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JPH0220586

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DESCRIPTION JPH0220586
[0001]
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 1. Field of the Invention The present invention relates to a
mechanochemical material and a method of using the same, and more particularly, to a
mechanochemical material which exhibits contraction and expansion phenomena by application
of a very simple signal such as application of voltage. On the way. The mechanochemical material
of the present invention having such characteristics can be used in various fields such as
actuators, sensors, and filter membranes. [Prior Art] It is known that substances cause
contraction and elongation phenomena due to various factors, and for example, it is practiced to
exhibit contraction and elongation phenomena by various materials and methods as described
below. . (A) The acrylamide gel is phase-shifted by using acetone and water as a solvent and
exchanging it, and the acrylamide gel is contracted and stretched along with this phase shift. (B)
The crosslinked polyacrylic acid is shrunk and stretched by exchanging acidic and alkaline
solutions. (C) By changing the temperature in the polyethylene glycol-containing solution, the
polyacrylic acid contracts and expands due to the temperature change of the high temperature
and the low temperature. [Problems to be Solved by the Invention] When it is intended to cause
contraction and elongation to occur in a substance, in the method according to the above (A) and
(B), it is possible to expand and contract by a very complicated operation of exchanging the
solution. There is the inconvenience of having to give a signal (expression factor). Also, if the
same solution is used repeatedly, the concentration of each solution will decrease and it will not
cause contraction and extension at the end, so there is a problem that it is necessary to always
use a fresh solution. On the other hand, according to the above method (c), it is necessary to
perform the difficult operation of controlling the temperature of the aqueous solution. In
addition, since an aqueous solution having a low thermal conductivity is used as a medium, there
is a problem that it takes a long time to raise and lower the temperature. Therefore, the object of
the present invention is to solve the drawbacks of the conventional methods as described above,
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1
and it is possible to shrink and stretch the material by applying a very simple signal such as
application of voltage, and the response speed is also relatively fast. Its purpose is to provide its
use. [Means for Solving the Problems] According to the present invention, there is provided a
mechanochemical material comprising a conductive polymer doped with a polyanion as a dopant
in order to achieve the above object. Such mechanochemical material is brought into contact with
one electrode of a pair of electrodes, and the polarity of the picture electrode is applied by
alternately changing the positive and negative directions alternately between the two electrodes.
Depending on the conversion, contraction and elongation phenomena can be expressed.
Here, the polyanion refers to those having or capable of having an anion such as -COO--803- in
the polymer chain or in the side chain. The chemical reaction induced by applying mechanical
energy to the substance is known as a mechanochemical reaction, but the present invention
causes the material to undergo an oxidation-reduction reaction by applying electrical energy to
the material, thereby causing The reaction causes contraction and extension phenomena.
Hereinafter, the operation will be described with reference to the attached drawings. FIG. 1
schematically shows the state of the mechanochemical material according to the present
invention during contraction and during expansion. FIG. 1 (a) shows the conductive polymer CP
(eg, polypyrrole, polyaniline, polythiophene, etc.) doped with polyanion PA (eg, polyacrylic acid,
polyvinyl sulfuric acid, polystyrene sulfonic acid, polymethacrylic acid etc.) A state in which the
molecular chain is shrunk because the conductive polymer and the polyanion are ionically
bonded (for example, an ionic bond between N ′ ′ of polypyrrole and COO− of polyacrylic
acid and indicated by a broken line) It is in. On the other hand, FIG. 1 (c) shows a state in which
the conductive polymer of FIG. 1 (a) is reduced. That is, the conductive polymer is in a dedoped
state. The conductive polymer loses its cationic performance by reduction (electron transfer) and
the ionic bond with the polyanion is broken. Then, in the polyanion, its own anion (for example,
000 of polyacrylic acid) is dissociated to extend the molecular chain. Thus, the material stretches
upon reduction. On the other hand, when the conductive polymer in the state of FIG. 1 (c) is
oxidized, the completely opposite phenomenon occurs, the cationic performance of the
conductive polymer is restored, and the state returns to the state of FIG. 1 (a). Make contractions.
FIG. 1 (b) is an intermediate state of FIGS. 1 (a) and 1 (c), and the ionic bond is partially broken.
Such a phenomenon can be easily generated by bringing the material according to the present
invention into contact with one of the electrodes as shown in FIG. 2 and performing the abovementioned redox reaction by the application of a voltage. That is, if the electrode E1 in contact
with the mechanochemical material P according to the present invention is connected to the (+)
side as shown in FIG. 2 (a), the state of FIG. 1 (a) is obtained. Thus, if it is connected to the (−)
side, the state shown in FIG. 1 (C) is obtained, and by alternately applying the reverse voltage in
this manner, the contraction and expansion phenomena can be optionally performed accordingly.
In FIG. 2, reference numeral 2 denotes an electrolytic solution accommodated in the electrolytic
cell 1, and 3 denotes a power source.
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Although the ionic bond between the conductive polymer and the polyanion is broken in the
stretched state in FIG. 1 (c), the polyanion is not usually dissolved in the solution even in such a
state. That is, since the molecular chains of the conductive polymer and the polyanion are
intricately intertwined, if the degree of polymerization of the polyanion is high, that is, if the
molecular chain of the polyanion is sufficiently long, the interstices between the conductive
polymer chains are wiped It does not elute into the electrolytic solution, and a stable state can be
maintained even in the state of FIG. 1 (c). [Examples] The present invention will be specifically
described below with reference to examples. EXAMPLE 1 Polypyrrole was used as a conductive
polymer, and polyacrylic acid was used as a polyanion. [Polymer] Two Ni plates (electrodes) in a
solution prepared by adjusting the proportion of pyrrole to 0.25 mol / D and polyacrylic acid
(made by Toagosei Chemical Industry Co., Ltd., trade name Al 0-8 L) to 1 mol / g. The DC voltage
of 2.3 V was applied for 1 minute. A polypyrrole film having a thickness of about 0.2 m + g was
polymerized on the (+) electrode surface. [Stretch of Mechanochemical Material] The Ni plate on
which the polypyrrole film doped with polyacrylic acid was deposited as described above was
washed with water, and then immersed in 0.3 mol / fNac1 aqueous solution. Let this be a <-> fli
pole, use a Ni plate for the (+) electrode, and use a DC voltage of 1. When the Ov was allowed to
flow for 2 minutes, the polypyrrole film stretched and wrinkled. Furthermore, when the old
electrode on which the polypyrrole film was deposited was turned to the (+) side and a direct
current voltage of 2.3 v was applied for 2 minutes, it shrank and the generated wrinkles
disappeared. EXAMPLE 2 The polypyrrole film P polymerized in Example 1 is peeled off from the
Ni plate to obtain a free film (55 × 5 × 0.05 long t), one end a of which is fixed to the Ni plate
(electrode) and the other end A 3 g weight W was attached and hung, and set as shown in FIG.
Direct current (-) @ pressure 1. 2C1flEt, OV! :, LI'H was stretched 1.5 mm. After that, when a
direct current (+) voltage of 2.3 V was applied for 5 minutes, the film returned to almost its
original length. [Effects of the Invention] As described above, since the mechanochemical
material of the present invention is composed of a conductive polymer doped with polyanion as a
dopant, the mechanochemical material is brought into contact by application of a very simple
signal application of voltage. Depending on the positive and negative polarity switching of the
electrode, contraction and expansion can be performed accordingly, and the response speed is
relatively fast. Therefore, practical application to actuators, sensors and the like can be expected
by utilizing such contraction and expansion phenomena.
[0002]
Brief description of the drawings
[0003]
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FIG. 1 is a schematic view for explaining the shrinkage and elongation phenomena of
mechanochemical materials according to the present invention, and FIG. 2 is two aspects of
electrical wiring for causing shrinkage and elongation phenomena in mechanochemical materials
according to the present invention FIG. 3 is a schematic view of the electrolytic device used in
Example 2.
1 is an electrolytic cell, 2 is an electrolytic solution, CP is a conductive polymer, PA is a
polyanion, P is a mechanochemical material.
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