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JPH08307988

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Notice
This translation is machine-generated. It cannot be guaranteed that it is intelligible, accurate,
complete, reliable or fit for specific purposes. Critical decisions, such as commercially relevant or
financial decisions, should not be based on machine-translation output.
DESCRIPTION JPH08307988
[0001]
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 1. Field of the Invention The present invention relates to a
sound image measuring apparatus for use in a system for reproducing sound using speakers,
headphones, earphones or the like, and more particularly to a sound image localization apparatus
for localizing a sound image.
[0002]
2. Description of the Related Art By the influence of the shape of the head and the shape of the
pinnae before the sound enters the human ear, the characteristics of the sound change. The
change in the characteristics differs depending on the direction and distance of the sound, and
the localization of the sound image is realized by reproducing the change in the characteristics.
In recent years, this characteristic change is reproduced by a digital filter, and the localization of
the sound image is realized by convolving this with the original sound (hereinafter referred to as
the source sound).
[0003]
FIG. 14 is a diagram showing the positional relationship between the sound source S and the
head M. For example, assuming that the sound is sounding at a certain point S in the space
including the head M, the sound wave propagation characteristic in the space from the sound
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source S is received. The sound that reaches the left and right ears El, Er of the listener becomes
Sl, Sr. At this time, assuming that the propagation characteristics of sound waves from the sound
source S to the left and right ears are Hl and Hr, Sl = S × Hl, Sr = S × Hr (α), and the
propagation characteristics are respectively Hl = Sl / S, Hr = Sr / S (β) Usually, as a method of
measuring this transfer characteristic, a pseudo-sound having a constant frequency component is
outputted from the sound source S in an impulse range or the like, and microphones are installed
in both ears El and Er of the listener M, Microphones are placed on both ears El ′ and Er ′
using dummy heads that simulate the shape of the listener's head, and responses Sl and Sr from
the sound source S are measured.
[0004]
FIG. 15 shows an example of an impulse response. From this impulse response, the transfer
characteristics Hl and Hr are calculated from the above equation (β), and localization of a sound
image is realized by convoluting into the source sound. In general, this transfer characteristic is
called head related transfer function. In reality, sound image localization is realized in
consideration of reproduction characteristics of a speaker, headphone, earphone or the like that
performs reproduction. In order to realize this sound image localization in all directions around
the listener, the sound from each direction of the spherical surface centered on the subject's head
is measured by the above method, and the sound image localization is realized by the data. .
However, it is difficult to measure from all directions, and usually it measures on the spherical
surface at a certain interval, and in between (the direction between the measured point and the
next measured point) is interpolated by the measured data I'm compensating. This measurement
is conventionally performed in a non-acoustic room or the like.
[0005]
FIG. 16 is a view showing an example of arrangement of speakers in the conventional sound
image measurement. As shown in the figure, the speaker SK is conventionally arranged as a
sound source at each measurement point on the spherical surface C centered on the subject's
head M (Speakers are placed only on the front of the upper hemisphere in the figure, but the
same applies to the rear and lower hemispheres as well). A large number of documents have
been published for these, and well-known documents include, for example, "Spatial sound"
published by Kajima Publishing Co., edited by Brauert, Morimoto, and Goto.
[0006]
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2
In the above-described conventional sound image measurement method, in order to measure the
head related transfer function in each direction, a large number of speakers are arranged in each
direction on a spherical surface centered on the subject's head. It is necessary to be large in
terms of equipment. In addition, there is a problem that it takes a long time for installation unless
the measurement device is permanently installed. The present invention has been made in view
of the above-described circumstances, and realizes a measuring apparatus which can be installed
in a short time with a small amount of equipment and can perform measurement quickly, and
facilitates measurement of an angle narrower than that of the prior art. It is the purpose.
Moreover, although the measurement place is usually performed in an anechoic chamber or a
place having a wide space with little echo, the conventional method requires a silent room or
requires a large space, and prepares a measurement environment. It was hard to do. It is an
object of the present invention to make it possible to measure in a room of a standard installation
with the minimum necessary size. Furthermore, in the conventional method, the head-related
transfer function is different for each individual, and the measurement is directly performed on a
person or a dummy head is prepared for each individual, and the measurement is performed
using the dummy head. However, there is a problem that it takes time, labor and cost to create a
dummy head for each individual, and when measuring a person directly, the subject's head
moves, making it difficult to make an accurate measurement. There was a problem of becoming
An object of the present invention is to accurately grasp movement of a subject's head even if the
head moves and to obtain original data.
[0007]
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION The present invention is made to solve the above-mentioned
problems, and (1) a microphone is placed on a subject's ear by providing a signal of a pseudo
sound source emitted from around the subject's head. A measurement unit for measuring a head
related transfer function, the measurement data is recorded in a sound source storage unit, an
output control unit, an output unit, an input unit, a key input unit instructing start of
measurement, a data storage unit, and the data storage unit The input is started in
synchronization with the output of the output control unit at the time of measurement in the
measurement room having the input control unit and the reflecting plate and not subjected to
anechoic processing, and the reverberation reaches the input unit In the sound and sound image
measuring apparatus according to the above (1), (2) the reflection plate is disposed in the path of
the reflected sound which completes the data input before and reaches the input unit within the
measurement time. Having a sound absorbing layer on the reflecting plate, and 2.) A measuring
device for placing a microphone on a subject's ear by measuring a signal of a pseudo sound
source emitted from around the subject's head and measuring a head-related transfer function,
comprising a sound source storage unit, an output control unit, an output unit, an input unit, and
an input control A measuring chair for rotating the subject in an azimuthal direction, the
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measuring chair having a head fixing part for fixing the head of the subject at the center of the
rotation axis, and having a part, a data storage part and a key input part; (4) The sound image
measuring device according to (3), further comprising: a sensor for detecting the position and
orientation of the subject's head; and a band for fixing the sensor to the subject's head. .
[0008]
According to the first aspect of the invention, since the input control is performed in
synchronization with the start of the output, it is possible to extract and record only the portion
necessary as an impulse response, and it is flat in the audio frequency band. Since a sound source
having characteristics and capable of completing output in a short time is used, measurement
can be performed in a short time (about several milliseconds).
Also, the reflected sound that reaches the input part within the measurement time is reflected by
the reflector, and the arrival at the input part is delayed, eliminating the influence of the reflected
sound, and measuring in a room where anechoic processing has not been performed It is
possible. According to the second aspect of the present invention, by providing the sound
absorbing layer in the reflector, the level of the sound reflected by the reflector is attenuated to
accelerate the attenuation of the level of the reverberant sound, and the next measurement can
be performed. Time can be shortened. According to the invention of claim 3, the measuring chair
has a rotation mechanism, and the head of the subject is fixed from the center of the subject by
fixing the subject's head at three points of the chin, the forehead and the back of the head above
this rotation axis. It is possible to rotate without shaking. Also, by rotating in the azimuthal
direction about the subject's head, it is possible to facilitate the setting of the angle of the sound
source in the azimuthal direction and to facilitate the measurement at a narrow sound source
interval. Furthermore, according to the invention of claim 4, it is possible to accurately measure
the virtual sound source position viewed from the subject because the sensor for detecting the
position and the direction is attached to the subject's head when setting the angle of the sound
source to be measured. The position of the virtual sound source (the direction of the subject) can
be set accurately.
[0009]
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS FIG. 1 is a block diagram showing
the essential parts of a first embodiment of a sound image measuring apparatus according to the
present invention. 4 is an input control unit, 5 is a data storage unit, 6 is an output unit (speaker),
7 is an input unit (microphone), 8 is a reflector, and the sound image measuring apparatus of this
embodiment is as shown in FIG. Source storage unit 1, output control unit 2, output unit 6, input
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unit 7 and key input unit 3 for instructing measurement start, and sound source storage unit 1
has flat characteristics in the audio frequency band, A sound source capable of completing
output in a short time is held, and further, input is started in synchronization with the output of
the output control unit, data input is ended before the reverberation reaches the input unit, and
measurement is performed in the data storage unit The input control unit 4 for recording data
and the data storage unit 5 are provided, and the input unit is reached within the measurement
time It constituted by arranging a reflecting plate 8 in the path of the ion.
[0010]
FIG. 2 is a view showing an arrangement example of the reflection plate 8.
Usually, a floor surface, a ceiling, and walls on both sides are assumed as a reflected sound in
which the sound from the output unit 6 (sound source) reaches the input unit (measurement
point) 7 in a short time, that is, a short path. The path of the reflected sound is reflected by the
reflector 8 before the primary reflection (reflection at the R0 point), and the path until reaching
the input unit 7 is lengthened and delayed. Eliminate the impact. Also, as the arrival path
becomes longer, the level decreases due to distance attenuation. Usually, one measurement time,
depending on the number of samples to be measured, ends in around 2 msec.
[0011]
Further, as shown in FIG. 3, by providing the sound absorbing layer 9 on the reflection plate 8, it
is possible to attenuate the level of the reflected sound immediately and reduce the influence on
the reverberation. FIG. 4 is an enlarged view showing a state of reflection when the sound
absorption layer 9 is provided on the reflection plate 8. The sound R from the output unit 6 is
reflected by the reflection sound R1 reflected by the sound absorption layer 9 and the reflection
plate 8. The reflected sound R2 becomes part of the surface of the sound absorbing layer 9 and is
reflected again by the reflecting plate 8 to be reflected again, and so on. As the sound absorbing
material 9, a breathable open-cell foam material or the like such as urethane foam is used.
Furthermore, by adhering the sound absorbing layer 9 so as to cover the end of the reflecting
plate 8, the effect of the diffraction at the end of the reflecting plate 8 can be reduced. Further,
although it is difficult to block the transmission of sound by 100% by the reflection plate 8, the
provision of the sound absorbing layer 9 can further increase the transmittance.
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[0012]
FIG. 5 is a block diagram of the main part for explaining the second embodiment of the present
invention, in which 10 is a measuring chair which rotates in the azimuthal direction of the
subject, and the chair 10 has a head of the subject A head fixture 20 is provided to fix the center
of the rotating shaft. In FIG. 5, parts having the same functions as those of the embodiment
shown in FIG. 1 are given the same reference numerals as in FIG.
[0013]
FIG. 6 is a view showing a state where the subject is hanging on the measurement chair 10, and
the head fixing device 20 has a head support member 21 which is a main component of the head
fixing device 20, As shown in FIG. 7, the head support member 21 can be attached to the head
fixing member fixing portion 11 provided on the back of the measurement chair 10 so as to be
adjustable in height by screwing or the like. There is. Further, as shown in FIG. 8, the head fixing
member 21 includes a forehead pressing portion 22 for pressing the subject's forehead, and a
jaw support 23 for supporting the subject's jaw.
[0014]
FIG. 9 is a view showing details of the forehead pressing portion 22 shown in FIG. 8. The
forehead pressing portion 22 is fixed to the head support member 21 so as to be adjustable in
position in the height direction by screws or the like. 22a and a forehead rest 22b attached to the
fixed portion 22a so as to be adjustable in insertion depth with a screw or the like. FIG. 10 is a
detailed view of the jaw support 23 shown in FIG. 8, wherein the jaw support 23 is fixed to the
head support member 21 and a neck insertion portion into which the subject's neck is inserted;
After the subject's neck is inserted, the jaw rest 24 is disposed under the subject's jaw (see FIG.
8). In addition, reduce the influence on the sound by winding a thin sound absorbing material for
each part of the head fixing part, and measure the impulse response in each direction of
measurement in the free sound field, and convolute it into the measurement data as an inverse
filter. It is also possible to eliminate the influence of the fixed part itself. According to the above,
the subject's head can be rotated without being shaken from the rotation center Y (see FIG. 8).
[0015]
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FIG. 11 shows a third embodiment of the present invention, which further comprises a sensor 30
for detecting the position and orientation of the subject's head, and a band 40 for fixing the
sensor 30 to the subject's head. And the sensor 30 is secured to the band 40, as shown in FIG. In
this embodiment, a magnetic sensor is used as the sensor 30 for detecting the position and the
direction, a magnetic field is generated from the magnetic generator 50 shown in FIGS. 11 and
13, and the change in magnetic flux is detected and measured by the sensor 30. ing. By attaching
the sensor 30 to the subject's head in this way, the motion of the subject's head can be examined,
and it is possible to measure while measuring the correct angle with respect to the sound source.
It is also possible to detect and complement data.
[0016]
As is apparent from the above description, according to the present invention, the following
effects can be obtained. It enables measurement of the head-related transfer function in a short
time, and also enables measurement with less influence of reflected sound and reverberation
even in measurement in a room without anechoic processing. Furthermore, by allowing the
subject to rotate around the head, installation can be easily performed in a short time, and angle
measurement can be performed at narrow intervals that have not been considered so far.
Become. In addition, detecting the movement of the subject's head enables accurate
measurement.
[0017]
Brief description of the drawings
[0018]
1 is a block diagram of the main part for explaining the first embodiment of the present
invention.
[0019]
2 is a diagram showing a state when a reflection plate is installed in the first embodiment.
[0020]
3 is a diagram showing a state when using a reflection plate having a sound absorbing layer as a
reflection plate.
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[0021]
4 is an enlarged view of a reflector having the sound absorbing layer shown in FIG.
[0022]
5 is a configuration diagram of the main part for explaining the second embodiment of the
present invention.
[0023]
6 is a diagram for explaining an example of a measurement chair to prevent the subject's head
from shifting from the center of rotation.
[0024]
<Figure 7> It is the figure in order to explain one example of the structure which attaches the
head support fixing tool to the measurement chair.
[0025]
8 is an overall configuration diagram of the head fixing device.
[0026]
9 is a configuration diagram of the forehead holding portion.
[0027]
10 is a configuration diagram of the jaw support.
[0028]
<Figure 11> It is the principal part block diagram in order to explain 3rd execution example of
this invention.
[0029]
12 is a diagram showing the mounting state of the third embodiment.
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[0030]
13 is a schematic diagram of the measurement of the third embodiment.
[0031]
14 is a diagram showing the positional relationship between the sound and the listener in the
prior art.
[0032]
FIG. 15 is an example of an impulse response.
[0033]
16 is a layout diagram of the speaker in the prior art.
[0034]
Explanation of sign
[0035]
DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS 1 ... sound source memory | storage part, 2 ... output control part, 3
... key input part, 4 ... input control part, 5 ... data storage part, 6 ... output part, 7 ... input part, 8
... reflection plate, 9 ... sound absorption layer, DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS 10 ... Measurement
chair, 20 ... Head support fixture, 21 ... Head support part, 22 ... Forehead pressing part, 23 ... Jaw
support part, 30 ... Position and angle sensor, 40 ... Sensor fixed band, 50 ... Magnetic field
generator .
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