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JPH0851687

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This translation is machine-generated. It cannot be guaranteed that it is intelligible, accurate,
complete, reliable or fit for specific purposes. Critical decisions, such as commercially relevant or
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DESCRIPTION JPH0851687
[0001]
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 1. Field of the Invention The present invention relates to a
three-dimensional three-dimensional sound reproduction tone profile by earphones and related
devices. (Since 3D means 3D, hereinafter 3D will be omitted and it will be referred to simply as
3D reproduction).
[0002]
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION With regard to earphones / headphones that have become
particularly popular due to housing circumstances in recent years, development of records
suitable for this has been delayed, and regular records produced for speakers have been added. It
is a general present condition that is applied. However, when the speaker is diverted to
earphones / headphones, the higher the degree of separation between the left and right, the
higher the degree of separation between the left and right ears, and the nearer the head, which
can be heard from a very narrow range. There is a problem that the sense of reality, the fidelity
of the position of the sound source, the party effect, etc. are significantly impaired, and in
addition, near the left and right ear where the reproduced sound is localized is high for distant
voices The volume sensitivity of the eyebrows is poor because it corresponds to the lowest point
of the sensitivity of the ear that is lowered to a large extent, and there is a report such as giving a
remarkable feeling of fatigue on the hearing by the excessive sound pressure by this correction
and further causing hearing impairment. There are a lot of problems with earphones /
headphones listening. According to the present invention, if the left and right tympanic
membrane vibration of the human body in the original sound field is accurately reproduced on
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the left and right tympanic membranes of the listener by earphones or the like, whether the
tympanic membrane vibration is due to the original sound field or the reproduced sound in the
auditory system Focusing on the structure of the eyebrows that can not be determined at all, that
is, only perceivable in the same direction, and to find out what the actual tympanic membrane
vibration is and how it works At the same time, we try to solve this problem.
[0003]
Even if we close our eyes, we can easily know from which direction the sound comes from,
especially in special situations such as when there are many reflected sounds or when the sound
source is hidden, etc. It can be said that there is almost no mistake in the sound source direction
of. In this way, the remarkable ability of the human auditory system such as "determine the
sound source direction and distance from the left and right two tympanic membrane vibrations
to three dimensions and make them perceive themselves" has attracted much attention to Paris
1900 In the exposition, when the left and right microphone outputs arranged on the stage were
respectively listened to by the left and right headphones, it is from the happening of the Paris
Expo that one participant was surprised by the realness of the reproduction sound. Since then,
the importance of listening to sounds with both ears has been recognized, and a number of
scholars have been working on the research of the binaural hearings. Using materials, small and
medium microphones are set at the positions of the left and right ear canals, respectively, with
the shape and size of the human body, and a human body dummy Oscar is created to allow the
detection signal of the eyebrows to be heard with external headphones. I used it to study hearing.
Regarding these research results, how the human auditory system discriminates the sound
source direction “The auditory system is based on the sound pressure level difference dv, the
phase difference df and the arrival time difference dt of the sound reaching the tympanic
membrane on the left and right As a result of judging the result, it was realized as a result, and
although it held a large result generally known as a binaural effect on one side, at this time,
“sounds reaching the front of the left and right pinna in the original sound field are received by
If it is accurately reproduced on the front of the listener's left and right pinnae, all in the
horizontal plane including the front, back, left, and right originally expected by Mr. Oscar as "a
wolf's listener can hear the playback of the wolf from the same direction as the original sound
field" In the direction reproduction, the problem that the sound to be localized forward was
localized upward or in the head was not solved until the end, and the purpose could not be finally
reached. Like the artificial head dummy head that imitates the head of this Oscar or moth, a
single microphone placed by the microphone M1 M2 loaded in the left and right ear canal
respectively, or left and right with a substantial spacing and angle between the two ears. The
sound collection and reproduction method in which the original sound field is picked up using
the directional microphone M5M6 and listened to by headphones is called the binaural method
since then and research has been continued after acupuncture, but the reproduced sound image
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to be localized ahead However, the problem that it is easy to be perceived by upward localization
or in-head localization has not been solved yet, and it has declined in the research stage with the
great expectation of three-dimensional reproduction remaining.
[0004]
The above-described binaural method accurately reproduces the sound coming to the front of the
left and right pinna in the original sound field on the front of the pinna of the headphone listener,
thereby utilizing the sense of direction of the auditory system. Although it is a method of
omnidirectional reproduction by headphones expected to be determined, it is logically possible to
expect what degree of sound source direction reproduction can be expected at that time at that
time, and there are also causes of problems with forward localization. The scope of the prior art
as to whether it was in a situation that could actually lead the solution of the solution is
understood by the explanation of the binaural effect as its reproduction principle. That is, in the
description of the binaural effect, the auditory system uses the sound pressure level difference
dv, the phase difference df and the arrival time difference dt of the sound reaching the tympanic
membrane as to how the human body auditory system distinguishes the sound source direction.
The sound pressure level difference dv, the phase difference df, and the arrival time difference dt
both cause the sound source to be in the middle between the left and right. “Forward → upper
→ back → down → forward” In the case of (1), the sound arriving at the left and right tympanic
membranes becomes the same in both directions. This matches exactly when listening to the
monaural signal with the left and right headphones, so that the reproduced sound image in this
case must always be localized at the center of the head, so that the incoming voices from the
front and back or up and down that cause these problems Also, the binaural effect can not
explain anything other than being perceived in the head, and the cause of the problem showing
the scope of the prior art is still found here. From such a relationship, the forward localization
problem in the binaural system is due to the limit of the ability of the auditory system, and for a
long time after the appearance of human beings, the voices in the invisible range have been
listened to only by hearing. With regard to the sound from the point of view, it has always been
the relation between hearing and sight that has always been heard and perceived, especially as a
result of gradually decreasing the sense of direction of the sound toward the front, and the sound
from the front by headphone listening It is now generally accepted that the proper localization of
the reproduced sound image can not be ruled out from this structure of the auditory system
consisting of the left and right two ears.
[0005]
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[Problems to be Solved by the Invention] However, regardless of the present situation, we can
easily know various sound source directions including the vertical direction actually with the
eyes closed, Also for the listener in the case where the same left and right tympanic membrane
vibration is reproduced, the same sound source direction is similarly perceived from the same
tympanic membrane vibration, the human body performs the sound source direction
discrimination by obtaining information only from the tympanic membrane vibration. It is
guaranteed by the structure of the auditory system. This means that three-dimensional
reproduction is possible on the condition of accurate reproduction of tympanic membrane
vibration in the original sound field, but "precisely reproduced tympanic membrane vibration"
referred to here means "original sound field" as in actual tympanic membrane vibration. Must be
defined as one that can accurately perceive the three-dimensional sound source direction in the It
is easy to miss the illusion as if it were possible to reproduce the same tympanic membrane
vibration as the original sound field if this was ideally done because it was tried to reproduce in
all directions by the method of reproducing accurately in front of the listener's pinna. It was also
the conclusion of the binaural method and the conclusion that "the sound that reaches the front
of the pinnacle can not be accurately reproduced even if the sound that reaches the front of the
pinnacle is accurately reproduced on the front of the pinnae with headphones" can not be
reproduced It is. In fact, even in the case of a single-eared single-eared listener, it is possible to
distinguish most sound source directions including the front-back direction or the up-down
direction in the head hemisphere direction on the side of hearing fairly accurately. It is clearly
predicted that in the voice reaching either of the tympanic membranes, cues, that is, directional
information, which already work in the longitudinal / vertical direction discrimination from the
single ear hearing stage. As described above, the main problem to be solved by the present
invention is the problem of why we know the sound source direction in the front-rear direction
or the up-down direction. We clarify what kind of information to find out and determine the
content, and use it to establish the "stereo reproduction by earphone listening" sound follow-up
system, and to construct the main part of the 3D reproduction signal Detection device, the same
microphone, earphones, records, and a three-dimensional hearing aid including the main part
thereof, a three-dimensional interphone for remote observation, and a device for examining the
influence of hearing on the psychological and physiological effects, etc. The aim is to develop
related audio equipment that makes use of the high party effect and high presence
characteristics in playback.
[0006]
[Solution means] Even in the case of a single ear hearing in which one ear is tightly closed, either
the left or right direction to which the audible ear belongs, and the sound source direction in the
vertical or longitudinal direction of the eyebrow In the case of open eye, it almost shifts, but in
the case of closed eye it shifts to the direction of the ear that can be heard about 45 degrees, but
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in either case the direction of the sound source of the eyebrow is perceived quite clearly. Fig. 1
(a). In the figure, the closed tube PX is a hollow tube with an inner diameter of 8 mm and a
length of 150 mm, one end of which is closed, the closed end faces outward, and the open end is
in close contact with the external ear canal as the ear plug to ensure freedom of tympanic
membrane vibration. It is blocking the ear canal invasion of the voice that has come. SP is a
sound source that emits white noise. However, as shown in Fig. 1 (b), when the eyebrow is open,
the external ear canal of the audible ear is extended outside the auricle with a hollow pipe P0
with an internal diameter of about 8 mm and a length of about 150 mm. If this is avoided, all
voices from the sound source SP coming from the front and rear or up and down directions with
respect to the tip end can be heard only from the opening direction of the open pipe P0, and the
sense of direction of the sound concerning up and down and up and down directions is lost. This
phenomenon is exhibited in the directionality of the sound in the back and forth direction or up
and down direction in the directionality of the sound exhibited from the single ear listening stage
by the function of the pinna shape (including a part of the head) for the incoming voice. Show
that As described above, "the generation of the sense of direction of sound due to the action of
the shape of the pinnae on the incoming sound" is hereinafter referred to as an ear-shaped effect.
This reflects the sound collection characteristics of the pinna that have different shapes in the
front-rear direction or the vertical direction when incoming voices are collected by the auricle in
the ear canal, and different timbre characteristics are provided for each direction of arrival. As a
result of voices having a note as a direction of arrival being collected in the ear canal and
reaching the tympanic membrane, the auditory system reads the respective voices from the
timbre characteristics of the voice reaching the tympanic membrane or the changes thereof to
arrive individual voices It is considered that the directions are determined, and we can perceive
each sound source direction in the longitudinal direction or the vertical direction. The tonal
characteristics or the change of eyebrows referred to here refer mainly to the change of the
frequency characteristics given to the incoming voice by the shape of the pinna, but as a matter
of fact, the shape of the pinna as acoustically is very complicated , The ear canal, the concha
cavity, the ear rings, etc., which have resonance and reverberation characteristics, respectively,
and when it is measured, the resonance sound, reverberation, etc. of the phlegm interferes with
the test signal, causing a cycle. There are many peaks and valleys in the unit, and it is extremely
difficult to measure as a simple frequency characteristic, and the expression of a weir also lacks
appropriateness.
Therefore, in this case, when white noise is used as the sound source, it refers to "the
characteristic of the frequency spectrum or the timbre characteristic of the sound that can be
observed as a change in moth or the acoustic characteristic perceived as a change in moth".
Define as Regarding the phenomenon that the timbre characteristics of the voice reaching the
tympanic membrane change depending on the direction of arrival of the voice, in fact, the sound
source emitting white noise is moved in the back and forth direction or the up and down
direction on the side of one ear. If you focus your attention on the tonal characteristics while
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paying attention to the tonal characteristics, it will be compared as if the sound source is at the
top, if it is at the side, if it is at the side, if it is at the bottom, it will be like the go. It can be seen
that the timbre of this voice changes in relation to the direction of the sound source. The change
in timbre of the voice heard along with the change in clarity and volume also in the front-back
direction is perceived because the directivity of the left and right ears is approximately 1 Khz to
4 Khz in the speech voice band due to the shape effect of the eyebrows As a result that the
direction of 45 degrees forward right and the high frequency range of 6 Khz to 16 Khz are
mainly exerted toward the direction 45 degrees upper left and 45 degrees upper right, the
respective voices S1,1 collected in the left and right ear canal This effect appears in S2, and is
considered to be perceived as different tonal characteristics from one arrival direction to another.
This is the function of the auricle shape given to the incoming voice, and when the auricle shape
works against the incoming sound, the sound source direction is in a situation where the
directionality of the sound related to the back and forth or up and down direction is exhibited
This is clearly shown in the results of the comparative experiments of FIG. 1 (a) and FIG. 1 (b)
that are perceived and not perceived when the pinna shape does not work. The above is a real
solution as to why such a complicated pinna shape is required for the human ear, and it is
especially necessary to connect the front and back, up and down, of the sense of direction of the
sound that is exhibited from the single ear listening stage. The directional sense of sound with
respect to the vertical in-plane direction is demonstrated by the function of the pinnacle as
described above and the sound source direction is perceived. However, the above is the ear form
effect of single ear listening to the actual sound, and as shown in FIG. 2 (A), the sound S2
collected in one ear canal of the temporary listener Q1 in the original sound field This is detected
by the microphone M2 attached to the ear canal and amplified by the amplifier A2 and then
reproduced by the earphone Y2 attached to the listener Q2. It is only localized and heard, and the
sense of direction of the sound by the above-mentioned ear-shaped effect is not exhibited.
This means that the sense of direction of the sound is exhibited for the actual sound and not for
the reproduced sound, but the conditions of the single ear listening for the actual sound and the
single ear listening for the reproduced sound The only difference is in the very simple physical
environment of "whether or not the actual sound exists" around this listener, and this is the case
in the case of monaural listening to the actual sound. It is to be understood that some physical
quantity is transmitted to the tympanic membrane by another path from the actual speech
arriving at the periphery of the y-axis, and this indicates the result of determining the direction of
the speech reaching the tympanic membrane by the normal path.
[0007]
As shown in FIG. 2 (b), the left and right ear canal can be examined to see what the physical
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quantity that is supposed to be transmitted to the tympanic membrane from the actual voice
through another route. When it is sealed with the above-mentioned closed tube PX and each
experiment of what actually comes to be heard in the ear canal while keeping freedom of
tympanic membrane vibration in the space volume in this tube, it is mainly the auricle and The
low-frequency component (1 Khz or less) S3S4 of the incoming voice that appears to be
conducted to the ear canal wall and tympanic membrane from the vicinity of the tragus by the
auricular cartilage section has a sense of direction only in the left and right Yes It can be seen
that it can be heard in a state where there is no sense of direction in the front-rear direction or
up-down direction, that is, a state where it can be heard from anywhere. Other sounds such as
voice that sounds relatively clearly through the nasal cavity and voice called body conduction
bone conduction can also be heard, but the voice that can be heard mainly from the fact that the
volume on the audibility is much lower compared to the former Describe the mode of
transmission as "auricular conduction" and include in the eyebrow. Above, in the case of single
ear listening to the real sound source, the auricular conduction sound first reaches the tympanic
membrane on the left and right, and the sound collected by one of the auricles reaches there and
each of the three types of sounds of the eyebrows In the single ear listening to the reproduced
sound, only the sound collected by one auricle reaches the tympanic membrane and the direction
determination is performed. This makes it possible to explain that the result that the sound
source direction in the back and forth direction or the up and down direction is perceived in the
single ear listening to the sound source and this is not perceived in the single ear listening to the
reproduced sound has occurred. In fact, even if it is single-eared listening to the reproduction
sound of FIG. 2 (a) of FIG. 2, as shown in FIG. 3 (a), when the auricle conduction sound S3
generated when the other ear is muffled is reproduced, From that moment on, the sense of
direction of the sound in the front-back direction or up-down direction similar to the case of
single ear listening to the real sound source is returned. At this time, what is reproduced by the
other ear is not limited to the auricle conducted sound of the previous ear, but as shown in FIG. 3
(b), it is a low frequency component of the reproduced sound reproduced by the other ear in the
case of binaural hearing Almost the same result is obtained. LFP in the figure is a low pass filter.
Although this is a real solution to the fact that the sound source direction can be discerned in the
single ear listening to the actual voice and this can not be heard in the single ear hearing by the
reproduced sound, the sound source concerning the anteroposterior direction or up and down
direction of the auditory system When judging the direction, the sound of lightning is above, the
sound of water flow is below, etc. It is assumed that the direction judgment etc. is performed
based on the "memory" obtained by past experience or learning This result clearly contradicts
the way of thinking, and the sense of direction mainly in the back and forth direction or the up
and down direction in the sense of direction of the sound by single ear listening is not due to the
past memory but to the incoming voice It shows that the shape of the pinna is caused by the
relation between the pinna shape and the pinnae conducted sound etc. In the case of binaural
hearing, the low frequency component of the sound collected in the other ear canal is added to
this by the side of the eyebrow Forward and backward In addition, it indicates that the direction
discrimination in the vertical direction is performed, and this complex pinna shape and the above
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phenomenon both show that humans can know the direction of sound from the moment of birth.
is there.
The above describes a new view on the sense of direction of sound mainly in the back and forth
direction or the up and down direction in the sense of direction of sound exhibited from the stage
of single ear hearing, but in fact, this single ear It is considered that hearing works as a left-right
pair and works synergistically in the left hemisphere direction and the right hemisphere direction
of the head, and a clearer three-dimensional sense of direction of sound is exhibited.
[0008]
The above is organized to summarize the sense of direction of sound provided in the auditory
system. “The human auditory system has three-dimensional sense of sound, and the sound
pressure level difference, phase difference and arrival time difference of the sound reaching the
tympanic membrane by the conventional binaural effect can be determined for the reason why
the left and right direction can be determined. As for the reason why the discrimination is
performed based on which the front and back direction or the up and down direction can be
discriminated, when incoming voices are collected to the respective ear canals by the left and
right auricles, the asymmetry of the auricle shape causes each incoming direction Different tonal
characteristics are given, and from the characteristics of the eyebrows that the sound reached to
the left and right eardrums has, the sound source direction of the eyebrow is read by the relation
with the auricle conduction sound etc. It is possible to explain that the sound source direction is
perceived. Based on the theory regarding the sense of direction of this new sound, the voice S1S2
collected in the left and right ear canals of the human body Q0 at the optimal listening position
of the original sound field and the auricle conduction at this time The voice S3S4 transmitted to
the tympanic membrane through the wall of the ear canal is respectively detected, and a voice
signal L1 of the sum of the left voice collecting voice S1 and the right auricle conduction sound
S3 is obtained to be a left signal L and the right A method of detecting an ear-hearing-type stereo
reproduction signal corresponding to earphones is obtained, which obtains an audio signal R1 of
the sum of the collected voice S2 and the right auricle conduction sound S4 and sets it as the
right signal R. The reason for targeting the ideal earphone in particular is that there is a problem
that the quality of the localization of the reproduced sound is impaired, such as when the
resonance occurs in the concha cavity, the external ear canal, and the earphone itself at the time
of reproduction. The purpose of this is to eliminate this effect to ensure the correctness of the
principle, and there is almost no practical problem even with an ordinary earphone. FIG. 4 shows
the main directionality of the pinna for the normal speech frequency band 1 to 4 Khz. FIG. 5
shows the main directionality of the pinna for the upper 6 to 16 Khz range of the heel frequency
band. Fig. 6 shows a schematic cross-sectional view of the middle and middle ear of the outer ear
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in the case where microphones M1M2 are respectively attached to the left and right ear canal
entrances having the eyebrow directivity so that "earphone effect-compatible ear-shaped effect
stereo reproduction signal" can be detected. Indicated.
[0009]
[Operation] The following is an explanation of the process of detecting a three-dimensional
reproduction signal of the eyebrow with reference to FIG. 6. The incoming sound in the original
sound field is collected at the left and right ear canal entrance E1E2 collected by the left and
right auricles J1J2. When a bi-directional microphone M1 M2 that allows voice to pass through
and the mass and elasticity of the diaphragm are slight and hardly changes the acoustic
characteristics in the ear canal, the voice S1 collected at the ear canal entrance E1 by the left
auricle J1 At this time, the auricular conduction sound S3 generated in the left auricle J1 and
transmitted from the external ear canal wall of the eyelid to the tympanic membrane T1 by
auricular conduction is both detected by the microphone M1 as a sound signal L1 equivalent to
the left tympanic membrane vibration. , A sound S2 collected at the entrance to the ear canal E2
by the right auricle J2, and at this time, produced in the right auricle J2 and from the external ear
canal E2 of the eyelid to the tympanic membrane T2 by auricle conduction The transmitted
auricle conduction sound S4 is detected by the microphone M2 as a sound signal R1 equivalent
to the right tympanic membrane vibration. The audio signal L1R1 detected by the above is the
audio S1S2 collected in the external ear canal E1E2 by the left and right auricles J1J2 exhibiting
a plurality of directivity as shown in FIGS. 4 and 5, and the left and right ears at this time. By
detecting the auricle conduction sound S3S4 that reaches the left and right tympanic membranes
through the respective walls of the ear canal by intermedial conduction, the requirements for the
ear-shaped effect to be exhibited are satisfied. Work as " FIG. 7 (a) is a detection example when
the actual auricle of the human body Q0 is used as the auricle J1J2. In FIG. 7 (b), a threedimensional microphone is configured by the practical form of M1 M2 and mounting. FIG. 8 (a) is
an example using the auricle of dummy D1 imitating a human body as the auricle J1 J2. FIG. 8
(b) is an example using a dummy D2 imitating the auricle of a human body as the auricle J1J2.
Both can detect a stereo reproduction signal for earpiece hearing having an ear-shape effect in
the original sound field or the multi-reproduced quasi-original sound field. The auricle J1J2 is not
particularly limited to the shape of the auricle, as long as it is a shape that gives a detection
signal of the microphone M1M2 to the L1R1 as shown in FIG. In addition, the bi-directional
microphone M1M2 detects a sound source with an eye if a sound signal equivalent to the
pinnacle-conducted sound is appropriately detected by case conduction etc., or if the other
detection signal does not cause a problem in localization, or In the case of a hearing aid or the
like that can be confirmed directly, it is not necessary to be bi-directional.
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[0010]
The above is the method of directly detecting the sound of the original sound field as "earphoneeffect compatible ear-shaped effect stereo reproduction signal", but there is a case where it is
desired to convert already recorded sound signals G1 to Gn for earphone hearing. is there. The
method will be described below. In order to localize the specific signal G1 to the specific position
X1, first, the human body Q0 mounted with the microphones M1 M2 is disposed in the left and
right ear canal, and the sound source SP is disposed at the position X1 X1 where the reproduced
sound should be localized as viewed from Q0. Next, among the microphones M1M2 worn by the
position X1 and the human body Q0, (1) First, the sound transfer characteristic K1 between X1
and M1 is measured between the sound source SP and the microphone M1. (2) Next, the sound
transfer characteristic K11 between X1 and M2 is measured between the sound source SP and
the microphone M2. (3) Prepare a pair of characteristic control circuits β having signal
transmission characteristics B1 and B11 equivalent to the measured voice transmission
characteristics K1 and K11 as the input-output characteristics, respectively, as shown in FIG. If
the specific signal G1 is input in parallel from IN-1, the left signal L1 and the right signal R1
equivalent to those obtained by the microphones M1M2 mounted on the left and right ear canals
of Q0 are detected as the output. Further, it is possible to convert a plurality of audio signals G1
to Gn to be multi-reproduced using a necessary number of groups into left signal L1 and right
signal R1 equivalent to those by M1 M2. The above substitutes the listening condition of Q0 for
the sound source SP at the position X1 exactly as B1 and B11 in the characteristic control circuit,
and the circuit of FIG. 9 is equivalent to the one by the M1M2. It works as "ear-shaped effect type
stereo reproduction signal detection device". Further, the reason why the measurement of the
voice transfer characteristic K1K11 is required using the detection signals of the microphones
M1M2 attached to the left and right ear canal of Q0 is that the sound collection characteristics of
the auricle for the incoming sound and the conduction characteristics of the auricle are
transmitted Since it is desired to obtain the measurement result of the characteristic K1K2, by
substituting this as B1 and B11 in the characteristic control circuit β, it becomes possible to
detect an audio signal including a concussion sound.
[0011]
FIGS. 10, 11 and 12 show the constructions of the "earphone-effect-ready three-dimensional
microphone compatible with earphones" which works in the same manner as in the case of using
a human auricle or an eyelid dummy. FIG. 10 (a) is a hollow tube (1) having an inner diameter of
about 8 mm and a length of about 40 mm and having a window (2) having a width of about 2
mm and a length of about 8 mm at one end. The figure is a side view and its top view. In the
same figure (b), the bi-directional microphone (3) is loaded in the vicinity of the center of the
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hollow tube (1) in contact with the window (2) and fixed. The figure is a perspective view and the
dotted line in the figure shows the directivity direction of the microphone (3). In the same figure
(c), a sound absorbing material 4 or 41 is adhered and fixed to both ends of the hollow tube (1)
to which a microphone (3) is loaded and fixed. The figure is a perspective view. The configuration
of the portion produced according to FIG. 10 is for causing the microphone (3) to exhibit highpass directivity Hf (FIG. 5) similar to that exhibited by the auricle J1J2 of the human body. With
this configuration similar to a sock, the microphone (3) mainly exhibits high directivity Hf in the
audio frequency band in the direction of the opening of the window (2) of the hollow tube. Fig.
11 (a) is a sound collection board (6) for the speech frequency band. The material is a silicon
rubber front view. The same figure (b) is one part sectional view at the time of seeing this from
the side. About 10 to 12 cm in diameter, the same figure (C) is a structural view, fixed through
the hollow pipe (1) of FIG. 10 (C) to the through hole (12) of the sound collecting plate (6) With
the window (2) at the top, the through hole back (7) of the sound collecting plate (6) is held by a
non-resonance rubber semi-sealed box (8). With the structure of FIG. 11 (H) above, the band
directivity Mf in the speech voice band 1 to 4 Khz range is mainly exerted forward in the audible
frequency band, and the high band directivity Hf of 6 to 16 Khz above the ridge is exhibited. The
shape is mainly as shown in FIG. 12 which is exhibited upward, and has a directivity distribution
similar to that in the case where the bidirectional microphone M1M2 is attached to the auricle
J1J2 of the human body Q0. FIG. 12 shows a state in which the pair of microphones are attached
to a microphone mount (11) at the top of the stand (10) with a width of about 20 cm and an
open angle of about 90 degrees. The left microphone is drawn facing the front, the right
microphone drawn sideways with a partial cross-section, and the Mf indicated by the dotted
arrow is directivity in the audio frequency band and mid-conversation band The direction, Hf,
indicates the direction of the high-frequency directivity. The left microphone also appears in the
front direction of the figure while the space from the microphone (3) to the sound absorber (41)
of the hollow tube (1) and the internal space of the semi-hermetic box (8) The characteristics
similar to the actual ones are given to the detection signal by approximating the acoustic
characteristics between them.
The sound corresponding to the auricle conduction sound is captured by the silicone rubber
sound collecting plate (6) and transmitted to the hollow tube (1), and the microphone is
generated by the relative motion of the hollow tube (1) and the air molecules inside. (3) is
properly detected. When the microphone configured as shown in FIG. 12 is set at the height of
the listener's head in the original sound field by a stand or the like, the microphone signal L1R1
similar to that detected by the auricle of the human body Q0 is detected. It works as a "aural
effect stereo microphone". In the configuration of FIG. 10, a micro horn with an aperture
diameter of 1 to 3 cm is attached to the microphone (3) upwards under the condition that the
high-frequency directivity Hf of the microphone (3) is appropriately exhibited upward. Similar
results can be obtained with this configuration. In addition, when a signal equivalent to the
auricular conduction sound is detected appropriately by housing conduction or the like, or when
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the low frequency component of the audio signal detected at the other side works sufficiently,
etc., the microphone 3 is non-directional. Good as sex. In this case, the space from (3) to the
sound absorber (41) and the internal space of the semi-hermetic box (8) are not necessary.
[0012]
FIG. 13 shows the principle of the ideal earphone. This is a microspeaker μS with a diameter of
5 to 6 mmφ set as shown in the figure in the open back state at the ear canal entrance E1E2
where the microphone M1M2 for detection of “earphone effect compatible stereophonic
reproduction signal for earphones” is placed. The earphone Y1Y2 is used, so that both the
internal acoustic impedance ZiZi1 seen from the ear canal direction E1E2 and the external
acoustic impedance ZoZo1 seen from the auricle direction are the same as in the microphone
M1M2 at the time of signal detection. It will be in the state added to the front and back of the
diaphragm of Y1 Y2. In this state, when the detection signal by M1M2 is reproduced by the
microspeaker μS, the sound directed backward is equivalent to the original sound field through
the external acoustic impedance ZoZo1 due to the reversibility of the sound wave into the left
and right concha cavity With this as a background, the sound going forward is transmitted to the
left and right tympanic membranes via the internal acoustic impedance ZiZi1 equivalent to that
at the time of signal detection to reproduce tympanic membrane vibrations equivalent to the
original sound field. As a result of the above, when the microspeaker μS disposed in the back
open state at the left and right ear canal entrance E1E2 in FIG. 13 has a small mass and elasticity
of the diaphragm and the frequency characteristic of the reproduced sound is an ideal
characteristic. The earphone Y1Y2 mainly composed of the sound in the original sound field and
the sound that can reach the tympanic membrane can be reproduced on the listener side without
disturbing the aural effect, and the earphone Y1Y2 mainly consists of It works as an "ideal
earphone" for the form effect type stereo reproduction signal. FIG. 13 (b) is an original form for
practical use, and by making it a stethoscope shape, the earphone part can be attached to the left
and right ear canal. Corresponds to Figure 7 (b). Although the microspeakers are currently put to
practical use up to around 10 mm in diameter, the signal-to-acoustic conversion efficiency in the
ear canal is expected to increase several times in terms of hearing compared to when reproduced
in the auricle cavity. No significant problem is expected for miniaturization while maintaining it.
[0013]
The following five items can be obtained by expanding the reproduction principle of the "ideal
earphone" and listing the conditions required for future ideal reproduction-oriented earphones.
That is, (1) The resonance point of the auricle cavity does not change by its attachment. (2) The
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resonance point in the ear canal does not change by its installation. (3) A new resonance point is
not generated due to the attachment. (4) The resonance point does not occur due to the
mismatch of the reproduction sound reception point. (5) The point at which the playback sound
is received is near the lower ear canal. When the resonance point changes in the first and second
terms and a new resonance point is generated, or when a new resonance point according to the
third term or a resonance point according to the fourth term, a new resonance point The reason
is that it is experimentally recognized that the reproduction sound of the part corresponding to
the position is likely to be an obstacle relating mainly to the localization of the reproduction
sound, such as being easy to fall into in-head localization or upward localization. The fifth term is
a requirement to make the acoustic state in the auricular cavity at the time of reproduction
similar to that in the original sound field, and when the audio signal is reproduced near the ear
canal, this reproduced sound is opposite to the original sound field. The sound rises in the lower,
middle, upper, and ear rings, and is released to the outside of the pinna sequentially, but this
backflow causes an acoustic state including the standing wave distribution inside the pinna when
the sound is collected in the original sound field It is similar to the above, and can reduce and
avoid the problem of the localization error caused by the sound condition at the time of
reproduction being different from that at the time of sound collection. The ideal reproductionoriented earphones guided by the conditions of the above items 1 to 5 are Y11 and Y11 of the
outer side of FIG. 13 (C) in the lower part of the left and right auricle via the main body Y1Y2
through an appropriate acoustic coupler. It becomes a form to be attached to each symmetrical
position, and an earphone with excellent reproduction sound localization without any trouble in
practical use can be obtained. At this time, integrating the whole including the structure of
absorbing the sound emitted from the upper part of the concha cavity with the sound absorber at
the upper part can obtain a headphone having the same performance (example: speaker opening
diameter 20 mm φ acoustic coupler 3 CC light Contact).
[0014]
FIG. 14 shows the principle of "Earphone Listening Correspondence Ear-Shape Effect
Stereoscopic Reproduction". In the figure, Q1 is a temporary listener located in the original sound
field, and microphones M1 M2 shown in FIG. 7 (B) are attached to the left and right ear canals,
and the output signal L1 R1 of M1 M2 passes through left signal amplifier A1 right signal
amplifier A2. It is transmitted to the earphones Y1 and Y2 shown in FIG. 13 (b) attached to the
left and right ear canal of the listener Q2. With this configuration, the audio signal L1R1 having
an ear form effect transmitted from the side of the temporary listener Q1 is reproduced on the
side of the listener Q2, and the directional sense of the sound possessed by Q2 causes a threedimensional sound source direction of the original sound field to Q1. Is perceived. In the figure, it
is feared that differences in the shape of the auricle between the human body Q1 and Q2 will be
a problem, but the main differences between the eyebrows are the size of the ear wings and the
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13
degree of anteversion The shape of the earlobe and the degree of thickening There is almost no
difference in the shape of the auricular cartilage which forms the concha tube space, the tragus,
the antiparallel ball, the ear ring, and the like. By the way, when the sound pressure frequency
characteristics of the sound collected at the entrance of the ear canal with respect to the
relationship between Japanese and foreigners are measured, contrary to the clear difference of
the body shape, the measurement results are all similar characteristics and common information
Show. If these things choose the pinnacle owner of the appropriate shape at the time of sound
collection and make it a temporary listener Q1, it will be a wide range from Japanese to
foreigners without making the pinna shape of the listener Q2 especially problem. It means that
"earphone-earing-enabled ear-shaped effect stereo reproduction" can be performed under almost
common conditions for listeners of In addition, with regard to directional information transmitted
from the Q1 side to the Q2 side as timbre characteristics or changes thereof, what is often
experienced through a series of experiments is a high-band and wide-band characteristic
represented by consonant etc. When the audio part arrives, or when the sound envelope, such as
an impact sound, changes suddenly and the audio part with high frequency and wide band
components comes, the sound source direction that has been perceived vaguely becomes
"instantly clear" It is a phenomenon that it is perceived and returns to a vague state again. This is
because when the auditory system discriminates the sound source direction, the general
direction discrimination is always performed, especially at the moment when the audio part in
the high frequency and wide band and the shape suitable for the direction discrimination arrives,
selectively Direction discrimination is performed clearly, and the duality of the direction
discrimination and the frequency of the high frequency and wide band voice portion that the
roughly perceived sound source direction is determined and perceived as a clear sound source
position of the moment of 此From the characteristic of the spectrum or its change, it is shown
that the sound source direction and distance in the definite stage can be selectively read, and in
FIG. 14, the frequency characteristic of the audio signal L1R1 transmitted from the Q1 side to the
Q2 side is temporarily flat. It shows the rationality of the fact that unique characteristics that can
not be said are required.
[0015]
Embodiment 1 FIG. 15 shows a comprehensive embodiment of "earpiece-type earpiece effect
corresponding stereophonic reproduction corresponding to earphones". In the figure, Q1 is a
temporary listener in the original sound field, J1J2 is the auricle, and the bi-directional
microphone M1M2 of FIG. 7 (B) attached to the left and right ear canal entrance E1E2 and its
detection signal L1R1 A "signal detection unit" is configured as an output of the form effect type
stereoscopic reproduction signal. * An audio signal equivalent to this can be detected by FIG. 7
(A), FIG. 8 (A), FIG. 8 (B), FIG. The next REC is a recording / reproduction device belonging to the
transmission system, and the output L1R1 of the previous stage is recorded as left and right
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signals L and R to obtain "earphone-effect-compatible ear-shaped effect stereo records". * As for
the above mentioned records, tape, voice memory IC, disc etc. The next LiRi receives the
reproduction signal of the previous stage records at the next stage input section, amplifies each
by amplifier A1A2, and this output LoRo is the listener Q2 right and left It is configured to be
supplied to the earphone Y1Y2 of FIG. 13 (B) attached to the ear canal and reproduced to make
the listener Q2 perceive the stereophonic sound source direction of the original sound field with
respect to the temporary listener Q1 by the earform effect. . * Figure 13 (b) is a schematic
principle view and a sectional view of the ideal earphone. * The same figure (b) is a practical
example 1, an external view of the ideal earphone. * The same figure (C) is the logical mounting
position of the earphones, and an explanatory diagram.
[0016]
Embodiment 2 FIGS. 16 and 17 show an example of a conventional binaural system similar to the
present embodiment from related books in the related art, and differences in wrinkles as
compared with FIG. To clarify. First, Fig. 16 is a binaural original form represented by Mr. Oscar
mentioned above. In the figure, Q1 is a temporary listener in the original sound field, and the
microphones M1M2 are attached to the entrance to the ear canal E1E2 of the left and right
auricles J1J2, thereby detecting the voice signal L1R1 of the voice reaching the left and right ear
canal. However, the steps so far are the same as in FIG. FIG. 16 shows the voice signal L of voice
reaching the front of the pinnae, from the detected voice signal L1R1 to the disturbance of the
frequency characteristic caused by the influence of the pinnae J1J2 returned to the flat property
again by the characteristic correction circuit EQ. An audio signal having a characteristic
substantially equivalent to R, is output from the signal detection unit. FIG. 17 shows that the
unidirectional microphone M5M6 is set at the position of the head of the temporary listener Q1
at a substantial distance of about 200 mm between the left and right auricles J1J2 and an angle
of about 90 degrees. The voice signals L and R equivalent to the voice arriving at are detected to
be the output of the signal detection unit. The signal detection unit outputs L and R in FIGS. 16
and 17 are sent to the headphones H1H2 worn by the listener Q2 at the left and right auricles
through the transmission system REC and the amplifier A1A2 and the listeners In the front of the
left and right pinnacle of Q2, the left and right incoming voice equivalent to the voice reaching
the front of the pinnacle of the tentative listener Q1 in the original sound field is reproduced to
perceive the sound source direction of the eyebrow. If the above is summarized, (1) The
conventional binaural method detects the audio signal of the sound reaching the “front of the
pinna” on the left and right, and reproduces it on the front of the pinna of the listener's left and
right with “headphones” (3) The sound followogram method detects the audio signal of the
sound collected in the left and right 'external ear canal' as the 'front-of-a-ear type reproduction
method' which tries to perform three-dimensional reproduction. It is independent as "the ear
canal type reproduction method" which tries to perform three-dimensional reproduction by
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reproducing this to the left and right ear canal of the listener by the earphone. In addition, one of
the binaural conditions, headphones, are designed to reproduce audio signals on the front of the
left and right auricles, so even if the audio signals are reproduced toward the ear canal, the
resonance of the concha cavity etc. Due to the change of characteristics, the accurate
reproduction sound does not reach the ear canal. In other words, the input signal in the case of
logically accurate reproduction using headphones is limited to the audio signal of the sound
reaching the front of the left and right pinna of the tentative listener Q1 in the original sound
field.
On the other hand, one of the conditions of the present invention is an input when trying to
perform logically accurate reproduction using this because it is configured to reproduce audio
signals at the left and right ear canal entrances respectively. The signal is limited to the voice
signal of the voice collected in the left and right ear canal of the temporary listener Q1, and the
above-mentioned is applied to the signal detection unit of FIG. 15 and the binaural method
according to the present invention. The signal detection unit in FIG. 16 differs in the same way in
thinking and goals, but in addition, in the present invention, “the pinnacle shape while the
sound reaching the front of the pinna is further collected in the ear canal In addition to the
novelty of detecting the change of the timbre characteristic given to the voice as the directional
information regarding the localization of the reproduced sound due to the influence of the above,
it is shown that it does not correspond to the relationship of precedent / following example.
[0017]
When the temporary listener Q1 is placed in the original sound field in FIG. 15, the sounds
reaching the left and right pinnae J1J2 are collected toward the left and right ear canal according
to the pinna shape of the beard. , And are detected as left and right audio signals L1R1 having an
auricular effect by the microphone M1M2 attached to the ear canal entrance E1E2. The detection
signal L1R1 is subsequently sent to the signal reproduction portion via the signal transmission
system REC using records and the like as a medium, amplified appropriately by the amplifier
A1A2, and sent to the earphone Y1Y2 worn by the listener Q2, Here, a reproduced sound having
an ear form effect is reproduced in the left and right ear canals of the listener Q2. As a result,
when the characteristics of the earphone Y1Y2 are appropriate, the three-dimensional sound
source direction of the original sound field with respect to the temporary listener Q1 is perceived
quite clearly by the listener Q2 as it is. For example, if a white noise is used as a sound source at
a position about 3 m ahead of the temporary listener Q1 and a phonetic character of about 1 m2
is drawn in the space, this character is about Arabic numerals, alphabets or katakana If it is
simple, the remote eyelid listener Q2 who is isolated in the distance reads most of the eyebrows
and confirms the ear-shaped effect. In addition, while listening to this listener Q2 and playing a
10-05-2019
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highly indispensable reproduced sound of “telephone bell, thunder, call at the entrance, etc.”
through the intervals of the experiment, this is the reproduced sound or the actual voice. Until a
decision is made, listener Q2 looks at the phone in a reflective manner, removes the earphones
and looks up at the sky, listens and listens and looks at the door, and a confirmation operation
such as standing at the entrance is triggered and auditory Show high fidelity. In addition, the
playback sound of the Sumida River fireworks mixed with the audience, the burst sound of the
fireworks can be heard from the sky, the reflection sound of the moths will sequentially return
from the direction of the building on the shore and make each direction be perceived The voices
of the individual audiences are clearly separated without noise and clearly indicated to indicate
the height of the party effect. Also, in the conventional stereo reproduction using speakers on the
left and right, the passing sound of a train that passes from the left far and passes forward and
then goes away to the right far "closes from behind the left speaker and crosses between the left
and right speakers In the case where the scale of the original sound field exceeds the distance
between the left and right speakers, for example, it is reproduced by drawing a so-called chasmshaped locus of moving away from the rear, the reproduction field of the present invention can
not be desired. The sound is played back with a proper trajectory approaching from the left far,
passing forward and straight away to the right far, much like normal stereo playback under the
same conditions as imposed when playing a large orchestra You can get a vast scale and a high
sense of reality.
In addition, when the detection signal is directly listened to the earphone in the original sound
field, this reproduced sound can be heard with the fidelity and intelligibility that it is difficult to
distinguish from the actual voice, and once the sound volume is adjusted Even if you go away,
there is no demand for volume control due to the correspondence of the auditory system, and the
solution is that the hearing aid user with mild deafness can hear the playback sound of moths
very clearly with the conventional 2/3 playback sound pressure. "Outstanding features suitable
for supporting hearing" are recognized, such as coming from all the bobs. In addition, when the
sound of the video is recorded and reproduced as a sound formalogram, this reproduced sound
can be reproduced not only in the screen but also at the position that should exist including the
sound source moved to the outside of the screen. , It is possible to obtain a special rendering
effect that is not in the past. Generally speaking, the reproduction sound of “earphone-effect
compatible stereographic reproduction according to the present invention” according to the
present invention is well adapted to the auditory system and “the sense of direction of the
sound possessed by the listener itself is the same as the actual sound. The application of
hemorrhoids is particularly applicable to the field of acoustic arts, the field of audiovisual,
medical equipment such as hearing aids, and the field of acoustic physiology from rest of mind to
sleep. Expected to be put to practical use.
[0018]
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The following four items have been put to practical use based on the confirmation of the ear
form effect, and 1, a method and apparatus for detecting an ear form effect type stereo
reproduction signal corresponding to earphones. 2, Earbud stereophonic microphone for
earphone listening. 3, Earbuds for Earbuds effect 3D playback records. 4, an ear-shaped effect
type three-dimensional sound device for earphones listening comprising the above 1, 2, 3, 3. The
following two items are put to practical use according to the principle of the ideal earphone. 5,
Ear shape effect type 3D playback compatible earphone. 6, Ear shape effect type 3D playback
compatible earphones.
[0019]
Brief description of the drawings
[0020]
Fig. 1 (a) Explanatory view of single ear listening
[0021]
Fig. 2 (a) Explanatory view of single ear reproduction
[0022]
Fig. 3 (a) Conducted sound action illustration
[0023]
Fig. 4 (a) Mid-range directivity explanatory diagram 1
[0024]
Fig. 5 (a) High-frequency directivity explanatory diagram 1
[0025]
Fig. 6 (a) Right auricle model cross section
[0026]
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Fig. 7 (a) Signal detection method Fig. 1
[0027]
Fig. 8 (a) Signal detection method Fig. 2
[0028]
Fig. 9 Diagram of detection system
[0029]
Fig. 10 (a) Hollow tube side surface top view
[0030]
Fig. 11 (a) Sound collecting board front view
[0031]
Fig. 12 Combination partial sectional view
[0032]
Fig. 13 (a) Cross section of pinnacle model
[0033]
Fig. 14 New three-dimensional reproduction principle
[0034]
Fig. 15 New three-dimensional reproduction configuration
[0035]
Fig. 16 Old 3D reproduction configuration diagram 1
[0036]
Fig. 17 Old stereo reproduction configuration diagram 2
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[0037]
Explanation of sign
[0038]
1 hollow tube d downward P0 open-ended hollow tube 2 window of hollow tube D1 head dummy
PX one end sealed hollow tube 3 microphone D2 pina Dummy μS micro speaker 4 sound
absorbing material EQ equalizer Q0 human body 5 output Line E1 Left ear canal entrance Q1
Temporary listener 6 sound collection board E2 Right ear canal entrance Q2 listener 7 through
hole back f front direction Ro right signal output 8 semi-hermetic box G1 specific signal 1 R1
right stereo signal 9 fixing screw G2 specific Signal 2 Ri Right signal input 10 Stand top Gn
Specific signal n R Right signal 11 Mounting plate H1 Headphones left r Right 12 Through H2
Headphones right REC records A1 Left signal amplifier Hf High-pass directivity SP Sound source
A2 Right signal Amplifier IN input terminal S1 Left pinnacle voiced voice A11 Left signal adder
J1 Pinus left S2 Right pinnacle voiced voice A21 Right signal adder J2 Pinus S3 Left auricle
conduction sound β characteristic control circuit K1 Left sound transmission characteristic S4
Right auricle conduction sound B1 Left signal transmission characteristic 1 K11 right sound
transmission characteristic T1 left eardrum film B11 right signal transmission characteristic 1 L
left signal T2 right eardrum film B2 Left signal transfer characteristic 2 L1 Left stereo signal u
Upper B21 Right signal transfer characteristic 2 Li Left signal input W Wire frame Bn Left signal
transfer characteristic n Lo Left signal output Y1 Left earphone Bn1 Right signal transfer
characteristic n LFP low pass filter Y2 Right Earphone b Backward l Left Zi Left internal acoustic
load C1 Drum left M1 Left microphone Zo Left external acoustic load C2 Drum right M2 Right
microphone Zi1 Right internal acoustic load C0 M ground terminal Mf Mid-range directivity Zo1
Right external acoustic load
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