The great unification of physical theories and problems of astronomy.код для вставкиСкачать
Einstein's general theory of relativity, the theory of gravity and space-time, has been quite successful over the years. However, no scientific theory is sacred, because the task of scientists is to explore the world in various ways and discard theo
Raf Ibrahimovic. The great unification of physical theories and problems of astronomy. Virtual Astrophysical Observatory, motleys mountains, Alma-Ata, СНС. 050060, Kazakhstan, Almaty, Rozybakiev St. 138, ap. 44, 87051366066. Annotation. With the rapid development of observational astronomy, in a wide range of frequencies and wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation, along with amazing discoveries, a host of unsolved problems arose, the solution of which this work is devoted to. And as it turned out, the root of the problem lies in underestimating the structure of photons. Some of the extensions of the Standard Model proposed by theoretical physicists predict the existence of ultralight bosons, the class of which, for example, includes photons. These hypothetical bosons are much lighter than any known particles with nonzero mass. And the GRASS theory established that a photon is an unstable elementary particle with a lifetime that depends on the number of pulsations in each of which there is an equidistant loss of the minimum vacuum energy ᴥ [ultralight boson], which leads to a dissipative loss of its energy in galactic space, as well as - Slowing down the speed of light and decay in the microwave. The consequences of these discoveries certainly - ARMAGEDDON! It should be noted that the main points and conclusions of the GRASS theory are based on the results of observations and experiments of astro and physicists of the twentieth century! Keywords: Universe, galaxy, star, big bang, elementary particles, neutrino, photons, gravitational radiation, hyperspace, space quantization, time, metric, gravity detector, black hole, grass, theory of Thrones 1. PHOTON, as an unstable element of an open universe. Physical Vacuum is “nothing” from which “something” arises, and in such a variety that we ask the question - is there “nothing”? Some of the extensions of the Standard Model proposed by physicists-theorists predict the existence of super-light bosons, the class of which, for example, includes photons. These hypothetical bosons are much lighter than any known particles with nonzero mass and energy! And the GRASS theory established this hypothetical particle, which is the minimal element of vacuum energy ᴥ [ultralight boson - ULB]. The identification is obtained from the analysis of data on Sn1a, as well as on quasars, that is - if the energy loss of photons e along distance R is divided by the total number of pulsations N of these photons, then this leads to such a constant: ᴥ = 1,5629E-33 ( 1.840E-33) eV and unexpectedly it turned out that there is a coincidence ᴥ ≡ (h*Hо) & (Hо) connecting the fundamental constant of vacuum ᴥ (boson Rafa), micro world h, (Planck) and macrocosm H (Hubble). Statement: Each photon pulsation is associated with a loss of energy ᴥ. And the extragalactic red shift of the EMP energy is the sum of the energy losses ᴥ, and the magnitude of this loss depends linearly on both its initial energy and distance. We conclude that ᴥ is the minimum element of energy and if we represent it as a wave, then comparing with the formula for the photon energy e = h* we have the value of its frequency H0 = 2.3 E−18 Hz! And the time value Т = 1,336E + 10 ly is equal to the age of the Universe, from the moment of its birth at a distance L0 = 1,264E + 35 nm, which is equal to the wavelength ᴥ. Mysteriously, but interesting because these numbers cannot be called an accident! Indeed, it can be assumed that ᴥ is a kind of string from the event of the birth of the Universe in its space and time, and perhaps it is - particles of god. 2. Quantization of space by RED photons. Statement: An arbitrary distance r can be represented as an integer photon wavelength RED, that is: rn = n*λ, where n = e/ᴥ! And photons from the past bring information about the world, and the answer is sent to the future, in this way the observer takes a central place in time. At the basis of linear quantization of space, we use the mechanism of dissipative extragalactic redshift of a known wavelength or, more precisely, an integer quantum number n of the number of photon pulsations over a distance rn = n*λn! It is obvious that the extragalactic redshift increases the wavelength λn and reduces the photon energy n therefore, if we argue correctly, then the distance r is a nonlinear function n! The dissipative model of photon energy loss leads to such a frequency: n = (0–n*Ho), with the number of pulsations n = h*n)/ ᴥ = n )/Ho. After that, we assume in a first approximation that the distance is represented as follows: r = n* but the red extragalactic shift (RED) increases the wavelength according to the law Z=r = (And therefore n - when non-linearly quantizing a distance with a wavelength of RED, and the relationship between the distance traveled and the number of ripples n has a non-linear form: Dn = *⅀ (1 + Ho*)n (1) And for sufficiently large n, it tends to distance 1 / Ho to the edge of the Universe and the photon ceases to exist. And the displacement takes the form: Zn= n** and therefore, depends on the number of ripples linearly! Further, the values of the wavelength and photon frequency make it possible to calculate its partial velocity: Cn/Co = (1-Ho/0)*n* (2) where Ho= /c and co = 0. In this way, the basic parameters of the photons n, n, Сn, as well as the displacements of these parameters are representable by the number of photon pulsations n! We conclude: there is a dissipative mechanism of red extragalactic shift of photon energy (RED), a slowing down of distance and dissolution in vacuum at the end of the path (the finite lifetime of a photon), and therefore, an age-old debate about the legitimacy of the Hubble law in combination with the Doppler effect and much more Resolved not in favor of the latter. 3. The external gravitational boundary of the Sun's star. In the vicinity of the Sun, there are more than 700 stars whose spectrum shift has a purple color. And if according to the Hubble law, then we have as a result the movement of this array of stars in the direction of the Sun with an ever increasing speed at a = 7.810E+ 6 km/s /mpc! But during the life of our star, they should already be here, but they are not there and therefore we conclude that this movement is virtual! Such a high value of the acceleration a at the outer gravitational boundary of the Sun's star does not significantly affect the final result because the radiation from the source loses the same part of the energy when it leaves the gravitational field and therefore is compensated. In the field of distances, a.e. Acceleration takes on the value of the Hubble constant, but with the opposite sign, which is established by the virtual braking of spacecraft both Pioneer and Voyeur. In this way, the external gravitational boundary of the Sun star is established, which is 4.77 rs! 4. Gravitational lensing of the Sun's gravitational field. And the light travels the distance from the star’s gravitational edge in 3.25 Julian years, and therefore, despite the weak field value, its long-term effect on photons from distant stellar objects has a noticeable effect on the trajectory. And the established gravitational lensing confirms these statements, but this effect is the result of the total influence of the inputoutput gravitational field. But we are interested in lensing light rays from stellar objects inside our star’s gravitational field! In this way, we establish the presence of a gravitational thick nonlinear lens G2V! 5. Superposition of displacements and energetics of supernovae formation. The basic properties of photons, such as speed, pulsation frequency, and wavelength are related as follows: co= for the radiation source and c = * for the detector system, which ultimately leads to a connection between the parameter shifts EMP: c) ≡ (1 + Z Where c = (co/c-1), Z and A feature of the observed spectral shift Z is In the fact that it contains and is divided into contributions, both of the Doppler effect from the radial velocity of formation of Sn - Zv, and the change in displacement from the distance traveled Zλ. By their nature, these processes are sequential: first of all, this is a change in the photon wavelength from λ0 to λ' (Doppler effect - Zv = v / c), with its subsequent increase from λ' to λ, on the way to the observer ZAs a result, we have The golden rule of superposition for the displacement of Z, from these processes: (1 + Z) = Zv - Zv * Zλ + Zλ. Actually, the Doppler shift from the radial velocity of the bounce of the flare, during the formation of Sn1a, is an indicator of the energy of this process, and it turned out that with the removal into the past, the explosion activity increases. Thus Sn1a is not a standard candle, but will remain so if the absolute magnitude Sn1a is corrected by such a simple dependence: M = Mo - log Rmpc, where Rmpc > 1 and Mo = -19.74m for the candle standard adopted earlier and used in the construction of the metric. The established fact of an increase in the absolute magnitude of Sn1a Radial velosities (v/c) rebound flares Supernovae 0,4 0,3 0,2 0,1 0 0,5 1 1,5 2 2,5 3 3,5 4 4,5 0 0,5 1 1,5 2 2,5 3 3,5 4 4,5 0 -0,1 -0,2 -0,3 leads to the elimination of a long-standing inconsistency in cosmology known as the 'horizon problem.' Pushing the boundary of the universe, we remove this difference, and with it the problem of the horizon. And it turned out that the use of correction leads to an increase in the distance to the edge of the universe at times! According to the proposed protocol, the size of the Universe is calculated and has the value D = /ᴥ = 2.57E + 04 mpc, which is close to estimating the maximum possible distance of 28194.57497 mpc 6. Now about the red extragalactic shift of photon energy. First of all, the general theory of relativity predicts a change in frequency (redshift) when a photon passes the gravitational potential: Z = = (U0U)/c2, where ο −) is a change in the photon frequency. This fact is experimentally established. Comparing with the experimental displacement data obtained by Edwin Hubble v \u003d H0 * r we finally obtain the identity: Z = (Uo-U (r))/с2 ≅ r*q0, where q0 = H0/c = .000313/mpc. We come to the conclusion: during the passage of galactic space, from the source to the detector, photons experience a linear deceleration of the medium identical to inhibition by the linear gravitational potential of the Universe. And the process of redshift of energy is similar to the effect that is observed when radiation leaves the star's gravitational field! But if the Universe is presented as a superstar, then the movement of photons inside the gravitational medium will be inhibited according to Hooke's law. 7. Hubble constant (experimentally determined value) - its dimension is mysterious and incomprehensible km/c/mpc, but it allows such a decoding of GRASS theory - as a change in the speed of light km/c in one mpc of its path. Another version of the representation H = 2.3E−18 s − 1 has a frequency dimension, that is, in fact, the energy loss is also the same for one ms of its path. But, the energy is e1 = h* at the beginning of the path, and e2 = h * at the end of the path and therefore the difference e = h and finally The displacement has the form: Ze = ( And therefore, the Hubble law takes the form suitable for constructing the metric: D = (c/Ho)*Znor, more precisely, dn = n*c* where n = e/ᴥ and in the first approximation depends linearly on the number of pulsations? But the real connection is the distance from the number of pulsations established by quantization of the Red space by photons and therefore, non-linear: Dn *⅀(1 + Ho*) n, (4) where n= h * n)/ᴥ = n)/Ho. So, the Hubble law is transformed and takes the form of free from philosophical considerations about the recession of the stars of the Universe from the star of the Sun. But in reality, everything is more complicated - the basic parameters of photons are being transformed: frequency, wavelength, and the speed of R photons also slows down. And what's more: the photon, as it turned out, is an unstable particle, has a finite number of pulsations with decay in the region of relict photons! 8. The inner region of the star G 2 V (Sun). Consider the anomalous acceleration ≪pioneer 10.11≫: When spacecraft leave the solar system, violet braking is observed with acceleration ap = -7.8 E-8 cm/c2, while the braking parameter is qp = -, 0002994 /mpc! It can be seen that qp is almost equal to q = H0/c = .000313/mpc, but with the opposite sign, which is consistent with the virtual nature of the violet shift Zf. Moreover, if the nature of RED is the essence of the dissipative loss of EMP energy, then the violet shift is undoubtedly caused by an increase in the EMP energy when it enters the star’s gravitational field! Thus, the established dynamic properties of EMR reflect the gravitational properties of photons - when a star enters the field, the acceleration of photons (their violet shift) is observed, which is interpreted as braking of the pioneer 10, 11 spacecraft! 9. ᴥ elementary particle model and MT gravitational field! Statement: Each pulsation of electromagnetic energy is associated with the loss of the minimum elements of the vacuum energies ᴥ. Hypothesis of Quantum. A stable elementary particle can be represented as a pulsating quantum that is “glued” by a charge q. Therefore, with each pulsation, quantum loses the minimum element of vacuum energy ᴥ (the fundamental property of electromagnetic radiation) and, due to its stability property, this loss is filled by the charge q (which determines the strong interaction) from the vacuum medium, and the flow of energy elements ᴥ towards the center of mass and Creates a gravitational field of the material body by transmitting its momentum. Thus, the proposed allow model allows you to combine all the processes of transformation of elementary particles, including the graviton ᴥ, and simultaneously justify the theory of gravity, which previously could not be understood and accepted! The extension of this model to MT leads to acceptable gravity results for both the Sun's star and the Earth! And this formula of the energy flow of gravitons to the square meter MT site: P = W / (4*R2) (J/m2/с). (5) 10. Gravitational radiation. It was established  that the transformation of the energy of motion into energy of the potential or in the opposite direction is accompanied by the performance of work! But there is also “hidden” energy - the binding energy, that is: any material body consists of small parts - atoms, the sum of the masses of which is not equal to the mass of the MT. This mass difference, by the principle of its equivalence of energy, is the binding energy. This principle is valid both in the macrocosm of hypermechanics and in the micro world of elementary particles! Moreover, the value of determines the unstable state of the particles, which leads to its decay over time inversely proportional to the value of the log binding energy. And the value determines the stable state of the MT, but stability is ensured by the work of the binding energy, the result of which manifests itself in the nature of gravity as a result of the flow of gravitons in the direction of the center of mass of the body. Actually, the material body is a bunch of pulsating energy with a certain architecture, the stability of which provides an influx of binding energy. And from the property of stability of architecture follows the discreteness of changes in its states or the quantum nature of its energy levels. Further, in the case of harmonic oscillation of a flat pendulum, in the field of gravity of the earth, both the minimum (when deflecting) and maximum (when its vertical position) values of the binding energy of the plate take place. Synchronously with the oscillation of the plate, the process of radiation and absorption of binding energy in the form of gravitational waves with the frequency of the pendulum takes place. And further, over time, in the process of successive approximation, the binding energy is distributed and absorbed by the vacuum medium and the oscillation of the pendulum slows down, but it does not stop completely, because there is “white noise”, and this is already quantum effects! It should be noted that the oscillation frequencies of the pendulum are fixed, and even with a slow movement of the magnet of the frequency regulator, the oscillation frequency of the pendulum changes stepwise. Moreover, the energy levels of the pendulum are discrete and equidistant, and therefore the energy of the corresponding levels is given by the formula for the quantum harmonic oscillator: en = h*n + 1/2), where e0 = h*0 is the unit element of the vacuum energy with Frequency 0 =, 122 Hz. Further, a flat pendulum can be either a source (emitter) or a detector of spherical gravitational waves, which is the main principle in the implementation of phantom detection. 11. The main findings of the observation of phantom radiation. Each planet of the solar system has its own frequency of alpha resonance which is detected by the detector; With powerful cataclysms on the sun, the response of the planets occurs, which is recorded by the sensor on the planet earth; With more powerful cataclysms in remote space, the detector fixes the line of confluence of neutron stars of 24 Hz with the subsequent generation of alpha resonances of all the planets of the solar system. Mysterious is the constant resonance at a frequency of 50 Hz. Unidentifiable resonance lines are also observed - presumably the planets of Nibiru and Phaeton ! And the resonance of the planetary system of the sun was forced flash GW170817! 12. The hypothetically elusive neutrino particle is a phantom. In the concept of GRASS theory, the problems associated with neutrinos are easily solved! A mass defect is the binding energy and, in the conversion reactions, is carried away with the emission of phantoms, which have ultra-low frequencies and also the pulsation frequency during its capture, which occurs when the source and target resonance during the transfer of n quanta of radiant energy. And the process of energy transfer takes place according to the beat pulsation, as in the children's counting 'back and forth ...', and for the entire period between the source and the detector, a connection has been established by the thread of Ariadne! And this connection can neither be screened nor broken! Direct magic, some, but otherwise this process is beyond description. 13. The Universe under conditions of instability of photon parameters. The equivalence postulate: the physics of space, the properties of space and time are inseparable from the metric that is given by EMR photons from the star. And the speeds, accelerations and distances, in one way or another, are determined by measurements of the radiation parameters, therefore, the nonlinearity of the metric, when the EMR parameters are not constant, as well as the expansion or contraction of space and time are equivalent concepts! This postulate raises the problem of the legitimacy of our idea of distant worlds what do we observe with telescopes and how correct is the accepted picture of the world? After all, a priori it is believed that photons are classified as fundamental stable particles, but it turned out that the number of pulsations, with their finite number, ultimately determines our idea of an open Universe! 14. The spectrum of equilibrium radiation and cosmology! Assuming that the spectrum of relict photons is unchanged, we conclude that the attenuation of the 'tired' and the arrival of photons with parameters is equal to the maximum at a frequency of 160.4 GHz, which corresponds to a wavelength of 1.9 mm. The partial speed max of photons c \u003d * is more than 304 000 km / s, which indicates their difficult identification! And the energy density of relict photons is 0.25 eV / cm (4⋅10−14 J / m3) or 400-500 phot / cm3. Therefore, a RED photon is the most abundant particle in the Universe. There are at least 20 billion photons per nucleon. The wavelength and frequency (energy) of the maximum of the microwave radiation lead to a group photon velocity of C \u003d 304.56 km / s, which c> C! This effect has been known since the time of M. Planck! Therefore, it makes sense to understand in more detail because the GRASS theory asserts the exact opposite, namely, the group speed of photons decreases over time! Let us consider in more detail the decay process of RED photons. 15. For the initial radiation, We take the maximum of the continuous spectrum of solar radiation located in the 'green' region of 550 nm, where the maximum sensitivity of the eye is located. The corresponding relict photon displacements are calculated and have values: Z = 34544.5 and Z = 3.63E + 06, and therefore, due to the relation of the photon parameter displacements Zc=1.06E+02, and the speed of microwave photons is 2830 km/с, which was required to install! Further, the experimentally measured spectrum of microwave radiation indicates a decrease in energy with increasing wavelength, which indicates, firstly, a decrease in both the speed and concentration of photons in this region of the spectrum. But the process of extragalactic redshift constantly moves photons into the region of longer waves with their dissolution in a vacuum medium, while the shape of the equilibrium emission spectrum does not change! Thus, microwave photons are formed by the emission of all stellar objects from the early time of the existence of the world! And it is in the region of equilibrium microwave radiation that RED photons slow down and then decay into energy elements ᴥ! But these processes allow us to assert only about the minimum time of the existence of the Universe, and the slowdown of the speed of photons, depending on the number of pulsations, casts doubt on the distance to its edge! And the slowdowns in the speed of microwave photons (their defocusing) generally cast doubt on the postulate about the constancy of the speed of light and its consequences! Paradox. It is known that Planck proposed two versions of the equilibrium radiation formula - for the frequency scale and for the wavelength scale. Amazingly, these two options, describing the spectrum of the same radiation, give inconsistent positions of the maximum of the spectral curve. If we compare these two maxima on the wavelength scale, then they differ almost twice. Elementary logic suggests that both such different positions of the maximum cannot be confirmed by experiment. And, indeed, measurements confirm only one version of the Planck formula - for the wavelength scale. Theorists, on the other hand, prefer to work with the frequency variant of Planck's which formula, contradicts experience. 16. Cosmology at the same time receives a model of an open universe, that is - no matter how much the observer shifts to either side, the observed Universe will definitely have the shape of a sphere! Equilibrium radiation is formed by replacing the black box with the black sphere, without loss of generality. And at the borders of this sphere there is an identical exchange of photon fluxes both outside and inside the sphere! But the radius of the open Universe is formed by the lifetime of photons, which after the limit breaks up into an ᴥ [ultralight boson - ULB] array in a vacuum environment and therefore, the observer does not have information about processes beyond this conditional boundary! At an early stage of development, there was such a term - an infinite universe, but this is a mathematical abstraction, more precisely, a concept or definition will be introduced - an unlimited Mega universe or an open Universe. 17. The processes of transformation of stars. According to the main quantum sequence , by the compactness coefficient k (n), the entire stellar series is arranged in this order: Quasars (n = 1), the Sun (n = 47), Jupiter (n = 65), Earth (n = 78), Moon (n = 90). All these objects of the sequence are separated by a defect of radii, densities, masses, luminosity and which are installed. It remains to associate this sequence with the law of a discrete transition, over the course of world time, with an increase in the quantum number of a star n, moreover, a discrete transition is accompanied by an explosive process with the formation of: gamma-ray flashes, gipernovae, supernovae, with a decrease in the released energy in accordance with M (n). This fact is confirmed by an increase in the explosive activity of the formation of Sn1a, previously established. For stars close to G2V (the sun), the energy released is not enough for the supernovae fireworks and the transition process is more calm, and the proof is an example with Sirius (in the Middle Ages this star was red). But what kind of object X was at the beginning of time and its history - the theory of thrones postulates that they were “black stars” with a compactness factor K = ,788; M/Msun = 234797; R/Rsun = 10666; Rsh = 2GM/c2 = 7.425E+14; P(g/cm3) = 2.73998E-07. According to the density of the bosonic form of matter, we can conclude about the almost 'pure' energy of a stellar object! But what kind of object was earlier, when k ≈ 1, it was still “Black Stars”, because by its properties it was a stellar object invisible due to the lack of radiation and which, through the gamma of a flash, led to the formation of the galactic nucleus and then formed The galaxy itself. Thus, in the proposed model of transformation of stellar objects in the Universe in the region of galactic nuclei, the birth of stars by the galactic nucleus occurs, and not a catastrophic disappearance in black holes. And direct measurements of the speed of stars indicate their outflow from the center, but with a higher speed. To explain this phenomenon, it must be assumed that star objects, all possible elements, photons, phantoms, and radiation of gravitons on a mass scale are born in the galactic nucleus and their flux gives the stars an additional force vector from the YAG by transmitting their momentum! But this flow of gravitons is not directly observed and therefore invisible - the ether wind is returning! 18. Spatial-temporal splitting of the spectrum of sn1a. Yes, in a first approximation, the initial speed of light is constant, but for different frequencies the final speed is different by a small amount, but enough to fix it! In figures, this influence is located at 10 decimal places of the speed of light, which is not available for direct measurement, but all-wave astronomy observes some stellar objects on various instruments - from x-ray to microwave telescopes. The photo for illustration shows the remainder of supernovae E0102-72 compiled by an overlay of three ranges. When combining such images, interesting pictures are obtained that can be interpreted in this way: radiation from an explosion, infrared radiation, visible light, ultraviolet and X-rays come to the observers' telescopes. Supernovae in this sequence - radio waves, microwave. And therefore, there is the effect of spatiotemporal splitting of the EMP spectrum from supernovae, which is due to the effect of a greater slowdown in speed with increasing photon frequency. And as it was established above, the main factor in the transformation of the EMR parameters is the interaction of photons with gravitational fields of both the radiation source and the observer’s star, as well as the extragalactic redshift caused by the dissipative loss of the vacuum energy element ᴥ with each of its pulsations! If these statements are true, then photons with a higher energy, and, consequently, a larger mass, should lose more energy when braking by a gravitational field than photons with a lower energy, all other things being equal! This fact is also confirmed by observation of the formation of Sn87A - radiation in the Xray range was detected on the Chandra telescope six months after the outbreak, in the visible region of the spectrum! Therefore, speed EMF photon inhibition is a function of the frequency (energy) of the radiation! 19. Quantum evolution of stellar objects of the Universe. The Tron theory established  that the main parameters of stellar objects, such as compactness, density, radius, gravitational mass, bolometric luminosity are quantized, that is, they vary discretely starting from quasars and galactic nuclei, and moreover, the found patterns are also valid for solar planets Systems and their satellites. The same place was discovered where the mysterious dark energy is located - and it turned out that inside the quasars and stars themselves. And the photometric and spectral shifts of the EMR parameters, when considered separately, do not contain complete information about the processes that accompany the detection of radiation from quasars. But a spectral analysis of unique data was developed on the measured displacements Zfot and Zspec of a large array of quasars with Z> 1 , with high volatility., Which leads to Zc ≠ 0. But if we take into account the effect of the loss of photon velocity over time, Then the compactness coefficients k for stellar objects provided in  are calculated. Quite unexpectedly, the quasar array was stratified into six discrete levels, which are characterized by compactness coefficients: Log k = - 0.16 - (2n - 1) * 0.056. And the obtained quantum laws, during the transformation of stellar objects, allow us to clarify the understanding of the laws that determine interconnection physics and of the quantum cosmology, including the latest interpretation of observational astronomy data. And this is a discovery from the realm of fiction: a single integer quantum number defines all the parameters of stellar objects like stars, planets, and even their satellites! Ingenious! 20. Overview of research on the nuclei of galaxies by modern Astronomers Gradually, the idea was formed that compact blue objects of relatively low compatibility could be thrown out of the galactic nuclei as a result of enormous explosions in scale. It turned out further that we are dealing with at least three forms of nuclear activity. The first is the outflow of gas flows, the second is the ejection of blue clots, the third is explosions, leading to the transformation of the galaxy into a radio galaxy. All these phenomena turned out to be on such a large scale that there was no doubt about the possibility of a large influence of the nucleus on the development of the galaxy as a whole. The activity of the nuclei of galaxies and quasars is manifested by the release of a huge amount of energy - often in the short term in the form of explosions and emissions of huge clots and clouds of gases, whose masses are millions of times greater than the mass of the Sun. To explain these unusual phenomena, it can be assumed that in each active core there is some supermassive body that makes up its core. The activity of the nucleus is the result of the activity of this supermassive body. Its mass can be equated to hundreds of millions and even billions of solar masses. There is reason to believe that the very existence of a galaxy around a nucleus is the result of the activity of such a supermassive body. Not the nucleus was formed in an already existing galaxy, but the galaxy arose as a result of the activity of the nucleus. The fact that the arms of spiral galaxies emerge from the nuclei is fully consistent with this hypothesis. The hypothesis outlined here is not yet a consistent theory. But it made it possible to combine a great many facts, anticipate many new data, and most importantly, pointed to the bias of previously existing ideas about the condensation of galaxies. If we accept this hypothesis, we must conclude that the nucleus of a galaxy, losing enormous masses of matter during its lifetime, undergoing an explosion and even sometimes fission, should change dramatically over time and, possibly, disappear. However, it will take a lot of effort before you can establish patterns of change in the state of the nucleus. As a result of the modern development of astronomy, the use of increasingly powerful optical and radio telescopes, our ideas about the Universe have completely changed. Even in the middle of the twentieth century, it seemed to be a calm and even solemn world of motionless stars in equilibrium. Now we are witnessing the violent activity of the same stars that are experiencing grandiose flashes and are rapidly evolving. The discovery of radio nebulae and radio galaxies led us to the idea of rapid changes on an even larger scale. You can see that the Astrophysical community is slowly but surely following the path of correcting the basic paradigms of this science of the 20th century and recognizing the need to introduce fresh ideas that are firmly rejected! P.S. Thus, we confirm the commonality of the developed concept of the birth of galaxies and stellar objects black star → quasars and galaxies shown in this paper. 21. Other problems of modern astronomy and solutions. Missing Baryons. 3.6% of our universe belongs to intergalactic gas and 0.4% to stars and planets. Baryonic matter is ordinary matter of which our and other planets are composed. But the catch is that almost half of this matter is not where it is supposed to be. Scientists all over the world are pondering over where baryonic matter has gone. Let's consider in more detail. I consider dark energy in cosmology 74% - a hypothetical form of energy introduced into the mathematical model of the Universe in order to explain the observations of its expansion with acceleration. Simply put - the kinetic energy of the substance of the universe received by the Big Bang. With the adoption of the dissipative model of photon energy loss and the open universe model, the Hubble law and the next big bang theory and the term dark energy cease to exist and therefore 74% of the dark energy from the mass balance - the energy of the universe drops out! How the stars explode. The only thing scientists know about this process is that when the stars run out of fuel, the nuclear reaction in them comes to an end, which leads to an explosion. But what is the mechanism of this phenomenon is not known to anyone. The chain of thermonuclear reactions laid by Bethe as the basis of the star’s life mechanisms is incorrect due to the cessation of the existence of the Sun’s star long before our time. It must be an additional source of energy that nourishes its activity. And this source is the hidden energy of the vacuum - CMEA, which has been in the star since its birth. Each star has its own random percentage of CMEA, and therefore this factor determines the type of star and its lifetime. The thermodynamic equilibrium of reactions, including the process of converting CMEA into the bosonic form of matter, and the binding energy of a star can be disturbed spontaneously - while the death of a star consists in a sharp change in the binding energy with an increase in the density of the star, which leads to the extrusion of electromagnetic radiation to the surface. This process leads to the emission of radiation and the surface layer of the star as a result of which a supernovae burst forms with the formation of a residue! Dark matter or CMEA in astronomy and cosmology, as well as in theoretical physics, is a hypothetical form of 22% matter that does not emit electromagnetic radiation and does not directly interact with it. This property of this form of matter makes it difficult and, possibly, even makes it impossible to observe it directly. Moreover, in fact, something in the nuclei of galaxies greatly enhances gravity, and therefore the outer regions of the galaxy rotate faster than they should. To denote this “something”, scientists also suggested the possibility of the existence of invisible matter, which, nevertheless, has a significant impact on all objects in the visible part of the Universe. Moreover, dark matter, according to calculations, should be several times larger than ordinary matter. More precisely, it is believed that 80% of the matter in our visible part of the Universe is dark matter. According to the concept of the theory of thrones, during the ice age of the universe there was no radiation, but there were quasi-star objects of 'black stars' of dark energy with the energy density of the nucleus of atoms. The next stage in the birth of the universe is “hot” - as a result of which “black stars” give birth to quasars and already quasars give birth to galaxies with myriad stars. And galaxies with a quasar in the nucleus are the place where stars and planets are born, and in general all the matter of the universe, including the entire table of stable elements. For these reasons, the Sun also contains dark matter, % of which is the source of that energy, which both shines and warms, and at the same time practically does not change the gravitational bosonic mass of the star. Where did the galaxies come from - it is believed that the energy contribution is ≈, 4%. There are many versions about where planets and stars came from, but the appearance of galaxies is still an unsolved mystery to scientists. First of all, there are measurements of the rates of the outflow of stars from the center of galaxies, which indicate the fact of the birth of stars in the core - a quasar! The second fact is that in an in-depth review of the Hubble telescope, this is an early universe, only early galaxies are observed and there are no single stars! Two facts are quite enough to state that stars are born in large numbers in quasars, and galaxies are the result of a long and active process in the core of the galaxy, which rejects the life of the quasi-star object “black hole”! Gamma-ray bursts. During these incredibly bright explosions, a tremendous amount of energy breaks out into the Universe. In a few seconds, such a gamma-ray burst produces an amount of energy equivalent to the work of the Sun for 10 billion years. Bursts occur randomly. The process of birth of quasars from 'black stars' is the source of gamma-ray bursts, and possibly high-energy cosmic rays. These phenomena cannot be explained by the laws of physics, which puzzles scientists. Also, no one can explain where these cosmic rays came from, which literally flood the Earth. The energy of their particles is hundreds of millions of times greater than any laboratory-produced artificial particles. Now it’s clear where to look for the sources of these processes: in the hot birth of the Universe, where Black Stars gives birth to Quasar, in the initial stage of the birth of the Universe! How did the moon and other planets of the solar system form? The construction of a quantum sequence of stellar objects led to the sequence: the Sun (n \u003d 47), Jupiter (n \u003d 65), the Earth (n \u003d 78), the Moon (n \u003d 90), that is, almost all stellar objects have their own quantum number, according to To which other parameters of this object are calculated, such as radius, mass, density, luminosity for stars! We conclude - born in one place and this place is the core of the galaxy! The exceptions are the satellites of Mars Phobos and Deimos, as well as the moons of Jupiter N4, Amalthea also does not reach seven orders of magnitude in weight (it should be ~ 2.0E + 25 kg instead of real 2.1E + 18 kg), similarly to Phoebe. Therefore, along with the satellites of Mars Phobos and Deimos, the moons of Jupiter Amalthea and Phoebus are supposedly man-made objects. How did the rings form around the giant planets? An analysis of the planetary system of the Sun by equations of hypermechanics led to an unexpected conclusion: neither the mass nor other parameters of the dimensions of the planets affect the period of revolution and the number of the orbit! Like - where the planet jumped in there lives! And this is possible only if these orbits exist, regardless of the presence or absence of planets on it. Similarly, the planets are gas giants - they are simply not made stars and therefore have their regular orbits. The reasons for the explosion of supernova stars are not completely clear? At the stage of mass formation of stellar objects in the nuclei of galaxies, the upper massif of the “Black star” shell is ejected, a Gipernovae explosion or - flash occurs, in which the stars capture a random percentage of net latent energy, and this percentage determines both the type of star and its lifetime because How the annihilation reaction of this energy lasts already in the star and this, along with the chain of nuclear fusion reactions proposed by Bethe! When the star’s energy balance is violated, a sharp increase in the binding energy and star density occurs, which leads to the extrusion of radiation along with the outer shell - this is the Supernovae flash. Black hole. One of the most interesting questions of the past is the formation of stellar objects l Black Hole ≫, leading to mass delusion! Nobody watched them, but let's calculate the energy balance, because the conservation laws for closed systems have not yet been violated. So, as you know, the process of supernovae formation is accompanied by the release of radiant energy of ~ 5, * E + 53erg, which is equivalent to Msn ~ 1, * E + 35g, while the gravitational mass of a standard star is Msun ~ E + 33 grams! Actually, it is assumed that the mass of the star on the eve of the formation of supernovae is equal to Msn \u003d ~ 100 * Msun, but this gravitational mass is converted into electromagnetic radiation energy! But the exotic object экзот Black Hole ’is not there, at the place of the outbreak, because there is not enough gravitational mass in its remains necessary for its formation! Thus, the Supernovae flare annihilates the gravitational mass of a stellar object into EMP radiation, but a residue is possible! Particularly mysterious are the short bursts of gamma radiation that regularly occur in various directions in the sky. These are the Black Star activation signals, which led to the birth of galaxies in the remote space and time of the Universe. The latent mass problem, which consists in the fact that the gravitational field of galaxies and clusters of galaxies is several times stronger than this can be observed, has not been solved. In addition to the observed mass, there is also the pure hidden energy of the vacuum “Black star” which transforms into the bosonic form of matter and contributes to the gravitation of galaxies. There is no single theory of galaxy formation. Galaxies are the result of the activity of 'Black star', a kind of monster of pure energy with a density of atomic nuclei. The energy density of galactic nuclei is equal to its density in the nuclei of atoms, and the size is M / Msun \u003d 234797; R / Rsun \u003d 10666; Rsh \u003d 2GM / c2 \u003d 7.42384E + 14; P (g / cm3) \u003d 2.73998E-07. You can see that the mass and radius are incommensurably larger than the Sun's star, and the Schwarzschild radius is equal to the energy density in the nuclei, but the density of bosonic matter is practically a vacuum. This clot of pure energy with a core density is Black Star - “dark or hidden” due to the lack of electromagnetic radiation from them. The activity of this star begins to occur in the surface layer ( - burst), and so with each explosion myriads of stars are born, which fly apart from the now galactic nucleus. The sizes and masses of the clumps are different and over time they acquire a spherical shape, and then planets are formed from small parts, which are captured by more massive stars. The first explosions are more powerful and therefore the sleeves of galaxies further under the influence of gravity, and when the aging of the nucleus, then the density of stars in the center also screen the core of the galaxy. But in this model there is no place for Black Hole - the core of the galaxy gives birth to stellar objects, but does not absorb them! That's how GRASS enlarged models the birth of a galaxy! The main problems of cosmology are not solved: there is no complete physical theory of the birth of the Universe and its fate in the future is not clear. It is necessary to solve the problem of the emergence of 'Black Star', such monsters containing the hidden energy of a vacuum with a density of atomic nuclei. Perhaps these are the remnants of the early phase of the mega universe, which was a ball before the beginning of time. But this is not the Black Hole, why, but because it has physical parameters hypothetically predictable from the stellar series geometry, etc. Will the Universe expand forever, or will its expansion be replaced by a collapse? According to the concept of the GRASS theory, the red shift of the photon energy has a dissipative mechanism of energy loss due to the loss of the minimum element of vacuum energy at each pulsation, which leads to a finite number of pulsations and, consequently, the photon lifetime, and therefore the expansion of the Universe is virtual, and the dark energy of which is assumed 74% not and instead of expansion the model of the open universe is true! P.S. Over the course of the 20th century, ideas have repeatedly been put forward about the weakness of the idea of a big bang that gave rise to the Universe, as well as about its accelerated expansion relative to the planet Earth and their related theories. But of course, slaughter compromising information is associated with the detection of a violet shift of light from more than ~ 700 closely spaced stars, because according to accepted concepts, these stars are moving with increasing speed in the direction of the Sun as billions of light years! Where are they? And they are not, which proves the virtuality of both this movement and the distance from the sun of arrays of stellar objects! And the postulate about the constancy of the speed of light is erroneous, because the reality of the physical vacuum denies such a possibility, that is, any medium has a density, and therefore, the Hubble law needs to correct the view on the 'fatigue' of light. Namely, there is a dissipative and equidisciplinary loss of energy by photons, which leads to its defocusing and determines its finite lifetime! It should be noted that the main points and conclusions of the GRASS theory are based on the results of observations and experiments of astro and physicists XX! Einstein's general theory of relativity, the theory of gravity and spacetime, has been quite successful over the years. However, no scientific theory is sacred, because the task of scientists is to explore the world in various ways and discard theories that are not consistent with observations. This statement is true for other theories and ideas that turned out to be erroneous and have not passed the test of time! Rafæl 22.09.2019. Theory trilogy GRASS:  Ibragimov Rafael, The nature of gravity and the radiation of gravity, Austria_journal_2_part_13, (2019)  Ibragimov Rafael, FIELD THEORY OF ELEMENTARY PARTICLES WITH VACUUM ELEMENTS, Sciences of Europe, vol 1, No 38 (2019).  Ibragimov Rafael, GREAT ASSOCIATION PHYSICAL THEORIES: QUANTUM HYPERMECHANICS AND ASTRONOMY, Sciences of Europe, VOL 2, No 40 (2019).pdf And also in the original language:  Ibragimov Rafael, GREAT ASSOCIATION PHYSICAL THEORIES, Preamble.  Ibragimov Rafael, Field theory of elementary particles with vacuum elements.  Ibragimov Rafael, Quantum hypermechanics and astronomy. Ibragimov Rafael, Quantum evolution of stellar objects of the Universe.