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JPH10160611

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DESCRIPTION JPH10160611
[0001]
TECHNICAL FIELD The present invention relates to a capacitive transducer.
[0002]
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION Capacitive transducers have been used for measuring devices
such as pressure sensors and acceleration sensors. This capacitance type transducer has a
structure in which a movable electrode and a substrate provided with a film-like fixed electrode
opposed to the movable electrode are disposed opposite to each other with a gap, and the
displacement of the movable electrode relative to the substrate can be moved It can be detected
as a change in capacitance between the electrode and the fixed electrode. For example, in a
capacitive pressure sensor, a diaphragm as a movable electrode is formed of conductive silicon,
and this diaphragm is disposed opposite to the substrate with a gap in between and fixed to the
detection surface of the substrate facing the diaphragm There is a structure provided with an
electrode. When measuring the pressure of the fluid, the fluid is introduced to the surface of the
diaphragm opposite to the surface on the substrate side, and the displacement of the diaphragm
due to the pressure is detected as a change in capacitance to obtain the pressure of the fluid. It
can be converted to an electrical signal.
[0003]
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The fixed electrode of the substrate in such a capacitive transducer is drawn from the detection
surface through a through hole or the like formed in the substrate, and a lead is connected to the
drawn portion to electrically connect with the signal processing circuit. I am trying to connect.
Since a wire made of aluminum or gold is usually used for this conducting wire, the material of
the fixed electrode is limited to a material which can bond these wires. Among the materials,
aluminum is widely used because it is inexpensive and has excellent adhesion to the glass used
for the substrate and photolithography process for pattern formation is easy.
[0004]
However, when the fixed electrode is formed of an aluminum film, projections called hillocks are
easily generated on the surface of the fixed electrode due to measurement under high
temperature, heating step at the time of manufacture, etc. Since the hillock changes the distance
between the fixed electrode and the movable electrode, there is a problem that the displacement
of the movable electrode can not be accurately detected. In particular, as the transducer becomes
smaller, the distance between the fixed electrode and the movable electrode becomes smaller, so
the influence of the hillocks becomes remarkable, and there is a possibility that the large grown
hillocks may become undetectable due to contact with the movable electrode. The
[0005]
In addition, aluminum is prone to corrosion under severe environments, in particular, dew
condensation, and in a corrosive atmosphere such as acid and alkali, and the life of a transducer
using aluminum as a fixed electrode is relatively short. Furthermore, if the shape of the surface of
the fixed electrode changes due to corrosion, it also affects the distance between the movable
electrode and the fixed electrode, which causes a decrease in detection accuracy.
[0006]
An object of the present invention is to provide a capacitive transducer capable of securing high
detection accuracy and improving corrosion resistance while securing good bondability.
[0007]
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION The present invention achieves the above object by forming an
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electrode, which has conventionally been formed of a single material, of a plurality of different
materials.
Specifically, in the capacitive transducer according to the present invention, a substrate, a
movable electrode displaceable with respect to the substrate and disposed opposite to the
substrate with a gap therebetween, and a detection surface facing the movable electrode of the
substrate A fixed electrode provided on the lower electrode, and a signal extracting portion
electrically connected to the fixed electrode and drawn out from the detection surface of the
substrate, wherein the fixed electrode and the signal extracting portion are made of metals
different in composition from each other. It features.
[0008]
In the present invention, since the fixed electrode and the signal output portion are formed of
metals having different compositions, it is possible to provide the fixed electrode and the signal
output portion with desired characteristics. Therefore, if the fixed electrode is formed of a metal
having high corrosion resistance and less generation of hillocks, the distance to the movable
electrode can be maintained in a normal state, and contact between the fixed electrode and the
movable electrode can be prevented. As a result, the displacement of the movable electrode can
be stably and accurately detected for a long period of time, and defects such as a decrease in the
lifetime of the entire transducer due to the corrosion of the fixed electrode can be prevented. In
addition, the signal extracting unit hardly affects the characteristics of the transducer, that is, the
displacement of the movable electrode and the change in capacitance based on the
characteristics of the transducer unless the function of extracting the electric signal from the
fixed electrode is impaired. If the conducting wire is formed of a metal that can be easily bonded,
good bondability can be ensured. By these, the above-mentioned object is achieved.
[0009]
In the above, it is preferable that the fixed electrode be made of a hard-deformable metal, and the
signal extraction portion be made of a bondable easy-bonding metal. Here, hard-to-deform metals
are metals which are less likely to generate hillocks. For example, metals whose evaporation
tension at high temperature is larger than water evaporation and expansion power, metals whose
difference in coefficient of thermal expansion with the substrate is small, impurities It is possible
to use from among metals whose periodicity in the crystal is hindered by addition and the like,
and metals having high resistance to electromigration. When the fixed electrode is formed of
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such a hard-deformable metal, generation of hillocks in the fixed electrode can be reliably
prevented, and displacement of the movable electrode can be detected accurately.
[0010]
That is, as a cause of hillocks occurring in the fixed electrode, it is conceivable that water at the
interface between the substrate and the fixed electrode is gasified and expanded by heating, and
this vapor pushes up the fixed electrode, but the deformation is difficult. If a metal whose tensile
strength at high temperature is larger than the vaporization of water and expansion power is
used as the metal, the fixed electrode will not be deformed even if steam pressure is applied, and
the generation of hillocks in the fixed electrode can be suppressed. When the fixed electrode is
formed of a material having a thermal expansion coefficient higher than that of the substrate, it is
considered that heating generates a compressive stress in the fixed electrode and hillock growth
occurs so that the compressive stress is relieved. If a metal having a small difference in thermal
expansion coefficient from the substrate is used as the hard-to-deform metal, the thermal stress
at high temperature can be reduced, so that the generation of hillocks can be suppressed.
Furthermore, some hillocks are considered to be generated due to the sliding of the transition,
but if a metal that prevents periodicity in the crystal by alloying, addition of impurities, doping,
etc. is used as the hard-to-deform metal, Since the slippage of the transition (the movement of
atoms along the grain boundaries) is inhibited, the generation of hillocks can be suppressed. In
addition, although it is conceivable that hillocks may be generated by electromigration, if a metal
having high resistance to electromigration by alloying, addition of impurities, doping, or the like
is used as a hard-to-deform metal, movement of metal atoms by current or electric field Can
prevent the occurrence of hillocks.
[0011]
When the signal extraction portion is formed of a bondable easy bonding metal, bonding can be
easily and reliably performed when the signal extraction portion is electrically connected to a
signal processing circuit or the like by a wire.
[0012]
Specifically, as the hard-deformable metal, titanium, chromium, nickel, silicon, cobalt, palladium,
tantalum, gold or titanium, chromium, nickel, iron, tungsten, silicon, aluminum, cobalt, palladium,
tantalum And an alloy containing either gold as the main component, and the easily bonding
metal is preferably aluminum, gold, or an alloy containing any of aluminum and gold as the main
component.
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[0013]
Among them, when titanium or any alloy containing titanium as a main component is used as the
hard-deformable metal, the tensile strength of titanium is larger than that of water, so that the
generation of hillocks in the fixed electrode can be reliably suppressed.
Moreover, since titanium is excellent in corrosion resistance, corrosion of the fixed electrode can
be reliably prevented.
Furthermore, even when patterning the fixed electrode by photolithography or the like, titanium
has good processability, so that a desired pattern can be easily formed. In addition, if any of
aluminum and an alloy containing aluminum as a main component is used as the easy-to-bond
metal, aluminum is inexpensive and has excellent adhesion to the glass used for the substrate,
and a photolithographic process for pattern formation. Is easy to produce an excellent signal
extraction unit at low cost.
[0014]
BEST MODE FOR CARRYING OUT THE INVENTION An embodiment of the present invention will
be described below with reference to the drawings. FIG. 1 shows a pressure sensor 10 as a
capacitive transducer. The pressure sensor 10 is a capacitance type pressure sensor that detects
pressure as a change in capacitance, and is elastically bonded to an elastically deformable
diaphragm 20 as a movable electrode and a thick portion 21 around the diaphragm 20. The
upper glass 30 and the lower glass 40 sandwich the diaphragm 20. A predetermined air gap is
formed between the diaphragm 20 and the upper and lower glasses 30 and 40 inside the thick
portion 21. The diaphragm 20 can be displaced with respect to the upper glass 30 which is a
substrate by elastically deforming in this air gap.
[0015]
The diaphragm 20 is made of conductive silicon, for example, single crystal silicon, and the
diaphragm 20 itself is one electrode. In the diaphragm 20, the facing surface 20A facing the
upper glass 30 is recessed one step lower than the upper surface 21A of the thick portion 21,
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and the facing surface 20B facing the lower glass 40 (see FIG. 2) is a thick portion It is higher
(recessed) in the figure than the lower surface 21 B of 21. The diaphragm 20 is formed, for
example, by etching each stepped portion by photoresist processing or the like from silicon
having a thickness of about 0.1 mm. Although not limited, the step size from the facing surface
20A to the upper surface 21A of the thick portion 21 is, for example, about 2 to 8 μm, and the
step size from the facing surface 20B to the lower surface 21B is, for example, about It is about
80 μm.
[0016]
The upper glass 30 is a substrate in the present invention, and on the detection surface 30A
facing the diaphragm 20, a film-like central electrode 31 as a fixed electrode and a film-like
peripheral electrode as a fixed electrode surrounding the central electrode 31 And 32 are
provided. The upper surface 30B of the upper glass 30 (surface opposite to the detection surface
30A) is provided with film-like signal extracting portions 34 and 35 drawn from the detection
surface 30A. The signal extracting portions 34 and 35 are electrically connected to the center
electrode 31 and the peripheral electrode 32 through through holes 36 and 37 provided in the
upper glass 30, respectively. The signal extraction unit 35 electrically connected to the
peripheral electrode 32 among the signal extraction units 34 and 35 includes a extraction unit
38 extracted to the edge portion of the upper glass 30.
[0017]
The central electrode 31 and the peripheral electrode 32 of the detection surface 30A and the
signal extracting portions 34 and 35 of the upper surface 30B are made of metals different in
composition from each other. Specifically, the central electrode 31 and the peripheral electrode
32 are difficult The signal extracting portions 34 and 35 are made of aluminum which is a
bondable easy-to-bond metal. As shown in FIG. 2, the central electrode 31 and the signal
extracting portion 34, the peripheral electrode 32 and the signal extracting portion 35 are
brought into contact with each other in the respective through holes 36 and 37, and are
electrically connected to each other. The film is formed so as to gradually switch between 32 and
the signal extracting units 34 and 35. That is, the fixed electrodes 31 and 32 are formed so that
the film thickness gradually decreases from the detection surface 30A side to the upper surface
30B side, and the signal extraction portions 34 and 35 have the film thickness from the upper
surface 30B side to the detection surface 30A It forms so that it may become thin gradually
toward the side, It forms into a film so that these fixed electrodes 31 and 32 and the signal
extraction parts 34 and 35 may overlap by the through holes 36 and 37 inner surface,
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respectively.
[0018]
Returning to FIG. 1, the upper surface 30 B of the upper glass 30 is provided with an anodic
bonding electrode 39 used in anodic bonding, and the anodic bonding electrode 39 has a shape
substantially corresponding to the edge of the diaphragm 20. Thus, the signal extraction portions
34 and 35 are surrounded, and the above-described extraction portion 38 is extracted through
the discontinuities 39A of the anodic bonding electrode 39. Further, at the corner 30D of the
upper glass 30, a takeout unit 50 for taking out a signal drawn from the side surface 20C of the
diaphragm 20 is provided. The take-out portion 50 is formed by continuously forming an upper
surface portion 50A formed on the upper surface of the upper glass 30, and a side surface 50B
straddling the side surface 20C of the diaphragm 20 and the side surface 30C of the upper glass
30. The lead-out portion 50, the lead-out portion 38 and the anode bonding electrode 39 are
formed of the same aluminum as the signal lead-out portions 34 and 35.
[0019]
On the other hand, the lower glass 40 is provided with a pressure introducing port 41 provided
substantially at the center position, and a pressure is applied from the pressure introducing port
41. In addition, the lower glass 40 can be appropriately omitted in consideration of the use mode
and the like of the pressure sensor.
[0020]
In such a pressure sensor 10, when pressure is applied to the pressure introduction port 41, the
diaphragm 20 is elastically deformed so as to curve, and the distance between the diaphragm 20
and the center electrode 31 and the peripheral electrode 32 of the upper glass 30 Changes, and
the capacitance changes according to the distance, thereby making a pressure measurement. At
this time, since the displacement of the diaphragm 20 is large in the vicinity of the center and
small in the peripheral portion, a difference occurs in the electrostatic capacitance between the
diaphragm 20 and the center electrode 31 and the peripheral electrode 32 of the upper glass 30.
By measuring, an error based on a change in temperature or the like is calibrated, noise and the
like are removed, and pressure is detected more accurately. The pressure sensor 10 is a so-called
gauge pressure (differential pressure to atmospheric pressure when the atmospheric pressure is
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zero) sensor, and the gap between the diaphragm 20 and the upper glass 30 is a central
electrode 31 and a peripheral electrode 32. The air is open to the air through each through hole
36, 37.
[0021]
Next, the manufacturing procedure of the pressure sensor 10 will be described. First, the
diaphragm 20 is formed by etching or the like, and the pressure introducing port 41 is provided
in the lower glass 40. Further, through holes 36 and 37 are formed in the upper glass 30 as a
substrate, a thin film of titanium is deposited on the detection surface 30A by vapor deposition
or sputtering, and the upper surface 30B on the opposite side is similarly formed of aluminum.
Form a thin film. In the film forming process, the titanium thin film is formed gradually thinner
toward the upper surface 30B on the inner wall of the through holes 36 and 37, and the
aluminum thin film is formed gradually thinner toward the detection surface 30A. And the
aluminum film are brought into contact with each other on the inner surfaces of the through
holes 36, 37 and conducted. The order of forming these titanium films and aluminum films is not
limited.
[0022]
Then, a pattern of the center electrode 31 and the peripheral electrode 32 is formed on the
titanium film of the detection surface 30A by photolithography, and the signal extracting
portions 34 and 35, the lead-out portion 38, the anodic bonding electrode 39, and the aluminum
film on the upper surface 30B. The upper surface portion 50A of the take-out portion 50 is
pattern-formed. Next, the lower glass 40, the diaphragm 20 and the upper glass 30 are
sequentially laminated, and then under the high temperature of about 400 ° C., the side of the
lead-out portion 38 and the diaphragm 20 is plus, and the anode bonding electrode 39 and the
lower glass 40 are minus. A voltage of about 400 V is applied to anodically bond the lower glass
40, the diaphragm 20 and the upper glass 30. Thereafter, aluminum is deposited or sputtered on
the side surface 20C of the diaphragm 20 and the side surface 30C (corner 30D) of the upper
glass 30 to form the side film 50B across the upper surface 50A previously provided on the
upper surface 30B. The portion 50 is formed. Then, a wire (not shown) made of aluminum is
bonded to these signal extraction units 34 and 35 and the extraction unit 50 and electrically
connected to a signal processing circuit (not shown).
[0023]
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The pressure sensor 10 is not limited to one manufactured as a single body, but is a silicon wafer
which is a diaphragm wafer integrally formed with a plurality of diaphragms 20, an upper glass
wafer integrally formed with a plurality of upper glasses 30, and a plurality of The lower glass
wafer integrally formed with the lower glass 40 is anodically bonded to each other to produce a
laminated wafer, and then the plurality of pressure sensors 10 (sensor chip alone) formed on the
laminated wafer are respectively cut according to a predetermined cutting position You may
manufacture by doing.
[0024]
According to this embodiment, the following effects can be obtained.
That is, since the central electrode 31 and the peripheral electrode 32 and the signal extracting
portions 34 and 35 are made of metals different in composition from each other, the fixed
electrodes 31 and 32 and the signal extracting portions 34 and 35 can have desired
characteristics respectively. It becomes. Among these, since the central electrode 31 and the
peripheral electrode 32 are formed of a metal that is hard to generate hillocks, the generation of
hillocks in the central electrode 31 and the peripheral electrode 32 can be reliably prevented,
and the central electrode 31 and the peripheral electrode Since the distance between the
electrode 32 and the diaphragm 20 can be maintained in a normal state, the displacement of the
diaphragm 20 can be stably detected with high accuracy for a long time. In addition, since the
generation of hillocks is suppressed, it is possible to reliably prevent a failure that the center
electrode 31 and the peripheral electrode 32 contact the diaphragm 20 and measurement
becomes impossible.
[0025]
Furthermore, since the center electrode 31 and the peripheral electrode 32 are formed using
titanium, which has a tensile strength larger than that of water, among the difficult-to-deform
metals, anodic bonding is performed at a high temperature of 400 ° C., or pressure
measurement is performed at a high temperature. Even if it does, the central electrode 31 and
the peripheral electrode 32 are not deformed by the vapor pressure of the water present
between the upper glass 30 and the upper glass 30, so the generation of hillocks can be reliably
suppressed. In addition, since titanium is excellent in corrosion resistance under severe
environments, corrosion of central electrode 31 and peripheral electrode 32 can be reliably
prevented, and the distance between central electrode 31 and peripheral electrode 32 and
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diaphragm 20 is due to corrosion. Since the fluctuation does not occur, highly accurate output
characteristics can be maintained for a long time, and the lifetime of the entire pressure sensor
10 can be extended. Furthermore, even when the central electrode 31 and the peripheral
electrode 32 are patterned by photolithography, titanium has a good processability, so that a
desired pattern can be easily formed.
[0026]
Further, since the signal extracting portions 34 and 35 are formed of easily bondable metals,
good bondability can be secured, and wires for connecting to the signal processing circuit can be
surely and easily bonded.
[0027]
Further, since the signal extracting portions 34 and 35 are formed of aluminum which is
inexpensive among the easily bonding metals, the cost for the material can be reduced.
Further, since aluminum is excellent in adhesion to the upper glass 30 and the lower glass 40, it
is possible to easily form an excellent signal extraction portion 34, 35. And since aluminum is
easy to carry out the photolithographic process for pattern formation, the signal extraction parts
34 and 35 can be formed easily.
[0028]
And since aluminum which comprises the signal extraction parts 34 and 35 is the same material
as a wire, much more favorable bondability is securable. Further, since the extraction portions 34
and 35 of the upper surface 30B of the upper glass 30, the lead-out portion 38, the electrode 39
for anodic bonding, and the upper surface portion 50A of the extraction portion 50 are formed of
aluminum in common, Manufacturing can be simplified.
[0029]
Furthermore, the lead-out portion 38 is electrically connected to the peripheral electrode 32
surrounding the central electrode 31, and at the time of anodic bonding, the same voltage as the
diaphragm 20 is applied to the lead-out portion 38. The central electrode 31 can be made to
have substantially the same potential as the diaphragm 20, and the diaphragm 20 can be
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prevented from being drawn to the upper glass 30 during anodic bonding.
[0030]
Furthermore, the corner 30D of the upper glass 30, which is an insulator, is provided with the
take-out portion 50 for the diaphragm 20 drawn from the diaphragm 20 through the side
surfaces 20C and 30C. There is no need to cut out and form the takeout part.
Therefore, even when the size of the pressure sensor 10 is small, the takeout portion 50 of the
diaphragm 20 can be easily formed, and the miniaturization of the pressure sensor can be
further promoted.
[0031]
The present invention is not limited to the above embodiment, but includes other configurations
and the like that can achieve the object of the present invention, and the following modifications
and the like are also included in the present invention. In the above embodiment, titanium is used
as the hard-to-deform metal forming the center electrode 31 and the peripheral electrode 32.
However, for example, it may be formed of an alloy containing titanium as a main component.
Alternatively, it may be formed of another hard-deformable metal, for example, any of chromium,
nickel, silicon, cobalt, palladium, tantalum and gold, or chromium, nickel, iron, tungsten, It may
be formed of an alloy having any of silicon, aluminum, cobalt, palladium, tantalum and gold as a
main component.
[0032]
Further, in the above embodiment, aluminum is used as the easily bonding metal forming the
signal extracting portions 34 and 35, but may be formed of an alloy containing aluminum as a
main component. Alternatively, it may be formed of another easily bondable metal, for example,
gold or an alloy containing gold as a main component.
[0033]
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In addition, the ionization tendency of each material may be taken into consideration in the
relation between the hard-to-deform metal and the easy-to-bond metal. For example, by using a
metal nobler than the easily bonding metal forming the signal extracting portions 34, 35 as the
hard-to-deform metal forming the central electrode 31 and the peripheral electrode 32, the inner
electrodes 31, 32 can be relatively Can also be protected.
[0034]
And although the signal extraction parts 34 and 35 of the said embodiment were drawn out to
the upper surface 30B from the through holes 36 and 37 of the upper glass 30, the signal
extraction parts 34 and 35 are the upper glass 30 and the diaphragm 20, for example. It may be
pulled out from the middle, and whether or not it is pulled out to the upper surface 30B may be
appropriately determined depending on the usage of the pressure sensor.
[0035]
Moreover, in the said embodiment, although the center electrode 31 and the peripheral electrode
32 were provided only in the upper glass 30, this invention is applicable to the pressure sensor
in which the same electrode was provided also in the lower glass 40. FIG.
The electrodes provided on a substrate such as glass are not limited to two as with the central
electrode 31 and the peripheral electrode 32 in the above embodiment, and correspond to the
electrode corresponding to the central electrode and the peripheral electrode. A plurality of
electrodes may be provided.
[0036]
In the embodiment, the lead-out portion 38 provided on the upper surface 30B, the electrode 39
for anodic bonding, and the upper surface portion 50A of the lead-out portion 50 are formed of
the same aluminum as the signal lead portions 34 and 35. You may form with the other metal
which has sex.
[0037]
Furthermore, in the above embodiment, the diaphragm 20 itself is used as an electrode, but for
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example, when the diaphragm is an insulator, a conductive thin film may be formed on the
diaphragm by a technique such as a semiconductor process. An electrode may be provided as a
movable electrode.
In the embodiment, the thick portion 21 is integrally provided on the periphery of the diaphragm
20. However, the thick portion is integrally provided on the substrate side by processing the
concave portion on the substrate side of glass or the like. The diaphragm may have a uniform
thickness, or a separate thick member may be interposed between the diaphragm and the
substrate.
[0038]
And a capacitive transducer is not limited to pressure sensor 10 of the embodiment which
measures pressure, but may be used for a measuring instrument which measures other quantity
of state, for example, acceleration which provided weight on a movable electrode It may be a
sensor. In short, a substrate, a movable electrode disposed opposite to the substrate with a gap
so as to be displaceable, a fixed electrode provided on a detection surface facing the movable
electrode of the substrate, and the fixed electrode are electrically connected to the substrate As
long as it is a capacitive transducer having a signal extraction part extracted from the detection
surface, the use form, application, and the like are arbitrary.
[0039]
As described above, according to the present invention, since the fixed electrode and the signal
extracting portion are formed of metals having different compositions from each other, each of
the fixed electrode and the signal extracting portion has desired characteristics. It becomes
possible. Therefore, if the fixed electrode is formed of a metal having high corrosion resistance
and less generation of hillocks, the distance to the movable electrode can be maintained in a
normal state, and contact between the fixed electrode and the movable electrode can be
prevented. As a result, the displacement of the movable electrode can be stably and accurately
detected for a long period of time, and defects such as a decrease in the lifetime of the entire
transducer due to the corrosion of the fixed electrode can be prevented. In addition, the signal
extracting unit hardly affects the characteristics of the transducer, that is, the displacement of the
movable electrode and the change in capacitance based on the characteristics of the transducer
unless the function of extracting the electric signal from the fixed electrode is impaired. If the
conducting wire is formed of a metal that can be easily bonded, good bondability can be ensured.
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[0040]
Brief description of the drawings
[0041]
1 is an exploded perspective view showing an embodiment of the present invention.
[0042]
2 is a cross-sectional view taken along the line II of FIG.
[0043]
Explanation of sign
[0044]
DESCRIPTION OF REFERENCE NUMERALS 10 pressure sensor (capacitance type transducer) 20
diaphragm (movable electrode) 30 upper glass (substrate) 30 A detection surface 31 central
electrode (fixed electrode) 32 peripheral electrode (fixed electrode) 34, 35 signal extracting
portion 40 lower glass
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