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BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 1. Field of the Invention The present invention relates to a
transmitter equipped with an ultrasonic sounder or fish finder which uses ultrasonic waves in sea
water or in water for use, and more specifically, an electrostrictive phenomenon called a
piezoelectric element. The present invention relates to a ceramic vibrator using That is, ultrasonic
sounders or fish finders used in seawater or in water require transmitters for emitting ultrasonic
waves, and such transmitters have conventionally used barium titanate or zirconate titanate.
Many ceramic vibrators made of lead etc. have been used. However, it is hard to say that the use
of these transducers has been completely studied, and there are still many improvements in
terms of their use.
2. Description of the Related Art Referring to FIG. 4, an example representing the structure of a
conventional persimmon seed wave transmission device will be described. A diaphragm made of
plastic such as nylon is generally provided on the surface of the ceramic vibrator (1) on the water
depth side. 2) is provided, and a sheet etc. of expanded polystyrene (4) having closed cells is
directly attached to the back of the vibrator (1) on the opposite side, and an air chamber (5) is
further provided in the back part . As a result, ultrasonic waves are emitted from the diaphragm
(2) side and hardly emitted from the opposite side of the foam polystyrene, because a
considerable amount of ultrasonic waves are also emitted from the foam polystyrene (4) side, but
the foam polystyrene The ultrasonic waves are absorbed by the air bubbles because there are
innumerable closed air bubbles in the air, and even if there are some leaks that are not emitted to
the back side, they are absorbed by the air chamber (5) in the back and to the outside of the weir
Not fired. With the above structure, the function as an ultrasonic wave transmitter can be
sufficiently performed, and conventionally, it has been considered that the structure is almost
completely satisfactory. However, it can be understood that there are the following problems if
the foam polystyrene or the air chamber is provided in direct contact with the back surface of the
ceramic vibrator in order to prevent the emission of ultrasonic waves.
[Problems to be Solved by the Invention] That is, with the structure as shown above, the energy
to be emitted into the water of the ultrasonic wave is mostly emitted to the deep side of the water
for a while and hardly emitted to the water side. But the acoustic impedance of the diaphragm
side is very large when considering the load balance of the energy emitted by the ultrasonic
wave, and the acoustic impedance of the polystyrene foam and air chamber side opposing this is
extreme Small, which means that the load balance is very bad and the acoustic emission energy is
emitted in inverse proportion to the magnitude of the acoustic impedance, so most of the
acoustic energy is consumed on the side of the polystyrene foam or the air chamber and the
opposite vibration It is hardly fired effectively on the plate side. The cause of such a bad result is
that the acoustic impedance is not well balanced.
Furthermore, even if this portion is considered as a structure emitting sound, the weight on the
diaphragm side with respect to the vibrator is much heavier than the weight on the polystyrene
foam side or the air chamber side, so that the energy of the sound emission of this portion Is the
result of being fired more on the side of lightweight polystyrene foam due to the law of inertia.
By the way, the approximate value of the acoustic impedance of the diaphragm and water in the
extension direction is 14 to 16 × 10 4 (unit abbreviation), and the acoustic impedance of the
foam polystyrene or the air chamber behind it is 40 to 60 (unit abbreviation ) There is a gap of
1000 to 2 between them. There is also a difference of about 1000 to 2 in weight ratio, and even
in this aspect, the difference in apparent acoustic impedance is increasing, so most of the emitted
acoustic energy is consumed on the polystyrene foam side and the target water is It is hardly
fired at the diaphragm side which is the side. If you think about it and replace it with an electrical
equivalent circuit, not as an acoustic circuit, its contents will be easier to understand.
As shown in FIG. 2, when the acoustic circuit (A) of the transmitter is replaced with an electrical
equivalent circuit (B), the ceramic vibrator (1) corresponds electrically to a battery or a power
source (a). It is an origin. On the contrary, the diaphragm (2), the expanded polystyrene (4), the
air chamber (5), etc. correspond to the electrical loads (b), (c) and (d) of different volume specific
resistance electrically connected thereto , They are connected in parallel with each other. And the
acoustic energy emitted there corresponds electrically to the power consumption consumed
there. When analyzing the electric circuit with the above-mentioned configuration in relation to
the power supply and the load impedance connected thereto, the electric load impedance is
determined by the load on the diaphragm side (2) and the load on the foam polystyrene side (4)
(5) The load impedance of the diaphragm side is much larger and higher than that of the foam
polystyrene side. In this case, most of the energy is consumed on the expanded polystyrene side
in inverse proportion to the magnitude of the load, as to which side the electrical output is
consumed more. That is, most of the sound output is consumed on the expanded polystyrene
side. Furthermore, it is apparent from the surface of the acoustic structure that the weight on the
expanded polystyrene side is much smaller and lighter than the diaphragm side, so that
ultrasonic waves are more difficult to be emitted on the diaphragm side. Accordingly, the
applicant has attempted to improve the transmitter in order to improve the imbalance of the load
and the acoustic structure.
[Means for Solving the Problems] As can be understood from the above description, the same
concept as in the electric circuit is obtained in the audio equipment, and even if it is intended to
apply a large load to a device with poor load balance, the load is not Only unnecessary power is
consumed in the device. What is considered is that the acoustic impedance on the expanded
polystyrene side of the ceramic vibrator is made larger than the acoustic impedance on the
diaphragm side by improving the balance of the load. Specifically, it is good to provide a large
acoustic impedance of the substance here, if it is not possible, to provide the largest possible
value of these materials here. Specifically, the present invention has been generated from such a
viewpoint in which a substance having a large acoustic impedance may be bonded and fixed
between the surface of the vibrator on the expanded polystyrene side and the surface of the
expanded polystyrene. However, in practice, the acoustic impedance of the diaphragm is a very
large value, and the material is considerably limited if the material further exceeds that.
Furthermore, in view of the conventional apparatus, even if the acoustic impedance is not
increased to such an extent, even an intermediate stage between the other and the conventional
apparatus may be sufficiently practical. Therefore, I decided to consider the middle stage of
those. That is, even if an object has the same degree of acoustic impedance as the diaphragm, if
the weight of the object provided there is as heavy as possible and the weight on the diaphragm
side is as light as possible, more on the diaphragm side according to the law of inertia. Ultrasonic
waves are emitted. This is a great improvement even if the apparent acoustic impedance changes
significantly. That is, it is understood that the efficiency of sound emission is greatly improved if
one or both of the above mentioned measures are implemented. Ideally, by executing both
simultaneously, in this case, the acoustic impedance is 2000 to 4000 times larger than the
conventional one, and the acoustic output is improved by 60 db or more compared to the
conventional one. From the above, it was found that the balance between the left and right sound
output was greatly improved and the output was significantly increased. Therefore, the
embodiment will be described below.
present invention, claim 1 and claim 2 are mutually related in order to effectively implement the
present invention. An example is shown. As shown in FIG. 1, (1) in the figure is an ultrasonic
projectile called a ceramic vibrator, which is a thin disk-shaped semiconductor generally made of
a ceramic such as barium titanate or lead zirconate titanate, and the principle of electrostriction.
Use to launch ultrasound. In detail, a disk-shaped diaphragm (2) made of nylon or ABS resin is
attached to one side of the vibrator on the side of the water. The material is nylon or ABS resin
because the specific gravity is close to water and the acoustic impedance is close to water. This is
because it is considered that as the acoustic impedance is closer to water, it is possible to
effectively emit ultrasonic waves to the water. And the structure up to here is basically the same
as the conventional one. However, it is better to make the diaphragm as light as possible if it can
be made light. Next, on the back side opposite to the diaphragm side (2) of the vibrator (1), a
stainless block (3) or the like having a large weight and large acoustic impedance is bonded as
much as possible unlike the conventional case. The larger the acoustic impedance, the better the
material of the object to be bonded. The acoustic impedance in the case of a bag means the
acoustic impedance specific to the substance, and the heavier the weight, the better. In this case,
the shape is not particularly specified, but in general, a disk shape having a larger outer shape
and a thicker shape than the vibrator (1) is usually used. Then, a sheet of expanded polystyrene
(4) or the like having closed cells as in the prior art is attached to the back of the sheet. These
points are the same as conventional. The above is the structure of the ultrasonic wave transmitter
according to the present invention, which differs from the conventional wave transmitter in that
the back of the vibrator (1) is provided with a heavy and heavy object of large acoustic
impedance which has not existed conventionally. It is. As described in the section of the means
for solving the invention, the ultrasonic waves are emitted more to the diaphragm (2) side.
Further, the material of the object (3) to be bonded to the back surface of the vibrator (1) is a
ceramic material equivalent to the vibrator or the like, besides metals which are not easily
corroded by seawater such as copper other than stainless steel at present. The reason for using
ceramic as the material is that ceramic material is the second largest material of acoustic
impedance next to metal. However, the material of the ceramic does not have to be the same
material as the vibrator, and as long as it is a material having a large density and a fine structure
like the vibrator, a general porcelain material may be used, since such a material generally has a
large acoustic impedance. .
The invention of the second embodiment is the invention according to the third aspect, and in the
present invention, the object to be bonded to the back surface of the vibrator as in the first
embodiment is ideally one having a heavy weight and a large acoustic impedance, Even if the
acoustic impedance is not as large as the material shown above, if the acoustic impedance is
slightly larger than the current diaphragm (2), more ultrasonic waves are emitted from the
diaphragm side, which is a significant improvement in performance. Therefore, if the
performance is improved compared with the present, it may become practical enough depending
on the frequency of ultrasonic waves used and the purpose of measurement. In order to cope
with such a case, the lower limit of the material of the object to be attached to the back surface of
the vibrator (1) is specified, and is the lower limit the same as the material of the diaphragm (2)
such as nylon or ABS resin Any material having an acoustic impedance slightly larger than that
may be used. The materials will be described below, and in addition to nylon and ABS resins,
plastics such as polyester resins are included, and blends of these plastics with quartz powder
and the like are also included. Furthermore, as materials other than those mentioned, pottery,
porcelain and glass are included, and depending on the method of use, for example, gypsum,
cement, etc. are also contained in addition to those. The material to be claimed is expanded to
gypsum, cement, etc., because gypsum and cement are free to be shaped in shape, and in the
future it is likely to be expected to produce a high performance wave transmitter than in the past.
The specific situation of the embodiment is the one in which the material of the material of (3) in
FIG. 1 is changed to the above material, and the appearance is the same as the first embodiment.
In the third embodiment, the object (3) to be bonded to the back surface of the ceramic vibrator
(1) is manufactured integrally with the ceramic vibrator as shown in FIG. Alternatively, since the
ceramic mass or the like is a material capable of withstanding high temperature, the ceramic
vibrator (1) and the material (3) of the object to be bonded to its back surface can be bonded at
high temperature. As a result, the ceramic vibrator (1) and the like, and the object (3) to be
bonded to the rear surface are integrally formed in advance. And bonding ceramic to ceramic or
metal to ceramic at high temperature is a very effective means from the viewpoint of effectively
transmitting ultrasonic waves, and it is also efficient. There, the ceramic vibrator (1) and the
metal block (3) in advance Are integrally bonded to form an integral structure. The technique of
bonding ceramics to each other or metal and ceramic is a technique already used in Langevin
vibrators and the like.
As described above, the present invention significantly improves the load balance of the acoustic
impedance, and increases the acoustic impedance on the foam polystyrene side as much as
possible, so that an unprecedented strong ultrasonic output can be desired. The As a result, it is
possible to eliminate the problem that the image of the object in the deep sea or long distance is
vague and difficult to judge conventionally. Although the wave transmitting apparatus tends to
be somewhat heavy in weight as compared with the prior art, its weight is not a problem since it
is used in water. It is of great significance that the acoustic impedance is greatly increased and
the load balance is greatly improved as described above.
Brief description of the drawings
1 is a central sectional view showing the basic structure of a transmitter used in the ultrasonic
acoustic apparatus according to the present invention.
Fig. 2 Fig. 2 is an acoustic circuit of a transmitter used for ultrasonic acoustic equipment and an
electric circuit equivalent to it.
FIG. 3 is a view showing an integrated structure of a ceramic vibrator and a metal block used in
the ultrasonic wave transmitter according to the present invention.
FIG. 4 is a central sectional view showing the basic structure of a conventional ultrasonic wave
Explanation of sign
(1) Ceramic vibrator (2) Vibration plate (3) Stainless steel block / plastic block (4) Foam sheet (5)
Air chamber (6) Synthetic rubber outer frame (7) Electric wire cable (a) Power supply or battery
(B) Load impedance (c) Load impedance (d) Load impedance
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