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JPWO2015008794

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DESCRIPTION JPWO2015008794
Abstract: Provided is a piezoelectric sounding element capable of easily dispersing resonance
while maintaining sound pressure to some extent. A diaphragm 7 and a piezoelectric element 11
that is attached to the diaphragm 7 and that expands and contracts when a voltage is applied.
The contour shape of the piezoelectric element 11 has a major axis L3 and a minor axis S3, and a
pair of sides 111 extending in parallel to the major axis L3 and a pair of sides 111 are
continuous with the convex curved portion 116 at both ends. And has a pair of sides 112 having
a pair of sides 112, and has a line symmetrical shape with the long axis and the short axis as
symmetry axes. The contour shape of the piezoelectric element 11 is such that the ratio of the
length of the minor axis S3 to the length of the major axis L3 is in the range of 1: 1.55 to 1: 1.75,
and the curvature radius of the convex curved portion 116 is It is a value in the range of 35% to
50% of the length of the minor axis S3.
Piezoelectric sounding element
[0001]
The present invention relates to a piezoelectric sounding element including a piezoelectric
element and a diaphragm to which the piezoelectric element is attached, and the outer peripheral
portion of the diaphragm is fixed.
[0002]
In WO2011-155334 (patent document 1), a piezoelectric sounding component provided with a
so-called square piezoelectric sounding element in which a piezoelectric element having a
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quadrangular outline shape is attached to a diaphragm having a quadrangular outline shape is
disclosed. It is disclosed.
In this piezoelectric sound element, the thickness of the diaphragm surrounds the periphery of
the piezoelectric element at the connection portion connecting the outer area of the diaphragm
supported by the support member and the central area of the diaphragm to which the
piezoelectric element is attached. A curved portion (roll edge) having a shape that is convex
toward one side of the direction is provided. The width dimension of the curved portion
corresponding to the corner of the piezoelectric element is smaller than the width dimension of
the curved portion corresponding to the central position on the short axis side of the
piezoelectric element. In the embodiment, the width dimension of this curved portion
corresponding to the corner of the square piezoelectric element is zero. According to this
structure, it is described in this document that the amplitude of vibration of the piezoelectric
element can be made larger than that of the prior art.
[0003]
WO 2011-155334
[0004]
However, when a diaphragm having a shape as shown in Patent Document 1 and a piezoelectric
element having a quadrangular outline are used, sound pressure frequency characteristics are
both compared to the case where a diaphragm having a quadrangular outline and a piezoelectric
element are used. The number of resonance peaks is increased, which is advantageous for the
dispersion of resonances in sound pressure frequency characteristics.
However, since the peak of each resonance is sharp, the pronunciation characteristic has a peak
and gives an unnatural impression. Therefore, in an actual product, since it is necessary to reduce
the Q value of the resonance peak to suppress the resonance peak, an expensive diaphragm
material of a special multilayer structure is used. However, when such a material is used, the
output sound pressure is reduced, which causes a problem that the material cost of the
diaphragm material is increased.
[0005]
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION The object of the present invention is to provide a piezoelectric
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sounding element capable of obtaining sound generation characteristics giving natural
impression by easily dispersing more resonances in order to suppress resonance peaks while
maintaining sound pressure to some extent. It is to do.
[0006]
Another object of the present invention is to provide a piezoelectric sounding element which has
a simple structure and can be manufactured inexpensively in addition to the above object.
[0007]
The piezoelectric sound emitting element of the present invention includes a diaphragm, and a
piezoelectric element attached to the diaphragm and that expands and contracts when a voltage
is applied.
In the present invention, the contour shape of the piezoelectric element has a major axis and a
minor axis, and is provided with a pair of sides extending parallel to the major axis and a convex
curved portion continuous with the pair of sides and having both ends. It has a pair of other
sides, and exhibits a line symmetrical shape with the major axis and the minor axis as symmetry
axes.
Furthermore, in the contour shape, the ratio of the minor axis length to the major axis length is in
the range of 1: 1.55 to 1: 1.75, and the curvature radius of the convex curved portion is the
minor axis length. It is a value in the range of 35% to 50%.
[0008]
The piezoelectric element having such a contour has an intermediate characteristic between the
characteristics of the piezoelectric element having an elliptical contour and the characteristics of
the piezoelectric element having a square contour. In other words, the output characteristics
(electro-acoustic conversion efficiency) are improved compared to the piezoelectric element
having an elliptical outline, and the number of resonance peaks is larger than that of the square
piezoelectric element to disperse the resonance and suppress the resonance peak. Thus, a sound
pressure frequency characteristic is obtained in which the difference between the resonance
peak and the valley is reduced. That is, since there are a pair of sides extending in parallel with
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the long axis, the reduction of the area of the piezoelectric element can be suppressed as much as
possible even if the convex curved portion is provided. As a result, according to the present
invention, the sound pressure can be maintained higher than in the case of using a piezoelectric
element whose outline has an elliptical shape. In particular, as in the present invention, in the
contour shape of the piezoelectric element, the ratio of the minor axis length to the major axis
length is in the range of 1: 1.55 to 1: 1.75, and the convex curved portion If the curvature radius
is in the range of 35% to 50% of the length of the minor axis, more resonances are easily
dispersed to suppress the resonance peak while maintaining the sound pressure to some extent,
It is possible to provide a non-conventional piezoelectric sounding element capable of obtaining
sounding characteristics giving a natural impression.
[0009]
The diaphragm is located between the central area to which the piezoelectric element is attached,
the outer peripheral area located on the outer peripheral portion of the diaphragm and
supported by the support member, and the central area and the outer peripheral area. And a roll
edge such as an annular shape may be formed in the connection area so as to surround the
periphery of the piezoelectric element. The contour shape of the area portion including the
central region and the connection region is preferably similar to the contour shape of the
piezoelectric element. In this case, the ratio of the width dimension of the pair of first edge
portions along the major axis of the roll edge to the width dimension of the pair of second edge
portions along the minor axis is 1: 1.55 to 1: 1. Preferably, it is in the range of 75. When the
width dimension of the edge portion is thus determined, the same sound pressure can be
obtained at a lower voltage than in the case of providing a roll edge having a constant width.
According to experiments, it has been confirmed that the same sound pressure can be obtained
with almost half the voltage as compared with the case where the width dimension of the roll
edge is constant.
[0010]
The ratio of the width dimension of the first edge portion of the roll edge to the height dimension
orthogonal to the width dimension is in the range of 1: 0.15 to 1: 0.45, and the width of the
second edge portion When the ratio of the dimension to the height dimension orthogonal to the
width dimension is in the range of 1: 0.15 to 1: 0.45, the voltage is lower than in the case of
providing a roll edge having a constant width. The same sound pressure can be obtained.
[0011]
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In the present invention, the material of the diaphragm is not particularly limited, but a thin
metal plate, a resin film, or a multilayer thin plate of metal and a resin film may be used as the
basic material of the diaphragm.
When a resin film is used as a basic material of a diaphragm, a resin film having a Young's
modulus of 1 GPa or more is superimposed on a resin film having a Young's modulus of 1 GPa or
more via an adhesive layer of 100 MPa or less. The acoustic characteristics can be improved by
employing a resin film laminate having a layer structure. In this resin film laminate, the two resin
films have the function of imparting the strength necessary for forming the roll edge and the like
to the diaphragm, and the intermediate layer, which also serves as an adhesive layer, resonates
with the diaphragm. It has a function of applying softness to the diaphragm to reduce the peak
difference. When, for example, a polyethylene terephthalate film is used as the resin film and a
urethane-based adhesive is used as the adhesive layer, a resin film laminate can be produced
inexpensively.
[0012]
Further, on the resin film laminate, there are provided a plurality of lead portions extending in
the central region across the connection region, and a plurality of electrode portions provided at
the tips of the plurality of lead portions and located in the central region. Metal foils may be
joined. In this case, the piezoelectric element is electrically connected to the plurality of electrode
portions. This facilitates the electrical connection and significantly reduces the manufacturing
cost of the piezoelectric sound element. The metal foil is preferably a copper foil.
[0013]
The piezoelectric element is preferably bonded to the diaphragm via a urethane-based adhesive
or an adhesive having an elastic modulus substantially equal to that. The urethane adhesive
reliably transmits the movement of the piezoelectric element to the diaphragm.
[0014]
It is a perspective view of a piezoelectric sound generator provided with the piezoelectric sound
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generation element of this embodiment. It is a disassembled perspective view of the piezoelectric
sound generator shown in FIG. (A) and (B) are the cross-sectional shape and the elements on
larger scale of the roll edge provided in the diaphragm. It is a figure used in order to demonstrate
the structure of metal foil. FIG. 6 is a view showing vibration modes and sound pressurefrequency characteristics of the piezoelectric element of Example 1. It is a figure which shows the
sound pressure-frequency characteristic of the piezoelectric sounding element of the
comparative example 1. FIG. (A) thru | or (C) are figures which show the sound pressurefrequency characteristic of the piezoelectric sounding element of Comparative Example 2 and 3.
FIG. (A) is a figure which shows the sound pressure frequency characteristic at the time of using
the piezoelectric element of a predetermined | prescribed characteristic using the polyethylene
terephthalate film of 1 sheet as a diaphragm, (B) is resin of 3 layer structure as a diaphragm. It is
a figure which shows the sound pressure frequency characteristic at the time of using film
lamination | stacking. (A) is a figure which shows the sound pressure linearity at the time of
using the piezoelectric element of a predetermined | prescribed characteristic using the
polyethylene terephthalate film of 1 sheet as a diaphragm, (B) is a resin film of 3 layer structure
as a diaphragm. It is a figure which shows the sound pressure linearity at the time of using a
laminated body. (A) and (B) are perspective views of a diaphragm used for other embodiment of
this invention.
[0015]
Hereinafter, an example of the embodiment of the piezoelectric sound emitting element of the
present invention will be described with reference to the drawings. FIG. 1 shows a perspective
view of a piezoelectric speaker 1 provided with a piezoelectric speaker according to the present
embodiment. The piezoelectric speaker 1 may be housed directly in, for example, the inside of a
case of a mobile phone, or may be housed separately in a housing. FIG. 2 is an exploded
perspective view of the piezoelectric speaker 1 shown in FIG. In the present embodiment, in
order to facilitate understanding, the thickness dimensions of some of the parts are exaggerated.
The piezoelectric speaker 1 shown in FIGS. 1 and 2 can be used, for example, as a speaker
incorporated in a mobile phone. The piezoelectric sounding device 1 has a metal panel 3 as a
pedestal and a piezoelectric sounding element 5 supported by the metal panel 3.
[0016]
The metal panel 3 is formed by pressing a metal plate such as stainless steel. The metal panel 3
has a quadrangular shape (rectangular shape) in which the outline shape has a pair of long sides
31 and a pair of short sides 32. A through hole 33 is formed at the central portion of the metal
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panel 3. The outline shape of the through hole 33 is larger than the outline shape of the
piezoelectric element 11 described later and is similar to the outline shape of the piezoelectric
element. The outline of the through hole 33 has a major axis L1 and a minor axis S1, and a pair
of sides 34 extending in parallel to the major axis L1 and the pair of sides 34 are continuous with
the convex curved portions 36 at both ends. It has a pair of other sides 35 provided, and exhibits
a line symmetrical shape with the major axis L1 and the minor axis S1 as symmetry axes.
[0017]
The piezoelectric sounding element 5 uses an adhesive for the diaphragm 7 made of a resin film
such as a polyethylene terephthalate film, a metal foil 9 made of copper foil bonded onto the
diaphragm 7, and the diaphragm 7. And the piezoelectric element 11 attached.
[0018]
The diaphragm 7 has a quadrangular shape (rectangular shape) having an outline shape having a
pair of long sides 71 and a pair of short sides 72.
The diaphragm 7 has a central region 7A to which the piezoelectric element 11 is attached, an
outer peripheral region 7B located on the outer peripheral portion of the diaphragm 7 and joined
to the metal panel 3 (support member), and a central region 7A and an outer peripheral region
7B. A connection region 7C is located between and surrounds the periphery of the piezoelectric
element 11. The outline shape of the area portion including the central area 7A and the
connection area 7C is similar to the outline shape of the piezoelectric element 11. The diaphragm
7 is bonded to the metal panel 3 by a double-sided tape or another adhesive. Therefore, in
practice, the contour shape of the vibrating portion of the diaphragm 7 is substantially the same
as or smaller than the contour shape of the through hole 33 of the metal panel 3. An annular roll
edge 73 is formed in the connection area 7C so as to surround the periphery of the piezoelectric
element 11. The roll edge 73 is provided for the purpose of extending and contracting when the
piezoelectric sound element 5 vibrates to increase the flexibility of the diaphragm 7 and reduce
the vibration inhibition.
[0019]
As shown in FIG. 3A, the cross-sectional shape of the roll edge 73 provided on the diaphragm 7 is
curved so as to be convex on the side to which the piezoelectric element 11 is attached. In the
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present specification, as shown in FIG. 3 (B), the width dimension W of the curved portion seen in
the cross sectional shape of the roll edge 73 is referred to as the width dimension of the edge
portion and seen in the cross sectional shape of the roll edge 73 The height method H of the
curved portion is called the height dimension of the edge portion. The contour shape of the roll
edge 73 is larger than the contour shape of the piezoelectric element 11 and substantially similar
to the contour shape of the piezoelectric element 11. The roll edge 73 has a major axis L2 and a
minor axis S2, and is continuous with the pair of edge portions 74 extending in parallel with the
major axis L2 and the pair of edge portions 74 and has convex curved portions 76 at both ends.
It has a pair of other edge portions 75 provided, and exhibits a line symmetrical shape with the
major axis L2 and the minor axis S2 as symmetry axes.
[0020]
In the present embodiment, the ratio of the width dimension W of the pair of first edge portions
74 along the major axis L2 of the roll edge 73 to the width dimension W of the pair of second
edge portions 75 along the minor axis S2 is It is 1: 1. Further, the ratio between the width
dimension of the first edge portion 74 of the roll edge 73 and the height dimension H orthogonal
to the width dimension W is constant.
[0021]
As shown in FIGS. 1 and 4, the metal foil 9 bonded onto the diaphragm 7 is formed of copper foil.
The metal foils 9 are provided at the tips of the four lead portions 91 extending in the central
region 7A across the connection region 7C of the diaphragm 7 and at the ends of the four lead
portions 91 and located at the central region 7A. First lead pattern portion 93 integrally provided
with electrode portions 92A and 92B and three lead portions 91 integrally provided on outer
peripheral region 7A of diaphragm 7 and one lead portion 91 integrally provided And a second
wiring pattern portion 94. The first wiring pattern portion 93 and the second wiring pattern
portion 94 are connected to output terminals different in driving power supply.
[0022]
The piezoelectric element 11 has a structure in which an electrode pattern and six PZT ceramic
films are alternately stacked. A plurality of electrode patterns of one polarity (not shown) are
electrically connected to connection electrodes provided on the back surface side via conductive
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through holes penetrating the PZT ceramic in the thickness direction. The electrode pattern of
one polarity is connected to one electrode portion 92A connected to the second wiring pattern
portion 94 described above. A plurality of electrode patterns of the other polarity (not shown)
are divided into three groups and connected to three electrode parts 92B connected to the first
wiring pattern part 93 via conductive through holes. The connection between the electrode
patterns and the electrode portions 92A and 92B is performed using a cream solder. The
piezoelectric element 11 is attached on the central region 7A of the diaphragm 7 using a
urethane-based thermosetting adhesive. Such a structure facilitates electrical connection and can
significantly reduce the manufacturing cost of the piezoelectric sound element.
[0023]
The contour shape of the piezoelectric element 11 has a major axis L3 and a minor axis S3, and a
pair of sides 111 extending in parallel with the major axis L3 and a pair of sides 111 are
continuous and have convex curves at both ends. It has another pair of sides 112 including the
portion 116, and exhibits a line symmetrical shape with the long axis L3 and the short axis S3 as
symmetry axes. In the present embodiment, the contour shape of the piezoelectric element is in
the range of 1: 1.60 to 1: 1.70, which is the most preferable range of the ratio of the length of
the minor axis S3 to the length of the major axis L3, The radius of curvature of the convexly
curved portion 116 is set to a value in the range of 35% to 50% of the length of the minor axis
S3. The effect of the present invention can be obtained even if the ratio of the length of the minor
axis S3 to the length of the major axis L3 is in the range of 1: 1.55 to 1: 1.75. It has been
confirmed by experiments.
[0024]
EXAMPLE In FIG. 5, the dimension of the minor axis S3 is 10 mm, the dimension of the major
axis L3 is 16 mm (1: 1.6), and the curvature radius of the convex curved portion 116 is 50 of the
length of the minor axis S3. %, Which is a piezoelectric sound element using a piezoelectric
element having 6 layers of PZT, a width W of the roll edge 73 being constant at 1.0 mm, and a
height H being constant at 0.25 mm, The vibration mode and sound pressure-frequency
characteristic of the piezoelectric element of Example 1 which applied the drive voltage of 5
Vrms (14 V PP) V while changing the frequency are shown. The diagrams of the plurality of
piezoelectric elements on the graph in FIG. 5 show the vibration state of the piezoelectric element
when the peak of the resonance appears in black and white shades. The color indicates that the
white part is convex, and the black part indicates that it is concave. In this example, six resonance
peaks appear, and the dispersibility is excellent. Also, the difference in sound pressure between
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the peak and the valley is not extremely large.
[0025]
For comparison, FIG. 6 shows the sound pressure-frequency characteristics of the piezoelectric
sound-generating element of Comparative Example 1 in which a piezoelectric element having a
circular outline (PZT six-layer structure) is attached to a diaphragm having a circular outline. As
can be seen from FIG. 6, in the case of the diaphragm and the piezoelectric element having a
circular outline, only three resonance peaks appear, and each resonance is sharp and the
sounding characteristics become unnatural. That is, it can be seen that the dispersion of
resonance is not sufficient.
[0026]
In FIG. 7A, the dimension of the minor axis S3 of the piezoelectric element 11 is 10 mm, the
dimension of the major axis L3 is 13 mm (1: 1.3), and the other conditions are the same as
Example 1 of FIG. FIG. 16 shows sound pressure-frequency characteristics of the piezoelectric
sounding element of Comparative Example 2. In FIG. 7B, the dimension of the minor axis S3 of
the piezoelectric element 11 is 10 mm, the dimension of the major axis L3 is 14 mm (1: 1.4), and
the other conditions are the same as Example 1 of FIG. FIG. 16 shows sound pressure-frequency
characteristics of the piezoelectric sounding element of Comparative Example 3. In FIG. 7C, the
dimension of the minor axis S3 of the piezoelectric element 11 is 10 mm, the dimension of the
major axis L3 is 15 mm (1: 1.5), and the other conditions are the same as in Example 1 of FIG.
FIG. 16 shows the sound pressure-frequency characteristics of the piezoelectric sound emitting
element of Example 4. In these comparative examples 2 to 4, the fourth resonance peak does not
appear or appears slightly, as compared with the first example of FIG. Also, the sound pressure
difference between the maximum peak and the minimum valley is large.
[0027]
In the above embodiment, although one polyethylene terephthalate film is used as the diaphragm
7, the Young's modulus is 100 GPa or more on a resin film (for example, a polyethylene
terephthalate film) having a Young's modulus of 1 GPa or more as the diaphragm 7. You may
employ | adopt the resin film laminated body of the 3 layer structure which Young's modulus
laminated | stacked the resin film of 1 GPa or more through the following adhesive bond layers
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(layer of a urethane type adhesive agent). In this resin film laminate, the two resin films have the
function of imparting the strength necessary for forming the roll edge and the like to the
diaphragm, and the adhesive layer has the softness of reducing the peak difference of resonance
to the diaphragm. Has a function of imparting the diaphragm to the diaphragm. FIG. 8 (A) shows
sound pressure frequency characteristics in the case of using a piezoelectric element of a
predetermined characteristic by using a single polyethylene terephthalate film as the diaphragm
7, and FIG. 8 (B) shows the diaphragm as described above. The sound pressure frequency
characteristic at the time of using the resin film lamination of 3 layer structure of is shown.
Further, FIG. 9 (A) shows the sound pressure linearity in the case of using a piezoelectric element
of a predetermined characteristic by using a sheet of polyethylene terephthalate film as the
diaphragm 7, and FIG. 9 (B) shows the aforementioned diaphragm. The sound pressure linearity
at the time of using the resin film laminated body of 3 layer structure is shown. When FIG. 8 (A)
and FIG. 8 (B) are compared, it can be seen that the flatness of the sound pressure-frequency
characteristic becomes high when the resin film laminate of the three-layer structure is used.
Moreover, when FIG. 9 (A) and FIG. 9 (B) are compared, it turns out that sound pressure linearity
is more excellent in the case of using the resin film laminated body of 3 layer structure.
[0028]
In the above embodiment. Although a resin film or a resin film laminate is used as the diaphragm,
diaphragms of various materials such as a metal plate can be used as the diaphragm. In the
above embodiment, a 50% curved portion with a radius of curvature of the minor axis length is
used as the convex curved portion 116 of the piezoelectric element 11. However, the radius of
curvature of the convex curved portion is the minor axis. It has been experimentally confirmed
that the value should be in the range of 35% to 50% of the length. When the radius of curvature
is smaller than 35% of the length of the minor axis, the peak of resonance tends to be sharpened,
which is closer to the characteristics of a conventional piezoelectric sounding element using a
square piezoelectric element, which is preferable. Absent. Also, the radius of curvature can not
physically exceed 50% of the length of the minor axis. In addition, it is confirmed by experiment
that this numerical range is preferable.
[0029]
In the above embodiment, the ratio of the width dimension W of the pair of first edge portions 74
along the major axis L2 of the roll edge 73 to the width dimension W of the pair of second edge
portions 75 along the minor axis S2 is The ratio of the width dimension of the first edge portion
74 of the roll edge 73 to the height dimension H orthogonal to the width dimension W is
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constant. However, the ratio of the width dimension W of the pair of first edge portions 74 along
the major axis L2 of the roll edge 73 to the width dimension W of the pair of second edge
portions 75 along the minor axis S2 is 1: 1.55 When set in the range of 1: 1.75, the same sound
pressure can be obtained at a lower voltage than when a roll edge with a fixed width is provided.
The ratio of the width dimension of the first edge portion 74 of the roll edge 73 to the height
dimension H orthogonal to the width dimension W is in the range of 1: 0.15 to 1: 0.45, and the
second edge When the ratio of the width dimension W of the portion 75 to the height dimension
H orthogonal to the width dimension falls within the range of 1: 0.15 to 1: 0.45, the width
dimension and the width dimension W are orthogonal to each other. The same sound pressure
can be obtained at a lower voltage than when providing a roll edge having a constant ratio to the
height dimension H. In addition, it is confirmed by experiment that this numerical range is
preferable. The ratio between the width dimension of the first edge portion 74 of the roll edge 73
and the height dimension H orthogonal to the width dimension W is made constant. However, the
ratio of the width dimension W of the pair of first edge portions 74 along the major axis L2 of
the roll edge 73 to the width dimension W of the pair of second edge portions 75 along the
minor axis S2 is 1: 1.55 In the case of the range of 1: 1.75, as shown in FIG. 10A, the width
dimension may be clearly changed at the boundary between the first edge portion 74 and the
second edge portion 75. However, as shown in FIG. 10 (B), the width dimension of the second
edge portion 75 may be gradually expanded. The width dimension of the second edge portion 75
used to determine the ratio in this case is the dimension of the portion intersecting the long axis.
[0030]
According to the present invention, the contour shape of the piezoelectric element is such that
the ratio of the minor axis length to the major axis length is in the range of 1: 1.55 to 1: 1.75,
and the radius of curvature of the convex curved portion However, by setting the value in the
range of 35% to 50% of the length of the minor axis, it is possible to provide an unprecedented
piezoelectric sounding element capable of easily dispersing resonance while maintaining sound
pressure to some extent. it can.
[0031]
DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS 1 piezoelectric sound generator 3 metal panel 5 piezoelectric sound
element 7 diaphragm 7A central area 7B outer peripheral area 7C connection area 9 metal foil
11 piezoelectric element 73 roll edge 74 edge portion 75 edge portion 116 convex curved
portion L3 major axis S3 short axis
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