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JPS62152378

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DESCRIPTION JPS62152378
[0001]
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 1. Field of the Invention The present invention relates to an
ultrasonic transducer that generates torsional vibration in an arbitrary direction, and more
particularly to an ultrasonic transducer suitable for use in an ultrasonic motor or the like and a
drive control method thereof. In the prior art, in general, as an ultrasonic vibrator, a Langevin
type vibrator in which a disc type electrostrictive element is held by two metal bodies and
resonated integrally, and a ? type in which a ferrite magnetostrictive material is formed in a
cylindrical shape or ? shape A vibrator is often used. Also, in the vibration direction, there are a
vertical vibrator that vibrates in an axial direction and a torsional vibrator that vibrates in a
symmetrical manner in an axial direction. These transducers are uni-directional, i.e. unidirectional transducers that generate vibrations only in the axial direction or only in the torsional
direction. For example, Japanese Patent Application Laid-Open No. 55-125052 discloses an
ultrasonic motor having such a single directional vibrator. That is, a vibrating reed is provided at
the output end of the axial vibrator, and the normal to the bonding surface of a movable member
such as a rotor is slightly inclined with respect to the axial direction of the vibrator to press the
vibrating reed against the rotor. As a result, the tip end portion of the vibrating reed is elliptically
vibrated as a result, and the rotor is frictionally vibrated. In such a vibrating reed type, there is a
disadvantage that the wear between the vibrating reed and the rotor contact portion is
significant, and the generation of noise is also large. An oscillator as shown in FIG. 11 exists as a
system different from such a unidirectional oscillator. That is, the vibrator 3 is formed by
integrally fastening the vertical vibrator 1 and the torsion converter 2. A wide groove 4 is formed
on one surface of the torsional transducer 2 and a beam-like projection 5 formed at an angle with
the groove 4 is formed on the other surface. The rotor 8 is attached to the torsion converter 2 in
a pressed state via the bolt 6 and the coil spring 7. Therefore, when longitudinal vibration
generated by the vertical vibrator 1 is applied to the torsion converter 2, elliptical vibration in the
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arrow direction is generated at the tip of the beam-like projection 5 of the torsion converter 2,
and the rotor 8 in contact therewith is As it rotates clockwise. Therefore, an efficient ultrasonic
motor can be configured. Problems to be solved by the invention The longitudinal torsion
conversion type shown in FIG. 11 is expected to solve the drawbacks of the vibrator type as
opposed to the vibrator type with a single directional vibrator. The ellipticity of the elliptical
vibration, which is the vibration mode of the output end, is uniformly determined by the shape of
the torsional conversion body 2, and control of the ellipticity optimum for driving and control of
the rotation direction thereof are It is impossible.
That is, all of them are driven only in a single direction of the rotor, and furthermore, it is
impossible to control to obtain an elliptical shape necessary to efficiently drive at the maximum
torque in a state where wear on the contact surface is small. In order to solve the problems, an
electrostrictive element in which a split electrode is formed on one surface of the electrostrictive
element main body polarized in the thickness direction and a common electrode is formed on the
other surface is provided. A metal material is integrally fastened to both surfaces of the
electrostrictive element with a fastener, and contact legs on at least three claws form an output
end portion formed radially on one of the metal materials. By applying to the working electrode
an alternating current voltage different in phase or an alternating voltage different in amplitude
from each other or a combination of these voltages, a linear vibration 1-circle vibration on the
plane perpendicular to the split direction of the electrode at the output end Elliptical vibration
can be generated in any direction, and three or more contact legs are radially formed at the
output end of the metal material, so the contact area of the driven object is large and the driving
torque is large. It can be obtained. Embodiment An embodiment of the present invention will be
described with reference to FIGS. First, four electrostrictive element bodies 9 that are annular by
being polarized and combined in the thickness direction are provided, and an electrode centering
on the insulating portion 10 located at the center on one surface of these electrostrictive element
bodies 9 is provided 11.12 is formed to be divided into two, and the common electrode 13 is
formed on the other surface as an entire surface electrode to constitute the electrostrictive
element 14. Two sets of the electrostrictive elements 14 are prepared, the electrode plate 15 is
interposed, the electrodes 11.12 are opposed, and the insulating cylinder 16 is inserted through
the central portion. The electrode plate 15 has eight equally divided radial inter-pole portions 17,
and an electrode 19 having a terminal portion 18 is formed between the inter-pole portions 17.
Then, on the surface of the common electrode 13 of one of the electrostrictive elements 14, four
contact legs 20 are radially formed, and a metal material 22 having an output end 21 shaped like
a cross is joined. The metal member 22 is formed with a slit 23 in the crosswise radial direction,
leaving the central portion thereof, and a leg portion 24 in which the contact leg 20 is positioned
at the center is formed. Further, a common electrode plate 25 is joined to the surface of the
common electrode 13 of the other electrostrictive element 14, and a metal material 26 is joined
to the common electrode plate 25 so that they are integrated by a bolt 27 as a fastening tool. It is
fixed to That is, a hole 28 through which the bolt 27 is inserted is formed in the metal material
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26, and a screw portion 29 in which the bolt 27 is screwed is formed in the metal material 22.
Thus, the composite vibrator 30 is configured. Then, the electrode plate 15 and the common
electrode plate 25 are interposed between the electrodes 11.12 and the common electrode 13,
and they are connected to a drive control circuit (not shown) alternately via the lead terminals
31.32. There is. In such a configuration, drive power sources whose phases can be controlled are
connected to the lead terminals 31. 32 and the common electrode plate 25, and the drive
frequency is adjusted to the axial resonant frequency. When the phase difference is zero, inphase parallel drive causes the output end 21 to resonate in the axial direction as shown in FIG. 6
(d) and vibrates in the same manner as the vertical vibrator. . Then, if the phase of the drive
voltage applied to the other lead terminal 32 is advanced with respect to one lead terminal 31,
elliptical vibration which is long in the axial direction as shown in FIG. As the phase advancing
dust is further increased, the particles become short in the axial direction as shown in (b) and (a)
and change into an elliptical shape long in the direction perpendicular to the axial direction.
Similarly, when the phase is delayed, the elliptical vibration direction is reversed clockwise, and
the vibration state changes as shown in FIGS. 6 (e), (f) and (g) as the phase difference increases.
Thus, FIG. 5 shows an example of its use, which is an example of using it for an ultrasonic motor.
That is, the output end 21 of the composite vibrator 30 is in pressure contact with the surface 35
of the disk-shaped rotor 34 in which the support shaft 33 is provided at the center. For example,
in the state shown in FIG. 5, the vibration of the output end 21 is in the state of (g) in FIG. 6, and
the rotor 34 moves in the direction of the arrow 36. Then, when the relative phase is controlled
to obtain the state of FIG. 6 (e), the moving speed of the rotor 34 becomes slow, and when it is in
phase as shown in FIG. In the reverse direction, the rotor 34 increases its speed in the reverse
direction. Thus, as a result of driving the rotor 34, the rotor 34 rotates at a constant speed. In
addition, since driving can be performed in the forward and reverse directions by the multiple
composite vibrators 30 and the ellipticity thereof can be controlled, it is possible to drive in the
best contact state with less wear on the contact surface. Reliability is enhanced. Furthermore,
when the phase of the drive voltage applied to the lead terminal 31. 32 is in phase and the
relative amplitude is changed, the vibration direction of the output end 21 is inclined with
respect to the axial direction as shown in FIG. Vibrate in a straight line. That is, when the applied
voltage has the same amplitude, as shown in FIG. 7 (c), resonance vibration occurs as in a normal
vertical vibrator, but the WIA dynamic voltage of the electrode 11 is higher than the drive
voltage of the electrode 12. If you make it smaller, it will tilt as shown in Fig. 7 (b), and then
make the difference larger.
The vibration direction is further inclined as shown in (a). In addition, when the difference is
inverted, it is similarly inclined in the opposite direction as in (d) and (e). These tilt angles can be
freely controlled by the relative amplitude of the drive voltage. In addition, by simultaneously
changing not only the phase difference but also the amplitude of the drive control voltage, it is
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possible to obtain a great variety of complex vibration modes, and it is possible to expand the
application field. Next, when the phase differences of the drive voltages applied to the lead
terminals 31. 32 are driven 180.degree., That is, by inverting each other, the output end portion
21 performs torsional resonance oscillation. The torsional resonance vibration is considerably
lower than the axial resonance frequency, and if the frequency is the same, the shape of the
device becomes smaller. Such torsional vibration is obtained by combining bending vibration in
the axial direction at the axial end, but its high-order resonance point also occurs near the axial
resonance frequency. Therefore, if the phase difference of the drive voltage applied to the lead
terminal 31.32 is adjusted to 180 ░, that is, the phase is reversed and adjusted to a bending
resonance frequency near the axial resonance frequency, the circumferential direction as shown
in FIG. In this case, counterclockwise as shown in Fig. 8 (b) due to the phase delay of the voltage
applied to the lead terminal 31 with respect to the lead terminal 32 with respect to the phase
difference of 180 ░. When a clockwise elliptical vibration is made in the circumferential
direction as shown in FIG. 8 (d), and the phase difference is further increased, from FIG. 8 (b) to
(a) or The oval shape changes from 8 (d) to (e). Further, when the relative amplitude of the drive
voltage when tuned to the bending resonance frequency is controlled, linear vibration inclined
with respect to the circumferential direction can be obtained as shown in FIGS. 9 (a) to 9 (e).
Further, FIG. 10 shows a modification of the electrode plate 15. The diameter of the electrode
plate 15 is made larger than the diameter of the electrostrictive element 14 to form eight
grooves 38 radially from the central hole 37, and after assembly The connecting portion 39 in
the outer peripheral portion of the groove 38 is cut off to form an independent electrode. Effect
of the Invention The present invention provides an electrostrictive element in which a split
electrode is formed on one surface of the electrostrictive element main body polarized in the
thickness direction as described above and a common electrode is formed on the other surface. A
metal material is integrally fastened to both surfaces of the plurality of electrostrictive elements
with a fastener, and at least one of the contact legs on three islands is formed radially on one of
the metal materials. By changing the phase and relative amplitude of the drive voltage to the
electrodes, it is possible to make various changes in the vibration of the output end from the
straight line through the ellipse to the circular movement, and reverse the rotation direction It is
possible to change the ellipticity while keeping one amplitude constant or to change the
amplitude with constant ellipticity, and in particular, there are a plurality of contact legs. ,
Contact area with the driven object is large Ku, in which it is possible to obtain a large driving
torque.
[0002]
Brief description of the drawings
[0003]
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1 is a longitudinal sectional view showing an embodiment of the present invention, FIG. 2 is a
perspective view of an electrostrictive element, FIG. 3 is a perspective view of an electrode, FIG. 4
is a side view, and FIG. 6 (a) to 6 (g) are explanatory diagrams showing the vibration state of the
output end when driven by changing the relative phase at the axial resonance frequency, FIG. (A)
to (e) are explanatory diagrams showing the vibration state of the output end when driven by
changing the relative amplitude at the axial resonant frequency, and FIGS. 8 (a) to (e) are
torsional resonant frequencies. An explanatory view showing a vibration state of an output end
when changing relative phase, FIGS. 9 (a) to 9 (e) show a vibration state of the output end when
changing relative amplitude at a torsional direction resonance frequency. FIG. 10 is a plan view
showing a modification of the electrode plate, and FIG. 11 is an exploded perspective view
showing an example of the prior art.
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и и и и и и 20 contact legs, 21. и и Metal, 27 и и и Bolt (fastener) Applicant Taga Electric Co., Ltd. 36
Figure (a) (b) (c'r (cL) (e) (f) (9)-37 (Figure a) (b) busy) (d) (e) J3 ? skill (a) (b) (c) (tag) (e) JF3Q
figure
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