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(1) Field of the Invention The present invention relates to sensors that make non-intrusive
measurements of sound, pressure, and vibration on the body. (2) Prior Art Such a sensor is
known from the document describing pulse collection [Circulation control with internal pulse
collector (system; Boucke-Brecht). The feature of this pick-up (sensor) lies in the effective probe
with regard to the special type of capacitive winding and winding core arranged in a certain
enclosure. The core of the condenser is surrounded by an internal rubber jacket containing an air
cushion. The rubber jacket is surrounded by a silver wire mesh, which in turn is surrounded by
an outer rubber jacket around its outer surface. This sensor is a high-capacity electrostatic
transducer, which is attached to a suitable part of the human body by bandages or bandages, and
is used as a pulse pickup. Other known sensors, particularly those used for heart sound
measurement, feature a probe with a forceps mechanism that transmits the probe deflection to a
mechanical-electrical transducer. Sensors of this type, especially as they are large and relatively
heavy, do not contribute to the patient's condition when applied to the body surface, and thus
can not actually make measurements only when the patient is at rest. This instead limits the
application range of the known sensor. Because, for example, dynamic measurements are almost
impossible when the patient is in motion, or are taken only with considerable resistance to the
person involved. SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION Accordingly, it is an object of the present
invention to create a lightweight sensor that is small in size and unobtrusive to measurement.
This object is achieved by a sensor for non-invasive measurement of sound, pressure and
vibration on the human body, which comprises: A sensor battery which can be placed on the
surface of the body and which is characterized by sensing mechanical input variables, a
converter which is combined with the sensor and which converts the mechanical input variables
into an electrical signal, the conversion A transmitter connected to the transmitter and a signal
resistant amplifier connected to the converter via the transmitter and adapted to be connected to
the processor, where the converter It has become a transducer diaphragm. By making the
transducer in the form of a transducer diaphragm, the sensor for the purposes of the present
invention can be made very simple and lightweight, so that the sensor never gets in the way of
the human body, ie for the wearer It will not be. Thus, it is possible to take measurements
without any problems even when the wearer is under dynamic loading conditions, for example
when the wearer performs various types of exercise.
Due to the lightness of the sensor, very good measurement properties are obtained, which give
very accurate results when the sensor is used for the purpose of the present invention.
Experimental tests were conducted to achieve the design criteria. Proximity measurements using
a laser doppler array have shown that in acoustic and vibration measurements, the mass of the
sensor distorts the deflection variables measured on the body surface. With regard to the
frequency slowness of the signal and with regard to the in-band of the signal, not only the mass
of the sensor is reduced, but also by reducing the amount of contact pressure of the sensor at the
measuring point, the best measured signal is obtained. Be Still other tests carried out in the
framework of the invention show the information contained in the standard reference on the
amount of contact pressure of the sensor, which as a function of the frequency at the measuring
point on the non-linear decay of the measured value. Indicated. The high specific mass and shape
of the sensor, from the high specific mass of the sensor, and the tension material which helps to
keep the sensor secure, is also a part of the high tension from the cord or the belt, and the
contact pressure is also high. It does not allow a reliable diagnostic solution of heart sounds
contained in the higher frequencies of the signal. Several embodiments of the present invention
will be described by way of example with reference to the accompanying drawings. Detailed
Description of the Preferred Embodiment FIG. 1 is a simplified schematic of a sensor I forming
part of a measurement circuit 2 according to the invention. The sensor 1 features a sensor cell 3
applied to the system S to be measured, as shown in FIG. 1, which detects sounds such as heart
sounds, pressure and vibrations, for example. It is an objective human body. Since the sensor 1 is
very light and small, it can be applied to the human body, for example, by using a slightly sticky
substance in harmony with the body. The sensor cell 3 is connected to the active charge
amplifier 6 via a very short cable 4 and a connector 5. The active charge amplifier functions as a
signal pre-amplifier, the output of which is connected via a long cable to the processing unit 7,
which may instead be connected to a recording and output unit such as, for example, the
recorder B. In the circuit 2 described above, the sensor 1 is formed by a sensor cell 3, a cable 4
and a pre-signal amplifier 6, which form a transmitter as described in detail below. In the above
arrangement, the cable 4 should be kept as short as possible, and in the extreme case its length is
reduced to zero, if the pre-amplifier 6 is placed in or on the sensor cell 3 Means In addition, the
cable 4 should have high insulation resistance and low capacitance to minimize dielectric losses.
The cable 4 is preferably provided as a coaxial cable in order to be advantageous with regard to
shielding from noise. The transmitter 4 and the pre-amplifier 6 can be further combined to
become a wireless transmitter. This has the advantage that the connection cable does not have to
be carried for some applications, such as long-term and / or intensive monitoring of the patient
in both dynamic and stationary operation. The wireless transmitter may take the form of a high
frequency transmitter, the carrier signal of which is modulated by the measurement signal
(input). However, this arrangement may, for example, receive at the central receiver the signals
obtained from the individual patients and separate according to the channels, ie channels when
using the advantages of additional high frequency intermediate carriers or digital signal
transmission. A method should be included to make it possible to make selective signal coding
possible. An apparatus of this kind for signal coding is well described in communication system
technology. A further alternative embodiment of the wireless transmitter may take the form of an
infrared to laser transmitter. Here also we apply the means for special channel selection of
individual patient signal values as described in the previous paragraph. Digital signal transmitters
are particularly advantageous in this case. This is because considerable energy savings can be
obtained by properly selecting the mark / space ratio of the digital pulse. It may be technically
possible to take a mark-to-space ratio from 1: IO to 1: 1000 according to the infrared to laser
transmitter and how far the transmitter can reach. In low power supply situations, digital sensor
data can also be transmitted via an optical waveguide cable. The sensor applied to the patient
may be hooked by a high frequency transmitter and / or by a light transmitter in a wireless
transmission or by a cable or lightwave guide cable, taking into account the means of multiple
use of the transmitter as described above You can raise it. The modulator then handles the
selection of the individual sensor signal upstream of the transmitter. For digital transmission of
the sensor signal, the transducer's anomalous measurement signal must be converted to a digital
signal. Methods for doing this are well known from the relevant technical literature. For this
purpose it is advantageous to prepare a continuous output of the converter's digital values. The
reason is that parallel output requires additional expense for the transmitter. The signal preamplifier 6 and the analog to digital converter are single-function devices.
For example, a charge / frequency converter is used. Here, the charge of the electromechanical
transducer is directly converted to a frequency proportional signal. Hereinafter, a first
embodiment of the sensor cell shown in FIG. 1 will be described based on FIG. In the sensor cell 3
depicted in the development of FIG. 2, the enclosure 8 comprises a conductive first part 9 and an
electrically nonconductive second part 9. As can be seen from FIG. 2, the surrounding electrically
conductive first portion 9 has a kinetically balanced pot-shaped profile and is characterized by a
central aperture 11 in its front plate ll. Fastened on the inside of the front plate 11 is a spring
element 13 in the form of a sinterable diaphragm, which completely cuts off the opening 12. The
first enveloping part 9 is also characterized by the presence of a further aperture 15 in the
annular wall 14 around it, through which the connecting lead 16 is in the pasted together of the
sensor cell 3 It can be introduced. Since the first surrounding portion 9 is formed to be
conductive, it is preferably made in the middle. The surface of the first surrounding part 9 has to
be additionally coated to resist disinfectants and cleaners. Finishing the surface in this manner
can be accomplished with nickel or chrome plating. The lid-shaped second part of the electrically
non-conductive enclosure 10 is, for example, polyvinyl chloride. However, the plastics used must
have mechanical and chemical properties which are invariant to contact with disinfectants and
cleaners. In addition, the plastic should be insensitive to moderate temperature changes so that
the patient is not exposed to the gases released from the plastic. In particular, the second
enclosure lO is also in a dynamically balanced form, the outer diameter DA conforming to the
inner diameter, fitting or slightly thicker of the first enclosure 9 according to tolerance
requirements. In addition, the second envelope 9 is characterized in that it has an annular collar
17 whose outer diameter dA is smaller than the outer diameter DA (but the inner diameters of
the two parts are equal). The front outer wall 18 of the second enclosure 10 is provided with an
aperture 19 which serves as a pressure relief port. The cable 16 is inserted through the opening
20 in the annular wall area 21 of the second enclosure 10 and is secured internally. For this
purpose, the bright end 22 can be adhesively connected to a transducer, for example, in the form
of a transducer diaphragm 23. The transducer diaphragm 23 is preferably provided as a
piezoelectric box, which is made, for example, of a plastic body vacuum-deposited with an
electrically conductive film on both sides. As shown in detail in FIG. 2, the box is essentially flat
and dynamically balanced before it is installed, and round to make it.
The inset of box 23 is described in more detail below. The sensor cell 3 also comprises a
clamping ring 24, which is also dynamically balanced and serves to connect with the second
enclosure 10 when mounted in place. The clamping ring 24 has a thicker wall thickness bottom
25 opposite the annulus 26. The annulus 26 has an inner diameter d 、, which can essentially
correspond to the outer diameter dA of the annulus 17 of the enclosure 10. Since the diaphragm
23 is tensioned between the clamping ring 24 and the second enclosure, by forming the annular
region 26 and the annular region 17 during the process of installing or tensioning the
diaphragm, Different pre-tensioning of the diaphragm 23 can be achieved. This, in turn, means
that when the tolerances are tight, high pre-tensioning can be achieved, which means that pretensioning decreases as the inner diameter of the ring 24 increases but the tightening does not
The inner diameter of 24 means that it is essentially the same as the outer diameter of the
annular area I7 of the second surrounding part lO. These fitting parameters can be chosen in this
way as the transducer diaphragm 23 is only a few micrometers thick. In addition, in order to
adjust the vernier, the area of the ring 24 or the area of the second surrounding portion IO may
be formed in sliding contact with each other, that is, their inclinations may be different. The
clamp 24 also has a circular aperture 28 in its area 27 which contacts the diaphragm 13 when it
is fitted. Eventually, the sensor cell 3 in the embodiment becomes a spherical or ellipsoidal probe
29. This probe 29 serves to sense mechanical input variables, and thus, in use, is applied to the
body surface. When the sensor coil 3 shown in a developed view in FIG. 2 is assembled, the
spring element 13 is fitted in the first encircling part 9 of the probe 29 and then centered on the
spring element 13, ie, the aperture 12 Centered against The diaphragm 23 is then clamped to the
second enclosure 10 by applying pressure with the ring 24. The device is then inserted into the
first enclosure 9. The spring element 13 projects slightly radially in the radial direction onto the
ring 24 with the second envelope 10, so that when the device is inserted (24, 10, 23), electrical
contact with the first envelope 9 is made. Will occur. This is the reason why it is simply necessary
to close the electrical circuit, for example, to electrically connect the shielding GND of the coaxial
cable used as the transmitter 4 to the first enclosure 9.
For this purpose, the diaphragm 23 is tightened in the above-mentioned manner and means
because of the interaction between the tool 24 and the second enclosure IO and the contact of
the probe 29 with the sinterable spring element. It is pre-tensioned with the effect of In this
arrangement, the probe 29 and the corresponding part of the spring element I3 project through
the outlet aperture 12 and thus project past the outer surface of the front plate 11 when the
sensor cell 3 is assembled, thus The probe 29 is associated with the pretensioned diaphragm 23.
In this arrangement, the stiffness of the diaphragm I3 forming the spring element is less than the
stiffness of the transducer diaphragm 23. Preferably, the stiffness of the spring element I3
should be IO to 30% of the stiffness of the transducer diaphragm 23. In addition, the mass of the
probe 29 is much less than the mass of the envelope, and in a particularly preferred embodiment
the mass of the probe is 0.02 g compared to 1.55 g of the envelope. The ratio of probe mass to
surrounding mass is in the range of 1:10 to 1:30 for various embodiments. The total mass of the
sensor cell is very low, even under all conditions, generally less than 2 g. In addition, it should be
noted that the pressure gap is much smaller than the perceived wavelength of the physical
variables (sound, pressure, vibration) (e.g. As described above, when the spring element 13 is
sealed in the fitting state, the probe 29 projects past the outer surface of the enclosure 8, so that
the mechanical motion generated on the body surface by, for example, sound, pressure and
vibration is generated. It can sense. These detected mechanical input variables are transmitted
from the probe 29 to the piezoelectric diaphragm 23 which forms a transducer, which in turn
converts the mechanical input variables into electrical signals. The electrical signal is passed
through a transmitter, for example in the form of a cable 4, to a signal pre-amplifier 5, which
produces an amplification of the signal, for example by means of the circuit arrangement shown
in the example in FIG. For that reason, we will make an express reference. In the processing unit
7 and the recorder P, the sensed signal is evaluated and output for measurement. In the
following, with reference to FIGS. 3 and 4, a second embodiment of the sensor cell 3 'will be
described. The sensor cell 3 'also features an electrically conductive first enclosure 9' and an
electrically nonconductive second enclosure 10 '. The first envelope 9 'has essentially the same
shape as the first envelope 9, but with a much larger outer diameter and the openings 12' also
correspond to the embodiment shown in FIG. It differs in having a diameter larger than the
diameter. Since the shape of the second enclosure 10 '.. is essentially the same as that of the
second enclosure IO, reference can be made to FIG. 2 for the corresponding shape of the
The sensor cell 3 'also features a transducer diaphragm 23', which preferably also takes the form
of a piezoelectric box. The transducer diaphragm 23 'is contacted by a connecting lead 16'
introduced into the enclosure 8 '. As can be seen from FIG. 4, the sensor cell 3 'is also
dynamically equilibrated so that, when fitted, the transducer diaphragm 23' projects past the
electrically conductive first enclosure 9 '. In this arrangement as well, pre-tensioning results in an
effective tightening between the first and second enclosures 9 'and 10', whereby, when fitted, the
electrically non-conductive second enclosure 10 ' The corresponding peripheral collar 17 'passes
through the aperture 12' and projects past the surface 3I. The corresponding area 32 of the
transducer diaphragm 23 'is tensioned when the sensor cell 3' is assembled and is spaced apart
from the surface 31 so that the probe and Form both with the transducer. This is particularly
simple, but nevertheless has the advantage of producing a highly sensitive sensor cell 3
'configuration. Alternative clamping may be a ring, pretensioned useful spring elements, or even
no additional probe. Thus, the sensor cell 3 'can be made even lighter. On the other hand, if
necessary, as shown in FIG. 2, the clamp can additionally use the ring. For all the same details
and functions, reference can be made to the sensor cell 3 shown in FIG. Although the foregoing
relates to measurements on the human body, the sensor for the purposes of the present
invention is also suitable for other measuring systems, such as, for example, machines.
Brief description of the drawings
FIG. 1 is a block diagram including a sensor for the purpose of the present invention.
FIG. 2 is a simplified exploded cross-sectional view of a first embodiment of a sensor suitable for
use in the circuit shown in FIG. FIG. 3 is a side view of a second embodiment of a sensor suitable
for use in the first illustrated circuit. FIG. 4 is a plan view of the sensor shown in FIG. 3 in the
direction of arrow 1 in FIG. Procedure correction written prevention type) 1- 1 August 2
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