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JPH06217390

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This translation is machine-generated. It cannot be guaranteed that it is intelligible, accurate,
complete, reliable or fit for specific purposes. Critical decisions, such as commercially relevant or
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DESCRIPTION JPH06217390
[0001]
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 1. Field of the Invention The present invention provides a
speaker and a speaker system capable of obtaining high fidelity reproduced sound. [0002]
Conventionally, in a high-class speaker system for reproducing high fidelity sound with high
fidelity, a so-called multi-way speaker in which a plurality of speakers having different apertures
respectively receive different sound ranges Systems have usually been used. An example of the
two-way speaker system is shown in FIG. 61 is a cone type speaker for bass, and in order to
reproduce the bass range with a sufficient sound pressure, the diameter of the diaphragm is
required to be large and the mass of the diaphragm is required to be heavy. In a commercially
available high-end system, about 30 to 40 cm is adopted as the aperture of the speaker, and
about 25 to 70 g is adopted as the mass of the diaphragm. 62 is a high sound speaker, and a
cone or dome shape is usually used. Loudspeakers do not need to have a large aperture in terms
of sound pressure, while a small aperture is required in terms of directivity, so an aperture of 5
cm or less is usually selected. These speakers are attached to the enclosure 20. [0003] [Problems
to be Solved by the Invention] Even with the use of a conventional high-grade multi-way speaker
system, a significant difference in hearing can be felt between the original sound and the
reproduced sound, and the user can be fully satisfied. Was hard to say. Auditory differences
indicate that the fidelity of the reproduced sound is insufficient. Although various things have
been said about the cause, it was not clear which physical factor is most related to hearing. Under
these circumstances, it has been a long-standing task for loudspeakers to find out the cause of
the degradation in the fidelity of the reproduced sound and to establish measures therefor.
[Means for Solving the Problems] As a result of the present inventor's examining the
conventional speaker in detail, the fidelity of the reproduced sound is degraded, and the greatest
cause of the difference in hearing is the speaker. It was found that it was a divided vibration of
the diaphragm and the edge. In particular, in the case of a low-pitched speaker, as described
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above, a diaphragm with a large diameter and a heavy weight is adopted, but such a diaphragm is
likely to cause divided vibration. It is the edge that makes this division vibration more likely to
occur. The outer peripheral portion of the diaphragm is supported by an edge. When the central
portion of the diaphragm is driven by the input signal, the peripheral portion of the diaphragm
receives mechanical resistance due to the edge, so the diaphragm is deformed and is likely to
cause divided vibration. Furthermore, the edge itself also causes divided vibration (so-called edge
resonance) along with the vibration of the diaphragm.
As a result of such divided vibration, each portion of the diaphragm and the edge does not
perform piston motion faithful to the input signal, greatly degrading the fidelity of the
reproduced sound, and creating an auditory difference with the original sound. It was. [0005]
Since such causes have been found, the present invention uses the following means in order to
solve the conventional problems. (1) The speaker has an edgeless structure. In order to avoid the
phenomenon in which the diaphragm is prone to split vibration due to the mechanical resistance
of the edge described above, and also to avoid the resonance of the edge itself, an edgeless
speaker having no edge is used. (2) Reduce the diameter and weight of the speaker diaphragm.
As described above, the prior art that uses a large-diameter, heavy diaphragm for low-pitched
sound has the disadvantage of inducing split vibrations and degrading the fidelity of the
reproduced sound. Therefore, in the present invention, the opposite method to the prior art is
used. That is, even in the speaker unit that reproduces the bass, the diameter of the diaphragm is
reduced and the mass is reduced. In this way, the natural frequency of the diaphragm is
increased, and the divided vibration is reduced. In addition, since the speaker has an edgeless
structure as described above, the divisional vibration becomes extremely small due to the
synergetic effect of the mechanical resistance due to the edge being eliminated. Specifically, the
diameter of the diaphragm may be 10 cm or less, and the mass thereof may be 5 g or less. At this
time, it is necessary to reduce the hardness (stiffness) of the support for supporting the vibration
system, set the lowest resonance frequency to 100 Hz or less, and sufficiently reproduce the low
tone range. (3) A large number of speaker units are used as a system. When the speaker system
is configured using the above-described speaker, it is difficult to secure sufficient sound pressure
in the mid-low range with one speaker because the diameter of the diaphragm is small.
Therefore, in the present invention, a large number of speaker units are used when configuring
the system. As a result of various tests, it was found that it is appropriate to use four or more
speakers when the diameter of the diaphragm is 10 cm or less. [Operation] By the above means,
the influence of the edge is eliminated, and the diaphragm performs piston motion in phase with
the input signal without causing divided vibration, and as a result, the fidelity of the reproduced
sound is It is possible to significantly improve the sound pressure and to ensure a sufficient
sound pressure even in the mid-low range. In addition, in order to suppress the division vibration
of the diaphragm, only one of the above means (1) and (2) is insufficient, and a satisfactory result
can be obtained by the synergetic effect by simultaneously using both means. is there.
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FIG. 1 (a) shows an embodiment of a speaker unit used in the present invention, in which 1 is a
yoke integrated with a center pole 2 and 3 is a ring fixed to the yoke 1. A magnet 4 is a ringshaped plate fixed to the magnet 3, and a magnetic gap is formed between the inner peripheral
surface of the plate 4 and the center pole 2. 5 is a frame fixed to the plate 4, 6 is a ring-shaped
flange fixed to the frame 5, 7 is a cone-shaped (conical) diaphragm, and the outer peripheral
portion of the diaphragm 7 has no edge It has an edgeless structure and forms an air gap with
the flange 6. D indicates the diameter of the diaphragm 7 and is 10 cm or less in order to reduce
divided vibration as described above. For the same purpose, the mass of this diaphragm is 5 g or
less. The shape of the diaphragm is not limited to the above-mentioned cone type, and may be a
flat type, a dome type, or the like. Furthermore, the shape of the outer peripheral portion of the
diaphragm is not limited to a circle, and may be a polygon. In the case of a polygon, if the length
of the longest diagonal line is 10 cm or less, substantially the same effect can be obtained, and in
the present specification, the length of this diagonal line is also included in the meaning of
diameter. I assume. 〔0008〕8はセンタキャップである。 In addition, since this center cap
vibrates integrally with the diaphragm 7, it is regarded as a part of the diaphragm, and therefore,
the mass of the above-mentioned diaphragm shall also include the mass of this center cap. . A
coil bobbin 9 is fixed to the diaphragm 7, and a voice coil 10 is wound around the coil bobbin 9.
The voice coil 10 is disposed in the magnetic gap. Reference numeral 11 denotes a corrugationtype damper for supporting the coil bobbin 9. The inner peripheral portion is fixed to the coil
bobbin 9, and the outer peripheral portion is fixed to the inner peripheral portion of the magnet
3 via the ring 12. 13 is a suspension (support) having a linear shape, and may be polyester yarn,
nylon yarn or the like, or may be metal wire such as tungsten wire or phosphor bronze wire. A
central portion of the suspension 13 is fixed to the outer peripheral side surface of the coil
bobbin 9, and both ends are fixed to the upper surface of the ring 14. The ring 14 is made of an
elastic material such as rubber, and its lower surface is fixed to a ring-shaped flat portion of the
frame 5. A cross-sectional view taken along a line A-A in FIG. 1A is shown in FIG. Four linear
suspensions 13 are provided to support the coil bobbin 9 at four points.
Even if the material of the suspension 13 does not have elasticity, both ends thereof are
supported by the ring 14 of the elastic body, so the suspension 13 is easily displaced in the axial
direction (vertical direction in FIG. 1A). The vibration system can vibrate with good linearity.
[0009] In this vibration system, the minimum resonance frequency is set to 100 Hz or less by
appropriately setting the weight of the vibration system and the stiffness (stiffness) of the
support, and as a result, the bass range is sufficiently reproduced. It can be done. The linear
suspension 13 has an advantage that the minimum resonance frequency can be sufficiently
lowered because the stiffness can be easily reduced. Although the linear suspension resonates,
the resonance noise generated is small because the surface area is small, and most of the sound
is blocked by the diaphragm 7 and the flange 6, so the influence on the overall sound quality is
virtually negligible. belongs to. The damper 11 also resonates to generate a relatively large sound
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pressure because of the large surface area, but the sound is blocked by the center pole 2 and the
plate 4 so that the influence is small. The effect of making the shape of the support linear in this
way is remarkable on the front side of the speaker (upper side in FIG. 1 (a)) and relatively small
on the rear side, but the dampers 11 are also similar to 13 just in case. It goes without saying
that a linear suspension structure may be used. Conversely, 13 may be changed to a corrugated
damper similar to 11. Although there may be some influence of the resonance noise of the
damper, the effect of the small diameter, small mass edgeless diaphragm is still utilized. [0010]
The specific structure of the linear suspension is not limited to the above, and various
modifications are possible. That is, if it is a linear shape, the advantages described above are
utilized. Further, the position at which the damper and the suspension support the vibrating part
is not limited to the position shown in FIG. 1, for example, the damper 11 is moved to the
position of the suspension 13 and the suspension 13 is moved to the position supporting the
middle portion of the cone 7 Various changes are possible. [0011] Data will be used to explain
the effect of playing back sound using a speaker with such a structure. Fig. 2 (b) shows the onaxis sound pressure waveform reproduced by a conventional bass speaker having an edge with a
diaphragm diameter of 15.5 cm and a mass of 6 g when a step-like waveform as shown in Fig. 2
(a) is input. . Although this belongs to the smaller and lighter one as the diaphragm of the
conventional bass speaker, the division vibration and the edge resonance still cause a large
disturbance (arrow P) in the waveform and generate noise not present in the signal. I understand
the thing.
FIG. 2C shows the sound pressure waveform when the edge is removed by the same speaker.
Although the noise is reduced because the edge resonance is eliminated, the noise remains
because the diaphragm is not sufficiently small in diameter and light. FIG. 2 (d) shows the sound
pressure waveform of the speaker used in the present invention described above, in which the
noise is reduced to a level that does not cause any practical problems, and the diaphragm
performs accurate piston motion to generate a signal. It can be seen that the sound that is
faithful to is played back. Thus, the effect of the present invention is obtained for the first time by
the synergetic effect of the diaphragm being edgeless and having a small diameter and light
weight. These sound pressure waveform data are also supported by auditory data. That is, in the
case of (d) in the case of (d) as compared with FIG. 2 (b), the sound quality on the sense of
hearing is significantly improved. High realistic hearing is obtained. An embodiment in which a
system is configured using the speaker unit of the present invention described above is shown in
FIG. FIG. 3 (a) is a perspective view of the appearance, and 21 to 26 and 35 are speaker units of
the present invention, which are attached to the enclosure 20. FIG. In order to flatten the
frequency characteristics and improve the directivity in the high sound range, a so-called twoway speaker system is configured in which low sound is reproduced by the speakers 21 to 26
and high sound by the 35 speakers. The 21 to 26 speakers normally have the same aperture, but
the 35 speakers may have a smaller aperture to improve directivity in the high range. An
electrical network connecting these speakers is shown in FIG. 3 (b). This electrical network is
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connected to and driven by an amplifier not shown. 41 is a coil and works as a low pass filter. 51
is a capacitor and works as a high pass filter. The speaker system configured in this way is used
for two channels in normal stereo reproduction, but the number of channels can be further
increased to cope with a surround system or the like. [0014] As described above, since all the
speaker units used in the present system have a small diameter, a small mass, and no edge, the
high fidelity sound does not occur in the diaphragm due to the divided vibration or the edge
resonance. To play. In addition, since many units with low lowest resonance frequency are used,
sufficient sound pressure can be obtained even in middle bass. Due to these effects, the
reproduced sound by the present system has a very high fidelity in terms of hearing and a
realistic sound image with good omission is obtained.
[0015] The deterioration of the sound quality due to the edge resonance and the divided
vibration of the diaphragm is remarkable mainly in the middle bass, and not so noticeable in the
high tone. Therefore, even if a conventional speaker is used as the high sound speaker 35 of FIG.
3, the intended purpose can be generally achieved. In this case, an appropriate speaker may be
selected from among conventional high-tone speakers such as a cone type, a dome type, and a
horn type. In this embodiment, six speakers are used for bass, but in the case of quietly enjoying
music in a small room, the purpose can be almost achieved if there are at least four speakers for
bass. It is possible. Therefore, in this case, the speakers 25 and 26 may be deleted. FIGS. 4A and
4B show another embodiment of the system. In the figure, the high sound speaker 35 and the
capacitor 51 are the same as those of the above-described system embodiment (FIG. 3). The case
where the capacitor 52 shown by the dotted line in FIG. 4B is present and the case where it is
absent will be described, and the case where it is not present first will be described (if the
capacitor 52 is absent, this part is assumed to be shorted). Reference numerals 21 to 29 denote
the speaker units according to the present invention described above, which are divided into
three groups, which are connected to the coils 41, 42, 43, respectively. The inductance values of
the three coils are different, so that the three groups reproduce the bass with different cutoff
frequencies. When the speaker unit is used, the bass speaker is divided into a plurality of groups
in this manner, and each reproduces a bass region having a different cutoff frequency, whereby a
flatter and better frequency characteristic can be obtained as a whole. . Next, if there is a
capacitor 52, the speakers 27, 28, 29 connected to this will cut high and low tones and
reproduce only middle tones, so the whole device will have high, middle and low tones 3 way
system divided into Since the present embodiment described above uses a total of ten speakers, a
richer reproduced sound can be obtained as compared with the embodiment of FIG. In FIG. 4 (a),
the high sound speaker and the low sound speaker are disposed close to each other to integrate
the sound source, but the high sound speaker is further disposed at the center of the speaker
group. A so-called coaxial arrangement can also be used to enhance the localization of the sound
image. As described above, according to the present invention, since the number of speakers is
small and the number is large, various forms of arrangement are possible, and one of the effects
is that the degree of freedom of arrangement is high. Although the speaker is attached to the
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closed box in this example, it may be attached to a bass reflex box, an open rear box, a flat baffle,
or the like.
The following embodiment is shown in FIGS. 5 (a) and 5 (b). Reference numerals 21 to 32 denote
speaker units according to the present invention, which are attached two by two to six sides of
the enclosure 20 shaped like a hexagonal column as shown in FIG. Attached). The electrical
network is as shown in FIG. 5 (b). The frequency characteristic of the reproduced sound is
attenuated by the coil 41 in the midrange or higher range, while the current is supplied through
the resistor 55 and thus extends to a high range at a constant level. That is, each speaker is used
as a full range speaker for reproducing the full range. In this embodiment, the directivity is
broadened by attaching the speaker in two or more different directions, and the frequency
characteristic is flattened by the electric network using the coil and the resistor. The enclosure is
not limited to the hexagonal column, and may be another polygonal column, cube, polyhedron,
sphere, etc., and the speaker may be attached to the enclosure in two or more different
directions. Since the present invention is configured as described above, it is possible to
reproduce high-fidelity sound without causing divided vibration or edge resonance of the
diaphragm, and to reproduce the mid-bass sound. Sound pressure can also be obtained.
Furthermore, the degree of freedom in the arrangement of the speakers is high, and the close
arrangement or the coaxial arrangement of the high sound speaker and the low sound speaker
can be performed, and good sound image localization can be obtained. Due to these effects, the
reproduced sound according to the present invention provides a realistic sound image with high
fidelity and good omission in hearing.
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