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BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 1. Field of the Invention The present invention relates to a
microphone which directly picks up human voice in the form of vibration sound transmitted
through the human body without passing through the mouth. (Prior Art) Heretofore, several
means have been considered as a method for effectively boosting up human speech in high noise.
One is a close talk microphone, and the basic idea is to try to make the final 8 / N better by
trying to bring a normal microphone as close as possible to the sound source (b). In addition, the
microphone is also a sound pressure gradient type, effectively boosts up the sound of the sound
source that is very close to the human mouth, and far away noise is relatively phase inverted
from both sides of the converter Those who try to cancel out and reduce the noise level by doing
a big up are also used. However, even close-talking microphones, as the air vibrates, the sound
once emitted from the human mouth into the outside air is raised up, so transmission loss due to
air conduction is essentially avoided. There is also no desirability, and for the same reason,
external noises present in the air can be bumped up with the same level of sensitivity as voice,
which is a desperate necessity. And although the progress of the small microphone has been
remarkable in recent years, it is a close talk type microphone and the arm supporting the
microphone (the microphone needs to be placed in the air). And a head mounting member for
supporting the arm are both indispensable, and both the mounting is troublesome and the device
is complicated and expensive. Next, there is another bone conduction microphone or ear
microphone that picks up bone conduction sound. Bone conduction microphones (including ear
microphones) generally take advantage of the ability of sound waves to be transmitted better in
air and solid, so that voice generated in human vocal cords or oral cavity can be directly
transmitted without air. The type that is to be picked up with a transducer and inserted into the
ear canal is the most poppylar from the convenience of mounting. However, the frequency
characteristics of attenuation during transmission in the human body are different from those in
air (the transmission path has not been clarified exactly, but the attenuation in the high region
seems to be extremely large. In addition to the resonance sound produced in the oral cavity, the
vocal cord vibration sound generated in the vocal cords also has only a direct resonance sound.
The pick-up level is small at the f # end compared to a close-talking microphone, or the output
level of the most important consonant for speech recognition is low due to high-frequency
attenuation, and multipath or vocal cord sounds There is a problem in lightness H and
intelligibility because of distortion of the speech itself by transmission.
However, at least external betting sounds are desired to improve the S / N in the body owing to
the difference in acoustic impedance between the air and the body on the skin surface, and a
relative improvement in S / N is desired. At present, it is considered promising as a noiseresistant microphone because of the simplicity of the tube and the low cost. (Technical problem
to be solved by the present invention) This invention ameliorates the above-mentioned
drawbacks of the prior art, and it is close to a close talk microphone as intelligibility, intelligibility
or pick-up sensitivity, "also against external noise In the same way as bone-conduction
microphones, external noise is squeezed out by W-contacting internal conduction sound, and as a
result S / N is dramatically increased, and those that have been put into practical use so far have
not been It is an attempt to provide an excellent noise resistant microphone. (Structure of the
Invention) FIG. 1 shows an embodiment of the mounting condition of the microphone of the
present invention, and FIG. 2 shows an embodiment of a microphone main body used in the
present invention. FIG. 2a shows a general perspective view and FIG. 2b shows a partial
perspective view of the piezoelectric transducer. In FIG. 2, 1 is a strip-shaped piezoelectric
element (for example, made of bimorph $ It made of barium titanate). Reference numeral 2
denotes a base for fixing one end of the piezoelectric element, and is made of, for example, a
cylindrical or cylindrical baking material, an epoxy resin or the like. Reference numeral 8 denotes
a contact portion fixed to the other end of the piezoelectric element, which may be omitted in
some cases. Reference numeral 4 is an L-shaped phosphor bronze plate-like support member,
one end of which is fixed to the base member 2 to protect the piezoelectric element weak in
mechanical strength from breakage due to bending. is there. Reference numeral 5 denotes a cord,
which leads the electrical output obtained from both ends of the piezoelectric element to the
outside. Piezoelectric element 1 described above. The front end of the base material 2 and the
protective member 4 are entirely coated and molded with a tumbler member 6 made of silicon
resin or the like as shown in FIG. 2a. However, a part of the contact 8 is projected on the surface
of the tamper material 6. As apparent from the figure, the piezoelectric element (bimorph) is
sensitive to vibration from a direction perpendicular to the strip shape as shown by the arrow in
FIG. 2b. The general shape of the molded part is usually a disc shape as shown in FIG. 2a [il, but it
is a hexagonal, square or oval plate shape, and also it has a semicylindrical shape or one side as
shown in FIG. Even if it is a convex lens form, it does not matter. Fig. 1a shows the state when the
above microphone is mounted. U7 is the microphone body shown in Fig. 2, and 9 is a band-like
elastic body (for example, a rubber cord) as shown in the figure. Be
The microphone 7 is provided in the middle of the upper side of the band 9 so as to abut on the
center of the human face knowledge. The microphone is thus crimped to the marine part by the
elasticity of the rubber cord 9. It is directed to the upper side or the lower side of the base
material 2 rubber band of the microphone, is slightly floated by the cord 6f'i, is supported by the
rubber band part 10 of the main complaint, and is connected wirelessly via the connector 11. As
another embodiment, a rubber band of a rather wide width is used, and the cord 5 is
accommodated on the inner surface of the rubber band (upper side) and taken out halfway along
as shown in FIG. Although supported by 10 ', there is no way to go outside through the inside of
the upper elastic band and from the middle of the rear elastic band under the ear (for example, in
the vicinity of 10' in Fig. 1 + c + Fig. 1) Ru. FIG. 1b shows another mounting method. Reference
numeral 18 denotes a support portion of a head mounting member such as a helmet, and the
micropon 7 is attached to the tip of a flexible arm 11 (for example, a plate spring material)
supported by a core helmet and similar to 1jfGla The center part of the cheek of the Next, the
operation of the microphone device of the present invention will be described. The voice
generated in the human oral cavity is emitted from the mouth to the outside and at the same time
part of it is also transmitted to the muscle part surrounding the oral cavity, and exists as an
internal sound conduction sound. According to the invention, the microphone is surrounded on
the outside by a damper material having an acoustic impedance substantially equal to the
acoustic impedance of a living body, and the damper material is in pressure contact with human
cheeks. The internal conduction sound is transmitted with little or no transmission loss at the
time t. The sound introduced to the damper material is converted into an electrical signal by the
piezoelectric element. On the other hand, although external noise is introduced from the back
side of the damper material, there is a significant impedance difference between the acoustic
impedance of air and that of the damper material, so most of the noise enters the damper
material. . That is, the piezoelectric 1 element produces the same effect as that in which it is
embedded in the muscle part of the cheek part isometrically, and the sound level existing in the
oral cavity and the sound of noise existing in the external vicinity in the vicinity Since each level
is compared with that of the converter, the upper level e, and sono difference is considered to be
87 N in theory, noise-resistant microphones are significantly more than the close talk
microphones and the ear microphones. 4, which will be excellent, will be called a close talk
microphone and a microphone of the present invention (a cheek microphone).
In the case of this teak microphone, the close talk microphone has radiation loss and space
transmission loss from the mouth to the microphone when the sound level in the oral cavity goes
out from the mouth to the outside, and microphone sensitivity etc. Boundary mismatch loss and
intra-buccal muscle transmission loss due to differences in sound impedance to the intra-oral
muscles at the intra-oral prefrontal level. Mismatch loss between the muscle and the damper
material, conversion loss, and the like can be considered, but the big-up level is relatively
considered to be about the same level. On the other hand, against the external noise E, and close
talk microphones are completely unprotected, while this teak microphone has a remarkable
shielding effect of the external noise on the surface of the damper material, so relative S / N ratio
contact It is thought that the talk microphone is excellent at how much. Also, as compared with
ear microphones or other bone conduction microphones, the sensitivity (signal level) at which
the teak-microphone of the present invention squeezes and raises the audio signal is the most
obvious, considering the distance to the sound source. large. Also, there is no possibility of
picking up multi-fist pulses or the front of the vocal cords, and therefore there is almost no
distortion of the signal, so it is also clear that the S / N is superior to those of these sacral bone
conduction microphones. It is. 8 to 8 show other embodiments of the microphone body used in
the present invention. FIG. 8 shows the microphone of FIG. 2b, in which the tip of the
piezoelectric element and the tip of the spring material 4 are joined, or a slight gap is opened to
make a substantially coupled state. It is wrapped and used. The feature of this microphone is that
its vibration mode is emphasized by the spring material 4. That is, the sound transmitted to the
damper material first vibrates the spring material, and when the vibration of the spring material
is transmitted to the piezoelectric element, the sensitivity to the upsizing of the K microphone
itself is increased. Has the effect of reinforcing the vibration of the less flexible piezoelectric
element. FIG. 4 is an example using a coiled spring 15 surrounding a piezoelectric element as a
spring material of FIG. 8, and the operation is the same as that of FIG. FIG. 5 shows that a
piezoelectric element 16 is attached to the surface of a semi-spherical or convex lens type
damper material, and the mounting method side 16 is used by being crimped to the cheek. In
addition, since a pressure-sensitive element is liable to cause abrasion noise and wind noise due
to unwanted image pickup movement to which the base material or the cord is transmitted, the
base material 2 is placed as free as possible as shown in FIG. It is important to be able to
minimize In the embodiment of 5Pla diagram, there is also an effect that unnecessary vibration is
absorbed by the rubber cord portion by the elastic effect of the rubber cord 9.
In addition, as shown in FIG. 1a, when the cord 5 is exposed to the air near the substrate 2 when
used on a motorcycle etc., a wind noise is generated, so the cord is inside the rubber band as
shown in FIG. 1c. It is better to be stored. (Effects of the Invention) The greatest effect of the
microphone of the present invention is that it produces superior S / N% characteristics to any
other microphone against high noise. That is, the relative S / N is considered to be several to
several tens of dB better than a close-talking microphone or a bone conduction microphone
conventionally used as a noise resistant microphone, and these conventional microphones can
not communicate in high noise environments. However, the present invention is characterized in
that communication can be performed by using the microphone of the present invention. The
next advantage is that the structure is simple compared to close-talking microphones, it is easy to
manufacture, and it can be manufactured at very low cost because it does not require extra
expensive or complex materials and parts. is there. Further, unlike the ear microphone, the
microphone according to the present invention does not block the ear, so that it does not affect
normal conversation even when the microphone is used, and simultaneous calls can be
performed with one ear if combined with the receiver. Although there is a little annoyance of
crimping to the cheek, as mentioned at the beginning, it is remarkable that you can talk even
under high noise that other conventional microphones can not talk with, this point should be
replaced by something else The effect is impossible.
Brief description of the drawings
FIG. 1a shows an embodiment of the microphone according to the invention, and FIG.
FIG. 1c is a view showing another embodiment of FIG. 1a. FIG. 2 shows an embodiment of a
microphone used in the present invention, and FIG. 2a shows a general perspective view and FIG.
2b shows a partial perspective view. FIGS. 8-5 are figures which similarly show the other
Example of a microphone. In the figure, 1 is a pressure 1M, an element, 2 is a base material, 4 is
a protective member, 6 is a damper material, 9 is a rubber band, 11 is a spring plate material,
and 15 is a coil spring. Patent assignee Kenji Yoshii 1 person Figure 31 talented aspiration
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