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JPS61105198

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Notice
This translation is machine-generated. It cannot be guaranteed that it is intelligible, accurate,
complete, reliable or fit for specific purposes. Critical decisions, such as commercially relevant or
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DESCRIPTION JPS61105198
[0001]
The present invention relates to an audio signal mainly for headphones, having direction
information in the vertical direction as a timbre characteristic of reproduced sound, and a
method of detecting the same. Conventionally, as directional information possessed by an audio
signal, one relating to a stereo signal is well known. This direction information relates to a
specific sound signal, and is divided between the left and right signals L-H obtained by
distributing the two. "Signal level difference / phase difference / time difference" or a part
thereof as information on the sound source direction. Directional information that should
originally be given by the binaural effect on the left and right tympanic membrane of the listener
by this reproduced sound, “sound pressure level difference / phase difference / arrival time
difference” of the sound reaching the tympanic membrane between the left and right, or its It is
an attempt to reproduce one copy. Therefore, as has generally been considered, the reason why
we can perceive the direction of the sound source is due to the mottled binaural effect, which can
only be obtained by listening to the sound with both ears [phase] When the “sound pressure
level difference / phase difference / arrival time difference” of the sound reaching the tympanic
membrane is reproduced by the conventional stereo signal on the left and right tympanic
membrane, this reproduced sound is sent to the listener, In addition to the left and right
direction, it should be considered that the sound source direction in the vertical direction or the
front and back direction can be perceived. However, in reality, even when the level difference,
phase difference, and time difference are changed in any way, the reproduced sound can not
cause the listener to perceive the sound source direction in the vertical direction or the frontback direction. , Etc. indicate that the direction information obtained by the binaural effect is
mainly limited to the left and right direction. In this regard, the direction information obtained by
the auditory system by the single binaural effect is the sound of the right and left tympanic
membranes. This difference is zero in the portion where the difference is the lowest. While the
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sound source moves and makes a round in the direction of forward → top → back → bottom →
forward, the sound that reaches the tympanic membrane with [Yes] has “0 for both sound
pressure level difference, phase difference and time difference” This can also be understood
from the fact that no directional information is generated. Thus, the single binaural effect can
only provide the auditory system with directional information mainly in the left-right direction.
However, we can easily perceive the sound source direction in the vertical direction or in the
back and forth direction, and these facts indicate that the discrimination of the sound source
direction in the vertical direction and in the back and forth direction performed by the auditory
system is especially directional information. Depending on the method that does not require or is
different from the one due to the binaural effect. Another n 171. The direction information is
required, which means that it is the force that is obtained by the method of obtaining from the
common characteristic of the sound reaching the tympanic membrane on the left and right.
As a part of the theory in this part is that “the sound of thunder is up and the flow of water is
down”, identification of the sound source direction in the vertical direction is performed based
on empirical memory, It is assumed that the sound source direction in the vertical direction is
perceived by us, but if this is true, the conventional stereo signal obtained by recording the sound
coming from the vertical direction relatively faithfully is exactly It should be that the listener can
perceive the sound source direction in the vertical direction through the headphones. However, it
is well known that this is not possible in practice, and from this fact it is possible to identify the
source direction at least in the vertical direction, by empirical memory etc. not. It exists on the
common characteristic of the voice that reaches the left and right tympanic membranes.
Although it turns out that it is performed based on direction information other than by the
binaural effect. . The direction information about this vertical or longitudinal direction has not
been revealed until now, and it is left blank, and at least it is still clear today that at least we can
identify the direction of the sound source in the vertical direction. It is impossible to make an
explanation. Therefore, if it becomes clear what direction information about the vertical direction
or the front and back direction, which is present on the common characteristic of voice reaching
the tympanic membrane on the left and right, the sound source of the auditory system in the
vertical direction or the front and back direction Along with the reason why the direction can be
identified, direction information equivalent to this is provided in one system as information of the
reproduction sound localization direction with respect to the auditory system. It can be
understood how "a voice signal having direction information in the vertical direction or in the
front and back direction" can be obtained. Since this audio signal is one system (or common to
the left and right), it can be transmitted also as a common signal in the left and right in the
conventional stereo signal, that is, as a central signal. It is possible to perceive the direction of the
sound source from the direction or the front and back direction. Therefore, by replacing the
center signal of the conventional stereo signal with this audio signal having vertical or back-toback direction information, in the ideal case, all sound source directions can be perceived by the
listener用途 There are applications that can realize omnidirectional stereo signals for
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headphones, etc. The system has a wide application field especially in the sound industry. The
invention clarifies the above-mentioned direction information related to the vertical direction or
the back and forth direction with respect to the auditory system which has not been
conventionally made, and a voice having the equivalent direction information of the vertical
direction or the front and back direction equivalent thereto. The direct aim is to get the signal
and this detection method.
Hereinafter, directional information on the auditory system will be described. Of the sound
source direction identifications performed by the auditory system, regarding the main number
and left and right directions, the “sound pressure level difference, phase difference, and 差 11
arrival time difference” of the sound reaching the left and right due to the binaural effect is the
direction information and What is to be said is that, as mentioned above, the direction
information about vertical or back and forth direction confirmed through the experiment is
perceived mainly as the "tone characteristic" of the common voice that reaches the left and right
eardrums. Part of the property being This timbre characteristic depends on the sound source
direction number, and changes as the sound source direction changes. As a result of the auditory
system reading this, the sound source direction in the vertical direction or the front-back
direction is identified. The reason that this “tone characteristic” mainly depends on the sound
source direction in the vertical direction or the front-back direction, or the voice arrival direction
is that the voices whose left and right pinna shapes and head shapes are collected at their
respective ear canal entrances Due to the influence given to each one. Each peripheral shape
seen from the left and right ear canal entrances is a complex shape including a part of one head,
especially in the vertical direction or the front-back direction, each having a different shape and
symmetrical about one circumferential direction. Have no sex. For this reason, this effect appears
mainly on the "tone characteristic" of the sounds collected at the left and right ear canal
entrances, and the sounds collected at this side are common to the left and right, and are
different from one another for each arrival direction. Will have The timbre characteristics
according to the direction of arrival are read by the auditory system via the left and right ear
canal and eardrum as direction information regarding the vertical direction or the front-rear
direction, and the identification of the sound source direction is performed. This means that the
auditory system previously memorizes the relationship between the sound source direction and
the timbre characteristics of the sound reaching the left and right tympanic membrane, and for
the auditory system as the timbre characteristics of the reproduced sound, It means that forward
and backward direction information can be provided. Thus, in an audio signal having directional
information. Direction information relating to the localization direction of the reproduced sound
in the vertical direction or the front-back direction or the change thereof [phase], mainly by being
reproduced as the timbre characteristic of the reproduced sound or the change thereof. An
“audio signal having direction information in the vertical direction as the timbre characteristic
of the reproduced sound” is obtained. , (The claims will be described in the following. The
specific reason why the auditory system can distinguish the sound source direction in the vertical
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direction is the small horn-like shaped parts respectively formed between the left and right lower
ear holes and the entrance of the ear canal. The directivity of the ear of the ear is caused by
being directed upwards, and the high-frequency component or the proportion of the upper sound
occupied in each sound collected at the left and right ear canal inlets is the sound source in the
vertical direction Direction-this depends on this tonal characteristic.
This is because it is the main direction information in the vertical direction with respect to the
auditory system. Therefore, a voice signal having vertical direction information equivalent to this
can be detected by a microphone set as shown in FIG. 1 for incoming voice. (O) in the figure is a
directional microphone The reed direction direction is set as the upward U direction. In this state,
the timbre characteristic of the audio signal S detected in the microphone (0) is high when the
direction of arrival of the voice is upward U, the proportion of high frequency component or
upper sound is high, and the direction of arrival is FU-F- As the FD and the anti-directional
direction CD) are approached, this ratio gradually decreases to be in the one re-directional
direction, and this ratio is the most reduced. Therefore, the sound signal S detected by the
microphone (O) in FIG. 1 has the direction information of the sound source direction with respect
to the vertical direction with the directivity direction of the microphone (1) upward and the
dedirectional direction downward. It becomes an audio signal having a timbre characteristic
similar to that of the collected audio. FIG. 2 has a directional microphone in FIG. 1 and a small
horn (2) having an opening of about 2 centimeters. マイクロホン(1)としたものである。 As a
result, a sound signal S can be obtained which is located further upward as in the case of FIG.
Also, the opening of the horn is effective up to about 5 centimeters. FIG. 3 is a side view of the
opening surface of the microphone (1) having the small horn (2) of FIG. 2, with an opening of 3
cm and a depth of about 1 cm. And a resonant cavity having a resonance point in the audible
range. In this case, by adjusting the depth of the resonance cavity by the movable bottom (5), it
becomes possible to adjust the localization direction of the reproduced sound S 'of the detected
audio signal S in the vertical direction, In particular, the orientation of the lower part can be
adjusted to a more reliable one. Also, a plurality of resonance cavities may be used to make a
finer adjustment. In FIG. 4, the opening of the small horn (2) of FIG. 3 and the opening of the
resonant cavity (4) (5) are extended in parallel with the opening surface, and this portion is It is
In this case, it is possible to detect direction information on the other backward B in the vertical
direction U and D. In FIG. 5, the microphone according to the configuration of FIG. 4 is set on the
left and right sides of a cylinder or sphere (7) having a diameter of about 20 centimeters, with
the opening face of the resonance cavity as the front, It is In this case, due to the influence of 1
cylinder or ball (7).
Direction information on the front F is included together with direction information on the leftright direction L-R1 vertical direction U-D and the rear B. It becomes possible to detect stereo
signals SR and SL. This cylinder or sphere is effective at diameters of 5 centimeters or more. The
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hatched portion in the figure may be omitted. Also, it is + i in FIG. 2 to FIG. The microphone (1)
having the small horn (2) may be a directional microphone (0). The above mainly describes “a
method of detecting an audio signal having direction information in the vertical direction as a
timbre characteristic of reproduced sound”. It is detected by this preferred implementation.
“The audio signal having the direction information in the vertical direction as the timbre
characteristic of the reproduced sound” mainly shows the effect of enabling the listener by
headphones to reproduce and perceive the sound source direction in the vertical direction, which
has hitherto been impossible. It is obtained as shown in Fig.5. This stereo signal has the effect of
enabling the listener to reproduce and perceive a wide range of sound source directions in the
front, rear, left and right, up and down directions to the listener via headphones, and it is possible
to obtain what should be called omnidirectional stereo signals for headphones. It arrived. Also, in
this stereo signal, the sound source direction in the vertical direction tends to be reproduced
even in normal stereo reproduction, and a special effect of enhancing the feeling of the field is
recognized. Furthermore, this stereo signal is compared with the conventional stereo signal
because of the characteristic of the ear that exhibits higher sensitivity to distant sounds, because
the localization of the reproduced sound leaves the left and right ears and localizes in the same
distance and direction as actual. There is a feature that can be heard at the same volume at low
playback sound pressure. It is recognized that the solution to the problem of hearing loss by
headphones, which has been a problem in the past, is effective to a considerable extent.
[0002]
Brief description of the drawings
[0003]
1 and 2 are side views.
3 and 4 are perspective views (one-part perspective view), and FIG. 5 is a top view. In the figure,
0 is a directional microphone. 1 is a microphone, 2 is a small phone. 3 is the output line of the
microphone. 4 is a cylinder of the resonance cavity, 5 is the same, the movable bottom, 6 is a
sound insulation board, 7 is a cylinder or a ball.
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