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JPS52131702

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DESCRIPTION JPS52131702
77ta of qta (no change to the contents), specification 1, title of the invention
Device for simulating reverberation in an audio signal and method for introducing reverberation
in an electrical signal
3. Detailed Description of the Invention The present invention relates to an audio apparatus for
performing Kadraf Oneck sound reproduction from stereo human power signal, and more
specifically, to introduce reverberation during Kadrah Onyx reproduction to generate a truly
contribution to the sound of a large room. Audio apparatus-relates. Electronic devices are
currently used to introduce reverberation into the signal used for sound reproduction. Such
artificial remnants-generators are for acting on their acoustic signals to produce an echo or
reverberation effect in a J-room frozen performance venue. In high-fidelity sound reproduction
devices for home use, this drastic reverberation reproduction must be realized at a reasonable
price in order to be economically feasible. There are currently several types of reverberation
devices 21-available for use in high fidelity devices, but those devices (the sounds that are
actually obtained have a lack of realism, and indeed an artificial feeling like the whole island For
example, there are disadvantages such as the need for a reverberation room, and the need to use
a reverberation board, which is unsuitable for home use in terms of cost and space. In order to
make the sound output finally obtained resemble the sound heard in the performance hall, some
features of the performance hall must be provided in the reverberator. One such important
feature required of a reverberator is the reverberation time, which is defined as the time it takes
for the sound intensity to be reduced by 60 db. The ideal reverberation time will vary depending
on the particular sound being played-the typical range of reverberation time is 0.5 to 2.0
seconds. Another very important reverberation feature is the echo interval. Concrete tunnels
have a reverberation time equal to the reverberation time of the venue, but there is a very clear
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difference between the tunnel and the sound reproduced at the venue. In a sound-performance
venue, sound travels through many different paths. The spacing between each reflection 22EndPage: 6 is different. As a result, reflections actually occur at many random times, and highdensity echoes occur, so the human ear can not distinguish individual echoes. In order to make
the input signal a really close reverberation, a reverberation effect must be generated that is very
similar to the actual performance hall response to the parameters described above. Besides
reverberation, another important factor in sound reproduction devices is the illusion of
directionality in the reproduced sound. A stereo playback device plays a sound that is much more
compelling than a one channel device because of the apparent directionality of the played sound.
Kadrahonik sound devices having four independent reproduction sources have recently become
widely used, due to their further improvement in directionality.
However, most of the currently available recorded records and tapes only have two signal
channels. Therefore, there is a need for a device that can provide a signal to drive a kadraphonic
speaker from one stereo human power signal pair. According to the non-invention, nine devices
are available for introducing a serious reverberation into one stereo human power signal pair,
and for extracting four outputs from the stereo input signal pair to the speaker in a dynamic
sound reproduction mode. In the embodiment of the present invention, two reverberation units
having different reverberation time metals are configured in a cross-coupled structure, and the
output of each unit is added to the input terminal of the other unit. The two signals of the stereo
signal pair to be processed are combined at the output from the other reverberation unit and
added as another input to each reverberation unit. Then, the output of each reverberation unit
can be used alone or in combination with some of the ternary stereo signals that can be used to
drive the independent back-to-back speakers of the modular speakers. If desired, it can also be
injected into the rear signal. The stereo input can be used directly or in combination with some
residual signal to provide signals to the two speakers in front of the modular speaker group. The
echo of each reverberation unit is enhanced by the other echo as it is added to the other
reverberation unit. The intervals of these echoes are different for each reverberation unit. Since
the output of each reverberation unit is applied to the input of the other reverberation unit, the
two sets of echoes have various reverberation cycles mixed. Each reverberation unit then
provides an output that truly simulates the reverberation normally found in a real room or venue.
Device for simulating reverberation in an audio signal and method for introducing reverberation
in an electrical signal
Hereinafter, the present invention will be described in detail with reference to the drawings.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION The present invention provides a complete reverberant device
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that introduces an illusion of an audio signal, usually a stereo signal, similar to the sound at a
performance venue. This illusion is achieved by imparting reverberation to the audio signal and
generating a quadrature output from the stereo signal input. Referring first to FIG. 1, in the
apparatus shown, the left input signal and the right input signal which are independent of each
other are given to the input lines 4OR and 40L. Those signals are applied to the first input
terminals 44R, 44L of which the gains of the mixers 48R, 48L are one. The output terminals 52R,
52L of these mixers are connected to the corresponding remaining 25-sound units 56R, 56L. The
output terminals of the reverberation generators 56'R and 56L are cross-coupled to the second
input terminals 64L and 64H of the other mixers 48L and 48R, respectively. The gain A of the
input terminals 64R and 64L is smaller than "" to ensure the stability of this closed loop.
Normally, when used in bite with a 4-channel device, the signals given to the two right front and
left front speakers are given directly to the mixers 4.8R and / j8L from the right and left stereo
input signals. . The signals given to the two right rear and left rear speakers can be taken out
directly from the output terminals of the reverberation generators 56R and 56L as shown in FIG.
2, or can be taken out after being processed further. FIG. 2 shows an example of the
configuration of the reverberation units 56R 'and 56L. In this reverberation unit, the input signal
is applied to the input terminal 20 of the mixer 22. This signal is applied to the delay @ 24 input
terminal. This delay line (! If any analog signal applied to the input terminal can be generated
faithfully at the output terminal after a specified time has elapsed, 26-EndPage: 7 can be used. A
delay line that is particularly suitable for use in the present invention is a "multiple state
response delta-sigma converter and delay line (Multiple 5 Tate Re 5 ponsive Delta-8 igma C!
disclosed in pending patent applications filed under the name onverterAndDelayLine) J. Another
delay method is to use the delay between the recording head and the playback head in a multihead tape recording device. Is this delay time? Shown by T, this is a reverberation period. The
output of delay line 24 is applied to an amplifier 26 having a gain less than one. The output 27 of
the reverberation unit is taken from the output end of the amplifier 26.
This output is also applied to the second input 28 of the mixer 22. The input signal applied to the
input terminal 20 of the reverberation unit appears periodically at the output terminal of the
amplifier 26 in such a way that the amplitude decreases with time. FIG. 2A shows the output of
the reverberation unit of FIG. At time T, the input appears at the output 27 of the reverberation
unit as an output 32a whose amplitude is small by a factor determined by the gain A 'of the
amplifier 26. At time 2T, the output 32b with a smaller amplitude appears. Time interval 1
between these "echoes" is equal to the delay time, which we shall call it the reverberation period.
This operation is continued by sequentially generating output pulses 32a '132b... Of decreasing
amplitude, as shown by line 34 in FIG. 2A. The reverberation time, which is distinguished from
the reverberation period, is defined as the length of time until the output reaches a set
percentage of human power to the reverberation unit and relates to the reverberation period T
and the gain A 'of the amplifier. In such reverberation units it is generally desirable to make the
reverberation time sufficiently long. In order to stabilize the operation of the delay line, the loop
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gain, i.e. the gain of the closed loop constituted by the path of mixer 22-delay line 24-amplifier
26-mixer 22 must be 1 or less. In practice, it becomes difficult to maintain the desired closed
loop characteristics as the loop gain approaches unity. The typical operating level of the loop
gain, in this case the gain A 'of the amplifier 26, is approximately O07. At this value, the
attenuation between pulses is relatively large, and hence the reverberation time becomes short.
The reverberation time can be increased by lengthening the other variable that affects it, ie the
reverberation cycle. However, long echo intervals are readily apparent and produce very
undesirable results when used in an audio playback device. It is possible to connect in series
several reverberation units of the kind shown in FIG. 2 with different reverberation times in order
to make a reverberator with a relatively long reverberation time without lengthening the echo
interval too much. Such a connection allows all reverberation cycles of a reverberation unit to be
long enough to achieve a relatively long reverberation time, but since the reverberation cycles
are slightly different from each other, there is only one echo before. Several echoes will occur
within the time of wake up, effectively eliminating individual echo artifacts. In fact, the echo
response that results from such a connection is somewhat random, resembling an echo in a real
room.
The disadvantage of this reverberator is that it requires many different reverberation units of the
type shown in FIG. 1, and in the Stage 29-Leo or Quadraphonic devices, the number of units
required is doubled or quadrupled. Become. Thus, the cost of such devices tends to be quite high.
The reverberation unit shown in FIG. 1 does not cause the undesirable problem of individual
echoes, and different reverberation times (r) with different delay times or reverberation times (r)
and with a minimum number of parts by adopting a long reverberation time You can get it. Thus,
the device of the invention (... Can also be made much cheaper than conventional reverberators
which can achieve long reverberation times. Furthermore, the device according to the invention
can be used with two independent signal sources, such as left and right stereo signals, in order to
obtain two further signals which can be used, for example, to combine the rear loudspeaker
signals in a modular telephone system. Next, 3A, 3B, 3C! The operation of the circuit shown in
FIG. 1 of the present invention will be described with reference to the drawings. FIG. 3A shows a
response of the reverberation unit 56R to the human power pulse 70 by a series of output pulses
72a, 72b... FIG. 3B shows the response of the 'II' 1-EndPage: 8 reverberation unit) 56L to the
input pulse 74, with a series of output pulses 76a, 761). In response to the pulse power applied
to the mixer 48R of FIG. 1, the reverberation unit 56R generates a series of pulses with a
reverberation period of T as shown in FIG. 3A. The pulses generated at the output terminal 57H
of the unit 56R are also applied to the input terminal of the reverberation unit 56L via the mixer
48L. In response to each of these pulses, the reverberation-on unit 56L generates a series of
pulses as shown in FIG. 3B, which pulses are applied to the reverberation unit 56R via the mixer
48Re and their pulses are generated. The pulse (as shown in FIG. 3A to the reverberation unit
56H) generates a pulse at its output. This operation is continued until the amplitude of the pulses
at the reverberation unit 58R, 58'L reaches a negligible level. Since the reverberation periods of
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the reverberation units 56R, 56L are different from each other, an increasing number of echoes
are generated at their output terminals 58R, 58L. The spacing of their echoes is narrower than
that of a single reverberation unit with a single reverberation period. This situation is illustrated
in FIG. 3C. This figure (shown in FIG. 2) is generated at the output 58R in response to one pulse
78 trained in the circuit shown in FIG.
Respond to the signal. The output pulse 80 has a narrower interval than that of the reverberation
unit) 56R or 56L alone. This effect can be enhanced by increasing the least common multiple of
the period. The least common multiple in this case is only five. The reverberation times shown in
FIGS. 3A, 3B are chosen primarily for illustration. In practice, the difference in reverberation time
can be smaller than that shown in the figure, in which case the echo spacing shown in FIG. 3C
can be much narrower. The amplitudes of the echoes shown in FIG. 3C do not decay uniformly
with time, but rather somewhat randomly. As mentioned above, such a response is very similar to
the reverberation response in a real room, and thus a more drastic sound will be obtained. The
non-invented circuit is best described by using one input pulse, but in fact MK. In the application
a complex signal appears from the right and left stereo input terminals. Those signals applied to
the circuit shown in FIG. 1 generate a series of echoes on the right and left rear signal output
terminals 58L, 58R. Their echoes are very close to the actual reverberation produced in the real
room. The signals produced at each output terminal 58R, 58L initially consist primarily of the
stereo input signal applied to the corresponding mixer. However, as time passes, the proportion
of the other stereo input signal included in each output increases, and eventually the proportions
of both become approximately equal. Also, this action simulates an actual room response. The
first reverberation to be heard is very directional, but over time the sound waves reflected in a
complex pattern in the room will result in reverberation and the directivity will be very weak.
Due to such an effect, the directionality of the initial echo is very high, but the echo that will
occur later becomes less directional, and the device of the present invention can be reproduced
even if the reverberation period of the reverberation unit is the same. It should be noted that it is
something that adds aptitude to the sound. Thus, the reverberation system shown in FIG. 2
generates two signals suitable for use in driving the rear left and right speakers in a kadraphonic
sound system to simulate the actual room ( Can be performed with relatively few circuits.
Furthermore, long reverberation times can be obtained without producing an echo effect
different from the real one, and without requiring a large number of reverberation units.
In fact, only one reverberation unit is required per channel, which is a great improvement over
conventional reverberators. Referring now to FIG. This figure shows a circuit particularly
advantageous for use in the present invention as a reverberation unit, in order to avoid having
the frequency response occurring periodically at the maximum and the minimum occurring at
frequencies separated by the reciprocal of the reverberation period. . In the circuit of FIG. 4, one
of the stereo input signals is applied via line 901 to the input of mixer 92 at the 1 * input. The
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output of the mixer 92 is added to the delay line 96, and the output of the delay line 96 EndPage:
9 is applied to the second input terminal 98 where the gain of the mixer 92 is V less than one.
The gain of delay line 96 is typically one. The mixer 92 and the delay line 96 may be the same as
corresponding elements of the reverberation unit shown in FIG. The output of the delay line 96 is
applied to the input terminal 100 at which the gain of the second mixer 102 is (1-2). The input
signal on line 90 is also provided to input terminal 94 where the gain of mixer 102 is -1. The
output signal of the reverberation unit appears at the output terminal 104 of the mixer 102.
Therefore, by combining the undelayed sound from the input terminal 90 and the delayed sound
from the mixer 92 and the delay line 96 in the ratio shown, the response of the reverberation
unit to all frequencies can be obtained. It can be done uniformly. The circuit shown in FIG. 4 is
IRL's Tranductions or Audio (Knee R, E, Transactionson Audio), November / 196, 1961, 209-214
Hage's Shredder (R0ShrOθder) and Logan. (B,?, Logan), "Colorless artificial reverberation
(OOlor-1ss Artificial Reveration) J" is described in detail (l. An example of the response of the
circuit shown in FIG. 4 is also shown in FIG. 2A, and an example of a response when used in the
circuit shown in FIG. Thus, the input pulses produce a series of output pulses which are reduced
in amplitude with time and separated in time by a reverberation period equal to the delay line
portion of the delay line 96. The main difference between the outputs of the circuits shown in
FIGS. 4 and 2 lies in the separation of the many pulses generated by the circuit shown in FIG.
Referring now to FIG. This figure is a block diagram of another embodiment of the present
invention used to generate a back channel signal in a two-channel stereo signal from a two
channel stereo signal, this embodiment being a reverberation for the back channel. It has means
for processing the signal.
A circuit 110 surrounded by a broken line is a specific example of the circuit shown in FIG.
Similarly in FIG. 1, the right stereo signal is the bus boost circuit 111R? The gain of mixer 48L is
applied to one input terminal 44R. The bus boost circuit 111R raises the level by a frequency i5
dl) less than 1QQH2. The output of mixer 48H is applied to reverberation unit 56R. The output of
the unit 56R is applied to the second input terminal 64L of gain O07. The left stereo input is
applied to the first input terminal 44L of the mixer 48L whose gain is 1 and the output of the
mixer 48L is connected to the input terminal of the reverberation unit 56L enclosed by a broken
line. The output of this unit 56L (the gain of the mixer 48H is applied to the second input 64R of
the sail 7). The mixers t8R, 48L are usually summing amplifiers. The reverberation units 56R and
56L are similar to the units shown in FIG. The delay times of the units 56R and 56L are 100
milliseconds and 60 milliseconds, respectively. This gives a dispersed echo effect as shown in
FIGS. 3A-30. Reverberation unit) 56R shown in FIG. In order to construct 56L, filters 114R, 114L
are provided at the output terminals of units 56R, 56T. These filters are low pass filters with a
cutoff frequency of about 20 KH2. In the reverberation units 56R and 56L, the output from the
mixer 48R148L is an input terminal 91R) 91L for which the gain of the mixer 92R and 92L is 1,
and the input terminals 94R and 7 for the mixers 102R and 102L. Each is added to 94L. The
outputs of mixers 92R and 92L are applied to delay lines 95R and 96L via high pass filters + 22R
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and 122L, respectively. The cut-off frequency of the filter 122RZ 122L is 1 QHz and is used to
eliminate harmful effects caused by the circulation of a frequency signal below the audible sound
in the closed loop. The delay line 96R has a first output with a 35 millisecond delay time, and a
second output 118R provided from the end of the delay line with a total delay of 100
milliseconds. Their outputs are applied to both ends 1 of the potentiometer 120R (a variable
combination of their outputs appears at the movable terminal of the potentiometer 12OR. By
changing the setting of the potentiometer 12OR, it is possible to change the effective delay time
of the delay line in the range of 35 to 100 milliseconds, thereby varying the delay time of the
device and simulating reverberation responses of different room sizes. .
Similarly, the delay line 96L has a first output 116L 'with a delay time of 15 milliseconds and
EndPage: 10. This output is also combined with the output 118L of the delay time of 60 ms of
the delay line 96L by the potentiometer 120L. The same effect as that of the reverberation unit
56R can be obtained at the movable terminal of the potentiometer 120L. The potentiometers
12OR and 12OL are interlocked as much as possible so that they can be changed simultaneously.
Low-pass filter 124R, 124Lfl'j: In response to the signal generated at the movable terminals of
the potentiometers 120R, 12OL, the P-wave signal is applied to the second input terminals 98R,
98L of which the gains of the mixers 92R, 92L are 0.7. Add. The cut-off frequency of these lowpass filters is 20 KH2 and attenuates frequencies above the audible same wave number of the
echo generated by the reverberation units 56R, 56L. -The outputs of the filters 114R, 114L can
be used as rear left and right speaker signals. However, when those signals are used to drive the
rear speakers, the acuity of the sound generated can be improved by further processing. For this
purpose, the outputs 58R, 58L of the filters 114R, 114L are applied via the first input terminals /
IOL'i of which the gains of the mixers 130R, 130L are 1, the cut-off frequency is 20 KH2 Low
pass filter 134. R。 The gains of the mixers 13oR and 130L are respectively applied to the
second input terminals 132R and 132L of -0, 93 via 134L. The output terminals of the filters
134R, 134L are also cross-coupled to the third input terminals 138L, '138H of the mixers 130L,
130R of the opposite channel via low-pass filters 1.36L, 136Ri whose cut-off frequency is 20
KHIJ. The gain of the third input terminals 138R, 138L is typically -0647. The outputs of mixers
130R, 130L are input terminals 133R of mixers 1.37R, 137L with a gain of one. A cut-off
frequency of 8 KHz is added to 133 L via low pass filters 135 R and 135 L, and the output
terminals of the mixers 137 R and 137 L cross the second channel of the mixers 134 L and 134
R of the other channel to the O05 second input terminal. Combined. The right rear and left rear
speaker signals are mixer 137R. Each is taken out from the 137L output terminal. As mentioned
above, the front left and right speaker signals are taken directly from the left and right stereo
inputs.
However, other front left and right speaker signals, which in some cases give a more true sound,
can be generated by a combination of front and back speaker information. An example of a
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circuit for obtaining such a result is shown in FIG. The mixers 141R and 141L are input signals
applied from the input line 40R% 40L to the first input terminals 14OR and 140L having a gain
of 0 ° 75, and the second input terminals 142R and 138L of the mixers 138R and 138L have a
gain of 0.25. It combines with the output of the mixers 130R and 130L added to 142L
respectively. The outputs of the mixers 141R, 141L can be used as optional left and right front
speaker signals. Although the embodiment shown in FIG. 5 is preferred, the reverberation unit
used therein may be, for example, a mechanical spring-type reverberation unit. In the
embodiment shown in FIG. 5, it may be desirable to increase the effective stereo separation of the
signal available on the rear channel to increase the robustness of the playback. An improvement
in the robustness of the trap is generated in the circuit shown in FIG. 5 by the additional circuit
connected between the mixers 137R, ', 137L 41- which are cross-coupled to each other in the
box 150. Can be added to the signal. This circuit is shown in FIG. The output from mixer 137R is
applied to the input terminals of high pass filter 152L and low pass filter 154L. The cutoff
frequency of each filter is 5 QHz. The output of filter 152L is applied to an input terminal 156L
at which the gain of mixer 158L is -1, and the output of filter 154L is instead of a direct
connection from the output terminal of mixer 137R shown in FIG. 5 to input terminal 139L, The
gain of the mixer 137L is applied to the +1 input terminal 160L. Similarly, the output of mixer
137L is applied to high pass filter 152R and low pass filter 154R, each having a cutoff frequency
of 59 Hz. The output of filter 152R is applied to an input terminal 156R at which the gain of
mixer 158R is -1, and the output of filter 154R is applied to an input terminal 160R at which the
gain of mixer 158R is +1. The output of mixer 158 is applied to input terminal 139R of mixer
137R instead of direct connection of output terminal 139R of mixer 137L as shown in FIG. -A ReEndPage: 11 Next, the operation will be described. The circuit 150 shown in FIG. 6 causes the
higher frequency components of the signal produced at the right rear and left rear output
terminals to appear in reverse phase to enhance the stereophonic sound effect generated by the
two rear channel speakers.
Those signals are applied to the inverting input terminals 156L and 156R of the mixers 137L
and 137R from the output end of the mixers 137R and 137L through the 50 Hz high pass filters
152L and 152R, and from there the mixers 137L and 137R The input terminals 139L, 139RK of,
invert the phase of components from one back channel when those components appear in the
other back output channel. Because the wavelength of the low frequency audio signal is long, the
phase inversion cancels part or all of those signals when it is applied to the low frequency signal,
and the amplitude of the low frequency signal is Make it smaller effectively. Therefore, the low
frequency components of the outputs from the mixers 137R and 137L are not passed through
the high pass filter, but are passed through the 50H2 low pass filters 154L and 154Ri and the
mixers 158L and 1.58H non-inverting input terminals 1601. , Added to 160R. Thus, the low
frequency components of the loudspeakers of each rear channel, moving 43-of the mixers 137 R,
137 L, appear in phase at the output terminals of the two rear channels, thereby avoiding the
above-mentioned phase cancellation effect. The circuit shown in FIG. 6 is particularly useful for
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application to the reverberator shown in FIG. 5, but the pre-stereo separation between two stereo
signals by inverting the phase of the cross-coupled components'. e. Partially or fully mixing the
two input signals to obtain two output signals, while holding and without reducing the base
amplitude due to the cancellation of the low frequency signal in antiphase. It should be
understood that it can be used for stereo or kadraphonic sound devices.
4. Brief description of the drawings FIG. 1 is a block diagram of the apparatus of the present
invention, FIG. 2 (r. A block diagram of a reverberation unit suitable for use in the apparatus
shown in FIG. 1, FIG. A graph useful for explaining the operation of the device of the invention,
FIGS. 3A 13 B, 30 are graphs of signals useful for explaining the operation of the device of the
invention, and FIG. 4 for use in the device of the invention FIG. 5 is a block diagram of another
suitable reverberation unit, FIG. 5 is a block diagram of another embodiment of the apparatus
shown in FIG. 1 used to generate a kadraphonic signal from a stereo input signal, FIG. FIG. 7 is a
block diagram of another circuit used in the embodiment shown in FIG. 22.48L、
48R,92L、92R,102L、102R,130L。 1.3OR,137L、
137R,141L、141. R,1,57L、157R。 ・ ・ ・ ・ ・ ・ ・ ・ ・ ・ ・ ・
・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・
・ ・ ・ ・ Reverberation unit, 122R, 122L ... High-pass filters 124L, 124R, 114L, 114R, 134L,
134R, 136L. 1.36R, 135L, 135R, 154L, 154R · · · low-pass filter. Patent Assignee Hybrid Systems
Corporation 45-EndPage: 124 1-FIG, 6 '1st White Continued Priority (33 April 26th April, 1976
■) United States + 3E 680 474 ■ Many April 26 B (' i '3) United States Q% 80 475 · Right dawn
Peter D. Tribman United States 02087 Masan Yusettsu Sharon Mountain Street 282 same
Samuel Willenski United States 01742 Massachusetts Concord Silver Hill Road 419 End Page: 13
Procedure Correction Book (γ system 2 Showa 4 words a month, l,? I. Patent Office President
(JPO Patent Examiner) ■ Indication 4 of case, Agent address Marunouchi 3J-Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo
4-2nd delivery date Showa Date 3, Supplement 11: Target of EndPage : 14
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