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JPH05276592

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DESCRIPTION JPH05276592
[0001]
Application field]
[0001] The present invention relates to a recording and reproducing apparatus capable of
faithfully reproducing the directivity of sound emitted by a sound source.
[0002]
2. Description of the Related Art In general, a recording (recording) reproduction apparatus such
as a tape recorder is used for recording and reproduction of sound. In order to record with this
device, in most cases, a single microphone is used to make a monophonic recording, or a
stereophonic recording is made using a microphone placed in both directions to the sound
source.
[0003]
By the way, in natural musical instruments such as a piano, a guitar, and a flute, it is known that
the pronunciation direction differs for each frequency component of the musical instrument
sound, and that it has a pronunciation directivity. For example, in the flute, as shown in FIG. 7,
the sound generation direction differs depending on the frequency component of the generated
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musical tone. That is, when the frequency component of the musical instrument sound is 250 to
600 Hz, the fluted tube is sounded in the back and forth direction, and if the frequency is 8000
Hz, it is pronounced only in the longitudinal direction of the fluted tube. As such, many natural
musical instruments have their own pronunciation directivity and characteristic pronunciation
characteristics due to the shape of the musical instrument.
[0004]
By the way, in the conventional recording and reproducing apparatus, although monaural
recording and reproduction and stereo recording and reproduction representing sound image
displacement can be performed, the recording and reproduction taking into consideration the
sounding directivity inherent to the above-described musical instrument is completely
considered. There is a problem that the sound field formed by actual musical instrument
performance, that is, the directivity of the sound emitted from the sound source can not be
reproduced. The present invention has been made in view of the above-described circumstances,
and an object thereof is to provide a recording and reproducing apparatus capable of
reproducing the directivity of sound emitted from a sound source.
[0005]
According to the first aspect of the present invention, recording means for recording each
waveform signal outputted from a plurality of microphones arranged on a spherical surface
surrounding a sound source, and the recording means And reproducing means for reading out
each of the waveform signals and generating sounds from a plurality of speakers arranged
corresponding to the arrangement position of the microphone.
[0006]
According to the second aspect of the present invention, there is provided a performance
information generating means for generating performance information according to a
performance operation, and a storage for storing waveform information recorded corresponding
to the direction of the sound emitted by the sound source. Means for forming a musical tone
signal based on the waveform information read out from the storage means according to the
musical performance information, and sound producing means for producing the musical tone
signal in correspondence with the directivity direction. It is characterized by
[0007]
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According to the first aspect of the present invention, the recording means records the respective
waveform signals outputted from the plurality of microphones arranged on the spherical surface
surrounding the sound source, and the reproduction means receives the respective waveform
signals from the recording means. It reads out and it pronounces from a plurality of speakers
arranged corresponding to the arrangement position of the microphone.
Thereby, the directivity of the sound emitted from the sound source is reproduced.
[0008]
According to the second aspect of the present invention, the musical performance information
generating means generates musical performance information in accordance with the musical
performance operation, and the musical tone forming means is recorded corresponding to the
tone generation direction of the sound source according to the musical performance information.
The waveform information is read out to form a tone signal.
Then, since the sound generation means generates the tone signal in accordance with the
direction of the sound production direction, the directivity of the tone emitted from the sound
source is reproduced.
[0009]
Embodiments of the present invention will be described below with reference to the drawings.
A. First Embodiment FIG. 1 is a block diagram showing the configuration of a recording and
reproducing apparatus according to a first embodiment of the present invention. In the figure,
reference numeral 1 denotes a sound source installed in a free sound space (or in an anechoic
chamber), and has, for example, a sounding directivity different for each frequency component of
a generated musical tone like the above-described flute. Reference numerals 2-1 to 2-N denote
directional microphones arranged at predetermined intervals on a spherical surface of a radius r
centered on the sound source 1, and are for sampling the sounding directivity of the sound
source 1.
[0010]
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A head amplifier 3 amplifies and outputs signals output from the microphones 2-1 to 2-N with
low noise. A / D conversion 4 includes a plurality of input channels ch1 to chN corresponding to
the microphones 2-1 to 2-N, and converts the output of the head amplifier 3 supplied to the
input channels ch1 to chN into digital signals, respectively. It is A multi-track recorder 5 has
recording tracks corresponding to the microphones 2-1 to 2-N, and records / reproduces data of
each channel output from the A / D converter 5.
[0011]
A D / A converter 6 converts reproduction data output from each track of the multitrack recorder
5 into an analog signal. A power amplifier 7 amplifies the output of the D / A converter 6, and
directional speakers 8-1 to 8-N generate output signals of the power amplifier 7. As shown in
FIG. The speakers 8-1 to 8 -N are disposed on the spherical surface in accordance with the
arrangement positions of the microphones 2-1 to 2 -N for sampling the sounding directivity of
the sound source 1, and the microphones 2-2 from the sound source 1 are The direction of 1 to 2
-N is matched with the direction in which the speaker has directivity.
[0012]
According to such a configuration, the microphones 2-1 to 2-N disposed on the spherical surface
surrounding the sound source 1 respectively generate signals corresponding to the sounding
directivity of the sound source 1, and these are converted into digital signals. It is recorded on
each recording track of the multitrack radar 5. The reproduction output of the multitrack
recorder 5 is sounded from the speakers 8-1 to 8-N arranged similarly to the microphones 2-1 to
2-N. As a result, the sound field formed by the speakers 8-1 to 8-N becomes the same as the
sound field formed by the actual sound source 1, so that the directivity of the sound emitted from
the sound source 1 is reproduced. In the embodiment described above, the frequency
characteristics and the phase characteristics of the speakers 8-1 to 8-N may not be flat. In this
case, between the multi-track recorder 5 and the D / A converter 6, a filter having a characteristic
that compensates for each characteristic of the speakers 8-1 to 8-N is used. Each characteristic of
the output may be made flat.
[0013]
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B. Second Embodiment FIG. 2 is a block diagram showing the configuration of an electronic
musical instrument according to a second embodiment of the present invention. In the figure,
reference numeral 10 denotes a keyboard, which detects the key pressing operation and the key
pressing speed of each key, and generates various signals corresponding to these. A keyboard
interface 11 outputs a key-on signal KON, a key-off signal KOF, a key code KC, and the like based
on various signals supplied from the keyboard 1. A CPU 12 controls each part of the electronic
musical instrument, the operation of which will be described later.
[0014]
A ROM 13 stores various control programs loaded by the CPU 12, various data tables used in
these control programs, and timbre data. Reference numeral 14 denotes a RAM in which various
calculation results performed by the CPU 12 and register values are temporarily stored.
Reference numeral 15 denotes panel switches provided on the panel surface of the electronic
piano. In the panel switch 15, for example, a timbre switch for determining the timbre of the
generated musical tone, a switch for designating an effect sound such as a reverb, and the like
are provided.
[0015]
A panel interface 16 generates an operation signal corresponding to the operation of each panel
switch 15. The panel interface 16 generates a timbre number TC for designating a timbre when
the timbre switch is operated. A musical tone forming circuit 17 performs musical tone synthesis
on the basis of various signals supplied from the CPU 2 through the bus and generates a musical
tone signal W formed by this, and is constructed by a well-known waveform memory reading
system. The tone forming circuit 17 amplifies the formed tone signal W and causes the speaker
SP to produce sound. Here, the speaker SP is one in which directional speakers SP0 to SPn-1 are
disposed on each side of a polyhedral speaker box, and the disposition positions of these
speakers SP0 to SPn-1 are waveform data to be described later. It corresponds to the microphone
arrangement position at the time of recording.
[0016]
In the second embodiment having the above configuration, particularly, waveform data recorded
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based on the recording mode shown in the first embodiment is stored in the waveform memory
20 described later, and musical tone signals formed on the basis of the waveform data are stored.
The directionality of the sound emitted from the actual musical instrument is reproduced by
being generated from the speakers SP0 to SPn-1. In this second embodiment, as an actual
musical instrument, for example, waveform data in which the sounding directivity of a piano is
added is recorded in a mode shown in FIG. 3 and stored in the waveform memory 20.
[0017]
That is, as shown in FIG. 3, microphones 2-1 to 2-N are disposed on a spherical surface
surrounding a natural musical instrument (for example, a piano) corresponding to the sound
source 1, and these microphones 2-1 to 2-N are provided. The respective outputs of are
respectively supplied to the samplers 30-1 to 30-N. The sampler 30 includes an A / D converter,
holds an A / D converted value when receiving a trigger signal TR supplied from the outside, and
outputs the value as waveform data. The outputs of the samplers 30-1 to 30-N are stored in the
waveform memory 20. In such sampling, waveform data of a number of pitches that can be
generated (for 88 keys when the piano is used as a sound source) is recorded. According to such
sampling, it is possible to record the tone of an actual musical instrument sound and the
directivity of the sound emitted from the musical instrument.
[0018]
Next, FIG. 4 is a block diagram showing the configuration of the tone generation circuit 17. As
shown in FIG. In this figure, reference numeral 18 denotes an interface circuit, which supplies
key-on signal KON, key-off signal KOF, key code KC and tone number TC supplied from CPU 12
via a bus to each part of tone generation circuit 17. The key-on signal KON, the key-off signal
KOF, and the key code KC are generated in response to the key depression operation of the
keyboard 10, and the tone color number TC is generated in response to the tone color setting
operation of the switch panel 15.
[0019]
An address generation circuit 19 generates an address signal AD for reading the waveform
memory 20 according to the key-on signal KON supplied from the interface circuit 18 and the
key code KC. The address generation circuit 19 designates waveform data to be read in
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accordance with the timbre number TC, and generates an address signal AD in which phase
information corresponding to the key code KC is sequentially accumulated from the read start
address. Thereby, the waveform data of the waveform memory 20 is read out and output to the
next stage. The address generation circuit 19 is configured to generate the address signal AD of
each sound for each channel period in accordance with the timing control signal β in order to
simultaneously generate multiple tones.
[0020]
An envelope generation circuit 21 generates an envelope signal ENV having a waveform
corresponding to the timbre number TC in accordance with the key-on signal KON and the keyoff signal KOF supplied from the interface circuit 18. The envelope generation circuit 13 controls
the level of the signal ENV in the mode shown in FIG. 5 based on the key-on signal KON and the
key-off signal KOF. As described above, the reason why the level is kept constant from key on to
key off is because the time from the rising to the falling of the tone is recorded at the time of
waveform data sampling (see FIG. 3) described above. In this envelope generation circuit 21, in
order to emit the above-mentioned speakers SP0 to SPn-1 sequentially, time division operation is
performed according to the timing control signal α, and the envelope signal ENV to be given to
each of the speakers SP0 to SPn-1 is It is configured to form.
[0021]
Next, a multiplying circuit 22 multiplies the waveform data read from the waveform memory 20
by the envelope signal ENV and outputs the result as a musical tone signal W. A timing control
circuit 23 generates the timing control signals α and β described above and outputs latch
signals ch0 to chn-1 described later. The latch signals ch0 to chn-1 are supplied to the latch
circuit 24. The latch circuits 24 receive latch signals ch0 to chn-1 and latch musical tone signals
W supplied to the speakers SP0 to SPn-1. 25, 25 are D / A converters that convert the output of
each latch circuit 24 into analog signals and output them, 26,.., 26 amplify the outputs of each D
/ A converter 25, and speakers SP0 to SPn It is an amplifier that supplies -1.
[0022]
Next, with reference to FIG. 6, the operation of the second embodiment having the above
configuration will be described. First, when the power is turned on in the second embodiment,
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the CPU 12 loads the control program stored in the ROM 13 and starts the routine shown in FIG.
Thus, the process of the CPU 12 proceeds to step S1. In step S1, the contents of the various
registers are initialized, initialization is performed according to the setting of the panel switch 15,
and the process proceeds to the next step S2.
[0023]
Then, in step S2, the presence or absence of a key event is detected, and if the player does not
perform a key release operation, the key event is not detected, the determination result is "NO",
and the process proceeds to step S3. In step S3, it is determined whether the tone color switch
described above has been operated. Here, when a predetermined timbre is selected prior to
performance, a timbre setting event corresponding to the selection operation occurs, the
determination result becomes “YES”, and the process proceeds to the next step S4. In step S4,
the set tone color number TC is set in the register RTC. Next, in the next step S5, other
processing corresponding to the operation of various switches disposed on the panel switch 15 is
executed, and then the processing returns to the above-mentioned step S2.
[0024]
Here, for example, when the player presses a predetermined key, the determination result in step
S2 becomes "YES", and the process proceeds to step S6. In step S6, since the key-on event by this
key depression operation is detected, the determination result is "YES", and the process proceeds
to the next step S7. In step S7, the key code KC and key-on signal KON generated in response to
the key depression operation and the tone number TC set in step S4 described above are
supplied to the tone forming circuit 17. Thus, the tone forming circuit 17 reads out waveform
data from the waveform memory 20 in accordance with the key-on signal KON and the key code
KC, and multiplies this by the envelope signal ENV to form a tone signal W. Then, as described
above, this musical tone signal W is produced from the polyhedral speaker SP in the form of the
tone color of the actual musical instrument sound and in the form of reproducing the directivity
of the sound emitted from the musical instrument.
[0025]
Next, when the player performs a key release operation, the determination result of the abovedescribed step S6 becomes “NO”, and the process proceeds to step S8. In step S8, the key-off
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signal KOF generated in response to the key release operation is supplied to the tone generation
circuit 17. Thus, the tone forming circuit 17 sequentially reduces the level of the envelope signal
ENV to mute the generated tone.
[0026]
Thus, according to the second embodiment described above, the waveform of the instrument
sound recorded in consideration of the directivity of the sound emitted from the actual
instrument is stored in the waveform memory 20, and Since the musical tone signal formed
based on the read waveform data is produced from a plurality of speakers arranged
corresponding to the microphone position at the time of waveform data sampling, the directivity
of the sound produced from the actual musical instrument is It will be reproduced.
[0027]
In the second embodiment described above, waveform data obtained by sampling the entire
sound waveform from the rise to the fall of the musical instrument sound is used. However, this
does not necessarily mean that the entire sound is necessary. The waveform memory 20 may be
configured to store waveform data obtained by sampling the attack portion and the continuous
sound portion which are rising edges of the signal.
In this case, reading of the waveform memory 20 is required to control the progress of the read
address according to the key code KC. In addition, although speakers SP0 to SPn-1 for
reproducing sounding directivity were attached to each surface of the polyhedral speaker box,
the present invention is not limited to this, and it is essential to correspond to the microphone
arrangement at the time of recording Other shapes may be used as long as they can be formed.
Furthermore, the present embodiment may be applied to one that simultaneously generates tone
signals for two or more key depressions.
[0028]
As described above, according to the first aspect of the present invention, the recording means
records the respective waveform signals outputted from the plurality of microphones arranged
on the spherical surface surrounding the sound source, and the reproducing means comprises
Each waveform signal is read out from the recording means, and sound is generated from a
plurality of speakers arranged corresponding to the arrangement position of the microphone, so
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that the directivity of the sound emitted from the sound source can be reproduced. In the second
aspect of the present invention, the performance information generating means generates
performance information corresponding to the performance operation, and the tone forming
means is recorded corresponding to the direction of the tone generation direction of the sound
source according to the performance information. The waveform information is read out to form
a tone signal. Then, since the sound generation means generates the tone signal in accordance
with the direction of the sound production direction, the directivity of the tone generated from
the sound source can be reproduced.
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