionally, the
unit for transmitting sound and the acoustic horn are in direct contact.
[0044]
Here, it will be understood as a unit for transmitting sound, a vibrating assembly connected to a
frequency generator or amplifier, which is screwed to the base, for example using a screw. The
units for transmitting the sound can be constructed "sandwich-like". That is, the unit may include
a plurality of exciters (e.g. blocks (made of ceramics) or disks, in particular piezoelectric
ceramics).
[0045]
The unit for transmitting the sound can be fastened to the substrate, for example using a
(ceramic) screw. Here, the properties of the sonotrode device can also be influenced by the
choice of the material of the individual components of the unit for transmitting sound. As the
vibrating element, it is preferable to use a piezoelectric ceramic, and in particular, a ceramic
block or a ceramic disk is preferable.
04-05-2019
14
[0046]
Fastening means can include, for example, very freely selectable mechanisms such as bayonet
mechanisms, screwing, latching mechanisms, joints and the like. According to an exemplary
embodiment, the sonotrode device includes a connection mechanism for connecting the acoustic
horn and a unit for transmitting sound, the connection mechanism being a shape fit and / or a
pressure fit. is there. The connection mechanism makes it possible to take further measures in
the case of precise adjustment. The acoustic horn can, for example, be connected directly with
the unit for transmitting sound, and fixed on the unit for transmitting sound, or directly
connected with the unit for transmitting sound It can be fixed on top. A connection mechanism
can be provided by two parts of an acoustic horn and a unit for transmitting sound. In particular,
the inner end of the acoustic horn can be shaped to correspond in shape to the inner end of the
unit for transmitting sound. The connection mechanism is operable or configurable
independently of the substrate. For example, the substrate may include a through hole in which
the connection mechanism may be disposed. Coupling means and fastening means are provided
independently of the connection mechanism.
[0047]
According to an exemplary embodiment, the sonotrode device fastens the acoustic horn on / in
the substrate and / or on the above-mentioned unit for transmitting sound / on the unit for
transmitting sound And the coupling portion is either or both of a shape fitting type and a
pressure fitting type. The coupling may be configured to connect the acoustic horn directly to a
unit for transmitting sound. By means of the couplings, the acoustic horn and the units for
transmitting sound can also be locked relative to one another. The junction optionally includes
two or three coupling locations / coupling points, ie, the respective coupling locations of the unit
for transmitting sound and the acoustic horn, and the coupling points for positioning the junction
on the substrate. obtain. The bond can optionally be anchored at the substrate so that in any case
two parts can be attached directly to the bond. Coupling means and fastening means are
provided on the joint.
[0048]
The connection mechanism can also be provided independently of the substrate, but the
connection is, as opposed to the connection mechanism, arranged at a predefined connection
04-05-2019
15
point on the substrate or at a predefined connection point. It is provided to be arranged. Thus,
the connection allows two parts to be connected to the substrate at only one connection point.
[0049]
According to an advantageous exemplary embodiment, the distance between the inner end of the
acoustic horn and the inner end of the unit for transmitting sound is predefinable or tunable.
Alternatively or additionally, the installation depth of the acoustic horn in the substrate or the
installation depth in the acoustic horn can be predefined or tunable. Alternatively or additionally,
the installation depth of the unit for transmitting the sound in the substrate can be predefined or
tunable. As a result, it is possible in any case to flexibly adjust the parameters of the sonotrode
device, in particular the natural frequency.
[0050]
According to an exemplary embodiment, the shaft of the acoustic horn / the aforementioned
shaft is introduced by the guide holes of the high pressure housing. According to an exemplary
embodiment, the shaft of the acoustic horn / the shaft described above uses in particular at least
one sealing arranged radially on the shaft and / or at least one high pressure-resistant sealing
arranged on the front face And sealed inside the guide hole of the high pressure resistant
housing / the above-mentioned guide hole. This configuration expands the field of use of the
device.
[0051]
Item 1 At least one of the above objects is also realized by a sonotrode device for providing
sound waves for inspection by acoustic levitation comprising a substrate and an acoustic horn
emitting sound waves in the direction of the reflector. . The acoustic horn and the substrate are
different parts, and the acoustic horn is attached at the fastening point at an installation depth on
or in the substrate. The acoustic horn is mounted at an installation depth at a fastening point on
or in the substrate, in particular comprising a shaft with coupling means, so that the natural
frequency of the sonotrode device can be defined by or at the fastening point . The sonotrode
device comprises a high pressure resistant housing and is configured to operate at high
pressures in excess of 2 × 10 <7> Pa (200 bar), in particular up to 1 × 10 <8> Pa (1000 bar).
The shaft is introduced by the guide holes of the housing and in particular the guide of the
04-05-2019
16
housing using at least one sealing arranged radially on the shaft and / or at least one high
pressure-resistant sealing arranged on the front side Sealed inside the hole. The sonotrode device
is configured to provide sound waves at low voltages, in particular such that the amplitude of the
emitted sound waves continues below 50 Vpp. Many of the aforementioned benefits can be
inferred.
[0052]
Item 2 At least one of the above objects is also realized by a sonotrode device for providing
sound waves for inspection by acoustic levitation comprising a substrate and an acoustic horn
emitting sound waves in the direction of the reflector. . The acoustic horn and the substrate are
different parts, and the acoustic horn is attached at the fastening point at an installation depth on
or in the substrate. The acoustic horn comprises a shaft with coupling means mounted at an
installation depth on or in the substrate. The fastening points are configured to fasten with a
form fit and / or a press fit. The substrate or shaft includes coupling means including a cavity or
recess for coupling the acoustic horn to the fastening point. The installation depth of the acoustic
horn in the substrate or the installation depth in the acoustic horn is tunable, in particular so that
the natural frequency of the sonotrode device can be defined by or at the fastening point. Many
of the aforementioned advantages are provided by the sonotrode device.
[0053]
At least one of the above-mentioned objects is also achieved by the device according to the
corresponding independent claim, as described above, in particular for inspecting materials by
acoustic levitation. The apparatus comprises at least one sonotrode device according to the
invention and operates with high pressure above 200 bar maximum and / or low voltage
oscillation amplitude below 50 Vpp in particular Is configured. The device may generally be
configured to inspect and confirm or inspect or determine a substance, sample or object, in
particular by acoustic levitation. The device may be suitable for inspection of the overpressure
range and inspection of the negative pressure range.
[0054]
At least one of the above-mentioned objects is also realized by an instrument comprising at least
one sonotrode for inspecting a substance by acoustic levitation, in particular by means of at least
04-05-2019
17
one sonotrode device according to the invention. The device is a controller configured to control
the sonotrode / sonotrode device, and optionally manually guided by the user, or both by means
of an autopilot, in particular both pressure and temperature measurements. And / or optionally,
an automated frequency generator and / or an amplifier of the instrument.
[0055]
Preferably, the controller is configured to switch between the autopilot and the manual mode.
Preferably, the device is provided for that purpose with an audiovisual input mask, for example a
touch screen. For example, the controller may be configured to adjust the frequency and / or
amplitude, or to implement frequency and / or amplitude changes preset by the user manually.
[0056]
According to an exemplary embodiment, the control device of the device is adapted to at least
one parameter, in particular the natural frequency of the sonotrode / sonotrode device, in
particular the control device for the fastening point / the above-mentioned fastening point or
installation depth And / or the connection mechanism / adaptation mechanism described above
and / or the connection between the sonotrode or the connection of the sonotrode device to the
substrate / the above-mentioned connection. In other words, the controller can control the
frequency generator or amplifier depending on how / where the acoustic horn is fastened to the
substrate. The controller can adjust the natural frequency by calculating the natural frequency, in
particular based on pressure and / or temperature measurements. Before that, the sonotrode
device can be adjusted or fine-tuned taking into account certain pressure and / or temperature
conditions.
[0057]
Here, there can be a direct dependency between the sonotrode device and the controller or its
software. Based on the tuning of the sonotrode device, a function or dependency can be
determined, based on which the natural frequency can be calculated and preset to the sound
producing component as the operating or operating frequency.
[0058]
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18
According to an exemplary embodiment having advantage, the device is gas-resistant and
optionally comprising a sonotrode device at least partially, also comprising a (high) pressureresistant housing, the device being in the housing Preferably, a pressure measuring unit and / or
a temperature measuring unit for respectively detecting the measured values of are preferably
provided, each measuring unit preferably being in communication with the control device of the
instrument / the control device described above. This structure allows accurate control of the
sonotrode device in response to a plurality of different parameters / measurements.
[0059]
According to an exemplary embodiment having advantage, the device is configured to operate
the sonotrode device without cooling energy without active cooling, in particular over a period of
at least several hours, for example at least three hours or five hours. It is done. The complete
injection of the coolant or the active introduction of the cooling capacity not only offers an
energy advantage but also enables high-precision inspections and, in particular, simple structures
in the high-pressure observation cell. . Since the sonotrode device can be operated by the
controller, in particular based on the temperature measurement, the sonotrode device operates
without cooling in thermal equilibrium, and cooling is unnecessary. As a result, in particular,
operational safety is enhanced. Therefore, inadequate cooling does not result in an interruption
of the experiment. In other words, the sonotrode device according to the invention is very robust,
suitable for complex inspections that require less maintenance and require high accuracy.
[0060]
At least one of the above-mentioned objects is also, as mentioned above, a sonotrode, in
particular an apparatus for controlling a sonotrode device according to the invention and / or for
inspecting materials by acoustic levitation, in particular the corresponding independent claim A
method for controlling a device according to the invention as described in paragraph 1. A
sonotrode / sonotrode device is applied with a frequency according to its natural frequency, and
the sonotrode device is high voltage, in particular up to 2 × 10 <7>. Operates with Pa (200 bar)
and with low voltage oscillation amplitude, especially with 50 Vpp both or either, and the
frequency is preferably based on actual temperature value and / or actual pressure value Is set in
advance. The temperature and pressure values can be preset for a controller that determines the
frequency that the frequency generator gives to the sonotrode based on the natural frequency of
the sonotrode.
04-05-2019
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[0061]
At least one of the above objects is also a sonotrode, in particular an apparatus for controlling a
sonotrode apparatus according to the invention and / or for inspecting materials by acoustic
levitation, in particular the invention according to the corresponding independent claims. Is
realized by a control device for controlling the device according to The control device, relative to
the sonotrode / sonotrode device, oscillates at its natural frequency as well as at the sonotrode /
sonotrode device, in particular at high pressure above 2 × 10 <7> Pa (200 bar) and / or less
than 50 Vpp The amplitude is configured to provide a frequency depending on the actual
temperature value and / or the actual pressure value.
[0062]
Preferably, the controller communicates with a reflector or other sonotrode device, in particular
to control / regulate the distance between the reflector and the acoustic horn. The reflector is
movable to adjust the distance to the sonotrode device, to set the alignment to a standing wave
or a predetermined wavelength, or to make a kind of fine adjustment. The intensity of the
acoustic field is adjustable. In particular, the form of the substance / fluid held so as to float in
the wave field can be changed by adjusting the intensity.
[0063]
At least one of the above-mentioned objects is also realized by the use of a sonotrode, in
particular a sonotrode device according to the invention, for inspecting substances by acoustic
levitation, a sonotrode / sonotrode device comprising a sonotrode of a substrate of a sonotrode /
sonotrode device. / With the type of fastening the acoustic horn of the sonotrode device and with
the natural frequency defined by the location of fastening the acoustic horn or by its type or
location.
[0064]
At least one of the above-mentioned objects is also realized by the use of a sonotrode, in
particular a sonotrode device according to the invention, in an apparatus for inspecting matter by
acoustic levitation, a sonotrode / sonotrode device comprising low voltage, in particular For
voltage amplitudes that indicate the amplitude of the acoustic wave being operated, it operates
below 50 Vpp.
04-05-2019
20
[0065]
At least one of the above-mentioned objects is also realized by the use of a sonotrode, in
particular a sonotrode device according to the invention, in an apparatus for the inspection of
matter by acoustic levitation, the shaft of the sonotrode / sonotrode device's acoustic horn being
advance. At a definable installation depth, it is coupled to the substrate of the sonotrode /
sonotrode device with a predefined torque in the recess.
This affects the natural frequency of the sonotrode.
[0066]
At least one of the above objects is also realized in an apparatus for inspecting matter by acoustic
levitation, in particular by the use of a sonotrode device according to the invention, an acoustic
horn of a sonotrode / sonotrode device, in particular an acoustic horn The shaft of the device is
guided through the wall of the instrument, arranged separately from the substrate of the
sonotrode / sonotrode device, sealed or soundproofed with respect to the substrate, and the
sonotrode device (10) is 2 × 10 Operate at high pressure above <7> Pa (200 bar) and / or
vibration amplitude below 50 Vpp.
[0067]
At least one of the above-mentioned objects is also realized by the use of a sonotrode, in
particular a sonotrode device according to the invention, in an apparatus for the inspection of
matter by acoustic levitation, the sonotrode / sonotrode device depending on its natural
frequency , Controlled by the controller.
[0068]
At least one of the above objects is also realized by the use of a sonotrode, in particular the use of
a control device for controlling a sonotrode device according to the invention, the control device
comprising at least one parameter of a sonotrode / sonotrode device, in particular It is adapted
individually to the natural frequencies.
[0069]
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21
At least one of the above objects is also realized by a method for manufacturing or providing a
sonotrode, in particular a sonotrode device according to the invention according to the
corresponding independent claim, wherein the shaft of the acoustic horn has a predefined
installation depth The natural frequency of the sonotrode / sonotrode device is adjusted or
defined by the fastening, in the recess in the or in the shaft of the base of the sonotrode /
sonotrode device.
The acoustic horn is preferably fastened separately to the substrate independent of the further
components of the sonotrode.
The acoustic horn is, for example, manually screwed to the substrate with a predefined torque or
can be automated.
Optionally, the acoustic horn can be fastened, in particular fixed, to the substrate together with a
unit for transmitting sound.
[0070]
At least one of the above objects is also achieved, as mentioned above, by a sonotrode, in
particular a mounting kit for a sonotrode device according to the invention according to the
corresponding independent claim.
The mounting kit comprises at least one acoustic horn as a separate part, the substrate of the
sonotrode / sonotrode device being formed corresponding to the coupling means of the shaft of
the acoustic horn, where the acoustic horn can be defined at an installation depth, in particular It
comprises coupling means attachable to the recess. By providing the sonotrode device with a
separate acoustic horn, in particular, precise tuning is possible in a simple manner.
[0071]
At least one of the above objects also mounts / fastens the shaft of the acoustic horn provided
separately from the substrate of the sonotrode / sonotrode device at a fastening point at a
04-05-2019
22
predefined installation depth on or in the substrate The sonotrode, in particular realized by the
sonotrode apparatus according to the invention, preferably the natural frequency of the
sonotrode / sonotrode apparatus is defined by the attachment / fastening. The horn can be
placed separately from the substrate, isolated from the substrate, or separated and sealed in the
examination room.
[0072]
Summary: Sonotrodes are used to inspect materials based on acoustic levitation. In order to
obtain reproducible measurement results or to broaden the field of use of such instruments, each
sonotrode needs to meet a series of requirements. The exact calibration of the frequency and the
precise interaction between the sonotrode and the frequency generator are of particular
importance. The invention provides that the acoustic horn and the substrate of the sonotrode are
provided as separate parts, and in particular for low-voltage operation, so that the acoustic horn
is on the substrate or in a particular way, so that the amplitude is less than 50 Vpp. It is proposed
to be attachable in a substrate. Here, the generation of heat can be prevented by selecting the
structure of the sonotrode such that the operating voltage is a relatively low maximum low
voltage value, for example 50 Vpp (max). Furthermore, the invention relates to a control or
manufacturing method for such a sonotrode device. Here, in each case, it is possible to expand
the field of use and to improve the reproducibility and the quality of the measurement results.
[0073]
The invention will be explained in more detail in the following figures, but references also apply
to the other figures, both in terms of part numbers not explicitly described in one particular
figure of each figure. The drawings are shown as follows.
[0074]
FIG. 2 is a partial cross-sectional side view, in schematic representation, of a sonotrode /
sonotrode apparatus according to an exemplary embodiment of the invention. FIG. 5 is a partial
cross-sectional side view in schematic representation of a sonotrode / sonotrode apparatus
according to a further exemplary embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 5 is a partial crosssectional side view in schematic representation of a sonotrode / sonotrode apparatus according
to a further exemplary embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 1 is a schematic view of an
04-05-2019
23
apparatus for inspecting material by acoustic levitation according to an exemplary embodiment
of the present invention. FIG. 5 is a partial cross-sectional side view, in schematic representation,
of a sonotrode / sonotrode apparatus according to a further exemplary embodiment of the
present invention. FIG. 6 is a cross-sectional side view of a schematic representation of a
sonotrode / sonotrode device according to one of the exemplary embodiments of the invention
attached to a housing or high pressure observation cell. FIG. 6 is a cross-sectional side view of a
schematic representation of a sonotrode / sonotrode device according to one of the exemplary
embodiments of the invention attached to a housing or high pressure observation cell. FIG. 6 is a
cross-sectional side view of a schematic representation of a sonotrode / sonotrode device
according to one of the exemplary embodiments of the invention attached to a housing or high
pressure observation cell. FIG. 2 is a general view of user guidance or control steps or setup steps
of a device or control device according to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention in
schematic form;
[0075]
In FIG. 1, the sound comprises a substrate 11, in particular a first end mass, a (second) end mass
17, a first electrode 12.7 and a second electrode 12.8. A sonotrode device 10 is shown having a
unit 12 for transmission and an acoustic horn 13. The horn 13 is preferably made of metal. In
each case, the two electrodes contact the vibrating elements 12.1, 12.2, in particular the
piezoelectric ceramic. Each electrical contact 12.4 is performed on the front side. The number of
electrodes or vibrating elements is variable. Fastening means 12.3, in particular screws with
external threads, secure these components to the base 11 in a sandwich-like manner. The
fastening means 12.3 clamp or fix the five components 12.1, 12.2, 12.7, 12.8, 17 arranged in a
row towards the substrate 11.
[0076]
In FIG. 1, the sonotrode device 10 is shown vertically aligned. In operation, the sonotrode device
10 can also be rotated 90 degrees to align horizontally (FIG. 3).
[0077]
The substrate 11 comprises at least one coupling means, ie a coupling element 11.1 for an
acoustic horn. In the illustrated example, the coupling means comprise an internal thread.
04-05-2019
24
Furthermore, the base body 11 is formed on the first front side in the direction of the unit 12 in
which the coupling means 11.1 are formed or for the coupling means 11.1 to transmit sound, in
particular parallel to the fastening means 12.3 or It comprises a cavity or recess 11.7 extending
along the same geometrical axis. The recess 11.7 has a positive effect, for example, on the heat
generation of the sonotrode device.
[0078]
The acoustic horn 13 comprises corresponding coupling means 13.1 including an external
thread provided on the shaft 13.5, in particular at the end of the shaft. The coupling means 13.1
may comprise, in addition to the screw connection, a centering part 13.5b, in particular a
coupling. The position of the centering part 13.5b may deviate from the illustrated arrangement,
in particular if the installation depth or the position at which the solid-borne sound is transferred
from the base to the acoustic horn is influenced by the centering part. Such a centering part can
be provided only in FIG. 1, but may be provided in an acoustic horn according to a further
exemplary embodiment. The centering provided at the outer edge of the recess 11.7 allows very
precise alignment of the shaft 13.5. The acoustic horn 13 comprises a plate 13.7 at its free end.
Sound waves are emitted and reflected from the plate 13.7.
[0079]
On the opposite side of the acoustic horn 13, the base body 11 comprises fastening means 11.2
for the unit for transmitting sound, in particular fastening means including internal threads. The
fastening means 11.2 are preferably provided along or at least parallel to the same geometrical
axis as the joining means 11.1. The shaft is attached at the fastening point P2 at the installation
depth x2 (FIG. 3, FIG. 5) of the base.
[0080]
The first vibration element 12.1 abuts on the second front face 11.4 of the base 11. The
fastening means 12.3 abut the front face 17.4 of the second end mass 17. The second end mass
17 comprises a through hole 17.6 into which the fastening means 12.3 are guided. According to
a variant, the internal thread corresponding to the fastening means 12.3 is only formed on the
base body 11.
04-05-2019
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[0081]
The separated acoustic horn 13 is fastened to the base 11 in different ways, in particular without
the need to change the fastening of the unit for transmitting sound. As a result, in both cases,
particularly suitable form-fitting and / or pressure-fitting coupling means 11.1 are also
specifically formed. For example, the distance between the plate 13.7 and the front face 11.3 is
adjustable.
[0082]
FIG. 2 shows a variant in which the horn 13 is also connected directly to the fastening means
12.3. As a result, the base 11 is provided with a through hole 11.6 to which the fastening means
12.3 is guided. By means of the connection 12 for connecting the horn 13 with the unit 12 for
transmitting sound or with the fastening means 12.3, these components are positively coupled to
one another directly in terms of vibration. The fastening means 12.3 can fasten the five
components 12.1, 12.2, 12.7, 12.8, 17 arranged in a row to the substrate 11, thereby the horn
13 Can be fixed to the base 11 or to a unit 12 for transmitting sound. The connection mechanism
15 may comprise, for example, an internally threaded bore of the shaft 13.5 formed
correspondingly to the external thread of the fastening means 12.3. Here, the fastening means
12.3 do not necessarily have to interact directly with the substrate 11.
[0083]
In the example of FIG. 2, a joint 13.5d formed on a part of the shaft 13.5 is also illustrated. The
positions shown are also changeable. Such a joint can be shown only in FIG. 2 but may also be
provided in an acoustic horn according to a further exemplary embodiment.
[0084]
FIG. 3 shows a variant in which the acoustic horn 13 / the above-mentioned acoustic horn 13 is
fastened on the basic body 11 at one fastening point P2 or at least one attachment point. In this
case, the position of the acoustic horn 13 can be adjusted, for example, by means of a predefined
tightening torque. The shaft 13.5 can form a coupling with the coupling means 11.1 at least in
04-05-2019
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cross section. The coupling means 11.1 can secure the coupling, or the coupling means 11.1 is
configured, for example, to a pressure coupling. The inner end 13.5a of the acoustic horn is in
particular provided at a mounting depth / installation depth x2 measured from the
corresponding front face 11.3 to the inner end 13.5a. The installation depth x2 can be defined
independently of the size of the recess. According to a variant, the installation depth x2 can
correspond to the depth of the recess 11.7. In the configuration shown in FIG. 3, the acoustic
horn can also be moved further into the base until the corresponding contact surface 11.1a,
13.5a on the front side abuts. The inner end of the acoustic horn is provided at a distance x1
from the inner end of the unit 12 or the fastening means 12.3 for transmitting sound. The
installation depth x2, and thereby optionally also the distance x1, can also be changed, but in
particular manually. A unit 12 for transmitting sound is fastened on the base 11 at the fastening
point P1 or at the attachment point. The inner end of the unit 12 for transmitting sound or the
inner end of the fastening means 12.3 is in particular provided at the mounting depth /
installation depth x3 measured from the corresponding front face 11.4.
[0085]
The variant shown in FIG. 3 can be combined with the features of the variant shown in FIGS. 1
and 2. In particular, optionally, a connection mechanism 15 or coupling can also be provided.
Figure 4 shows a frequency generator 101, a reflector 102, preferably a high pressure and heat
insulated housing, or a high pressure or heat insulation housing 103, a sonotrode apparatus 10 /
at least one sonotrode apparatus 10 as described above. 1 shows an apparatus 100 for the
acoustic levitation inspection of a substance, comprising two temperature measuring parts 30, at
least one pressure measuring part 40 and also a control device 50 connected thereto. In the
housing 103 a wave field W is generated between the sonotrode device 10 and the reflector 102.
Here, the controller 50 may be in communication with the measuring units 30, 40, the reflector
102 and the frequency generator 101 of the sonotrode apparatus 10, or any of them. An
operating panel 60 having an optical or photoacoustic input mask or display / touch screen is
provided on the outer surface of the device 100 for user access.
[0086]
Further, first and second sealing or sealing systems 105, 107 are illustrated. Sealing realizes a
high pressure compatible structure. The sealing can be configured, for example, for a pressure
differential in the range of 2 × 10 <7> Pa (200 bar) or 1 × 10 <8> Pa (1000 bar). Here, the
sealing can in each case also achieve a soundproofing of the individual components from one
another. Here, the first sealing system 105 can, for example, relate to the sealing of the individual
04-05-2019
27
components of the sonotrode device 10 or the housing 103, and the second sealing system 107
can, for example, be an individual measuring unit 30, 40. Can be related to the sealing of the
Each sealing system can include one or more o-rings. Here, the sealing in the form of an O-ring
can fulfill the soundproofing function. The arrangement of the sealing / sealing system is only
illustrated by way of example and may deviate therefrom. For example, sealing may also be
provided directly to the sonotrode device 10.
[0087]
In FIG. 5 there is shown a sonotrode device 10 having a base 11 with a front side 11.3 (not
shown) plug 11.8 directed to a reflector. The plug 11.8 may be a component of the coupling
means 11.1 or may provide the coupling means 11.1. The coupling means 11.1 in this case
comprise an external thread formed on the plug 11.8. The acoustic horn 13 comprises a cavity
13.8 shaped geometrically to correspond to the plug 11.8. The coupling means 13.1 of the
acoustic horn 13 is formed in this cavity 13.8 and comprises an internal thread. Optionally,
alternative types of shape-fit and / or pressure-fit connections may be provided deviating from
the screw. Optionally, a recess may also be provided, for example, in an acoustic horn having an
inner diameter 1.2 to 2 times larger than the diameter of the cavity 13.8. The cavity and recess
are then merged with one another at the shoulder. Also, as shown in FIG. 6C, fastening may, for
example, be performed exclusively on the bottom of cavity 13.8. The shaft is attached to the base
at the fastening point P2 to a depth of installation depth x2.
[0088]
In Figures 6A, 6B, 6C, several optional variants for mounting a sonotrode device according to the
invention are shown. Since the acoustic horn 13 is designed separately from the base body 11,
the mounting can be carried out in a particularly flexible manner. For example, the acoustic horn
13 can be clamped or clamped to the base 11 on the housing wall 103, for example on the wall
of a high pressure observation cell (FIGS. 6A, 6C). Optionally, the shaft 13.5 may also be guided
through the wall 103 without being fixed (FIG. 6B).
[0089]
In particular, FIG. 6A illustrates an acoustic horn 13 having a front plate 13.7a and a rear plate
or shoulder 13.7b. It should be noted that the rear plate 13.7b may be pressed / fixed against the
04-05-2019
28
outer surface of the housing 103 as a type of shoulder. Similarly, the front surface 11.3 of the
base 11 can be fixed to the inner surface of the housing 103. The base 11 is here provided
outside the examination room. Between the sonotrode device 10 and the wall 103, two types of
sealings 105, 107 are provided, which can both be designed as an O-ring sealing. The shaft 13.5
is provided with a sealing 105 around the shaft 13.5 in the hole of the wall 103 (in particular,
optionally in addition to the centering part provided at the fastening point P2), the wall 103 And
the horn 13 can be separated acoustically. The front side is provided with a seal 107 which can
withstand relatively large fixing forces / pressures in any case. Here, the sonotrode device 10 can
be provided at a pre-defined angle with respect to the wall 103 and is thereby aligned. The
respective sealing can be provided, for example, on a shoulder or a groove not shown in detail.
Acoustic separation can be caused by this sealing system 107. The front side 11.3 and the sides
of the rear plate 13.7b facing the base 11 are now aligned parallel to one another and the horns
13 are mounted in different rotational positions.
[0090]
The acoustic horn 13 shown in FIG. 6B is guided through a guide hole 103.1 provided with an Oring sealing 105 held in the groove. Furthermore, sealing is not necessary. The sealing 105 abuts
the shaft 13.5, which comprises, for example, a shoulder for providing the sealing 105, a groove
and / or a corresponding sealing surface. Substrates not shown in detail need not be fastened to
the wall 103 but may be fastened to other parts of the housing. The arrangement shown in FIG.
6B allows a particularly good acoustic separation of the horn 13 from the housing, even though
the horn needs to be provided with a high pressure observation cell, for example. The sealing or
acoustic separation may be performed by a single sealing. As a result, in particular, mounting /
tuning can be performed easily or flexibly.
[0091]
FIG. 6C shows the sonotrode device 10 attached and fixed to the plug 11.8, for example
according to the exemplary embodiment shown in FIG. Thus, the plug 11.8 may be significantly
larger than the corresponding cavity or recess 13.8, and the coupling means 11.1 are preferably
provided only in the front region of the plug. In the central or rear area of the plug, for example,
a shoulder, a groove and / or a corresponding sealing surface for providing the sealing 105 may
be provided. In other words, the plug 11.8 is configured to ensure the coupling and sealing
functions. The sealing 107 abutting on the front side, in particular, is larger in size than the
sealing 105, in order to be subjected to the pressing / fixing force and / or to set the sealing
effect as precisely as possible. In particular, it can have a diameter larger than the sealing 105.
04-05-2019
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[0092]
FIG. 7 shows a flow chart for exemplary menu navigation in controlling sonotrode according to
the present invention. The individual steps of the start-up process of the device according to the
invention for inspection by acoustic levitation are shown by dotted lines as a start-up method
including steps S1 to S4. In step S1, the user turns on the device. In step S2, the device is in the
standby mode. In step S3, the PC is switched on. In step S4, the inspection software is started.
[0093]
After switching on the device, the menu described here by way of example, for example, a menu
comprising the following options O1 to O6 is displayed to the user. O1 video upload, O2 live
measurement, O3 tutorial, O4 setting, O5 end, O6 description. Starting with this input mask,
different user instructions can be created. Here, the operations relating to inspection and
measurement of physical substance data can also be carried out, in particular, via one or more
menu items.
[0094]
The user can then, for example, start the measurement (live measurement) (step S5), whereby the
control is automatically or manually (selection item C1b) in the autopilot mode (selection item
C1a), in particular during operation In (Selection item C1), it can be selected (step S6) whether or
not it can be executed. Selection items C2, C3 are also adjustable in frequency (C2) and amplitude
(C3), and in each case are displayed (D1, D2) and can be adapted automatically by the controller
according to the input (Step S9) It may be a button or touch surface 61. Here, the operating
frequency used is set, for example, by means of the respective measuring parts / sensors of the
housing, in particular in accordance with the pressure or temperature values that can be
measured, even if they are continuous. In particular, the signal shape (V1), in particular the
fundamental frequency (V2) which is rectangular, for example 40 kHz, for example the
fundamental amplitude (V3) which is 10 Vpp, is adjustable. Here, the frequency can be
automatically adopted by the activated autopilot (step S8). After setting these parameters, a wave
field can be generated and the sample can be inspected (step S7; "channel on"). Placeholders R1
and R2 are the sum of operating condition data, in particular the pressure and temperature, and
the rectangular signal shape and frequency determination (R1) from the equation taking into
04-05-2019
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account the fundamental amplitude, for example 10 Vpp, for an environment For example, it
represents an amplifier characteristic (R2) such as an impedance of 50 ohms and an alternating
voltage.
[0095]
Users can optionally work with video sequences (video uploads). The user can optionally load or
display technical information or instruction manuals (tutorials). The user can optionally
implement settings for the controller software or equipment. As a result, adjustment or precise
adjustment is possible, in particular by the control device adjusting parameters such as the
natural frequency of the sonotrode device. The user can optionally withdraw (terminate) the
input mask, in particular, switch off the device or contact the displayed contact information or
access data or program or device version (description).
[0096]
The input program or control device operable by means of the input program as generally
described here facilitates the implementation of the manual measurement or the automatic
measurement and makes a record of the measurement results as well as the diagnosis or remote
maintenance of the instrument. Tests can be performed at a high or professional level, in
particular reproducible to third parties. FIG. 7 also shows that levitation measurements can be
performed with a relatively very low fundamental amplitude in the range of 10 Vpp, which is
particularly advantageous for high pressure applications.
[0097]
10 sonotrode devices 11 substrates, in particular (first) end masses 11.1 Coupling means or
elements for acoustic horns 11.1a contact surface geometrically corresponding to the contact
surface of the shaft 11.2 sound Fastening means for the unit for transmission, in particular the
screw 11.3 in particular the first front face 11.4 directed to the reflector 11.4 in particular the
second front face 11.6 directed to the unit for sound transmission Through hole 11.7 cavity or
recess 11.8 plug 12 for transmitting sound / sound emitting unit 12.1 vibration element /
excitation, in particular (first) piezoelectric ceramics 12.2 vibration element / excitation, In
particular (second) piezoelectric ceramics 12.3 fastening means, in particular screw 12.4
electrical contacts 12.7 (first) electrodes 12.8 (second) electrodes 13 acoustic horns 13.1
coupling means or couplings Need Element 13.5 Shaft 13.5a Inner End 13.5b Centering Section
13.5c Front 13.5d Joint 13.7d Coupling 13.7 Plate 13.7a Front Plate with Contact Surface
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Geometrically Corresponding to Contact Surface of Coupling Means 7b Rear plate 13.8 Cavity or
recess 15 Connection mechanism for connecting the acoustic horn and a unit for transmitting
sound 17 (second) end mass 17.4 front 17.6 through hole 30 temperature measuring unit 40
Pressure measuring unit 50 Control device 60 Operation panel with optical or photoacoustic
input mask or display / touch screen 61 Touch surface 100 In particular, equipment for
inspection and / or determination of substances, samples or objects by acoustic levitation 101
Generator 102 Reflector 103 Preferably, high voltage and / or thermally insulated Howe 103.1
Guide holes, openings, access 105 First sealing or first sealing system 107 Second sealing or
second sealing system C1, C1a, C1b, C2, C3 Selection items or decisions for the user Option D1,
D2 Display O1, O2, O3, O4, O5, O6 with parameters displayed Option P1 for users P1 fastening
point / attachment point for unit for sound transmission P2 fastening for acoustic horn Point /
attachment point R1, R2 Place holder for the operating state data and optionally the display S1,
S2, S3, S4, S5, S6, S7, S8, S9 Step during operation of the device V1, V2, V3 variables or Tunable
parameter W wave field x 1 Uni for transmitting sound with inner end of acoustic horn The
distance between the inner end of the bets x2 particular, the corresponding particular installation
depth of the acoustic horn measured from the front surface side x3, installation depth unit for
transmitting the corresponding sound is measured from the front side
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