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JP2005091263

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DESCRIPTION JP2005091263
PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide a simple and compact microphone array capable of
accurately measuring the sound pressure distribution of sound sources distributed in a threedimensional space. SOLUTION: A microphone array 2 for detecting a sound emitted from a sound
source distributed in a three-dimensional space, wherein a sensor unit for detecting a sound
pressure from a measurement object 8 having a sound source is directed in substantially the
same direction Position adjustment means for adjusting the distance between the sound source
and the sensor unit for each of the plurality of microphones 20, and the plurality of microphones
20 and the frame 30 in which the plurality of microphones 20 are arrayed along a plane or
curved surface Have. [Selected figure] Figure 1
Microphone and microphone array
[0001]
The present invention relates to a microphone array and the like, and more particularly to a
microphone array and the like which arranges a plurality of microphones and detects sound at a
plurality of positions.
[0002]
Microphone array technology, in which multiple microphones are arranged along a flat or curved
surface and sound pressure is measured at multiple locations, is used in many situations.
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For example, when taking measures against noise of the device, it is necessary to specify the
sound pressure distribution of the device having a sound source at a plurality of positions. The
microphone array technology is particularly effective for measuring the sound pressure
distribution of such devices (see, for example, Non-Patent Document 1).
[0003]
Matsushita Techno-Trading, Electronic Measurement, SV Solution, "BK Company Products",
[online], [search on September 12, 2003], Internet <URL: http: // www. mitc. co. jp / msm / sv /
bk / stsf / stsf. html>
[0004]
By the way, the sound sources of the device are distributed in a three-dimensional space, and
may be described as a plane on which the microphones are arranged (hereinafter, referred to as
an array plane.
) The distance of the eyebrows may be different. As described above, when the sound pressure is
measured in a state where the distance from the sound source to the microphone 不 is uneven, a
difference may occur in the sound propagation path, and the sound pressure distribution may
not be accurately measured. However, if the attenuation amount simply changes due to the
different propagation paths, this can be corrected mathematically. However, when a difference
occurs in the propagation path, the change of the sound diffusion range, the problem of
interference, etc. occur, and the estimation of the sound pressure distribution becomes very
difficult.
[0005]
Due to the non-uniform distance between the sound source and the microphone 我 々, we have
arranged a plurality of slideably mounted microphones in order to compensate for differences in
the distance between the sound source and the microphone. The array surface was pressed
against the object whose sound pressure distribution is to be measured, and the position of the
slid microphone was adjusted at a time according to the shape of the object, and then a method
of measuring the sound pressure was reported (Japanese Patent Application 2002-369372). In
this method, the plurality of microphones are collectively fixed by the lock mechanism after
being slid.
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[0006]
However, to further study, this method adjusts the position of a plurality of slideably mounted
microphones at one time, for example, when the microphone array is pressed obliquely or
downward against the object, it is slidable. The attached microphone may slide rapidly and
damage the sensor. In the method of pressing a plurality of slidable microphones against an
object, if the object has an air gap, the microphone may be in the air gap, even if sound leakage
from the air gap is virtually regarded as a sound source and it is measured. It may get in.
[0007]
Furthermore, since the cable connected to the microphone passes through the inside of the slider
that slides the microphone, the volume of the slider portion tends to be large. Therefore, when
measuring the sound pressure of an object, there is a possibility that the sound field may be
disturbed. In addition, there is a problem that it is difficult to replace the cable when a failure
occurs in the cable housed inside the slider.
[0008]
The present invention has been made to solve such technical problems, and the object of the
present invention is to provide a simple and compact device capable of accurately measuring the
sound pressure distribution of sound sources distributed in a three-dimensional space. To
provide a microphone array.
[0009]
In order to solve such a problem, in the present invention, a lock mechanism for individually
fixing the position of each microphone is attached to the plurality of slideably attached
microphones.
That is, a microphone to which the present invention is applied is a microphone used for a
microphone array that detects a sound emitted from a sound source distributed in a threedimensional space, and a sensor unit that detects a sound pressure from the sound source And
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position adjusting means for adjusting the distance to the sensor unit.
[0010]
In the microphone to which the present invention is applied, the position adjusting unit holds the
sensor unit at the tip and moves the sensor unit in the front-rear direction, and a lock mechanism
unit that adjusts the movement resistance of the rod member. It is characterized by having.
[0011]
Further, in the microphone to which the present invention is applied, the lock mechanism unit
contacts the holding unit that holds the rod-like member slidably, the operation unit attached to
the rear end of the rod-like member, and the holding unit. And a wire connecting one end to the
sensor unit directly or through another member and connecting the other end to the operation
unit.
[0012]
Furthermore, in the microphone to which the present invention is applied, a cable for
transmitting a signal detected by the sensor unit is provided, and the cable is wired in the
longitudinal direction along the rod-like member. The increase in volume of the
[0013]
Next, the present invention is a microphone array for detecting sounds emitted from a sound
source distributed in a three-dimensional space, and a plurality of sensor units for detecting the
sound pressure from the sound source are arranged in substantially the same direction. A
microphone and a frame in which the plurality of microphones are arranged along a plane or a
curved surface are provided, and each of the plurality of microphones is provided with position
adjusting means for adjusting the distance between the sound source and the sensor unit. It can
be regarded as a microphone array.
[0014]
The position adjustment means in the microphone array to which the present invention is applied
is characterized in that each of the plurality of microphones is pushed out in accordance with the
shape of the housing in which the sound source is included.
[0015]
Further, the microphone in the microphone array to which the present invention is applied
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preferably has a holding unit for attaching the microphone to the frame and slidably holding a
rod-like member for moving the sensor unit back and forth.
[0016]
According to the present invention, it is possible to obtain a simple and compact microphone
array capable of accurately measuring the sound pressure distribution of sound sources
distributed in a three-dimensional space.
[0017]
Hereinafter, with reference to the accompanying drawings, the best mode for carrying out the
present invention (hereinafter referred to as an embodiment of the present invention).
Will be described in detail.
FIG. 1 is a diagram for explaining a sound pressure distribution analysis system using a
microphone array to which the present embodiment is applied.
The sound pressure distribution analysis system 1 shown in FIG. 1 includes a microphone array 2
holding a plurality of microphones 20 in a frame 30, an amplifier 4 for amplifying a sound signal
input from the microphone array 2, and amplification by the amplifier 4 An analysis terminal 6
that analyzes the sound pressure distribution based on the sound signal and a measurement
target 8 for measuring the sound pressure distribution are arranged.
[0018]
The microphone array 2 has a plurality of microphones 20 and a frame 30 for holding the
microphones 20. The microphone array 2 detects the sound pressure emitted from the
measurement object 8 which is a sound source, and an electrical signal (hereinafter, sound
signal) Output to the amplifier 4 as
[0019]
The amplifier 4 is an amplifier capable of amplifying a multi-channel signal, amplifies the sound
signal at the amplification factor set by the analysis terminal 6, and outputs the sound signal to
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the analysis terminal 6.
[0020]
The analysis terminal 6 is a computer in which sound field analysis software is installed, A / D
converts the sound signal input from the amplifier 4 and records it as a time waveform.
Furthermore, the analysis terminal 6 displays an image of the temporally and spatially varying
sound pressure distribution based on the recorded temporal waveform.
For example, the analysis terminal 6 displays the distribution of sound at a time designated by
the user or the distribution of time averages of sound in a period designated by the user in a
contour map.
[0021]
In the following description, the direction of the measurement object 8 is referred to as the front,
and the direction away from the measurement object 8 as the rear as viewed from the
microphone array 2.
[0022]
FIG. 2 is a diagram for explaining the frame 30. As shown in FIG.
The frame 30 shown in FIG. 2 has a holding frame 310 for holding the microphone 20 and a
stand frame 320 for holding the holding frame 310 upright.
The holding frame 310 has a grid-like shape, and the microphones 20 are fixed by fitting to the
corners of each grid of the holding frame 310.
[0023]
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In the present embodiment, the lattice spacing of the holding frame 310 is about 100 mm.
Since it is desirable that the distance between the holding frames 310 in close proximity to each
other is approximately three times the measurement distance from the tip of the microphone 20
to the measurement object 8 at the time of sound pressure measurement, the sound pressure
measurement in this embodiment is performed. The measuring distance from the tip of the
microphone 20 to the measuring object 8 is preferably between 30 mm and 40 mm.
[0024]
FIG. 3 is a diagram for explaining the microphone 20. As shown in FIG.
The microphone 20 shown in FIG. 3 includes a sensor 210 for detecting a sound pressure, a
preamplifier 220 for amplifying a sound signal input from the sensor 210, an attachment /
detachment unit 230 for detachably holding the preamplifier 220, and an attachment /
detachment unit 230 A slide portion 240 (rod-like member) joined at the front end, a protection
member 250 joined to the attachment / detachment portion 230, and a signal cable 260 for
transmitting a sound signal input from the preamplifier 220 to the amplifier 4 (FIG. 1); A wire
270 is connected to the operation unit 280 and the attachment / detachment unit 230, and is
connected to the wire 270 that makes a round around the holding unit 290. The operation unit
280 is connected to the wire 270 and changes the tension of the wire 270. The cable clip 285
which grips the cable 260 and the holding frame 310 (FIG. 2) Having a holding portion 290
which penetrates in a ready, a.
[0025]
In the microphone 20 shown in FIG. 3, for example, the sensor 210 converts sound pressure into
an electrical signal (sound signal) and outputs the signal to the preamplifier 220.
The center of the sensor 210 is disposed on an extension line (sliding line) of a locus through
which the center of the sliding portion in the slide portion 240 passes in order to avoid positional
deviation due to the rotation of the slide portion 240. The preamplifier 220 amplifies the sound
signal to a level that can flow through the signal cable 260, and outputs the sound signal to the
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amplifier 4 via the signal cable 260.
[0026]
The slide portion 240 penetrates the holding portion 290 in a slidable state, and the operating
mechanism with the holding portion 290 is adjusted by the lock mechanism including the wire
270 and the operation portion 280.
[0027]
As shown in FIG. 3, the signal cable 260 is pulled away from the sliding line from the rear of the
preamplifier 220 to the rear.
At this time, by holding the signal cable 260 by the cable clip 285 connected to the operation
unit 280 at the rear of the slide unit 240, the slack of the signal cable 260 can be eliminated.
With such a configuration, it is possible to avoid an increase in volume of the slide portion 240
by passing the signal cable 260 inside the slide portion 240. Further, since the signal cable 260
is easily accessed, it can be easily replaced even when the signal cable 260 is defective.
[0028]
FIG. 4 is a diagram for explaining the holder 290. As shown in FIG. FIG. 4A is an overall view of
the holding portion 290, and FIG. 4B is a cross-sectional view and a side view of the holding
portion 290. As shown in FIG. The holding portion 290 shown in FIG. 4 has a wire winding
groove 291, a frame attachment groove 292, and a slide hole 293.
[0029]
As shown in FIG. 4, the slide part 240 (FIG. 3) passes through the slide hole 293, and the friction
between the inside of the slide hole 293 and the slide part 240 (FIG. 3) is smooth surface finish
or lubrication It can slide easily by applying the agent. The wire 270 (FIG. 3) is wound around the
wire winding groove 291 and the winding and the tension on the wire 270 (FIG. 3) cause an
operating resistance in the slide portion 240 (FIG. 3). The tension of the wire 270 (FIG. 3) is
loosened by the operation of the operation unit 280, and when this operation is performed, the
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tightening force by the wire 270 (FIG. 3) decreases and the movement resistance of the slide
portion 240 (FIG. 3) Decreases.
[0030]
As shown in the cross-sectional view of FIG. 4B, the frame attachment groove 292 is formed on
one side and the lower side of the holding portion 290 so as to attach the holding portion 290 to
the frame 30 (FIG. 2). When the holding portion 290 is fixed to the frame 30 (FIG. 2), the frame
mounting groove 292 is fitted into the corner of each lattice of the holding frame 310 (FIG. 2),
and the holding portion 290 is fixed. The holding portion 290 is formed of, for example, a
thermoplastic resin or the like, and the width of the frame attachment groove 292 is slightly
smaller than the diameter of the holding frame 310 (FIG. 2) to sufficiently withstand self weight
or unexpected contact or the like. It is possible to obtain a fixing force.
[0031]
FIG. 5 is a view for explaining a method of fixing the holding portion 290 by a plate spring. FIG. 5
shows one of the holding frames 310, a holding portion 290 fixed to the holding frame 310, and
a leaf spring 330 for reinforcing the fixing of the holding portion 290.
[0032]
As shown in FIG. 5, the plate spring 330 has a bifurcated portion to be in contact with the side
surface of the holding portion 290. When fixing the holding portion 290 to the holding frame
310, the bifurcated portion of the plate spring 330 is abutted against the side surface of the
holding portion 290, and one of the plate springs 330 is fixed to the holding portion 290 of the
holding frame 310. The holding section 290 is pressed against the holding frame 310 using the
elasticity of the spring by pressing the corner opposite to the side. By using the plate spring 330,
the fixing force in fixing the holding portion 290 to the holding frame 310 can be increased.
[0033]
FIG. 6 is a diagram for explaining the operation unit 280. 6A is an overall view of the operation
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unit 280, and FIG. 6B is a cross-sectional view of the operation unit 280. The operation unit 280
shown in FIG. 6 includes a stopper 281, an operation button 282, a finger hook 283, a wire 270
coupled to the operation button 282, and a spring 284 provided between the stopper 281 and
the operation button 282. Have.
[0034]
As shown in FIG. 6, the stopper 281 is connected to the end of the slide portion 240 to prevent
the slide portion 240 from falling off and serves as a base to which the components of the
operation portion 280 are attached. The operation button 282 penetrates the stopper 281 and is
connected to the stopper 281 via a spring 284. Since the operation button 282 is connected via
the spring 284 and the tension automatically returns to the high tension state after the
operation, the user only needs to press the operation button 282 when it is desired to slide the
slide portion 240. This can also be performed neatly when operating a large number of
microphones 20 (FIG. 1). A finger rest 283 is connected to the stopper 281 to facilitate the user
pressing the operation button 282. By adopting such a configuration, the user can adjust the
operating resistance of the slide portion 240 at hand, and the alignment of a large number of
microphones 20 (FIG. 1) can be smoothly performed one after another. It becomes possible.
[0035]
In order for the microphone 20 not to disturb the sound field, it is necessary that there is no
portion having a magnitude that can prevent the passage of sound in the sound traveling
direction. Usually, the frequency measured by the sound pressure gauge is about 12 kHz, and the
wavelength in this case is about 28 mm. Therefore, when viewed from the front, which is the
traveling direction of the sound source, if the shape of the microphone 20 does not include a
circle with a diameter of 28 mm, the sound pressure can be measured without disturbing the
sound field.
[0036]
Next, a method of deforming the microphone array 2 in accordance with the shape of the
measurement object 8 will be described. First, for all the microphones 20, after adjusting the
operation unit 280 and loosening the wire 270, the microphones 20 are pulled backward. Then,
the microphone array 2 is brought close to the object. For each microphone 20, the operation
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unit 280 is adjusted to loosen the wire 270 and push the slide unit 240 forward as necessary.
When each microphone 20 is desired to be closest to the measurement object 8, the slide
member 240 is pushed to a position where the protection member 250 provided at the tip of the
microphone 20 abuts on the measurement object 8. When the protective member 250 is kept in
contact with the object to be measured 8, the entire microphone array 2 is finally pulled
backward if there is a possibility that unnecessary chatter or the like will occur.
[0037]
Thus, according to the method, when the microphone array 2 is deformed, the distances from the
microphones 20 to the measurement object 8 can be made substantially uniform according to
the unevenness of the measurement object 8. For this reason, the sound pressure distribution
analysis system 1 using the microphone array 2 can analyze the sound pressure distribution
correctly even when the measurement target 8 has a concavo-convex shape.
[0038]
The present invention can be applied to, for example, measurement of sound pressure
distribution of an image forming apparatus having a plurality of vibration sources and noise
generation sources.
[0039]
It is a figure explaining the sound pressure distribution analysis system which used the
microphone array.
It is a figure explaining a frame. It is a figure explaining a microphone. It is a figure explaining a
holding part. FIG. 4A is an overall view of the holding portion, and FIG. 4B is a sectional view and
a side view of the holding portion. It is a figure explaining the fixing method of the holding |
maintenance part by a leaf | plate spring. It is a figure explaining an operation part. 6 (a) is an
overall view of the operation unit, and FIG. 6 (b) is a cross-sectional view of the operation unit.
Explanation of sign
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[0040]
Reference Signs List 1 sound pressure distribution analysis system 2 microphone array 4
amplifier 6 analysis terminal 8 measurement object 20 microphone 30 frame 210 sensor 220
pre-amplifier 230 detachable portion 240 ... Slide part, 250 ... Protection member, 260 ... Signal
cable, 270 ... Wire, 280 ... Operation part, 281 ... Stopper, 282 ... Operation button, 283 ... Finger
attachment, 284 ... Spring, 285 ... Cable clip, 290 ... Holding part , 291 ... wire winding groove,
292 ... frame mounting groove, 293 ... slide hole, 310 ... holding frame, 320 ... stand frame, 330 ...
leaf spring
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