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JPS57141553

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DESCRIPTION JPS57141553
The sound wave probe according to the present invention is characterized in that two cylindrical
focusing systems are arranged orthogonally in the means for focusing the sound wave at a
predetermined focal point or focusing from a predetermined focal point.
Percent claims
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION The present invention relates generally to acoustic
focusing means used in microscopes, and in particular in microscopes using radio frequency
energy. In recent years, since generation and detection of high frequency sound waves up to 1
GH2 have become possible, a sound wave wavelength in water of about 1 micron has been
obtained, and therefore, a microscope using sound wave energy has been studied. Such an
apparatus is less efficient in producing a narrow focused sound beam, but the conventional
example will be described with reference to FIG. That is, a cylindrical crystal 20 such as sapphire
has a plane optically polished at one end face and a concave hole at the other end face. The R and
F electric signals are applied to the piezoelectric element 10 formed on the flat plate surface to
emit a plane wave RF sound wave into one crystal 20. This plane acoustic wave is generated by
the positive lens formed at the crystal-medium interface formed in the concave hole. It is focused
on the predetermined focal point. As is well known, if the focal length-to-aperture ratio, i.e., the
lens F / b, is sufficiently small, this arrangement can produce a very narrow acoustic beam. Since
this focused sound wave is subjected to disturbances such as reflection, scattering, penetration
and “4 attenuation” by the sample placed near the focal point, an electric signal reflecting the
elastic property of the sample by detecting the irregular wave energy It is possible to get In the
detection of acoustic energy, the above-mentioned crystal system may be used again, or one or
similar crystal system may be made to face a confocal system. 0 As is clear from the above
description, the conventional example uses the speed difference between the crystal and the
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medium. The positive spherical lens is the focusing principle. Therefore, it is necessary to form a
hemispherical concave hole in the crystal, but to make a lens with a low F number because the
sound attenuation of the medium (usually water) from the lens surface to the S focus is extremely
large. For example, there is a situation where it is necessary to create a micro-original person
such as EndPage: 10, 2 mmφ, and such work is generally extremely difficult. Therefore, if there
are other focusing methods that are comparable to spherical lenses as a focusing method, it is
expected to have a great effect in realizing a microscope using acoustic energy, while reducing
such circumstances. The present invention is a turtle made in view of the above points, and its
object is to easily construct a focusing system similar to a spherical focusing by arranging two
cylindrical focusing systems at right angles. is there. That is, since cylindrical processing of
crystals is generally simpler and more precise than spherical processing, two cylindrical uniaxial
focusing systems are arranged at right angles, and moreover, as in the conventional example, the
aberration is the most distracting. It seeks to obtain focused sound waves similar to a good
spherical two-axis focusing system.
First, focusing characteristics in the case where two cylindrical focusing systems are orthogonally
arranged, which is the purport of the present invention, are described. FIG. 2 schematically
shows a state in which cylindrical focusing systems of two plates are disposed orthogonal to each
other. Coordinate axes are taken as shown in the figure with the sound wave transmission
direction as two axes. The first cylindrical cross section L1 is in a plane P1 parallel to the Y and Z
axes represented by Xs-z0, and the cylindrical axis of the second cylindrical lens is orthogonal to
the X axis, and Is in a plane P2 parallel to the X, z axes represented by s'j-y6. When a plane
acoustic wave enters this lens system toward the Z-axis direction toward the Z-axis direction, it is
focused in the jOYZ plane by the cylindrical lens L1 (hereinafter referred to as longitudinal
focusing) and is focused in the X2 plane by the lens L2 Focused acoustic waves are formed at
predetermined focal points on the two axes since this is called lateral focusing. As is well known,
since the essence of the lens action is the sound path length by passing through the inside of the
lens, it is possible to set the nature of the lens by the state of the sound path length. Now, if it is
assumed from the left side of the drawing that a sound ray passes through a point (xGyyolo) in
two axial directions, the sound path length is as shown in FIG. It becomes a line segment of / '.
The cylindrical lenses L1 and L2 are respectively given by y2 + (Z10a) 2-a "(per 'L1) (1) x" 10
(Za) "-a2 (L2: with) (2). Here, a is the radius of the focusing circle. (1), (from 21 to '= ap (3) o' / '==
la-n (4) Therefore, the path length / l! 'Is (a> xo, yo), ie l near paraxial axis! / 'M10' + o '/' = (Xo
"Yg") / 2a (5). On the other hand, consider a spherical lens at origin 0 in the figure, that is, x ′ ′
+ y ′ ′ + (Z−a) ′ ′ = a ′ ′ (61, and the same ray (XO + y6.0) as the upper exfoliation (Diffl
length 14a−a ′ ′) −x, “−y (,“ r ”,% a> X6eYo, ie, in the paraxial region, the path length is
/ l! ’=(x、”+y0”)/2a(7)となる。 It will be understood that, in the vicinity of
the paraxial axis from (51, +81), two cylindrical focusing systems orthogonal to each other are
equivalent to one spherical focusing system and focusing action. 3A and 3B show an embodiment
of the present invention. In FIG. 3A, crystal 5o is processed into a semi-cylindrical shape (for
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example, sapphire, quartz, fused quartz, quartz, of course a polymer compound such as epoxy
resin, or a metal such as aluminum), A cylindrical hole 6o is created orthogonal to this cylindrical
axis. In addition, a piezoelectric element @ 0 is attached to the cylindrical surface so as to face
the cylindrical hole 6o, and a lead wire or the like is disposed so that the RF signal can be
applied.
It is filled in front of the cylindrical hole with a medium that is intended to emit an acoustic wave,
such as water. In such a configuration, when an RF electric signal is applied to the piezoelectric
vibrator, the piezoelectric element is attached to a cylindrical surface, and as shown in FIG. 3B, it
is generated as a cylindrical vibrator having a predetermined focus. The acoustic waves are
focused laterally. This operation is the same as that of the cylindrical lens L1 in FIG. The laterally
focused acoustic wave propagates in the crystal 80 and is then longitudinally focused at the
cylindrical interface between the crystal and the medium. This is due to the fact that the speed of
sound of the crystal is faster than that of the medium, and it is obvious that EndPage: 2
corresponds to the operation corresponding to the cylindrical lens L2 in FIG. Thus, in the present
practical example, the present invention is embodied by arranging a cylindrical sound source and
a cylindrical positive lens orthogonal thereto. As a piezoelectric element in the present
embodiment, a piezoelectric thin film such as zinc oxide, cadmium sulfide or lithium niobate may
be used to improve the temperature, or an organic piezoelectric film such as PVDF may be used.
Further, although cylindrical focusing is used in this embodiment, as is known in the optical
division, a part of a parabolic column or an elliptic cylinder may be used to improve the
aberration and the like. Further, in the present embodiment, the curvatures of the two cylindrical
lenses may be selected independently, but it is desirable to select one so that the predetermined
focal points of the two coincide with each other. 4A and 4B show another embodiment of the
present invention. In the present embodiment, the present invention is realized by orthogonally
arranging a cylindrical reflector and a positive cylindrical lens. In FIG. 4A, the crystal 80 has a
columnar shape such that a part of the crystal 80 is a cylindrical surface 85, the other two
surfaces are flat, and the flat surface 81 is orthogonal to the axis of this columnar crystal. Then, a
cylindrical hole 90 is created, and a piezoelectric element 70 is attached to the other flat plate
surface 82, which is filled with a medium in which a sound wave is to be emitted in front of the
cylindrical hole 90. Considering the case where an RF electrical signal is applied to the
piezoelectric element through a lead wire or the like disposed in the piezoelectric element 70, the
generated RF plane wave is radiated into the crystal 80 in the negative direction on the X axis.
The plane acoustic wave is reflected by the cylindrical surface 85 and laterally focused to a
predetermined focal point determined by the curvature of the cylindrical surface. This operation
is the same as that of the cylindrical lens L1 in FIG. The laterally focused acoustic wave
propagates in the crystal 80 as shown in FIG. 4B, and is then longitudinally focused at the
cylindrical interface of the crystal and the medium. It will also be apparent that this portion
operates in accordance with the cylindrical lens L2 in FIG.
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In this embodiment, the curvature and the material of the piezoelectric element are the same as
in the previous embodiment, but since the surface 82 to which the piezoelectric element is
attached is a flat plate, a plate-like piezoelectric element (for example, PZT, quartz, lithium
sulfate, niobium) Can be used). FIG. 5 is a view showing a third embodiment of the present
invention. In the present embodiment, the present invention is embodied by orthogonally
arranging two cylindrical lenses. That is, the crystal 100 is basically a quadrangular prism, and a
cylindrical hole 102 is formed on one end surface, and a cylindrical hole 104 is formed on the
other end surface orthogonal to the axis of the cylindrical hole. Opposite the cylindrical hole is a
piezoelectric element 106, and this piezoelectric element and the cylindrical hole 102 and the
cylindrical hole 104 are filled with a medium such as water. In such a configuration, the plane
acoustic wave emitted from the piezoelectric element 106 is laterally focused by the cylindrical
interface 102 between water and crystal, and then longitudinally focused by the crystal-medium
at the interface 104. The arrows indicate the progress in this crystal system. FIG. 6 is a view
showing a fourth embodiment of the present invention. In this embodiment, the present
invention is realized by arranging the cylindrical sound source and the cylindrical reflector at
right angles. That is, one end 114 of the crystal 110 is cylindrical, and the other ends 112 and
118 are cylindrical and flat. A piezoelectric element 116 is attached to the cylindrical surface
114, and lead wires are connected. The front surface of the flat surface 118 is filled with a
medium to which sound waves are to be emitted. The longitudinally focused acoustic wave
emitted from the cylindrical piezoelectric element 116 propagates in the crystal 110 and is then
reflected by the interface 112, that is, reflected by the cylindrical reflector, laterally focused and
emitted into the medium through the flat interface 11B. It is. The broken arrow in the figure
indicates the progress of the-ray within the crystal. FIG. 7 is a view showing a fifth embodiment
of the present invention. In the present embodiment, the present invention is embodied by
arranging a cylindrical positive lens and a cylindrical reflector at right angles. That is, a portion
of the crystal 120 is a cylindrical surface 124, and a cylindrical hole is formed in the other
surface 122 at right angles to the cylindrical axis. The flat surface 126 is filled with a medium. In
the figure, a plane acoustic wave incident in the positive direction of two axes from the left side is
laterally focused at the cylindrical interface 122 between the medium and the crystal. The
transversely focused acoustic wave propagates in the crystal 120, is reflected and longitudinally
focused by the cylindrical interface 124, and emits a focused acoustic wave into the medium
through the flat plate surface 126. In the figure, EndPage: 3 dashed arrows indicate how the
sound propagates in this crystal per sound ray.
FIG. 8 is a diagram showing a sixth embodiment of the present invention. In the present
embodiment, the present invention is embodied by arranging two cylindrical reflectors at right
angles. That is, the crystal 130 is composed of four planes, flat planes 138 and 136, and 174
cylindrical planes 132 ° 134 whose axes are orthogonal to each other. The flat surface 136 is in
contact with the medium, and the piezoelectric element 138 is attached to the flat surface 138.
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When an RF electric signal is applied to the piezoelectric element by a lead or the like attached to
the piezoelectric element 138Vc, a plane acoustic wave is emitted into the crystal 130 in the
negative direction of the X axis. This plane acoustic wave is reflected and laterally focused at the
cylindrical interface 132, then reflected and longitudinally focused at the cylindrical interface
134, and emits focused acoustic waves into the medium through the flat plate surface 136. In the
figure, the broken arrow indicates the propagation of one acoustic ray in this crystal. In the
above embodiments, although the function of transmitting the focused sound wave has been
described for the purpose of explanation, it will be apparent that the diverging sound wave may
be used in the same way in the case of focusing. As described above, according to the present
invention, it is possible to obtain a focused beam similar to a spherical focusing system by
arranging two cylindrical focusing systems which are relatively easy to process at right angles, so
that focused acoustic energy is obtained. In the devices using the device, for example, the
acoustic microscope, the manufacturing and processing of the device have a great effect on the
ease of processing, and their industrial value is great.
Brief description of the drawings
Percent claims
FIG. 1 is a view showing a conventional sound wave focusing method, FIG. 2 is a view for
explaining the present invention in detail, and FIGS. 3A and 3B are views for showing an
embodiment of the present invention. A and FIG. 4B1 FIGS. 5, 6, 7 and 8 are views showing other
embodiments of the present invention. EndPage: 4
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