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JPS62196996

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DESCRIPTION JPS62196996
[0001]
The invention relates to a pressure gradient receiver, a diaphragm housed inside a casing and at
least one wedge which is likewise mounted on the inside of a casing and which guides the sound
behind the diaphragm. The present invention relates to a type having a penetration, to which a
phase rotation member acting acoustically inside the casing is connected. There are many known
types of prior art pressure gradient receivers, in particular pressure gradient receivers having an
80-shaped, heart-shaped, double-hearted or multi-hearted directivity. The principle mode of
operation and the possible mode of construction of such a sound receiver are described in
Austrian patent specification 248 516, that is to say in connection with a moving coil
microphone with unidirectional action, and Gross Copter, "Directive Microphone J with PhaseRotating Member, FTZ, Volume 150 No. 7, 1950, pages 248-253. And "How to get the finger
device's sound reception". Nordvend Ischen Lenthunk Technical Bulletin, Volume 4, Sun
11/12/1952. It is disclosed on pages 209-218. The pressure gradient receivers described in all
these known and related publications are arranged in a transducer casing, which is formed as
one or more openings in order to allow sound to penetrate the back of the diaphragm. Have at
least one ingress opening. The sound entry is arranged in a plane parallel to the diaphragm plane
and offset towards the transducer end. SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION The known pressure
gradient receiver can not be integrated into a closed casing. Because in the closed casing at least
one other sound entry opening will not work. It is an object of the present invention to create a
sound pressure difference formed by the difference in strike times on the front side and the rear
side of the diaphragm of the pressure gradient receiver so that the pressure gradient receiver can
be incorporated into a closed casing. To obtain particularly good directivity of the gradient
receiver. SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION According to the invention which solves the
aforementioned problems, at least one sound entry required for influencing the pressure gradient
is arranged at least approximately flush with the diaphragm plane. It is preferably arranged
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concentrically to the diaphragm edge.
Operation According to the above configuration, it is not difficult to incorporate a pressure
gradient receiver because the microphones are closed back and side. In addition, particularly
good directivity can be obtained. A very large sound pressure difference occurs between the
center point of the diaphragm moved by the sound pressure field and the edge of the diaphragm
(not tightened) which is not exposed to the motion, and it also cleans up on the surface of the
diaphragm. There is also a difference in direction between the wave fronts of sound pressure
waves originating from the sound field. The casing of the pressure gradient receiver forms an
obstruction of the sound field for the undisturbed spreading of the sound wave, so that the
bending of the sound wave around the edge of this obstruction (casing) is promoted and the
sound field is invaded A pressure change in the vicinity of the disturbed body promotes the
formation of a pressure difference between the center and the edge of the diaphragm. According
to the invention, the sound entry is advantageously arranged concentrically to the diaphragm
edge, substantially in the same plane as the diaphragm plane, so that the pressure difference
formed by the sound field in front of the diaphragm is The pressure gradient receiver having a
predetermined directivity characteristic is designed to act as a pressure of about 1 degrees. Since
this sound pressure difference, that is, the pressure gradient of the sound field is based on the
direction of sound decrease, it is possible to configure a pressure gradient receiving apparatus
having a predetermined directivity characteristic. The magnitudes of the acoustical friction and
reactance of the component housed in the transducer and configured as a phase-rotating
member are strongly dependent on the sound pressure difference that occurs externally on the
transducer diaphragm, so the directivity is desirable Can be influenced. Advantages The pressure
gradient receiver of the present invention has the following advantages over those known in the
prior art. In other words, by arranging the sound inlet in the same plane as the diaphragm plane,
the pressure gradient receiver can be incorporated into the casing very easily and easily. This is
because the second sound entry plane, which is always present behind the diaphragm, is omitted.
By this, the pressure gradient receiver according to the invention can also be incorporated into
flat ones with a larger surface spread, and thus with interface microphones (PZM (pressure r-n
microphone) microphones with directional characteristics). The problems in constructing the call
are eliminated. Also, the magnitudes of the acoustical friction and reactance of the components
mounted inside the converter and constructed in conjunction with the phase-rotating member
are respectively generated outside the pressure gradient receiver on the basis of its casing shape.
It is highly dependent on sound pressure splitting near the surface.
Yet another unobvious advantage is that the converter according to the invention is easily
accommodated or integrated in a casing (e.g. a desk telephone) which is closed on the rear side
and opened only by the break in the front side, At this time, the directivity characteristic of each
transducer is maintained. Embodiments According to an advantageous embodiment of the
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invention, the sound entry, which is arranged at least approximately coplanar with the
diaphragm plane, is configured as a ring-shaped slit connected to the diaphragm edge. In the
ring-shaped slit, that is to say, the sound is clearly penetrated into the entire periphery of the
diaphragm capsule, with the aid of the separate holding part, which makes the influence on the
directional characteristics and the influence on the pressure difference particularly noticeable I
am accustomed. According to a further embodiment of the invention, the sound inlet arranged at
least approximately coplanar with the diaphragm plane is configured in the form of an annular
segment arranged around the periphery of the diaphragm edge. In this embodiment, one good
characteristic similar to that of the previous embodiment is obtained, in which case the support
member is formed by the integral member together with the microphone casing and does not
mean a special member, thus significantly affecting the directional effect. Simple structure is
obtained without giving. According to a further embodiment of the invention, the sound entry
openings, which are arranged at least approximately flush with the diaphragm plane, can also be
configured as a number of openings which are continuous with the diaphragm edge. In this way,
a relatively small aperture is obtained, which forms an enhanced acoustical comparator. This
effect is further enhanced if the hole is continuous with the annular opening. Such a high
acoustic compound is always desirable if it is configured as a phase-rotating member and is
configured as an R-member. The pressure gradient receiver according to the invention described
so far has a rotationally symmetrical arrangement of sound inlets. Correspondingly, the
directivity is rotationally symmetrical and positioned at the longitudinal axis of the transducer.
Such characteristics are considered to be sufficient for the crotch. However, there may be cases
where it is desirable that the left and right symmetry axis of the directional characteristics do not
coincide with the main axis of the transducer, or where a non-rotationally symmetrical
characteristic is required. This type of microphone is used, for example, in stereo broadcasting,
when an XY method is used at the time of a lecture where the speaker uses Lavarier mikrophon,
at a meeting and reportage, at stage recording, etc., and in particular It is advantageous when
directional characteristics are required such that the spread in the plane is greater than the
spread in the plane in the direction orthogonal to this plane.
In a pressure gradient receiver provided with at least two sound inlets, the pressure gradient
receiver causes the symmetry plane of the directivity / characteristic not to coincide with the
main axis of the sound receiver, or the rotational symmetry of which the directivity characteristic
is common At least two sound inlets are provided in order to improve the directivity
characteristics having the shape and size deviated from the shape, and these sound inlets are
arranged separately from each other with a distance from each other. At least one of these sound
inlets is provided with a sound absorbing material which has a stronger action than the
remaining sound inlets. According to such a configuration, the device can be configured
completely symmetrical and each desired characteristic can be defined by the respectively
selected damping action. The cross section of the directing rope is defined by the selected
attenuation as well as its orientation. Separately ((The placed sound inlet allows the directional
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characteristics of the pressure gradient receiver to be formed according to a predetermined set
target. The number, shape, size and arrangement of the sound inlets, together with the
attenuation of different strengths, have a significant influence on the formation of the desired
individual directional characteristics. Thus, for example, the deviation of the directivity from the
plane of rotational symmetry attenuates a pair of apertures arranged facing one another with
uniform strength and gives the remaining apertures a different value of attenuation. It is
obtained by Also, the directional characteristics tilted with respect to the main axis of the sound
receiving device are obtained by acoustically attenuating all the remaining apertures with the
exception of one aperture. The pressure gradient receiver according to the invention can easily
be adapted to the structural conditions given by the microphone cancing, by varying the number
of sound inlets, and the possibility of attenuating each sound inlet with different strengths. It also
offers the advantage of being able to The pressure gradient receiver can also be configured as
follows within the scope of the present invention. In other words, at least two, at most eight,
preferably mutually oppositely arranged sound inlets are provided in one of the corners, and the
inlets arranged in the four corners which change around the conversion diaphragms of them are
of any shape and Make it a size. Generally, four to six sound inlets are required to obtain the
desired effect. This is because in modern microphones that are otherwise small in size, the
spacing between the sound inlets is smaller and thus deviates from the rotationally symmetrical
shape or whose axis of symmetry is at the main axis of the sound receiving device. This is
because the directional characteristics inclined against the light can no longer be obtained.
In this case, the number and shape of sound inlets are arbitrary. According to a particularly
advantageous embodiment of the invention, according to the invention, four sound inlets are
provided, two of each of the four sound inlets facing one another having a common symmetry
axis, The two left and right symmetry axes lie approximately at right angles to one another, and
the two mutually opposite sound inlets have the same acoustic damping effect. In this
embodiment, the rotation-asymmetrical directional characteristic is obtained in the simplest way,
in which case the directional customization differs from one another according to the different
damping effects across the two mutually orthogonal sound reduction planes. There is. By tuning
the attenuation accordingly, for example in one plane, the directivity is formed in a heart shape.
In this case, a double heart-shaped directivity is formed in a plane orthogonal to the plane. It is
also possible to form a directivity different from the directivity according to the tuning. Nonrotationally symmetrical directional characteristics are particularly advantageous when one
sound reduction plane requires stronger focusing than another sound reduction plane. Thus, for
example in a microphone mounted on a conference table, the disturbing noise formed by
speaking by a participant sitting next to it can be reduced well. According to another
advantageous embodiment of the invention, two sound inlets facing each other are provided, one
of these two immersion openings being also strongly acoustically damped by the other sound
inlet. have. According to this embodiment, the simplest left-right symmetrical axis of directivity is
obtained, which is inclined with respect to the main axis of the pressure gradient receiver. In this
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case, the symmetry of the directivity characteristic: the im line is deviated from the main axis and
is inclined toward the sound penetration opening that is attenuated more strongly. Such a
directional characteristic inclined with respect to the main, axis of the sound receiving device is
particularly advantageous when recording is performed by means of a Labarrier microphone
(LavaIiermikrophon) or by a small microphone fastened to the clothes. Such a directional receiver
is also advantageous in the case of a reportage or the like where the microphone can not be
brought close to the mouth of the speaker. For such a recording, in order to obtain an optimum
recording characteristic, the plane of symmetry of the directional characteristic is aligned
towards the sound source, at which time the main axis of the sound receiving device is the
microphone provided by the support It extends obliquely towards the recording direction
according to the spatial axial direction of the.
EXAMPLE Next, the configuration of the present invention will be specifically described with
reference to the example shown in the drawings. One embodiment of a condenser microphone
according to the invention is shown schematically in FIG. In this FIG. 1, a sound entry 1 is
indicated at 1 approximately at least approximately coplanar with the diaphragm plane and
preferably surrounding the diaphragm edge. In the housing 2 of the pressure gradient receiver
there is arranged a phase-rotational member 3 which acts acoustically. The sound is connected to
an external sound field via an id 4 and fixed to the back of the diaphragm. The diaphragm of this
capacitive pressure gradient receiver is shown at 5. In FIG. 2 a schematic view of a dynamic
microphone according to an embodiment of the invention is shown. A diaphragm 7 exposed to an
external vinegar and equipped with a movable coil 6 is mounted inside the casing 9 together with
the phase rotating member 8. The sound entry port 101'I'i, also in this embodiment, is located at
least approximately flush with the diaphragm plane and is preferably arranged directly
surrounding the diaphragm edge, the sound being from the voice carrier population 1o Through
the sound guide 11, a position rotary member 8 disposed inside the casing 9 on the back side of
the diaphragm 7 is wound. A pressure gradient receiver 12 (see FIG. 6) constructed in
accordance with the present invention is suitable for incorporation in a very large cylindrical
casing 13. In this case, the pressure gradient receiver 12 is attached at least to the support plate
14, which may comprise electronic components as a printed circuit board. In this embodiment,
the directivity of the microphone can be obtained since the sound entry port 15 is disposed
substantially in the same plane as the diaphragm plane of the pressure gradient receiver 12. This
is particularly advantageous in the telephone transmission capsule. This is because in this
telephone transmission capsule a dimensioned casing is generally used to incorporate the
transducer. FIG. 4 shows the special use of the pressure gradient receiver 16 according to the
invention. The plate 17 shown in FIG. 4 is configured as a circle, a square, a square, or a regular
or irregular square, and its surface is at least 80 ? larger than the surface of the pressure
gradient receiver. The plate 1 ? is contained in a cylindrical recess 18 and is flush with the plate
plane or is concentric or eccentric with the pressure gradient receiver 16. It is protrudingly
arranged maintaining a distance of 1 mm to a few mm.
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The depth of the recess 18 is about six times the thickness of the pressure gradient receiver 16
and its diameter is about five times the diameter of the pressure gradient receiver 16. The sound
absorbing material 19 can be filled in the recess 18, but the sound absorbing material 19 is more
densely filled on the bottom side than the open side of the recess 18. Similarly to this, the sound
absorbing layer 20 can be applied to the upper surface side of the plate provided with the recess
18. In this way, the pressure gradient receiver 16 held by the thin web 21 in the plate 17 is
directional with a sound entry arranged approximately in the plane of the diaphragm according
to the invention. Hereby, PZM-recording technology (PZM = pressure zone m1 crophone) in
which conventionally only one non-directional pressure gradient receiver device with flat plates
considered was used. In directional pressure microphones, directional microphones can be used
in accordance with the arrangement according to the invention. FIG. 5 shows an embodiment in
which the pressure / pressure gradient receiver 1t22 constructed in accordance with the present
invention is disposed in a forest-like casing 23. A sound absorbing material 24 is filled inside the
casing 23. The pressure gradient receiver 22 is supported by the thin web 25 within the opening
of the forest-like casing 23, or the diaphragm plane is aligned with the casing opening, or a few
tenths of a millimeter to a few millimeters from the casing opening It is held in such a way as to
protrude by the size up to. FIG. 6 is a plan view of a pressure gradient receiver according to an
embodiment of the present invention, in which several possible forms of sound and sound entry
are preferably arranged round and round around the edge of the diaphragm Sex is shown. The
sound entry ports are indicated by reference numerals 2 j3, 2?, and 28, and are assumed to be
completely arranged in a stack. A cross-sectional view of one embodiment of a typical dynamic
microphone is shown in FIG. A cover 31 with holes 32, which is fitted over the casing 29 of the
microphone cell, f cell 30, has a slit 34 along its edge 33. According to the invention, the slit 34
is located at least approximately in the same plane as the plane of the diaphragm 35. The
diaphragm 35 is fixed, for example by heat bonding, to a ring-shaped edge 38 provided in the
cover 31. The slits 34 formed in the cover 31 are provided directly with a possibly acoustically
frictional resistance 36.
On the other hand, FIG. 8 shows an i sectional view of one embodiment of Conden's N. f croon. A
slit 39 according to the invention, arranged at least approximately flush with the diaphragm
plane, is arranged cleanly at the edge of the casing 41 of the microphone capsule 42. Directly
following this slit 39, an id 43 is provided which leads to the phase rotation member. In addition,
an acoustic frictional resistance 44 is provided in the sound 43. FIGS. 9 to 16 show plan views of
several possible arrangements for a casing break which is provided as sound entry 52 flush with
the diaphragm plane. These sound inlets 52 are arranged concentrically with the diaphragm edge
51 in this embodiment and are circular (FIG. 9), trapezoidal (FIG. 10), hexagonal (FIG. 11) or slitshaped (FIG. 11). 12 and 16). Behind the sound entry port 52, a phase rotating member is
continuous inside the casing 53, and through this phase rotating member, the sound is delayed in
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travel time and reaches the back side of the conversion diaphragm. The sound inlets, which are
designed as housing breaks, all have a uniform damping effect on the sound or are equipped with
different acoustic damping devices. In general, the two sound inlets facing each other are each
provided with a damping device of the same strength. Due to the damping action of the sound
inlet, the directional characteristics of the pressure gradient receiver are obtained, and depending
on the degree of damping, respectively, a double, double or multiple short is formed. If different
directional profiles of different cross-sections passing through the transducer axis are desired,
then each sound entry may be acoustically corresponding to another sound entry, depending on
the desired shape of the directivity. Have a damping effect. The most simple and advantageous
shape, ie the most commonly used shape during recording, is shown in FIG. The directional
characteristics resulting from the different seismic attenuation and deviating from the shape of
the rotor are shown in the perspective view of FIG. 16 in two planes perpendicular to one
another. Thus, for example, the characteristic in the vertical plane corresponds to the form of a
straight line 67, and the characteristic on the lower side of the horizontal plane corresponds to
the form of a double knot 68. However, for example, in FIG. 13, if the upper wrinkling inlet 52a is
weaker in damping action than the two central sound inlets 52 and the lower sound inlet 52b,
the rotational symmetry of the directivity characteristic (with a heart shape) is obtained. But the
directivity f characteristic left-right symmetry axis ? 1 is the least acoustically damped from the
left-right symmetry axis 69 of the pressure gradient receiver 10 ? by a predetermined angle ?
(see FIG. 17). Toward the sound entry port 52a.
FIG. 14 shows a schematic cross-sectional view of one embodiment of a condenser directional
microphone configured as a pressure gradient receiver according to the present invention. The
sound inlet is indicated at 55 and is divided around the diaphragm edge 56 of the conversion
diaphragm 5?. As mentioned above, is all sound inlets or sound inlets 55 located above? i is
provided with a sound absorbing device 58. At least one phase rotation member 5 a within the
pressure gradient receiver casing 60. 59b (unless necessary to provide more) is provided. A
similar embodiment is shown in FIG. 15 using a dynamic directional microphone. The sound
entry is shown at 61. This sound entry port 61 is of the diaphragm 63 provided with a movable
coil! It is divided around the periphery of the ear fram edge 62. As mentioned above, the sound
absorbing material 64 is provided directly or in the vicinity of the aggressor 61 formed as a
casing break. Within the pressure gradient receiver casing 66 at least one phase rotation
member 65 a or 55 b is arranged.
[0002]
Brief description of the drawings
[0003]
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FIG. 1 is a schematic sectional view of a condenser microphone according to an embodiment of
the present invention, FIG. 2 is a schematic sectional view of a dynamic microphone according to
an embodiment of the present invention, and FIG. 6 is a telephone according to an embodiment
of the present invention FIG. 4 is a schematic cross-sectional view of a transmitting capsule, FIG.
4 is a schematic cross-sectional view of a pressure gradient receiver incorporated in a plate, and
FIG. 5 is a pressure incorporated in a forest-like structure according to one embodiment of the
present invention. FIG. 6 is a schematic cross-sectional view of a gradient receiver, FIG. 6 is a
schematic plan view of a pressure gradient receiver with different shaped sound inlets according
to the invention, and FIG. 7 is another embodiment of the invention. FIG. 8 is a schematic
sectional view of a dynamic microphone according to an example, FIG. 8 is a schematic sectional
view of a condenser microphone according to another embodiment, FIG. 9, FIG. 10, FIG. 11, FIG.
Are each the diaphragm plane FIG. 14 is a schematic plan view of a pressure gradient receiver
with different shapes of impregnated inlets arranged in the same plane, FIG. 14 is a schematic
cross-sectional view of a condenser microphone according to another embodiment of the
invention, FIG. FIG. 16 is a schematic diagram of a dynamic microphone according to another
embodiment of the present invention, and FIG. 16 is a perspective view showing spatially
different directional patterns of the pressure gradient receiver of the present invention in two
planes. FIG. 17 is a schematic view showing rotationally symmetrical directional characteristics
of a pressure gradient receiver according to one embodiment of the present invention, which is
turned from a symmetrical line of symmetry.
DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS 1 ... sound entrance, 2 ... casing, 3 ... phase rotation member, 4 ...
sound is iP15 ... diaphragm, 6 ... movable coil, 7 ... diaphragm, 8 ... и и и Phase rotation member, 9 и
и и casing и 10 и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и phase rotation member, 9 и и и
casing и 10 и и и и и и и и и и sound guide, 12 и и и pressure gradient receiver, 13 и и и casing и 14 и и и
support plate, 15 ... sound stool population, 16 ... pressure gradient receiver, 17 ... plate, 18 ...
cylindrical recess, 19 ... sound absorbing material, 20 ... sound absorbing layer, 21 ... и Web: 22 и и
и Pressure gradient receiver, 23 и и и Casing и 24 и Sound absorbing material, 25 и и и Web, 26, 27.
28 и и и Infiltration inlet, 2 days и и и Casing, 30 ... microphone capsule, 31 ... cover, 32 ... hole 33 ...
Edge, 34: Slit, 35: Diaphragm, 36: Frictional resistance, 37: Web, 38: Edge, 39: Slit, 40: Edge, 41 и
и Casing, 42 и и и Microphone capsule, 43 и Sound is an id, 44 и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и
52.52a, 52b и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и Casing 54: Converting diaphragm 55: Opening 56:
Diaphragm edge 57: Converting diaphragm 58: Sound absorbing material 59a, 59b: Position
rotating member 60 и и Pressure gradient receiver casing, 61 и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и
и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и sound absorbing material, 65a,
65b и и и phase rotating member 66 Pressure gradient receiver Shing, 6 ? иии Heart shape, 68 иии
Double heart shape, 69 иии Symmetrical axis, 70 иии Pressure gradient receiver, ? 1 иии Symmetrical
axis j Ag, 7 7 12 H-316,--, I-Tz force gradient receiver j--17,--, 7 ', /-18, ..., Cylindrical (i') 11-'1
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part ?-' two ha 29 ,,,, Casing 30,,,,, microphone a fon cover cell 31,,,,, cover 32, ,,,, hole 33 ,,,,
edge 34 ,,,, slit 37 ,,,, , 7, 38,..., Edge 39,. 1. , /, II. 40 ----- edges 41 41 ----- casing: 3 44 ----- milling
stop resistance two M?11 two M? Bruno 254 ..... conversion Daiyafura
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