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JPH06178395

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DESCRIPTION JPH06178395
[0001]
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 1. Field of the Invention The present invention relates to a
sound field signal reproducing apparatus for performing realistic sound reproduction in AV
(audio visual) equipment.
[0002]
2. Description of the Related Art In recent years, in the field of video and audio, sound
reproduction with a large screen and a sense of reality is desired in order to enjoy movies at
home due to the spread of VTRs, and development of hardware corresponding thereto is desired.
.
[0003]
In particular, in the sound of movie software of VTR, as in a movie theater, a Dolby Surround
system in which speakers are disposed side by side or in the rear (or a combination thereof) and
reproduced is widespread.
[0004]
Also, apart from this, there is a sound field signal reproduction device for allowing a sound to be
heard from the side or the rear without putting the speaker on the side or the rear, for a home
TV set etc. separately. It is being developed.
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[0005]
Hereinafter, two playback speakers are used, and the sound can be heard from the outside of the
playback speaker actually placed (this means that the sound image is localized outside the
playback speaker.
The same shall apply hereinafter).
[0006]
FIG. 2 is a diagram showing the configuration of a conventional sound field signal reproduction
apparatus and a system for localizing a sound image outside the reproduction speaker to the
listener.
[0007]
In FIG. 2, 1 is a sound field signal reproduction device, 2-1 is a signal L (t) (t represents a
continuous time, and indicates that the signal is a time function.
The same applies to the following: an oscillator which outputs the same, an oscillator 2-2 which
outputs the signal R (t), an input terminal 3-1-1, 3-2 of the sound field signal reproducing
apparatus 1, an analog signal 4-1, 4-2 Convert digital data into digital signals, 5-1, 5-2, 5-3, 5-4
are finite time impulse response (FIR) filters, 6-1, 6-2 are adders, 7- Reference numerals 1 and 72 denote D / A converters for converting digital signals into analog signals, and 8-1 and 8-2
denote output terminals of the sound field signal reproducing apparatus 1.
[0008]
Also, 10 is a listener, 9-1 is a reproduction speaker placed on the left front of the listener 10, 9-2
is a reproduction speaker placed on the right front of the listener 10, 11-1 is a speaker for the
listener 10 A target sound image speaker placed at a position where the sound image should be
localized on the left of 9-1 and a target placed at a position where the sound image should be
localized on the right of the speaker 9-2 with respect to the listener 10 The speaker for a sound
image, hLL (n) is an impulse response of the FIR filter 5-1 (n is actually nT, T is a sampling time,
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but in general, T is omitted and described).
Also, n is a natural number. HLR (n) is an impulse response of the FIR filter 5-2, hRL (n) is an
impulse response of the FIR filter 5-3, and hRR (n) is an impulse response of the FIR filter 5-4.
[0009]
h1 (t) is the position of the left ear of the listener 10 from the speaker 9-1 (more precisely, the
response at the position of the eardrum when an impulse is input to the speaker 9-1, but if
measurement is performed, the ear canal entrance The head-related transfer function
(hereinafter referred to as “impulse response”) in order to explain in the time domain is
performed at the following position.
However, similar results can be obtained even in the frequency domain. Moreover, what
converted the impulse response into a frequency characteristic by Fourier-transforming is called
a transfer function. )である。
[0010]
H2 (t) is an impulse response at the position of the speaker 9-1 and the right ear of the listener
10, h3 (t) is an impulse response at the position of the speaker 9-2 and the left ear of the listener
10, h4 (t) is the speaker 9-2 and an impulse response at the position of the right ear of the
listener 10, h5 (t) is an impulse response at the position of the speaker 11-1 and the left ear of
the listener 10, h6 (t) is the speaker 11-1 and the right of the listener 10 The impulse response
at the position of the ear, h7 (t) is the impulse response at the position of the speaker 11-2 and
the position of the left ear of the listener 10, h8 (t) is the impulse response at the position of the
speaker 11-2 and the right ear of the listener 10 .
[0011]
The operation of the conventional sound field signal reproduction apparatus and the method of
sound image localization will be described with reference to FIG.
[0012]
In the configuration as described above, when the signal L (t) of the oscillator 2 is radiated from
the speaker 11-1, the sound reaching the ear of the listener 10 is (Equation 1) in the left ear ELL
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(t),
[0013]
[Equation 1] ELL (t) = L (t) * h5 (t) In the right ear ELR (t), (Equation 2),
[0014]
ELR (t) = L (t) * h6 (t) (where * represents a convolution operation).
(In fact, the impulse response of the speaker itself, etc. will also be folded, but this will be
ignored.
Also, it may be considered that the impulse response of the speaker or the like is included in h5
(t) and h6 (t).
And so on).
[0015]
Further, when the signal R (t) of the oscillator 3 is radiated from the speaker 11-2, the sound
reaching the ear of the listener 10 is (Equation 3) in the left ear ERL (t),
[0016]
ERL (t) = R (t) * h7 (t) In the right ear ERR (t),
[0017]
ERR (t) = R (t) * h8 (t)
[0018]
Also, considering the impulse response and the signals L (t) and R (t) as discrete digital signals,
ELL (t) → ELL (n) ELR (t) → ELR (n) ERL (respectively) t) → ERL (n) ERR (t) → ERR (n) h 5 (t) → h
5 (n) h 6 (t) → h 6 (n) h 7 (t) → h 7 (n) h 8 (t) → h 8 ( When n) L (t) → L (n) R (t) → R (n),
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Equations (1), (2), (3), and (4) are as follows.
[0023] Here, N is the length of the impulse responses h5 (n), h6 (n), h7 (n) and h8 (n).
[0024] On the other hand, when the signal L (t) is input from the oscillator 2-1 to the input
terminal 3-1, the input signal L (t) is digitized by the A / D converter 4-1 from the analog signal L
(t). The signal L (n) is converted, branched into two, input to the FIR filter 5-1 and the FIR filter 52, and subjected to convolution processing in the FIR filters 5-1 and 5-2, respectively. The output
from the filter 5-1 is input to the adder 6-1, and the output from the FIR filter 5-2 is input to the
adder 6-2.
[0025] Similarly, when the signal R (t) is input from the oscillator 2-2 to the input terminal 3-2,
the input signal R (t) is converted from the analog signal R (t) by the A / D converter 4-2. The
digital signal R (n) is converted, branched into two, input to the FIR filter 5-3 and the FIR filter 54, and subjected to convolution processing by the FIR filters 5-3 and 5-4, respectively. The
output from the FIR filter 5-3 is input to the adder 6-1, and the output from the FIR filter 5-4 is
input to the adders 6-1 and 6-2 input to the adder 6-2. The signals are added, the output from
the adder 6-1 is input to the D / A converter 7-1, the output from the adder 6-2 is input to the D
/ A converter 7-2, / A converters 7-1 and 7-2 respectively convert the digital signals input
thereto into analog signals and output them from the output terminals 8-1 and 8-2, respectively.
At 1,9-2 It is played.
[0026] When only the signal L (t) from the oscillator 2-1 is input to the sound field signal
reproduction apparatus and reproduced from the speakers 9-1 and 9-2, the sound reaching the
listener 10 is the left ear ELL '(t ) In equation (9),
[0027] ELL '(t) = L (t) * hLL (t) * h1 (t) + L (t) * hLR (t) * h3 (t) In the right ear ELR' (t),
[0028] ELR '(t) = L (t) * hLL (t) * h2 (t) + L (t) * hLR (t) * h4 (t), and similarly (Equation 11) and
(Equation 12) As discrete digital signals
[0029] ELL '(n) = L (n) * hLL (n) * h1 (n) + L (n) * hLR (n) * h3 (n)
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[0030] ELR '(n) = L (n) * hLL (n) * h2 (n) + L (n) * hLR (n) * h4 (n)
[0031] Further, when only the signal R (t) from the oscillator 2-2 is input to the sound field signal
reproduction apparatus and reproduced from the speakers 9-1 and 9-2, the sound reaching the
listener 10 is the left. In the ear ERL ′ (t),
[0032] ERL '(t) = R (t) * hRL (t) * h1 (t) + R (t) * hRR (t) * h3 (t) In the right ear ERR' (t),
[0033] ERR '(t) = R (t) * hRL (t) * h2 (t) + R (t) * hRR (t) * h4 (t), and similarly (Equation 15) and
(Equation 16) As discrete digital signals
[0034] ERL '(n) = R (n) * hRL (n) * h1 (n) + R (n) * hRR (n) * h3 (n)
[0035] ERR '(n) = R (n) * hRL (n) * h2 (n) + R (n) * hRR (n) * h4 (n)
[0036] Here, assuming that the sounds can be heard from the same direction if the head related
transfer functions are equal (this premise is generally correct),
[0037] When ELL (n) = ELL '(n), the equations (18) and (19) are given.
[0038] h5 (n) = hLL (n) * h1 (n) + hLR (n) * h3 (n)
[0039] When ELR (n) = ELR '(n), the equations (20) and (21) are given.
[0040] h6 (n) = hLL (n) * h2 (n) + hLR (n) * h4 (n)
[0041] When ERL (n) = ERL '(n), it is expressed by (Equation 22) and (Equation 23)
[0042] h7 (n) = hRL (n) * h1 (n) + hRR (n) * h3 (n)
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[0043] When ERR (n) = ERR '(n),
[0044]
Since h8 (n) = hRL (n) * h2 (n) + hRR (n) * h4 (n), a signal L (t) is sent to the listener 10 using the
speakers 9-1 and 9-2. In order for the speaker R to hear from the left side of the speaker 9-1 and
the signal R (t) to be heard from the right side of the speaker 9-2, (Equation 18), (Equation 20),
(Equation 22), (Equation HLL (n), hLR (n), hRL (n) and hRR (n) may be determined so as to satisfy
24).
For example, if Eqs. (18), (Eq. 20), (Eq. 22), and (Eq. 24) are rewritten in the frequency domain
representation, the convolution operation is replaced by multiplication, and then the respective
impulse responses are subjected to fast Fourier transform (FFT ) And then the transfer function.
[0045]
The impulse responses of the FIR filters 5-1, 5-2, 5-3, 5-4 are obtained by measurement except
for the impulse responses of the FIR filters 5-1, 5-2, 5-3, 5-4. It can be determined from four
equations (18), (20), (22) and (24).
Further, (Equation 18), (Equation 20), (Equation 22) and (Equation 24) are expressed by matrix
equations, and by inverse matrix operation Can also be determined.
[0046]
Using the hLL (n), hLR (n), hRL (n), hRR (n) determined in this way, the signal L (n) and hLL (n)
are convoluted from the speaker 9-1 It radiates ones and a convolution of the signals R (n) and
hRL (n). In addition, the listener 10 emits a signal in which the signals L (n) and hLR (n) are
convoluted and the signals R (n) and hRR (n) are convoluted from the speaker 9-2. Even if the
speakers 11-1 and 11-2 placed at positions outside the speakers 9-1 and 9-2 do not actually
sound, sounds are emitted from the outside of the speakers 9-1 and 9-2. It becomes possible to
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make it feel.
[0047] Incidentally, even if there are three or more reproduction speakers and three or more
oscillators, the sound image can be localized at any position by performing the same processing
as described above.
[0048] Here, it is the FIR filters 5-1, 5-2, 5-3 and 5-4 that actually perform the convolution
operation. A block diagram showing a basic configuration of the FIR filters 5-1, 5-2, 5-3 and 5-4
is shown in FIG. In FIG. 3, delay elements 12-2 for delaying a signal by τ time are connected in
series to an input terminal 12-1 for inputting a signal, and both ends of these delay elements 122 are called tap coefficients. A multiplier 12-3 for multiplying the input signal is connected. The
other ends of the multipliers 12-3 are connected to an adder 12-4 for adding a plurality of input
signals, and an output terminal 12-5 for outputting the added signal is connected to the adder
12-4. ing. H (n) (n: 0 to N-1) of the multiplier 12-3 is an impulse response having a certain
characteristic set as a tap coefficient.
[0049] Usually, such an FIR filter uses a dedicated LSI such as a DSP (Digital Signal Processor)
that performs multiplication and addition at high speed. As shown in FIG. 3, an impulse response
h (n) is set as a tap coefficient in the multiplier 12-3, and a delay time corresponding to a
sampling frequency when converting an analog signal to a digital signal in the delay element 122 By repeating multiplication and addition and delay on the set and input signals, the convolution
operation as shown in (Equation 5), (Equation 6), (Equation 7) and (Equation 8) is performed.
Therefore, by inputting a signal to this FIR filter, the characteristic of the impulse response h (n)
is convoluted into the input signal and output.
[0050] Since the above is the case of a digital signal, in practice, an A / D converter for
converting an analog signal to a digital signal and a D / A converter for converting a digital signal
to an analog signal are required before this FIR filter.
[0051] In this manner, even in a home television set in which the position of the playback
speaker is fixed, the sound can be heard from the outside of the playback speaker, and the sense
of expansion is more than in normal playback. It is possible to play with a sense of presence.
[0052] However, in the above-mentioned configuration, when listening to the reproduction
sound of the sound field signal reproduction apparatus at a predetermined position, a sense of
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expansion or presence is obtained, but the position of the listener changes. Also, even if the
sound field signal reproducing apparatus is used, the reproduced sound image is not localized at
the target position. This is because the positional relationship between the speaker for
reproduction and the listener changes due to the change in the position of the listener, and the
impulse response from the speaker for reproduction to the listener changes, so that sound image
localization can not be performed at the target position. It is
[0053] Therefore, in the conventional sound field signal reproduction apparatus, the position of
the listener has been considerably limited in order to perform the target sound image
localization. Therefore, there has been a problem that even if the position of the listener is
expanded and the listener listens in a wider range, a sense of spread and reality can be obtained.
[0054] An object of the present invention is to provide a sound field signal reproducing
apparatus which can obtain a sense of wideness and presence without limiting the position of the
listener to one place in consideration of the conventional problems. It is
[0055] According to the present invention, an input means for inputting a stereo signal and at
least two signals of each signal of the input stereo signal are divided, and the divided signals are
respectively input. At least four adjusting means, subtracting means for subtracting one of the
input stereo signals from the other to output as a difference signal, and dividing the output signal
from the subtracting means into at least two signals At least two delay means for delaying each
of the divided difference signals for a predetermined time, multiplication means for multiplying
the delayed difference signals by a predetermined coefficient, an output of the multiplication
means and an output signal from the adjustment means And at least two addition means for
adding the output signals from the other adjustment means at a predetermined ratio, and the
output signals from the two addition means At least two sound reproducing means for
reproducing sound at a place, the adjusting means includes an amplitude of an input signal to the
adjusting means so that the listener can hear the sound from a place other than the
predetermined place; Each delay time is adjusted and output as a sound reproduction signal.
[0056] According to the present invention, the stereo signal input from the input means is
divided into at least two signals, and at least four adjusting means respectively input the divided
at least two signals, and The amplitude and the delay time of the input signals are adjusted
respectively so as to be heard as a sound from a place other than a predetermined place, and
output as a sound reproduction signal. Further, the subtraction means subtracts one of the input
stereo signals from the other one and outputs it as a difference signal, and this difference signal
is divided into at least two difference signals, and at least two delay means Each of the divided
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difference signals is delayed for a predetermined time, and at least two adders add the delayed
difference signals, the output signal from the adjuster, and the output signal from the other
adjuster at a predetermined ratio, and at least 2 One sound reproducing means reproduces the
output signals from the two adding means into a sound at a predetermined place.
[0057] Embodiments of the present invention will be described hereinbelow with reference to
the drawings.
[0058] FIG. 1 is a block diagram showing the configuration of a sound field signal reproduction
apparatus according to an embodiment of the present invention.
[0059] In FIG. 1, 6-3 is a subtractor, 6-4, 6-5 is an adder, 6-6, 6-7 is a signal adder, 13-1, 13-2,
13-3, 13-4, 13-5, 13-6 are delay units, 14-1, 14-2, 14-3, 14-4 are multipliers, 10-1 is a second
listener to the left of the listener 10, 10-2 Is a third listener to the right of the listener 10. The
other functional elements similar to those in FIG. 2 are indicated by the same numbers and
signals.
[0060] The operation of the sound field signal reproduction apparatus according to the
embodiment configured as described above will be described with reference to FIG.
[0061] The left channel (Lch) signal L (t) of the stereo audio signal is input from the input
terminal 3-1, and the right channel (Rch) signal R of the stereo audio signal is input from the
input terminal 3-2. t) is input, the input analog signal is divided into two respectively, one is input
to the A / D converters 4-1 and 4-2, and the other is a signal adder 6-6, Input to 6-7.
[0062] The A / D converter 4-1 converts the analog signal L (t) into a digital signal L (n), and the
A / D converter 4-2 converts the analog signal R (t) into a digital signal R (n) These digital signals
L (n) and R (n) are each divided into two, one is input to the subtractor 6-3, the other is further
divided into two, L (n) Are input to the FIR filters 5-1 and 5-2, and R (n) is input to the FIR filters
5-3 and 5-4.
[0063] In this FIR filter 5-1, a convolution operation of L (n) and hLL (n) is performed, and the
result is input to the adder 6-4, and in the FIR filter 5-2, L (n) and hLR (n) And the result is input
to the adder 6-5. Also, the FIR filter 5-3 performs a convolution operation of R (n) and hRL (n),
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and the result is input to the adder 6-4, and the FIR filter 5-4 receives R (n) and hRR (n). And the
result is input to the adder 6-5.
[0064] The outputs from these FIR filters 5-1, 5-2, 5-3, 5-4 are the FIR filters 5-1, 5-2, 5 of the
conventional sound field signal reproducing apparatus described with reference to FIG. It is the
same as the output from -3, 5-4, and by reproducing these output signals with the speaker placed
at a predetermined position, the listener 10 is outside the speakers 9-1, 9-2. A speaker can be
placed on the to perform sound image localization as if stereo reproduction was performed.
[0065] On the other hand, in the subtractor 6-3, L (n) -R (n) is performed, and the result is output
as a difference signal D (n), and D (n) is divided into four and each delay unit 13- 1, 13-2, 13-4
and 13-5, and the delay unit 13-1 multiplies the delay of τ1 to obtain D (n-τ1), and the
multiplier 14-1 multiplies g1 and g1 · D The result is (n−τ1), which is input to the adder 6-4.
The delay unit 13-2 multiplies the delay of .tau.2 to D (n-.tau.2), and the delay unit 13-3
multiplies the delay of .tau.3 to D (n-.tau.2-.tau.3), and the multiplier 14-2 The multiplication by
g2 results in g2 · D (n−τ2−τ3), which is input to the adder 6-4.
[0066] On the other hand, the delay unit 13-4 multiplies the delay of .tau.3 to obtain D (n-.tau.3),
and the multiplier 14-3 multiplies the delay by -g1 to obtain -g1.D (n-.tau.3) to the adder 6-5. It is
input. The delay unit 13-5 multiplies the delay of .tau.2 to D (n-.tau.2), and the delay unit 13-6
multiplies the delay of .tau.1 to D (n-.tau.2-.tau.1), and the multiplier 14-4 The signal is multiplied
by -g2 to obtain -g2 · D (n-τ2-τ1), which is input to the adder 6-5.
[0067] Here, it is assumed that g1> g2, and among these delayed signals, the signal g2.D (n.tau.2-.tau.3) and the signal -g1.D (n-.tau.3) are respectively received from the loudspeakers 9-1
and 9-2. By reproducing the sound as a sound, the difference signal of the stereo audio signal is
heard in reverse phase to the second listener 10-1. In addition, by reproducing the signals g1 · D
(n−τ1) and the signals −g2 · D (n−τ2−τ1) as sound from the speakers 9-1 and 9-2,
respectively, the third listener 10-2 is On the other hand, the difference signal of the stereo audio
signal is heard in reverse phase.
[0068] In other words, from the second listener 10-1 to the speaker 9-1 by performing the delay
in the delay devices 13-2, 13-3, 13-4 and the multiplication in the multipliers 14-2, 14-3. The
difference between the arrival time of the sound and the arrival level due to the difference
between the distance of and the distance to the speaker 9-2 is corrected. Similarly, the delay at
the delay units 13-1, 13-5, 13-6 and the multiplication by the multipliers 14-1, 14-4 allow the
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third listener 10-2 to hear the speaker 9-. The difference between the arrival time of the sound
and the arrival level due to the difference between the distance to 1 and the distance to the
speaker 9-2 is corrected.
[0069] In addition, it is better to increase τ2 as the distance difference between each listener
10-1 and 10-2 and each of the speakers 9-1 and 9-2 is larger, but the value of τ2 is usually
about 1 msec or less. . In addition, by adjusting the values of τ1 and τ3, a sound that is
optimum for the listeners 10-1 and 10-2 (a difference signal of the stereo audio signal being
heard in opposite phase to each listener) is obtained. It can be separated. Normally, it is desirable
that τ1 and τ3 have a difference of about 20 msec.
[0070] Subsequently, addition is performed at a predetermined ratio by each of the adders 6-4
and 6-5. Here, by adjusting the rate of addition in the adders 6-4 and 6-5, it is possible to adjust
which of the listeners 10, 10-1 and 10-2 hears in the best condition. For example, adding the
signal g2.D (n-.tau.2-.tau.3) and the signal -g1.D (n-.tau.3) at a larger ratio than the other signals
reduces the optimum sound degradation for the second listener 10-1 And the second listener 101 can listen in the best condition. That is, in fact, the signal optimum for the listener 10-1 is a
signal localized forward to the listeners 10 and 10-2, and the signal optimum for the listener 10
is the listeners 10-1 and 10-2. For the listener 10-2 and for the listener 10-2 as well, the signal
optimal for the listener 10-2 is a signal localized to the front for the listener 10-1, 10-1.
[0071] Subsequently, the addition results of the adders 6-4 and 6-5 are converted from digital
signals to analog signals by the D / A converters 7-1 and 7-2, respectively, and the results are
respectively added to the signal adder 6-6. , 6-7, and addition with L (t) and R (t) is performed at
a predetermined ratio by the signal adders 6-6, 6-7, respectively. Here, by adjusting the rate of
addition in the signal adders 6-6 and 6-7, it is possible to adjust the realism and naturalness or
preference of the listener.
[0072] Subsequently, the addition results of the signal adders 6-6 and 6-7 are output from the
output terminals 8-1 and 8-2, and the output signals are reproduced as sounds by the speakers
9-1 and 9-2, respectively.
[0073] As described above, for the listener 10, a signal for performing sound image localization
as if stereo reproduction was performed by placing the speaker outside the speakers 9-1 and 9-2,
and the second listener 10-1 and the third listener For the listener 10-2, a signal is reproduced
such that the difference signal of the stereo audio signal is heard in reverse phase.
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[0074] Usually, the difference signal between stereo and audio signals often includes
reverberation and sounds that do not require a clear sound image localization to the center of the
reproduction speaker, and by listening to such difference signals in reverse phase, It is possible
to create a vague sense of spaciousness where the localization position of the sound image can
not be recognized, or a state in which the listener feels like being covered in reverberation. In
addition, if only the sound that is normally output in reverse phase is heard, there is a strong
opposite sense of feeling and there may be unnaturalness, but as in this embodiment, in each of
the listeners 10, 10-1 and 10-2, they are reversed. By listening to the sounds other than the
phase, the unnaturalness due to the reverse phase sound is eliminated, and it is possible to obtain
a natural sense of spread and presence.
[0075] From this, it is possible to perform reproduction with a sense of expanse and presence to
a plurality of listeners 10, 10-1, 10-2.
[0076] Although the difference signal D (n) is divided into four in the above embodiment, the
present invention is not limited to this. The difference signal D (n) is divided into four or more,
and a delay device and a multiplier are provided in each of them. The delay times of the delay
units and the coefficients of the multipliers may be adjusted to optimize the sound for four or
more listeners.
[0077] Further, although two reproduction speakers are used in the above embodiment, the
sound image is localized outside the reproduction speaker for one listener using two or more
reproduction speakers, and the other listeners On the other hand, the difference signal of the
stereo audio signal may be output in reverse phase by two reproduction speakers of two or more
reproduction speakers.
[0078] Further, in the above embodiment, the coefficient of the FIR filter is determined so that
the sound image is localized outside the reproduction speaker for one listener, but the present
invention is not limited thereto. The coefficients of the FIR filter may be determined to localize
the sound image.
[0079] As described above, the sound field signal reproducing apparatus according to the
present invention performs the reproduction with a sense of expansion by localizing the sound
image to a place other than the reproduction speaker for one listener. For the listener, the
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reproduction with a sense of expansion is performed by outputting the difference signal of the
stereo audio signal in opposite phase by the two reproduction speakers. By this, the position of
the listener by the sound field signal reproduction apparatus is not limited, and even if listening
in a wide range, sound reproduction with a sense of expansion can be performed.
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