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Industrial Applicability The present invention improves stereophonic listening by means of sound
collection in inch / tee and / or transit time stereo sound technology using a dummy head
incorporating a microphone in the ear canal. Stereo sound pickup apparatus. There are many
known stereo sound collection methods using prior art intensity and / or transit time stereo
sound techniques. On the contrary, the reproduction is usually performed only by the use of
loudspeakers in a stereo base arrangement, or with headphones lacking stereo sound associated
with the space. In the sound collection method, an XY method configured by juxtaposing two
microphones of cardioid directivity at an angle of about 135 ░ and at a closely spaced distance,
and an eight-figure directivity of the microphones with cardioid directivity and at right angles
thereto An MS method using a microphone, an AS method using two pressure receivers arranged
at intervals of 20 to 330 to obtain the effect of transit time difference, and two cardioid
directional microphones each having a size of about 17.5 ? 0RTF method with a spacing of ??
and an angle of 100 ░ -140 ░, and O3S method by Jecklin using a separate disk and a pressure
receiver placed forward on both sides of it And a dummy head method using human head and
ear dummies. None of these known methods can meet the requirement for compatibility between
playback by the speaker and playback by the headphone, and a three-dimensional audibility can
be reached, for example, only approximately to natural listening in a concert hall. In the case of
reproduction by loudspeakers, the listening events in the plane of the loudspeakers are limited
on the side by the spacing between the loudspeakers or are accentuated above the line
connecting the two loudspeakers. The added reverberation of the reproduction by the headphone
forms a three-dimensional appearance, but this three-dimensionality is not comparable to the
listening event in the concert hall. Intensities and / or travel-time open resonances can not be
formed directly. The resonances formed in the listener's ear by the speakers set on a stereo basis
are limited to the respective incident directions of the speakers and are used only as localization
signals of the processing stages which define the sound field. In the case of speaker reproduction
in space, the reflection causes the resonance of the ear from all incident directions. However, this
is heard only as a reverberation.
In the case of reproduction by the headphone, the resonance of the ear occurs together with the
proximity effect even when reflection does not occur because the coupling space and the nonsound absorbing portion of the transducer are limited by the structure of the headphone, in
particular by the vibration direction of the diaphragm. On the other hand, in the human ear
dummy, the resonance of the ear occurs with various characteristics from all incident directions,
which complements the real sound field combination stage of the basic microphone recording
technology of the present invention used so far. It is necessary to form a field generation
coalition stage. Problem to be Solved by the Invention It is an object of the present invention to
provide a stereophonic sound pickup apparatus having the above-described sound field creation
configuration. Means for Solving the Problem The present invention has substantially the
following features. That is, the dummy head is limited to only the auricle dummy having the ear
canal, and in addition to the stereo microphone sound collecting device used as the real sound
field combination stage, the auricle dummy having a pressure-type receiver at the ear canal
opening is created. As a generational association stage, juxtaposed in the same way in the same
direction, in the same direction, or in the same direction in the human head, further, the abovementioned auricle dummy in the immediate vicinity of the known directional microphone
arrangement It is configured to be used in the horizontal and median planes for interaural sound
collection. In the frequency range below about 1500 H 2 due to the acoustic action of the
dummy spatula P, due to the dimension selection of the dummy spatula P, the transit time
difference and the sound pressure only occur with a front to back ratio of about 8 dB. The sound
collection method forms a front-to-back ratio of about 2O-30 dB, which is usually required now.
According to the invention, in addition to the intensity and / or transit-time stereophonic sound
technology acting in a frequency range below about 1500 Hz, the interaural resonance in the
frequency range above about 1500 Hz is audible in the ear Operates in the horizontal plane and
the median plane by the dummy of. Ear resonances have the same orientation as in the human
head, while the pointing behavior of the known microphone method appears mainly in the area
below about 1500 H2 depending on the orientation of the microphone or of two different
pointing characteristics The ratio can be selected by subjective audition. In this case, it is
important to ensure that a signal to the incoherent ear is formed as much as possible, for
example in the case of reproduction with a headphone, in order to avoid head positioning or
proximity effects in the ear. According to the invention, an intensity and transit time scheme is
used in which the auricle dummy with a pressure receiver is arranged to be rotatable about its
longitudinal axis, while in the frequency range below about 1500 Hz The microphones for stereo
sound collection according to can be configured to remain in a known orientation.
By rotating the ear dummy about its axis, auditory spatiality and sense of distance are activated
by the unique spatial reflection effect of the appearing ear resonance. According to the invention,
in addition to both auricle dummy with a pressure-type receiver, another auricular dummy
arranged in a different direction with a pressure-type receiver forms an interaural hearing
sensation in the superimposed sound field Can be used to Spatial hearing is further improved by
using a plurality of pinnacle dummies. Furthermore, according to the invention, the transmission
region of the amplitude-frequency characteristic curve can be made adjustable for the
optimization of the listening event by means of an electrical low-pass filter and a high-pass filter
with analog or digital functions. . The advantage of tuning with a filter is that it can retain the
effect of the ear resonance provided by the pinnae dummy. This ear resonance is present in a
region substantially above 1500 Hz while maintaining directivity with a front to back ratio of up
to 30 dB. The invention is further directed to a reduced device of transducing elements in which
the stereo base angle is varied to pick up acoustic events, for example by the MS microphone
method. In this solution, for example, an eight-shaped directional microphone is used as a
microphone incorporated in the external ear canal of the external ear dummy, and at least one
unidirectional microphone is further provided. Are arranged horizontally and vertically between
the microphones of the auricle dummy, in which case the output terminals are interconnected to
form both directivity resulting from sum formation and difference formation at the stereo base
angle It is What is achieved in this sound collection device according to the invention is that, for
example, when changing the stereo basic angle as shown by the MS microphone method, the
interaural ear resonance from the auricular dummy is in the human head. It occurs in three
dimensions due to the similar symmetrical orientations. In the present invention, when all the
microphones have a single directivity, the signals of the microphones provided in one auricular
dummy are combined with the unidirectional microphones respectively directed forward. This
has a substantial effect on the sounding of the sound by the formation of the interaural ear
resonance. On the other hand, when the microphone provided in the auricle dummy has eightshaped directivity, that is, bidirectional directivity, the signal having two preferred directions and
the additional signal directed in a single direction cooperate with each other. However, they form
a particularly advantageous condition for the true transmission of acoustic events, at the same
time with the realization of the interaural ear resonance.
By this, the stereo pace width can also affect the directivity. In this case, the auricle dummy is
provided in such a way that it exactly conforms to the shape of the human ear or only forms a
part that is important for resonance, such as the concave outer ear, the ear ring and / or the ear
ring. For example, the MS microphone method in which an auricle dummy is applied to a
microphone having, for example, an eight-shaped directivity, used in the present invention
provides an intermediate transfer function according to the arrangement direction of the auricle
dummy. With respect to this microphone, at a 90 'angle, a unidirectional microphone operates by
vector cooperation with the former two microphones and without ear resonance. In the
frequency range below about 1500 Hz, the directivity is formed at a variable angle, and the
pinnacle dummy precisely forms the resonance of the ear in a direction corresponding to the
human head. According to the invention, the two dummy of the microphone's built-in ear are
approximately 18 crn in the orientation of the ear on the human head, in order to obtain a transit
time difference as well as a level which is important for three-dimensional listening. It may be
spaced apart, and may be configured to provide each one uni-directional microphone at an angle
of 900 directly adjacent to the microphones. Using this configuration, a microphone having a
single directivity at right angles to the microphone having this single directivity is provided in the
immediate vicinity of each ear dummy, whereby a front-to-back ratio of 30 dB changes the pace
width. 2 will be obtained. According to the invention, the microphones with the auricle dummy
are supported on the microphone shaft in a side-by-side manner or at a distance of about 18 m,
and in this support configuration the microphones rotate their axes in space during rotation of
the shaft. The direction can not be changed, and a directional microphone between the ear
dummy (a book can be configured to be directed to a predetermined sound source by rotation of
an axis when sound is collected). For sound collection in movies and televisions, the
aforementioned device is mounted on the microphone axis or on the microphone suspension, so
that the measure of large changes in sound collection angle and basic width is by means of a
control table or correlation measure With the help it is obtained under the maintenance of ear
resonance. In this case, stereo sound is exactly the same as MS microphone technology so that it
uses the entire stereo base width for television while the base width for performers (actor and
singer) Narrow (so that they are placed on the receiving surface.
The microphone can also be remotely controlled by means of a control table or by means of a
correlation measurer. Therefore, it is not necessary to use external auxiliary means from the
central control room (the advantage is obtained that the entire sound collecting operation can be
carried out and controlled. Description of the Embodiments Embodiments of the invention are
shown in the drawings and are used for a detailed description. In this case, only the parts of the
microphone which are necessary for the acoustic effect are shown in FIGS. 1 to 14 for the sake of
clarity. Two auricle dummy 1 and 2 are shown in FIG. With regard to the exact shape of the
cavity, this pinnacle dummy can be formed differently from the human outer ear, omitting extra
details. Auricle dummy is inserted in the opening of the ear canal, that is, at the end of the ear
canal, with pressure sensors 3, 4 such as electrostatic transducers, juxtaposed in the same
orientation as in the human head . Beneficially, microphone capsules 5, 6 of, for example, also
electrostatic transducers are provided below each auricle dummy. Both microphone capsules
have a cardinal shape l '411 and are provided at an inter-axial angle of about 135 DEG in the
known XY arrangement. In FIG. 2, two auricular dummies with pressure gauges are shown at an
interval a of about 18 crn. In this case, a microphone 11.12 with a cardioid characteristic is
disposed immediately below the ear, as shown in the 0 RTF method, at an inter-axial angle of 100
░ -140 ░. FIG. 3 shows the arrangement shown in the known MS method associated with two
auricle dummy 13.14 with pressure gauge 15.16. Below the auricle dummy, there are provided a
microphone 17 having a cardioid characteristic and a microphone 18 having eight-shaped
directivity. Both microphones are used to form two cardioids at variable angles by electrically
interconnecting them in a known manner. FIG. 4 shows the application of the MS method
associated with two auricular dummies at an interval a of about 18 tM. The auricle dummy 19.20
is only arranged in the direction of placement in the human head (in this case the spacing is also
arranged as in the human head. The pressure side receivers 21, 22 are inserted into the pinnae
dummy. Below each auricular dummy there are provided microphones 23.24 of cardioid
character and microphones 25.26 with eight-shaped directivity which are juxtaposed to one
another, which are mutually indicated as indicated in the MS method. Connected. FIG. 5 shows
the low-pass filter curve 28 of the microphone for the area below 1500 H 2 and the
high-pass filter curve 29. 30 for a pressure-based quantity signal integrated in the ear.
The microphones need not be provided in the upper and lower positional relationship, and can be
juxtaposed. In this case, care is taken to make the mutual spacing of the acoustic transducers as
small as possible. Both analog high-pass and low-pass filters as well as digital techniques can be
used in order to avoid disturbances due to group delay distortion and phase distortion in the
crossover region of the frequency curve. In FIG. 6 there is shown a stereophonic sound pickup
according to the invention connected with a remote control 33. The mutual spacing of the
microphones 31.32 is determined to be 5 which conforms to the 0 RTF- or MS method with the
transit time effect. FIG. 7 shows a perspective view of a microphone according to the invention,
operating according to the XY or MS method. In this case, the low pass filter and the high pass
filter are integrated in the microphone casing, and the controller 34 is used to optimize the threedimensional effect. The microphone using the human pinnae dummy used in the stereophonic
sound pickup device according to the present invention can be used as a main microphone or an
auxiliary microphone. The simulation of three-dimensional listening is achieved by sufficiently
selecting the sound effects as in the performance hall, ie by adjusting the transit time delay
adjustable, the number of different microphones, and the subjective means at the mixing desk.
Another curve is provided. FIG. 8 shows an operation different from the natural listening process
of human head. In this case, the method of three-dimensional listening which the animal kingdom
is performing is premised. By rotating the auricle dummy 35, 36 about the longitudinal axis,
auditory three-dimensionality and long-distance listening are activated under the influence of the
special spatial reflection due to the advantageously generated ear resonance. In this case, the
directional microphone shown at 37.38 operates over the entire frequency range in a known
orientation, and additionally, the resonance of the ear additionally has the effect of threedimensional listening previously unknown. By direction. Let it form. Devices with more than two
pinnacle dummy scissors in different orientations may also be superimposed on the ear's
resonances in connection with the correction of picked up or reproduced stereophonic sound, in
addition to the well-known stereo microphone method that influences the listening events. In
order to influence the sense of hearing. In this case, it is advantageous to make the signal left and
right different in order to generate a signal to the ear that is not influenced by it, in relation to
the reflection of the side of the listening space.
Ear resonances can be used to bring certain instruments closer together from within an
orchestra. Because in the relatively high frequency region, the resonance of the ear sounds as if it
were 5 as it exists, without increasing the volume level. FIG. 9 shows a stereo microphone
according to the configuration of the present invention. For illustrative purposes, microphones
with a right auricle dummy are shown with protectors 45, the other without. A human auricle
dummy 39 having a square receiver 40 is resiliently supported in a frame 41. A cardioid
microphone 42 is provided directly below the pinna. ? ? ? To allow the microphone
combination by means of 44 and 44 to be set to an interval of about 18 m like an ear on a
human head. It is pivotally supported. A completely sound-passing screen 45 guarantees an
unobstructed sound passage. In the casing 46, electrical components for stereo transmission are
accommodated. FIG. 10 shows the monaural transfer function of the device according to the
invention. In the frequency range below 5 to 1500 H 2 'as shown, the level differences for the
different sound incident directions correspond to the level differences of microphones of known
cardioid characteristics with a longitudinal ratio of 20-30 dB. On the other hand, above l 50 Q Hz,
the effect of the ear resonance on the direction-dependent monaural characteristic appears.
However, FIG. 10 further demonstrates the following advantages: it allows the auricle dummy to
capture the median plane in addition to the horizontal plane, thus resembling an ear that was
previously only possible with digital technology at a significantly higher cost. Form all the
necessary conditions for the action. Two auricle dummy 47.48 are shown in FIG. 11 in the
direction of placement on the human head, but at closely spaced intervals. In the auricle 47.48, a
microphone 49 ░ 50 with preferably figure 8 directivity is integrated. Another unidirectional
microphone 50a is provided at an angle of 90 ░ to the two microphones. The auricle dummy 47
and 48 have their mutual spacing so that no disturbing effects occur on the back of the auricle
dummy and the microphone 49.50 has acoustics in space, for example to obtain an eight-shaped
directivity on the back. It is provided to receive the action. A microphone 50a having
unidirectionality is provided on the symmetry plane of the microphone 49.50.
The auricle dummy can be shaped differently from the exact shape of the human real auricle. All
that matters is the conserving acoustical action, such as the concave auricle, the ear ring, etc. FIG.
12 has a microphone 53.54. Ear pincers 51, 52 are provided at a distance a of about 183 so as to
correspond to the distance between the ears in the human head. In order to form a variable
directivity in the cardioid- or hypercardioid-characteristics, in the immediate vicinity, each
microphone of one directivity 55.56 is provided, in this case the stereo basic angle 90 ░ 1300 is
set. For application to movies and television, as shown in FIGS. 13 and 14, two dummy and
preferably single ones of five human auricles differ slightly in function. It is shown in directional
microphone applications. The invention is important in order to form a match between picture
and sound, for example in the case of stereo sound in television. It is advantageous to control the
image and ambient conditions at the image receiving surface to be consistent with sound
generation when rapid image interchange is required at the image receiving surface. For this
purpose, two auricles with directional microphones that can be transferred from a static idiode to
a cardioid rather than a 6-shaped character and that are especially important for acoustic events
provided outside the image receiving surface A dummy is used. In the case of on-site sound
production, the directional microphone 68 is turned toward the performer by rotating the shaft
57 for the purpose of collecting only one information, while the auricle dummy 58.59 is
provided. The microphone 60.61 does not change direction, but uses corresponding bearings 62
in the axial rod for three-dimensional information unrelated to the image receiving surface. FIG.
14 shows the expansion of the acoustic effect by relating the difference in traveling time. The
pinna dummy 63, 64 having the microphone 65, 66 is held horizontally at a distance of about 18
cm in the sound collecting space by the hanger 67, while the microphone 68 is set in direction by
the rotation of the rod 69 (axis) It is done. Finally, it is furthermore advantageous to be able to
remotely control the microphone by means of a mixing table or by means of a correlation factor
Brief description of the drawings
1, 2, 3, and 4 are perspective views of the embodiment of the present invention, and FIG. 5 is a
diagram showing the operation of the present invention, and FIGS. 6, 7, and 8; FIG. 9 is a
perspective view showing an embodiment of the present invention, FIG. 10 is a diagram showing
an operation, and FIGS. 11, 12, 13 and 14 are perspective views showing an embodiment 7 of
the present invention. is there.
??????????????????? ?????? ??? ??? ??? ??? 52 ░
58. 59, 63, 64 ... Dummy of human ear pin, 3, 4. ?? ??? ??? ??? ??? 22 ░ 40 и и и
Pressure receiver, 5, 6, 11, 12, 17, 17. ??? ??? ??? ??? ??? 38.42 иииииии Directional
microphone 1,,,, pinnacle dummy 6,,, Directional micropon 2 иии и и pinnacle dummy 7 и и и, pinnacle
dummy 3,, ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, , Pressure sensitive micro-bons 11, ...,
directional micro-pons 20. ,,, Ear pincers 12, ,,, Directional microphone 21. 8. ,,,,,,,,,, Pinnacle
dummy 22. ,,,, Square receiver 14,,,, pinnacle dummy 23,,, directional microphone 15,,,, pressure
receiver 24,. 0. , Directional microphone 16,..., Pressure sensor receiver 25,..., Directional, Icrobon
17,. The directional microphone 181. . 1. Directional microphones a 1,. ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
???????????? Auricle dummy 43,,,,, Eve 3,,,, Directional microphone 44 и Curved
pipe 38,,, Directional microphone 45,,,, Power 2-39 ,,,, , Auricle dummy 46,
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