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JPH0514992

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DESCRIPTION JPH0514992
[0001]
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 1. Field of the Invention The present invention relates to a
loudspeaker apparatus, and more particularly to a loudspeaker apparatus with variable
directivity.
[0002]
2. Description of the Related Art In a conventional speaker device, one having a wide directivity is
generally used because the listening position is not limited, etc., and a narrow (sharp) speaker
device is used for a special purpose. It was used only for a limited time. FIG. 19 is a diagram
showing the frequency characteristic of such a wide directional speaker unit.
[0003]
However, the directivity required of the speaker device is inherently different depending on the
application such as music appreciation or mere loud-speaking, the required sound field and the
like. However, in the conventional speaker device, the directivity of the speaker itself is not
varied, and the directivity can be improved by devising parts other than the speaker such as a
surround system, and the listener (listener) can There was no room for the choice of directivity.
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[0004]
Then, an object of this invention is to provide the speaker apparatus which can be switched and
used to different directivity characteristics by one unit.
[0005]
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION In order to solve the above-mentioned problems, the invention
according to claim 1 comprises at least two end speaker units 102, 104 and at least one as
shown in the principle explanatory view of FIG. A speaker device 100 comprising a central
speaker unit of the present invention and a signal processing means 101, wherein the signal
processing means 101 is provided with a first output signal (for example, S) of the same phase or
reverse phase as the input signal S as a speaker unit at both ends. A first directivity characteristic
that outputs to the central speaker unit 103 a second output signal (in this case, S *: symbol *
indicates that the phase is opposite) that is output to 102 and 104 and that is in reverse phase to
the first output signal S An operation mode and a second pointing signal for outputting a first
output signal S in phase with or in phase with the input signal to the speaker units 102 and 104
at both ends and the center speaker unit 103. Constructed and operating mode to switching
control.
[0006]
According to a second aspect of the present invention, in the speaker device according to the first
aspect, an output ratio of an acoustic output of the entire speaker unit to an acoustic output of
the central speaker unit is one.
[0007]
According to a third aspect of the present invention, in the speaker device of the first or second
aspect, the signal processing means 101 is configured to have a phase shift circuit.
According to a fourth aspect of the present invention, in the speaker device according to the third
aspect, the signal processing means 101 is configured to have a high pass filter.
[0008]
According to the first aspect of the present invention having the above configuration, as shown in
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FIG. 1A, when the input signal is S, the signal processing means 101 is connected to the speaker
units 102 and 104 at both ends. For example, S can be output as the first output signal, and the
second output signal S * opposite in phase to S can be output to the center speaker 103. In this
case, the sound near the center speaker unit 103 corresponds to the signal S *. This is canceled
by the sound V corresponding to the sound V * and the signal S, and the bi-directional first
directivity mode as shown in FIG. 1A is obtained.
Further, by the switching operation, as shown in FIG. 1B, the signal processing means 101 can
output the first output signal S to the both-ends speaker units 102 and 104 and the center
speaker unit 103, so that the directivity characteristic is on the speaker axis Is an excellent
second directional characteristic mode.
Thus, according to this speaker device 100, different directivity characteristics can be obtained
by the switching operation.
[0009]
Further, according to the second aspect of the invention, since the output ratio of the sound
output of the entire speaker units 102 and 104 to the sound output of the entire center speaker
unit 103 is 1, the sound V near the center speaker unit 103 The cancellation effect with V * is
the largest.
[0010]
Furthermore, the signal processing means 101 can output the second output signal S * of
opposite phase by having the phase shift circuit as described in claim 3.
Further, as described in claim 4, the signal processing means 101 can enhance the above effect
particularly in a high region where the directivity is sharpened by having a high pass filter.
[0011]
Next, a preferred embodiment of the present invention will be described with reference to the
drawings. FIG. 2 shows a first embodiment of the present invention. The speaker device 100A
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includes a signal processing unit 101A as signal processing means, both-ends speaker units 3
and 5, a central speaker unit 4, and input terminals 6 and 7. The signal processing unit 101A
includes the phase shift circuit 1 and the switch circuit 2A. The configuration of this phase shift
circuit 1 is shown in FIG. The phase shift circuit 1 is a circuit in which an electromagnetic coil L1
and a capacitor C1 are combined as shown in the figure. FIG. 4 shows a characteristic diagram
concerning the gain and phase of this phase shift circuit 1. The switch circuit 2A also includes
changeover switches SWA1 and SWA2 and contacts TA1 to TA4.
[0012]
Next, the operation of the first embodiment will be described. First, as shown in FIG. 2, it is
assumed that the changeover switch SWA1 is connected to the contact TA1 side and the
changeover switch SWA2 is connected to the contact TA3 side. This case is equivalent to the
circuit configuration shown in FIG. At this time, in the speaker device 100A, as shown in the
phase characteristic diagram of FIG. 4B, the sound of the central speaker unit 4 has a phase
difference with the speaker units at both ends as the frequency becomes higher, 10000 HZ or
more In this case, the phase difference is −180 °. Therefore, in the front axis of the speaker
device 100A, the sound pressure is reduced, and the sound pressure is increased in portions on
both sides away from the axis. FIG. 6 shows the frequency characteristics of the signal processing
unit 101A in this case, with the frequency, the angle from the front axis, and the sound pressure
as parameters. As shown in FIG. 6, the sound pressure in the direction of ± 30 ° from the front
axis to the both sides is the highest. The frequency band 1000 to 3000 Hz shown in FIG. 6 is a
band in which human hearing is most sensitive. Therefore, if the directional characteristic as
shown in FIG. 6 is used, the listener can directly recognize the position of the sound source
because the level difference between the direct sound heard directly from the speaker and the
indirect sound heard after being reflected on the wall is small. There are few things. That is, it is
possible to obtain a sound field having a spread suitable for background music (BGM).
[0013]
In this case, as shown in FIG. 5, in the sound outputs PW3, PW4 and PW5 radiated from the
respective speaker units, the two speaker units 3 and 5 are connected in series. If it exists, there
is a relationship of (PW3 + PW5) / PW4 = 1 (1). That is, there is a relationship of PW3 = PW5 =
1/2 × PW4 (2). Therefore, in the vicinity of the front axis of the speaker device 100A, sounds
whose phases are opposite to each other are theoretically completely canceled.
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[0014]
Next, in FIG. 2, when the changeover switch SWA1 is connected to the contact TA2 side and the
changeover switch SWA2 is connected to the contact TA4 side, the circuit configuration is
equivalent to that shown in FIG. In this case, since the phase of the central speaker unit 4 is not
inverted in the high frequency band, directivity characteristics as shown in FIG. 8 are obtained.
That is, contrary to the case of FIG. 6, the sound pressure in the vicinity of the speaker front axis
is high. In this case, it can be used for the same application as a normal narrow directional
speaker. Thus, in this first embodiment, two directional characteristics can be obtained with one
speaker device by switching the switch circuit 2A.
[0015]
Second Embodiment Next, FIG. 9 shows a second embodiment of the present invention. The
speaker device 100B includes a signal processing unit 101B, both-ends speaker units 3 and 5, a
central speaker unit 4, and input terminals 6 and 7. The signal processing unit 101B includes the
phase shift circuit 1 and the switch circuit 2B. The configuration of this phase shift circuit 1 is
the same as that shown in FIG. The gain and phase characteristics are also the same as in FIG.
The switch circuit 2B also has changeover switches SWB1 to SWB6 and contacts TB1 to TB12.
[0016]
Next, the operation of the second embodiment will be described. As shown in FIG. 9, the
changeover switch SWB1 is on the side of contact TB1, the changeover switch SWB2 is on the
side of contact TB3, the changeover switch SWB3 is on the side of contact TB5, the changeover
switch SWB4 is on the side of contact TB7, and the changeover switch SWB5 is When the
changeover switch SWB6 is connected to the side of TB9 and to the side of the contact TB11, it is
equivalent to the circuit configuration shown in FIG. 10, and its directivity characteristic becomes
a characteristic as shown in FIG. In this case, as in the case of FIG. 8, the sound pressure in the
vicinity of the front axis of the speaker is high. In this case, the sound pressure near ± 90 °
from the speaker front axis actually attenuates further, so the sound pressure near the speaker
front axis becomes relatively higher.
[0017]
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On the other hand, the changeover switch SWB1 is on the side of the contact TB2, the
changeover switch SWB2 is on the side of contact TB4, the changeover switch SWB3 is on the
side of contact TB6, the changeover switch SWB4 is on the side of contact TB8, the changeover
switch SWB5 is on the side of contact TB10, the changeover switch SWB6 Are respectively
connected to the contact TB12 side, the circuit configuration is the same as that shown in FIG. 5,
and the directivity characteristic is as shown in FIG. Therefore, also in this second embodiment, it
is possible to select two directional characteristics of bi-directionality and uni-directionality.
[0018]
Third Embodiment Next, FIG. 12 shows a third embodiment of the present invention. The speaker
device 100C includes a signal processing unit 101C, both-ends speaker units 3 and 5, a central
speaker unit 4, a high pass filter 8, and input terminals 6 and 7. The signal processing unit 101C
has a phase shift circuit 1 and a switch circuit 2C. The configuration and characteristics of this
phase shift circuit 1 are the same as in the first and second embodiments. The switch circuit 2C
also has changeover switches SWC1 to SWC4 and contacts TC1 to TC8. The configuration of the
high pass filter 8 is shown in FIG. The high pass filter 8 is a circuit in which an electromagnetic
coil L2 and a capacitor C2 are combined as shown. FIG. 14 shows the gain and phase
characteristics of the high pass filter 8. As shown in FIG. 14, this high pass filter 8 has a
characteristic of passing sound in a band of about 1000 Hz or more and having a phase
difference of + 180 ° in the low band.
[0019]
Next, the operation of this third embodiment will be described. First, as shown in FIG. 12, when
the changeover switch SWC1 is connected to the contact TC1, the changeover switch SWC2 is
connected to the contact TC3, the changeover switch SWC3 is connected to the contact TC5, and
the changeover switch SWC4 is connected to the contact TC7. Is equivalent to the circuit
configuration shown in FIG. 15, and its directivity characteristic is bi-directional as shown in FIG.
The reason is that, as can be seen from the phase characteristic of the phase shift circuit 1 shown
in FIG. 4B and the phase characteristic of the high pass filter 8 shown in FIG. 14B, the outputs of
the phase shift circuit 1 and the high pass filter 8 This is because a phase difference of 180 °
occurs in the high region.
[0020]
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On the other hand, when the switch SWC1 is connected to the contact TC2 side, the switch SWC2
is connected to the contact TC4 side, the switch SWC3 is connected to the contact TC6 side, and
the switch SWC4 is connected to the contact TC8 side, as shown in FIG. It is equivalent to the
circuit configuration, and its directivity characteristic is as shown in FIG. The reason is that, as
understood from the phase characteristic of the high pass filter 8 shown in FIG. 14B, the output
of the high pass filter 8 has little or no phase difference at high frequencies. Thus, also in the
third embodiment, two directivity modes of bi-directionality and uni-directionality can be
selected.
[0021]
The invention is not limited to the embodiments described above, but other embodiments are
possible. For example, although the central speaker unit is one speaker unit in the above
embodiment, it may be a pair of two speaker units disposed close to each other. In addition, in
the case of the connection method in which the positive electrode terminal and the negative
electrode terminal of each speaker unit are also considered, not only the series connection (for
example, both-ends speaker units 3 and 5 in FIGS. 5, 7, 15, 17) shown in the above embodiment
It does not matter which connection (for example, both-ends speakers 3 and 5 in FIG. 10).
[0022]
As described above, according to the present invention, it is possible to switch between two
different directivity patterns of bi-directional mode and single (narrow) directional mode by one
speaker device. It has the advantage.
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