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JPH08297157

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DESCRIPTION JPH08297157
[0001]
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 1. Field of the Invention The present invention relates to a
position, orientation and movement detecting device for detecting the position, orientation and
movement of an operator, and a headphone reproducing apparatus for localization of a sound
image out of the head using the same.
[0002]
2. Description of the Related Art In a headphone reproduction apparatus in which signal
processing has been performed to localize a sound image in the prior art, the same sensation as
in the case of reproducing an acoustic signal is obtained by a speaker device arranged at a
predetermined position in the room. As a result, sound signals subjected to different signal
processing are supplied to the left channel and the right channel of the headphone, respectively.
This signal processing includes, for example, a transfer function between this virtual sound
source and the left and right ears set by the positional relationship between the virtual sound
source assumed in space and the listener's left and right ears, and the acoustics included in this
transfer function It is performed by synthesizing a sense of direction (transfer characteristic) that
models elements (temporal elements, frequency elements, and sound pressure elements).
[0003]
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In addition, by detecting the movement (direction change) of the listener's head and changing the
state of signal processing based on the detection result, it is possible to obtain a better sense of
sound localization outside the head of the sound. There is. As such a head movement detection
device, there is a method of providing a direction detection device such as a gyroscope or a
magnetic needle on the listener's head, but the gyroscope has a large size and mass and the
magnetic response is slow. There are various problems. In addition, one detection signal
transmitter arranged at a distance from the listener and two receivers arranged at two positions
on the left and right of the listener's head receiving the detection signal are provided. There is a
method, the distance from the detection signal transmitter and the detection signal transmitter
based on the time when the detection signal is emitted from the detection signal transmitter and
the time when the detection signal is received by the left and right receivers, respectively. The
distance to each of the left and right receivers (right and left ears) is calculated to detect the
direction and movement of the listener with respect to the sound source.
[0004]
However, these head movement detecting devices are intended to detect the movement of the
head of the listener and can not detect the position of the listener. For example, in the case where
the above-described one detection signal transmitter and two receivers disposed on the head are
provided, since the detection signal transmitter is transmitted from one point, this transmitter
Although it is possible to calculate the distance from the point, it is only understood that it is a
position on a circle whose radius is the distance, that is, the position (coordinates) of the listener
can not be specified. In addition, even if two detection signal transmitters are used to transmit
detection signals from two points, it is only known that the positions of the points where the
circles whose radius is the distance from each point intersect are crossing each other. There are
two points, which can not identify the position (coordinates) of the listener.
[0005]
Therefore, the present invention provides a position and an orientation of a listener and an
operator in a virtual space, a position, an orientation and a motion detecting apparatus for
detecting a movement, and a headphone reproducing apparatus for performing localization
outside a head of a sound image using the same.
[0006]
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION The present invention has been made in view of the above
problems, and three or more detection signal generating means for transmitting detection signals
into space are arranged at different positions, and the plurality of the plurality of detection signal
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generation means are arranged. At least two receivers for receiving detection signals from the
detection signal generation means in the reception section, and the detection signal transmission
time of the plurality of detection signal generation means and the two receiver The position,
orientation and motion of the receiver are detected by calculating the positions of the two
receivers from the reception time of the detection signal and the positions of the plurality of
detection signal generators. Provide an apparatus.
[0007]
In addition, in the headphone reproduction device using this position, orientation, and motion
detection device, the reception unit is installed such that the receivers are disposed at two places
on the head of the listener, and the position and orientation are set. And the position, orientation
and movement of the listener relative to the virtual object assumed in the space from the
position, orientation and movement of the receiver detected by the motion detection device, the
position, orientation and movement of the listener According to the invention, the left channel
signal and the right channel signal branched from the input signal are provided with transfer
characteristic synthesizing means for synthesizing respective transfer characteristics between the
virtual object and the left ear and the right ear of the listener. A headphone reproduction
apparatus characterized by
[0008]
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT Referring now to FIG. 1, an
embodiment of the position, orientation and motion detection apparatus of the present invention
will be described.
In the space (room) where the virtual object S is assumed and the position, direction and
movement of the operator M are to be detected, three detection signal transmitters L0, L1 and L2
are installed at predetermined positions, respectively. It emits a detection signal.
The detection signal is, for example, an ultrasonic wave, and emits pulse waves at regular
intervals.
Further, sensors (receivers) X0 and X1 for receiving these detection signals are respectively
installed on the left and right of the operator M. Further, the position (coordinates) of the virtual
object S is supplied to the calculation means (not shown) at the time when each detection signal
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is transmitted, at the time when each detection signal is received by each of the sensors X0 and
X1.
[0009]
Next, a method of detecting the position, orientation, and movement of the operator M with
respect to the virtual object (calculation method) will be described. First, from the time when
each detection signal was transmitted, the time when each detection signal was received by each
sensor X0, X1, and the speed of sound, the time from each detection signal transmitter L0, L1, L2
to the left sensor X0 ( To calculate t0, t1, t2) and distances (l0, l1, l2), time to the right sensor X1
(t0 ', t1', t2 ') and distances (l0', l1 ', l2') it can. The coordinates (x0, y0) and (x1, y1) of the
positions of the sensors X0 and X1 are calculated from these distances and the positions of the
detection signal transmitters set in advance. From the coordinates of the left and right sensors
X0 and X1, a vector Xa (x1-x0, y1-y0) between the sensors X0 and X1 is determined. Also, a
vector Xs to the virtual object S is obtained from the middle point (center) {(x0 + x1) / 2, (y0 +
y1) / 2} between the sensor X0 and the sensor X1. Further, an orientation vector Xr {-(y1-y0), x1x0} (vector in the direction in which the operator is facing) rotated from the position of the left
sensor X0 by 90 degrees with respect to the vector Xa is determined.
[0010]
If the inner product of the vector Xr and the vector Xs is a positive value (θr is within 90
degrees in the figure), the operator M is facing the virtual object S (in the direction within 180
degrees ahead of the operator M) From the inner product of the vectors Xa and Xs, the angle θ
between the operator M and the virtual object S (here, the direction from the left to the right of
the operator M is 0 degrees) is determined from the inner product of the vectors Xa and Xs. In
addition, if the inner product of the vector Xr and the vector Xs is a negative value, it can be
understood that the operator M does not face the virtual object S (the virtual object is in the
direction behind 180 degrees of the operator M) . In the figure, the operator M is in the opposite
direction, the right and left are reversed, the direction of the vector Xa is in the opposite
direction, and the direction vector Xr is the vector Xr '. At this time, the angle θ between the
vector Xa and the vector Xs is obtained from the inner product of the vector Xa and the vector
Xs, and the angle between the operator M and the virtual object S = 360 degrees−θ (direction
from the left to the right of the operator To 0). That is, the angle θ between vector Xa and vector
Xs is obtained from the inner product of vector Xa and vector Xs, and when the inner product of
vector Xr and vector Xs is positive, the angle between operator M and virtual object S is θ If the
inner product of the vector Xr and the vector Xs is negative, the angle between the operator M
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and the virtual object S may be set to 360 degrees −θ.
[0011]
As a matter of course, the direct front of the operator M may be set to 0 degrees. In this case, the
angle between the operator M and the virtual object S is represented by θr in the figure, which
is obtained from the inner product of the vector Xr and the vector Xs. Can. Further, the distance
between the operator M and the virtual object S can be obtained by the magnitude of the vector
Xs.
[0012]
Thus, for example, the positions (coordinates) of the two sensors X0 and X1 installed on the left
and right of the head of the operator M can be identified instantaneously, respectively, and
thereby the position and the orientation of the operator M can be determined. The motion of the
operator M can be recognized by constantly or intermittently measuring. In addition, detection of
the position, orientation, and movement of the operator is performed by obtaining vectors (vector
Xa between the sensors X0 and X1, vector Xs to the virtual object S, direction vector Xr) from the
coordinates of the sensors X0 and X1. , Very easy and accurate detection (no complicated
calculations required). For example, the direction (direction vector Xr) can be easily and
accurately obtained by rotating the vector Xa between the sensors X0 and X1 by 90 degrees.
Further, the angle between the operator and the virtual object can be easily and accurately
obtained from the inner product of the vector Xa and the vector Xs or the inner product of the
vector Xr and the vector Xs.
[0013]
By the way, this position, orientation and motion detection device can be used for various
applications. For example, it is applied to a headphone reproduction apparatus to be described
later, or to an MMI (Man Machine Interface), for example, for use as a position / direction /
motion detection apparatus for a listener or operator in a virtual space to obtain virtual reality.
For example, marks corresponding to the relative position, orientation and movement of the
operator may be displayed on the display and used as a cursor for MMI for various applications.
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[0014]
Next, with reference to FIG. 2, an embodiment of a headphone reproduction apparatus for
localization outside the head of a sound image using this position, orientation and motion
detection apparatus will be described. In this headphone reproduction device, the sense of
direction (transmission characteristics) from the virtual sound source (virtual object) to the left
and right ears of the listener is synthesized with the sound signal, and is sent to the left and right
of the headphones, respectively. In addition, the sound image reflected by the wall of the virtual
room and the like and delivered to the listener is synthesized to the left and right respectively, or
the reflected sound is synthesized with the sense of direction (reflected sound transmission
characteristic), so that the sound image is better. Out-of-head localization is realized.
[0015]
And if the above-mentioned position, movement, and direction detection device is used, the state
of signal processing will be changed by detecting the position, direction, and movement of the
listener in a virtual room. That is, depending on the position and orientation of the listener, the
transfer characteristics of the (direct sound) from the virtual sound source to the listener's ears
and the state of the reflected sound change, and signal processing according to these states is
performed, The sound image reproduced by the headphones changes, and the sound image
corresponding to the position and the direction of the listener in the virtual room is reproduced
by the headphones, and the sound image is more clearly localized outside the listener's head.
Furthermore, the state of signal processing is changed by detecting the movement of the listener,
in particular the movement of the head from side to side. In other words, by detecting the
movement of the listener, the sound image is moved in the opposite direction to the movement to
maintain the relative positional relationship between the listener and the virtual sound source, or
respond to the listener's position and direction at each moment. By changing the signal
processing as described above, the sound image can be changed. According to this, it is possible
to achieve better localization outside the head of the sound image.
[0016]
FIG. 2 shows an embodiment of a headphone reproduction apparatus for localization outside the
head of a sound image using this position and motion detection apparatus. In the figure, a
monaural acoustic signal is supplied from an input terminal 11 and is supplied to a direction
filter 12 and a delay unit 13 for generating a reflected sound. The directional filter 12 is
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composed of, for example, a pair of delay devices, an LPF, a multiplier, etc., and combines the
transfer characteristics from the virtual sound source to the left and right ears of the listener
with the monaural sound signal. The signal of the channel is output and supplied to the left
channel 15L and the right channel 15R of the headphone 15, respectively. The delay unit 13 for
reflected sound generation delays the input signal for a predetermined time (t1 to tN), generates
a plurality of reflected sounds, and generates directional filters 12 (t1) to 12 (same configuration
as the directional filter 12). tN) to combine the respective transfer characteristics (reflected
sound transfer characteristics) of each reflected sound to the listener's left and right ears, and
output two channels of signals for left and right from each reflected sound. The signal is added to
the two-channel signal from the directional filter 12 by the adder 14 and supplied to the left and
right channels 15 L and 15 R of the headphone 15 respectively. Thus, from the left and right
channels 15L and 15R of the headphone 15, acoustic signals having sense of direction from the
virtual sound source to the left and right ears are reproduced, and the sound image is localized
outside the listener's head.
[0017]
In addition, what is necessary is just to comprise the above-mentioned structure with respect to
each input signal, and just to supply it to the headphones 15, respectively, when inputting a
stereo sound signal.
[0018]
Furthermore, sensors (receivers) 17L and 17R are provided on the left and right of the
headphone, and detection signals such as ultrasonic waves from three detection signal
transmitters 18, 19 and 20 arranged apart from the listener are To receive.
The controller (arithmetic control means) 16 is supplied with the transmission time of the
detection signal from each detection signal transmitter and the reception time of each detection
signal when each sensor 17L, 17R receives this detection signal. The position, direction, and
movement of the listener are calculated by the calculated method. Then, the signal processing
state of the delay unit 13 and the directional filters 12, 12 (t1) to 12 (tN) is controlled to
reproduce an acoustic signal (including a reflected sound) according to the position, direction,
and movement of the listener. The sound image is better localized outside the listener's head.
[0019]
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By the way, although three signal transmitters for detection are used in the above description, if
four or more signal transmitters for detection which are not on the same plane are used, threedimensional position of the operator, If the orientation and motion can be detected reliably and
used in an apparatus for obtaining a virtual reality in a virtual space, a three-dimensional virtual
reality can be reliably obtained, and if it is used in a headphone reproduction apparatus,
Furthermore, the sound image can be localized outside the head (three-dimensionally) in a better
manner. Also, the number of sensors (receivers) is not limited to two, and three or more may be
provided.
[0020]
As described above in detail, according to the position, orientation and movement detecting
device of the present invention, the position, orientation and movement of the listener and the
operator in the virtual space can be easily detected. Further, according to the headphone
reproduction device using this position, orientation and motion detection device, the sound image
can be localized outside the head of the sound better. Also, this position, orientation and motion
detection device can be used for MMI in various applications.
[0021]
Brief description of the drawings
[0022]
1 is a diagram showing an embodiment of the position, orientation and motion detection device
of the present invention.
[0023]
2 is a diagram showing an embodiment of a headphone reproduction device using the position,
orientation and motion detection device of the present invention.
[0024]
Explanation of sign
[0025]
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S Virtual target M Operator L0, L1, L2 Signal transmitter for detection (signal generation means
for detection) X0, X1 Sensor (receiver) X2 Middle point Xa vector between sensor X0 and sensor
X1 (vector between receivers) Xs vector (vector to virtual object) Xr vector (direction vector) 11
input terminals 12, 12 (t1) to 12 (tN) Direction filter 13 delay unit 14 adder 15, 15L, 15R
Headphone 16 controller (arithmetic control means) 17L, 17R Sensor (receiver) 18, 19, 20 Signal
transmitter for detection (signal generation means for detection)
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