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JP2005030851

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DESCRIPTION JP2005030851
A sound is sampled from a plurality of different positions, and the position of each sound source
is specified with high accuracy. Kind Code: A1 A sampling microphone 2a, 2b, 2c, emitting sound
waves at different timings by sound wave generating means 14a, 14b, 14c, 14d, 14e respectively
provided in the collection microphone 2a, 2b, 2c, 2d, 2e. , 2d and 2e simultaneously collect
respiratory sound data from a plurality of different positions of the human body. And based on
the sound wave in the respiratory sound data collected by each collection microphone 2a, 2b, 2c,
2d, 2e, the relative position of each collection microphone 2a, 2b, 2c, 2d, 2e is calculated.
[Selected figure] Figure 1
Sound source localization system
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 1. Field of the Invention The present invention relates to a
sound source localization system for collecting sound and specifying the position of a sound
source. Auscultation of respiratory sounds has long been used by physicians as an important
diagnostic and diagnostic tool. In recent years, with advances in medical technology, advanced
diagnostic equipment and data processing techniques have been developed, and auscultation of
respiratory sounds has remained in the conventional form. The forms of medical care are also
diversified, and objectification and storage of diagnostic data are required for the prevention and
confirmation of explanations to patients, medical care at home nursing and home care, and
medical errors. However, since auscultation loses raw data at the moment when a doctor listens,
detailed explanation to patients based on the data is difficult, while the patients objectively grasp
their own medical condition. Can not do it. In addition, regarding auscultation information
obtained by a nurse's home-visit nursing, the judgment of the nurse is transmitted to the doctor,
but the doctor can not directly listen to the raw information. An auscultation apparatus capable
of highly advanced examinations by persons other than the doctor is required for the
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auscultation that requires skill. Further, in the diagnosis of respiratory sounds, there is a method
of collecting sounds from a plurality of positions, analyzing the characteristics of the respective
sounds, and making a diagnosis by paying attention to differences in sound depending on
positions. For example, in the lower part of the lungs it is normal to hear inspiration but to have
small or almost no exhalation. On the other hand, when water is accumulated in the lungs, sound
transmission may be improved and exhalation may be heard even in the lower part of the lungs.
From this, when exhalation is heard in the lower lung, it is diagnosed that there is a high
possibility that water is accumulated. Thus, in order to diagnose with high accuracy, it is
preferable to collect sounds from a plurality of positions and compare them. Therefore, a
technique is disclosed in which breathing sounds are simultaneously sampled by a plurality of
microphones and the sampling positions of the breathing sounds are three-dimensionally
displayed (see, for example, Patent Document 1). Further, a sound source search system is
disclosed that specifies and displays the position of a noise source in a factory or the like indoors
and out (for example, see Patent Documents 2 and 3). [Patent Document 1] US Patent No.
6139505 Specification [Patent Document 2] Japanese Patent Application Laid-Open No. 2002181913 Patent Document 3 Japanese Patent Application Laid-Open No. 2003-111183 Problem
to be Solved by the Invention However, in the above-mentioned prior art, the relative position
between the microphones for collecting the sound is predetermined in the living body and
indoors and outdoors, and the microphones must be fixed at the predetermined position when
collecting the sound. I had to.
For example, when collecting respiratory sounds, microphones should be attached to several
sizes for patients of different body types, such as adults and children, men and women, lean
people and fat people, etc. Become. However, there are cases where respiratory sounds can not
be collected with high accuracy because the optimal collection positions are individually
different. The present invention has been made in view of the above-mentioned problems in the
prior art, and is a sound source localization system capable of collecting sound from a plurality of
different positions and accurately locating each sound source. The task is to provide. The
invention according to claim 1 for solving the above problems is a sound source localization
system for specifying the position of a sound source corresponding to each of a plurality of
sound collecting means, Sound wave generating means for emitting sound waves provided
respectively in the vicinity of each sound collecting means, and calculation means for calculating
the relative position of each sound collecting means based on the sound waves generated by each
sound wave generating means A sound source localization system characterized by According to
the first aspect of the invention, since the relative position of each sound collecting means is
calculated based on the sound waves generated by each sound wave generating means, each
sound source corresponding to each sound collecting means can be accurately calculated. The
position of can be identified. The invention as set forth in claim 2 is the sound source localization
system according to claim 1, wherein the plurality of sound collecting means collect body sounds
from a human body. . According to the second aspect of the invention, since the relative position
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of each sound collecting means on the human body is calculated, it is possible to collect body
sound at the optimum collecting position for each patient. . According to a third aspect of the
present invention, in the sound source localization system according to the second aspect, each
of the sound wave generation means emits a sound wave during a period in which a living body
sound is collected by the plurality of sound collection means. A sound source localization system
characterized by According to the third aspect of the present invention, since each sound wave
generation means emits sound waves during the period when body sound is collected, the
relative position of each sound collection means at the time of body sound collection is
calculated. can do. [0015] The invention according to claim 4 is characterized in that, in the
sound source localization system according to any one of claims 1 to 3, the sound waves emitted
by the respective sound wave generating means have mutually different frequencies. Sound
source localization system. According to the fourth aspect of the present invention, since the
sound waves generated by the sound wave generating means have different frequencies, the
positions of the sound collecting means can be easily distinguished.
The invention according to claim 5 is the sound source localization system according to any one
of claims 1 to 4, characterized in that the respective sound wave generation means emit sound
waves at mutually different timings. It is a sound source localization system. According to the
fifth aspect of the present invention, since the respective sound wave generation means emit
sound waves at different timings, the positions of the respective sound collection means can be
easily distinguished. BEST MODE FOR CARRYING OUT THE INVENTION Hereinafter,
embodiments of the present invention will be described in detail with reference to the drawings.
FIG. 1 shows a schematic configuration of a sound source localization system 1 according to the
present embodiment. As shown in FIG. 1, the sound source localization system 1 is referred to as
a breathing sound collecting microphone (hereinafter referred to as a collecting microphone). 2a,
2b, 2c, 2d, 2e, signal processing means 3, input means 4, reproducing means 5, display means 6,
printing means 7, database 8 etc. The respiratory sound data collected simultaneously from the
human body by the collection microphones 2a, 2b, 2c, 2d and 2e are signaled by the signal
processing means 3 while referring to the data stored in the database 8 according to the
instruction of the input means 4. It is processed. The processing result is output by the
reproduction means 5, the display means 6 or the printing means 7. A functional configuration of
the sound source localization system 1 is shown in FIG. The collection microphones 2a, 2b, 2c, 2d
and 2e collect respiratory sounds from the human body and output electrical signals (respiratory
sound data). Although various things can be used as collection microphones 2a, 2b, 2c, 2d, and
2e, for example, an electric condenser microphone, a piezo element, etc. are used. Further, as
shown in FIG. 3, in the vicinity of the sampling microphone 2a, a sound wave generating means
14a for emitting a sound wave is provided. Similarly, sound wave generating means 14b, 14c,
14d and 14e are provided for the sampling microphones 2b, 2c, 2d and 2e, respectively. The
sound waves generated by the sound wave generating means 14a, 14b, 14c, 14d and 14e are
sound waves having frequencies different from one another. These sound waves may be sound
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waves in the audible area or ultrasonic waves, but when ultrasonic waves are used, since a
microphone different from the collection microphones 2a, 2b, 2c, 2d, 2e is required, respiratory
sound data Considering the combined use of the sampling microphones 2a, 2b, 2c, 2d and 2e for
sampling the sound, it is desirable that the sound waves be in the audible range. Further, among
the sound waves in the audible area, the sound waves in the high frequency area have a large
attenuation, so 20 Hz to 3000 Hz is preferable, and 50 Hz to 2000 Hz is more preferable.
As shown in FIG. 2, the signal processing unit 3 includes a central processing unit (CPU) 9, an I /
O 10, a read only memory (ROM) 11, a random access memory (RAM) 12, and a storage unit 13.
As the signal processing means 3, a PC (Personal Computer: personal computer) or a PDA
(Personal Digital Assistants: portable terminal) is used. The CPU 9 develops a program designated
from among the various programs stored in the ROM 11 in the work area of the RAM 12 in
accordance with various instructions input from the input means 4, and performs various
processes in cooperation with the program. To store the processing result in a predetermined
area of the RAM 12. The I / O 10 receives respiratory sound data output from the sampling
microphones 2a, 2b, 2c, 2d and 2e, and outputs the respiratory sound data to the CPU 9. The
ROM 11 is configured by a non-volatile semiconductor memory. The ROM 11 stores various
programs, data, and the like of the sound source localization system 1 executed by the CPU 9.
The RAM 12 is composed of a rewritable semiconductor element. The RAM 12 is a storage
medium for temporarily storing data, and is a program area for developing a program to be
executed by the CPU 9, and data for inputting from the input means 4 and various processing
results by the CPU 9 and the like. Data area, etc. are formed. The storage unit 13 includes an
HDD (Hard Disk Drive), and stores respiratory sound data collected by the sampling microphones
2a, 2b, 2c, 2d and 2e, processed data, and the like. The input means 4 is a keyboard provided
with numeric and alphabetic input keys and various keys. When these keys are depressed, the
depression signal is output to the CPU 9. The reproduction means 5 includes a speaker or
headphones, and reproduces the sound of the respiratory sound data collected by the collection
microphones 2a, 2b, 2c, 2d and 2e. The display means 6 comprises a CRT (Cathode Ray Tube), a
liquid crystal display, a plasma display, etc., and the respiratory sound data visualized by the
signal processing means 3 and extracted by the signal processing means 3 The characteristic of
respiratory sound, the type of disease candidate or the probability of being a disease candidate is
displayed.
Here, the visualization processing refers to processing for making a visually recognizable state as
a graph, a table, or the like. The printing unit 7 records the respiratory sound data visualized by
the signal processing unit 3, the characteristic of the respiratory sound extracted by the signal
processing unit 3, the type of disease candidate or the probability of being a disease candidate,
on recording paper. Print on The database 8 stores case data of diseases that can be diagnosed
from respiratory sounds, types of disease candidates, and the like. Next, the operation of the
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sound source localization system 1 according to the present embodiment will be described. As a
premise of the description of the operation, a program for realizing the processing described in
the flowchart is stored in the ROM 11 in the form of a program code readable by the CPU 9 of
the sound source localization system 1. The operations according to the program code are
sequentially executed. FIG. 4 is a flowchart showing respiratory sound signal processing
performed by the sound source localization system 1. First, respiratory sound data is
simultaneously collected from a plurality of different positions of the human body by the
collection microphones 2a, 2b, 2c, 2d and 2e. While respiratory sound data is being collected,
sound waves are generated at different timings by the sound wave generating means 14a, 14b,
14c, 14d, 14e, and these sound waves are also collected by the collection microphones 2a, 2b,
2c, 2d, 2e (Step S1). The collected respiratory sound data is stored in the storage unit 13. Next,
each of the sampling microphones 2a, 2b, 2c, 2d, 2e is generated by the signal processing means
3 based on the sound wave in the respiratory sound data collected by the sampling microphones
2a, 2b, 2c, 2d, 2e. The relative position of is calculated (step S2). For example, after the sound
waves generated by the sound wave generating means 14b, 14c, 14d, 14e are detected from the
respiratory sound data collected by the collection microphone 2a, the sound wave generation
means 14b, 14c, 14d, 14e generate sound waves, The distance between the sampling
microphones 2a to 2b, 2a to 2c, 2a to 2d, and 2a to 2e is calculated by the time until the
sampling microphone 2a senses the sound wave. Similarly, the distances between different
sampling microphones are calculated. The relative position of the sampling microphones 2a, 2b,
2c, 2d, 2e is calculated based on the distance between the sampling microphones 2a, 2b, 2c, 2d,
2e. Here, a method of calculating the relative position of the four points A, B, C, D at which the
sampling microphones 2a, 2b, 2c, 2d are located will be described.
Calculating these relative positions is similar to placing a triangular pyramid on the XYZ
coordinates and calculating the relative positions of its vertices. Since it is a relative position, the
placement of the triangular pyramid on the coordinates is arbitrary. As shown in FIG. 5, the
position of the sampling microphone 2a is the origin A (0, 0, 0) and the position of the sampling
microphone 2b is X Let the point B (Xb, 0, 0) on the axis, the position of the sampling
microphone 2c be a point C (Xc, Yc, 0) on the XY plane, and the position of the sampling
microphone 2d be a point D (Xd, Yd, Zd) . Since six distances among the sampling microphones
2a, 2b, 2c, 2d are obtained for these six variables Xb, Xc, Yc, Xd, Yd, Zd, their relative positions
should be obtained from simultaneous equations. Can. Although the method of calculating the
relative position of the sampling microphones 2a, 2b, 2c, 2d has been described here, the
position of the sampling microphone 2e can be calculated in the same manner. The number of
sampling microphones is not limited to five, but may be two or more, and it is possible to
calculate the relative position of each sampling microphone in the same manner. In practice, by
specifying the positions of two of the sampling microphones 2a, 2b, 2c, 2d and 2e, it is possible
to obtain an absolute position on the human body. For example, in the back of the human body,
the sampling microphones 2a, 2b, 2c are placed by setting the sampling microphones 2a, 2d
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symmetrically with respect to the spine, at a position of 10 cm from the spine and at the height
of the sixth spine from the top. , 2d, 2e absolute position in the human body is obtained. Thus,
the positions of the sound sources corresponding to the sampling microphones 2a, 2b, 2c, 2d
and 2e can be specified. However, it is known that the way of sound transmission in a living body
is different from that in air, and an error occurs when calculating at a simple sound speed. For
example, J. Appl. Physiol 93: 667-674, 2002 and J. Appl. Physiol 94: 604-611, 2003 propose a
complex model for sound transmission speed, which can also be used. Among the plurality of
sound elements as very rough localization, the microphone with the largest intensity ratio is
considered to be close to the sound source of the sound element. Next, filtering processing is
performed on the collected respiratory sound data, and noise in the respiratory sound data is
removed (step S3). At this time, it is preferable that the sound waves generated by the respective
sound wave generating means 14a, 14b, 14c, 14d and 14e are also removed.
The breathing sound data from which the noise has been removed is acoustically reproduced by
the speaker or the headphone (reproduction means 5) according to the instruction of the input
means 4 (step S4). At this time, respiratory sound data collected from different positions may be
simultaneously reproduced using a plurality of speakers or left and right speakers of
headphones. Also, it may be compared with the past patient's respiratory sound data or
respiratory sound data specific to each disease. Next, FFT processing is performed on the
respiratory sound data from which the noise has been removed (step S5). The instruction of the
input unit 4 visualizes the FFT processing result, and the display unit 6 displays the result of the
graph in correspondence with the collection position (step S6). A sound spectrogram or a
numerical value as a reference of diagnosis may be displayed. Next, the difference in each
sampling position is referred to the amplitude magnitude or timbre etc. of the respiratory sound,
and the respiratory sound data collected simultaneously at a plurality of different collection
positions is analyzed, and the characteristic of the respiratory sound is extracted. (Step S7). In
analysis of respiratory sound data, analysis technology based on wavelet analysis, analysis
technology of speech recognition, etc. can be used. Then, the respiratory sound data and the
characteristics of the respiratory sound are compared with the case data of the disease stored in
the database 8 (step S8), the disease candidate is selected, and the probability of being a disease
candidate is calculated (step S9). Then, according to the instruction of the input unit 4, the
display unit 6 displays the feature of the respiratory sound, the type of the disease candidate, and
the probability of being a disease candidate (Step S10). For example, on the display means 6,
"intermittent rattle at the upper left lung, intensity 5 The left lower lung inspiratory noise is loud.
Intermittent pattern candidates are hypersensitivity alveolitis 70%, pneumonia 50%. Is displayed.
Above, breathing sound signal processing ends. According to the sound source position
specifying system 1 of the present embodiment, the sound collecting microphones 2a, 2b, 2c, 2d,
2e are generated based on the sound waves generated by the sound wave generating means 14a,
14b, 14c, 14d, 14e. Since the relative position is calculated, the position of each sound source
corresponding to each of the sampling microphones 2a, 2b, 2c, 2d and 2e can be specified with
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high accuracy. Therefore, respiratory sounds can be collected at the optimum collection position
for individual patients. Also, since the sound wave generating means 14a, 14b, 14c, 14d, 14e
emit sound waves during the period when respiratory sound data is collected, the collection
microphones 2a, 2b, 2c, The relative positions of 2d and 2e can be calculated.
Since the sampling microphones 2a, 2b, 2c, 2d and 2e are mounted on the human body, the
positions thereof change due to the breathing movement. Therefore, it is preferable to calculate
their relative positions while collecting respiratory sound data. In addition, since the sound waves
emitted by the sound wave generating means 14a, 14b, 14c, 14d and 14e have mutually
different frequencies, the positions of the sampling microphones 2a, 2b, 2c, 2d and 2e can be
easily distinguished. it can. Further, since the sound wave generating means 14a, 14b, 14c, 14d
and 14e emit sound waves at different timings from one another, the positions of the sampling
microphones 2a, 2b, 2c, 2d and 2e can be easily distinguished. it can. In the calculation of the
distance between the sound wave generating means 14a, 14b, 14c, 14d and 14e, ie, between the
sampling microphones 2a, 2b, 2c, 2d and 2e, a method of detecting a phase shift and , And a
method of detecting the time until the sound reaches. When the respective sound wave
generating means 14a, 14b, 14c, 14d, 14e emit sound waves of different wavelengths, they can
be measured simultaneously, but if the same sound is generated from different positions,
different positions may be obtained. It is difficult to identify the sound generation position from.
Therefore, it is preferable that the respective sound wave generating means 14a, 14b, 14c, 14d
and 14e emit sound waves of different frequencies or emit sound waves at different timings. In
addition, for example, when the intensity of the sound wave has a characteristic waveform such
as a peak value, detection of the time until the sound arrives can be facilitated. The respiratory
sound data subjected to signal processing by the signal processing means 3 may be wirelessly
transmitted from the sampling microphones 2a, 2b, 2c, 2d and 2e. As shown in FIG. 6, the
electric signals collected by the collecting microphones 2a, 2b, 2c, 2d and 2e are converted into
radio waves by the transmitting means 15a, 15b, 15c, 15d and 15e and transmitted from the
antenna. This radio wave is an extremely weak radio wave that does not affect other medical
devices. The radio waves transmitted from the transmitting means 15a, 15b, 15c, 15d and 15e
are received by the receiving means 16 and demodulated into electric signals. Then, the electrical
signal is converted into a digital signal by the A / D converter 17 and is output to the I / O 10 of
the signal processing means 3 in FIG. The wireless method can use various existing means. In
consideration of the medical site, in order to avoid an obstacle or the like to a medical device due
to an electromagnetic wave, one using light such as infrared light or one using an
electromagnetic wave represented by Bluetooth is preferable.
If there is an obstacle between the transmitting means 15a, 15b, 15c, 15d, 15e and the receiving
means 16, the infrared ray or the like may become an obstacle to reception. In such a case, a
signal is received at a position where there are few obstacles between the sampling microphones
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2a, 2b, 2c, 2d and 2e, and the signal is transferred to the signal processing means 3 or received
by a plurality of receiving means. , A method of selecting, combining and using signals is used. As
described above, by wirelessly transmitting respiratory sound data from the sampling
microphones 2a, 2b, 2c, 2d and 2e to the signal processing means 3, the sampling microphones
2a, 2b, 2c, 2d and 2e and the signals are transmitted. The signal wiring connecting with the
processing means 3 becomes unnecessary, and noise of respiratory sound data can be reduced.
Further, complication of the medical site can be avoided, and handling of the sampling
microphones 2a, 2b, 2c, 2d, 2e becomes easy. It is also preferable to store respiratory sound data
and analysis results in an electronic medical record. Storage in electronic medical records can
centrally manage medical data, and can be used as a database for associating diseases with
respiratory sounds. Furthermore, it contributes to extraction of characteristic sounds and
patterns for diseases, and can be used as a data source for improving the accuracy of diagnosis
using the present invention. Further, the description in the above embodiment is an example of a
suitable sound source localization system according to the present invention, and the present
invention is not limited to this. The detailed configuration and the detailed operation of each part
of the sound source position specifying system 1 can be appropriately changed without
departing from the scope of the present invention. According to the first aspect of the present
invention, the relative positions of the sound collecting means are calculated based on the sound
waves generated by the sound wave generating means, so that each sound collecting means can
be performed with high accuracy. The position of each sound source corresponding to can be
specified. According to the second aspect of the invention, since the relative position of each
sound collecting means on the human body is calculated, it is possible to collect body sound at
the optimum collection position for each patient. . According to the third aspect of the invention,
since each sound wave generation means emits sound waves during the period when the body
sound is collected, the relative position of each sound collection means at the time of body sound
collection is calculated. can do. According to the fourth aspect of the present invention, since the
sound waves generated by the sound wave generating means have different frequencies, the
positions of the sound collecting means can be easily distinguished.
According to the fifth aspect of the present invention, since the respective sound wave generation
means emit sound waves at different timings, the positions of the respective sound collection
means can be easily distinguished. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. 1 is a schematic
block diagram of a sound source localization system 1 according to an embodiment of the
present invention. FIG. 2 is a block diagram showing a functional configuration of a sound source
localization system 1; FIG. 3 is a view for explaining the structure of sampling microphones 2a,
2b, 2c, 2d and 2e. FIG. 4 is a flowchart showing respiratory sound signal processing performed
by the sound source localization system 1; FIG. 5 is a view for explaining a method of calculating
relative positions of four points A, B, C, D at which sampling microphones 2a, 2b, 2c, 2d are
located. FIG. 6 is a diagram for explaining wireless transmission of respiratory sound data;
[Description of the code] 1 sound source position specifying system 2a, 2b, 2c, 2d, 2e
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microphone for breathing sound collection (sound collection means) 3 signal processing means
(calculation means) 4 input means 5 reproduction means 6 display means 7 printing means 8
Database 9 CPU 10 I / O 11 ROM 12 RAM 13 Storage Means 14a, 14b, 14c, 14d, 14e Sound
Wave Generation Means 15a, 15b, 15c, 15d, 15e Transmission Means 16 Reception Means 17 A
/ D Converter
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