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BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 1. Field of the Invention The present invention relates to
electrostatic transducers, electrostatic transducers for use in high quality listening aid
transducers, and / or HiFi earphones.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION Electrostatic transducers have long been known in principle.
Unlike electrodynamic transducers where the membrane is repeatedly operated by a vibrating
coil, vibration of the membrane of the electrostatic transducer occurs over the entire surface.
This is accomplished by mounting a very thin conductive foil as a sound producing film between
two surface electrodes, the film being responsive to slight variations in the applied voltage at
audio frequencies. The membrane activated in this way follows the audio signal very precisely. It
reacts fast so that the regeneration is substantially independent of intermodulation distortion,
phase errors and intermodulation products. Moreover, the small mass of the film actually
contributes to the excellent sharpness that can not be achieved with electrodynamic transducers.
This is because the transducer film of the electrodynamic transducer is many times thicker than
that of an electrostatic transducer which can be composed of, for example, a transducer film of
about 1 μm thickness.
In contrast to electrodynamic transducers, electrostatic transducers need to maintain minimal
tolerances in their fabrication process, and dimensional accuracy requirements require high cost
in the fabrication process Therefore, a relatively high level of technology is required. Because of
their high cost, electrostatic transducers are only used in high fidelity and high quality market
areas. Electrostatic transducers are not conventionally used for so-called in-the-ear earphones, i.e.
earpieces, which have a transducer and can be inserted into the ear canal. The reason is that due
to the small diameter of the outer ear auditory passageway, it was not possible to produce a
transducer surface large enough to provide the required acoustic signal with the required quality.
Therefore, it is an object of the present invention to develop an electrostatic transducer that can
be used in an earpiece for in-ear earphones such as hearing aids. Apart from that, resonances in
the auditory passageway (intra-aural passageway) should be minimized.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION In accordance with the present invention, the foregoing task
comprises a tubular housing in which a planar transducer membrane is disposed, the transducer
membrane being disposed at an angle other than 0 ° with respect to the cross section of the
housing Is achieved by the electrostatic transducer being The angular placement of the
transducer membrane relative to the cross-section of the housing places the transducer
membrane non-parallel to the tympanic membrane so that resonances inside the ear passage are
minimized. Furthermore, the angular placement of the membrane relative to the cross-section of
the housing allows the surface of the membrane to be increased relative to the cross-section of
the housing, thereby achieving higher acoustic pressure and lower system main resonance.
Further advantages are stated in the dependent claims.
The solution according to the invention leads to a high transmission quality of the electrostatic
transducer and enables the use of the electrostatic transducer for hearing aids or high-ear
earphones. The angle of the transducer membrane with respect to the cross section of the
housing is preferably 30 ° to 90 °, more preferably about 60 °. If the membrane and the
transducer electrodes surrounding it divide the tube or cylindrical housing diagonally into two,
the transducer membrane will automatically become elliptical. For the purpose of damping, it is
advantageous to place damping material such as wool, fabric, material, stuffing or other damping
material on the side opposite the ear and / or on the side facing the ear in the housing.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS The invention will be explained in more detail using the
drawings of an embodiment. FIG. 1 shows a longitudinal sectional view of an earpiece 1
according to the invention, which in the embodiment shown has a cylindrical shape and in the
embodiment shown the longitudinal axis is indicated by the reference numeral The cross section
of the housing at L is indicated at Q. Inside the housing 2 the membranes 3 are arranged
diagonally, cutting the cross section Q at an angle of about 60 ° in the example shown.
Electrodes 4 are disposed on both sides of the membrane 3. The diagonal arrangement of the
transducer films 3 means that the film surface 6 is elliptical as shown in FIG. The angular
arrangement of the membrane 3 in the transducer housing 2 makes the membrane surface larger
relative to the cross section of the cylindrically shaped housing, allowing higher acoustic
pressure and allowing the transducer to produce a lower main resonance. The natural resonance
of the membrane is reduced compared to placing the transducer membrane along the crosssection of the housing, and apart from this, the resonance inside the in-ear channel is due to the
non-parallel arrangement of the transducer relative to the auricle Minimized. Insert damping
means, such as wool, fabrics, substances and fillings, in the housing 2, ie on the side of the
membrane remote from the ear and / or on the side of the membrane facing the ear, in order to
attenuate the membrane main resonance Is possible.
In the illustrated embodiment, the flexibility of the membrane 3 is higher than that of the
tympanic membrane. Thus, the membrane has low rhythm. The signal voltage is preferably 34
volts or less in order to satisfy the predetermined safety standards defined by the standard VDEDIN 0860 and the like. The membrane has a constant load, which is provided by using electrets,
ferroelectrics and other externally applied polarization voltages. By using the illustrated
transducers, it is possible to produce high quality hearing aids, or earpieces or other audio
reproduction devices, the reproduction quality being significantly improved compared to
transducers using magnetic or electrodynamics.
Brief description of the drawings
1 is a cross-sectional view of an electrostatic transducer according to the present invention.
2 is a cross-sectional view taken along the line AA of FIG.
Explanation of sign
DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS 1 ... Electrostatic transducer 2 ... Housing 3 ... Transducer film 4 ...
Electrode Q ... Housing cross section 6 ... Membrane surface
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