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JPS5772084

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DESCRIPTION JPS5772084
Description 1, title of the invention
Ultrasonic wave transceiver
3. Detailed description of the invention The present invention relates to an ultrasonic transducer,
wherein a magnetostrictive ultrasonic transducer (hereinafter simply referred to as a transducer)
is used as an ultrasonic transducer, and the transducer is directly or The present invention
relates to an ultrasonic wave transmitting / receiving apparatus in which a plurality of vibrator
units are electrically connected via a phase circuit to form a vibrator unit, and a plurality of such
units are configured to have a transmission / reception direction of a curved surface or a flat
surface. is there. The so-called scanning sonar is a typical example using such an ultrasonic wave
transceiver. As this ultrasonic wave transceiver, a full circle type and a half circle sector type
extending to the whole direction of transmission and reception direction are provided for
practical use, and in any case, the output of a plurality of transducer units is selectively delayed.
By combining them, the receiving beam in a fixed direction is formed. FIG. 1 is a view showing
directivity characteristics formed by a fixed transducer unit group of such an ultrasonic 11 series
transceiver. In the figure, a is called a main beam and b is called a side lobe. By the way, in the
scanning sonar, it is known that the EndPage: 1 detection performance is greatly influenced by
the directivity characteristics of the ultrasonic wave transceiver. In order to obtain a good
detection performance, that is, in order to improve the directivity, it is necessary to make the
main beam a sharp and to reduce the side lobe ? b. If the directivity characteristic is bad, that is,
if the ratio of the side lobe b to the main beam a is large, high fidelity reproduction of the object
on the scanning sonar display surface becomes impossible and the degree to which the virtual
image is displayed It gets bigger. In order to solve such problems, the applicant first attached a
magnetic shielding plate between the respective transducers so as to eliminate the magnetic
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influence generated between adjacent transducers, and the main beam of the side lobes. We
proposed an ultrasonic transducer with a reduced ratio to. However, in this device, it is necessary
to provide a separate magnetic baffle, which has the disadvantage that the structure becomes
complicated and the entire device becomes expensive. SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION An object
of the present invention is to provide an ultrasonic wave transmitting / receiving apparatus
which can make the influence of side lobes extremely small by making the structure complicated
and inexpensive. In summary of the present invention, attention is focused on the fact that the
main factor of side lobe generation in an ultrasonic transducer using a magnetostrictive
transducer is the mutual inductance formed between adjacent transducers, In order to cancel out,
the winding direction of the coil of each transducer is selectively switched in the forward or
reverse direction. FIG. 2 shows the path of the ultrasonic wave transmitting / receiving device on
which the present invention is premised. FIG. 6A is an external view, and FIG. 6A shows an allaround type in which the transmission / reception wavefront extends over the entire
circumference, and FIG. 6B shows a sector type in which the transmission / reception wavefront
or the extreme semicircle is present.
In the ultrasonic wave transmitting and receiving apparatus of the person of mouth 1 in the
transmitting and receiving wave front 1, the long side of each transducer 2 is directed in the
horizontal direction, and in the latter ultrasonic wave transmitting and receiving apparatus, the
long side of each transducer 2 is the same in the vertical direction Like, each vibrator is arranged.
Also, in the full circle type, five vibrators arranged on the same vertical line are electrically
coupled as one vibrator unit via a phase shift circuit, and in the sector type, four vibrators
arranged on the same vertical line The vibrators of are directly coupled electrically as one
vibrator unit. The whole circumference type is coupled via a phase shift circuit in order to
electrically control an angle with respect to the horizontal direction of the transmission and
reception beams, that is, a so-called tilt angle, in other words, an isometric measurement of the
angle of the transmitted / received wave To control. On the other hand, in the sector type, tilt
angle control is performed mechanically, so that each vibrator in one unit is directly coupled
without the phase shift circuit. By the way, as is clear from the above-mentioned configuration, it
can be easily assumed that the occurrence of mutual inductance is between the transducers of
adjacent transducer units. In this case, the magnitude of the mutual inductance is uniquely
determined by the direction of the current flowing through the opposing coils of the adjacent
vibrator 2 and its ampere-turn and the distance between the two coils. The values of the mutual
inductances when the winding direction of one coil is in the positive direction and in the reverse
direction are the same in absolute value and the opposite sign. Now, as shown in FIG. 2, if each
transducer unit is arranged so that the distance between the transducers is equal, and if the
number of turns of the coil wound around each transducer is all the same, By changing the
winding direction of the coil of the vibrator, it is possible to cancel the mutual inductance formed
between the adjacent vibrator units. That is, it is possible to obtain an output of each transducer
unit that is not affected by mutual inductance. The third M shows a longitudinal sectional view of
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a partial transducer unit of the ultrasonic transducer according to the present invention, and the
figures (-1) and (b) show the same sector transducer unit as the transducer unit (c). Represents a
full circle type vibrator unit. 4E (i) and (ii) show an external view and a side cross-sectional view
of the vibrator representing the vibrator unit, and the line AA of FIG. ing. Here, the magnet 3
placed in the magnetic path of each transducer 2 applies a magnetic flux as a bias to the
transducer 2 to adjust the phase at the time of sound wave transmission, or induction at the time
of ultrasonic wave EndPage: 2 reception The magnitude and phase of the voltage are adjusted.
For example, if the magnet 3 is placed in the reverse direction, the induced voltage will be in
reverse phase.
Therefore, the magnets 3 must be properly arranged in each vibrator so that the outputs of the
vibrators have a constant phase so as not to cancel each other. The arrangement direction of the
magnet 3 is uniquely determined in accordance with the winding direction of the coil 4 of each
vibrator 2. However, for reference, the arrangement of the magnet 3 in FIGS. 3 (a), (b) and (c)
Indicates the direction. In FIG. 3A, the mutual inductance formed between the transducer units 3
and b is positive between the two coils of each of the transducers 21 and 22 and two of each of
the transducers 23.24. It can be seen that the minus between the two coils, the plus between the
two coils of each of the transducers 25.26, and the minus between the two coils of the
transducers 27.28. Accordingly, the plus and minus mutual inductances have the same size in the
unit l-a or unit b circuit, and eventually their effects cancel out and cancel each other. This
equivalently eliminates mutual magnetic interference between adjacent transducer units, and as a
result suppresses the occurrence of the above-mentioned side lobes. Next, unlike FIG. 3 (b), FIG. 3
(b) is different from the circuit 11 shown in FIG. 3 (b), and even when they are of the same sector
type, each vibrator unit is alternately shifted and arranged in the vertical direction. Is
represented. In the figure, the mutual inductances formed in the bends of the transducer units l-a
and b are positive between the pair of coils of the transducer 21.22, and are negative between
the pair of coils of the transducer 21.24. The plus between the opposing coils of the vibrator
24.23, the minus between the opposing coils of the vibrator 23.26, and the plus between the
opposing coils of the vibrators 2b and 25. It can be seen that it is negative between the two coils
and positive between the opposing coils of the vibrator 28.27. Therefore, the plus inductance
mutual inductance and the minus inductance mutual inductance largely cancel each other in the
circuit of unit 1-a or unit b, eventually equivalently eliminating mutual magnetic interference
between the facing units, and You can suppress the occurrence. Next, the case of the full-round
type vibrator unit shown in the third (3) will be described. There are 8 in the figure, and the
vibrator 21 23.2! 5. The mutual inductance formed between the vibrator unit 3 constituted at 27
░ 29 and the vibrator unit b constituted by the vibrators 22, 24, 26, 28, 30 is the vibrator
22.21. Between the opposing coils of the transducer 21.24, minus between the opposing coils of
the transducer 24.23, minus between the opposing coils of the transducer 23.26, the transducer
26. Between the opposing coils of the transducer 25.28, plus between the opposing coils of the
transducer 28.27, and minus between the opposing coils of the transducer 27.30. Between the
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opposing coils of the oscillator 30 ░ 29 becomes positive.
Therefore, also in this case, mutual inductance between plus and minus or mutual inductance
between units a and b is largely canceled out in the circuit of a or b, and mutual magnetic
interference between units a and b as in the sector type. Can be equivalently removed. Note that,
as described above, in the all-around-type ultrasonic wave transmitting / receiving device, a
plurality of transducers in each transducer unit are coupled after being connected via the phase
shift circuit, so The circuits of the units a and b for canceling each other also include this phase
shift circuit. In this case, as shown in FIG. 3 (c), in order to prevent the adverse effect on the
cancellation of the mutual inductance by the phase shift circuit, the turns of the respective coils
are alternately made positive and negative as shown in FIG. It is desirable to define the line
direction. As described above, if the mutual inductance of each vibrator formed between adjacent
vibrator units is offset, in other words, the sum of the mutual inductances formed between
adjacent vibrator units By setting the value to approximately zero, it is possible to obtain the
same effect as placing a magnetic baffle between the units EndPage: 3. That is, mutual magnetic
interference of adjacent transducer units can be equivalently eliminated, and as a result, the
occurrence of side lobes can be suppressed. For this reason, it is not necessary to make the
mutual inductance values alternately positive and negative alternately as described in the above
embodiment, and all the mutual inductance values in the circuit formed by one transducer unit
are required. The sum of the inductances may be zero. However, in the full-round type ultrasonic
transducer, as described above, it is desirable that the value of mutual inductance be alternately
positive and negative in each transducer unit. Thus, according to the present invention, magnetic
interference between adjacent transducer units can be equivalently eliminated without using a
magnetic shield plate, and the ratio of side lobe to main beam can be reduced. In other words, it
is possible to form a receive beam with excellent directivity when receiving waves by simply
determining the winding direction of the coil of each transducer appropriately. It can be
launched without distortion in its characteristics. The ultrasonic wave transmitting and receiving
device according to the present invention can be applied not only to detection devices used
underwater, such as scanning sonars, but also to detection devices used on land.
4. Brief description of the drawings. FIG. 1 shows the directivity characteristic formed by a
certain transducer unit group of the ultrasonic wave transceiver, and FIG. 2 shows the off-path of
the ultrasonic wave transceiver as the premise of the present invention. Showing censorship.
Also, FIG. 3 shows a longitudinal sectional view of a partial transducer unit of the ultrasonic
transducer according to the present invention, wherein (A) and (B) represent sector type
transducer units, and Shows a vibrator unit of a type. 4 (a) and 4 (b) show an external view and a
side sectional view of a vibrator that constitutes the vibrator unit. 1 иии Transmission and
reception wavefront, 2 и и и Magnetostrictive vibrator, 3 и и и Magnet. Applicants: Furuno Electric
Co., Ltd. Attorney Attorney Hiso Komori Fig. 1 Fig. 2 (A) (B) Fig. 3 (B) C B) Hundred-stone
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abEndPage: 4 Fig. 3 (C) U (-I -1) ? 4 (a) 1) EndPage: ?
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