close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

Aspirations and opportunity: The architecture of Hoit,Price

код для вставкиСкачать
ASPIRATIONS AND OPPORTUNITY:
THE ARCHITECTURE OF HOIT, PRICE & BARNES AND KANSAS CITY
(1901-1941)
by
GAYLE L. GOUDY
A DISSERTATION
Presented to the Department of Art History
and the Graduate School of the University of Oregon
in partial fulfillment of the requirements
for the degree of
Doctor of Philosophy
June 2010
UMI Number: 3420421
All rights reserved
INFORMATION TO ALL USERS
The quality of this reproduction is dependent upon the quality of the copy submitted.
In the unlikely event that the author did not send a complete manuscript
and there are missing pages, these will be noted. Also, if material had to be removed,
a note will indicate the deletion.
UMI
Dissertation Publishing
UMI 3420421
Copyright 2010 by ProQuest LLC.
All rights reserved. This edition of the work is protected against
unauthorized copying under Title 17, United States Code.
uest
ProQuest LLC
789 East Eisenhower Parkway
P.O. Box 1346
Ann Arbor, Ml 48106-1346
ii
University of Oregon Graduate School
Confirmation of Approval and Acceptance of Dissertation prepared by:
Gayle Goudy
Title:
"Aspirations and Opportunity: The Architecture of Hoit, Price & Barnes and Kansas City (19011941)"
This dissertation has been accepted and approved in partial fulfillment of the requirements for
the Doctor of Philosophy degree in the Department of Art History by:
Leland Roth, Chairperson, Art History
Richard Sundt, Member, Art History
William Sherwin Simmons, Member, Art History
Daniel Pope, Outside Member, History
and Richard Linton, Vice President for Research and Graduate Studies/Dean of the Graduate
School for the University of Oregon.
June 14,2010
Original approval signatures are on file with the Graduate School and the University of Oregon
Libraries.
111
©2010 Gayle L. Goudy
IV
An Abstract of the Dissertation of
Gayle L. Goudy
in the Department of Art History
for the degree of
to be tåken
Doctor of Philosophy
June 2010
Title: ASPIRATIONS AND OPPORTUNITY: THE ARCHITECTURE OF HOIT,
PRICE & BARNES AND KANSAS CITY (1901-1941)
Ap proved:
Leland M.Roth
The architecture of Hoit, Price & Barnes defined mainstream architecture in
Kansas City during the peak of the city's resources and asp kations. This study examines
their work within the context of the city 's social history and early twentieth century
American architecture by lookingat drawings and sketches, contemporary sources, and
the buildings in situ.
In 1901, Van Brunt & Howe recruited Henry F. Hoit and William Cut ler to work
on the Varied Industries Palace for the 1904 Louisiana Purchase Exposition. After the fair
under the partnership of Howe, Hoit & Cutler, they designed the city's most prestigious
ecclesiastical buildings, including B'nai Jehudah Synagogue and Linwood Boulevard
Christian Church. Within the residential enclaves of the city's progressive parks and
v
boulevards system, the firm designed domiciles ranging from multi-family apartments to
the city 's most prestigjous houses. Hoit opened the spaces in the plans of modest houses
and later designed the Braley and Nelson residences.
Howe, Hoit & Cutler began an architect-patron relationship with industrialist
Robert Alexander Long, who aspired toward monumental architecture. They designed the
R. A. Long Building, the downtown headquarters of the Long-Bell Company and Long's
church's new building, the Independence Boulevard Christian Church. After the deaths of
his partners, Henry F. Hoit designed Long's personal residences—Corinthian Hall and
Longview Farm. Demonstrating the boldness of Long's ambitions, Hoit designed a
complexof buildings for the Christian Church Hospital and the city square of Long's
planned community of Longview, Washington; both projects were truncated.
After World War I, Henry Hoit added two youngpartners, Edwin Price and
Alfred Barnes, and Hoit, Price & Barnes thrived amidst the powerful Pendergast machine
and its rule over the construction industry and Missouri politics. During this era of
corporate consolidation, the firm distinguished the city's sky line with the Southwestern
Bell Telephone Building, the Fidelity Bank Building, and the Kansas City Power & Light
Building. During the 1930s, they secured work on the Municipal Auditorium, which
Architectural Record lauded as "one of the 10 best buildings of the world" in 1936. The
Municipal Auditorium was their last major building before the firm dissolved in 1941.
vi
CURRICULUM VITAE
NÅME OF AUTHOR: Gayle L. Goudy
PLACE OF BIRTH: Homewood, Alabama
DATE OF BIRTH:
25 November 1975
GRADUATE AND UNDERGRADUATE SCHOOLS ATTENDED:
University of Oregon, Eugene
University of Kansas, Lawrence
Staffordshire University, Stoke-on-Trent, England (Study Abroad)
Kansas State University, Manhattan
Johnson County Community College
DEGREES AWARDED:
Doctor of Philosophy in Art History, 2010, University of Oregon
Master of Arts in Art History, 2004, University of Oregon
Bachelor of Fine Arts, Design, 2000, University of Kansas
AREAS OF SPECIAL INTEREST:
Modern Architecture from the Age of Enlightenment to Present Day
Ancient Roman Art and Architecture
Art and Technology
PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE:
Visiting Instructor, Department of Art History, University of Oregon, Eugene,
2010
Lecturer, School of Liberal Arts, Kansas City Art Institute, 2007-2008
Graduate Teaching Fellow, Department of Art History, University of Oregon,
2002-2006
vii
Graduate Teaching Fellow, Department of Architecture, University of Oregon,
2002
Representative, Donor & Information Services, The Nelson-Atkins Museum of
Art, 2007-2008
Interactive Media Developer, Center for Educational Technology, University of
Oregon, 2002-2005
Interactive Design Consultant, 1997-2002
GRANTS, HONORS AND AWARDS:
Kari Conference Travel Grant
Outstanding Student Leadership and Service Award, 2005
Marion Dean Ross Award, best graduate research paper in architectural history,
2003
Doris Fair Carey Scholarship for study abroad, 1999
Max and Lois Beren Foundation Scholarship (full tuition support), 1994-1999
PUBLICATIONS:
Goudy, Gayle L. and Kristin Dean. "Postmodern Architecture" mArchitects in
Schools: Architecture as a Basic Curriculum Builder. Portland:
Architecture Foundation of Oregon and the Portland Chapter of the
American Institute of Architects, 2006.
Vill
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Throughout my graduate studies, I have been fortunate to work with Leland M.
Roth and in addition to being an endless scholarly resource; he is a caring, available and
supportive mentor. During the initial phase of this project, he met with me weekly even
though we were separated by nearly 2000 miles thanks to new technologies.
Among the organizations that provided material for this work, I acknowledge the
Kansas City Landmarks Commission, Western Historie Manuscripts Collection and
collections assistant Peter Foley, the Missouri Valley Special Collections at the Kansas
City Public Library, the Missouri History Museum Library and Research Center in St.
Louis, the University of Oregon Special Collections in Eugene, Oregon, and the
Longview Library in Washington. The University of Oregon Libraries' system of sending
books and emailing scanned articles has been invaluable during my research in Kansas
City. Allison A. Marshaus, at the Oklahoma State Historie Preservation Office and the
Oklahoma Historical Society provided information on the Cosden and Bole residences in
Tulsa, Oklahoma. Lynn Ledeboer, Curatorial Assistant Reno County Museum in
Hutchinson, Kansas provided information on Lewis B. Young. Rob Hoch and Elaine
Massena, of the White Plains Historical Society, found the Charles A. Horton house and
introduced me to current owner Chris 0'Keefe who provided photographs and a verbal
description of his house. Thanks also to Allan Kremske for opening and providing
blueprints for his home originally known as the Chisham House in Atchinson, Kansas.
ix
Pastor Lee graciously opened the Independence Boulevard Christian Church and long-time
member Rose Alice Bourne Chandler gave an insightful tour.
My friends helped navigate the city while juggling note cards and photography
equipment, meeting me for study dates, and cheering me on: Dawn Sanders, Katie
Sowder, Laurie Troppito, and Stephanie Walsh. Christopher A. Dawson deserves specific
thanks for reading and editing every word of my first draft and Aaron and Jenny
Bruenger for lending an understanding ear to the isolation and long hours of doctoral
research. On this topic, I deeply apologize to Laurie and Stephanie for all those bottles of
wine that you had to drink in my absence. Thanks also to the baristas at Latte Land,
which served as my office.
Studying the latest communication technologies of a century ago, whether within
a same building or from Missouri to Washington—pneumatic tubes, telegrams, longdistance telephones, carbon paper—has deepened my appreciation of the technology that
I've used writing this dissertation—iBook G4, iChat, Microsoft Word, Photoshop,
Endnote, digital camera, flatbed scanner, web cam, and the Internet. It is difficult for me
to imagine the process of writing a work of this length and complexity longhand,
organizing chapters with note cards, and typing each draft on a typewriter with the added
inconvenience of measuring footnotes with a ruler. I also smile at the wonderment of a
future scholar thinking my technology and method as antiquated.
Finally, I must acknowledge Roger and Susan Goudy who encouraged me to quit
my fulltime job, an unworthy distraction, and supported me financially. To my supportive
parents, I dedicate this dissertation.
x
I dedicate this book to Roger and Susan Goudy,
my beloved parents
Without their enduring love and support, I could not have completed this dissertation.
xi
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Chapter
Page
I.
INTRODUCTION
II.
VAN BRUNT & HOWE TO HOWE, HOIT & CUTLER
III.
IV.
1
17
Ecclesiastical Architecture
45
Domestic Architecture
72
ARCHITECTURAL COMMISSIONS FOR R. A. LONG
105
Independence Boulevard Christian Church, 1905
118
R. A. Long Office Building, 1905-1907
129
Personal Residences of R. A. Long
144
Christian Church Hospital, 1911-1926
183
Longview, Washington
200
HOIT, PRICE& BARNES: NEW PARTNERS IN A NEW ERA
226
Southwestern Bell Telephone Company Building, 1917-1919 and
1928-1929
248
Art Deco Skyscrapers: Fidelity Bank and Kansas City Power &
Light Buildings
Municipal Auditorium, 1936
V. CONCLUSION
270
310
348
xii
Chapter
Page
APPENDICES
A. PROFILES OF THE FIRM'S PARTNERS AND MAJOR
PATRONS
B. CATALOGUE OF KNOWN PROJECTS
355
364
Ecclesiastical Buildings
365
Domestic Buildings
370
Commercial and Industrial Buildings
399
Educational Buildings
437
Health Institutions Buildings
439
Other Projects
444
BIBLIOGRAPHY
449
XIII
LIST OF FIGURES1
Figure
Page
CHAPTER I
1. Timeline showing the changes in partners from Ware & Van Brunt to Hoit,
Price & Barnes
14
2. Henry Van Brunt and Frank Maynard Howe
15
3. Frank M. Howe, Henry F. Hoit, and William Cutler
15
4. Henry F. Hoit
16
5. Edwin M. Price and Alfred E. Barnes
16
CHAPTER II
1. Ware & Van Brunt, Memorial Hall at Harvard University, Cambridge, 18701878
36
2. Van Brunt & Howe, August R. Meyer Residence, 1895-96
36
3. Van Brunt & Howe, Electricity Building at the Columbian Exhibition,
Chicago, 1893; south facade on Court of Honor; and east and north facades on
canal and lagoon
37
4. Map of the Columbian Exposition, Chicago, 1893, cropped to show the Court
of Honor
37
5. Van Brunt & Howe, Electricity Building at the Columbian Exposition,
Chicago, 1893, elevation drawings (left to right): east, north, and south
38
6. Van Brunt & Howe, Electricity Building at the Columbian Exposition,
Chicago, 1893, elevation details: exterior and interior entrances
38
7. Van Brunt & Howe, Electricity Building at the Columbian Exposition,
Chicago, 1893, plan drawings
39
1
Buildings located in Kansas City unless otherwise indicated.
XIV
Figure
Page
8. Van Brunt & Howe, Electricity Building at the Columbian Exhibition,
Chicago, 1893, interior in natural and artificial light
39
9. Map of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, St. Louis, 1904, cropped to show
the Court of Honor
40
10. Van Brunt & Howe, Palace of Varied Industries at the Louisiana Purchase
Exposition, St. Louis, 1904, towers under construction before the windstorm
and destroyed towers after gale-force winds
40
11. Van Brunt & Howe, Palace of Varied Industries at the Louisiana Purchase
Exposition, St. Louis, 1904, postcards showing the 400 foot tower and without
the tower
41
12. Van Brunt & Howe, Varied Industries Building at the Louisiana Purchase
Exposition, St. Louis, 1904, drawing of east elevation
41
13. Opening Day Celebrations, Louisiana Purchase Exposition, St. Louis, 1904
42
14. Van Brunt & Howe, Palace of Varied Industries at the Louisiana Purchase
Exposition, St. Louis, 1904, postcard showing the curved colonnade and dome.. 42
15. Van Brunt & Howe, Palace of Varied Industries at the Louisiana Purchase
Exposition, St. Louis, 1904, court between entrance and colonnade
43
16. Van Brunt & Howe, Palace of Varied Industries at the Louisiana Purchase
Exposition, St. Louis, 1904, looking through the colonnade
43
17. Van Brunt & Howe, Palace of Varied Industries at the Louisiana Purchase
Exposition, St. Louis, 1904, interior courtyard showing the Persian and Brazil
pavilions
44
18. Van Brunt & Howe / Howe, Hoit & Cutler, Kansas City Casino at the
Louisiana Purchase Exposition, St. Louis, 1904
44
19. Howe & Hoit, St. George's Parish House, 1909
61
20. Howe, Hoit & Cutler, St. George's Episcopal Parish Church, 1909
61
21. Van Brunt & Howe / William Barnes, St. Paul Episcopal Church, perspective
drawing from northeast, 1904, and nave, constructed 1905-1906
62
22. Van Brunt & Howe / William Barnes, St. Paul Episcopal Church, 1905-1906 .... 62
XV
Figure
Page
23. Howe, Hoit & Cutler, St. George' s Episcopal Church, elevation
63
24. Howe, Hoit & Cutler, St. George's Episcopal Church, plan
63
25. Howe & Hoit, St. George's Episcopal Church, Rectory, 1909, elevation
64
26. Howe & Hoit, St. George's Episcopal Church, Rectory, 1909, plan
64
27. Poster showing the Disciple of Christ Churches of Kansas City
65
28. Van Brunt & Howe, drawing of the Linwood Boulevard Christian Church,
1904 and postcard of completed building
65
29. Howe, Hoit & Cutler / Howe & Hoit, Linwood Boulevard Christian Church,
1904-1907, elevation drawings of the north and west facades
66
30. Howe, Hoit & Cutler, Linwood Boulevard Christian Church, 1904-1907,
elevation details of entrance anddome
66
31. Howe, Hoit & Cutler / Howe & Hoit, Linwood Boulevard Christian Church,
1904-1907, plans of basement, first floor, and second floor
67
32. Howe, Hoit & Cutler / Howe & Hoit, Linwood Boulevard Christian Church,
1904-1907, details of organ and ceiling
67
33. Proposal for Linwood Boulevard Christian Church, 1926
68
34. Howe, Hoit & Cutler, B'Nai Jehudah Synagogue, 1906-1907
68
35. Howe, Hoit & Cutler, B'Nai Jehudah, 1904-1907, elevation drawings (left to
right); north, west, east, south
69
36. Howe, Hoit & Cutler, B'Nai Jehudah, 1904-1907, plans
69
37. Howe, Hoit & Cutler / Howe & Hoit, B'Nai Jehudah Synagogue, 1906-1907,
entrance hall floor
70
38. Howe, Hoit & Cutler, B'Nai Jehudah, 1904-1907, section through front facade
and details of pulpit and organ
70
39. Howe & Hoit, B'Nai Jehudah, 1904-1907, scale detail of organ screen
71
40. Howe, Hoit & Cutler / Howe & Hoit, B'Nai Jehudah Synagogue, 1906-1907,
auditorium
71
xvi
Figure
Page
41.Howe&Hoit, "Elmhurst," J. T. Bird Residence
92
42. Map of Kansas City showing the neighborhoods
92
43. Henry F. Hoit, Chisham Residence, Atchison, Kansas, 1904
93
44. Van Brant & Howe, Chisham Residence, Atchison, Kansas, plans
93
45. Howe, Hoit & Cutler, Chisham Residence, Atchison, Kansas, second floor
landing looking toward the stairs and toward the window
94
46. Hoit, Hoit & Cutler, Chisham Residence, Atchison, Kansas, second floor
landing looking toward hallway and into bedroom and bathroom
94
47. Henry F. Hoit, Ewins Residence
95
48. Howe, Hoit & Cutler, Ewins Residence, plans
95
49. Howe, Hoit & Cutler, Tschudy Residence
96
50. Howe, Hoit & Cutler, Tschudy Residence, plan
96
51. Howe, Hoit& Cutler, Bowersock Residence
97
52. Howe, Hoit & Cutler, Doggett Residence
97
53. Howe, Hoit& Cutler, Doggett Residence, plans
98
54. Howe, Hoit & Cutler, Doggett Residence, interior details
98
55. Howe, Hoit & Cutler, Horton Residence, White Plains, New York
99
56. Howe, Hoit & Cutler, Horton Residence, White Plains, New York, plans
99
57. Henry F. Hoit, Nelson Residence, (left to right): south facade, east facade,
southeast facade from street corner, and Southwest facade from driveway
100
58. Henry F. Hoit, Nelson Residence, site plan with landscaping by Hare & Hare.... 100
59. Henry F. Hoit, Nelson Residence, plan
101
60. Henry F. Hoit, Nelson Residence, (left to right) stair hall, living room, and
diningroom
102
61. Henry F. Hoit, Braley Residence, east and north facades
102
Figure
Page
62. Henry F. Hoit, Braley Residence, site plan
103
63. Henry F. Hoit, Braley Residence, rear facade
103
64. Henry F. Hoit, Braley Residence, watercolor-rendering
104
65. Henry F. Hoit, Braley Residence, (left to right) main hall, salon, and sitting
room
104
CHAPTER III
1. Mr. and Mrs. Robert A. Long with two of their grandchildren, Martha and
Robert A. Long Ellis, 1911
2. Howe, Hoit & Cutler, Independence Boulevard Christian Church, 1905
117
124
3. Howe, Hoit & Cutler, Independence Boulevard Christian Church, c. 1910,
views from the podium and the balcony
4. Howe, Hoit & Cutler, Independence Boulevard Christian Church, 1905,
balcony and entrance to auditorium
125
5. Tiffany Studio, Independence Boulevard Christian Church windows, 1905,
(left to right): angel, John Brooks Memorial Window, Stephen Edgar Rumble
Memorial Window, R. A. Long Memorial Window, and dove
125
6. Howe, Hoit & Cutler, Independence Boulevard Christian Church, 1910,
kitchen and dining room
126
124
7. Henry F. Hoit, Independence Boulevard Christian Church, 1910 expansion and
aerial view of the 1920 expansion with the bell tower
126
8. Henry F. Hoit, Independence Boulevard Christian Church Gymnasium
building, 1910 drawings of elevation and plans of pool, ground floor, and
upper floor
127
9. John Russell Pope, National City Christian Church, Washington D. C , 19281932
128
10. Asa Beebe Cross, Keith and Perry Building, 1890
139
11. Howe, Hoit & Cutler, R. A. Long Building, 1906
139
Figure
rage
12. Howe, Hoit & Cutler, R. A. Long Building, construction photograph
140
13. Hoit, Price & Barnes, R. A. Long Building, 1906, Grand Avenue facade, first
threefloors
140
14. Jarvis Hunt, National Commerce Bank Building, 1907
141
15. Root & Siemens, Scarritt Building, 1907, Grand Avenue facade, window
frame, and corner detail
141
16. Howe, Hoit & Cutler, The R. A. Long Building, Kansas City, Missouri, 1911,
plan
142
17. Howe, Hoit & Cutler, R. A. Long Building, 1906; clockwise from top left,
lobby, landing of main stairway, rotunda, elevator lobby
142
18. Howe, Hoit & Cutler, R. A. Long Building, 1906, office of Mr. Long and
attached batn with specialized shower
143
19. Henry F. Hoit, The Corinthian Hall, 1907-1909
169
20. Henry F. Hoit, Corinthian Hall's view from Scarritt point
169
21. Map of Gladstone Boulevard
170
22. Gladstone Boulevard looking north from Thompson Avenue, c. 1920, left, and
The Colonnade, 1910, right
170
23. Park district map showing North TerracePark, 1915
170
24. Henry F. Hoit, Corinthian Hall's pergola and conservatory
25. Richard Morris Hunt, "Marble House," residence for William K. Vanderbilt
1888-1892
171
171
26. Henry F. Hoit, Corinthian Hall, cornice detail
172
27. Henry F. Hoit, Corinthian Hall, main facade and view from southwest corner.... 172
28. Henry F. Hoit, Corinthian Hall, floor plans
173
29. Henry F. Hoit, Corinthian Hall, facade viewed from the northeast
174
30. Henry F. Hoit, Corinthian Hall, Grand Hall
174
xix
Figure
Page
31. Henry F. Hoit, Corinthian Hall, detail of the bronze tracery in the balustrade of
the stairway in the Great Hall
175
32. Henry F. Hoit, Corinthian Hall, art glass window from the top of the grand
stairway and art glass window detail
175
33. Henry F. Hoit, Corinthian Hall, Salon and fireplace in the Library
176
34. Henry F. Hoit, Corinthian Hall, (clockwise) Sun, Living, Breakfast, and Dining
rooms
176
35. Henry F. Hoit, Corinthian Hall, Breakfast Room window
177
36. Henry F. Hoit, Corinthian Hall, Loula Long's bedroom
177
37. Henry F. Hoit, Corinthian Hall, site plan
178
38. Henry F. Hoit, Corinthian Hall, south entrance gate and lantern
179
39. Pierce Arrow limousine and chauffeur in front of Long's garage before 1914,
205-211 Indiana Avenue
179
40. Henry F. Hoit, Corinthian Hall, Stable-Carriage House
180
41. Henry F. Hoit, Longview Farm, show barn
180
42. Henry F. Hoit, Corinthian Hall, Gate House with tile room and Potting Shed in
foreground. Stable to the right
181
43. Henry F. Hoit, Longview Farm, original site plan
181
44. Henry F. Hoit, Big House at Longview Farm front facade
182
45. Henry F. Hoit, Big House at Longview Farm, rear facade
182
46. Henry F. Hoit, Christian Church Hospital postcard, c. 1921
191
47. Shanties posed sanitation and health problems. Bluffs above the Missouri River
bottoms in 1871 and west bluff north of 9th Street c. 1900
191
48. Frederick C. Gunn, General Hospital, 1908. Rendering that appeared in the
1909 Board of Hospital & Health Report
192
XX
Figure
Page
49. Henry F. Hoit, Christian Church Hospital, 1911, proposed complex plan and
perspective drawing
192
50. Bernard Poyet, plan of La Roquette Hospital, near Paris, published in 1787
193
51. Stonehouse Hospital, near Plymouth, 18th Century
193
52. Henry F. Hoit, Christian Church Hospital, 1911, Administration Building;
elevation drawings
194
53. Henry F. Hoit, Christian Church Hospital, Administration Building, west
facade details
194
54. Henry F. Hoit, Christian Church Hospital, 1911, Administration Building; floor
plans
195
55. Henry F. Hoit, Christian Church Hospital, 1916, block plan
195
56. Henry F. Hoit, Christian Church Hospital, 1914, Power Building
196
57. Henry F. Hoit, Christian Church Hospital, 1916, block plan with gradation
196
58. Nurses' dormitory in the attic of Old City Hospital, c. 1908
197
59. Henry F. Hoit, Christian Church Hospital, Nurses Home; west and south
facades
197
60. Henry F. Hoit, Christian Church Hospital, 1917, Nurses Home elevations
drawings
198
61. Henry F. Hoit, Christian Church Hospital, 1917, Nurses Home, plans
198
62. Hoit, Price & Barnes, Christian Church Hospital, Administration Building
1919, east wing addition, first floor
199
63. Hoit, Price & Barnes, Christian Church Hospital, 1919, porch addition
199
64. Hare & Hare, city center plan, Longview, Washington
218
65. Hoit Price & Barnes, Kansas City Athletic Club, 1921
218
66. Architect unknown, Monticello Hotel, photograph tåken 26 July 1923
219
xxi
Figure
Page
67. Painting showing the envisioned Jefferson Square surrounded by public
buildings, 1926
219
68. Hoit, Price & Barnes, Apartment House Suggestion, Longview, Washington
220
69. Hoit, Price & Barnes, City Hall for Longview, Washington, elevation sketch
220
70. Arch N. Torbitt and Hoit, Price & Barnes, Proposed City Building for
Longview, Washington
220
71. Hoit, Price & Barnes, City Hall for Longview, Washington, preliminary sketch. 221
72. Hoit, Price & Barnes, City Hall for Longview, Washington, later preliminary
sketch
221
73. Hoit, Price & Barnes, City Hall for Longview, Washington, plans
221
74. Arch N. Torbitt and Hoit, Price & Barnes, City Hall for Longview,
Washington, final plan
222
75. Hoit, Price & Barnes, City Hall for Longview, Washington, elevation drawing.. 222
76. Hoit, Price & Barnes, Post Office for Longview, Washington
222
77. Hoit, Price & Barnes, Library in Longview, Washington, front facade
223
78. Hoit, Price & Barnes, Library for Longview, Washington, sketches of the first
floor labeled scheme #1 and scheme #2
223
79. Hoit, Price & Barnes, Library for Longview, Washington, elevation sketch
223
80. A. N. Torbitt and Hoit, Price & Barnes, Library for Longview, Washington,
final elevation drawings
224
81. Hoit, Price & Barnes, Longview Public Library, 1922, check out desk
224
82. Hoit, Price & Barnes, Passenger Station for Longview, Washington
225
83. Hoit, Price & Barnes / A. N. Torbitt, Longview Passenger Station, 1925, detail
of tower, left; waiting room, right
225
84. Hoit, Price & Barnes, Junior High School for Longview, Washington
226
85. Hoit, Price & Barnes, Shelter House for Park in Longview, Washington
226
xxii
Figure
Page
CHAPTER IV
1. Hoit, Price & Barnes, Liberty Memorial Competition entry (8th Place), 1921
244
2. Harold Van Buren Magonigle, Liberty Memorial Competition entry (Ist
Place), 1921
244
3. Harold Van Buren Magonigle, Liberty Memorial, 1926, detail of the figures on
the tower
245
4. Hugh Ferris, rendering of Harold Van Buren Magonigle's Liberty Memorial,
1926
245
5. Cass Gilbert, Woolworth Building, New York City, with lighting designed in
1913 ande. 1916
246
6. Hugh Ferriss, rendering of Howell & Hood's Chicago Tribune Building
246
7. Eliel Saarinen, Chicago Tribune Building Entry (runner up), 1922
247
8. Hugh Ferriss, rendering of an imaginary metropolis, business center
9. "Advertisement: The New Business of Retailing Money," for the Household
Finance Corporation, Fortune Magazine, January 1932, 92
247
10. Comparison of tall buildings in Kansas City
248
248
11. Hoit, Price & Barnes and I. R. Timlin, Southwestern Bell Telephone Building... 262
12. Hoit, Price & Barnes, Cosden Building, Tulsa, Oklahoma, 1919
262
13. Hoit, Price & Barnes, Cosden Building, Tulsa, Oklahoma, 1919, plans
263
14. Hoit, Price & Barnes, Cosden Building, Tulsa, Oklahoma, 1919, facade details.. 263
15. Hoit, Price & Barnes, Southwestern Bell Telephone Building, 1919, facade
264
16. Hoit, Price & Barnes, Southwestern Bell Telephone Building, 1919, plan for
first and thirteenth floors
264
17. Charles A. Smith, Westport High School, Kansas City
265
18. Hoit, Price & Barnes, Southwestern Bell Telephone Building, 1928,
construction; side facade, left; rear facade with light well, right
265
xxm
Figure
Page
19. Hoit, Price & Barnes, Southwestern Bell Telephone Building, 1928, plan of the
16th, 19th, and 22nd floors
266
20. Hoit, Price & Barnes, Southwestern Bell Telephone Building Headquarters, as
it looks today; upper stories south and east facade (left), lower stories, center;
west and north facades (right)
266
21. Mauran, Russell & Crowell and I. R. Timlin, Southwestern Bell Telephone
Building, St. Louis, 1926
267
22.1. R. Timlin, Southwestern Bell Telephone Switching Building, Tulsa,
Oklahoma, 1929
267
23.1. R. Timlin, Southwestern Bell Telephone Building, San Antonio, Texas,
1931-32
268
24. People atop the Southwestern Bell Telephone Building watching the Graf
Zeppelin, 28 August 1929
268
25. Hoit, Price & Barnes, Southwestern Bell Telephone Building, detail of terra
cotta
269
26. Hoit, Price & Barnes, Southwestern Bell Telephone Building, 1928, details of
1 lth street spandrels
269
27. Comparison of Kansas City skyscrapers by elevation
297
28. Hoit, Price & Barnes, Fidelity Bank Building, 1931
297
29. Hoit, Price & Barnes, Kansas City Power & Light Building, 1931, facade
30. Van Brunt & Howe, Old Federal Building reconstructed for the Fidelity
Company, 1903
298
298
31. Fidelity Bank Building, drawing showing the setbacks
299
32. Hoit, Price & Barnes, Fidelity Bank Building, floor plans
299
33. Fidelity Bank Building, main banking room showing a floor detail and the
pilasters
300
34. Hoit, Price & Barnes, Fidelity Bank Building, main banking room and elevator
lobby outside main banking room on 2nd floor
300
Figure
35. Photograph tåken from a rooftop on Main Street along 1 lth Street in Kansas
City, c. 1935 with Graham, Anderson, Probst and White's Bryant Building
(1930) on the right and Hoit, Price & Barnes's Southwestern Bell Telephone
Building (1928) in the distance
Page
301
36. Hoit, Price & Barnes, Kansas City Power & Light Building, drawing of setback
levels
301
37. Hoit, Price & Barnes, Kansas City Power & Light Building, original double
tower design
302
38. Hoit, Price & Barnes, Kansas City Power & Light Building, 1931, west facade.. 302
39. Hoit, Price & Barnes, Kansas City Power & Light Building, plans for Ist and
2ndfloors, 1930
303
40. Hoit, Price & Barnes, Kansas City Power & Light Building, 1931, main lobby
and stairs
303
41. Hoit, Price & Barnes and Michaels Art Bronze Company, grills in the KCP&L
and Fidelity Bank Building
303
42. Hoit, Price & Barnes and Michaels Art Bronze Company, KCP&L elevator
lobby and U. S. mail box
304
43. Hoit, Price & Barnes, Kansas City Power & Light Building, lower two story
window and detail of terra cotta panel in window
304
44. Hoit, Price & Barnes, Kansas City Power & Light Building, east facade detail
of terra cotta panels and balcony
305
45. Hoit, Price & Barnes, Kansas City Power & Light Building, 1931; east
entrance and detail of intrados
305
46. Kansas City Power & Light Building, upper floors and tower, detail of the
lantern, and window from lantern interior
306
47. Hoit, Price & Barnes, Fidelity Bank Building, west facade detail and close-up
of panel
306
48. Hoit, Price & Barnes, Fidelity Bank Building, detail of center door
307
XXV
Figure
Page
49. Altar to the Ara Pacis Augustae, garland motif detail with bull skulls
307
50. Kansas City Power & Light Building, Drawing depicting the placement of
exterior lighting
308
51. Hoit, Price & Barnes, Kansas City Power & Light Building, as lit before
309
52. Steel Structure of the top of the lantern
309
53. First Convention Hall (1899, burned 1900) and Second Convention Hall (1900,
demolished)
329
54. Wight & Wight, Jackson County Courthouse and City Hall, 1934-1937
329
55. Central Wholesale Building at the City Market, during construction in July
1931
330
56. Hoit, Price & Barnes and Alonzo H. Gentry, Voskamp & Neville, Municipal
Auditorium, daytime view from 13th and Central and from 13th & Wyandotte
atnight
330
57. Hoit, Price & Barnes and Alonzo H. Gentry, Voskamp & Neville, Municipal
Auditorium, development drawings
331
58. Hoit, Price & Barnes and Alonzo H. Gentry, Voskamp & Neville, Municipal
Auditorium, during construction
331
59. Hoit, Price & Barnes and Alonzo H. Gentry, Voskamp & Neville, Municipal
Auditorium, plans
332
60. Hoit, Price & Barnes and Alonzo H. Gentry, Voskamp & Neville, Municipal
Auditorium, Grand Foyer
333
61. Hoit, Price & Barnes and Alonzo H. Gentry, Voskamp & Neville, Municipal
Auditorium, Little Theater and detail of ceiling
333
62. Hoit, Price & Barnes and Alonzo H. Gentry, Voskamp & Neville, Municipal
Auditorium, Music Hall mezzanine
334
63. Hoit, Price & Barnes and Alonzo H. Gentry, Voskamp & Neville, Municipal
Auditorium, Music Hall stairway
334
64. Hoit, Price & Barnes and Alonzo H. Gentry, Voskamp & Neville, Municipal
Auditorium, Music Hall auditorium
335
Figure
rage
65. Hoit, Price & Barnes and Alonzo H. Gentry, Voskamp & Neville, Municipal
Auditorium, Arena and detail of boxes in Arena
335
66. Hoit, Price & Barnes and Alonzo H. Gentry, Voskamp & Neville, Municipal
Auditorium, Arena section drawing
336
67. Hoit, Price & Barnes and Alonzo H. Gentry, Voskamp & Neville, Municipal
Auditorium, Kansas City, 1935, Exhibition Hall
336
68. Hoit, Price & Barnes and Alonzo H. Gentry, Voskamp & Neville, Municipal
Auditorium, Exhibition Hall plans
337
69. Hoit, Price & Barnes and Alonzo H. Gentry, Voskamp & Neville, Municipal
Auditorium, Exhibition Hall lobby from south entrance on 14th Street and
foyer of east entrance on Wyandotte Street
337
70. Hoit, Price & Barnes and Alonzo H. Gentry, Voskamp & Neville, Municipal
Auditorium, view of east facade from southeast corner
338
71. Hoit, Price & Barnes and Alonzo H. Gentry, Voskamp & Neville, Municipal
Auditorium, west facade from Southwest corner
338
72. Hoit, Price & Barnes and Alonzo H. Gentry, Voskamp & Neville, Municipal
Auditorium, windows on north end
339
73. Hoit, Price & Barnes and Alonzo H. Gentry, Voskamp & Neville, Municipal
Auditorium, west facade concourse
339
74. Hoit, Price & Barnes and Alonzo H. Gentry, Voskamp & Neville, Municipal
Auditorium, view of the east facade from street level
340
75. Hoit, Price & Barnes and Alonzo H. Gentry, Voskamp & Neville, Municipal
Auditorium, detail of medallions east facade
340
76. Hoit, Price & Barnes and Alonzo H. Gentry, Voskamp & Neville, Municipal
Auditorium, detail of door and window on east facade
341
77. Hoit, Price & Barnes and Alonzo H. Gentry, Voskamp & Neville, Municipal
Auditorium, south facade entrance to the Exhibition Hall
341
78. Hoit, Price & Barnes and Alonzo H. Gentry, Voskamp & Neville, Municipal
Auditorium, Music Hall entrance
342
XXVII
Figure
Page
79. Hoit, Price & Barnes and Alonzo H. Gentry, Voskamp & Neville, Municipal
Auditorium, Exhibition Hall entrance on the south facade
342
80. Hoit, Price & Barnes and Alonzo H. Gentry, Voskamp & Neville, Municipal
Auditorium, detail of flags on south facade
343
81. Hoit, Price & Barnes and Alonzo H. Gentry, Voskamp & Neville, Municipal
Auditorium, south facade panel and inscription
343
82. Hoit, Price & Barnes and Alonzo H. Gentry, Voskamp & Neville, Municipal
Auditorium, south facade panel detail
344
83. Hoit, Price & Barnes and Alonzo H. Gentry, Voskamp & Neville, Municipal
Auditorium, north facade medallions
344
84. Hoit, Price & Barnes and Alonzo H. Gentry, Voskamp & Neville, Municipal
Auditorium, west facade, detail of northern half
345
85. Hoit, Price & Barnes and Alonzo H. Gentry, Voskamp & Neville, Municipal
Auditorium, west facade, panel detail
345
86. Hoit, Price & Barnes and Alonzo H. Gentry, Voskamp & Neville, Municipal
Auditorium, west facade medallions
346
87. Hoit, Price & Barnes and Alonzo H. Gentry, Voskamp & Neville, Municipal
Auditorium, structure to commemorate the original convention hall
346
88. Gerrit Rietveld, House for Mrs. Schroder, Utrecht, The Netherlands, 1924
347
CHAPTER V
1. "How Skylines Measure Up" to the new Dallas skyline
354
1
CHAPTERI
INTRODUCTION
Louis Sullivan described the energy of Chicago preceding the Columbian
Exposition of 1893 in his 1922 essay The Autobiography of an Idea:
The stream of immigration [into Chicago] was enormous, spreading over
vast areas, burrowing in the mines or clinging to the cities. Chicago had
passed St. Louis in population and was proud. ... It was pushing its
structures higher and higher, until the Masonic Temple by John Root had
raised its head far into the air, and the word "skyscraper" came into use.
Chicago was booming. It had become a powerful magnet. Its people had
one dream in common: that their city should become the world's
metropolis. There was great enthusiasm and public spirit. So things stood,
intheyears 1890, 1891 and 1892.1
A generation later, the spirit and pride that Sullivan described in Chicago was in
Kansas City and the firm Hoit, Price & Barnes led architects in building their metropolis.
Giles Carroll Mitchell dedicated his book, There Is No Limit: Architecture and Sculpture
in Kansas City (1934), to Hoit, Price & Barnes, "who furnished the architectural services
for the three most lofty buildings in Missouri."2 In addition to these specific landmarks of
the Kansas City skyline, Hoit, Price & Barnes (and their predecessors, Howe, Hoit &
Cutler) designed many of the city's most prestigious hornes, churches, and commercial
buildings from 1901 to 1941. Their works are present throughout the Midwest and
1
Louis Sullivan, "Autobiography of an Idea," 1922, in America Builds: Source Documents in
American Architecture and Planning, edited by Leland M. Roth (New York: Harper & Row, 1983), 362.
2
Giles Carroll Mitchell, There Is No Limit: Architecture and Sculpture in Kansas City (Kansas
City: Brown-White Company, 1934), v.
2
Southwest as well as in Longview, Washington. Building during the peak years of the
city's resources and aspirations, their work was critical to the character of Kansas City
when it saw itself as the city of the future.
My investigation of the firm Hoit, Price & Barnes places their specific
architectural innovations and styling within the context of the social history of Kansas
City—their architecture defined the mainstream in what many writers referred to as the
"most American city."3 Kansas City from 1901 to 1941 (when the firm was active) was
perhaps the most optimistic and expanding city in the United States, and as the title of
Henry C. Haskell's book, City of the Future: A Narrative History of Kansas City, 18501950 suggests, the spirit of Kansas City in the early twentieth century knew no bounds.4
From 1900 to 1930, the city became one of the most prominent in the nation as its
population more than doubled. In the metropolitan area—including the two Kansas Cities
of Missouri and Kansas, and Independence, Missouri—the population swelled 53% from
222,144 in 1900 to 340,562 in 1910. In the next ten years, it grew another 28% to
437,373 residents by 1920. The population of the city began to plateau around 1930 at
536,899 people.5 Kansas City formed the largest community between St. Louis and the
3
Rick Montgomery and Shirl Kasper, Kansas City: An American Story (Kansas City: Kansas City
Star Books, 1999), 169. This nickname may be due to the finding by the Board of Public Welfare in 1910
that Kansas City was predominantly native-born whites: 80.35% was extremely large compared to other
turn-of-the-century cities. Henry C. Haskell, Jr. also used this nickname in City of the Future: A Narrative
History of Kansas City, 1850-1950 (Kansas City, Missouri: Frank Glenn Publishing Co., Inc., 1950), 16.
4
HaskelFs book remains optimistic despite the fact that the city (proper) had already peaked in
1950. Population growth after the 1930s was not in Kansas City proper, but in the surrounding suburbs. See
Henry C. Haskell, Jr., City of the Future: A Narrative History of Kansas City, 1850-1950 (Kansas City,
Missouri: Frank Glenn Publishing Co., Inc., 1950).
United States Census data was used to estimate the population of Kansas City area. The 1930
census reported that 23,523 people lived in rural Johnson County, Kansas, but does not distinguish between
those that resided in small surrounding towns or Kansas City suburbs on the Kansas side of State Line
Road. Therefore, Johnson County was not included in the figures cited in the text. However, as more
Pacific coast. For comparison, San Francisco had only 634,394 inhabitants in 1930.
Likewise, the physical area of the Kansas City, Missouri, expanded with a substantial
annexation in 1909, which brought the city's area to nearly 60 square miles.7 With this
rate of growth, it seemed that Kansas City was becoming the "Chicago of the West."8
In a speech delivered to the Commercial Club of Kansas City on 18 November
1904, Charles Francis Adams of Boston called Kansas City "the youngest of the nation's
ten great financial centers."9 He spoke about the future of the city in what he considered a
new stage of the city's growth following a devastating 1903 flood:
people moved into the Country Club District and Mission Hills in the 1920s, their population contributed to
the metropolitan area. See "American FactFinder," in United States Census Bureau [Website] (Washington,
D. C : U.S. Census Bureau, 2008, accessed 12 October 2009); available from http://factfinder.census.gov;
Internet.
KC.MO
163,752
248,381
324,410
399,746
441,545
1900
1910
1920
1930
2000
KC.KS
51,418
82,331
101,177
121,857
146,866
Independence [ Metro area
6,974
222,144
9,850
340,562
11,686
437,273
15,296
536,899
113,288
| 701,699
Growth
53.3%
28.4%
22.8%
30.7%
Johnson Co.
18,104
18,288
18,314
27,179
451,086
Portland, Seattle, Houston, Dallas, and Salt Lake City all had populations below 100,000 in
1900. See Campbell Gibson, "Population of the 100 Largest Cities and Other Urban Places in the United
States: 1790-1990." United State Census Bureau [Web Site] (Washington, D. C : U. S. Census Population
Division, 1998, accessed 19 October 2009.); available at
http://www.census.gov/population/www/documentation/twps0027/twps0027.html; Internet.
1900
1910
1920
1930
KC Metro
St. Louis
San Francisco
Denver
Los Angeles
Portland
222,144
340,562
437,273
536,899
575,238
607,029
772,897
821,960
342,782
416,912
506,676
634,394
133,859
213,381
256,491
287,861
102,479
319,198
576,673
1,238,048
90,426
207,214
258,288
301,815
7
The first major annexation, the city of Westport, occurred in 1897. The 1909 annexation
increased the city's area to nearly four and one-half times larger than it was in 1885.
8
9
Haskell, 78.
Charles Francis Adams, '"Kansas City: Its Problems and Their Solution.' Speech of Charles
Francis Adams at the Annual Dinner of the Commercial Club of Kansas City, Friday Evening, Nov. 18,
1904." Kansas City: Commercial Club of Kansas City, 1904, 4, available in the Missouri Valley Special
Collections, Kansas City Public Library (MVSC).
4
[The flood] came just when you had outgrown your facilities, and the situation—
so to speak, your territorial lay-out—was fast becoming inadequate and
unendurable. ... Kansas City is now in itself a considerable and fast
growing center of wealth and population, of commerce, manufacture and
finance. This is a fact not to be ignored in any figuring on the future. In
matters of travel and train service, for instance, Kansas City is to be
considered for itself and what it represents in itself, as Boston, New York
and Chicago are considered. ... As to your merchandise and
manufacturers, Kansas City is an emporium, and time and convenience are
of the essence of trade.10
The economy of Kansas City grew throughout the early twentieth century largely
due to the convenience of its geographical location. As national center for manufacturing,
food handling/processing industries, and railroad distribution, it was the largest market
for farm equipment, the second largest in livestock, and third largest telegraph center in
1900.11 These industries offered newcomers employment as did the Long-Bell Lumber
Company (headquartered in Kansas City in 1891), Hallmark Cards (founded 1910),
Russell Stover Candies (founded 1921), and the budding garment industry.12
The political machine of Thomas Pendergast grew throughout the first two
decades of the twentieth century and by 1920, his legitimate business, concrete, ruled the
construction industry. During the 1920s, he was unofficially in control of Missouri
10
Adams, 11-13.
11
Gregory B. Allen, Lennie Berkowitz, Ken Coit, Linda G. Cooper, Nancy Nutter, Pat O'Neill,
Jr., Charles J. Schmelzer, III, Becky Cotton Zahner, Robert L. Collins, and Lisa Lassman Briscoe. Historie
Resources Survey Plan of Kansas City (Kansas City, Missouri: Landmarks Commission of Kansas City
prepared by the City Planning and Development Department Historie Preservation Management Division
of Kansas City, Missouri, in association with Thomason and Associates Preservation Planners and Three
Gables Preservation, 1992), 1, and Montgomery, 160.
12
The garment industry, the second largest employer in Kansas City in the mid twentieth century,
boasted that one out of every seven women in the United States purchased a Kansas City-made garment
between World War I through the 1940's.
5
politics and by the early 193 Os, he exerted national power—the 34* United States
President Harry S. Truman's political career benefited from Pendergast influence.13
In the 1920s era of prohibition, Kansas City became an entertainment center. A
new musical style developed—Kansas City jazz—with Bennie Moten, Count Basie, and
Mary Lou Williams as popular performers. In the legendary neighborhood around 18th
and Vine, Henry Perry began serving slow-cooked meat out of a trolley barn at 19th and
Highland, giving birth to the city's reputation for barbeque. Satirist Sinclair Lewis
observed Kansas City preachers for his 1926 novel Eimer Gantry and likely used
experiences in the city in his other novels.14 Ernest Hemingway began his career as a
reporter for the Kansas City Star.15 In 1919, Walt Disney started his animation studio and
began showing his wildly popular cartoons called "Laugh-O-Gram" in Kansas City
theaters.16 In 1930, the Kansas City Monarchs, the longest-running franchise in the
history of baseball 's Negro Leagues (formed 1920) became the first professional team to
use a portable lighting system to play night games, five years before any major league
13
Harry S. Truman (1884-1972) began his political career in Kansas City as a page at the 1900
Democratic National Convention hosted at the Convention Hall (replaced by the Municipal Auditorium).
After serving in the Missouri Army National Guard (1905-1911) and rejoining during World War I, he rose
to the rank of Army Reserves Colonel. This experience and his association with city boss Tom Pendergast
allowed him to climb politically through Missouri politics to the United States presidency in 1945.
14
Blake, John Tyler, "Sinclair Lewis's Kansas City Laboratory: The Genesis of Eimer Gantry."
Dissertation, University of Missouri, Kansas City, 1998.
15
At the onset of World War I, Ernest Hemingway left for Italy with the Red Cross. Jeffrey
Meyers, Ernest Hemingway: The Critical Heritage (New York: Routledge, 1982), 1 and 524.
16
The Disney family moved to Kansas City from Chicago in 1911, when Walt was four years old,
and returned in 1917. Walt began night courses at the Chicago Art Institute and quit at age 16 to join the
Army. Walt joined the Red Cross because the Army rejected him due to his age. After the war, he returned
to Kansas City and began his animation skills with a camera borrowed from his employer. Although the
"Laugh-O-Grams" cartoons were wildly popular in the Kansas City area, he mismanaged the finances of
his animation company and it went bankrupt. In 1923, Walt and his brother, Roy, moved their studio to
Hollywood. See Brian Burnes, Robert W. Butler and Dan Viets. Walt Disney 's Missouri: The Roots of a
Creative Genius (Kansas City: Kansas City Star Books, 2002).
6
team. The Kansas City Blues, a minor league baseball team (formed 1902), shared the
Muehlebach Field with the Monarchs for thirty years following its construction in 1923.
Kansas City also hosted the Amateur Athletic Union's annual basketball tournament for
fourteen years (beginning 1921) where basketball as a spectator sport developed.17
By the early twentieth century, commerce of the city had developed to the point
that it sought particular expression in its architecture and the building industry grew
exponentially with the expanding population and economy. The number of architects
listed in the classified section of the City Directories increased from 35 architects in 1894
to 102 in 1910 paralleling escalating construction needs.18 Already established as leading
architects within the city, Howe, Hoit & Cutler, and later Hoit, Price & Barnes, led city
architects in building Kansas City in an era that inspired Rodgers and Hammerstein to
remark in a musical, "Everything's up to date in Kansas City."19
As successors of Ware & Van Brunt of Boston, the work of Hoit, Price & Barnes
grew out of the Beaux Arts tradition, befitting a city that embraced the City Beautiful
Movement in its large boulevards and public parks.20 World War I serves as a natural
division in the firm's oeuvre because it marks a change in the firm's partners, patrons,
17
The sport's creator, James Naismith coached the University of Kansas basketball team in
Lawrence, only forty miles west of Kansas City. Later Naismith's former student, Forrest "Phog" Allen
coached the team and developed the sport. In 1935, the tournament moved to Denver. See Adolph H.
Grundman, The Golden Age of Amateur Basketball: The A AU Tournament, 1921-1968 (Lincoln: Regents
of the University of Nebraska and Bison Books, 2004), 3-26.
18
George Ehrlich, Kansas City, Missouri: An Architectural History, 1826-1990, revised and
enlarged edition (Columbia, Missouri: University of Missouri Press, 1992), 58.
19
Although "Kansas City," a song from the Rodgers and Hammerstein's first musical Oklahoma!
(1943), satires the provincial "Okies," it reinforces Kansas City as the major city for those between St.
Louis and San Francisco.
20
The implementation of the City Beautiful Movement in Kansas City is featured in William H.
Wilson, The City Beautiful Movement (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1989).
7
and style. Before the war, their most important patron was industrialist R. A. Long and
following the war, corporations became their largest patron group. Additionally after
World War I, the fimi added two new partners and their aesthetic shifted from revivalist
styles to a modern style, later called Art Deco. Because of the influence of city boss Tom
Pendergast, public works sustained the firm during the Great Depression. Their last major
work before dissolving the firm in 1941 was the Municipal Auditorium, then the largest
auditorium in the nation and called "one of the 10 best buildings of the world" in 1936 by
Architectural Record.2I
To tell the story of the architecture of Hoit, Price & Barnes in Kansas City is to
tell an American architectural story—it is one of entrepreneurship, adaptation, and riches
gained and lost: a story arising from humble architecture and a demanding client. In this
time of optimism, hope, and expanding wealth, they were building the city of the future.
The story of Hoit, Price & Barnes is essentially a truly American story.
Scope and Organization
The few publications about this firm or their buildings offered me the opportunity
to contribute to the field by drawing attention to their work. This monograph emphasizes
their significant building projects in Kansas City and the city of Longview, Washington,
with smaller projects to demonstrate the firm's architectural themes. The chapters are
ordered chronologically following changes in the firm's principal partners (Figure l). 22
G. E. Kidder-Smith, Source Book of American Architecture: 500 Notable Buildings from the
10th Century to the Present Time (New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 2000), 381.
Images grouped at the end of each respective chapter section.
8
In 1901, Van Brunt & Howe were invited to design the Palace of Varied
Industries at the 1904 Louisiana Purchase Exposition in St. Louis (Figure 2). For this
project, they hired two young architects, Henry F. Hoit and William Cutler, who became
partners in 1902 changing the nåme to Howe, Hoit & Cutler (Figure 3). After this
introduction, Chapter II investigates this period when the firm, as Howe, Hoit & Cutler
and Howe & Hoit, provided all types of architecture to keep up with the city's demand.
They secured prestigious ecclesiastical commissions, such as the B'Nai Jehudah
Synagogue.23 The city's new parks and boulevards system provided residential enclaves
where they designed houses that featured historical revival styles. Two of the firm's
principals died within ten years of reorganizing, so this was a short period.
Chapter III examines the commissions from prominent businessman and
architectural patron, R. A. Long. These included the Independence Boulevard Christian
Church (1905), the R. A. Long Building (1906), Long's personal residences for town and
country (Corinthian Hall, 1909-1911 and Longview Farm, 1913-1916), the Christian
Church Hospital (1911-1926), and designs for the major buildings planned around the
main square in Long's planned city of Longview, Washington (begun 1919). The
buildings in this chapter span the transition from Howe, Hoit & Cutler to Hoifs solo
career when the firm operated under the nåme of Henry F. Hoit (Figure 4). During his
solo period, Hoit hired a young draftsman, Edwin M. Price, and an engineer, Alfred
Barnes, who demonstrated their talents and later became partners (Figure 5).
The early commercial architecture is difficult to study because of the number of additions and
alterations they provided for earlier buildings and the renovations on their buildings by later architects.
Therefore, I have focused my investigation on domestic and ecclesiastic architecture because the alterations
less frequent.
9
Chapter IV discusses the buildings Hoit, Price & Barnes designed in the 1920s
and early 1930s as boosters attempted to realize Kansas City as "Centropolis," the megacity in the center of the United States. During this time, the firm defined the city's skyline
with three of its tallest skyscrapers and the second largest convention center in the United
States. Although the Southwestern Bell Telephone Building used a revival style typical of
the firm's work before World War I, the application of new building technology marks a
transition in work in their oeuvre as engineering played a larger role after Alfred Barnes
became a partner. Conceived before the stock market crash of 1929, the Fidelity Bank
and Kansas City Power & Light Buildings exemplified their interpretation of Midwestern
Art Deco and the Kansas City Power & Light Building demonstrated the optimism of the
era and expanded on advances in exterior lighting. The Art Deco masterpiece, the
Municipal Auditorium (1936) was designed after the effects of the Depression were
evident. Funding for this building was gained through the city's "Ten Year Plan," and
funds from the Federal Emergency Administration of Public Works, acquired largely due
to the Tom Pendergast political machine, allowed the finishing details. This was Hoit,
Price & Barnes's last major building before reportedly succumbing to the restrictions on
the building industry brought about by World War II in 1941.
Methodologv
My initial survey of the firm's works revealed approximately 250 building
projects, including realized commercial, residential, public, and industrial projects,
additions, alterations, or renovations of existing buildings, as well as projects not realized
(see Appendix). I began with the list of drawings held at the Western Historie Manuscript
10
Collection in Kansas City (WHMC) and the Kansas City Landmarks Commission
"White Sheet" list, a list compiled through neighborhood surveys. The WHMC has
blueprints, renderings, photographs, specifications, and correspondence for some 400
building projects of the firm Hoit, Price, & Barnes and its predecessors—the WHMC lists
each addition and alteration on an existing building as a separate project. From these lists,
I mapped the locations of the buildings within the city and documented them
photographically. A physical survey and comparison of my photographs to the drawings
at the WHMC revealed the range of their projects, their locations, and which buildings
were extant.
Many buildings were not found at the described location. Some of the drawings or
descriptions of the buildings had general addresses. For instance, a house described as
being at State Line Road and 55th Street did not correspond to the post World War II
houses present at this intersection. After studying satellite images on Google Maps and
investigating the neighborhood on foot, I found the house in the middle of the block
surrounded by newer houses. Obviously, in this case, the sprawling lawn of the original
lot had been parceled into smaller lots for new houses. For other buildings not found at
the stated location, I looked for verification of their existence in building and water
permit records at the Landmarks Commission, historie photographs, and in documents at
the Missouri Valley Special Collection at the Kansas City Public Library (MVSC). I also
consulted historie telephone books to confirm that the owner named on the drawing
resided at that address. If I found photographic or directory evidence, but could not
physically locate the buildings, I listed the building as demolished. Others are presumed
projects or require more research.
11
After I surveyed the firm's oeuvre, I decided which of their buildings could
best tell their story. Using drawings and photographs, I developed a formal analysis of
each of the significant buildings, and sought secondary sources to fill out historical
context. If extant and available, I also included a discussion of the building in its current
state (see Appendix). In addition, when historical descriptions or photographs were
available, I discuss its original interior decoration. Profiles of the firm's partners, patrons
and other associated people are also listed in the appendix.
Literature Review
Buildings by Hoit, Price & Barnes and their predecessors appear in books and
exhibitions often with the firm unaccredited. I attribute the lacuna of acknowledgement to
a lack of ready sources connecting the authors to their works. Unlike their predecessors
Ware & Van Brunt, Hoit, Price & Barnes have not been the subject of a major publication
and the firm had remained, until now, buried in archival sources. Secondary sources
come from books on Kansas City architecture, journals, and newspapers. The research of
architectural historian George Ehrlich was extremely valuable in the general background
of architecture and the building industry of Kansas City and his research laid the
foundation for my investigation into the firm Hoit, Price & Barnes.24
Particularly useful to my study was George Ehrlich, Kansas City, Missouri: An Architectural
History 1826-1976 (Kansas City, Missouri: Historie Kansas City Foundation, 1979) and "The Rise and
Demise of the Architectural League of Kansas City [with a Note on Architectural Record Keeping in the
Region]." Kawsmouth: A Journal of Regional History 1, no. 2 (1999): 64-73.1 attempted to meet with Dr.
Ehrlich in late spring 2009, but his health was failing. George Ehrlich passed away 28 November 2009.
12
The Kansas City Landmarks Commission completed an unpublished report for
securing funding for additional architectural survey projects in 1992.25 The summaries of
Kansas City's industries and neighborhoods aided in my general surveys. Another source
on Kansas City was City of the Future: A Narrative History of Kansas City, 1850-1950
by Henry C. Haskell, Jr., in 1950. The Landmarks Commission sources were helpful,
particularly the neighborhood surveys and the 1975 report, Historie Kansas City
Architecture.26
Journal and newspaper sources, such as The Western Contractor and The Kansas
City Star were useful in obtaining contemporary information. The Western Contractor,
especially the early issues, printed which architects and contractors won commissions for
buildings and, in some cases, how much those buildings cost. These sources announced
Hoit, Price & Barnes buildings, whose records were not included in the Western Historie
Manuscript Collection.
Individual buildings by Hoit, Price & Barnes were featured in Cydney Millstein
and Carol Grove's Houses of Missouri, 1870-1940 (2008) and John Albury Bryan's book
entitled Missouri 's Contribution to American Architecture: A History of the Architectural
Achievements in This State from the Time of the Earliest Settlements Down to the Present
Year (1928). Lenore K. Bradley's book Corinthian Hall: An American Palace on
Gladstone was the only publication based entirely on one of their buildings. Linda
Newcom Jones transcribed interviews in The Longview We Remember (1990), which
added color and personality to the residences of R. A. Long. The chapter on the city of
25
26
Gregory B. Allen, et. al. Historie Resources Survey Plan of Kansas City.
Landmarks Commission of Kansas City. Historie Kansas City Architecture (Kansas City: The
Commission, 1975).
13
Longview was aided by two books by John M. McClelland, Jr.: Longview: The
Remarkable Beginnings of a Modem Western City (1949) and R. A. Longs Planned City:
The Story of Longview (1998).
Giles Carroll Mitchell knew the principals of the firm and visited their offices in
the late 1920s and early 1930s. Hoit, Price & Barnes gave Mitchell "his first opportunity
to participate in the architectural life of Kansas City"27 Mitchell does not discuss each of
the buildings fully, however he describes the principals and the atmosphere of the firm,
which I relate here. With this project, I hope to draw attention to an architectural firm that
has had a great impact on the character of Kansas City, but has until now been
unacknowledged.
Mitchell, v.
14
William R. Warc Henry Van Bruni
(1832-1915)
(1832-1903)
1860 Warc & Van Brunt
1868
1869
1870
1871
1872
1873
1874
1875
1876
1877
1878
1879
1880
1881
1882
1883
1884
1885
1886
1887
1888
1889
1890
1891
1892
1893
Fnmk M. Howe
(1849-1909)
William H. Culler
(1874-1907)
Henry F. Hoil
(1872-1951)
Edwin VI. 1'rice
(1884-1957)
Allred E.Barnes
(1892-1960)
1868joins
horn 1872
born 1874
188) retires
1881 Van lirunt & llcme
1885 KC office
bom 1884
1888 KC officc
clltltW * during I hese yetirs)
1900
1901
1902
1903
1903 dies
1904
1905
1906
1907
1908
1909
1910
1911
1912
1913
1914
1915
1916
1917
1918
1919
1920
(mi changfs t/uring ihese yearst
'1940
1941
bom 1892
(HO
(joinedb. 1901)
1901 joins
1901 Howe, Hoit&Cutler
1905 joins
1907 dies
1909 joins
1909 dies
1913 panner
lloit, 1'ricc & Barnes
1919parntcr
1941 dissolved
Figure 1. Timeline showing the changes in partners from Ware & Van Brunt to Hoit, Price
& Barnes. (Createdby author, 2010.)
Figure 2. Henry Van Brunt and Frank Maynard Howe. (Reprinted from John Albury
Bryan, Missouri's Contribution to American Architecture, St. Louis: St. Louis
Architectural Club, 1928, 120, and George Creel, Men Who Are Making Kansas City: A
Biographical Dictionary, 1902, 57.)
Figure 3. Frank M. Howe, Henry F. Hoit, and William H. Cutler. (Reprinted from "Mr.
Howe's New Partners," Kansas City Architect andBuilder 18, no. 6, 1903, 19.)
16
Figure 4. Henry F. Hoit. (Reprinted from Lenore K. Bradley, Corinthian Hall, Kansas
City: The Kansas City Museum, 1999, 8.)
Figure 5. Edwin M. Price and Alfred E. Barnes (Reprinted from "Edwin M. Price Is
Dead: Former Architect Here Dies in Arkansas," Kansas City Star, 11 January 1957,
Obituaries, 28, and "Obituary for Alfred Edward Barnes, or Alfred Barnes, Architect
with Hoit, Price & Barnes in Kansas City, Dyingon May 11, 1960," Kansas City Times,
12 May 1960, 30.)
17
CHAPTERII
VAN BRUNT & HOWE TO HOWE, HOIT & CUTLER
The Beaux Arts style influenced Howe, Hoit & Cutler's buildings as it did so
many American architects after the 1893 World' s Columbian Exposition in Chicago. In
fact, the firm serves as a direct legacy of this fair since Van Brunt & Howe designed the
Electricity Building at the Chicago exposition and were invited to design another building
in a similar style for the 1904 Louisiana Purchase Exposition in St. Louis, Missouri. In
anticipation of Henry Van Brunt's retirement, Howe hired two young architects, Henry F.
Hoit and William Cutler, specifically to work on the Palace of Varied Industries for the
1904 exhibition. At the completion of this building, Hoit and Cutler were added as
partners and they designed churches, office buildings, commercial and club buildings to
keep up with the growing demands of the region and continued the professionalism and
quality that earned Van Brunt & Howe their national reputation. Howe, Hoit & Cutler
secured prestigious commissions including the B'Nai Jehudah Synagogue, Linwood
Boulevard Christian Church, and the R. A. Long Building. Unfortunately, this partnership
was short-lived; two of the firm's principals died within ten years.1
In 1863, William R. Ware (1832-1915) and Henry Van Brunt (1832-1903) began
their firm in Boston, Massachusetts, after Van Brunt returned from duty in the Navy
1
The connection that Howe, Hoit & Cutler made with prominent businessman and architectural
patron, R. A. Long, continued with Henry F. Hoit after the death of his partners (see Chapter III).
during the Civil War. Both had studied at Harvard (Ware in the class of 1852 and Van
Brunt in 1854) and worked with Richard Morris Hunt in New York City.2 Ware & Van
Brunfs most significant building was Harvard University's Memorial Hall (1870-78), a
memorial to Harvard graduates who had died in the Civil War (Figure 1). They gained a
reputation for their essays on architectural education and reviews published in Atlantic
Monthly, The Nation, and American Architect and Building News. Henry Van Brunt also
translated Viollet-le-Duc's Entretiens sur 1'architecture (1863-1872) in 1875 making it
available to an English-speaking audience.
In 1863, Ware & Van Brunt immediately set up an atelier in their office following
the example of their own training in Hunfs atelier. Aware of his reputation as a teacher,
Boston Tech (later Massachusetts Institute of Technology or M.I.T.) asked Mr. Ware to
direct their first school of architecture; the first class enrolled in 1868. The same year,
nineteen-year-old Frank Maynard Howe (1849-1909) became an assistant in the firm.3
Ware and Van Brunt amicably dissolved their partnership in 1881 so that Ware could
begin an Architecture Department at the Columbia School of Mines (now the School of
Architecture at Columbia University) in New York City.4 Van Brunt named long-time
assistant Frank M. Howe as partner and continued the practice as Van Brunt & Howe.
Henry Van Brunt was a fellow Harvard alumnus and friend of Charles Francis
Adams, Jr., who invested heavily in Kansas City, bragging, "While railroads have been
2
Richard Morris Hunt (1827-1895) was the founder of the first American architectural school and
of the professional organization American Institute of Architects (AIA).
William A. Coles, Architecture and Society: Selected Essays of Henry Van Brunt (Cambridge:
The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1969), 16.
4
J. A. Chewning, "William Robert Ware at M.I.T. and Columbia." Journal of Architectural
Education 33, no. 2 (1979): 25-29.
19
my work, all the money I have made has been in dealing in real estate in Kanzas [sic]
City."5 Adams assumed the Presidency of the Union Pacific Railroad 1884 and
commissioned Van Brunt & Howe to design railroad depots for the line. In 1885, Van
Brunt & Howe opened a second office in Kansas City and, as the junior partner, Howe
moved to Kansas City to run this office while Van Brunt continued to operate the Boston
office. However, Van Brunt traveled frequently enough to Kansas City that he was
elected president of the Missouri Architectural Association in 1886.6
With a flourishing economy, increasing demand for architecture (rather than hasty
construction), and few professional architects in Kansas City, projects in Howe's office
increased rapidly. Contrarily, work in the Boston office dwindled as a latent effect of the
1872 Boston fire. The American Architect and Building News mentions that stagnation
that followed the rebuilding of Boston left the firm with little business.7 In 1887, Van
Brunt & Howe Consolidated offices and Van Brunt moved his family to Kansas City.
In Boston, Henry Van Brunt regularly met with a circle of men on alternating
Saturdays to talk about interesting facts or arguments relating to personal or professional
experiences. In Kansas City, Van Brunt longed for the intellectual discourse of his
Boston circle and gathered a new group of learned men from among the city's many new
5
Edward C. Kirkland, Charles Francis Adams, Jr. 1835-1915: The Patrician at Bay (Cambridge:
Harvard University Press, 1965), 6-18, 69.
6
7
The Kansas City Times, 12-14 January 1886.
"The Death ofHenry Van Brunt," American Architect and Building News 80 (11 April 1903): 9.
The Boston Fire of 1872 remains one of the most costly fire-related property losses in American history
with the value of all property destroyed estimated at $75,000,000. Losses included more than 65 acres of
the most valuable business property and about 776 buildings.
20
residents and he increased his publications.8 Frank Howe also began to engage in
architectural discourse and publish essays. Van Brunt & Howe became the leading
architectural firm of the region and their work reflects the city's building needs, which
focused on commerce and industry.
The highlights of Van Brunt & Howe's production in the East include the Harvard
Medical School, several buildings at Wellesley College, and the Cambridge Public
Library, all located in Massachusetts. In the West, the library of the University of
Michigan and Union Station in Portland, Oregon, stand out. In Kansas City, their work
includes the Coates House Hotel (1886-1889) and the Emery, Bird & Thayer Dry Goods
Company (1889-1890, demolished 1973).9 They designed houses for the city's most
prominent residents, including August R. Meyer (1895-96), today called Vanderslice
Hall, which serves as the Kansas City Art Institute's administration building (Figure 2).
They also worked with the firm McKim, Mead, & White on the Kansas City branch of
the New York Life Insurance Building.
Van Brunt & Howe's contribution to the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition in
Chicago deserves specific mention because it directly influenced their future partners as
young men who would design the firms contribution to the 1904 Louisiana Purchase
Exposition in St. Louis.
Paraphrased from a letter in the possession of Mr. Henry Van Brunt, Jr., reprinted in Cole, 20. In
1899, Van Brunt met with two lawyers, a professor form the University of Kansas, a civil engineer, an
industrialist, a circuit judge, two distinguished clergymen of different faiths, a physician, and a
representative of Boston financial interests who made heavy loans in Kansas City (probably Charles
Francis Adams).
9
The Emery, Bird and Thayer Dry Goods building had a design feature ahead of its time; they
replaced the overhanging cornice with bands of ornament.
21
1893 WorlcTs Columbian Exposition's Electricity Building
Daniel Burnham of Burnham & Root in Chicago organized the design of the
Columbian Exposition beginning in 1891 and enlisted preeminent landscape architect
Frederick Law Olmsted to design the grounds. Richard Morris Hunt, considered the
"Dean of Architects," designedthe Administration Building, the prestigious centerpiece
of the fair on the Court of Honor. Henry Van Brunt wrote that the Administration
Building gave visitors their first impressions and its function "was that of an overture."10
Most of the architects of the fair buildings had worked with Hunt, studied in his atelier, or
in some other way were associated with Hunt before the fair. After consultation, each
architect was given the building that he preferred: Charles McKim (Agricultural
Building), George B. Post (The Manufactures and Liberal Arts Building), Peabody &
Stearns (The Machinery Building), and Louis Sullivan (Transportation Building).11 Van
Brunt & Howe elected to design the Electricity Building (Figure 3).
The Electricity Building conformed to the fair designers' decisions to visually
unite the buildings on the Court of Honor by using a Beaux Arts mode, a 60-foot high
coraice, and an arcade to provide shelter from the Chicago summer sun. The Electricity
Building's size (350 feet on the court and 700 feet on the major north-south axis) was
enormous compared to buildings outside the fair, even dwarfing Washington's Capitol
Building. However, it was the smallest edifice among the principal group at the fair. Van
Brunt & Howe accepted the challenge to design a building that could assert itself in the
10
1
Cole, 236.
' Louis Sullivan mentions that each architect chose the building they would design on the Court
of Honor. See Louis Sullivan, "Autobiography of an Idea," 1922, in America Builds: Source Documents in
American Architecture and Planning, edited by Leland M. Roth (New York: Harper & Row, 1983), 362.
22
midst of its massive neighbors. Van Brunt & Howe were able to both "conceal and
justify its inferiority of size" with a lively undulation of frequent campanile towers.12 Van
Brunt described the historical inspiration of the building's details in his 1892 essay
"Architecture at the World's Columbian Exposition," published in The Century:
Its purposes seemed to suggest a playful animation of outline, somewhat
like that of the early French Renaissance in the chateaux, approaching
even the fantastic joyousness of Chambord, combined with a certain
delicacy or preciousness of detail, which might legitimately differentiate it
from the rest in regard to expression, while, in respect to general style and
feeling, and in loyalty to scholastic types, it should still belong to the same
architectural family.13
The Electricity Building was situated with excellent vantage points of three of its
four facades: the south facade faced the Court of Honor, the east faced the canal, and the
north faced the lagoon (Figure 4). Each facade was divided into three bays with an
entrance in the center. The short facades on the north and south featured an arch between
two towers; the entrance on the east facade was capped with a pediment approximately
the height and width of the central nave or "avenue" (60 feet wide, 92 feet high). Van
Brunt & Howe varied the motifs on each of the four facades to prevent monotony and
avoid "becoming mechanical and fatiguing" (Figure 5).14 The pediment contained an
escutcheon, bearing the electromagnet as a symbol of electricity, supported on each side
by a female figure representing the two principal industries connected with this science—
lighting and telegraphy (Figure 6).
12
Cole, 256.
13
Cole, 256-257.
14
Henry Van Brunfs essay on World's Columbian Exposition reprinted in Cole, 257-258.
23
Using a characteristic Beaux Arts parti with a 23 square foot module, the
building was divided into a central hall on axis with the main entry distinguished from
the flanking symmetrical wings. Longitudinal and transverse naves called central
avenues, each 5 modules or 115 feet wide, afforded circulation for the throngs of visitors
(Figure 7). Free of columns and open from floor to roof, the naves provided uninhibited
space for the exhibitors. Supported by steel trusses and covered with pitched roofs, these
grand avenues were lofty enough to permit clerestory windows above the rest of the
building maximizing natural light during daytime hours (Figure 8).
The evening ritual of lighting the fair was expected to increase interest to the
technology exhibited within the Electricity Building and attracted many curious visitors.
Additionally, during the designing stage, the 4.85 acres allotted to the building was
clearly insufficient to meet the demands of the exhibitors. Therefore, Van Brunt & Howe
maximized the amount of floor space by adding four second-story gallenes, which
flanked the longitudinal nave in the north and south wings, and which were accessed by
grand staircases on each side of the four main central porches. The galleries, five modules
wide, were open to the first floor with a light well in the center aisle. Flat roofs with a
series of skylights that corresponded with the light wells brightened the first floor.
The 1893 fair demonstrated to America a "correct" style—the Beaux-Arts style—
with its classical sensibility and refinement. The Beaux-Arts style gave order to the chaos
of American cities that had grown organically.15 This appealed to a new elite class that
15
Montgomery Schuyler, "Last Words About the WorlcTs Fair," 1894 in America Builds: Source
Documents in American Architecture and Planning edited by Leland M. Roth (New York: Harper & Row
Publishers, 1983), 427.
24
felt insecure in their civic arts as Americans compared themselves to Europeans and as
Westerners compared to Easterners.
New Partners: Howe. Hoit «fe Cutler
Disseminated in fairs across the country for the next two decades, this style
influenced the 1904 Louisiana Purchase Exposition in St. Louis.16 In June 1901,
Emmanuel Louis Masqueray, Chief of Design, and William H. Thomson, Chairman of
the Commission of Architects of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, invited Van Brunt &
Howe to join the Commission of Architects and design one of the fair's most important
buildings.17 The firm had been working at capacity with commissions in the burgeoning
Kansas City region and Henry Van Brunt, at age sixty-nine, looked toward retirement.
Consequently, the founders sought new partners to help with this project.
Henry Van Brunt had been the primary designer while Howe acted as a public
relations person, as revealed in Van Brunt's obituary printed in American Architect and
BuildingNews. The obituary attributed Van Brunt's somewhat difficult personality to the
pain associated with an early crippling injury: ".. .his work was done under an
unknowable strain and the unconscious air of impatient arrogance that first and last cost
16
Robert W. Rydell, John E. Findling, and Kimberly D. Pelle, Fair America: World's Fairs in the
United States (Washington D. C : Smithsonian Institution Press, 2000), 45-71.
17
The Commission of Architects was composed of nine architectural firms and one landscape
architect. Five firms were from St. Louis: Eames & Young, Barnett, Haynes & Barnett, Widman, Walsh &
Boisselier, Theodore C. Link. The others were Cass Gilbert (St. Paul and New York City), Carrere &
Hastings (New York City), Van Brunt & Howe (Kansas City), and Walker & Kimball (Omaha and
Boston). George Kessler of Kansas City was chosen as landscape architect and F. W. Ruckstuhl of New
York as sculptor. D. H. Burnham and Company declined the invitation because of other business
engagements. Compensation for each firm was $10,000.00 plus incidental expenses connected with their
work—below the recognized compensation. Van Brunt & Howe were paid a total of $20,756 for the varied
industries building. See Louisiana Purchase Exposition (LPE) Minutes Index, 7-11 and 18, Missouri
History Museum, St. Louis (MHM).
25
him many friends... ."18 William Cole, however, contradicts this priggish description:
Van Brunt had a "quick wit, unfailing sense of humor, and a hearty resonant laugh;" his
family remembers "a singularly lovable man of impressive tenderness."19 Nevertheless,
Cole notes that Van Brunt seemed to have disliked the business side of the profession
avoiding it whenever possible to concentrate on design.20 Therefore, with Van Brunt' s
exit, Howe sought new highly skilled designers to replace him in the firm.
Presumably, Van Brunt and Howe had been acquainted with the young architect
William H. Cutler (1874-1907) though connections at Boston Tech (M.I.T.) or the
architectural community in Chicago. Originally from Cincinnati, Cutler moved to
Chicago to study architecture and later continued his education at M.I.T. where he was
among the first classes to study in a newly built Architecture Building.21 Following
graduation in 1897, Cutler trained in various Boston offices. Then he worked for three
years for the Chicago firm Frost & Granger.22 In 1901, Cutler joined the firm of Van
Brunt & Howe in Kansas City and soon recruited another new partner, writing to his
college friend, Henry Hoit:
We are covered up with work here and now have the chance at another job
that is too big to turn down; I speak of one of the main buildings to be put
1S
"The Death of Henry Van Brunt," 9.
19
Cole, 33.
20
Cole, 33.
21
The Architecture Building at Boston Tech (M.I.T.) was designed by department head Francis
Ward Chandler in 1892 and included a library and laboratory for testing materials. See "History of the
Department of Architecture," in Institute Archives & Special Collections [Website]. Cambridge: MIT
Libraries, 1995, updated 2005, accessed 27 January 2009; available from
http://libraries.mit.edu/archives/mithistory/histories-offices/arch.html; Internet.
22
Charles Frost (1856-1931) designed the Maine Building at the 1893 Columbian Exposition. In
1898, he partnered with Alfred Hoyt Granger (1867-1939) who had just moved to Chicago from Cincinnati.
Frost & Granger are known for their designs of train stations and terminals, including LaSalle Street Station
(1902) and the Chicago and North Western Terminal (1911, demolished).
26
up for the World's Fair in St. Louis. We need a man who can take full charge
of the men and design on this job. Would you consider the job? 23
Born in Chicago, Henry Ford Hoit (1872-1951) began his architectural training at
the Manual Training School in Chicago where he was distinguished for "best drawing
work in the class." Architectural critic Mariana Griswold Van Rensselaer had urged
readers that a visit to the Chicago fair to view its triumphal architecture would be "the
best gift that any American parent can bestow upon a daughter or a son."24 In 1893,
Hoifs father, a ship chandler, understood the special iniportance of the fair for a young
architect and told his son: "Hal, this is a chance of a lifetime, I don't want you to take a
job right away. Take the next two months to study the fair. Study the exhibits, the
architecture, everything."25 Hoit lived the fair day and night for two months, dreaming of
designing magnificent buildings. At its conclusion, he began as a draftsman in the office
of Dwight H. Perkins of Chicago.26 Mr. Perkins saw Henry Hoifs potential and ambition
and gave him more responsibility promoting him to superintendent of construction and
designer. He also invited the young man to his home on Sunday afternoons where Hoit
met important people and Perkins encouraged Hoit to continue his education at Boston
Tech (M.I.T.). During his two years at M.I.T., he pledged Delta Kappa Epsilon and
Giles Carroll Mitchell, There Is No Limit: Architecture and Sculpture in Kansas City. (Kansas
City: Brown-White Company, 1934), 30.
24
Mariana Griswold Van Rensselaer, "The Artistic Triumph of the Fair-Builders," originally
published in The Forum (December 1892): 527-40 reprinted in Accents as Well as Broad Effects: Writings
on Architecture, Landscape, and the Environment 1876-1925, edited by David Gebhard, 527-40 (Berkeley:
University of California Press, 1996), 73.
25
Richard B. Fowler, "Henry F. Hoit: Turning Point in My Career." The Kansas City Star 3
November 1929, 1-2.
26
Dwight H. Perkins (1867-1941) began his office in 1893 after working with Burnham and Root
for five years who helped him establish himself with his first commission for the Steven's Point Wisconsin
Normal School. After completing his next project for the Steinway Piano Company Building in 1896, he
moved his office into the attic of this hall and invited some of his friends to join him. The collaboration
among the architects in this studio began the Prairie School Style.
27
befriended a fraternity brother, William Cutler. He graduated with honors in 1898 and
won the Boston Society of Architects' annual prize awarded to the senior who had done
the best all-around work in the field of architecture.
Henry Hoit felt a fleeting temptation to leave architecture for another line of work
early in his career. While working for the firm Cabot, Everett & Meade in Boston, his
friend, William H. Forbes, asked him to help him run the Forbes Lithograph
Manufacturing Company.27 Hoit replied, "I am an architect." However, Forbes persuaded
Hoit to try it, saying that he would make much more money in business than architecture.
After two weeks, Hoit was back in the office of Cabot, Everett & Meade reinvigorated
with passion: "I will never be satisfied unless I give myself a chance to be an architect."28
For one who dreamt of designing magnificent fair buildings, Cutler's offer was a chance
of a lifetime. In response to Hoifs acceptance, Cutler sent a second letter:
Mr. Howe is interested in all that I have told him about you, but he says
this is a big job and he has never seen you. He doesn't want to buy a "eat
in the bag." He is coming on to Boston to look you over, so look
intelligent when he gets there.. .29
After speaking with Hoit in Boston, Frank Howe asked Samuel W. Mead if he
thought that Hoit could handle the job at the fair; Mead responded, "If Hoit can't do it,
nobody can." With that commendation, Hoit joined Van Brunt & Howe and moved from
Boston to Kansas City in 1901.30
27
The Forbes Lithographic Company printed the first issue of the Architectural Association of
Boston Scrapbook in 1883. Cabot, Everett & Mead (Edward Clark Cabot, Arthur G. Everett, and Samuel
W. Mead) designed the Arlington Public Library in Boston (1892).
28
Fowler, [1].
29
Fowler, [1].
30
Giles Mitchell knew Henry Hoit as a partner in the firm Hoit, Price & Barnes and described him
in There Is No Limit as a man small in stature, straight, refined, quick, with quantities of white hair in later
28
1904 Louisiana Purchase Exposition^ Palace of Varied Industries
The Louisiana Purchase Exposition (LPE) Commission of Architects
unanimously decided on a "fan-shaped plan with the radiating vistas and curved
boulevards" with the center axis extending from a cascading fountain at the head of the
waster basin (Figure 9).31 Like the World's Columbian Exposition, the fair followed
Beaux-Arts principles. The Committee decided on unifying features of buildings the fair:
That color shall be an important feature of the Exposition, but that the
scheme as a whole shall not depend upon color decoration. That a uniform
module and scale shall be adopted for all its parts of the main composition
and its accessories, and so far as possible for the State and adjunct
Buildings. That a classic and academic style be used in the main group of
Buildings following closely the purer types.32
At a meeting on 21 September 1901, the chairman of the commission assigned
each principal building to an architect. Ultimately however, by the time of construction
only two architects designed the building originally assigned to them: Cass Gilbert
designed the Art Building (permanent edifice) and Walker & Kimball designed the
Electricity Building.33 The chairman of the committee suggested additional design
years, but full of energy. Hoit read essays of Emerson and contributed his share of entertainment at parties.
He enjoyed his meetings with men active in the city's affairs and belonged to many organizations. Mitchell
recalled that Hoit was punctual, dependable to the very letter, and never failed to pay his draftsmen on
payday. Mitchell recalled that Hoit frugally "maintained a careful lookout for waste, not only in his office,
but in his clienfs behalf. At the same time, he insisted his draftsmen [create] numerous study drawings.
Some details in designing ornament cost the office as much as the finished ornament cost the owner. See
Mitchell, 143.
31
LPE Minutes Index, 13 (MHM).
32
LPE Minutes Index, 12 (MHM). Mr. Howe made the suggestion that the Classic Academic style
be used in the main group of buildings. See Third Meeting of Architects Commission, LPE, Planters Hotel
10 July 1901,8.
33
Van Brunt & Howe were originally assigned the Mine and Metallurgy Building. The building
assignments and actual cost of the building and cost per square foot (under the roof) follows—Chart
assembled from details listed in the LPE Minutes Index, 13-30:
29
parameters, including: use few skylights, use wood rather than steel for roof trusses,
keep main floors near to the ground with as few galleries as possible, limit cornices to 65
feet above average grade, and keep cost within reasonable limits.34
Van Brunt & Howe were assigned the Palace of Varied Industries on a site that
stood opposite the Manufactures Palace along the center axis of the fair with a
symmetrically bent footprint. Hired specifically to work on this building, Henry F. Hoit
applied what he had learned eleven years earlier in Chicago in the design of the Varied
Industries Building, which covered over fourteen acres, 1200 feet long along the main
axis and 525 feet along the intersecting axis, providing 656,250 square feet of space. On
7 October 1901, the architects submitted their initial designs to the commission for
friendly discussion, which the commission approved the following day.35 As the largest
of the exhibition halls, LPE commission considered the Palace of Varied Industries of
greatest importance to the fair and began its construction first. By November 1901, the
LPE Architecture Department began to create construction drawings and the Department
of Sculpture began working on the sculptural details using the initial sketches.36
Architect
Cass Gilbert
Van Brunt & Howe
Walker & Kimball
Carrere & Hastings
Widman, Walsh & Boisselier
Barnett, Haynes & Barnett
Theodore C. Link
Eames & Young
34
Building Nåme
Main Art (permanent structure)
Varied Industries
Electricity
Manufactures
Machinery
Liberal Arts
Mines and Metallurgy
Education and Social Economy
Actual Cost ($)
621,906.73
703,815.00
412,948.11
723,510.00
511,042.19
476,957.20
498,661.72
365,421.00
sq. foot ($)
10.090
1.550
1.420
1.370
1.259
1.219
1.120
1.087
LPE Minutes Index, 14 (MHM).
35
Van Brunt & Howe were originally assigned the Mines and Metallurgy Building at a meeting on
21 September 1901. LPE Minutes Index, 13 (MHM).
36
LPE Minutes Index, 10 and 16 (MHM).
30
On 3 February 1902, the commission discussed detailed drawings for the
Varied Industries Building but the minutes left out their comments. However, the
revisions that the commission asked Roundtree Construction Company, the contractor
with the winning bid, to make indicates the changes made to the building during this
meeting, particularly to omit the gallery and add metal and glass for skylights in lieu of
wood and fabric skylights.37 For $ 604,000 Roundtree promised to complete the building
within seven months with penalties for delay. Promoters originally planned to open the
fair on 30 April 1903, but in the summer of 1902, they postponed the opening by one
year
38
On 1 August 1902, a drawing showing an elevation of the tower of the Varied
Industries Building was displayed to the commission and Howe, Blake, Gilbert, Kimball
and Link addressed the meeting and each announced that they favored the omission of the
towers. The committee voted unanimously that the towers be omitted.39 At this meeting,
the Director of Works informed the architects that it was impractical to obtain structural
steel for the construction of the main towers of the Manufactures and the Varied
The sculptors for the Varied Industries Building are as follows: A. C. Skodik (Models), F. W.
Ruckstuhl and J. Flanagan (Groups), P. Rossak and Wm. W. Manatt (Spandrels), C. J. Barnhorn and D.
Tilden (Tympanum). See LPE Minutes Index, 58 (MHM).
37
LPE Minutes of the Committee on Grounds and Buildings, 3 February 1902, 2.
Original Bid
Deduction for omission of gallery
Deduction for use of Cyprus instead of white pine
Addition for metal and glass skylights in lieu of wood and fabric
38
39
$ 620,000
$ 15,000
5,000
-20.000
600,000
+4.000
$ 604,000
LPE Minutes Index, 18 (MHM).
Tenth Meeting of Architects Commission, LPE, office of Director of Works, Administration
Building, 1 August 1902, 2 (MHM).
31
40
Industries Buildings in time. The committee resolved to omit the main towers of the
Varied Industries, Manufacturers, and the Liberal Arts Buildings and authorized the
architects to make the necessary changes in design and receive compensation for this task
in addition to their regular fees.
Henry Hoit must have been unsatisfied with these changes because a letter dated 2
August 1902 signed by Van Brunt & Howe states:
While we personally, regret the necessity which brings about this action,
we take no exceptions to the action of the Board as imposed by the
resolution, and shall cheerfully set about making such modifications of our
designs as are necessary to secure the best results. This, of necessity,
imposes upon the authors of these two designs [of the Manufacturers and
Liberal Arts Buildings] and especially upon the authors of the Varied
Industries Building, a considerable amount of additional work, study and
thought.
In our own case had the towers never been considered a part of the
structural conditions, we should have proceeded upon entirely different
lines in the treatment of our north front. 41
The towers were allowed, but caused problems during construction in winter
1902-1903; damages caused by gale-force winds caused the eventual abandonment of a
Tenth Meeting of Architects Commission, 2 (MHM). The LPE minutes index elaborated: "steel
market was in such a condition of congestion, that it was next to impossible to obtain a sufficient supply of
steel for the construction of large and elaborate trasses required for the work in hand. No trouble was
experienced in obtaining most excellent long leaf yellow pine lumber for the construction of the wooden
trasses, at a price, which I am satisfied, caused a saving of over the cost of steel trasses of at least
$500,000.00. In the early stages of construction drawing, it was determined that wooden piles under all
principle points of support was necessary, careful computations of wind pressure demanded the use of piles
to resist the uplift forces." See LPE Minutes Index, 17 (MHM).
41
Letter from Van Brunt and Howe to the Committee on Grounds, 2 August 1902. They continue
to ask for additional time and reimbursement for the revised drawings. The letter is appended by a
statement signed by Carrere & Hastings, which reads, "We have read the above letter ... and concur in
everything therein expressed, and as authors of the Manufactures Building, we ask for the same
consideration as that requested by Messers Van Brunt & Howe." D. R. Francis, President of the Committee,
wrote to the Director of Works and asked that action on the matter be deferred until revised designs of the
Varied Industries and Manufactures Buildings be submitted. See LPE Minutes Committee on Grounds &
Buildings, 2 August 1902 (MHM).
32
400-foot tower designed for the north facade (Figure IO).42 Two versions of postcards
from the fair were created, showing the tower and also with the tower removed from the
composition (Figure 11).
As completed, the Varied Industries Building somewhat resembled the Electricity
Building of the 1893 Columbian Exposition: both were symmetrical, surrounded by a
colonnade on the ground floor, and had a playful outline of towers and domes (Figure
12). Comparing the two entrances, the Varied Industries Building appears more clinical
than the more fanciful Electricity Building (Figure 13). The single-storied entrance of the
Varied Industries Building was flanked with four Ionic columns supporting a pediment
whereas the Electricity Building had eight Corinthian columns and rose two floors topped
with a pediment. A pair of campanile towers flanked both buildings' entrances, but the
geometric Varied Industries towers, which the Official Guide described as a Spanish
Renaissance style, began at the cornice (whereas those on the Electricity Building began
on ground level) and were topped with rounded towers inspired by the French
Renaissance towers at Chambord Chateau.
The most striking feature of the Palace of Varied Industries is the elaborate
entrance on the south facade where the building bends. Behind a detached colonnade,
which the Official Guide called of "majestic proportions," the entrance was within an
enclave of an open court beneath an ornate dome (Figures 14, 15 and 16).43 The Palace of
Varied Industries used a continuous Ionic colonnade on the four facades on a high base
broken only by the center entrances and corner pavilions crowned with low domes.
Major J. Lowenstein, Official Guide to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition at the City of St.
Louis (St. Louis: The Official Guide Company, 1904), 72.
43
Lowenstein, 72-73.
33
The Varied Industries Building had a great corridor that extended along the
north-south axis. This corridor expanded into a circular loggia in the center that opened
into a fine interior court filled with exhibits housed in kiosks and iron pavilions (Figure
17). Exhibits were closely allied to the industrial art exhibit in the Palace of Fine Arts.
The placement of each exhibit was determined by whether it was produced by a
manufacturing firm or an individual artist. The Palace of Varied Industries featured
exhibits from Great Britain, Japan, Holland, France, Switzerland, and Persia.44
On 26 February 1903, the German representatives asked for permission to build
into the eastern court of the Varied Industries Building a "richly decorated veranda 20
feet high 80 broad and 100 deep, round a little open ornamental garden" to connect with
the German pavilion's on the interior. The Director of Exhibits granted their wish on the
condition that it conformed to Hoifs design of the building and that the Division of
Works approved drawings before construction began.45
At the end of the year in 1901, when the design of the Varied Industries Building
was completed, Henry Hoit told Frank Howe that he was ready to move back to Boston,
but Howe had other plans. Anticipating Van Brunfs retirement, William Cutler and
Henry Hoit were made partners at the end of the year in 1901, although not announced
publicly. Simultaneously, their mentors began to integrate the new partners into the
44
The Varied Industries Building showed exhibits of Great Britain on the west end, including a
richly furnished model of King Edward's yacht, a model country house, English potteries, Irish laces, and a
cotton milling operation; and the Japanese exhibit included exquisite embroideries, bronzes, lacquer ware,
enameled pottery, and metal vases. Porcelain included Dutch Delftware, English Doulton, and Danish royal
porcelain. French jewelers demonstrated their art in jewelry and precious stones. See Lowenstein, 73.
45
Germany's pavilion occupied almost the entire east half of the palace displaying Kayserzinn
ware, pottery, tapestries, and toys. Persia also had a large court and displayed rugs, carpets and native tools.
The Swiss had a building devoted to their peculiar wares. See Lowenstein, 73.
34
architectural community of Kansas City. At the 1902 annual meeting of the Kansas
City Architectural Club, William Cutler was elected president and Henry Hoit,
Treasurer.46 Howe, Hoit & Cutler also contributed the Kansas City Casino to the
Louisiana Purchase Exposition (Figure 18). The casino was constructed in less than two
months for $17,000—bids were advertised in February 1904 and it opened on 30 April
1904.47
Van Brunt continued to work on projects and organize his letters and notebooks
from a recent European trip into a book.48 Early in 1903, while on a professional trip in
Boston, he suffered from a recurring hip ailment and entered the hospital for a bone
operation. During his recovery, his wife and daughter took an apartment in Boston. They
later moved him to his sister-in-law's house in Milton to recuperate where he died of
complications on 8 April 1903 and was buried in the family lot in Cambridge.49
After Van Brunt's death, the firm announced Hoit and Cutler as new partners and
The Kansas City Architect and Builder described the organization of the new partners in
an article: "Mr. Hoit devotes his time, principally, to designing, and Mr. Cutler to details
The Kansas City Architect & Building News noted that their meeting in nicely finished and
furnished rooms with pictures and casts adorning the walls was in contrast to the 1901 meeting which met
in rooms with partly papered walls, "ye olden tallow candles for light, a flour barrel for a table and a halfinch layer of dust for carpet." See "First Annual Meeting of the Kansas City Architectural Club." Kansas
City Architect and Builder 17, no. 5 (1902): 7. The partners were also announced in American Architecture
and Building News, a Boston paper.
47
"Construction News: Bids for the Kansas City Casino at the World's Fair." The Western
Contractor 3, no. 5 (1904): 1 and "Construction News: Kansas City Casino, Ewins Residence, and Emporia
Library." The Western Contractor 3, no. 4 (1904): 1.
48
Henry Van Brunt's son, Courtlandt Van Brunt, unsuccessfully attempted to publish the journal
in 1941. See Cole, footnote 61, page 535.
49
Coles, 32.
35
of construction."
50
Mr. Howe presumably continued to run the business aspects of the
firm. The nåme of the firm Van Brunt & Howe was retained for business reasons until
1905 when The Western Contractor announced the new corporate nåme:
Now that Messrs. Hoit and Cutler are so well and favorably known, not
only for their architectural ability, but for their many sterling qualities ...
they have therefore assumed their proper and well earned position before
the public and in the architectural world.51
During their short time as full collaborators, Howe, Hoit & Cutler completed
many works in the Kansas City area and vicinity including the R. A. Long Building and
the Independence Boulevard Christian Church. However, since those were both
commissioned by R. A. Long, they are discussed in Chapter III.52 This chapter will
examine their religious buildings and residential buildings.
50
"Mr. Howe's New Partners." Kansas City Architect andBuilder 18, no. 6 (1903): 19.
51
"Construction News: Van Brunt & Howe Now Howe, Hoit & Cutler." The Western Contractor
3, no. 49(1905): 1.
52
In Kansas City, they completed the Savoy Hotel additions, the Laura B. and Dr. William E.
Minor Building, the Emery, Bird & Thayer Dry Goods Company additions, and the Duff and Repp
Furniture Building for Fred Early, warehouse for Hugh E. Thompson, and the United States and Mexican
Trust Company. Their residences included the Ewins, Tschudy, and Doggett families, and Whyte apartment
flat building. In Kansas, they completed the Emporia Public Library (Emporia), the First Christian Church
(Lawrence), the National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers and the National Home (both in
Leavenworth). In Missouri, they erected the Masonic Temple (Milan), Wood and Huston Bank (Marshall),
and the Missouri State School of Mines, Ore-dressing Building (Columbia).
Figure 1. Ware & Van Brunt, Memorial Hall at Harvard University, Cambridge,
Massachusetts, 1870-1878. (Reprinted from Leland M. Roth, American Architecture.
Boulder, Colorado: Icon Editions Westview Press, 2001, 219.)
Figure 2. Van Brunt & Howe, August R. Meyer Residence, 1895-96. (General Collection,
Pl, Residences-Meyer, August, #1 and #2, MVSC.)
37
Figure 3. Van Brunt & Howe, Electricity Buildingat the Columbian Exhibition, Chicago,
1893; south facade on Court of Honor and east and north facades on canal and lagoon.
(Chicago Historical Society)
* ' '
n.-O
;Oi JWiVSiP
få'- }''X ; ' nn ; iJ-'' * >
jEm-Y5'->-'
m\
'•• ' :.K'','-' "• TL ••Å-
Figure 4. Map of the Columbian Exposition, Chicago, 1893, cropped to show the Court
of Honor. (Reprinted from Robert Muccigrosso, Celebrating the New World: Chicago 's
Columbian Exposition of 1893, Chicago: Ivan R. Dee, 1993, 81.)
38
\M : ^CZjt^.i ; "
tiiini
tii. 11.» ii imwå£
_ «mm1
Figure 5. Van Brunt & Howe, Electricity Building at the World's Columbian Exposition,
Chicago, 1893, elevation drawings (left to right): east, north, and south. (Barnes
Collection, 059.010, WHMC-KC.)
Figure 6. Van Brunt & Howe, Electricity Building at the Columbian Exposition, Chicago,
1893, elevation details: exterior and interior entrances. (Barnes Collection, 059.010,
WHMC-KC.)
39
Figure 7. Van Brunt & Howe, Electricity Building at the Columbian Exposition, Chicago,
1893, plan drawings. (Barnes Collection, 059.010, WHMC-KC.)
Figure 8. Van Brunt & Howe, Electricity Building at the Columbian Exhibition, Chicago,
1893, interior in natural and artificial light. (Chicago Historical Society)
Figure 9. Map of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, St. Louis, 1904, cropped to show
the Court of Honor. (Reprinted from Mark Bennitt, History of the Louisiana Purchase
Exposition: America in Two Centuries, An Inventory. New York: Arno Press, A New
York Times Company, 1976, 124.)
Figure 10. Van Brunt & Howe, Palace of Varied Industries at the Louisiana Purchase
Exposition, St. Louis, 1904, towers under construction before the windstorm and
destroyed towers after gale-force winds. (Reprinted from Mark Bennitt, History of the
Louisiana Purchase Exposition: America in Two Centuries, An Inventory. New York:
Arno Press, A New York Times Company, 1976, 125.)
41
Figure 11. Van Brunt & Howe, Palace of Varied Industries at the Louisiana Purchase
Exposition, St. Louis, 1904, postcards showing the 400-foot tower and with the tower
removed. (Louisiana Purchase Exposition Collection, Missouri History Museum, St.
Louis)
Figure 12. Van Brunt & Howe, Palace of Varied Industries at the Louisiana Purchase
Exposition, St. Louis, 1904, drawing of east elevation. (Barnes Collection, 004.012,
WHMC-KC.)
42
Figure 13. Op ening Day Celebrations of the Louisiana PurchaseExposition, 1904.
(Reprinted from Mark Bennitt, History of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition: America
in Two Centuries, An lnventory. New York: Arno Press, A New York Times Company,
1976, 126.)
Figure 14. Van Brunt & Howe, Palace of Varied Industries at the Louisiana Purchase
Exposition, 1904, post card showing the curved colonnade and dome. (Louisiana Purchase
Exposition Collection, Missouri History Museum, St. Louis)
43
Figure 15. Van Brunt & Howe, Palace of Varied Industries at the Louisiana Purchase
Exposition, 1904, court between entrance and colonnade. (Louisiana Purchase Exposition
Collection, Missouri History Museum, St. Louis.)
Figure 16. Van Brunt & Howe, Palace of Varied Industries at the Louisiana Purchase
Exposition, 1904, looking through the colonnade. (Library of Congress, LC-USZ6278464.)
44
Figure 17. Van Brunt & Howe, Palace ofVaried Industries at the Louisiana Purchase
Exposition, 1904, interior courtyard showing the Persia and Brazil pavilions. (Louisiana
Purchase Exposition Collection, Missouri History Museum, St. Louis)
Figure 18. Van Brunt & Howe / Howe, Hoit & Cut ler, Kansas City Casino at the
Louisiana Purchase Exposition, St. Louis, 1904. (St. Louis Public Library, Special
Collection Department.)
45
ECCLESIASTICAL ARCHITECTURE
Since 1821 when missionaries attempted to convert the region's Native
Americans to Christianity, religion has been a focal point of the area and remains so
today. In fact, the first real estate transaction in the area was the purchase of a site for a
Catholic Church by Father Roux on 5 April 1834.53 However, most early congregations
met in rented halls, humble wood-framed buildings, or even tents. Because Kansas City
architecture in the 1890s focused mainly on commercial buildings and residences of the
wealthy Citizens, ecclesiastical architecture was not especially prominent. In a 1904
article, Frank Howe found only a few ecclesiastical structures that were notable: the First
Congregational Church (George Mathews), the Calvary Baptist Church (Edbrooke &
Burnham of Chicago), the First Christian Science Church (George Mathews), and the
Second Presbyterian Church (A. Van Brunt).54
In the early twentieth century, congregations throughout the Kansas City area had
ballooning membership due to general population growth and several revival movements.
Involvement in religious organizations continued to grow throughout the early twentieth
century and became an industry of sorts. By 1926, the Linwood Boulevard Christian
Church in Kansas City, designed by Howe, Hoit & Cutler, held one of the largest
congregations in the country, serving an estimated 10,000 to 12,000 people, with an
average of 8,000 people attending Sunday service, and a radio broadcast to a sixteen-state
53
Carrie Westlake Whitney, Kansas City, Missouri: Its History andlts People 1808-1908.
Volume 1. (Chicago: The S. J. Clarke Publishing Co., 1908), 403.
54
Frank Howe, "The Development of Architecture in Kansas City, Missouri," Architectural
Record 15, no. February (1904): 152.
46
audience.55 On their Sunday night radio program, which they described as an
"educational service and an experiment in community tolerance and minking," Sinclair
Lewis created a newspaper scandal by daring God to strike him dead. Lewis had been
researching his satirical no vel Eimer Gantry by observing the work of various ministers
in Kansas City.56
Despite the greater attention given to secular architecture, the growing
congregations of new believers demanded large, prestigious ecclesiastical buildings. The
church functioned as the center of the spiritual community as well as a center of social
garnering and entertainment. In addition to liturgical functions, the church would hold
dances, musical performances, picnics, plays, and, in some congregations, minstrel
shows. Many of these buildings provided athletic facilities for sports and kitchens and
dining rooms equipped to cook and feed hundreds of people.
St. Paul and St. George Episcopal Churches
Throughout the nineteenth century, the Gothic style had enjoyed a revi val and
through publications by A. W. N. Pugin and had been associated with Christian
architecture. However, architectural trends in the United States had shifted away from
Alva Wilmot Taylor, "Linwood Boulevard Christian Church, Kansas City, Mo." Homiletic
Review 92 (1926): 179. With 3,600 members, a staff of 23 salaried workers, annual budget of Sl 10,000,
and official board of 100 members, the church had a long list of societies and auxiliaries. See Taylor, 180.
56
Lewis observed the work of various preachers in Kansas City in his so-called "Sunday School"
meetings on Wednesdays, including William L. "Big Bill" Stidger, Reverends L. M. Birkhead, Bums
Jenkins, Earl Blackman, I. M. Hargett and Bert Fiske. The novel was ranked as the number one fiction
bestseller of 1927 according to "Publisher's Weekly." Eimer Gantry created a public furor; Boston banned
it, pastors denounced it on pulpits across the country, and Lewis received personal threats of violence. The
novel was adapted into a 1960 movie of the same nåme starring Burt Lancaster, who earned a Best Actor
Oscar for this role. See John Tyler Blake, "Sinclair Lewis's Kansas City Laboratory: The Genesis of Eimer
Gantry." Dissertation, University of Missouri, Kansas City, 1998.
47
Gothic fashions after the Chicago fair. Writing to an American audience in 1892,
Mariana Griswold Van Rensselaer criticized, "Modern English architecture has been
hampered by a strong leaning, sentimental rather than reasonable, toward Gothic
fashions, inappropriate to the intellectual temper and to the practical needs of our time."57
Aligned with the Church of England, Episcopal congregations typically chose the English
Gothic for their houses of worship purposefully linking it to this English tradition. Howe,
Hoit & Cutler employed it for the Episcopal congregations in Kansas City including
designs for the St. Paul and St. George Episcopal churches (1904 and 1909).58
When Reverend Cyrus Townsend Brady took over the St. George Episcopal
congregation after severe financial difficulties, the resignation of pastors, and failed plans
for a church building at 33 rd and The Paseo, he confidently envisioned a true cathedral—a
large Gothic building to be the Cathedral of the Diocese of West Missouri. Not only a
prominent theologian, Dr. Brady was a leading popular novelist, and the imagination that
sold his books invigorated his congregation. He persuaded them to purchase a prominent
site between 29th and 30* Street on Tracey Avenue in a fine residential district near
Troost Park and begin to build a cathedral complex.59
Mariana Griswold Van Rensselaer, "The Artistic Triumph of the Fair-Builders," originally
published in The Forum (December 1892): 527-40 reprinted in Accents as Well as BroadEffects: Writings
on Architecture, Landscape, and the Environment 1876-1925, edited by David Gebhard, 527-40. (Berkeley:
University of California Press, 1996), 73.
58
The Methodist Episcopal (M. E. Church) congregation, the oldest Protestant congregation in
Kansas City, chose also used the style in their Oakhurst M. E. Church (1904). See Appendix.
59
The parish of St. Paul's Episcopal Church was organized 20 July 1870 from a portion of the
membership of St. Luke's Church due to the growing necessities of the western part of Kansas City with
Rev. F. R. Haff installed as rector. Church services were held in the basement of the Coates Opera house
until the completion of a church at Central and 4' streets when they changed their nåme to Grace Church.
St. Paul's Church in Westport was organized 5 May 1891 from a portion of the membership of Grace
Church and they met in the church formerly used by a Baptist congregation. Later with Rev. J. D. Ritchey
48
The parish house was the first of the complex of buildings by Howe and Hoit,
completed in 1909 (Figure 19). The main elevation of roughly hewn stone faced west,
with prominent buttresses marking seven bays and corresponding to the crenellations on
the roofline, which was interrupted by a gabled parapet set above east stone tablets
inscribed: "ST. GEORGE'S PARISH HOUSE A. D. 1909." The entrance was off-center
in the second bay from the east. The center bay of the south facade projected forward
with two entrances centered in the flanking outer bays (Figure 20). Uniform rectangular
sash windows, each topped with a cast-stone lintel, detailed the facade.
The parish house and the property cost around $50,000 and left the parish with a
debt of about $28,000. Dr. Brady was unsuccessful in his attempts to encourage the
parish to increase fundraising activities in paying off the debt to begin construction of the
cathedral. This parish church building does not conform with the typical Gothic-styled
Episcopal church, such as Howe, Hoit & Cutler's church for the St. Paul Episcopal
congregation on 36* and Wyandotte streets in 1904 (Figure 39). Due to financial
difficulty, the St. Paul congregation changed the location of the site to the corner of 40th
and Main Street in Westport. Although architect William Barnes ultimately constructed
the building in 1905-1906, it demonstrates the typical features including a large peaked
as rector, they erected a handsome stone building a lot at 40' and Walnut streets. St. George's church was
organized as a Pro-cathedral on 23 March 1891. See Whitney, 434-436.
The St. George Episcopal Church ran into severe financial difficulties in 1899; when they could
not pay their pastor' s salary, he resigned. Bishop Atwill served for five years without pay while the
congregation tried to pay off debt. In April 1904, the Rev. E. B. Woodruff took over as rector as he
continued to grow the congregation until crowding caused the parish to move temporarily into a skating
rink at 33 rd and Troost in 1907. Woodruff s plans for a church at 33 rd and The Paseo were forgotten when
Woodruff resigned in the summer of 1908. Rev. Cyrus Townsend Brady succeeded Rev. Woodruff. See
Calvin Manon, St. George 's Episcopal Church the First 75 Years (Kansas City: [St. George's Episcopal
Church the First 75 Years], 1966), 7-8.
49
nave and a tower off the nave, which in this edifice contained a large room known as
the Guild Room, in a simple Gothic Revival style (Figure 22).60
The WHMC collection of drawings has undated plans that appear as an
economical means in a subsequent effort to build a large church by using the earlier
parish house as part of the overall structure (Figure 23). This plan extended a nave from
the east facade of the parish church building giving the final church two large
perpendicular auditoriums and placing the characteristic tower in the resulting corner east
of the parish church and south of the new nave (Figure 24). This plan also added a
smaller chapel on the south end of the new chancel and new rooms for the organ,
women's choir, vestibule, and sacristy. The WHMC also has plans for a modest rectory
for the reverend (Figures 25 and 26). Nonetheless, Dr. Brady resigned in 1913 when it
became obvious that he could not overcome opposition to any further expansion.61
Linwood Boulevard Christian Church. 1904-1905
Under the pastorate of the Reverend T. P. Haley, Disciples of Christ of Kansas
City (Christian Church) grew very rapidly and established missions around the city.
These missions resulted in many churches, which chose a variety of styles for their
60
The Guild Room has been divided into a library, the choir rooms, and bathrooms. Over the last
100 years, St. Paul's has added to and refurbished much of the church. Their most recent project was to
return to the original wood floors in the nave. See "Church History," in St. PauVs Episcopal Church,
Kansas City, MO [Website] (Kansas City: St. Paul's Episcopal Church, 2010, accessed 16 May 2010);
available from http://stpaulskcmo.org/about/church-history; Internet.
61
Bishop Partridge, who came to the diocese in 1911, went through his entire tenure without a
cathedral. His successor, Bishop Robert Nelson Spencer, was to have his old parish church, Grace and Holy
Trinity, designated as his cathedral in 1932. In the 1920s, St. George Church sold the Tracy Avenue
property on the southeast corner of Linwood and The Paseo. See Manon, 9-10.
50
houses of worship as shown in this poster of photographs (Figure 27).62 The Spanish
Mission style grew in popularity in the early twentieth century and Howe, Hoit & Cutler
used this style for the Linwood Boulevard Christian Church (1904-1907, 1909).
Planning for the Linwood Boulevard Christian Church began before 1904 when
the congregation, then called "South Side Christian Church," commissioned Howe, Hoit
& Cutler (still operating under the nåme Van Brunt & Howe) to design a simple onestory design estimated at $50,000.63 The design became a two-story, elaborate Spanish
Mission-style building situated on the prominent corner of Linwood Boulevard and
Forest Avenue, measuring 80 x 114 feet and constructed of Phoenix stone, an almost
white material, with cut-stone trimmings and cornice, and a red tile roof.
Drawings for the Linwood Boulevard Christian Church demonstrate a subtle shift
in style from Van Brunt and Howe to Howe, Hoit & Cutler. The drawing signed by Van
Brunt & Howe has three round windows above each of the three doors on the main
entrance (Figure 28). Van Brunt & Howe rendered the center section tower using more of
a baroque vocabulary with complex curves and a bell-shaped dome. Flanking the
entrance, two stubby towers projected from the building allowing vertical circulation to
the basement and gallery levels. The domed towers were ornamentated in stone and metal
and the drums were elaborately detailed with finials. The drawings signed Howe, Hoit &
62
The first Church of the Disciples, known as the Christian Church, established in Kansas City in
1855, met in a log cabin. When City Hall was built, they met there for the next four years. In 1859, they
built their own house of worship on property donated by Judge T. A. Smart, a lot on northwest corner of
Main and Ottawa Streets (now 12th and Main). Even by 1880, business had encroached on the church to
such an extent that they sold the site and met in a hall over a grocery story at 1121 Main Street. Later they
met in the commodious Knights of Pythias Hall at 1 l th and Main until the basement of their new church at
11* and Locust Streets was completed in 1884 at a cost of $42,000. See Whitney, 424.
63
"Construction News: South Side Christian Church." The Western Contractor 3, no. 30 (1904): 1.
51
Cutler and Howe & Hoit simplify many of these details and use a Renaissance
vocabulary (Figure 29). The three oculi in the early Van Brunt & Howe drawing become
rectangular windows with rounded tops (Figure 30). Howe, Hoit & Cutler's domes are all
hemispheric and scrolls decorate the two lower domes rather than finials.
The church functioned as a place of worship, learning, and community assembly
(Figure 31). The main auditorium accommodated 1,000, including galleries on three
sides, and included a music room, baptistery, robing rooms for men and women,
conference rooms, and large parlors. The gallery floor had the pastor's study and a
conversation room for the gentlemen. The basement encompassed a large Sunday school
room, primary department, dining room, kitchen, toilets, and boiler room.64 The interior
was plainly painted white, with poplar finish and a hard pine floor and tiling in the
vestibule. The vaulted plaster ceiling opened with a series of arches at the windows and a
large arch at the chancel, which drew attention to the ornate organ behind the pulpit
(Figure 32). Fenestration was of translucent glass rather than stained glass, which perhaps
redirected funding to illuminate the interior with electric light.
Dr. Burris A. Jenkins dedicated the Linwood Boulevard Christian Church on 26
December 1909 and the congregation grew into the largest in the United States in the
1920s.65 In 1914, Henry Hoit designed an addition to the church named for J. B. and
Taylor, 179. Rev. T. P. Haley preached the dedicatory services of the first Christian church
erected in Kansas City at 12th and Main and was the pastor of the second church at 1 l th and Locusts Street.
Rev. Haley led the first services of the Linwood Boulevard Christian Church in the basement of the
building, but retired before the church was completed in 1907. He became pastor emeritus of the Linwood
church when Dr. Burris A. Jenkins became pastor.
Dr. Jenkins, a progressive liberal, allowed dances and movies in the church and in 1927, a sevenpiece orchestra drew about 400 people to a Saturday night dance. Unfortunately, conservative parishioners
objected and subsequent dances were at the Armory on Main Street, but movies continued. Although the
52
Mary Atkins. In 1926, the congregation planned a great skyscraper cathedral, projected
to cost $2,000,000, and described as "an aspiring, lofty type of architecture, with an
illuminated cross on its many storied spire" (Figure 33).66 This ambitious project never
materialized and more than a decade later, disaster struck; a fire on 1 November 1939
destroyed the church. The nearby Jewish congregation B'Nai Jehudah offered their
building (also by Howe, Hoit & Cutler, see below), for Sunday services until the
completion of a new church.67 Refusing offers to merge with other Disciples of Christ
congregations, they embarked on a building project to fulfill their 1926 aspiration—a
"church of the future." In 1940, they moved into a Modern building with a steeple of light
designed by Frank Lloyd Wright overlooking the Country Club Plaza.68
B'nai Jehudah Temple
The Grecian Classical Style had been popular for church architecture in the
United States since the 1830s. Howe, Hoit & Cutler designed a number of churches using
a classical or a Greek Revival style, most notably their B'nai Jehudah Synagogue 19061907. Towards the end of this project, William Cutler suddenly died of typhoid fever on
liberal policies of the Linwood Community Church resulted in the exclusion of the congregation from the
co-operative circle of other Christian Churches in the city, it helped reach out to new believers. See Report
by Mrs. Sam (Mildred) Ray on postcard file and in The Kansas City Star, 21 January 1970.
66
Taylor, 182.
67
The Linwood Boulevard congregation met at the B'nai Jehudah Synagogue for several weeks,
before moving to the Scottish Rite Temple at Linwood Boulevard and The Paseo. Miss Margaret LaMar,
church secretary, saved church records from the fire.
68
Leaders of the church hoped to dedicate the new church at 4601 Main Street free of debt, but the
financial campaign fell short of its goal. The building was erected, however, and a debt payment plan
outlined. See "Linwood Christian Church," The Kansas City Star, 20 November 1942.
Frank Lloyd Wright's design was to be "the church of the future." Unfortunately, financial
considerations, wartime material shortages, and restrictive building codes compromised Wright's design,
who lamented that the final building was his only in shape. See Ariene Sanderson, A Guide to Frank Lloyd
Wright Public Places: Wright Sites. 4th ed. (New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 2001), 74.
53
6 January 1907 at only 32 years old.69 His obituaries lauded his design of the B'Nai
Jehudah Synagogue and therefore it warrants a detailed investigation as an achievement
of a promising career ended prematurely. (The Independence Boulevard Christian Church
1903-1907 is another superb example of classicism for an ecclesiastical building, but it
will be discussed in chapter three, since it was a commission of R. A. Long and because
modifications and expansions to the church were done by Henry F. Hoit after 1909.)
While at first thought, Grecian architecture might be considered an odd choice for
a Jewish house of worship, in fact a beautiful example of a Greek Doric temple had
earlier been built for the first Reform Judaism synagogue in America in Charleston,
South Carolina, in the 1830s. In Synagogue Architecture in the United States: History
andInterpretation, Rachel Wischnitzer, speaking a century later, wrote:
The desire for closer identification with American experience was
characteristic of a rising Jewish middle class, which supported schools,
newspapers, theaters and synagogues. Synagogue architecture at the turn
of the twentieth century became involved in a new battle for the styles,
which for time brought forth, if only temporarily, a victory for the
classicists.70
Since the Christian and the Jewish houses of worship come from the same
tradition, and serve the same basic functions of worship, study, and assembly, the basic
likeness between the two forms has continued. Brian de Breffny argued that unlike
Gothic or Romanesque architecture, which had been exclusively associated with
William Cutler suddenly died of typhoid fever on Sunday, 6 January at St. Luke's hospital in
Kansas City; he had been ill about two weeks. He was unmarried and his body was tåken to Chicago for
burial in 1907; he was only 32 years old. See Henry F. Withey and Elisie Rathburn Withey. "William H.
Cutler." In Biographical Dictionary of American Architects (Deceased) (Los Angeles, California: New Age
Publishing Company, 1956), 157 and "William H. Cutler Dead." The Architect & Builder of Kansas City
XXII, no. 1 (1907): 3.
7
Rachel Wischnitzer, Synagogue Architecture in the United States: History and Interpretation
(Philadelphia: The Jewish Publication of Society of American, 1955), 7.
54
Christian ecclesiastical buildings, the neo-classical style had the advantage of treading
71
neutral ground with few religious associations.
Membership of the B'nai Jehudah shul, a Reform congregation and the oldest
Hebrew community in Kansas City, doubled under the leadership of Rabbi Henry H.
Mayer beginning in 1899.72 Rabbi Mayer had an interest in civic reform.73 Among the
requirements of synagogue architecture mentioned in the introduction to an exhibit at the
Jewish Museum, Richard Meier stated that the "building should be the highest in the city
[but] it was difficult to build the synagogue on the highest place in town."74 Instead, the
B'nai Jehudah congregation sought a prominent location and purchased a site at the
corner of Linwood Boulevard and Harrison Street from Jemuel C. Gates, with plans for a
temple that would cost no less than $100,000.75 However, the membership found this site
unsatisfactory and purchased three-fifths of an acre for $16,000 from real-estate promoter
Colonel Thomas H. Swope.76 The new property had a frontage of 121 feet on Linwood
Brian de Breffny, The Synagogue (New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc, 1978), 175.
72
Whitney, 444.
73
Rabbi Meyer organized the Kansas City Pure Milk coramission, which pledged to save the
babies. R. A. Long worked toward the same goal with the Christian Church and at Longview Farm (see
Chapter III).
74
Richard Meier, Recent American Architecture (New York: Jewish Theological Seminary of
America and the Jewish Museum, 1963), 16-17.
75
76
"Construction News: B'nai Jehudah Congregation," The Western Contractor 4, no. 48 (1905): 3.
"Construction News: Long Building and B'nai Jehudah," The Western Contractor 5, no. 14
(1906): 1. The site of the B'nai Jehudah Synagogue was the topic of five debates at congregational
meetings during 1905-1906. The site at Linwood and Flora was originally proposed by a board-appointed
committee in March 1905, but was unacceptable, presumably because of the quoted price $20,000 for twofifth of an acre. Later the committee spent $12,500 for a half-acre tract at southwest corner of Linwood
Boulevard and Harrison Street. As soon as that site became public knowledge, the membership declared the
location to be unsuitable and the land was disposed of at a loss of nearly $4,000 after four years. Finally,
they negotiated for the land at Linwood and Flora and purchased it for $16,000 for three-fifths of an acre.
See Frank J. Adler, Roots in a Moving Stream: The Centennial History of the Congregation B 'nai Jehudah
of Kansas City, 1870-1970 (Kansas City: Congregation of B'nai Jehudah, 1972), 119-212.
55
Boulevard and 164 lA feet on Flora Avenue.77 Its location demonstrated the integration
of the Jewish synagogue among the Christian community; by the 1920s Linwood
Boulevard had so many churches that it was dubbed, "the Boulevard of Churches."78
When the B'Nai Jehudah outgrew its modest temple, the congregation's building
committee hired Howe, Hoit & Cutler to design a prestigious synagogue that
demonstrated the status of the congregation; the new building was valued at $150,000,
land included (Figure 34).79 Howe traveled with members of the committee to five cities
håving new temples or temples under construction and they were impressed with temples
with classical Greek outlines in St. Louis, Louisville, and Cincinnati. On 7 October 1906,
the membership approved a "pure classic style, following examples of the Pompeian
Doric."80 On 13 May 1907, ground was broken and in October, the cornerstone was laid,
inscribed with the Shema, or watchward of Judaism: "HEAR O ISRAEL: THE
ETERNAL IS OUR GOD, THE ETERNAL IS ONE."81
The Architect and Builder described the 60 x 175 foot Bedford limestone stone
edifice with a tile roof as "pure Greek Doric" style.82 However, it more accurately
"Construction News: B'nai Jehudah Congregation." The Western Contractor 5, no. 19 (1906): 5.
78
Manon, 10.
79
The new synagogue on Linwood Boulevard represented a total investment of $140,000, none of
which was through individual gifts. The $75,000 in proceeds from the sale of the property on Oak Street
was supplemented by $60,000 in mortgage loans. The Sisterhood provided the difference to furnish the
parlor, library, rabbi's study, kitchen, and classrooms and furnished $6,000 to commission to La Farge for
the design, execution, and installation of the twenty art glass windows. See Adler, 121-122.
80
The building committee was composed of Daniel Lyons (chairman), C. J. Woolf, Alexander
Hyman, Daniel Lyons, Reuben S. Crohn, Rabbi H. H. Mayer, Isaac Bachrach, I. E. Bernheimer, Alfred
Hart, andH. Lieberman. See "Construction News: B'nai Jehudah Congregation," 5 and Adler, 121.
The corner stone contained a membership roster and other items of historie interest. See Adler,
121.
"A Jewish Temple to Cost $100,000." The Architect & Builder of Kansas City 22, no. 6 (1907): 6.
56
resembles a Roman temple since it rests on a podium about eight feet above the
sidewalk and is accessed by a fiight of steps on the front rather than a continuous threestep stylobate (Figure 35). Above the hexastyle portico of six fluted Doric columns, fourfoot in diameter and twenty-eight-foot high spans an entablature inscribed, "TEMPLE
B'NAI JEHUDAH," beneath an unadorned pediment topped with three acroteria.
Colossal pilasters separate the entrances and windows. Three doors, each with a
decorative transom and set in an aedicule, open to the vestibule. Above the doors on the
second floor were five decorative windows. Pilasters mimicked a peristyle along the east
and west facades. Like earlier examples of American neo-classical architecture, windows
were spaced between the pilasters on the east and west facades. A secondary entry
located at the southwest corner led to a corridor accessing the rear of the building,
including the library, assembly room, ladies' parlor, and kitchen.
The technical internal requirements of a synagogue are simply that ten Jewish
men meet in a space regularly for worship. Beyond that, Rabbi Seymour Siegal of the
Jewish Theological Seminary of America states, "there are some prescriptions of
architectural details—though these were never consistently followed."83 Typically, the
synagogues of Reform congregations and in most Conservative congregations, combine
the bimah (alememar, or reader's platform) with the ark platform and use family pews
instead of separate seating areas for women and men. In the B'nai Jehudah Synagogue,
the combined bimah and ark was placed at one end of the hall; with pews arranged in
Meier, 16-17.
57
front of it, similar to the design of the Christian churches discussed earlier (Figure
36).84 The main 65 x 73 foot auditorium had a seating capacity of 1,000, with a
decorative coffered 40-feet-high ceiling.85 The 15 x 41 foot vestibule is decorated in a
Greek Ionic style with pilasters, decorative beam ceiling, and mosaic floor (Figure 37).
At each end of the vestibule was a small retiring room and a stairway leading to the
gallery above.
The building interior was illuminated by electric light by night, but it had ample
windows allowing for natural light during the day. John La Farge, the artist of the "Battle
Window" in Van Brunt & Howe's Memorial Hall at Harvard University, designed the
twenty opalescent art glass windows featuring ten periods in Jewish History.86
When William Cutler died on Sunday, 6 January 1907, the exterior of the building
and the plan had been completed, but details in the interior was not finished until
September 1908. The difference between William Cutler's design and that of Howe &
Hoit is noticeable in the organ screen design. William Cutler's design of the temple does
not incorporate Jewish emblems. The only exception was the Star of David in the glass
door of the ark.87 The design of the organ screen used a basic linear Roman design
consisting of a superimposed "+" and an "x," the same pattern used on the window
84
Meier, 16-17. In Orthodox temples, placing the alememar in the center of the synagogue causes
problems—those seated between the Torah and the alememar faced the alememar to hear the speaker, but
turn their back to the Torah, which seemed inappropriate. Rabbi Raphael Posner explained in a short essay
about the Synagogue in Jewish Law: "There seems to be no real reason against håving the alememar in the
front of the synagogue, directly in front of the ark, but many of the 19th and 20th century codifiers forbid it,
apparently as a reaction against reform practice." See Meier, 14-15.
85
Whitney, 445.
86
The windows were moved to the new synagogue with the B'nai Jehudah congregation.
87
None of the early drawings show the mosaic floor in the vestibule; it was likely added after the
initial design was complete and Cutler's death.
58
detailing of the north facade, as seen in the drawing under the nåme Howe, Hoit &
Cutler (Figure 38). A later drawing under the nåme Howe & Hoit shows a change in the
screen incorporating the Star of David alternating with the basic linear design (Figure 39).
In his writing, architect Arnold Brunner justified his use of pure classicism for
synagogues by pointing to the Greco-Roman style of ancient synagogues excavated in
Galilee.88 In his synagogues, such as the Sheartih Israel Synagogue in Central Park West
at 70th Street in New York, Arnold Brunner avoided Jewish emblems, such as the Star of
David, because he regarded the origin of the "interlaced triangles" as uncertain and laurel
wreaths seemed more appropriate. In his 1907 article, Brunner clarified his views on
synagogue architecture:
Some years ago, when what was known as the 'Richardson Romanesque'
was apparently becoming the expression of American ecclesiastical
architecture, it seemed that in a slightly modified form it would be
appropriate for the synagogue. When I built the Temple Beth El in New
York, I so believed. After Richardson's death, when his methods were not
successfully continued by his followers and imitators, the Romanesque
practically disappeared and the choice for architects by now, broadly
speaking lies between the two great styles, Gothic and classic. I am
unhesitatingly of the opinion that the latter is the one that is fit and proper
for the synagogue in America. With the sanction of antiquity it perpetuates
the best traditions of Jewish art and takes up a thread, which was broken
by circumstances, of a vigorous and once healthy style.89
Cutler's similar choice to avoid Jewish emblems and make his design "pure," may
have been influenced by the Galilee excavations mentioned by Brunner. Around 1914, the
congregation removed these screens when they added a new Austin organ (Figure 22).90
88
Wischnitzer, 96.
89
Arnold W. Brunner, "Synagogue Architecture," in The Brickbuilder, XVI, 3 (Mar. 1907), 37.
90
The congregation brought the first pipe organ and the Eternal Light with them to their new
temple on Linwood Boulevard. Adler mentions the acquisition of the Austin organ to accompany the choir
anthems. The union Hymnal was published soon afterward by the Central Conference of American Rabbis
59
The services of dedication on Friday evening and Saturday morning, 11 and 12
September 1908, drew nearly 1100 worshippers for each service.91 The convenience and
modernity of the new building caused an immediate upsurge in membership and
participation.92 The Kansas City Times reported the opening of the B'nai Jehudah
Synagogue at the corner of Linwood Boulevard and Flora Avenue as:
.. .an auspicious and significant event in the history of the Kansas City
Hebrews. The temple is spacious and imposing. Representing, as it does, a
very large outlay of money, it stands as a testimonial of the influence and
prosperity of the congregation that is to worship within its walls...
Dr. Maurice N. Eisendrath, President of the Union of American Hebrew
Congregations (a Reform group) wrote in 1963:
A building styled after a Greek temple, a Byzantine mosque, a Gothic
cathedral, or a Colonial church were unfitting models for the contemporary
synagogue. While there has never been an accepted form of architectuie
identified with the synagogue, it has always tended to take on the blending
of the community, the era and the society in which it developed. Thus, it is
appropriate that architects in America have attempted to make the
contemporary synagogue an authentic expression of our time and our own
community. The Reform Jewish movement in America has vigorously
supported a program to encourage the creation of an authentic and
indigenous form of architectural design for the American synagogue
building.94
The B'Nai Jehudah Synagogue was undeniably part of its community, era, and
society and therefore classicism was viewed as a completely appropriate style for the
in 1914. Because of the "universal air chest" system peculiar to Austin organs, the congregation was unable
to remove it from the Linwood Boulevard synagogue. When they moved, they donated the ark to the
Orthodox Tefares Israel Congregation on Admiral Boulevard and Tracy Avenue, a forerunner to the
Congregation Beth Israel Abraham and Voliner. See Adler, 122 and 129.
91
The Kansas City Times editorial, 12 September 1908 and Adler, 122.
92
Sixty-seven people joined in the first month and nine months later, in June 1909, the roster of
affiliated families exceeded 300, with an average Friday night attendance of 250. See Adler, 126.
93
94
The Kansas City Times editorial, 12 September 1908.
Meier, 18. One such example is the current home of the B'nai Jehudah congregation in Hansen,
Midgley & Niemackl's B'nai Jehudah synagogue, Overland Park, Kansas, 2000.
60
B'nai Jehudah's temple of 1904-1907. The congregation continued to grow and later
moved into new modern edifices further south.95
In his 1904 article, Frank Howe had noted a dearth of ecclesiastical building in
the architectural landscape of Kansas City, but within the decade his firm designed
several churches in the region in additional to those listed here (see Appendix). Although
remodeling and additions of commercial buildings helped sustain the firm economically
during this era, subsequently remodeling of many of these buildings made them difficult
to study. Additionally, these projects did not offer the architects much room for creativity
and were not particularly innovative. However, as population expanded and city officials
embraced the City Beautiful movement in many of the prestigious neighborhoods, the
housing market boomed and the next chapter will look at the development of these
neighborhoods and the firm's domestic architecture.
95
Today, the B'nai Jehudah Synagogue on Linwood Boulevard and Flora Avenue is the Robert J.
Mohart Multi-Purpose FOCUS Center. Greenebaum, Hardy & Schumacher designed an annex to the south
end of the structure (completed 1920). See Becker and Millstein. "B'nai Jehudah Temple," in Religious
Properties Survey 1992 (Kansas City: Missouri Department of Natural Resources Historie Preservation
Program, 1993).
In 1957, The Scottish Rite Lodges of Kansas City voted to purchase the former Linwood
Boulevard synagogue along with nearby Bernheimer hall and four lots facing Flora between Linwood and
33 r Street. The purchase price was not disclosed. See MVSC Vertical File—Synagogues/Temples-B'nai
Jehudah, [Kansas City Star, 1957 and 11-30].
The congregation moved to a new temple at 69th and Holmes Road designed by Kivett & Myer.
Hailed as an architectural marvel, this award-winning design of 1963 emphasizes sweeping lines with a
concrete and steel shaft supporting the spiral shaped structure. This sanctuary falls into the category of
expressive architecture, such as the work of Eilel Saarinen. Surprisingly, this sanctuary has been
demolished in July 2003 and the older Howe, Hoit & Cutler building remains standing. Today, the B'nai
Jehudah congregation today worships at 123rd Street and Nall Avenue in Johnson County, Kansas.
61
Figure 19. Howe & Hoit, St. George's Parish House, 1909. (Reprinted from Becker and
MUlstein, "St. George's Parish," in Religions Properties Survey 1992, Kansas City:
Missouri Department of Natural Resources Historie Preservation Program, 1993.)
1
/
-w'«21
^i*"
'£,*&*%*
\'M
Figure 20. Howe, Hoit & Cutler, St. George's Episcopal Parish Church, 1909.
62
Figure 21. Van Brunt & Howe / William Barnes, St. Paul Episcopal Church, perspective
drawing from northeast, 1904, and nave, constructed 1905-1906. (Reprinted from Carrie
Westlake Whitney, Kansas City, Missouri: Its History andlts People 1808-1908. Volume
2. Chicago: The S. J. Clarke Publishing Co., 1908,428 and photograph from St. Paul
Episcopal Church.)
te. /
<é/
«ft.
Figure 22. Van Brunt & Howe / William Barnes, St. Paul Episcopal Church, 1905-1906.
(Courtesy of Christopher A. Dawson, 2010.)
63
II
.-a .'onn'
' ''
•
•v/„.-t\
-ir:(rir-n-'im;'ffifiieBi
^ ',
-,M,:
Figure 23. Howe, Hoit & Cutler, St. George's Episcopal Church, elevation. (Barnes
Collection, 009.008, WHMC-KC.)
•
"Z.-3.-JZtt..
, " fc,
fe/ifWf^lff^^
Vi
• 1 / ' * ....^-»J-
v;'..::•• Æ T i n i: ••
"i
K-'-::Bfcf
«,...
•t^tr"—T
t, tr.. j jj_. ,
J-'
ir
\:-\
• -S-t, - . tr
•• r— '
-•
4r-- r •
i
' • ~i
i
i.
*'
t
-1
\
/.
—
:
,
'
.
, -
- - i i
< * - ,
•r
j
" t
i'
..__«,..
*•-'
fl
« a ' K:Vi ; •
;L.
r —
r
^ irs?
lfe"5"'i
r
, -
_
.j-r—i ; — -
- /«rev
M
•nn i r n f •
i—
ti
*
-.,.**"-*
"
l.~—
, . . , ~ 1 I-l-.-,...
_.).,
•
' ?
-. .. :J ' :,l
. , . J ^ , i..1
ji
, . , _ } . ,
, „ , ' • " _
• •
•', HJ I » » ' "
~:-.:iKt:>
Figure 24. Howe, Hoit & Cutler, St. George's Episcopal Church, plan. (Barnes Collection,
009.008, WHMC-KC.)
fi—
•4**.
©
Figure 25. Howe & Hoit, St. George's Episcopal Church, Rectory, 1909, elevation.
(Barnes Collection, 009.010, WHMC-KC.)
«3s»
l ..
. r "•
1 ""i--- ' .
r.
t
vi'-
•>te?-.-•
•;
,
:
;SH :.
©
Figure 26. Howe & Hoit, St. George's Episcopal Church, Rectory, 1909, plan. (Barnes
Collection, 009.010, WHMC-KC.)
65
Figure 27. Poster showing the Disciple of Christ Churches of Kansas City. (Centenary
History of the Churches, SC29, Box 8, Folder 2, #10, M VSC.)
Figure 28. Van Brunt & Howe, drawing of the Linwood Boulevard Christian Church,
1904 and postcard of completed building. (Left reprinted from The Kansas City Star, 28
August 1904 and right from Mrs. Sam Ray Postcard Collection, SC58, MVSC.)
Figure 29. Howe, Hoit & Cutler / Howe & Hoit, Linwood Boulevard Christian Church,
1904-1907, elevation drawings of the north and west facades. (Barnes Collection,
007.007, WHMC-KC.)
Figure 30. Howe, Hoit & Cutler, Linwood Boulevard Christian Church, 1904-1907,
elevation details of entrance and dome. (Barnes Collection, 007.007, WHMC-KC.)
67
".^ ~*'<ii, ' w ^ ? ^
i É ^ * • *•-
,
Jftr»--
i.f%Sr.*;A ~..\.
-•-.f.
. $ ^/;,:•.
•ut
-rf**-"-
i!--,-
;
'
'• lot*-
>:
;,>_"_• y L
•
'i f •• .
, *
.. t
v;- •' ' -." V^"
'!
(II.
{
lar--.T
rfTfc^
F'1"
Figure 31. Howe, Hoit & Cutler / Howe & Hoit, Linwood Boulevard Christian Church,
1904-1907, plans of basement, first floor, and second floor. (Barnes Collection, 007.007,
WHMC-KC.)
..f
ltt-
± *&?**•'*<*••>
li
-ixiiir;;
> ! ! _
M
Figure 32. Howe, Hoit & Cutler / Howe & Hoit, Linwood Boulevard Christian Church,
1904-1907, details of organ and ceiling. (Barnes Collection, 007.007, WHMC-KC.)
68
Figure 33. Proposal for Linwood Boulevard Christian Church, 1926. (Collection of
Magazine Article Photocopies, SC73, MVSC originally published by Alva Wilmot
Taylor, "Linwood Boulevard Christian Church, Kansas City, Mo." Homiletic Review 92
(1926): 179-82.)
, ' t » . : l . Sr.*<»fc.'i;..«'
);>!«..•
i. . i f
Mi
Figure 34. Howe, Hoit & Cutler, B'Nai Jehudah Synagogue, 1906-1907. (Mrs. Sam Ray
Postcard Collection, SC58, MVSC.)
; )•
l-t'
^l",.»-.^! "n °
i:
jj£w
B
-'••"•
E=F L ^ a A n i --f
Figure 35. Howe, Hoit & Cutler, B'Nai Jehudah, 1904-1907, elevation drawings (left to
right) north, west, and east. (Barnes Collection, 007.008, WHMC-KC.)
Figure 36. Howe, Hoit & Cutler, B'Nai Jehudah, 1904-1907, plans. (Barnes Collection,
007.008, WHMC-KC.)
70
Figure 37. Howe, Hoit & Cutler / Howe & Hoit, B'Nai Jehudah Synagogue, 1906-1907,
entrance hall floor (Photograph by author, 2009).
>
^^y
—
**-
3 , l
[•„
3£riE2r—
yf-**"^ W
\\
• ~%a
Figure 38. Howe, Hoit & Cutler, B'Nai Jehudah, 1904-1907, section through front fa9ade
and detail of pulp it and organ. (Barnes Collection, 007.008, WHMC-KC.)
71
•KAXJC MCTWWL CT CfcOA^i
«f
Figure 39. Howe & Hoit, B'Nai Jehudah, 1904-1907, scale detail of organ screen. (Barnes
Collection, 007.008, WHMC-KC.)
Figure 40. Howe, Hoit & Cutler / Howe & Hoit, B'Nai Jehudah Synagogue, 1906-1907,
auditorium. (Reprinted from Frank J. Adler, Roots in a Moving Stream. Kansas City:
Congregationof B 'nai Jehudah, 1972, 124.)
72
DOMESTIC ARCHITECTURE
Henry F. Hoit and William Cutler were hired to replace the retiring designer,
Henry Van Brunt, while Frank Howe continued as a businessman obtaining commissions.
Because of the number of houses that Henry F. Hoit completed in his solo career, and
because Cutler was credited with the B'Nai Jehudah synagogue (discussed previously), I
believe that Hoit was the primary designer of domestic architecture even before the
deaths of his partners. Between 1904 and 1917, Henry F. Hoit completed at least 50
houses—an average of four houses a year—with many more building additions,
alterations, and other projects. Some were modest abodes, but large by today's standards
with rooms for only one or two servants, while others were expansive estates with houses
that had more than 60 rooms.
The houses done under the nåme Howe, Hoit & Cutler are more adventurous
stylistically than those under the nåme Henry F. Hoit, who had a conservative
historicizing aesthetic. This difference was likely due to the lingering influence of Henry
Van Brunt, who wrote in a 1892 essay entitled "The Historie Styles and Modem
Architecture:"
.. .if the effect of this [architectural history] education of mind and hand is
to make him a pedant, a precisian, a doctrinaire, an archaeologist, it fails
in its primary object. For an archaeologist is not an architect. An
archaeological architect is a guardian of formulas.. .and has no function in
advancing contemporary art. ... [If the architect] does not dåre to get away
from the letter of these instructions, he is lost.96
96
Henry Van Brunt, "The Historie Styles and Modem Architecture," (1892-1893) in Architecture
and Society: Selected Essays of Henry Van Brunt, edited by William A. Coles, 289-304 (Cambridge: The
Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1969), 291.
73
Frank Howe appeared to be more orthodox, advocating grammatical
correctness regarding the use of historical examples. In his 1904 article in Architectural
Record entitled "The Development of Architecture in Kansas City, Missouri"—
incidentally, published the same year that he named Henry Hoit and William Cutler
partners—Howe wrote:
Of its domestic architecture, Kansas City may well be proud, and few
cities of even larger growth, wealth, and population can make a berter
showing. The people love and appreciate their hornes, and make much of
their home life. Small, attractive dwellings in good architectural style are
numerous, many of them beautiful without and within. Among the later
hornes of a more important and striking character, which perhaps illustrate
best the architectural growth in these lines, may be mentioned the hornes
of Mrs. A. H. Armour, Mr. Kirkland B. Armour, Mr. E. W. Smith, and Mr.
August R. Meyer, all in the suburb known as Hyde Park, and all by Messrs
Van Brunt & Howe.
The house of Mrs. Armour is a careful study in Italian, while that of her
son, Mr. K. B. Armour, is in the late French Gothic. In both cases as much
study was bestowed on the interior as on the exterior, that they might be
grammatical and consistent. The Smith house is reminiscent of
Cambridge, Salem or Portsmouth, and its details have been carefully
modeled from the examples of these old New England towns.97
Perhaps because he worked more closely with Frank Howe, Henry Hoit was more
of a doctrinarian than Henry Van Brunt. His designs show careful study and
incorporation of historie styles while elaborating and adapting them, but to a lesser
degree than Henry Van Brunt. Hoit did not strive for inventive solutions stylistically;
rather he varied his designs in keeping with the established themes of a European country
Frank Howe, "The Development of Architecture in Kansas City, Missouri," Architectural
Record 15 (February 1904): 153-4.
74
house, which appealed to his patrons, a new elite class that felt insecure in their civic
arts as Americans compared to Europeans and also as Westerners compared to
Easterners.98
As the population expanded and city officials embraced the City Beautiful
movement in many of the prestigious neighborhoods, the housing market boomed. Howe,
Hoit & Cutler designed houses ranging from modest apartments for the working class
such as Whyte Estate Flats (1904-06, demolished) to the hornes of the wealthiest
residents, such as R. A. Long of the Long-Bell Lumber Company. Many of the residences
of the wealthy patrons, including that for J. T. Bird, dubbed "Elmhurst" (1907,
demolished), C. Campbell, dubbed "White Gables" (1908-1909, demolished), F. Taylor
(1909-1910), and J. Fennelly (1910), were located in areas where city improvement
projects later rerouted streets and rezoned the area for commercial use. For instance, the
site where "Elmhurst" (Figure 41) was located on 36th and Pennsylvania in the Roanoke
neighborhood is now the Valentine Shopping Center. "White Gables" at 36th and Main is
now Public Storage,
The houses that remain from this era were moderate in size in prestigious
neighborhoods located away from the city center such as Scarritt Point, Hyde Park, and
Rockhill. This chapter looks at the Bowersock and Dogget residences among the many
others, because they were designed under the full partnership of Howe, Hoit & Cutler.
Rydell commented on the insecurity of Westerns when discussing the spread of the Beaux Arts
style in fairs across the country. The same insecurity prompted Westerners to choose historical European
styles for their houses. See Robert W. Rydell, John E. Findling, and Kimberly D. Pelle, Fair America:
World's Fairs in the United States (Washington D. C : Smithsonian Institution Press, 2000), 45-71.
75
The Braley and Nelson residences in the Country Club District are also featured
because Henry F. Hoit designed them after the deaths of his partners.
The Neighborhoods
As a reaction to the nation becoming more industrialized in the late nineteenth
cenrury, beautiful landscaped suburbs flourished outside major cities. Since the 1850s,
satellite communities accessed by the railroad offered wealthy people a picturesque
residence in a park-like setting, such as Llewellyn Park outside New York City (1850s)
and Riverside outside Chicago (1860s). Around the turn of the century, demand for the
country house in the United States began to escalate as a growing number of prosperous
Americans sought to emulate wealthy Europeans. Ironically, this is precisely when the
demand for country houses in Europe was on the decline." From its inception, residents
of Kansas City demonstrated a clear preference for the detached house, which may reflect
the taste of those who moved to a "western" city.100 With an expanding population, the
lucrative real estate market attracted entrepreneurs to develop many new expensive
speculative neighborhoods near downtown Kansas City, notably Hyde Park (C.1890S),
Roanoke (c. 1901), Rockhill (c. 1901), Scarritt Point (c. 1906), and the renowned
Country Club District (c. 1906) (Figure 42). However, none of the houses that Howe,
Hoit & Cutler designed in these neighborhoods were speculative; they designed
Keith N. Morgan, Charles A. Platt: The Artist as Architect (Cambridge: The Architectural
History Foundation and The MIT Press, 1985), 79.
100
George Ehrlich, Kansas City, Missouri: An Architectural History 1826-1976 (Kansas City:
Historie Kansas City Foundation, 1979), 66.
76
residences for specific landowners who were attracted to their neighborhoods through
landscape design inspired by the City Beautiful Movement.
Renowned landscape architect George Kessler (1862-1923) began his 40-year
career in 1882 with Merriam Park in Merriam, Kansas (today a Kansas City suburb).
Most prolific among community planners, Kessler prepared plans for 26 communities
across the United States and, later, the design of Longview, Washington (see Chapter III).
"When I came to Kansas City [in 1886]," he later remarked, "there were hardly half a
dozen landscape architects in the country."101 This expanding city had progressive
residents wealthy enough to desire landscaped lawns, tree-lined streets, public parks, and
city planning.
Around 1887, Kessler received a commission to landscape an unsightly hollow
near Hyde Park, a high-priced residential section. The residents feared that the hollow
would attract shanties and decrease the value of their properties. Kessler continued in the
tradition of Frederick Law Olmsted, who advocated followed the contours of the natural
landscape to enhance nature in his park plans, rather than imposing a plan.102 He
embellished the hollow with walks, seats, shrubs, and architectural follies and encircled
George Kessler, born to a landed German family, grew up in the frontier town of Dallas, Texas.
After the death of his father, his mother guided him into landscape architecture taking him to great gardens
in Europe. After studying civil engineering at the University of Jena and civic design with a tutor in major
cities from Paris to Moscow for a year, he returned to the United States at age 20. While working for a seed
company in New York City, he wrote to Frederick Law Olmsted, who helped him secure a job in Kansas
City as Superintendent of Parks with a small railroad company called the Kansas City, Fort Scott, and Gulf
Railroad Company. Within two years of completing his first project, Merriam Park, visitors from outside of
Merriam were taking excursions to enjoy the park. See William H. Wilson's "The City Beautiful
Movement in Kansas City" (Kansas City: Kessler Society of Kansas City, accessed 22 April 2009);
available from http://www.georgekessler.org/; Internet.
102
Frederick Law Olmsted (1822-1903) was a prolific American landscape designer who designed
the grounds for the 1893 Columbian Exposition in Chicago, Central Park in New York City, numerous
college campuses, and the coordinated system of public parks and parkways in many cities. See Charles E.
Beveridge and Paul Rocheleau. Frederick Law Olmsted: Designing the American Landscape (New York:
Universe Publishing, 1998).
77
this area with a road to encourage new residents to front their houses upon it.103 Soon
grand houses lined Hyde Park. Howe, Hoit & Cutler (and later Henry F. Hoit) designed
houses in the Hyde Park neighborhood including residences for John Henry Tschudy
(1905), Charles Campbell, called "White Gables" (1908, demolished), Mrs. Lou L. Staley
(1909-10), Fred A. Taylor (1909-1910, demolished), and Herbert H. Embry (1911),
among others.
Already involved in suburban development in other cities, Kessler eagerly
promoted himself for the position of landscape architect for the Board of Park
Commissioners.104 Since the 1870s, civic leaders pushed for green spaces within Kansas
City as part of a desire to show civic pride and demonstrate reform in city government.105
In 1892, when August R. Meyer (1851-1905) was appointed president of the Board of
Park Commissioners, while Kessler was in the midst of proving his landscaping ability on
Janice Lee, A Legacy of Design: An Historical Survey of the Kansas City, Missouri, Parks and
Boulevards System, 1893-1940 (Kansas City: Kansas City Center for Design Education and Research in
cooperation with the Western Historical Manuscript Collection-Kansas City, 1995), 37-38.
104
Kessler laid out the initial plans of another influential suburban development, Roland Park
outside of Baltimore, Maryland, beginning in 1891 comprised 380 acres divided into four large sections.
Frederick Law and John Charles Olmstead continued the plans in 1897. Winding streets that follow the
contours of the land, cul-de-sacs that preserved wooded landscape, and the incorporation of single-family
hornes, row house apartments, and shopping complexes are elements that influenced many subsequent
planned communities. See Leland M. Roth, American Architecture: A History (Boulder, Colorado: Icon
Editions Westview Press, 2001), 344.
105
By 1889, the Kansas City government restructured its city charter and park supporters
succeeding in adding an independent park board, the first Board of Park Commissioners. In January 1891,
the Missouri Supreme Court declared the park law unconstitutional and ended the board. An amendment
returned the park board to the city charter with power to issue city bonds and on 5 March 1892, a Board of
Park Commissioners was appointed with European-educated, dynamic multimillionaire August Robert
Meyer (1851-1905) as its president.
As early as 1890, Kessler actively sought the position of landscape architect for the board. An
acquaintance from Dallas, a newspaperman on the Journal, introduced Kessler to W. R. Nelson, editor of
the Kansas City Star and advocate for city improvement. On 31 May 1890, George Kessler sent a letter of
application to this board for the position of landscape architect with letters of recommendation from
railroad men. The board retained Kessler's services, but not as landscape architect. Curiously, they
appointed him "secretary" with a salary of $200 per month and "Engineer to the Board to serve in said
capacity without pay." This situation gave him the chance to do the work "and that is what mattered to
him." See Wilson, accessed 22 April 2009.
78
a portion of the grounds of "Marburg," Meyer's residence (designed by Van Brunt &
Howe, 1895-1896, see Chapter II).106 Together Meyer and Kessler assessed Kansas City
and published their findings in the first park board report in 1893, generally considered
the beginning of the City Beautiful Movement.107
The first boulevard developed and constructed under the control of the Board of
Park Commissioners was Gladstone Boulevard in what would be the Scarritt Point
neighborhood.108 Kessler departed from the gridiron street system and created a gently
curving picturesque boulevard with a varying grade. Parks, public fountains, and a
colonnade dotted the wide tree-lined street. The rapid construction of new houses along
Gladstone Boulevard in 1896-1897 convinced many Citizens of the merits of parks and
tree-lined boulevards.109 One American Park Superintendent observed: "[Kansas City's]
highways stimulate good architecture ... no one wants to build a squalid home on a
beautiful boulevard." Howe, Hoit & Cutler houses in the Scarritt Point neighborhood
106
"Marburg," a three-story, 35-room "Germanic castle" on eight and one-half acres was located
in suburban Westport. After Meyer's death in 1905, Howard Vanderslice bought the estate and at his death
in 1927, he donated it to become the Kansas City Art Institute. Today "Vanderslice Hall" serves as the
school's administration building and listed on the National Register of Historie Places.
107
Meyer wrote the main body of the report and Kessler wrote the engineer's report.
108
The portion of Gladstone Boulevard from Independence Boulevard to Monroe Avenue was
acquired in 1895 and completed in 1897; the section east of Elmwood Avenue was acquired in 1901 and
completed in 1906. Gladstone Boulevard was extended eastward .66 miles in 1906 the same year sidewalks
were constructed along the boulevard from Monroe Avenue west to the old Scarritt homestead in what was
then North Terrace Park. See Lee, 193.
Scarritt Point, named after Nathan Scarritt, one of the founding fathers of the town of Westport
who bought 40 acres atop nearby cliffs as a refuge for his family during the deadly skirmishes along the
Missouri/Kansas border leading up to the Civil War. Later, he later purchased an additional 220 acres,
which was parceled into lots and sold during the 1880s. Additional land was donated to the city for the
development of North Terrace Park (now Kessler Park). The neighborhood included several designs by
Van Brunt & Howe and Henry F. Hoit. With the attraction of Long's residence, the Scarritt Point
neighborhood reached its pinnacle in the 1920s. As of 2009, the Scarritt family still lived in the
neighborhood in, reportedly the oldest house in Kansas City continually occupied by a single family.
109
Lee, 194.
79
include residences for Frank P. Ewins (1904), Theodore B. Wallace (1906), and Robert
A. Long's "Corinthian Hall" (1907-1909, see Chapter III).
The third neighborhood important to the houses of Howe, Hoit & Cutler is the
Rockhill neighborhood located south of downtown and just north of Brush Creek.110 The
Kansas City Star founder, real estate developer, and supporter of the City Beautiful
Movement, William Rockhill Nelson, named the neighborhood after his mother. His
home, "Oak Hall" (completed in 1905), anchored the neighborhood and the tree-lined
boulevards with plenty of open space around the houses became popular for the city's
elite residences. In the Rockhill neighborhood Howe, Hoit, & Cutler (and later Henry F.
Hoit) built houses for Justin D. Bowersock (1905), Frederick S. Doggett (1906), Joseph
D. Havens (1908), Ingraham D. Hook (1910), Forrest C. Cochran (1913-1914), Ortho C.
Snider (1913-1914), Jerry Lillis (1915-1919).
Jesse Clyde Nichols as the Country Club Plaza developed the nation's first
automobile-centered shopping center in the 1920s. It was the focus of an exclusive real
estate venture he began in 1905, which he called a "high-class district on scientific
lines."111 The Country Club District is located west of the Rockhill neighborhood and
William Rockhill Nelson came to Kansas City in 1880 and established The Kansas City Star
shortly after his arrival. His first real estate endeavor was DeGoff s Way, which was north of Linwood
Boulevard. In 1906, he built eight houses on Pierce Street to house some of his employees at The Star. As
per his will, after his death and that of his daughter, he bequeathed his estate (after the demolition of the
house) for a museum: the Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art opened in 1933. See Karen Moninger, "History"
in Rockhill: An Historie Urban Village in Kansas City [Web Site], (Kansas City: 2009, accessed 16
October 2009); available from http://www.rockhillkc.org/history.htm; Internet.
For more information on Rockhill Road, particularly a 1925 atlas on page 229 shows the
footprints of the Doggett and Bowersock residences, see Lee, 229-230.
111
Jesse Clyde Nichols (1880-1950) was born in Olathe, Kansas, and attended the University of
Kansas and Harvard University. In 1905, he bought 10 acres of land just south of Kansas City's city limit
(now 51 st and Grand) and developed it into the Country Club Plaza, the first suburban shopping center in
the United States centered around the automobile and the Country Club District, the largest contiguous
master-planned community in the United States. Presidents Coolidge, Hoover, and Roosevelt appointed
80
south of Brush Creek, extending across State Line Road into Mission Hills, Kansas.
Hoit, Price & Barnes designed many residences in this exclusive suburb, including those
for Edwin W. Dunlap (1910-1911), John Fennelly (1910) Ingram D. Hook (1910), Jacob
A. Bowman (1911-1912), and many others. The Mack B. Nelson residence was most
prominently located along Ward Parkway and 55th Street. Neighboring the Nelsons, the
Peters Residence was on 55th Street. The Braley Residence was tucked way in an enclave
called Dunford Circle. The landscape architects for the subdivision, Hare & Hare, also
designed the landscapes for many of these residences.112
Houses by Howe, Hoit & Cutler
As noted earlier, before leaving for Boston Tech in 1896, Henry Hoit worked in
the office of Dwight H. Perkins, an architect associated with the formative years of the
Prairie School style. In 1893, Perkins hadbegun his own firm with the help of his former
employer, Daniel Burnham. Perkins secured his first project for the Stevens Point Normal
School in Wisconsin and later the Steinway Piano Company. Alongside Perkins' cousin
him to the National Capital Park and Planning Commission where he served for 20 years. See Robert
Pearson and Brad Pearson, The J. C. Nichols Chronicle: The Authorized Story of the Man and His
Company, 1880-1994 (Lawrence, Kansas: Country Club Plaza Press and the University Press of Kansas,
1994); William S. Worley, J.C. Nichols and the Shaping of Kansas City: Innovation in Planned Residential
Communities (Columbia, Missouri: University of Missouri Press, 1990).
112
Hare & Hare was a father and son firm composed of Sidney J. Hare (1860-1938) and S. Herbert
Hare (1888-1960). Sidney Hare studied horticulture, civil engineering, geology, surveying, and
photography as a high school student. From 1881-1896, he worked in the Kansas City's engineering office
where he met George Kessler, who inspired Hare's interest in landscape design. As superintendent of
Forest Hill Cemetery in Kansas City, he formed the opinion that nature was the mother of all true art. In
1902, he established practice for himself. In 1910, S. Herbert Hare completed his studies at Harvard's
School of Architecture and joined his father in partnership. The Harvard program was the first landscape
architectural curriculum in the United States and Frederick Law Olmsted, Jr., had been Herbert's principle
instructor. Herbert Hare was one of the first six students in the United States to formally prepare for the
new profession of landscape architect. Hare & Hare partnered for 28 years with Sidney as a designer for
parks and cemeteries and Herbert as designer of communities. In 1913, they began to work with J. C.
Nichols on the Country Club District and laid out approximately 2,500 acres.
81
Marion Mahony, the first woman licensed as an architect in Illinois, Hoit worked first
as a draftsman, then supervisor, and finally designer. During these three years, Perkins
invited Hoit to his home on Sundays and introduced him to many of his associates and
Professional friends. In 1896, Perkins moved his office into the newly completed
Steinway Piano Company Building and invited these his associates to join him. First was
a friend from M.I.T., Robert C. Spencer, who also brought his close friend Frank Lloyd
Wright.113 Soon to follow were other founders of the Prairie School Style: Myron Hunt,
Walter Burley Griffin, and Henry Webster Tomlinson. Had Henry Hoit remained in
Chicago rather then leaving to continue his education at M.I.T, his domestic style may
have been dramatically different. However, those few years with Perkins left an
impression, demonstrated in the way he modified Van Brunt's sketches to open the
rooms, allowing them to flow into each other, a "Prairie School" characteristic.114
Completed in 1904, the Chisham residence in Kansas City demonstrates the
transition from Van Brunt & Howe to Howe, Hoit & Cutler (Figure 43). Henry Van
Brunt's drawing of the modest floor plan for city worker James M. Chisham in Atchison,
Kansas, shows many small rooms characteristic of Victorian era houses (Figure 44).
However, elements of the plan were changed before construction. Notably, walls around
the second floor sewing room and adjacent closet were removed making the space
113
H. Allen Brooks, Prairie School Architecture: Studies from the Western Architect (New York:
Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, 1975), ix-x.
114
Dwight Perkins (1867-1941) had worked in the office of Burnham & Rood in Chicago from
1888 to 1893 after studying architecture at MIT in Boston. In 1893, he opened his own firm. Henry Hoit
was employed there at the same time between 1894 and 1898 along with Myron Hunt, Walter Burley
Griffin, Marion Mahony Griffin (the first woman licensed as an architect), and Henry Webster.
82
continuous with the stairwell (Figure 45).
115
As built, a wooden balustrade replaced the
west wall, opening the floor into a large airy space with a set of large bay windows
connecting it to the outside. Through a framed walkway, the front hall is continuous into
the back hall where hinged transom windows above the doorways that allow light and air
to mo ve freely into the bedrooms and bath (Figure 46). The changes between Van Brunt
& Howe's drawing and Howe, Hoit & Cutler's constructed residence reflects a Prairie
School influence where other aspects may have been too radical.116 It also demonstrates a
societal shift in attitude in the association of bad night air linked with illnesses to the
curative and preventative properties of fresh air.117
The drawings for the Frank P. Ewins residence in the Scarritt Point neighborhood
also completed in 1904 bear the nåme Van Brunt & Howe, Architects, with a note
115
Thanks to Allan Kremske for showing me around his home and pointing out the differences
between the house and the plans. In addition to the changes on the second floor mentioned in the text, the
double doors to the right of the main entrance were substituted with a standard window.
116
Brooks writes, "In spite of these achievements, the Prairie School was living on borrowed time;
change was in the air. The Midwest was increasingly aware that it differed—socially, culturally—from the
East, and this lead to the displacement of spontaneous values by imported ones. A pertinent example of this
early freedom from cultured servitude is offered in the choice of place names... The Midwesfs intuitive or
"unspoiled" (to borrow a word from Wright) instincts that helped foster the Prairie School; it was the
repression these values which spelled its doom. By 1916, these architects received ever fewer commissions,
and the remaining work was seldom for designing houses, the specialization in which they had trained."
See Brooks, xi.
117
Although the fresh air movement had roots in the eighteenth century, two events catapulted it
into the mainstream in the 1890s: (1) the discovery that malaria and yellow fever were linked to mosquitoes
and (2) the availability of "insect wire screening" after Gilbert and Bennett exhibited their invention at the
1893 World's Columbian Exposition. By the late nineteenth century, physicians began prescribing fresh air
for tuberculosis patients and sanatoria across the globe adapted to provide fresh-air recuperative
environments such as open windows and sleeping porches for patients. By 1910, doctors prescribed fresh
air as a preventative measure and architects began adding a specialized room to houses, the sleeping porch
(see Chapter III). For a detailed history of outdoor sleeping and its connection to health, see Charlie Hailey,
"From Sleeping Porch to Sleeping Machine: Inverting Traditions of Fresh Air in North America."
Traditional Dwellings and Settlements Review: Journal of the International Association for the Study of
Traditional Environments 20, no. 2 (2009): 27-44.
83
beneath that says, "approved by Hoit."118 With a gabled front porch and high-pitched
roof, the house might generally be described as Swiss Chalet style (Figure 47). Faced in
semi-vitrined brick and Carthage cut stone, the facade was symmetrical with Swiss
Chalet detailing on the gable over the front door and the windows. The house was divided
into many smaller rooms, but the architects achieved a sense of flow with the use of
pocket doors: the reception hall could be opened to the parlor, dining room, and stair hall
(Figure 48).119 Highlights of this house were a squash court in the basement, a billiard
room in the attic, and a man's room on the second floor of the garage.120
John Henry Tschudy, president of the J. H. Tschudy Hardwood Lumber
Company, lived on 2 Janssen Place in a house that was similar in design to the Ewins
residence (Figure 49). This three-story house was fmished in brick with the interior
detailed in rich woods suiting a man in the lumber industry.121 The eighteen-room house
was completed in 1905 after the announcement of the new members of the firm, so the
drawings were signed "Howe, Hoit & Cutler, successors to Van Brunt & Howe." The
118
Frank P. Ewins of the Ewins-Childs Hotel Company was the proprietor of the Savory Hotel.
The house cost $11,000. See "Construction News: Kansas City Casino, Ewings Residence, and Emporia
Library." The Western Contractor 3, no. 4 (1904): 1.
119
The reception hall was finished in old rose and white enamel and hand-painted ceilings
decorated the first floor. The living room was of quarter-sawed oak with a white and gold mantel and
fireplace and walls decorated with queen and old rose tapestry. See "Some of the New Houses Building or
Recently Built in Kansas City." The Kansas City Star, 30 July 1905.
120
Due to bank foreclosure in spring 2009, the house was unavailable for personal assessment.
The previous owner, who purchased the house in the early 1990s and returned it to a single-family
dwelling, reported that it has a full basement and is still wired for gas lighting. The rooms are large with
pocket doors between the two largest rooms. The living room is entered from the outside through large
glass doors. The rooms on the first floor may be opened to each other with the use of heavy pocket doors
and pocket doors also hide the stairs. The dining room has four to five feet of tiger oak wainscoting. Steps
on the side of the house for a coach to drop off guests—the original marble (about an inch thick) is still
there. The small entryway has a boot-box to store boots.
121
The first floor was finished in quarter-sawed oak, white oak, mahogany, and black walnut; the
second in quarter-sawed oak and red oak; and the third in bird's eye maple, red gum, and red oak. See
"Some of the New Houses Building or Recently Built in Kansas City," The Kansas City Star, 30 July 1905.
84
plan shows that rooms on the first floor divided into smaller rooms with the living and
dining rooms open to each other, but defined by the ornamental ceiling (Figure 50).
Also commissioned when the firrn operated under nåme Van Brunt & Howe, the
drawings for the Doggett and Bowersock residences are labeled "Howe, Hoit & Cutler,
Successors to Van Brunt & Howe." Fred S. Doggett, with his son-in-law Justin D.
Bowersock, commissioned two residences on a shared property for an estimated cost of
$35,000. When completed in 1905-1906, they were two of the first buildings in the
Rockhill neighborhood. The Kansas City Star reported that the style of the houses and
stable was "modern in their interior arrangements and fittings."122
The Bowersock Residence at 641 East 45 th Street fits into an awkwardly shaped
corner lot across the street from William Rockhill Nelson's Oak Hall and has an austere
asymmetrical facade covered in stucco with minimal ornament (Figure 51).123 The
interior of Bowersock house interior was described as mahogany with blue burlapped
walls and an oak stained (grained with white) "buffet" dining room with a silver mantel
and fixtures and with a conservatory leading from it.124
Like the Bowersock Residence, the Doggett Residence was faced primarily in
stucco with inlaid details on the chimney (Figure 52). 125 However, symmetrical with a
center gable flanked by two chimneys, the Doggett Residence is more traditional than the
122
"Construction News: Mr. F. S. Doggett." The Western Contractor 3, no. 12 (1904): 1.
123
Justin D. Bowersock was a senior member of the law firm of Bowersock, Fizzell & Rhodes.
Mrs. Frances Blossom Matteson Bowersock was a founder of the Sunset Hill School, the female
counterpoint to the all-male Pembroke Country Day School, designed by Henry F. Hoit (1913-1914,
demolished 2009). See "Mrs. Bowersock Dead." The Kansas City Times, 21 November 1936.
124
"Some of the New Houses Building or Recently Built in Kansas City," The Kansas City Star,
30July 1905.
125
Frederick S. Doggett, manager of the Blossom House, and his wife Mrs. Alice Blossom
Matteson Doggett lived in the adjacent residence at 635 East 45* Street.
85
Bowersock Residence. The first floor plans of the Doggett Residence show large
rooms with the living room hall and dining room open to each other (Figure 53). The
Doggett house also had a billiard room in the attic and a squash court in the basement.
Drawings of the interior demonstrated a care toward built-in interior furnishings,
including mantels, bookcases, and cabinets (Figure 54).126
The residence for Charles A. Horton at 79 Prospect Street in the prestigious
Prospect Park neighborhood of White Plains, a suburb of Manhattan, New York City, is
surprisingly similar to the Doggett residence (Figure 55).127 Howe, Hoit & Cutler
subcontracted the execution of their design in 1906; it cost $11,445. The plan of the
house differs and it is notably smaller than the Doggett residence (Figure 56).
Houses by Henry F. Hoit
After William Cutler died, Howe & Hoit continued to design houses and received
larger and larger commissions, notably: "Elmhurst," the Roanoke residence of Joseph
Taylor Bird (1907, demolished), and "White Gables," the C. Campbell Residence in
Hyde Park (1908-09, demolished). Frank Howe died shortly after in 1909. However,
Henry F. Hoifs commissions for domestic architecture continued to grow. The repertoire
In 1919, Hoit, Price & Barnes replaced the shared stable with a garage which included the
stylish "man's room," or den for the men to retire to after dinner to talk about men's affairs.
127
Per Elaine Massena's search at the White Plains Historical Society: 1915 directory listed Char
A. Horton, Manager. A 1914 atlas labeled the house Louise K. Horton. A file from 1961 on Louise K.
Horton mentions a husband, so she is probably Charles's wife, rather than an unmarried daughter.
Chris 0'Keefe, the current owner reported: Following the Horton Family, the Whipple family,
who were in the rubber shipping business, occupied the house. Then the Borgia family purchased the house
and lived there for 55 years. Mr. 0'Keefe purchased the furnished house in 2006 for $815,000 and believed
the furnishings date back to the Whipple's occupation (possibly earlier). The interior has not been painted
in 50 years and has marks on the walls from the Whipple children's measurements, etc. They visited the
house in the 1990s.
86
of styles for domestic architecture offered the designer wide latitude in interpretation
of historie styles preferred by his clients. Like other architects of the period, such as
Charles Platt or McKim, Mead & White, Henry F. Hoit designed houses by adapting
recognizable revival styles, even Scottish Baronial styles with faux fortifications, as in
the Charles Residence on Pennsylvania Avenue. Henry Hoit's solo career used two
revival styles that were not used in houses designed as Howe, Hoit & Cutler: Renaissance
Revival and Greek Revival. These two styles became prominent in the domestic
architecture of Hoit. This section concentrates on his major houses: the Italian Revival
Mack B. Nelson Residence (1914) and the Jacobean Charles A. Braley Residence (1916).
The most prestigious house, R. A. Long's Corinthian Hall, will be discussed in the next
chapter with the firm's other works for this patron.
The residence of Mack B. Nelson in the heart of the Country Club District was the
first edifice on Kansas City's most prestigious thoroughfare, nicknamed the "Gold Coast"
of George E. Kessler's park and boulevard plan. As president of the area's largest lumber
company, he emulated his employer, R. A. Long, by hiring both his architect, Henry F.
Hoit, and choosing the Italian Renaissance Beaux-Arts style for his own house, recalling
Long's Corinthian Hall (see Chapter III).128
The extremely prominent location on the west side of Ward Parkway at 55* Street
gives passers-by in southbound traffic views of the south and east facades, the most
formal facades (Figure 57). The impressive entrance on a projecting bay with four
colossal columns on the front (south) facade was approached through the main gates on
128
At age 14 in 1886, Mack B. Nelson began prospecting for gold in the Sierra Madres. He
returaed to Arkansas to work as a clerk in a lumberyard in Arkansas and advanced through the Long-Bell
Company eventually becoming president of the company.
87
55th Street. The two-story facade with a red-tiled roof was symmetrical with dormer
windows on the attic level. The rectangular windows and doors form a rhythm across the
symmetrical facade with brickwork fans above the windows detailed with a projecting
white keystone. The second fioor windows are ornamented by a projecting window box.
Facing Ward Parkway, the conspicuous west facade is viewed across a wide lawn
through a wrought iron fence; this front has six two-story fluted Corinthian columns on
plinths elevated above the terrace level. Three doors on this facade open from the dining
room to the terrace aiding the movement of many guests; the conspicuous yet guarded
site perhaps made the uninvited envious of private parties.
Hare and Hare, a nationally recognized landscape architectural firm, designed the
gardens of this three-acre site (Figure 58). A curving driveway, which encloses a rose
bed, provides access to the beautifully landscaped grounds via 55th street. The porch off
the drive on the west facade created an informal loggia with latticework that hides the
separate servant entrance to the right of the main entrance leading to the kitchen. A
formal garden for vegetables and flowers in the southwest corner of the yard provided the
house with fresh produce. A formal tea garden and pergola lay to the south of the house.
The remaining area of the site was filled with natural grouping of beds and trees in a
typical Hare and Hare design.
This 30,000-square-foot house for Nelson, his mother-in-law, two sisters, and
their families, was designed around a central open courtyard (called the "patio" by the
owners) with a Tennessee marble floor, colossal wooden columns, and a retractable
skylight (Figure 59). On the spacious first floor a living room, library, dining room,
kitchen, salon, reception hall, and billiard room encircled the courtyard (Figure 60). The
88
second floor opened around the courtyard with a balcony that provided access to four
bedroom suites. The attic had a playroom for Nelson's nieces and nephews and servant
quarters.
Mack B. Nelson and his family mo ved in the day before Christmas in 1915. The
interior was incomplete and there were no Christmas decorations that year, but Christmas
became a big event in the household. Mrs. Harold C. Frick, Nelson's sister-in-law,
recalled: "We had such a large family and it was always quite a Christmas. There were
always people coming and going. We usually had a 20-foot Christmas tree in the patio
and we had about 20 or more for Christmas dinner in the main dining room."129
Whereas the Nelson residence was in perhaps the most conspicuous intersection
in the Country Club District, the residence of Charles A. Braley was tucked away on
Dunford Circle, an easy to miss cul-de-sac accessed only via southbound Ward Parkway;
this placement provided it with solitude and isolation considering its location within the
city (Figure 61).130 The house sits in the center of the 300 x 200 foot lot oriented with the
Mr. and Mrs. Harold Frick and their son, William, moved into the house in 1915. See Sally
Morgan, "Old Mansion on House Tour," The Kansas City Star, 28 November 1971, 1,6.
After the deaths of Mack Nelson and his wife, May, in 1950 and 1951 respectively, May's two
sisters inherited the house. In 1956, Mary Hudson Vandergrift purchased the Nelson residence by auction
for investment purposes and it sat vacant for several years suffering vandalism and neglect. Vandergrift
bestowed it to the University of Missouri-Kansas City. In 1968, 26-year-old motion picture producer Wade
Williams III purchased the house with none of the original furnishings or draperies. He divided some of the
34 rooms to create 42 rooms, added a 35mm screening room equipped to show CinemaScope films, and
used the house in a couple of scenes for a film. See Morgan, 6.
Today the Mack B. Nelson residence is privately owned and both the house and the grounds have
been carefully renovated.
130
Charles Braley in partnership with J. M. Trimbal counseled Arthur E. Stilwell, the founder of
the Kansas City Suburban Belt Railway, a railroad with lines that went throughout the Midwest and as far
south as the Gulf of Mexico. In 1917, Braley became vice president of the Sinclair Consolidated Oil
Corporation plan in Argentine, a Kansas City neighborhood on the Kansas side of the state line. The SCOC
had a capacity of 7,000 barrels of crude oil a day and was reportedly the second "greatest" refinery in the
country behind Standard Oil Company's facility in Bayonne, New Jersey. See "Who's Who in Kansas
City," The Kansas City Star, 18 September 1921, 1C and Cydney Millstein and Carol Grove, Houses of
Missouri, 1870-1940, Suburban Domestic Architecture Series (New York: Acanthus Press, 2008), 176.
entrances to the north; a drive on the northeast corner connects to Dunford Circle and a
scenic pedestrian walkway connects Dunford Circle to State Line Road (Figure 62). A
circular drive in front of the main entrance of the house continues around the north of the
house to the service entrance in the back. Using carefully placed trees and shrubbery,
Hare & Hare hid a pool aligned with the south facade of the house. A stone path
meanders around the lot from the pedestrian way to the back terrace and from the front
drive to a vegetable garden in the southeast corner.
The five-bay facade is three stories tall with a projecting two-story semihexagonal center portico that shelters the entrance. Stone buttresses project from this
center bay at the corners that supports a third floor terrace restrained by a balustrade
detailed with crenellations. A single dormer window projecting from the center of the
steep roof is detailed with false half-timbering. Long, narrow rectangular casement
windows, often in set in multiples with label surrounds and stone mullions, decorate all
facades—some with leaded glass. The bay furthest north has a series of terraces set back,
each with battlement balustrades. The north facade has a domed tower. The rear or west
facade, anchored by wide balustrade terrace is reached by the loggia at the center bay
(Figure 63).
A watercolor drawing of the main residence demonstrated a more ambitious front
facade than that built with two additional two-story bays on the left side of the entrance
bay, two-story projecting windows to the right of the main facade, and a total of four
chimney stacks (Figure 64). Perhaps the width of the house was reduced to make room
for the pool.
90
The entrance of the house opened to a main hall that continues to an open
loggia that opens to the rear of the building (Figure 65). The main hall had rich
woodwork expressing the style of Tudor architecture as well as the richness of the LongBell Lumber Company. As in the Long and Nelson residences, Hoit used a low ceiling in
the main hall, which opened up at the stair's landing giving the front portion of the main
hall a more intimate and less pretentious feeling. The light ceiling contrasted with the
dark wood paneled walls and was decorated with a curving clover pattern detailed with
decorative bosses. A similar ceiling was used in the living room south of the main hall.
The living room opened to the sun porch at the southern end of the house through French
doors and looked out to the terrace leading to the pool. The north wing contained the
breakfast room, dining room, and card room. The service entry on the north opened to the
kitchen, cooks pantry, servants dining hall, and secondary staircase for the servants.
Cydney Millstein and Carol Grove write: "Contemporary accounts of the Braley home
affirm that the living and dining rooms are exact replicas of those found in an 'old
English manor house,' although the source remains unknown."131 This Jacobean Revival
Style allowed Hoit to break away from Beaux-Arts symmetry. The Braley residence has a
high degree of historie integrity and remains privately owned.
This early work of the partners Howe, Hoit & Cutler or of Henry F. Hoit working
alone represented architecture in the era of plenty, when the cultural elite and
architectural patrons were "shamelessly rich, usually arrogant, very white and very
male."132 The architects designed houses in historicizing modes that their clients
131
Millstein, 176.
132
Montgomery, 154.
91
preferred. The arrival of income tax in 1913 and subsequent war efforts adversely
affected the housing markets such that the firm had no residential commissions between
1917 and 1920 and built only eight houses between 1920 and 1929—approximately one
house a year. After 1929 and the stock market crash, they completed only four more
houses before the firm dissolved in 1941.133
During these early projects when he had worked with Cutler and Howe, Henry
Hoit made a good impression on R. A. Long. Subsequently, Long retained Hoifs services
for many major building projects in the next decades, which is the subject of the next
chapter.
Society was changing simultaneously and many former servants sought employment outside
the country house. Following World War II, the GI Bill allowed people to attend college and enlarged the
middle class, which lead to a new housing market.
92
•Tim
Figure 41. Howe & Hoit, "Elmhurst," J. T. Bird Residence. (Reprinted from D. M. Bone,
"Photo of the J. T. Bird Residence Called 'Elmhurst' with Large Wrought Iron Gates."
Annual Review of Greater Kansas City Illustrated (1908): 97.)
Kansas CityNffl
Kan, „,
Scarritt Point
• Roanoke
••••Hyde Park
••• Rockhill
Country Club
" District
93
Figure 42. Map of Kansas City from the 1920 Automobile Blue Book modified to
show the general location of historical neighborhoods. (Created by author, 2010.)
Figure 43. Henry F. Hoit, Chisham Residence, Atchison, Kansas, 1904. (Photograph by
author, 2009.)
{A
m
å
©
94
Figure 44. Van Brunt & Howe, Chisham Residence, Atchison, Kansas, plans (Drawn
by author, 2010)
Figure 45. Howe, Hoit & Cutler, Chisham Residence, Atchison, Kansas, 1904, second
floor landing lookingtoward the stairs and toward the window. (Photograph by author,
2009.)
Figure 46. Hoit, Hoit & Cutler, Chisham Residence, Atchison, Kansas, 1904, second floor
landing looking toward hallway and into bedroom and bathroom. (Photograph by author,
2009.)
95
Figure47. Henry F. Hoit, Ewins Residence, 1907-1912. (Photograph by author, 2009.)
, -i
•J,;
ir"^'Mli
i -i? r>
u
a
S
! [ "
K
1 p.
' '
•-«ff
%
M
< •
\r
M
HP
j r
8t!!iaf<j Room
OT"
fl 0=
Attlc
First Floor
Figure48. Howe, Hoit & Cutler, Ewins Residence, 1904, plans. (Drawingby author,
2010.)
96
Figure49. Howe, Hoit & Cutler, Tschudy Residence, 1905. (Photograph by author,
2009.)
r
fri
. ...ri,
Boter * Coa!
Room , Bin
• • •*
' rn
n
* Kl .
ti
•
Cl- n
N-e
Mil1;
H / , . "1m>
Basement
I
I
LdH
rdl
1
First Floor
Second Floor
Attic
Figure 50. Howe, Hoit & Cutler, Tschudy Residence, plans. (Drawingby author, 2010.)
Figure 51. Howe, Hoit & Cutler, Bowersock Residence, 1905. (Photograph by author,
2009.)
Figure 52. Howe, Hoit & Cutler, Doggett Residence, 1906. (Photographs by author,
2009.)
Squash Ball Court
p o Clol
V. t
*
Livi fig Room
Room
Roof
• 8ath
;
Hall
I
I
.
lening
tsatn i
f|
Boiler
Hoom
Lr
Ba se ment
fl
I pocch
Kl,dwl
U
p l
i
lied
.
'
I
/
Servants.
Room •>
IL
J Room $J
Guest
T
*
fl
1 J K"",
Roo,
Room
i—
Second Floor
First Floor
Attic
Figure 53. Howe, Hoit & Cutler, Doggptt Residence, plans. (Drawingby author, 2010.)
^ir
;:33: "i : !8 L ^ I ^ 1TX3
-
H
1
Figure 54. Howe, Hoit & Cutler, Doggett Residence, interior details. (Barnes Collection,
007.002, WHMC-KC.)
Figure 55. Howe, Hoit & Cutler, Horton Residence, White Plains, New York, 1906; front
facade in the 1970s and rear facade in the 1930s. (Courtesy of Christopher 0'Keefe.)
"
fiM"$,
' '
1';' •-J#*#)lVf •
w * m?'«*•;•
WH irr 'P^XlwVtytW
* *S« u tsijH ,
IrS^Sji
t; \ f1
" \_ j \ li,,.
ih *•A-,!
- f '<•"•
•FF''
Jar--
I-l»
'II
HOUSt-f Ofc -Mft-C-A-W
*mn
\
*rwo»;pt.
Figure 56. Howe, Hoit & Cutler, Horton Residence, White Plains, New York, 1906,
plans. (Barnes Collection, 007.004, WHMC-KC.)
Figure 57. Henry F. Hoit, Nelson residence (left to right): south facade, east fa9ade,
southeast facade from street corner, and southwest facade from driveway. (Photographs
by author, 2009).
puwp; \M ~~ fyrt Uc."s
Swuti Kat.
1
IM"'"
r W!
Figure 58. Henry F. Hoit, Nelson Residence, site plan with landscapingby Hare & Hare.
(Reprinted from Cydney Millstein and Carol Grove, Houses of Missouri, 1870-1940,
New York: Acanthus Press, 2008, 159.)
101
Mack B. Nelson Residence
First Floor
Second Floor
yui_n_A
-\nnrv
Basement
Attic
Figure 19. Henry F. Hoit, Nelson Residence, plans. (Drawingby author, 2009.)
Figure 60. Henry F. Hoit, Nelson Residence, (left to right) stair hall, livingroom, and
diningroom. (Cydney Millstein and Carol Grove, Houses of Missouri, 1870-1940. New
York: Acanthus Press, 2008, 157-158.)
Figure 61. Henry F. Hoit, Braley Residence, east and north facades. (Photographs by
author, 2009.)
103
,i
;
i
J
'
,;v
K:
\ 1 ' *
r * ' ~ i Bi
/'•"
,\\»
'f* **—r*» n n
,'|
.
\ \*
ti
J
• ', f*"> —-f i . / l
^
*
,, i
>
/\
\,
-(
-' J
A-i
/-
V ' . \
;o
ji..^.,
. .* -• v J.
L^.
Figure 62. Henry F. Hoit, Braley Residence, site plan. (Reprinted from Cydney Millstein
and Carol Grove. Houses of Missouri, 1870-1940. New York: Acanthus Press, 2008,
178.)
Figure 63. Henry F. Hoit, Braley Residence, rear facade. (Reprinted from Cydney
Millstein and Carol Grove. Houses of Missouri, 1870-1940. New York: Acanthus Press,
2008, 175.)
Figure 64. Henry F. Hoit, Braley Residence, watercolor-rendering. (Reprinted from
Cydney Millstein and Carol Grove. Houses of Missouri, 1870-1940. New York:
Acanthus Press, 2008, 174.)
,
jé*^ 4 *""*
W* 9-
0 "- ^
Figure 65. Henry F. Hoit, Braley Residence, (left to right) main hall, salon, and sitting
room. (Reprinted from Cydney Millstein and Carol Grove. Houses of Missouri, 18701940. New York: Acanthus Press, 2008, 176-177.)
CHAPTERIII
ARCHITECTURAL COMMISSIONS FOR R. A. LONG
"Hoarded money is as valueless as unused knowledge," Robert A. Long was
accustomed to saying.1 His philanthropic attitude prompted him to engage in multiple
charitable building projects, and as one of the wealthiest men in the United States, he had
the resources to engage the architect of his choice. He favored Henry Hoit (either
working with Howe, Hoit & Cutler or solo) for his major commissions in Kansas City
and in Longview, Washington. Long was nationally recognized, and following World
War I he raised $2.5 million in ten days to build a monument to the lost soldiers in
Kansas City. He was a proud city booster and remains the city's most influential resident
of the early twentieth century.
Robert Alexander Long was born 17 December 1850 to Samuel M. Long and
Margaret Kinkead White in Shelbyville, Kentucky. Giles Mitchell wrote that Robert
Alexander Long was named for Alexander Campbell, the founder of the Christian
Church, with whom his parents were well acquainted, and his mother had hoped that he
would be a preacher.2 She had grown up on a plantation and at age sixteen, when her
1
Giles Carroll Mitchell, There Is No Limit: Architecture and Sculpture in Kansas City (Kansas
City: Brown-White Company, 1934), 28.
2
Mitchell, 28 and "The Kansas City Spirit~in the Making: R. A. Long." The Kansas City Spirit,
February 1909, 1. On New Year's Day,1832, Alexander Campbell (1788-1866) and Barton W. Stone
merged their groups of reformers in Lexington, Kentucky. This merger marked the beginning of the
Restoration Movement and the root of several American church groups, including the Christian Church
father died, she married Samuel Long who worked a 300-acre farm, an average size
for that part of the country worked without slaves.3 The family was deeply religious;
Samuel M. Long served as a deacon at the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ), an
organization that supported the abolitionist movement. Robert Long followed a code of
ethics that strived to imitate the New Testament Christ: to abstain from alcohol,
profanity, smoking, and carnal sin.4
According to the R.A. Long Historical Society, Long, as a boy, would pass
spacious Southern mansions on his way to town with his father. His favorite mansion was
"Walnut Hill," a Greek revival style with a two-story portico supported by five columns;
he came to equate columns and porticos with rank and power.5
In August of 1864 guerilla warfare entered the lives of Shelbyville citizens—
while defending the courthouse from confederate soldiers who attempted to seize a cache
of weapons stored there, citizens killed three Confederate soldiers. At this time, Robert
Long was fourteen years old and his education moved from a one-room country
schoolhouse to a preparatory school for boys.6 His photographic memory helped him to
(Disciples of Christ) and the Churches of Christ. See M. M. Davis, How the Disciples Began and Grew: A
Short History ofthe Christian Church (Cincinnati: The Standard Publishing Company, 1915), 116-117.
3
Fowler, Richard, "R. A. Long Turning Point in My Career." The Kansas City Star, 3 November
1929, in the Vertical File-Long, R. A., MVSC, 1-2.
4
Lenore K. Bradley, Robert Alexander Long: A Lumberman of the GildedAge. (Durham, North
Carolina: Forest History Society and Duke University Press, 1989), 6.
5
6
Bradley, Robert Alexander Long, 12.
"Robert A. Long," The Kansas City Star, 26 February 1922, [page unknown], in Vertical File—R.
A. Long, MVSC.
succeed in school; he could store pages of information in his head and recall it at will.
When the Civil War ended, Long left school at the age of sixteen.
Although Kentucky remained officially loyal to the Union and not subjected to
military occupation following the war, it refused to ratify the Thirteenth and Fourteenth
amendments to the U.S. Constitution and suffered from the same conditions as former
Confederate states. Lowell Harrison writes, "Kentucky's example suggested what might
have occurred in the South without Reconstruction. ... Kentucky went through a period
not of Reconstruction but of Readjustment."8 Before the Civil War, agriculture had made
Kentucky a wealthy state, ranking nationally in the production of hemp, tobacco, corn,
wheat, and livestock. After the war, Kentucky lost its leadership position due to several
reasons: decisions made by the state following the war, the widespread industrialization
of the nation, and the expansion of Midwestern agricultural competition.9 The stratified
populace was economically leveled due to a loss of millions of dollars of human
"property" and disappearance of free labor. Wealthy families suddenly became quite
poor—in 1867, only 36 men had incomes of more than $1,000 annually in Franklin
County, which was adjacent to Shelby County and the seat of the state capital.10
During these post-war years, Long worked on his father's farm plowing, tying oat
bundles, following a cultivator between the cornrows, and leading horses down to the
7
Rita Neil Patejdl, "Robert Alexander Long, His Life and Times" [Web Site]. (R. A. Long
Historical Society 2006, accessed 2 February 2009.); available from
http://www.ralonghistoricalsociety.org/; Internet.
8
Lowell Hayes Harrison, A New History of Kentucky (Lexington: The University Press of
Kentucky, 1997), 234.
9
Harrison, 292.
10
Millions of dollars had been invested in slaves as human property. Early in the Civil War,
Kentucky had rejected Lincoln's offer for compensated emancipation. Then, belatedly, compensation for
freed slaves—more than $108 million—was sought but was not forthcoming. See Harrison, 221.
pond, meanwhile thinking about the future of a farmer. An article about his career
suggested a possible inner dialogue:
How could a farmer ever make anything special of himself in this world?
From where he worked he could look across the stubble fields and the
pastures at the neighboring farms. How many of those people who owned
the white houses and the red barns set among the trees had been able to
improve their conditions of life?11
Robert Long left farm life and worked as a clerk in a Shelbyville store for about
six months.12 Then in 1873 at age twenty-two, he moved to Kansas City with $700, a
share of the farm harvest. He planned, in his own words,
To do the best I could with the days given to me... It's no use asking if I
didn't want to be a doctor or lawyer or farmer or businessman, because I
had no set vocation in view. I just wanted to get ahead, thafs all, and to
make every day count to that end.13
An uncle, Churchill J. White, a cashier at the Kansas City Savings Association,
wrote glowing letters of the opportunities in the west for young men.14 Although he had
never met this uncle, Long moved into his household in Kansas City and with his help
started a butchering business near Tenth and Broadway. After the butchering business
failed, White encouraged his nephew to start a wild-grass hay business in Columbus,
Kansas, with his cousin Robert White and Victor B. Bell, the son of the bank president
Dr. J. B. Bell. Long contributed his $700 and the others provided $300 each.15 This
business also failed due to a grasshopper plague, but while seiling its assets, Long noticed
"Fowler, 1-2
12
Missouri: Special Limited Supplement, 43.
13
"Robert A. Long," The Kansas City Star, 26 February 1922.
14
"The Kansas City Spirit," 1.
15
Fowler, 1-2 and Carrie Westlake Whitney, Kansas City, Missouri: Its His tory and Its People
1808-1908. Vol.l. Chicago: The S. J. Clarke Publishing Co., 1908, 203.
the extreme value of the used wood from the dismantled shed, since he sold it for more
than he paid in the treeless Midwestern plain. This prompted the three young men to open
a lumber company, R. A. Long & Company, in 1875 with Robert Long in charge.
While in Columbus, Robert Long made the most of another opportunity. In 1874,
Robert met a nineteen-year old school teacher, Ella.16 Martha Ella Wilson was born 28
March, 1855, in a farm home near Oxford, Chester County, Pennsylvania. Her father died
at the age of 45, when she was a child, leaving her mother with many debts. With six
sons and two daughters, her mother left for Kansas and staked a claim in Columbus.
"Life on the prairie more than one-half century ago was rude and full of hardships. The
children learned to fight, to save, to hope and sympathize."17 Although she was a
Methodist, her character was attributed to her staunch Quaker ancestry:
She was calm and confident and thrifty. While she was generous with her
money, she was very saving [sic]. She kept books on her expenses from
girlhood. She kept strict account of all expenditures at the Long home
until illness prevented her keeping house.18
The Longs married on 16 December 1876. After they were married, the couple
shared a $700 three-room cottage designed to meet the simple requirements of life,
located on the ground occupied by the Long's lumberyard. Around 1877, Long opened a
second yard in Galena, Kansas. In the next seven years, the Longs established fifteen or
Mrs. Long thought of Columbus, Kansas, as her hometown and she gave a pipe organ to the
First Christian Church in Columbus. See "Mrs. R. A. Long: Married Fifty-Three Years Ago, She Aided Her
Husband in His Rise in the Lumber Industry, and Was a Church Leader." The Kansas City Star 1928, [page
unknown] in Vertical File-R. A. Long, MVSC.
17
"Mrs. R. A. Long Obituary." The Kansas City Times, 25 November 1928, [page unknown] in
Vertical File-R. A. Long, MVSC.
18
"Mrs. R. A. Long Obituary."
sixteen lumberyards.
In the early days, Ella helped Robert with the office work and
in return, he helped with the housework.20 Mr. Long recognized their teamwork: "No one
knows berter than I the part she has played in whatever success has come to my ventures
in business."21 They also started a family: their first and only son lived just a few weeks
and daughters Sallie America and Loula were born in 1879 and 1881, respectively.
Robert Long accounted for those years:
Although I began the active work in the yard anywhere from four to five
o'clock in the morning, I spend the end of the day, that is anywhere form
eight to ten o'clock in the evening, making up the accounts. I was not only
general manager, but I was the whole lumber handling force, the seiling
staff, the office force, and everything else. It was hard work, but it was
fun.
It was fun because in one corner of the wood-yard, I ran up a little three
room house, married the girl I wanted to marry, and set up
housekeeping... we did all the work ourselves, and we had a jolly time of
it. I helped with the housework and she helped with the business... Those
days of hard, but joyous, work with little money and great hopes were, I
think, the happiest I have ever known.22
R. A. Long and Victor Bell reformed the lumber company and incorporated it in
1884 as the Long-Bell Lumber Company.23 By 1889, Long looked for berter bargains by
buying large quantities of surplus lumber at reduced prices. Naturally, this led him into
the wholesale lumber business, while contimring to open new lumberyards. The company
also began to handle raw product with sawmills. In 1881, the Long-Bell Lumber
19
20
21
"Mrs. R. A. Long Obituary."
Fowler, 1-2.
"Mrs. R. A. Long: Married Fifty-Three Years Ago."
22
Lenore K. Bradley, Corinthian Hall: An American Palace on Gladstone (Kansas City: The
Kansas City Museum, 1999), 8.
23
After two years with the lumber company, White had died. Victor Bell died in 1905. See
Whitney, 203 and 227.
111
Company relocated it headquarters from Columbus, Kansas, to the centrally located
Kansas City, whose integration into the national transportation network allowed the
business to stretch from Mississippi to eastern Texas and throughout the Midwest with of
countless lumberyards and sawmills.24 After depleting Midwestern resources, Long
extended his empire west, with 227,000 acres of virgin stands of hemlock, fir, and cedar
in California, Oregon, and Washington. By 1922, the company had grown into a $25
million corporation with 125 yards and eleven saw mills.25 In addition, Mr. Long also
invested in coalmines, transportation, and real estate.26
As the Long-Bell Lumber Company continued to build its empire, Robert Long
began to pursue his philanthropic interests. He regularly gave hundreds of thousands of
dollars to local causes, such as the fresh milk for babies program and the summer camp
for inner city women and children at his own Longview farm. Mr. Long was opposed to
making public the amounts of his gifts, so it remains unknown how many millions of
dollars he donated to various causes.27
When Mr. and Mrs. Long first moved to Kansas City, they moved to the
fashionable Scarritt Point neighborhood (discussed in chapter 2) and raised daughters
Sallie America and Loula in a large "Queen Anne" style house at 2814 Independence
Z4
Fowler, 1-2
25
"Robert A. Long," The Kansas City Star, 26 February 1922.
26
Long acquired 1520 acres and sank two coal mining shafts at Stone City, which were profitable.
See Patejdl, accessed 2 February 2009.
27
"Calmly and Gallantly as He Had Lived His 83 Years, R. A. Long Died at 6:28 0'clock Last
Night at Menorah Hospital," The Kansas City Times, 16 March 1934 in Vertical File~R. A. Long, MVSC.
112
Avenue (now demolished) (Figure 1). The family attended the Christian Church,
which met at 6th Street and Prospect. Reverend Combs remarked of the neighborhood:28
[It was] dressed up in high coilar, white tails only from Woodland to
Benton; had on either side the most be-turreted, the most be-colored—
harsh reds and oranges and purples—"art windowed," the most beporticoed and scrolled 'mansions' that any American city's street ever
boasted. On its lawns, thimble-sized fountains that were nearly always
dry, and three or four east iron deer gave a graved touch of the ultra.29
The Longs were extremely active in the Christian Church and attended services
every Sunday, "unless prevented by illness or absence from the city."30 As expected, his
first major architectural commission was the Independence Boulevard Christian Church
(1904-1905).31 The church was the first of many commissions that the young architect
Henry F. Hoit would receive through the patronage of Mr. Long throughout his career.
Much of Long's philanthropy centered on the Christian Church and Long rarely gave
gifts outright.32 They usually came conditioned on the giving of others.33 The pinnacle of
Dr. George Hamilton Combs wanted to preach as a young man and began at age eighteen
preaching in hills of Kentucky to the poor people and a goose egg or a slab of bacon. He was the first
minister at the Independence Boulevard Christian Church and became a prominent Kansas City clergyman
for over fifty years. George Ziefle, a friend of Loula and Pryor Combs, remarked of Rev. Combs, "He had
the power of words." See Jones, 247. Daughter Loula would later marry the son of its impassioned pastor,
Dr. George Hamilton Combs.
29
Bradley, Corinthian Hall, 9.
30
Mrs. Long was president of the church ladies' aid society in 1895 and 1896 and later was active
in the women's classes. See "Mrs. R. A. Long Obituary."
31
Long saw an exhibit for the Pullman Palace Railroad Company train at the 1904 Louisiana
Purchase Exposition in St. Louis. He ordered a luxury train to travel to Washington with a stateroom,
drawing rooms, sleeping cars for six passengers, and a dining car with a kitchen. He employed a special
crew for his train including a cook, steward, and maid for Mrs. Long. See Patejdl, accessed 18 October
2009.
32
Long was a large contributor to the National City Christian Church, Washington, D. C , the
Christian Board of Publications in St. Louis, and contributed to the Men and Millions movement. He
founded the Margaret K. Long School for girls in Tokyo, Japan, a Disciples of Christ mission, named for
his mother. See "Calmly and Gallantly."
33
"R. A. Long Death Is a National Loss." The Kansas City Star, 16 March 1934 in Vertical File—
R. A. Long, MVSC.
113
Long's architectural commissions was the design of an entire city in Longview,
Washington. In addition to the city planning, some of his principal benefactions there
were the Longview Public Library, the Robert A. Long High School with a 35-acre
campus, the Lake Sacajawea development (park beautification), the Longview
Community Church, and the Longview Memorial Hospital. He also commissioned a
prominent hotel, although that was not a charitable donation. Henry F. Hoit built the first
major gift to the new city, a $150,000 public library and designed other public buildings.
Mr. Long was in the forefront of any activity that forwarded the development and
progress of Kansas City. He used his position as a businessman with a national reputation
to promote the city and was involved in many clubs and civic organizations.34 Speaking
of Kansas City's potential, Mr. Long said:
Kansas City has the most tremendous opportunity of almost any city in the
United States if she will take advantage of it.
She is located ideally, has the right type of citizenship, and has business
men who pull together. Already she is recognized in the East as one of the
cities of the United States. I want to see Kansas City grow rapidly, but I
want her to grow on a "quality, not quantity" basis. Quality will bring
quantity. Let us treat the persons right who come to visit or live here,
whether they be very rich or very poor, and they'll bring their neighbors
and we will grow without knowing it, and at the same time have the
firmest foundation a municipality can have for our growth.35
In 1928, Mr. Long lost Ella, his wife of nearly 53 years.36 Like her husband,
Ella's friends described her as a modest woman who never wanted her charity work
Long was active in many clubs including Kansas City, Hillcrest County, Blue Hills Country,
Mission Hills Country, Mid-Day, Chamber of Commerce, and City Club. See "Robert A. Long," The
Kansas City Star, 26 February 1922.
35
36
"Robert A. Long." The Kansas City Star, 26 February 1922.
Aged73, Mrs. Martha Ella Wilson Long died on 22 November 1928 at 1:15 p. m. at her home
on Gladstone Boulevard after suffering a heart attack on the previous day. Until her unexpected death, her
discussed; "she wanted to be inconspicuous."37 Then, in October of 1929, Long-Bell
114
stock plummeted from around $40 a share to $0.50 a share when the stock market
crashed, signaling the start of the Great Depression.38 Following the devastating turn in
the economy, Long devoted himself with characteristic courage and quiet faith to the
rebuilding of his business; he was sometimes accused by his friends and business
associates as "too optimistic; that he got his religion mixed up with his business."39
Tirelessly, he spent the last two years of his life reorganizing his company and in these
two years, he reduced the debt of the company by $12 million through negotiations with
creditors, leaving only $6.5 million of obligations (of that $4 million was in municipal
bonds with the company obligation being only that of a guarantor). The final
reorganization was awaiting Congress passing a bill amending the Bankruptcy Act to
permit corporations to deal with creditors through the bankruptcy courts without
becoming bankmpt and without change of management.40
Mr. Long had suffered from a progressive condition of intestinal adhesion over
several years. He suffered an attack in January 1934, but recovered and continued
working long hours. During a trip to New York with Mr. Jesse Andrews, general counsel
for the Long interests, he suffered a severe fall at the foot of a stairway, and again
health had permitted her to remain active in the Christian Church. At the time of her death, daughters Loula
Long Combs resided at Longview Farm and Mrs. Hayne (Sallie America Long) Ellis resided in
Washington D.C. See "Mrs. R. A. Long: Married Fifty-Three Years Ago."
37
Mrs. Long's obituary continued, "Mrs. Long did not care for formal society, for the theater or
display. She sometimes traveled with Mr. Long, but usually she was to be found either at home or at the
church or some of it its charitable institutions. One of their most recent philanthropic interests was the
Sheffield community house." See "Mrs. R. A. Long Obituary."
38
Patejdl, accessed 28 September 2009.
39
"Calmly and Gallantly."
40
"Calmly and Gallantly."
115
recovered except for slight sprains in both wrists. He continued to work and was
especially optimistic about reorganizing his company. In fact, the next month, February
1934, was the best business month for the company since the Depression began. After
working at his desk on Monday, 12 March, as usual, he entered the hospital on Tuesday
morning at 7:30 a. m. to undergo an operation for an intestinal adhesion with the
knowledge that the odds were against him. As he awaited his operation, he received a
telegram notifying him that Congress passed the bill that would allow the completion of
his company's reorganization. He entered the hospital, "in such a spirit he had lived his
life. Always he was open minded to the facts, always optimistic and his colors were
always flying."41 After his death, the Long-Bell Company completed the reorganization
in 1935; a consolation to Long's family, business associates, and intimate friends was
that "the great business he founded and developed, after going through heavy losses and
grave embarrassments, had reached a turning point before his death." 42
Throughout his life, he was an active architectural patron. Long was a devout
member of the Disciples of Christ Church and as mentioned in the previous chapter, his
congregation hired Howe, Hoit & Cutler (then operating under the nåme Van Brunt &
Howe) for the Independence Boulevard Christian Church (1904-1907 with multiple later
additions). Again, Mr. Long turned to this firm for his downtown office building, the R.
41
When it was clear that he would not recover from the operation, physicians concentrated their
efforts on keeping him alive until daughter Sallie America arrived from Washington, D. C , but she was
three hours too late. See "Calmly and Gallantly."
42
The final reorganization waited for congress to pass a bill amending the bankruptcy act to
permit corporations to deal with creditors in the bankruptcy courts without becoming bankrupt and without
changing management. He received a telegram notifying him that his bill passed before the operation.
Additionally, Long carried insurance in favor of the company totaling about $ 500,000. See "Calmly and
Gallantly" and "R. A. Long Death Is a National Loss."
116
A. Long Building (1906-1907), the first steel-framed tall office building in Kansas
City. He looked to Henry F. Hoit (now working solo) for his private town residence,
"Corinthian Hall" (1909-1911) and country residence, "Longview Farm," south of
Kansas City (1913-1916). Long had ambitious plans for the Christian Church Hospital in
Kansas City (1911-1916) and his planned city in Longview, Washington (1918-1923) and
Henry F. Hoit also designed several buildings for each of these projects. The following
chapters look at each of these commissions within the context of its building type and the
long-lived patron/architect relationship between Henry F. Hoit and R. A. Long.
117
Figure 1. Mr. and Mrs. Robert A. Long with two of their grandchildren, Martha and
Robert A. LongEllis, 1911. (Reprinted from Lenore K. Bradley, Corinthian Hall. Kansas
City: The Kansas City Museum, 1999, 6.)
118
INDEPENDENCE BOULEVARD CHRISTIAN CHURCH, 1905
Joseph Wells, a designer for McKim, Mead & White in the late 1880s, remarked,
"The classical ideal suggests clearness, simplicity, grandeur, order and philosophical
calm—consequently it delights my soul."43 This same classical aesthetic pleased the
congregation of the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ) in northeast Kansas City who
chose the rational style associated with the grandeur and calmness of classicism for their
new religious building, the Independence Boulevard Christian Church (Figure 2).
As with the congregations discussed in chapter two, membership of the Christian
Church at Sixth Street and Prospect Avenue in northeast Kansas City grew rapidly, and in
this case was aided by a former minister's bid for the vice presidency of the United
States—Dr. John A. Brooks ran with General Clinton Bowen Fisk on the Prohibition
ticket.44 Robert A. Long and his family joined the congregation in 1891. The following
year, he helped recruit a new minister from his hometown: 28-year-old Dr. George
43
Quoted in Charles C. Baldwin, Stanford White (New York: Dodd, Mead & Co. 1931), 363. See
also David. P. Handlin, American Architecture (London: Thames and Hudson, 1985), 132.
44
The Christian Church in the northeast part of Kansas City began largely because the youth in the
area wanted a Bible study closer to home rather than travel to the downtown area. Established on 29
November 1886, the mission rented Morely's Hall at Independence and Brooklyn for ten dollars a month,
and thirty people attended the formal opening on 12 December 1886. Dr. John A. Brooks, the first minister
of the Mission Sunday School, who served from 1 December 1887 to 1892, saw membership grow from 30
to 300 and organized the building of a new church. In the spring 1889, the congregation purchased a lot at
Sixth Street and Prospect Avenue for $8,050 and constructed a new church for $20,000 (dedicated 20 April
1890). See Lucy Lee Sharp, The First Eighty Years: A Statement ofHistorical Incidents Commemorating
the Founding and Development of the Independence Boulevard Christian Church (Kansas City:
[Independence Boulevard Christian Church], 1966), 3.
In 1888 United States Presidential Election, Dr. John Brooks ran for Vice President with General
Clinton Bowen Fisk of New Jersey on the Prohibition ticket, which came in third with 249,506 votes or
2.2% as the prohibition movement gained supporters. See David Leip, "1888 Presidential General Election
Results." Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections [Web Site] (2004, accessed 29 October 2009); available from
URL: http://www.uselectionatlas.org/; Internet.
119
45
Hamilton Combs who had been a pastor for five years in Shelbyville, Kentucky. Dr.
Combs, his wife Martha, two sons, and a maid arrived in Kansas City in December 1892
to a church at odds over an internal split in the congregation. Divided evenly, the
congregation could not resolve the problems and two of the leaders engaged in fisticuffs
in the church parlor, which resulted in one leader being knocked down. The feuding sides
refused to introduce the new pastor, so Dr. Combs introduced himself not knowing the
nature of the dissension and succeeded in uniting the church with the strength of his
oratory.46 During his 26-year ministry, Dr. Combs saw the membership grow an average
of 123 new members per year.47
In 1900, R. A. Long purchased and donated to the church the property at the
corner of Independence Boulevard and Gladstone Avenue, then a main residential street.
In 1903, the congregation hired Howe, Hoit & Cutler (then operating under the nåme Van
Brunt & Howe) to design a larger new building.48 Of the total cost of $125,000, R. A.
Long gave $70,000 and likely led the congregation in the decision to pick the most
prestigious firm in Kansas City. At the time, Henry F. Hoit was completing his design for
the Varied Industries Palace at the 1904 Louisiana Purchase Exposition. When the fair
45
Dr. George Hamilton Combs (1864-1951) was born in Cambellsburg, Kentucky, to William
Pryor and Elizabeth Frances Combs. He earned a Ph.D. degree from Wooster University in 1887 and LL.
D. degree from Drake University in 1897. His first pastorate in Shelbyville, Kentucky, lasted five years.
See W. T. Moore, The New Living Pulpit of the Christian Church: A Series ofDiscourses, Doctrinal and
Practical, by Representative Men among the Disciples ofChrist (St. Louis: Christian Board of Publication,
1918), 151-152.
46
Sharp, 3-4. Sharp does not disclose the nature of the disagreement. However, since neither side
would introduce the pastor, the appointment may have been the point of contention.
47
"Our History," in Independence Boulevard Christian Church Disciples ofChrist [Web Site].
Kansas City: Independence Boulevard Christian Church, 2009, accessed 19 June 2009; available from
http://www.ibcckc.org/index.html; Internet.
48
"Construction News: Christian Church Corner of Independence Avenue and Gladstone
Boulevards." The Western Contractor 3, no. 2 (1904): 1.
building opened, Mr. Long dehvered the inaugural address as a representative of the
Yellow Pine Industry exhibiting at the Varied Industries Palace.49
Like the B'nai Jehudah Temple, the Independence Boulevard Christian Church
was constructed of Bedford stone and used an ancient vernacular, which appealed to
church leaders. The front facade on each building had six columns, an undecorated
pediment topped with an antefix and acroteria. The detailing on the doors and windows
between the columns were also similar. Wide steps rising several feet above the sidewalk
accessed the porticos of both edifices. However, the Christian Church used colossal
monolithic Ionic columns where B'nai Jehudah chose Doric. The plan of the church was
in the form of a Greek cross with shallow arms topped by a dome. The north (main)
facade had a projecting portico. Additions on the west and south now detract from the
original symmetry and obscure the original secondary facades, which were likely similar
to the visible east facade.50
Writing in 1908, Carrie Westlake Whitney described the interior as "compatible
with the requirements of modem church usage."51 The auditorium mirrors the Greek
cross plan with pews were arranged facing the pulpit and organ on the south and chairs
arranged in a horseshoe shaped balcony accessed by a gently curving staircase (Figure 3).
The interior continued with the studied Greek ornamentation as seen with the denticulate
and Corinthian columns in the auditorium and lit by hundreds of electric lights outlining
Announcement is among the Long papers at the Union Station Collection, Kansas City
Museum.
50
51
The Western Historie Manuscripts Collection only holds drawings for the gymnasium addition.
Carrie Westlake Whitney, Kansas City, Missouri: Its History andlts People 1808-1908. Vol. 2
(Chicago: The S. J. Clarke Publishing Company, 1908), 425.
121
the dome and the intrados of the arches (Figure 4). R. A. Long donated beautiful
stained glass windows commissioned from the Tiffany Studios in New York City in 1905
(Figure 5).52 Below the auditorium, the church kitchen and dining room served the needs of
a large and active congregation and reportedly served as many as 900 people (Figure 6). 3
Following the dedication on 17 September 1905, the congregation of
approximately 200 families previously called "Prospect Avenue Christian Church,"
moved into their new church named "Independence Boulevard Christian Church."
By 1909, the congregation needed a larger facility. Mr. Long challenged the
church: if they could have 1,000 people in Church School for 13 consecutive Sundays, he
would build an addition. They packed in "like sardines in a can" and met the challenge
with over 1,600 in attendance on one Sunday. While the remodeling and expansion was
in progress, the church met in a large tent at Independence and Benton Boulevards, rain
or shine, even during the particularly hot summer of 19IO.54
In 1910, Howe & Hoit remodeled the sanctuary and added an education building
and gymnasium (Figure 7).55 The remodeled sanctuary allowed a larger pipe organ; the
original 1905 organ was replaced with an Austin Pipe Organ consisting of 53 ranks
The Long Memorial Window, dedicated to Mr. Long's parents, illustrates Jesus' appearance to
Mary in the garden on Resurrection morning. The Rumble Memorial Window, dedicated to the church's
first missionaries, shows Jesus holding a coin to illustrate Matthew 22:21 "render unto Caesar what is
Caesar's." Other windows show Jesus seated in a garden, an angel holding an open book, and a dove.
Master glass artisan Doug Gammon and his crew at Midwestern Stained Glass Studios cleaned
and renovated the Long and Rumble memorial windows in August 2004 and for the first time in nearly 35
years are visible from both inside and outside the sanctuary. See "Our History," accessed 19 June 2009.
53
Sharp, 18. Today they serve 400 impoverished people weekly.
54
Sharp, 5-6.
55
"Our History," accessed 19 June 2009.
122
comprising 4,500 pipes, the largest organ then west of the Mississippi River.56 The
architects expanded the church west and southwest and connected a three-story clubhouse
at 2832 East Sixth Street to the rear of the annex building at the basement level (Figure
8). The expansion cost $200,000. The educational building was equipped with two pipe
organs. The gymnasium had a flying track, a white tile swimming pool, parallel bars,
Indian clubs, and dumbbells.57 The swimming pool was quite an innovation at the time
and the church hired a swimming instructor.58 In 1920, Mr. Long made another gift: a
carillon of eleven bronze bells weighing fifteen tons hung in a tower atop the educational
building. A dedication east on largest bell read, "Given in appreciation for the friendship
of Mr. & Mrs. D. O. Smart by Mr. & Mrs. R. A. Long."59 The Christian Church
(Disciples of Christ) congregation has continuously occupied the Independence
Boulevard Christian Church at Gladstone and Independence Boulevards, now for over a
century. Mr. Long was also a major contributor to Ionic classical National City Christian
56
In 1968, the Casavant Pipe Organ with 61 ranks, or 3, 366 pipes replaced the Austin Pipe Organ.
See "Our History," accessed 19 June 2009.
57
Linda Becker and Cydney Millstein, "Independence Boulevard Christian Church," in Religious
Properties Survey 1992 (Kansas City: Missouri Department of Natural Resources Historie Preservation
Program, 1993).
58
Sharp, 5. The pool was eventually covered over and converted into additional classrooms during
the remodeling of 1947. At this time, the parsonage was leveled to make room for their first parking lot, and
another parsonage was located across the street. See Sharp, 16-17.
59
Mr. & Mrs. Smart had been charter members of the church. The bells continue to be hand-rung.
A carillonneur plays melodies or chords by striking a baton (keyboard) with the fists and pressing the keys
of a pedal keyboard with the feet to mechanically activate levers and wires that connect to the metal
clappers that strike the bells. See "Our History," accessed 19 June 2009.
In 1921, the church purchased the Walpole Residence at the northeast corner of Sixth and
Gladstone to be used as a parsonage. See Becker and Millstein, "Independence Boulevard Christian
Church."
123
Church in Washington, D. C. (1928-1932), designed by famed architect John Russell
Pope (Figure 9).60
The Independence Boulevard Christian Church marks the beginning of the firm's
relationship with R. A. Long. The next commission for R. A. Long, done by the renamed
partnership of Howe, Hoit & Cutler, was the R. A. Long Building, Kansas City's first tall
office building and the subject of the next section.
60
Otto Eggers, an associate of John Russell Pope, had the primary responsibility for designing
their religious buildings. Pope and Eggers provided both Gothic and colonial revival solutions to the
church, who ultimately chose the colonial revival scheme. See Steven Bedford, John Russell Pope:
Architect of Empire. New York: Rizzoli, 1998), 156.
124
Figure 2. Howe, Hoit & Cutler, Independence Boulevard Christian Church, 1905.
(Reprinted from John Albury Bryan, MissourVs Contribution to American Architecture.
St. Louis: St. Louis Architectural Club, 1928, 118.)
Figure 3. Howe, Hoit & Cutler, Independence Boulevard Christian Church, c. 1910, views
from the podium and the balcony. (Reprinted from "Independence Boulevard Christian
Church" [Web Site] ("Our History," va. Independence Boulevard Christian Church [Web
Site]. Kansas City: Independence Boulevard Christian Church, 2009, accessed 19 June
2009; available from http://www.ibcckc.org/index.html; Internet.)
Figure 4. Howe, Hoit & Cutler, Independence Boulevard Christian Church, 1905, balcony
and entrance to auditorium. (Photographs by author, 2009.)
Figure 5. Tiffany Studio, Independence Boulevard Christian Church windows, 1905, (left
to right): angel, John Brooks Memorial Window, Stephen Edgar Rumble Memorial
Window, R. A. Long Memorial Window, and dove. (Reprinted from "Independence
Boulevard Christian Church" [Web Site] ("Our History," in Independence Boulevard
Christian Church [Web Site]. Kansas City: Independence Boulevard Christian Church,
2009, accessed 19 June 2009; available from http://www.ibcckc.org/index.html; Internet.)
Figure 6. Howe, Hoit & Cutler, Independence Boulevard Christian Church, 1910, kitchen
and diningroom. (Photographs by author, 2009.)
Figure 7. Henry F. Hoit, Independence Boulevard Christian Church, 1910 expansion and
aerial view of the 1920 expansion with the bell tower. (Left reprinted from "Independence
Boulevard Christian Church" [Web Site] ("Our History," in Independence Boulevard
Christian Church [Web Site]. Kansas City: Independence Boulevard Christian Church,
2009, accessed 19 June 2009; available from http://www.ibcckc.org/index.html; Internet;
right reprinted from Independence Boulevard Christian Church Newsletter, Kansas City:
Independence Boulevard Christian Church, 2003.)
Figure 8. Henry F. Hoit, Independence Boulevard Christian Church Gymnasium building,
1910 drawings of elevation and plans of pool, ground floor, and upper floor. (Barnes
Collection, 023.010, WHMC-KC.)
128
Figure 9. John Russell Pope, National City Christian Church, Washington D. C , 19281932. (Reprinted from Steven Bedford, John Russell Pope: Architect of Empire. New
York: Rizzoli, 1998,159.)
THE
R. A. LONG BUILDING. 1905-1907
When R. A. Long relocated the headquarters of the Long-Bell Lumber Company
from the small Kansas town of Columbus to Kansas City in 1892, he moved into the
Keith & Perry Building at 902 Walnut Street, designed by Asa Beebe Cross in 1887.
(Figure IO).61 As he continued to acquire timberland throughout the Southeast and Great
Lakes regions, Long desired an impressive office building to house his empire; he also
saw the need for a first class office space in the growing city. A few years after Long's
relocation, Frank Maynard Howe documented the state of Kansas City's architecture in a
1904 article published in Architectural Record writing that Kansas City's short building
history had been:
... worked out within the lifetime of men who are yet comparatively
young, and there are many living within its limits to-day [sic] who can
easily look back to the time when the site of every business building now
standing within the commercial heart of the city was but prairie, swamp or
woodland.62
Howe discussed some of the city's notable buildings up to that point, including:
Burnham & Roofs Board of Trade Building (1886, razed 1968), Louis Curtiss' Willis
Wood Theater (1902), McKim, Mead & White's New York Life Building (1890,
supervised by Van Brunt & Howe), and several by his own firm. He does not elaborate
on the "startling examples of disorder" in the city's architecture, but instead concluded
with cautionary optimism:
Asa Beebe Cross was an architect as well as a lumberman.
62
Frank Howe, "The Development of Architecture in Kansas City, Missouri." Architectural
Record 15, no. February (1904): 135.
It may be that we are near the beginnmg of a new building era. We have yet to
point to our first skyscraper, and it is hoped that before the time comes we
shall have learned the lessons on professional self-control. It is somewhat
appalling to think what might happen were it otherwise.63
Howe, with his new young partners, Henry Hoit and William Cutler, were poised
to usher Kansas City into the new era and to deliver a skyscraper with "professional selfcontrol." This vanguard skyscraper was to have a great impact on the city and Mr. Long's
contract for all its architecture services went to Howe, Hoit & Cutler (Figure 11).64 In
1905, R. A. Long bought a lot from August R. Meyer for $200,000 on the northwest
corner of Tenth Street and Grand Avenue.65 This was choice downtown real estate
located above the flood plains.66 At a cost of $1,400,000, Mr. Long intended to establish
this tall office building as the permanent home for his lumber company.67
R. A. Long traveled with senior architect in the firm, Mr. Howe, to Chicago,
Pittsburgh, and Cincinnati to study new tall office buildings. The architectural style they
chose was popular during the period: modern Renaissance with Greek ornamental details
" H o w e , 157.
64
The R. A. Long Building marked a career turning point for another young man, 26-year-old
lawyer, Hughes Bryant, who began a new technical profession—office building management. In this subindustry, Bryant brought competing buildings together in one contract, but each building operated as a
distinct unit with its own office, staff, and manager. Bryant convinced two men of his business sagacity: a
judge from whom he obtained appointment as receiver for a large hardware firm and his uncle, Dr. John
Bryant, from whom he obtained the job of managing the remodeling of the old Robert Keith Furniture
Building to an office structure. When R. A. Long announced the impending erection of the R. A. Long
Building, D. O. Smart introduced Bryant to Long who proposed to Long that if he could effect a material
saving in the contracts for the building, then his reward would be a contract for managing the finished
building for 3% of the gross revenue. See Kansas City Star, 16 November 1930 and Giles Carroll Mitchell,
There Is No Limit: Architecture and Sculpture in Kansas City. Kansas City: Brown-White Company, 1934,
29-30.
65
August Meyer was involved in the parks and boulevard system of Kansas City (see Chapter II).
The West Bottoms near the river had been the commercial center in the late 19' century.
Unfortunately, it was often flooded. The damage resulting from a flood in 1903 prompted city officials to
call for improvements to the commercial district.
67
"Robert A. Long," The Kansas City Star, 26 February 1922, [page unknown], in Vertical File—
Long, R. A. at the Missouri Valley Special Collections at the Kansas City Public Library (MVSC).
131
also called the Beaux Arts style. Mr. Howe and his young partners were progeny of
the heralds of the Beaux Arts style in the United States. All had been trained in the Beaux
Arts style at MIT, which followed the system of the École des Beaux Arts in Paris, at
which Richard Morris Hunt had been the first American to study.68
The Beaux Arts style, which was well suited for grand public buildings that
tended to stretch horizontally, had also been adapted to vertical skyscrapers in Chicago
School examples. Buildings with an iron and steel skeleton frame like those pioneered by
Major William Le Baron Jenney and others in Chicago were technically superior to
previous masonry load-bearing examples. The steelwork bore the building's weight and
allowed for thinner walls and large windows and, importantly, the steel skeleton was
insulated which give the building berter fireproofing. The skeleton frame construction
and improvements in elevator technology removed the eight to ten story height limitation
of the bearing wall construction. In keeping with the latest technology, the R. A. Long
Building used a steel-skeleton frame for its sixteen stories (fourteen floors, basement, and
attic floor). The ground floor plan offered stores on Tenth Street and the upper main floor
on Grand Avenue, with about three hundred offices above.
With the general design planned, ground was broken in May 1905 (Figure 12).
General contractor C. Everett Clark Company of Chicago supervised construction of the
first skyscraper built in Kansas City. The construction of the steel frame attracted crowds
68
At M.I.T., Hoit studied under Constant Desiré Despradelle, a Roten Professor of Architectural
Design and perhaps the most qualified professor to teach the Beaux-Arts aesthetic in the United States
because he had studied at the prestigious Atelier Pascal, achieved the highest rank in the Concours de
Rome, and became an award-winning architect for the French government. When Despradelle died in 1912,
The Technology Review at M.I.T. commented, "He taught an army of students the true manual of
architecture, sending them forth to civilize by beauty. It would take a map of our whole country to follow
the campaigns of all of them."
of spectators daily to watch the heated rivets tossed about between the steel beams of
the framework. The Kansas City Star explained the process on 27 April 1905:
It takes nearly two hundred blows from one of these hammers, each blow
driven by air compressed at eighty-five pounds, to rivet a bolt. And yet the
bolts are placed at the rate of three a minute. Four men comprise a crew.
One man stands at the forge and heats the bolt red hot. Deftly he throws it
to a second man who as accurately catches it in a tin bucket and puts it in
place. A third man holds the bolt firmly with his 'bucking up dolly," and
the fourth man handles the air hammer. A rapid-fire movement of firm
strokes follows and the two-inch shank of the bolt has been reduced to a
rounded head.69
Two thousand tons of steel were used in the construction. Hollow tile encased the
steel to protect the structural work from the dangers of fire. The exterior walls—about
thirteen inches thick—attached to this steel frame clothed in tile.70
The eastern facade served as the main elevation of the building with the south
facade sloping downward from east to west along Tenth Street (the north side was a
firewall and the west faced an alley and was obscured by another building). At the corner
of Grand Avenue and Tenth Street, the height from the sidewalk to the crown of the
cornice was 192 feet and on the alley facade reached 203 feet.71 The main facade was
divided into three horizontal zones with four Ionic columns supporting an entablature
inscribed "LONG BUILDING" in the center and two flanking bays that project outward
slightly from the center zone with pilasters (Figure 13). The entrance was to the building
through three doors on the eastern portion of the colonnade. Although it was not typical
6S
The Kansas City Star, 27 April 1905 and Mitchell, 30.
70
"The R. A. Long Building, Kansas City, Mo.," American Architect and Building News 99, no.
1853 (1911), 148 and Mitchell, 31-32.
71
Mitchell, 33. Another source measured nearly 100 feet on Grand Avenue and 115 feet on Tenth
Street with a height of 188 feet from the Grand Avenue level to the top of the cornice.
of Beaux-Arts bundings to have an off-center entrance, this solution allowed for the
large banking room on the first fioor to have maximum windows and natural light.
The sidewalk slopes downward on Tenth Street revealing more of the basement
level sheathed in dark-grey polished Quincy granite. Rising from the granite base, the
elevation is composed of three parts: the first three stories of Bedford limestone, a shaft
composed of grey brick walls trimmed with terra cotta, and a crown composed of the top
three stories, attic, and roof.72 Louis Sullivan described this approach to treat the facade
of the tall office building as a column in his 1896 article "The Tall Office Building
Artistically Considered."
The street level on the south and east facades alternate engaged pilasters or
columns with windows or doors on the first and second floors separated by Bedford
limestone panels. These pilasters carry a continuous entablature punctuated by roundels
above each pilaster. The third floor level functions visually like an attic or mezzanine
resting on the entablature of the first level topped with its own projecting cornice-like
stringcourse. On the Grand Avenue facade, four Greek acroteria decorate the panels
between the five windows directly over the engaged columns. On the projecting bays,
decorative limestone cartouche panels topped with lions' heads flank the window.
Grey brick in alternating, projecting horizontal bands on the next eight stories
form the main shaft of the building. Bedford stone trims the windows which otherwise
lack decorative encasement. Above the 1 l th floor, the shaft is topped by a stringcourse to
separate it from the crown of the building.
72
Furst-Kerber Cut Stone Company furnished the Bedford limestone used on the three lower
stories. See "The R. A. Long Building, Kansas City, Mo." Architects' and Builders' Magazine 9, no. 1
(1907): 31 and "The R. A. Long Building," American Architect and Building News, 148.
The crown of the buildmg mirrors the three-story base of the building with a
mezzanine on the twelfth floor and the two floors above treated as one unit. The
rustication on this floor is heavy. Decorative elements attached to the upper stringcourse
mirror the acroteria while other ornamental features mirror the panels with lions' heads.
Unlike the third floor, decorative panels embellish both the east and south facades of the
twelfth floor. The two uppermost stories of the building alternate pilasters and windows
with the windows on two stories encased in an ornate frame and also separated by panels
with a similar motif. The cornice projects from the building with decorative brackets
underneath that continue the rhythm formed by the windows and pilasters with large
brackets marking the pilasters and smaller brackets marking the intercolumniation.
Acroteria of alternating heights articulate the roofline.
The R. A. Long Building was the first skyscraper on the Kansas City skyline, but
was quickly followed by two other tall office buildings: the sixteen-story National Bank
of Commerce Building by Jarvis Hunt (Figure 14) and the Scarritt Building by Root &
Siemens (Figure 15), both completed in 1907. Although the R. A. Long Building used
Sullivan's approach to tall office building composition, the architects did not design the
ornamental details based on organic forms that Sullivan advocated. One block away from
the R. A. Long Building the Scarritt Building by Root & Siemens demonstrates
Sullivan's approach to ornamentation through interlocking organic forms with
representations of leaves. In contrast, Howe, Hoit & Cutler referenced their predecessor,
Henry Van Brunt. His "Greek Lines and Other Architectural Essays" (1893) influenced
the detailing on the R. A. Long Building, which The American Architect described in
1906 as "an adaptation of the Greek style to modern usage; that is, all its general details,
135
both inside and outside, accord with the Greek lines."73 This is seen in the lions' head
panels, use of acroteria, and the adaptation of the Greek colonnade and attic. The solution
to mirror the lower stories with the upper stories differs from Sullivan's three-part
elevation. Examples of this organization are found in Chicago, Pittsburgh, and Cincinnati
as in McKim, Mead & White's Knickerbocker Trust Company in New York (1904,
demolished 1924), which used a similar adaptation of the antique for the lower stories —
a colonnade with an attic.
The main floor was open and spacious and elaborately finished by Holslag &
Company of Chicago with white Italian marble walls, mosaic floors, modeled plaster
ceiling and mahogany woodwork (Figure 16).74 According to Mitchell, the solid bronze
hardware used in the building was "of special design very massive and beautiful and
entirely in keeping with the remainder of the construction."75 The marble wainscot in the
R. A. Long Building extended to the top line of the doors. Mitchell wrote, "One of the
most beautiful parts of the building was the grand marble stairway built over the entrance
lobby."76
The Grand Avenue entrance led through a vestibule and up a few broad marble
steps to a corridor (Figure 17). The corridor opened to the passenger elevator lobby, the
banking room to the left, and a large office to the right. These six high-speed passenger
elevators that ran from the basement to the fourteenth floor were the safest type then
73
"The R. A. Long Building," American Architect and Building News, 148.
74
"The R. A. Long Building," Architects' and Builders' Magazine, 31 and "The R. A. Long
Building," American Architect and Building News, 148.
75
Mitchell, 32-33.
76
Mitchell, 32.
136
available—the plunger type. Rather than suspending the cars from wire cables, the
cab rested on the top end of the steel piston encased in a cylinder that ran 170-feet below
the ground, the same distance as the rise of the elevators.77 Beyond the elevator lobby, the
main lobby was surmounted by a domed skylight of leaded glass and was equipped with
small booths for eigar and newspaper stands.78 Mitchell remarked that the fountain in the
rotunda was "a greatly admired piece of ornament."79 A sky-lit corridor west of the lobby
wrapped around the north wall of the building and south to the bank room. The bank
room ran the length of the south side of the building.
The second floor corridor extended north and south, both of which turn 90
degrees west accessing offices. Each office, furnished with a washbasin, looked out onto
the street or light court. The typical plan of each floor provided a toilet room for
gentlemen. One of the offices off the windowless corridor had a small private bathroom,
possibly for a female employee, if one worked on the floor. A 1907 article in Architects'
and Builders' Magazine mentions that "midway in the building" there was a "special
reception room for the comfort of lady visitors."80 Office space on these floors was leased
77
Operated by hydraulic pressure, the elevators had a speed of 600-feet-per-minute. Although
these elevators proved worthy, after many years the installation of a newer system was prompted by
improvements of elevator starting and stopping technology. The building was also equipped with a freight
elevator. See Mitchell, 33, "The R. A. Long Building," Architects' and Builders' Magazine, 31, and "The
R. A. Long Building," American Architect and Building News, 148.
7
"The R. A. Long Building," Architects' and Builders' Magazine, 31 and "The R. A. Long
Building," American Architect and Building News, 148.
79
80
Mitchell, 32.
The R. A. Long Building," Architects' and Builders' Magazine, 31 and "The R. A. Long
Building," American Architect and Building News, 148.
137
swiftly; on 7 January 1907, The Kansas City Star reported that the building was
eighty-five per cent leased almost entirely by lumber and insurance companies.81
Long-Bell Lumber Company occupied the elaborately finished fourteenth floor,
which included the personal office of Mr. Long (Figure 18). The intricate woodwork in
these rooms consisted of high, paneled wainscoting of African mahogany.82 Friezes
representing forest scenes decorated the walls above the wainscoting.83 Mr. Long had a
private bathroom complete with bathtub and specialized shower, similar to the circular
multi-head shower in Mr. Long's bathroom at Corinthian Hall. He also had a dressing
room to the side of the bathroom with a couch so he could lie down if he wanted to and
he always kept a clean change of clothes in the office.84 Much of the original finishing of
the interior executive office and boardroom was lost during subsequent remodeling
projects but a renovation in 2000 resulted in a close approximation to the original.85 The
National Register of Historie Places added the R. A. Long Building on 8 January 2008.
The R. A. Long Building was a herald for the city's new commercial architecture
as the first steel-framed tall office building at sixteen stories high. Its Renaissance
detailing followed the national stylistic trend. Howe, Hoit & Cutler completed the
building in 1906, before the unfortunate deaths of two of the three principal architects,
81
The Kansas City Star, 7 January 1907 and Mitchell, 33.
82
Mitchell, 33.
83
"The R. A. Long Building," Architects' andBuilders' Magazine, 31.
84
Pearl Crawford remembers that at his office, "he had a big bathroom with a dressing room to the
side of it and a couch so he could lay down if he wanted to. He always kept a clean change of clothes in the
office." See Linda Newcom Jones, The Longview WeRemember ([Independence, Missouri]: Storm Ridge
Press, 1990), 265.
In a letter to his church, R. A. Long explained about his health history. When he was 39 years old,
he suffered a nervous breakdown; the same year he moved his business to Kansas City. This caused him to
have extremely regular habits including an afternoon nap and daily massage.
85
See Appendix for renovation details.
138
but the architect-patron relationship continued in Long's next major commission for
his personal residence.
• i» i. it
mm
Figure 10. Asa Beebe Cross, Keith and Perry Building, 1890. (The Henry Green
Scrapbook, P12, Box 2, Folder 72, #72, MVSC.)
Figure 11. Howe, Hoit & Cutler, R. A. Long Building, 1906. (Reprinted from John
Albury Bryan, MissourVs Contribution to American Architecture. St. Louis: St. Louis
Architectural Club, 1928, 119.)
Figure 12. Howe, Hoit & Cutler, R. A. Long Building, construction photograph.
(Reprinted from Coryell, Scott. "R. A. Long Building: R. A. Long Office Restored," in R.
A. Long Historical Society [Website]. Lee's Summit, Missouri: R. A. LongHistorical
Society, accessed 2 February 2009; available from
http ://www.ralonghistoricalsociety .org/; Internet.)
Figure 13. Hoit, Price & Barnes, R. A. Long Building, 1906, Grand Avenue facade, first
three floors. (Photograph by author, 2009.)
II
II
• , : . : - ' ! i! ! l o r -
IR
II
II
ill
.•..••MilIlt M l i i U E "•'i!L"l"-.l J / " ! -
I •*
I»'
Figure 14. Jarvis Hunt, National Commerce Bank Building, 1907. (Reprinted from Susan
Jezak Ford, "Commerce Bank BuildingProfile" Missouri Valley Special Collection,
Kansas City Public Library, 1999.)
in
•? " = "
•=!==<=! = m ^ n _
nm n n
«n^
Figure 15. Root & Siemens, Scarritt Building 1907, Grand Avenue facade, window frame
and corner detail. (Photographs by author, 2009.)
-n w
nr^r^i
It
I
H h
i
*". i f—*
\
rr ]
Ei
, ...ri
ir v
yr i L — j
Figure 16. Howe, Hoit & Cutler, The R. A. Long Building, Kansas City, Missouri, 1911,
plan. (Reprinted from "The R. A. Long Building, Kansas City, Mo." American Architect
and Building News 99, no. 1853, 1911.)
Figure 17. Howe, Hoit & Cutler, R. A. Long Building, 1906; clockwise fromtop left,
lobby, landing of main stairway, rotunda, elevator lobby. (Reprinted from "The R. A.
Long Building, Kansas City, Mo." American Architect and Building News 99, no. 1853,
1911.)
143
Figure 18. Howe, Hoit & Cutler, R. A. Long Building, 1906, office of Mr. Longand
attached bath with specialized shower. (Reprinted from "The Kansas City Spirit—in the
Making: R. A. Long." The Kansas City Spirit, February 1909, 1 and Coryell, Scott. "R.
A. Long Building: R. A. Long Office Restored," in R. A. Long Historical Society
[Website]. Lee's Summit, Missouri: R. A. Long Historical Society, accessed2 February
2009; available from http://www.ralonghistoricalsociety.org/; Internet.)
144
PERSONAL RESIDENCES OF R. A. LONG
In a letter to the Independence Boulevard Christian Church on his eightieth
birthday, Mr. Long described his priorities: "My life, as it were, has been divided into
three parts - home, church, and business (the latter including civic matters in my
community aside from regular business)."86 Along with new buildings involving his
spiritual life and his business activities, Mr. Long hired Henry F. Hoit for his third and
fourth architectural commissions for a personal residence in the city and one in the
country. As with the Independence Boulevard Christian Church and the R. A. Long
Building, the Beaux-Arts style inspired Long's town house, named "Corinthian Hall"
(Figure 19). This house cost $600,000 and rivaled any other Kansas City residence in
scope, materials, design, and location.87 His country residence was more informal but
included a columns portico and symmetrical facade, perhaps alluding to those Kentucky
plantations of his childhood.
86
R. A. Long to the congregation of the Independence Boulevard Christian Church, a letter read as
a speech on 17 December 1930 on his eightieth birthday. See Bradley research material, Union Station
Collection, Kansas City Museum.
87
Millstein's total of $600,000 may include some furnishings and decorations. The Kansas City
Star reported that the land cost $120,000 and the original estimate of the house itself was $250,000 without
furnishings and continues, "A man who has had much to do with fine houses and their furnishings said that
the entire cost would crowd a million dollars very close." The Western Contractor reported the house was
to cost $200,000. See Cydney Millstein and Carol Grove, Houses of Missouri, 1870-1940 (New York:
Acanthus Press, 2008); The Kansas City Star, 1 December 1910; "Construction News: R. A. Long." The
Western Contractor (January 1909), 1.
Contract were awarded to George W. Huggins of Kansas City for general construction and the Des
Moines Bridge and Iron Works for structural steel work and the manufacture of the wrought iron gates and
fencing. Blueprints show the company executed the roof-framing plan, the structural framing for the third
floor ceiling, and the structural blueprints for the residence and greenhouse. The National Terra Cotta
Works in Kansas City provided the quarry tile for the terrace and colonnade walkways and structural clay
tile fireproof partitions. The Hecla Iron Works, Brooklyn, New York, was the foundry, which forged all
ornamental frames and grilles for radiators and floors. The William Jackson Company, New York,
manufactured the bronze marquis over the porte cochére. See Lenore K. Bradley, Corinthian Hall: An
American Palace on Gladstone (Kansas City: The Kansas City Museum, 1999), 22.
145
By 1906, R. A. Long had entered the business elite becoming not just one of
Missouri's richest citizens but one the nation's wealthiest and most powerful industry
leaders. As a measure of his influence, in 1908, R. A. Long addressed a White House
conference on forest conservation.88 The Corinthian Hall was never simply a family
home, but rather a monument to Long's achievement. The residence of more than 60
rooms reflected the lumberman's local and national prominence; to live and entertain in a
more modest house would have been inappropriate and unconventional.89 Like his peers,
he traveled in his own richly appointed private railroad car (designed by Howe, Hoit &
Cutler) and a chauffeur-driven Pierce Arrow limousine. He indulged himself and
daughter Loula in training, breeding, and showing saddle-bred and harness horses.90 His
collection of horses outpaced Corinthian Hall before its completion and he began a
second country residence, called Longview Farm.
Mr. Long had traveled with Frank Howe previously, and Henry Hoit's personality
seemed it would be agreeable to Long as well. Both men were small in stature, energetic,
and economic, but at the same time lovers of beauty, history, and art. Long believed that
beauty was necessary because it lifts the soul.91
88
Long was one of four speakers invited by President Theodore Roosevelt to address a White
House conference on the nation's natural resources. He outlined forest conservation concepts that remain
valid today, likely from the wisdom that failure grants. R. A. Long, "Forest Conservation," Paper presented
at the Proceedings of a Conference of Governors in the White House, Washington, D. C , 13-15 May 1908.
89
At the commemoration of the Liberty Memorial in 1921, Admiral Earl Beatty, commander of
the British navy, and Admiral R. E. Coontz, chief of U. S. naval operations were guests of R. A. Long at
Corinthian Hall. See Millestein, Houses of Missouri, 112.
90
Loula was a champion rider and also one of the first female riders in a show in London. Her
eccentric hats were always noted in articles about her showing. For more about her riding see Helen
Markel, "Legendary Loula: Loula Long Combs, Great Lady of the Horse Shows, Has Known Few Peers in
Her 62 Years as a Horsewoman and Trainer of Hackneys," Sports Illustrated, 12 November 1956.
Notes for a speech, February 1919, Liberty Memorial Association, The National World War
One Museum Research Center, Kansas City, Missouri (LMA).
146
Corinthian Hall. 1907-1911
R. A. Long had his choice of prestigious neighborhoods in which to locate his
grand residence, but he chose to remain in his familiar neighborhood in northeast Kansas
City (See Chapter II).92 In 1906, he asked Mr. Hoit to make preliminary drawings for a
site he purchased on Independence Avenue, but he grew more ambitious; rather than
building on Independence Avenue, Long chose a new location further north on Gladstone
Boulevard, called Scarritt Point.93 Gladstone Boulevard was the first thoroughfare
beautified by the Board of Park Commissioners as part of the "City Beautiful
Movement." Between 1907 and 1909, Long purchased lots on the north and south sides
of Gladstone between Walrond and Indiana until he owned several large parcels of land,
including the block on which he desired to situate his house—he even paid to move two
houses from the site to other property in the neighborhood (Figure 20).94
Henry F. Hoit exploited the advantages of this site off Gladstone Boulevard,
which began at the Independence Boulevard Christian Church on Independence
Boulevard extended north before bending east at Benton Boulevard in front of the
Colonnade, an architectural feature added by the city as part of the City Beautiful project,
and continued along the boundary of North Terrace Park (Figure 21). Because much of
the adjacent land was still vacant, it gave the impression that this winding public road
92
Hyde Park had been the aristocratic address in Kansas City since the 1890s, the grand residence
of newspaper mogul William Rockhill Nelson anchored the Rockhill neighborhood, and residents of the
present-day Valentine-Roanoke district were quickly establishing a prominent community. Long was likely
aware of J. C. Nichols' plans for the Country Club District. Long worked with Nichols in 1906 to gain
community support for a civic center to the south of Union Station Plaza and so was acquainted with the
real estate developer. See Chapter II for more detailed information on neighborhoods.
93
Giles Carroll Mitchell, There Is No Limit: Architecture and Sculpture in Kansas City (Kansas
City: Brown-White Company, 1934), 132-133.
94
See Bradley, Corinthian Hall, 12.
147
was a tree-lined private drive (Figure 22).95 The site was also at the formal terminus
of Cliff Drive, three miles of scenic road along the highest elevation in the city through a
wooded park, which also gave the impression of a private drive to Corinthian Hall. Atop
Cliff Drive the location offered outstanding, unobstructed views across the Missouri
River Valley, the Clay County Hills, and the emerging city where Long could view his
new office building only 3-Vi miles away (discussed previously).96 The site abutted North
Terrace Park on the west and north allowing Long to extend his three-acre plot into a
public park and giving him generous horse-riding grounds of both wooded and rugged
terrain (Figure 23).97 Henry Hoifs use of the Beaux-Arts style on Corinthian Hall
emphasized an association with Gladstone Boulevard as a private drive by visually
linking it to The Colonnade, a semi-circular Beaux-Arts style music pavilion with a 63foot-long colonnaded pergola lined with benches.98 Hoit designed a similar colonnade for
the Long property and used domed roofs on Long's conservatory that resembled the
pergola (Figure 24).99
Janice Lee, A Legacy of Design: An Historical Survey of the Kansas City, Missouri, Parks and
Boulevards System, 1893-1940 (Kansas City: Kansas City Center for Design Education and Research in
cooperation with the Western Historical Manuscript Collection-Kansas City, 1995), 193.
96
Dave Smith, Jr., the son of the horse trainer, remembered, "[Mr. Long] went downtown to the R.
A. Long Building everyday. You could set your watch with him walking out on that porch every morning. I
would see him walk back and forth on the front porch." Smith also remembered, "Mr. Combs used to walk
from the Long Building to the Townhouse. It was three-and-a-half miles." See Linda Newcom Jones, The
Longview We Remember. [Independence, Missouri]: Storm Ridge Press, 1990, 181.
97
Bradley, Corinthian Hall, 12.
98
Plans indicate that Henry Wright designed The Colonnade in 1906, although other sources
credit John Van Brunt (not related to Henry Van Brunt). J. B. Neevel & Son constructed the edifice of
concrete reinforced with steel frames and faced with smooth limestone with a tiled gable roof for $26,744,
not including the cost for the retaining wall or steps. The fountain designed by Henry Wright in 1908 was
replaced with the John F. Kennedy Memorial fountain in 1965. See Lee, 48.r
The conservatory was a symmetrical building with small balconies on three sides with a glass
doorway with a large lunette window and paned glass walls. A glass dome rose from the flat roof and the
conservatory provided ferns and plants for the house and had a fishpond. See Jones, 179.
148
As an heir to the design philosophy of Richard Morris Hunt, practitioner and
founding father of the Beaux-Arts tradition in the United States, Hoit designed Corinthian
Hall as reminiscent of Hunt' s Marble House designed for William K. Vanderbilt in
Newport, Rhode Island, in 1888-1892 (Figure 25).100 Generally, the Beaux-Arts
architectural character was fashionable for stately hornes throughout the United States
during the early twentieth Century and both the Corinthian Hall and Marble House
referenced the Petit Trianon at Versailles as an antecedent. The massive influx of
European immigrants brought skilled artisans including Italian stonemasons, mosaicists,
and terra cotta workers who provided highly skilled labor, often at non-union wages, on
palaces such as Corinthian Hall. In 1924, Lewis Mumford criticized this style, calling it
the "Imperial Facade" because the style became associated with the social stratum of the
"millionaire" as America's new nobility, recalling Imperial Rome with all its attendant
miseries and exploitations.101 The imposing classicism of the exterior is similar to that of
the Frederick Vanderbilt mansion at Hyde Park, New York (1895-1899).102
During the winter months, it sheltered large ornamental trees in clay posts, which lined the sides
of the colonnade or pergola. See Bradley, Corinthian Hall, 19.
In 1963, the conservatory was altered to suit its use as a 50-seat planetarium of the Kansas City
Museum. The glass dome has been covered by metal with welded joints, and the glass panes in the window
bays have been replaced with stucco panels.
100
William K. Vanderbilt was the grandson of Commodore Cornelius Vanderbilt who established
the family's fortune in steamships and the New York Central Railroad. His older brother Cornelius II built
"The Breakers," which was another Beaux-Arts Newport mansion.
Lewis Mumford, Sticks and Stones: A Study of American Architecture and Civilization (New
York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1924), 56. Lewis Mumford criticized the Ecole des Beaux-Arts style in
Sticks and Stones (1924). In a chapter entitled "The Imperial Facade," Mumford was offended by the
imperial nature of the institutions within the building because it seemed to be based on and project an
image of Imperial Rome, the antithesis of his ideal of American society. He correlated the adoption of this
style with the closing of the frontier, growth of monopolies, and rise of a class of robber barons with
ambitions to become a new aristocracy. See David. P. Handlin, American Architecture. London: Thames
and Hudson, 1985, 136.
David P. Handlin points out, "Daniel Burnham and many of his contemporaries unabashedly made
comparisons between their buildings and those of Rome, but the imperial nature of their work was not
Design began 1907 in undiluted Beaux-Arts Classicism based on correct,
academic interpretations of classical examples in plan, elevation, and details, but as the
house design developed, fundamental changes in the structural partnership were made.
By spring 1908, Frank Howe's health was failing and he took the summer to tour Europe
with his family. His health did not improve and Howe passed away on 5 January 1909
leaving Henry F. Hoit as the sole heir to the firm.103 Hoit then promoted Edwin M. Price
who began working with the firm in 1905 and had returned to the office in 1908 after
completing his architectural training at MIT. Price's new position as designer and chief
draftsman gave him the responsibility of developing Hoifs preliminary sketches into
working drawings. Mitchell Giles wrote, "The fine results [of Corinthian Hall] were due
largely to his ability and application."104
Pale gray Carthage stone formed the base upon which rested walls of smooth
buff-colored Indiana limestone incised with finely cut lines to give the appearance of
rectangular ashlar stones laid in horizontal courses.105 The three-story symmetrical facade
unambiguous. Many of the most significant works of the classical revival were not paid for or promoted by
millionaires or large corporations, but by the local, state, or federal government, all of which presumably
acted in the nåme of the people." See Handlin, 144.
102
Leland Roth, A Monograph of the Work ofMcKim, Mead & White, 1879-1915, 4 volumes
(New York: Architectural Book Pub. Co., 1914-1920).
103
From 6 July to 7 October of 1908, Frank Howe toured Great Britain, Holland, Germany, and
France with his wife and daughter, Miss Dorothy Howe. On 5 January 1909, Howe died of heart disease
complicated by a disease of the liver in his home, 1707 Jefferson Street, at 7:30 p.m. (aged 59). He had
been ill since March or June 1908. He left his wife, Mrs. Mary Howe, two daughters, Miss Dorothy Howe
and Mrs. Katherine (Catherine?) Howe Munger, and three-year-old grandchild Nancy Munger. Burial was
at Mount Washington cemetery.
104
105
Mitchell, 132-133.
Carthage stone is a white, somewhat coarsely crystalline limestone quarried near Carthage in
southwest Missouri. Indiana limestone, also called Bedford or Salem limestone is formed of calcium
carbonate quarried in central Indiana between Bloomington and Bedford.
150
had a projecting two-story portico supported by four monolithic Indiana limestone
columns, each 25 feet high with a 2-Vi foot diameter though not fiuted like the columns at
the Petit Trianon.m The columns were of such extravagant cost that Hoit suggested an
alternative, but Long spared no expense insisting on their use.107 Behind the portico,
engaged Corinthian pilasters flanked a set of bronze doors in a French Renaissance style.
Typical of the Beaux-Arts method, fenestration differed on each story with largest
windows on ground level and smallest on the attic. The first floor windows extended
nearly from floor to ceiling, each topped with a large lunette window adorned with a
large keystone with a mascaron. The second floor vertical bipartite windows were framed
with a cut stone, projecting lintel supported by brackets. A stringcourse and decorative
quoins separated the first two stories from the third floor, which had smaller vertical
bipartite windows in an unadorned cut stone frame that alternated with decorative stone
panels (Figure 26). A balustrade separated the third floor from the low, red-tiled roof with
projecting circular attic windows, and detailed with bronze doors and copper
ornamentation, which now has a verdigris patina.
A one-story porte cochére and sunroom projected from the west and east facades
respectively, forming the outermost bays (Figure 27). The design for the porte cochére
entry was similar to the front portico but without columns. Additionally, a curved bronze
and wire glass canopy by the Kansas City Chandelier & Brass Manufacturing Company
The original landscaping included low shrubs along the fence, a pear tree, a few eim trees, and
flowerbeds in the front corners. Straight benches lined the Pergola. At Christmas the decorated house was
lit with floodlights and one year decorations included a live Nativity scene. See Jones, 177.
106
Mitchell, 133-134.
107
Bradley, Corinthian Hall, 21.
151
projected from the por te cochére to offer additional coverage for visitors arriving by
carriage.108 As with other high quality buildings of this era, Hoit used copper generously
for roof decks, scrollwork around bull's-eye windows, deck rails, consoles and brackets,
guttering, flashing, and downspouts.
Construction began on the main house in 1909, after the carriage-stable house was
complete and concurrently with the gatehouse for the horse trainer and his family.
Beneath the Carthage and Indiana limestone facade, Corinthian Hall rested on a
reinforced concrete foundation, while the interior was supported by a steel frame with
reinforced concrete exterior walls, with interior wall partitions of brick and terra cotta.
Lewis Mumford criticized this construction method, which aligns him with Louis
Sullivan in an argument that would continue throughout the twentieth century:109
Form and function, ornament and design, have no inherent relation, one
with the other, when the mood of the architect is merely playful: there is
no use in discussing the anatomy of architecture when its only aim is
fancy dress.110
The house contained more than 60 rooms on three main floors in addition to an
attic, basement, and accessible rooftop; it measured 105 x 65 feet with a wing to the
north, 41 x 50 feet (Figure 28).111 A Grand Hall and staircase along a north-south axis
Kansas City Chandelier & Brass Manufacturing Company installed "fixtures" on the residence.
I assume they installed the canopy since it is similar to others seen in on contemporary buildings in Kansas
City. See Barnes Collection, Job Cost Log, Box 9, folder c. 1905-c. 1910, and Job Cost Log, Box 9, folder
c. 1909-c. 1917, Western Historie Manuscripts Collection (WHMC-KC).
109
Louis Sullivan wrote: "That form ever follows function. This is the law" in his 1896 essay,
"The tall office building artistically considered." Frank Lloyd Wright adopted his mentor's sentiments.
Adolf Loos declared that ornament was a crime in his 1908 essay, "Ornament and Crime." In the early 20"1
century, "form follows function" became a mantra of Modernism.
110
111
Mumford, 58.
"Construction News: R. A. Long." The Western Contractor (January 1909), 1. The numbers of
rooms vary by source. I've easily counted 68, not including pantries, closets, and other miscellaneous
rooms. I've used the housekeeper's number of rooms in the text. See Jones, 177.
152
demonstrated a typical Beaux-Arts floor plan and the first floor contains lavishly
decorated public rooms including a library and salon to the west of the hall and to the
east, living and dining rooms, sun room, and breakfast room. The east lobby also
connected to a servant hallway, giving access to the elevator, kitchen and butlery, servant
hall and staircase in the rear of the house with a separate service porch (Figure 29).
Corinthian Hall used an ultra-fashionable mix of period rooms, principally
derived from French and English examples. The design work for the interior architectural
ornamentation, including the intricately carved ceilings, the wall panels, and ceiling
cornices, was executed by future partner Edwin Price.112 Hoit's choice of William
Baumgarten & Company of New York as decorator for all interior finishing in the periodstyled rooms underscores the prestige of the house—they earned their reputation in other
stately houses and their client list "read like a roll call of East Coast society's four
hundred."113 Decorating the house in period style rooms reflected the spirit of revivalism
of the early twentieth century and like the exterior, correctness was of the utmost
importance; American decorators never blended styles in period rooms—a classical vase
did not belong in a Tudor room and family portraits and mementos were confined to
112
113
Bradley, Corinthian Hall, 26.
Bradley, Corinthian Hall, 22-25. In 1910, Baumgartner & Company designed interiors for
Henry Huntington's palatial French Chateau in San Marino, California. In 1905 they decorated the
Neoclassical residence shore of Hubert T. Parsons, president of the Woolworth Company, called "Shadow
Lawn" on the New Jersey, which was so immense it was dubbed "the Versailles of America." They also
decorated Cornelius Vanderbilfs "The Breakers" in Newport, Rhode Island, and the two residences at East
82nd Street off Fifth Avenue in New York built for the Woolworth daughters.
In November 1910, Baumgartner & Company sent decorators to Kansas City for several weeks to
supervise the completion of the interior finish, decorations, and furnishings. The Longs wanted to move
into a house with everything in order: the linens stacked in closets and drawers, ferns in the sun parlor,
tapestries hung, and statues placed. The decorator commented "the original intention was to have
[Corinthian Hall] ready for occupancy by Thanksgiving, and we didn't miss it very much. There isn't a
berter built house in this country, and I say that after håving done work on the mansions of the Vanderbilts
and Astors and others." See Mitchell, 134, Barnes Collection, job cost logs (WHMC-KC), and Bradley,
Corinthian Hall, 22 and 30.
153
bedrooms and sitting rooms. Corinthian Hall did not contain a single piece of antique
furniture because Mr. Long thought that it was ridiculous to buy something old, "full of
worm holes," and "secondhand" when he could have finely made copies in good solid
wood (perhaps supplied from his own lumber company) that served the same purpose.114
This attitude contrasted with European practice, as James Allard, a fashionable Parisian
decorator, remarked:
.. .even in the grandest of Paris salons, decorated in the most sumptuous
Louis XIV style, one could see an old family clock or china bibelot of no
particular elegance placed in full view, or even a comfortable chair worn
from 50 years of use. Only in parvenu America was period-style
decoration tåken so seriously. 15
Through the bronze front doors, a vestibule of pink Skyros and Siena marble
greeted the visitor.116 The marble-floored 58 x 26 foot Grand Hall introduced visitors to
an opulent space decorated in a French Renaissance style (Figure 30). The walls
composed of light creamy-yellow Caen stone were set apart from the white Cippoliono
marble floors by a band of dark amber-colored Hauteville marble.117 Perhaps the house's
finest feature, Hoifs white Hauteville marble staircase, ascended under a wide, low arch,
a technique he used to give the great hall a mood of hospitality relating to the scale of the
Bradley, Corinthian Hall, 25.
115
Bradley, Corinthian Hall, 25. James Allard installed the Regency salon and a Louis XIV music
room in William K. Vanderbilt's Fifth Avenue mansion in 1879.
116
117
Millstein, 134.
Caen stone was a stone quarried in the northwestern French city of Caen. Crushed and quarried
in France and pressed into blocks in the United States, the stone has a fine-grained stucco appearance.
Hauteville stone is varied tones of pale yellow and beige limestone from quarries on the HautevilleLompnes plateau in France that takes on a very high polish and is often classified as a marble because it
responds well to all cutting methods and has high resistance to climatic and physical conditions.
A large bronze equestrian statue rested on the marble board in the center of the hall between a pair
of large tapestries that depicted Louis XIV on horseback with the Chateau Chambord, an archetype of
French Renaissance architecture, in the background. A crimson-red, thick, hand-tufted Austrian carpet
covered the floor and extended up the stairway.
154
room rather than overpowering or giving an air of aristocratic aloofness. Mitchell
noted that Hoit guarded against making the grand staircase too conspicuous:
The hall was made adequately large in scale and the grandeur of the
decorations of the entire room was carried out in such a manner that the
stairs became a proper part of a whole scheme. Each room was kept in its
proper importance.118
Edwin Price considered his bronze tracery in the balustrade, based on that in the Petit
Trianon, as one of his finest achievements (Figure 31). U9 The grand staircase has
similarities to that of the Herman and Theresa Oelichs house, "Rosecliff," in Newport,
Rhode Island (1897-1902) designed by McKim, Mead & White.
The stairs led to a landing punctuated by a large art glass window before
continuing to the second floor (Figure 32). Although Tiffany & Company had designed
the art glass at the Independence Boulevard Christian Church, Henry F. Hoit designed the
art glass on the mezzanine landing of the stairway. The design of the 12 x 15 foot
window mimicked the view of the architecture beyond: a short balustrade with four
Corinthian columns supporting a ceiling with vines entwining the columns. Hoit chose an
autumnal palette and followed Tiffany's technique of using opalescent glass with more
than one color present in the leaded panes. Tiffany glass had deep tones, texture, and an
iridescent quality that Hoifs window lacks; nevertheless, Hoit's lightly colored window
was demonstrative of his artistry and added luminosity to the interior marble space.
The console of the powerful pipe organ on the stair landing had a multi-room
amplification system of pipes so music could be heard throughout the house. Tapestries
concealed the grilles placed on the walls of the landing, which conveyed to grilles in floor
118
Mitchell, 133-134.
119
Millestien, 110 and Bradley, Corinthian Hall, 18.
155
of the hall on the first fioor for the basement and grilles in the second floor hall wall
for the second floor. In the ceiling over the stair landing and above the hanging
chandelier, a circular grille that resembled a large cartouche brought music to the third
The salon and library east of the grand hall were accessed by a small lobby that
led to the west stair hall with a gently curving set of stairs and a set of doors with art glass
windows that open to the porte cochére (Figure 33). The 35 x 22 foot salon or drawing
room featured a white Italian marble fireplace and mantel, ornate white plaster moldings.
Gold detailing decorated the ceiling and wall panels with mirrors in some of the panels,
and a large crystal and gilt chandelier crowned the room within the oval shape of the
delicately beaded plasterwork on the ceiling. French doors led to the terrace and porte
cochére on the south and west walls, but were rarely used.121 Baumgartner & Company
furnished the room in elaborate Louis XIV style.122 The warm and comfortable
Elizabethan-styled library was Mr. Long's private retreat where he read each morning,
surrounded by oak paneled walls, leaded glass bookshelves and windows, and a paneled
Mitchell, 134. Hayne Ellis, Jr., Long's grandson, remembered playing with the rolls on the
organ with his siblings: "We probably put the rolls in backwards and everything else! Every evening they
would play the organ for dinner. They put rolls in the organ and it sounded just like someone was playing.
We slid down the hand railings on the back stairways." See Jones, 209.
121
122
Jones, 178.
Baumgartner & Company furnished it with case-backed settees and chairs in gold and French
white enamel, a pair of chinoiserie commodes, objects d'art, marble statuary which Mr. & Mrs. Long had
selected in Paris and Vienna. Silk Rose de Barre window hangings bordered with cut velvet appliqué, and
curtains of Italian fillet lace covered the French doors. An oval Ausbusson rug covered the floor. It
originally displayed a Gobelin tapestry and a Savonnerie carpet on the floor. See Bradley, Corinthian Hall,
28 and Millestein, 111-112.
David Smith, Jr., son of the horse trainer who grew up in the house remembered, "the carpet on
the floor at the time matched the pattern on the ceiling and part of the pattern on the ceiling was done in
gold leaf. They had Russian Tuff rugs that had two-inch nap. You couldn't walk across them without
getting shocked and about jumping out of your skin." See Jones, 178.
156
ceiling with large wooden beams.123 The massive oak mantel that rose to the ceiling
above the fireplace was carved in New York after Henry Hoit's design.124
The main rooms east of the Grand Hall included the living room, sun parlor, and
breakfast room (Figure 34). The Francois Premier living room featured a ceiling with
mahogany beams and a Caen stone fireplace modeled on one at the Chateau Blois that
extended to the ceiling. The intricate mantel of the fireplace was a gift from two hundred
Sicilian stonemasons who helped build the fifty-one structures at Longview Farm
beginning in 1913.125 East of the living room, the sun parlor, casually decorated with
latticework, wicker furniture, and potted plants, had three three-paneled art glass
skylights and an entrance onto the eastern lawn.126 North of the living room, the Louis
XIV dining room demonstrated the decorator's level of commitment to the period room
R. A. Long to Dr. A. Sophian, 12 November 1927. Union Station collections, Kansas City
Museum.
124
Baumgarten & Company decorated it with tooled leather, velvet, and tapestry upholstered
furniture. Mr. Long personally selected the gilded bronze and onyx candelabra and clock resting on the
mantel, which won a grand prize at a Paris exposition at the turn of the century. Granddaughter Martha
Leland remembered, "The bookshelves were filled with beautiful books, many of them in editions over one
hundred years old. My grandfather was not a great reader; he couldn't be because as a child he had a severe
case of measles, which affected his eyesight. I can see him now, scanning the pages with a magnifying
glass, this room, as in so many of the rooms at Corinthian Hall, there was a favorite object of mine, a
beautiful carved shell. The shape of the shell looks like an ancient Roman helmet and the classical carving
depicts a Roman hero sitting with is lady in a chariot drawn by two prancing horses, their manes flowing,
surrounded by cupid and maidens holding wreaths. [Sic] The shell came from the island of Malagasy off
the coast of South Africa and were very popular in the late nineteenth century." See Bradley, Corinthian
Hall, 29.
125
Baumgarten & Company decorated the living room in slate blue and gold. The baseboards were
red marble. Blue damask on the walls was woven in a salamander and crown motif. According to Martha
Leland, this was Mrs. Long's favorite room. It contained a square tea table with glass panels that"... came
from Vienna and had won a grand prize at an exposition there. Each teacup was painted with a different
scene, some classical legend; a really exquisite tea service but rather heavy handed for modern taste. What
fascinated me was that you could lift up the glass panels and miraculously the tea service tray would rise up
and all would be in readiness to serve tea." See Bradley, Corinthian Hall, 29.
126
The sun parlor was decorated with green latticework on the walls, a bower of potted ferns, and
chintz-covered wicker furniture. Elsie de Wolfe, America's first female decorator, had introduced this
fashion for sun parlors with the dining room of the Colony Club in New York in 1907.
in all details: walls, ceilmg panels, chandelier, furniture, tapestries, curtains, overcurtains, and made-to-order flatware.127 The Kansas City Star described this room:
The dining room is exuberantly French, Louis XIV. There is no hint of
reaction here. Every device is engaged to increase the effect of solid
splendor. The design of the carpet, and the carved and gilded French nut
(fruitwood). A French interpretation of the Greek guilloche (an ornamental
band of interlaced curves) varied by clustered acanthus leaves shows
everywhere, now appearing in the frieze (on the cornice molding), now
fully developed, now merely hinted in a boarder where it makes
background for richer detail. It is carved in the furniture and woven into
the carpet; it is relegated to the shadow or picked out in gold.
[The oval table], a mere 21 by 35 feet, King Louis himself would have
been proud of his imprinting on the Longs' dining room near the
confluence of the Big Muddy and the Kaw at the edge of the Kansas
plains.128
The use of a "feminine" Louis XIV style was a somewhat uncommon choice for
dining rooms during this period, which were typically a "masculine" domain, often
decorated in dark colors, depicting scenes of the hunt, and equipped with austere heavy
furniture. Typically, the Louis XIV style was used in the drawing room, salon or areas
where ladies would retire after dinner. The rooms in the Corinthian Hall do not conform
rigidly to the masculine-feminine division of space typical of hornes of their class. The
male domain encompassed the hall, library, billiard, and smoking rooms, whereas the
Gold and soft green woven silk damask walls were accented by the green marble topped
sideboard and mantel. A large tapestry depicting a scene of Bacchanalian frivolity hung above the
sideboard: Pan played his pipes in a forest with couriers offering wine to a lady with two leopard guardians
at her feet hung. The 24 tapestry-upholstered chairs sat around the dining table. Green silk velvet curtains
adorned with Gobelin tapestry over-curtains hung on the windows. Even the sterling flatware was made to
order by Gorham in a pattern called Baronial, an exact reproduction of the Louis XIV style. The Tiffany
crystal chandelier in the dining room had 1,000 prisms. The chandelier had to be modified when it was
moved to Longview Farm. See Bradley, Corinthian Hall, 25-26 and Jones, 178.
128
The Kansas City Star article, reprinted in Bradley, Corinthian Hall, 26.
158
female domain included the music room, boudoir, morning room, and bedroom.129
North of the dining room, the Adamesque breakfast room featured a bowed window with
a delicate Adamesque art glass motif (Figure 35).130
Bedroom suites for the family and guests filled the second floor. In the back of the
house over the kitchen were sleeping quarters for at least three servants with a shared
bathroom.131 Mr. and Mrs. Long expected their younger unmarried daughter, Loula, to
reside with them.132 In 1905, their elder daughter, Sallie America, married Hayne Ellis, a
career naval officer and the couple relocated to Washington, D. C. Mr. Long gave Sallie
"Woodley," a landmark Federal-style house set within eighteen acres of beautifully
landscaped grounds.133 However, due to the nature of a naval officer's occupation, the
Juliet Kinchin, "Interiors: Nineteenth-Century Essays on the 'Masculine' and the 'Feminine'
Room." In The Gendered Object, edited by Pat Kirkham, 12-29 (New York: Manchester University Press,
1996.)
130
The china chosen for this room "marked an event in the china trade of this city and the West,"
according to a letter to Long from T. M. James and Sons dated 24 October 1910. He wanted to exhibit
Long's glassware and china made by Minton with differing patteras for a complete dinner, breakfast and
banquet service. The breakfast service consisted of 12 dozen place settings decorated with an Adamesque
design to match the style of the breakfast room. The number of settings in the other styles is not known,
however there were two dozen of each piece of flatware, from oyster forks to nut picks, 36 service pieces,
and two dozen game knives and two dozen game forks. There were meat and vegetable platters, sterling
tableware for coffee, chocolate, and tea services, eight candlesticks, a $1,575 salad bowl, a $1,500
centerpiece and a $225 bread tray. See Bradley, Corinthian Hall, 26.
131
The housekeeper occupied one of these rooms and used another room for a sewing room. See
Jones, 178.
132
Loula married Pryor Combs when she was 36 years old on June 30, 1917, with the condition
that she continued to live at home to raise and show horses. For an account of their wedding, see The
Kansas City Star, 1 July 1917. After they were married, Pryor joined the Army. When the war was over,
the couple moved to Longview farm in the summer of 1919. They loved it so much that they stayed
through the winter and never moved back to the city.
133
Prior to Ellis's occupancy, Woodley had been home to a series of residents that included two
presidents and some of the most eminent senators, cabinet officers, and generals of their respective eras.
Former resident President Grover Cleveland had extensively modernized the 1801 residence with
electricity and state-of-the art heating and plumbing systems. For detailed information on Woodley, see Al
Kilborne, Woodley andlts Residents, Images of America. Washington, D. C : Arcadia Publishing, 2008.
159
family expected frequent and lengthy visits from Sallie America and afforded her a
spacious suite in their plans where four of her five children were born.134
The bedroom suites were large with connecting sitting rooms, dressing room, and
private baths. Mr. Long's suite had a barber chair and a massage table next to his
room.135 He also had installed a special 4 x 5 foot shower with a showerhead and a pipe
with holes that went around the bather at shoulder height to rinse all sides
simultaneously, similar to that in his private bathroom in the R. A. Long Building.
Each of the bedrooms were decorated in a French style as exemplified by photographs of
Loula's suite in the mode of Marie Antoinette, although this style was incongruous with
Loula's outdoorsy, animal-loving personality (Figure 36).137
In addition to three guest rooms, there were seven rooms for servants, and 3-V4
bathrooms; the Ellis children's nursery on the third floor was shielded from the noisy
The Ellis children—Martha, Lamar, Robert, Hayne Jr., and Lucia—spent every Christmas of
their childhood and part of every summer with their grandparents at Corinthian Hall. See Bradley,
Corinthian Hall, 9-10. Lucia Ellis Uihlein said: "My brothers and I were all born in the blue room at my
grandparents' house in Kansas City." Hayne Ellis, Jr. recalled: "My mother always came back to the
Townhouse in Kansas City to have her babies. We had a lovely eighteen-acre home back in Washington, D.
C , 'Woodley.' We sold it in 1929." See Jones, 205 and 209.
135
Mr. Long had daily massages as part of his health regimen.
136
Jones, 178. "Grandfather had a barber shop and would get a shave in the morning and then
come home from the office in the afternoon and get a massage. Then he'd take a nap and go back to the
office. He had the most wonderful shower in the world with all these gadgets and pipes coming out and I
always used to want to take a show in there. But that was off limits. It had water coming out this way and
that, it was fantastic!" See Jones, 210.
137
Loula's natural domain was the stable and she kept many pets, especially dogs. At one time,
much to her mother's chagrin, she kept a pet monkey in her bedroom. Martha related, "Grandmother [Mrs.
Long] made Auntie [Loula] toe the line when it came to the Townhouse. Grandmother did not permit dogs
in the house. Aunt Lou would smuggle them in all the time. She always had a couple in her suite. She
always had them in the sitting room and then when Grandmother would come around, Auntie would put the
dogs in the bathroom. We never snitched on her!" See Jones, 215.
Loula's niece Martha Leland remembered walking into the room and "finding the cut glass and
silver powder and perfume jars on the dressing table in complete disarray, and the monkey, his face, arms
and legs covered with powder, jumping up and down on the bed, amidst the satin swags of its half canopy."
See Bradley, Corinthian Hall, 29.
160
kitchen and adult activities two floors below. The horse-trainer's son, Dave Smith,
Jr., recalled, "Our playroom was in the attic, which is on the way to the roof from the
third floor, and it had a slide."138 A spiral staircase accessed the roof, where, as Dave
Smith, Jr., remembers, "the view of Kansas City [was] beautiful from up there. It was
great to go up there in the summer at night, it was so cool."139 The Longs loved håving all
the grandchildren in the house and since they were close in age to Dave Smith's five
children, they regularly played together in the house: hide and seek, teasing each other, or
just dragging their feet across the long rugs and shocking each other with touch. When
the children left, the Longs missed them greatly. In a letter to Martha, dated 10 January
1917, Mr. Long wrote:
... For certainly it seemed awfully lonesome without you all... I will not
say anything about myself, only to tell you I have not had a real good hug
since you left. I believe I miss your coming down to the breakfast table
more than at any other period. I may conclude to go out to the orphan's
home and get a lot of little boys and girls, but I feel they would not fill
your places and so I guess we will wait until your daddy's time has
expired in Washington, and then we will send him off somewhere and
bring the rest of you home.140
Mrs. Ella Long was responsible for managing an exceptionally large household of
at least 25 servants to the standards of her husband who was devoted to formality and
punctuality. Because of their popular reputation for cleanliness and diligent work habits,
she hired predominately Swiss, Danish, and Swedish servants.141 In 1980, Martha Ellis
"Jones, 178.
9
Jones, 178.
0
Bradley, Corinthian Hall, 31.
1
Bradley, Corinthian Hall, 10.
161
Leland recalled with a great deal of affection a very friendly feeling among the
Corinthian Hall employees.142
In additional to the typical service rooms, such as the laundry, drying room, coal,
and general storage rooms, the basement of the Corinthian Hall boasted a detailed billiard
room and a bowling alley that ran the length of the house. The billiard room, decorated in
a strong English manor-house style character, demonstrated the usual décor of a
"masculine" retiring room with a black walnut beam ceiling and massive intricately
carved fireplace.143 Additionally, Corinthian Hall had, the most modern conveniences
like electricity with the switchboard on marble slabs in the basement, the first Otis
elevator lift of commercial size installed in a private residence west of the Mississippi,
and running water.144 Hoit devised a soft water system for the laundry room that used
natural rainfall. Dave Smith, Jr., remarked:
The Mansion had a central vacuuming systems and each room had an
outlet. That was really something for 1910! The electric water heater had a
jillion coils that heated the water as it passed through so there was
constant hot water. The three furnaces for the Stable, Mansion, our
Greenhouse were in the Stable basement. The Stable basement would also
hold one-hundred-ten tons of coal. All the phone and electrical wiring ran
underground from the garage, down the street a block, and up to the
Mansion. The Long's had electric lights on the gate and city streetlights
She remembered, "Louis Hanson, the chauffeur, and his nice Danish wife, Ingebord, and three
of his very pretty sisters, the eldest of whom was my nurse. We had several household romances. Walter,
the butler, and great favorite of mine, courted and married Sophie, the cook. Paul Ellenberger married my
grandmother's personal maid, Mathilda. The staff included two housemen one of whom served as a fulltime plumber as there was always something going wrong in the house. Mr. Jarret, who was the head
gardener, and his family would walk up from their house next to the garage on Indiana. His two helpers
came along too, of course. The Dave Smiths and their five children were always included [at Christmas
morning celebrations] and Johnny Haffey, his assistant with his bright Irish smile." See Bradley,
Corinthian Hall, 28.
143
Jones, 178 and Bradely, Corinthian Hall, 25.
144
Bradley, Corinthian Hall, 22 and Jones, 177.
were gas. The guttering ran down the inside of the Mansion until it froze and
broke one year.145
In addition to the main residence, the building program included a large building
serving as a stable and carriage house, a gate lodge residence, a conservatory, a
greenhouse, a gardener's tool shed, a long colonnaded pergola with service and carriage
drives, and a paddock area for the horses (Figure 37). In keeping with the Beaux-Arts
tradition regarding circulation, relationship, and proportions, Hoit aligned the main
entrances of the house, entrances of the carriage-stable house, and the pergola
symmetrically along a north-south axis terminating at pedestrian gates. An east-west
drive accessed Walrond and Indiana Avenues and divided the site horizontally with a
traffic circle centered in the rectangular block with the main house situated on the south
and auxiliary buildings on the north. A semi-circular drive led from the west entrance to
the porte cochére on the main house and continued to the carriage house, connected to
the service entrance off Indiana Avenue. The buildings follow a proportional symmetry
on the site: the width of the main residence matches the width of the stable-carriage
house and the east-west portion of the pergola. The distance from the south door of the
stable-carriage house to the north end of the pergola was almost equal in length. The plan
resembles that of the John T. Pratt House in Glen Cove, New York (1909-1911).146 To
unify the auxiliary buildings with the main house, Hoit used the same materials and highquality workmanship, but with more austere detailing and materials.
H>
146
Jones, 178.
Royal Cortissoz, Monograph of the Work of Charles A[dam] Platt, New York: Architectural
Book Pub. Company, 1913.
163
A seven-foot wrought iron fence on a Carthage stone base enclosed the
property accented by large planters. These rested on cut-stone pedestals at 30-foot
intervals adding color to the property with flowers supplied by the greenhouse (Figure
38). Five pairs of finely crafted wrought iron gates with elaborate tracery flanked by huge
copper lanterns mounted on limestone plinths allowed entry to the site's drives and
pedestrian walks. Although the front gate gave the house a formal and imposing look, it
was rarely used.147 Mr. and Mrs. Long had the car pick them up at the porte cochére; this
vehicle was stored in a garage on Indiana and Windsor, which also served as a residence
for several more servants and had a generating plant for the entire complex in the
basement (Figure 39).148
R. A. Long admired fine horses (perhaps another legacy from Kentucky) and
Loula was an accomplished equestrienne, so for a family of avid horse collectors the
stable was a higher priority than the house and therefore it was the first building
constructed, with the blueprints dated August 1907 (Figure 40).149 As a tribute to Loula,
the weather vane on the east side cupola was of a woman driving a carriage.150 The stateof-the-art stable had steam-heat, electricity, and hot and cold running water. Hoit covered
Mrs. Combs used the entrance near the stable. See Jones, 176.
148
The generator supplied electricity for the Utilities of the garage as well as buildings on the site
of the main residence. Electrical wires ran underground from the here to the basement of Corinthian Hall to
so they would not mar the beauty of the residence. Behind the garage, a large track was used for training
and exercising show horses. The garage, completed before the main residence, is now a multi-family
residence.
149
At two years old, Loula began riding horses. She won her first competition in 1902 in the
saddle horse class. In 1913, Dave Smith and Loula Long won their first blue ribbon with four harness
horses in Omaha. Loula Long Combs became a great horse woman and was named America's First Lady of
the show ring. Her nåme is engraved in the Madison Square Garden Hall of Fåme. For a summary of her
career see Helen Markel, "Legendary Loula: Loula Long Combs, Great Lady of the Horse Shows, Has
Known Few Peers in Her 62 Years as a Horsewoman and Trainer of Hackneys." Sports Illustrated, 12
November 1956.
150
The weather vane was moved to the Show Horse Barn at Longview Farm. See Jones, 180.
164
radiators with bronze grilles, used elaborate copper scrollwork to frame windows, and
solid brass finials and wrought iron grills to decorate stall partitions and sliding doors.
The stable-carriage house sheltered ten horses, five grooms, a hayloft, and up to
ten horse-drawn carriages. A center hall divided the building into two parts with the
stable to the east and carriage house to the west. Off the main hall, the stable had a 15 x
18-foot wood-paneled harness and tack room with built-in shelves to hold equestrian
accoutrement and to exhibit Loula's extensive ribbons and trophies.152 The one-story
stable had ten 10 x 10.8 foot box stalls each with a window for cross ventilation and tiestalls on either side of the central aisle. The stable had pine-paneled wainscoting and a
concrete floor with a textured finish to give hoofs easier purchase. The center hall had
double sliding doors leading from the circle drive into a white-tiled 18x19 foot
washroom for cleaning carriages, with storage and similar sliding doors on the west to
allow carriages to enter the two-story 40 x 121 foot carriage house. Above the wash rack,
a pulley elevator lifted the carriages to the storage loft. The second story had living
quarters for five stable boys and a feed-grinding room on the west and a hayloft on the
east.153 In the center, the boys shared a sitting room, which opened onto a balcony on the
south facade, and a bathroom with a shower. Each bedroom had two closets: one for the
boy's horse clothes, "and one for good clothes so they wouldn't smell horsey."154
151
Bradley, Corinthian Hall, 14.
152
The Kansas City Museum collection includes more than 1,500 of Loula's ribbons and trophies,
which were so abundant, former employees remember stashing them under staircases, in lofts over the barn
and Blacksmith's shop and piled everywhere at the Show Horse Barn at Longview Farm, and in other
outlaying places: "They had trophies like we have McDonald throw-away cups! There were steamer trunks
full and I'm not exaggerating... hundreds of them." See Jones, 228.
153
Dave Smith insisted on grinding all the feed, even the oats. See Jones, 180.
154
Jones, 180.
Robert A. Long never denied Loula any of her requests for berter competition
horses, and hence their stable was inadequate for the expanding collection of saddle-bred
and harness horses even before its completion in 1909. By this time, plans for a larger
state-of-the-art stable for show horses was already underway for Longview Farm,
finished in 1915 (Figure 41).155 Longview also had an arena for training and practicing,
clubhouse and bandstand for holding shows, and a separate stable for saddle horses.
In 1907, the Longs hired Dave Smith, a harness horse trainer from Edinburgh,
who soon returned to Scotland. Dave Smith, Jr., remembered that his father said:
.. .He wasn't coming back [to the U. S.]. Mr. Long said, 'You'll come
back... I'm going to build you a home... He built the stable and my dad's
house before he built their own home. When my dad came back [in 1910],
that house was practically built.156
The Smith family lived in the two-story Gate House, which had a living room,
dining room, kitchen, three bedrooms and, reportedly, wall 13 inches thick (Figure 42).
The paddock was the Smith's backyard near the potting shed south of the greenhouse.157
The T-shaped pergola connected the conservatory and greenhouse with the stablecarriage house.158
Longview Farms show horse stable now serves as Longview Elementary School today.
156
Jones, 175.
157
Dave Smith trained Loula's horses for fifty years and his children grew up at Corinthian Hall.
In 1937, Mrs. Smith built the breakfast room and covered the front porch. Long's granddaughter Martha
Leland remembered the routine that would follow the exercise and training of the horses: the grooms
washed and curried them, paying particular attention to their legs. A stable boy would take them outside to
the paddock and walk them up and down until they were completely dry. The paddock had four brick bins
for leaves, manure, and compost. See Jones, 175 and 180.
158
The greenhouse with separate potting shed and workroom supplied flowers for the main house
and grounds: geraniums and trailing ivy in the summer, purple and white petunias in the spring, and bronze
and yellow chrysanthemums in autumn. When hail ruined the greenhouse, it was replaced with a patio
covered with a pergola. After an electrical fire, the potting shed was rebuilt with red shingles rather than
red tile. See Jones, 179 and Bradley, Corinthian Hall, 22. The wisteria planted around the pergola a century
ago has grown into a robust flowering vine that today beautifully shelters the walkway beneath it.
166
Longview Farm, begun 1913
Beginning in 1912, R. A. Long purchased a total of 1,780 acres of rolling
farmland, encompassing 12 smaller farms, 18 miles south of downtown Kansas City,
today in Lee's Summit, Missouri (Figure 43).159 Many former employees report that
Longview had been built as a country retreat for Mr. Long, but reportedly, he never
stayed a night at Longview Farm, preferring to be near his office at Corinthian Hall.160
Longview may have been a combination business venture (dairy) and indulgence in his
daughter's passion—giving her ample space to collect, breed, and train prize horses since
their collection had outgrown the city stable and had been moved to the farm in 1915.
This motive was verified in a series of letters from Mr. Long to his daughters where Long
wanted to seil the farm because it failed to ever make money, but Loula, deeply disturbed
by the thought of losing her beloved farm, refused even though seiling it and establishing
another home would have been in her economic best interest.162
Mr. Combs, Long's son-in-law, reported that Long sat down and drew out plans
for Longview Farm on paper.163 To realize Long's sketches, Henry F. Hoit worked with
landscape architect George E. Kessler, with whom he would development of the city of
Anna B. Scherer remembered: "Mr. Long was trying to buy a section of land and Papa turned
down $375 an acre because he had farmsteaded [sic] it. Mr. Jones, your next door neighbor, refused to seil,
too. So, Mr. Long bought the twelve farms across the road for a total of 1,780 acres. He had possession of
all of it by 1913. See Jones, 231.
"R. A. Long started buying land for Longview Farm in 1913 and completed it in 1917. It was built
as a country retreat, a showplace for a dairy herd and then the stable was built." See Jones, 75.
160
See Jones, 82 and 181.
161
Jones, 2, 93, and 181.
162
R. A. Long to Sallie America (Long) Ellis, 30 August 1930, Union Station Collections, Kansas
City Museum, Kansas City, Missouri.
163
Jones, 247.
167
Longview, Washington (discussed later). Henry F. Hoit began the farm's design in
1912 and the 40 diverse buildings were constructed over the course of 18 months in
1913-1915 including machinery sheds, hog barns, stables, and residences, among others.
Kessler and Hoit unified the complex with formal and informal elements on the building
and in the landscape. Gravel roads followed the contour of the terrain and connected the
buildings. Two rows of eim trees and electric lights lined a formal 60-foot-wide road that
lead past the stucco and red tile entrance gate. Formal gardens, fountains, lily ponds,
decorative wells, a 20-acre lake, and a pre-cast concrete classical style pergola finished
the landscape. The self-sufficient farm functioned like a self-contained city.164 Longview
Farm had its own power plant, electricity, water supplied from the lakes, gas, and its own
telephone system.
As with the buildings at Corinthian Hall, Hoit unified the buildings at Longview
Farm with red tile roofs, stucco exterior walls, and beam construction. The Big House,
occupied by Loula and her husband Pryor Combs, was approached via a 900-foot long
driveway (Figures 44 and 45). Robert A. Long's Longview Farm was a notable
gentleman's farm among others of the gentry-class, such as the DuPonts' Winterthur
The farm was the home of prize-winning horses, cattle, and hogs, which won thousands of blue
ribbons and silver cups. Designed as a self-sustaining community, it had cottages for families of farmhands,
boarding houses for single workmen, a nondenominational chapel with a schoolhouse tacked on the back,
carpenter and blacksmith shops, a garage powerhouse to store the seven family vehicles and supply
electricity for the entire farm, and massive silos and barns. Greenhouses were heated with an independent
steam system. The farm pumped and filtered its own water and even the livestock drank only treated water.
The huge stables had extra-heavy beams, sturdy stalls, and wooden-block floors lined with carpet to protect
the feet of the hackney ponies from the hard concrete floor. The half-mile racetrack with a grandstand and
clubhouse that could accommodate 1,000 people was near the man-made lake with an Italian-style pergola
used for lakeside parties. Perpendicular to the rows of stalls in the harness horse stables is the covered
tanbark arena, an exercise area for the horses. See Bruce Spence, "Famous for Beauty: Farm's Fate Lies
with Lake" originally printed in The Kansas City Star, [ca. 1980] in R. A. Long Historical Society
[Website]. (Lee's Summit, Missouri: R. A. Long Historical Society, accessed 2 February 2009); available
from http://www.ralonghistoricalsociety.org/; Internet.
168
Farm built the same year and Louis Comfort Tiffany's farm group at Oyster Bay,
Long Island. Longview Farm was described as a "paradigm of agrarian excellence."165
Corinthian Hall was a monument to the success of a man who wanted to make
something of himself. Its impressive size and use of columns perhaps reminded the man
of the plantations he road by as a farm boy in Kentucky. Certainly, the accommodation of
such a fine house demonstrated his success as did his country house at Longview Farm
dedicated to a another Kentucky status symbol: the fine thoroughbred horse. Corinthian
Hall, a palatial mansion in the tradition of Beaux-Arts Classicism, also marked his
position among the industry-aristocrats of the era.166
165
Millestein, 144.
166
See Appendix for history of Corinthian Hall after the death of R. A. Long.
Figure 19. Henry F. Hoit, Corinthian Hall, 1907-1909. (Photograph by author, 2009.)
t ^ M ^ ^
Figure 20. Henry F. Hoit, Corinthian Hall's view from Scarritt point. (Photograph by
author, 2009.)
170
frntranceto Cliff Drive
Colonnade
- Independence Bouldevard
Christian Church
Figure 21. Map of Gladstone Boulevard. (Google Maps modified by author, 2009)
Figure 22. Gladstone Boulevard looking north from Thompson Avenue, c. 1920, left, and
The Colonnade, 1910, right. (Reprinted from Janice Lee, A Legacy of Design. Kansas
City: Kansas City Center for Design Education and Research in cooperation with
WHMC-KC, 1995, 193 and 47.)
Figure 23. Park district map showing North Terrace Park, 1915. (Reprinted from Janice
Lee, A Legacy of Design. Kansas City: Kansas City Center for Design Education and
Research in cooperation with WHMC-KC, 1995, 193.)
Figure 24. Henry F. Hoit, Corinthian Hall's pergola and conservatory. (LongMansion
Photograph Collection, PC12.4 and PC12.9, Kansas City Museum and Union Station.)
k
&?**%
\,-**
i?
mr
f
!t
•i
i.
'Xé&fiV.
[i W
Figure 25. Richard M orris Hunt, "Marble House," residence for William K. Vanderbilt
1888-1892. (Reprinted from, Paul R. Baker, Richard Morris Hunt, Cambridge: MIT
Press, 1980, Figure 94.)
172
<f%k
Figure 26. Henry F. Hoit, Corinthian Hall, cornice detail. (Photograph by author, 2009.)
Figure 27. Henry F. Hoit, Corinthian Hall, main facade and view from southwest corner.
(Reprinted from Cydney Millstein and Carol Grove. Houses of Missouri, 1870-1940,
New York: Acanthus Press, 2008, 109 and 110.)
First Floor
Second Floor
P 1U
Basement
Attic
Figure 28. Henry F. Hoit, Corinthian Hall, floor plans. (Drawingby author, 2009.)
174
Figure 29. Henry F. Hoit, Corinthian Hall, facade viewed from the northeast. (Photograph
by author, 2009).
Figure 30. Henry F. Hoit, Corinthian Hall, Grand Hall. (LongMansion Photograph
Collection, PC12.30, Kansas City Museum and Union Station.)
175
Figure 31. Henry F. Hoit, Corinthian Hall, detail of the bronze tracery in the balustrade of
the stairway in the Great Hall. (Reprinted from Lenore K. Bradley, Corinthian Hall.
Kansas City: The Kansas City Museum, 1999, 17).
Figure 32. Henry F. Hoit, Corinthian Hall, art glass window from the top of the grand
stairway and art glass window detail. (Reprinted from Lenore K. Bradley, Corinthian
Hall. Kansas City: The Kansas City Museum, 1999, 21 andphotographby author,
2009.)
Figure 33. Henry F. Hoit, Corinthian Hall, Salon and fireplace in the Library. (Reprinted
from Lenore K. Bradley, Corinthian Hall. Kansas City: The Kansas City Museum, 1999,
25 and 29.)
Figure 34. Henry F. Hoit, Corinthian Hall, (clockwise) Sun, Living, Breakfast, and Dining
rooms. (LongMansion Photograph Collection, PC12.23, PC12.10, PC12.51, and
PC12.35, Kansas City Museum and Union Station.)
Figure 35. Henry F. Hoit, Corinthian Hall, Breakfast Room window. (Photograph by
author, 2009).
«
Figure 36. Henry F. Hoit, Corinthian Hall, Loula Long's bedroom. (LongMansion
Photograph Collection, PC12.39, Kansas City Museum and Union Station.)
UOS^OtfT-
R...
:^^3éi
~iai
I,
•HN.
ir-' /
H H#""
, J-T; . -ir"«i , , „ . - J "
*-l«f-
•
*•
A
*
-'•"-•• •
•••• ' • "
t •] ^
Figure 37. Henry F. Hoit, Corinthian Hall, site plan. (Reprinted from Cydney Millstein
and Carol Grove. Houses of Missouri, 1870-1940, New York: Acanthus Press, 2008,
115.)
Figure 38. Henry F. Hoit, Corinthian Hall, south entrance gate and lantern. (Photograph
by author, 2009.)
Figure 39. Pierce Arrow limousine and chauffeur in front of Long's garage before 1914,
205-211 Indiana Avenue. (Reprinted from Lenore K. Bradley, Corinthian Hall. Kansas
City: The Kansas City Museum, 1999, 11).
Figure 40. Henry F. Hoit, Corinthian Hall, Stable-Carriage House. (LongMansion
Photograph Collection, PC 12.2, Kansas City Museum and Union Station.)
Figure 41. Henry F. Hoit, Longview Farm, show barn. (Reprinted fromCydney Millstein
and Carol Grove. Houses of Missouri, 1870-1940. New York: Acanthus Press, 2008,
150.)
181
Figure 42. Henry F. Hoit, Corinthian Hall, Gate House with tile room and Potting Shed in
foreground. Stable to the right. (Photograph by author, 2009).
Figure 43. Henry F. Hoit, Longview Farm, original site plan. (Reprinted from Cydney
Millstein and Carol Grove. Houses of Missouri, 1870-1940. New York: Acanthus Press,
2008, 151.)
" **J%*ew-
Figure 44. Henry F. Hoit, Big House at Longview Farm front facade. (Reprinted from
Linda Newcom Jones, The Longview We Remember. [Independence, Missouri]: Storm
Ridge Press, 1990,296.)
^JtUMt^U.
I -I
T l JJH14»-«JM-1J|I T
i 11
Figure 45. Henry F. Hoit, Big House at Longview Farm, rear facade. (Reprinted from
Cydney Millstein and Carol Grove. Houses of Missouri, 1870-1940. New York:
Acanthus Press, 2008, 144.)
183
CHRISTIAN CHURCH HOSPITAL. 1911
-1926
Henry F. Hoifs Christian Church Hospital, a charitable commission from R. A.
Long, used a similar Beaux Arts style recalling the Independence Boulevard Christian
Church and Corinthian Hall (Figure 1). Although Long had gained extraordinary wealth
during his lifetime, he was not oblivious to the plight of average citizens. The elegant and
ambitious R. A. Long Building downtown sat atop a bluff occupied at the same time by
shanties of the city's poorest residents (Figure 2).
With a ballooning population in the city, problems of unhealthy living conditions
were not limited to the city's poor. In a portion entitled "Some Existing Evils in Kansas
City Housing," the Board of Public Welfare's Report on Housing Conditions in Kansas
City, Missouri (1912) described:
The most evident evil in connection with our city's housing is the privy
vault... In the Penn Valley district, inhabited by working men and their
families—substantial, every-day, you and I kind of people - there are
1,179 dwellings... only 17.11 percent of the total toilet facilities are
modern. ... Sanitary science is agreed that typhoid fever is bound up
with the presences of vaults. The common housefly does damage.
Wallowing on the top of decaying fecal matter, the fly begins its journey
to the screen door of the house near or far. Your neighbor's flies are not
1 fil
concerned with confining their visits to your neighbor's hours.
Overcrowding, poor living conditions, and exposed sewage (in neighborhoods with
outhouses and facilities that dumped into open streams) spread disease and thus increased
demand for medical treatment facilities. In the late nineteenth century, hospitals, which
suffered a bad reputation as "pest houses," rarely had formal constructions, but instead
James L. Soward, Hospital Hill: An Illustrated Account of Public Healthcare Institutions in
Kansas City, Missouri (Kansas City: Truman Medical Center Charitable Foundation, 1995), 48.
184
occupied remote quarantine buildings, tents, and even a docked boat.168 The hospital
began to shed this reputation and with the real estate bust of the 1890s, charity groups
began to open care facilities in houses in respectable neighborhoods.169
Beginning in 1891, the basement of City Hall served as an emergency hospital,
and was overrun with patients during the flood of 1903. As victims spilled into a
temporary shelter in the (then new) Convention Hall, the city began plans for a city
hospital. The resulting General Hospital (1908) was a massive building with towers and
Gothicizing architectural details (Figure 3).170 In only three years, however, the General
Hospital reached its capacity and again the city's health care services were insufficient
for the growing population.171
In 1911, R. A. Long donated $400,000 to build a new hospital with one-third of
the beds to be used by charity patients.172 Mr. Long directed Henry Hoit to draw up plans
for a number of church buildings for 38 acres of land he purchased for $95,000 between
16S
Soward, Chapter 1.
169
In planning for the 1916 opening, hospital officials seriously considered calling it a sanatorium
because of the stigma associated with the word hospital. See Soward, 62.
170
In 1903, voters approved a $225,000 bond issue for a new municipal hospital. Colonel Thomas
H. Swope donated 4.5 acres of land. Architect Frederick C. Gunn won the commission. Construction of the
General Hospital began in 1905 and was completed in 1908. When completed it cost $481,437. The city
used general revenue fonds to make up the difference. Treatment was free to the poor. However, when
hospital officials moved patients from the Old City Hospital to the new building in 1908, they left black
and Hispanic patients behind to create a segregated city hospital for the first time. White physicians
remained to treat non-white patients. The medical staff included four black physicians, including Dr.
Unthank who convinced authorities to use Old City Hospital as a training school for black physicians and
nurses. Old City Hospital became the first hospital professionally managed by African-Americans in the
country. See Soward 30, 36, and 43-44.
171
172
Soward, 61.
Initially, he offered $200,000 with the stipulation that local church members raise an additional
$150,000 to create an endowment fund to insure that charity patients would use one-third of the beds.
According a report by Mrs. Sam Millard, the congregation raised $560,000. See Bushnell, Michael.
"Long's 'Gifts': Christian Church Hospital," in R. A. Long Historical Society [Website] (Lee's Summit,
Missouri: R. A. Long Historical Society, accessed 2 February 2009), available from
http://www.ralonghistoricalsociety.org/; Internet and Mrs. Sam Ray, The Kansas City Star, 18 September
1971 and Soward, 60.
Hardesty and Brighton between 17 to 20 Streets. The Christian Church Hospital
was not Henry Hoifs first hospital. He designed a combination medical and barracks
building for St. Mary's Hospital in Kansas City (1907-1909), St. Francis Hospital in
Topeka (1908), the National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers in Leavenworth
(1908), and remodeled Saint John's Hospital (1910). Moreover, after the Christian
Church Hospital was under way, Hoit designed additions for Saint Luke's Hospital
(1913) and the culturally significant Wheatley-Provident Hospital (1925).173
Mr. Long hoped to make Kansas City the national center of the Christian
(Disciples of Christ) Church.174 In consequence, Long and Hoit envisioned the Christian
Church Hospital as a major complex with multiple buildings serving a variety of the
church's charitable purposes. The plan had ancillary buildings arranged around an open
court connected to the Administration Building in the front and center by walkways
(Figure 4). This arrangement looked back to historical precedents set nearly 150 years
earlier, as in Bernard Poyefs plan for La Roquette Hospital near Paris, published in 1787
(Figure 5). Separate pavilions reduced the risk of infection and the loggia allowed
patients and staff to travel to each building under cover. The innovation of Hoifs design
was linking the pavilions by a multi-storied open loggia adding convenience for the staff
and maximizing accessibility to open air for the patients. Physicians were prescribing
fresh air for tuberculosis patients, and sanatoria across the globe adapted to provide fresh-
Wheatley-Provident Hospital was the only hospital in the United States entirely owned and
operated by African-American. See Appendix for discussion.
174
Mrs. Sam [Mildred] Ray, The Kansas City Star, 18 September 1971.
186
air recuperative environments such as open windows and sleeping porches for
patients.175 When describing the General Hospital in 1909, the Kansas City Star
described another benefit of its ten sun parlors where convalescents could "find relief
from the melancholy 'atmosphere' of various wards."176 A notable difference between the
design of Hoifs hospital complex and its antecedents, such as Stonehouse Hospital
(Figure 6), was the lack of an obvious chapel at its center; instead, the complex centered
on the Administration Building.
Long surrendered the original site of the Christian Church Hospital complex to
the school district and purchased a smaller site at 27* Street and The Paseo for the
hospital.177 The 1914 Renaissance revival styled Administration Building facing west at
2625 The Paseo Boulevard was the first building completed (Figure 7). The entrance of
the symmetrical building was beneath a shallow balcony supported by four heavy
brackets (Figure 8). Above this balcony rose four Corinthian columns capped by a
prominent cornice; above this, a fifth floor formed an attic with three windows and
decorative panels topped by a shallow undecorated pediment.
For a detailed history of outdoor sleeping and its connection to health, see Charlie Hailey,
"From Sleeping Porch to Sleeping Machine: Inverting Traditions of Fresh Air in North America."
Traditional Dwellings and Settlements Review: Journal of the International Association for the Study of
Traditional Environments 20, no. 2 (2009): 27-44.
176
Soward 43-44.
177
East High School (formerly called Northeast High School) is located at 415 Van Brunt
Boulevard. Charles Smith (1866-1948) was the official architect for the Kansas City, Missouri Board of
Education and designed Northeast High School in 1914 and more than 50 schools for the Kansas City
School District during his career that spanned 1887 to 1948. From 1910 to 1921, he was a principal in the
firm Smith, Rea, and Lovitt.
187
The Administration Building had beds for 116 patients in rooms arranged off
a north-south corridor giving each room at least one window (Figure 9 ) . m The north end
of the basement had rooms for examination, autopsy, drug storage, and detention as well
as rooms for linen and general storage. The south end had a general kitchen, nurses
dining room, maids dining room, and a diet kitchen, a room where nurses prepared
specific dishes suited to the patients' needs as if preparing medicine. The first floor of the
Administration Building included rooms for offices, reception, examining patients,
toilets, a boardroom, x-ray room and laboratory, and two bedrooms for superintendents
and two for doctors. The boardroom was opposite the main entrance.
Charity patients occupied the second floor with women on the south and men on
the north.179 Officials placed patients near death in "quiet rooms" at the far north and
south ends. Multiple patients needing the same care were place in wards with shared
toilet rooms. Wards separated the quiet rooms from private rooms with adjoining private
toilets occupied by paying patients. The second floor also had its own "service kitchen."
The fourth floor had specialized rooms for surgery: rooms for scrubbing, anesthetizing,
and operating, as well as laboratories. The operating rooms on the north wing had
skylights. The fifth floor was largely for fresh air treatment with two large roof gardens
and sun parlors. A children's ward and an orthopedic ward were also located on the fifth
floor furthest from the quiet rooms.
A sheet with the drawings dated 26 August 1915 counted the bed at 116. However, a 1971
estimated 150 beds. See Mrs. Sam Ray, The Kansas City Star, 18 September 1971. [I assume that Hoifs
116 bed estimate was immediately expanded because of need.]
179
Soward, 60.
188
Although the new site at 27th Street and The Paseo restricted the originally
proposed complex, Hoit still attempted to create a symmetrical campus (Figure 10).
Additional wings, each with two pavilions, were planned north and south of the
Administration Building and an additional pavilion to the east. This plan incorporated the
1914 power plant with laundry facilities on the northeast (Figure 11). This plan located a
Nurses Home across the street, but 1913 surveys completed in preparation for this
building did not include any buildings on this block (Figure 12).
Corresponding to a growing need to accommodate patients, lodging for nurses
was increasingly congested as illustrated by this photograph of the attic dormitory of Old
City Hospital, tåken before the new hospital opened in 1909 (Figure 13). These nurses
appear to be sleeping two to three per bed. Completed in 1917, the Nurses Home of the
Christian Church Hospital located at 1414 27th Street provided much needed
accommodation for nurses with 47 rooms (Figure 14). Perhaps due to the war effort, the
facade for the Nurses Home was remarkably more austere, lacking a decorative cornice,
quoins, stonework, or any of the details of the Administration Building. A modest portico
on the main south entrance protected visitors, while the west entrance leading to the
Administration Building lacked any covering indicating the abandonment of the vision of
covered walkways between the pavilions (Figure 15). In the most economical
arrangement possible, the first floor has a large living room, a recreation room, sewing
room, and larger rooms with private bathrooms and larger closets for supervisors (Figure
16). The basement contained the dining room and kitchen along with a study, classroom
or gym area, sewing room, accommodations for a housekeeper and three maids, and a
storage area for trunks, and boiler and coal rooms. The second and third floors
189
maximized dormitory space with one shared bathroom per floor. Additionally, Hoit
squeezed closet space into the corners to maximize the area for sleeping in each room.
The influenza pandemic of 1918 that eventually killed 20 million people
worldwide, including more than 500,000 in the United States, struck Kansas City
suddenly: 170 Anny mechanic students who trained at Sweeney Automotive School
across the street from Union Station came down with the flu in a 24-hour period. In the
next two days, 500 more people were ill and 800 more on top of that in one week.
Quickly, the Army shut down the mechanic schools, but it was too late to quarantine the
illness. By 7 October 1918, Dr. A. J. Gannon, M. D., head of the city's Health
Department's contagious division, issued a ban on public gatherings. During the last four
months of 1918, the city lost 1,815 citizens.180
In 1919, while health facilities were inundated with the ill, Hoit, Price & Barnes
offered plans including an east wing addition to the Administration Building, which
offered much needed patient rooms with space-saving triangular closets like those used in
the Nurses Home (Figure 17). They also offered designs for porch additions to the Nurses
Home (Figure 18). While these porches would have masked the sober facade, it would
not have been enough to visually pair the buildings. None of these additions were
completed and the Christian Church Hospital closed after only ten years due to internal
strife. In 1926, the building became a Veteran's Hospital for disabled World War I
veterans.181
180
The ban was never fully followed and arguments over it escalated to personal insults, followed
byfisticuffsbetween Gannon and William Motley, president of the Hospital and Health Board who
prioritized business interests. In the end, Gannon was fired and E. H. Bullock, M. D., City Health Director
resigned. See Soward, 64.
181
See Appendix for building history after 1926.
190
The Christian Church Hospital demonstrated Long's commitment and his
desire to help the underprivileged Citizens in his community as well as his commitment to
the Christian (Disciples of Christ) Church. The Christian Church Hospital began as a
complex of Beaux-Arts Italian Renaissance Revival buildings and although, the plans
were truncated and eventually shelved, it demonstrates Long's ambition for monumental
architecture. The next project that Hoit would receive from R. A. Long was his most
ambitious—the complex of buildings located in the main square of the city of Longview,
Washington.
191
Cfcrtrtii» It
:'.*! K » P « K Ci'.r >t«
Figure 46. Henry F. Hoit, Christian Church Hospital postcard, c. 1921. (Mrs. Sam Ray
Postcard Collection, SC58, MVSC.)
.<•=**?**'
.*-*.
\
>
i-WZrjir'
~'?X - '•
-
i-
L^rS
Figure 47. Shanties posed sanitation and health problems. Bluffs above the Missouri
River bottoms in 1871 and west bluff north of 9th Street c. 1900. (Reprinted from James
L. Soward, Hospital Hill, Missouri. Kansas City: Truman Medical Center Charitable
Foundation, 1995, 16 and 31.)
192
*fflE«EfcSlHI 31
É'&mS& si
^
f c
Figure 48. Frederick C. Gunn, General Hospital, 1908. Rendering that appeared in the
1909 Board of Hospital & Health Report. (Reprinted from James L. Soward, Hospital
Hill. Kansas City: Truman Medical Center Charitable Foundation, 1995, 37.)
«**'r»
li?»
!;' - *
1J
se
Figure 49. Henry F. Hoit, Christian Church Hospital, 1911, proposed complexplan and
perspective drawing. (Barnes Collection, 013.003, WHMC-KC.)
193
.
•
» .
,
1
*
.
-
.
.
•
."i! »
#
:! B i l JifJ fc::::::::::::ni::iq
unn:
....
. - . . . . » i . , « . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .>ai
rø—'
a
r— i
PC2-
i
-"HO
00™**—
nolin
po——
ti:
<m
H>
rn
•ca»
IM
OD
isxruTTxixiei i
prmiinrrri:
i isnri^prna
pnniil
tiu-
i- r&
t s — -~og
r
y
esl i
-Oi
—UB
i!
CE
BO--
:AAr£l
IT.
i l»—
—ad
SF—
-«00
: l»
: nas-
—-CD
OT
r,
-f.-2fj-rr;T:rrJ
Figure 50. Bernard Poyet, plan of La Roquette Hospital, near Paris, published in 1787.
(Reprinted from John Summerson, The Architecture of the Eighteenth Century. London:
Thames & Hudson, 1986, 131.)
Figure 51. Stonehouse Hospital, near Plymouth, 18th Century. (Reprinted from John
Summerson, The Architecture of the Eighteenth Century. London: Thames & Hudson,
1986, 132.)
:
l-flfm
f
c
r. n-n^em^ nn n n \: -*•. F-.L
T
;
# X u : r j s i O Q R I ro é.é L X C
L I ipa^sp^ij^i^
I
E^miaaiiBuSliKkaii s n ni
ti-.--siQ-,s^ss-'"4i::*T;?;s^'-'-'-ijtjXi^jdy^ti
o
aco.sns^s>waw
fU ' I B P B "Q' Q | B f X X S B' E4"@
' •
Figure 52. Henry F. Hoit, Christian Church Hospital, 1911, Administration Building;
elevation drawings. (Barnes Collection, 013.004, WHMC-KC.)
Figure 53. Henry F. Hoit, Christian Church Hospital, Administration Building, west
facade details. (Photograph by author, 2009 and Barnes Collection, 013.004, WHMCKC.)
••••iiiiii|„..jwA*»^.MM w< iijMMt^tyt**-* 1 '*^**^' "ffl,
f " **»* *•" *f «f i*!" « f "Tf *+*-—-<m- f"ffcff
yfr^^«P*"^
!• fei ^ _ . - k - . J i i — li
Figure 54. Henry F. Hoit, Christian Church Hospital, 1911, Administration Building
floor plans. (Barnes Collection, 013.005, WHMC-KC; 4th floor from Barnes Collection,
013.004, WHMC-KC.)
'«at
.-.
:
: -~V!
"*tTr
Figure 55. Henry F. Hoit, Christian Church Hospital, 1916, block plan. (Barnes
Collection, 013.006, WHMC-KC.)
ET
R
'.&.
•^ '
'
-«il
!
.-
-F'
.^- » *
-
•»
*
•• * ? rs
. aÉiéj w " '
Figure 56. Henry F. Hoit, Christian Church Hospital, 1914, Power Building. (Barnes
Collection, 013.005, WHMC-KC.)
^
, -,..IJ
u-.a->
«?*•
,: r
JSJ i
.^
?-S
li:
_J ' ,
;
_J*L_:
Figure 57. Henry F. Hoit, Christian Church Hospital, 1916, block plan with gradation.
(Barnes Collection, 013.006, WHMC-KC.)
197
Figure 58. Nurses' dormitory in the attic of Old City Hospital, c. 1908. (Reprinted James
L. Soward, Hospital Hill. Kansas City: Truman Medical Center Charitable Foundation,
1995, 32.)
Figure 59. Henry F. Hoit, Christian Church Hospital, Nurses Home; west and south
facades. (Photographs by author, 2009.)
198
J£„-;0
:
!ii '• :">f* *--n
i.;;
i
n Q/G
I
R ,n
.;p. n
^r "O ' •
,'te»,-W::p;i.t: : L J
•"Tir:"'ES : TJ
' ' - i r . - ; Li. ' - ^
. O
.„.
*=^
,^-/ n r n
' ••• w r - J U l -
F
JE
Figure 60. Henry F. Hoit, Christian Church Hospital, 1917, Nurses Home elevations
drawings. (Barnes Collection, 013.005, WHMC-KC.)
***^^:" 'ff i
•n"* "
'
"• ••u.s-'.^-
•" •«
;.**""•
'fra
L&iJL
JU
JÆ.-.*"
Figure 61. Henry F. Hoit, Christian Church Hospital, 1917, Nurses Home, plans. (Barnes
Collection, 013.005, WHMC-KC.)
X"'—£
'
•-i
'•"v
•;,. f
tfi
-f'.i'
f.-
.
r
?
I - l
lii
u « . •,
!N.- r
, - j '
r.;
\
• U-,
J
•"
'
i
<~-*
f
,
," ; ,
Figure 62. Hoit, Price & Barnes, Christian Church Hospital, Administration Building
1919, east wing addition, first floor. (Barnes Collection, 013.005, WHMC-KC.)
^fcat^r^É
Æ
jgjTjtrr?; i ^ IL: v" ily «^ Jc- 4-^ • i
^!Li^^J'A'V
L!"'kJII8£3!E' -***'»^æ/£
^JrH
H a
* ^»^røsr ;
,
_^*?ir'„*«S5S&,
"9'Sj«*'
^iSÉ ;., i
Figure 63. Hoit, Price & Barnes, Christian Church Hospital, 1919, porch addition.
(Barnes Collection, 013.005, WHMC-KC.)
LONGVIEW, WASHINGTON
R. A. Long conceived of Longview, Washington, in 1918 at a time when the
timber owned by the company in the southern states was nearly depleted. At the time Mr.
Long was 68 years old and later he remembered, "Håving controlling stock in the
company I could have done what I pleased. It would have been a very fine time for me to
liquidate and invest my money in securities and retire."182 Instead, Mr. Long called a
meeting of the men he considered the "heart of our organization" in the directors' room
of the Long-Bell Lumber Company to discuss whether or not to liquidate the company
and go out of the manufacturing business or to continue.183 They decided not only to
continue but also to expand timberlands in the virgin growth of the Pacific Northwest. In
February 1919, R. A. Long purchased 23,851 acres of land in northern Cowlitz County,
in southern Washington, containing some of the finest lumber in the world.184 This
acreage connected to railroads and accessed the Columbia River, which indicated that the
property would increase in value. The disadvantages of this site included danger from
freshets in the spring, a lack of good roads, and "possible difficulties with labor
supply."185
John M. McClelland, Jr., Longview: The Remarkable Beginnings of a Modem Western City
(Portland, Oregon: Binfords & Mort Publishers, 1949), 2.
183
McClelland, Longview, 1949, 2.
184
The Long-Bell Company purchased an additional 1,950 acres in June 1920 and more land at
later dates for a total of nearly 70,000 acres. For a detailed description of how they chose this site and
located the first sawmill see McClelland, Longview, 1949, 5-14.
185
McClelland, Longview, 1949, 13.
201
Wesley Vandercook, Jr. (1875-1957), chief engineer of the Long-Bell
Company, appraised the site in a 140-page report in December 1920 where he described
the labor situation—a "floating class" of young, strong men (and some women who
dressed and acted like men) who always "carried their blankets" with them. Working
conditions were hard with long hours for low wages and very poor living conditions. In
the preceding 25 years, labor supply exceeded demand resulting in two groups: those
with work to do and those who worked. Lumbermen tended to float on when they felt
like it. Employers could not rely on workers, treated them poorly, required them to live in
filthy bunkhouses, and refused to allow them to associate with their family or even
discouraged them from starting one. Men with families were not welcome in the woods
and no attempt had been made to attract this "most unsatisfactory class of labor."186 As
demand for labor increased, employers were loath to concede to the workers' demands.
Divisiveness spread between employer and employee resulting in unions and labor
unrest.187 Vandercook wrote:
186
187
McClelland, Longview, 1949, 9-10.
In the west, the "One Big Union" of the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) began with
lumbermen, cannery, dockworkers, and miners and later included maritime, textile, and agricultural
workers. At its peak between 1905-1916, the IWW had 200,000 members. On 13 April 1917, a strike of
Montana river workers escalated into a series of strikes across the Northwest including loggers by M y . The
strikes hindered the United States who had entered war from getting desperately needed raw materials to
build warplanes and ships. In August 1917, Washington Governor Ernest Lister (1870-1919) proclaimed
the 8-hour workday with 9-hour pay in an attempt to end the strike; the IWW rejected this and in
September, switched from an open strike to a strike on the job. By October, after the Army ineffectively
sent unskilled soldiers into the woods to obtain lumber, they drafted unemployed loggers. The Army
loggers filled the gaps in lumber companies and broke the strike. General Brice Disque (1879-1960),
federal mediator Carleton Parker (1879-1918), and University of Washington President Henry Suzzallo
(1875-1933) formed a new union, the Loyal Legion of Loggers and Lumbermen (4-L), to mediate between
employers and employees, which rose to a high of 110,000 members. See Erik Mickelson, "The Loyal
Legion of Loggers and Lumbermen: The Origins of the World's Largest Company Union and How It
Conducted Business." [Web Site] (Seattle, Washington: Harry Bridges Center for Labor Studies at the
University of Washington, 1999, accessed 18 November 2009); available from
http://depts.washington.edu/labhist/strike/mickelson.shtml; Internet.
202
Under such conditions, it was only natural that the Industrial Workers of the
World [IWW] should find ready listeners and make many converts. ...
The doctrine of 'class hatred' was more or less openly preached. It spread.
... That this 'class hatred' is an actual living thing at the present [that]
cannot be denied. It is not written of. It is rarely spoken of. But it exists,
and is a factor, which may have to be largely considered in making plans
to use the labor supply now available.188
The executives of the Long-Bell Company did not have labor problems at their
lumber mills in Arkansas and Louisiana so Vandercook's report weighed heavily when
considering the worker's living arrangements because they wanted to avoid labor
strife.189 In February 1921, they chose a site in northern Cowlitz County for the sawmill
only four miles away from Kelso, a trading center for loggers, farmers, and fishermen
with a population around 2,000. The executives estimated that for every industrial worker
at the Long-Bell mills, there would be 3-/4 non-industrial workers in the community, or
14,000 or more people in auxiliary business in the mill town. The Long-Bell officials
believed Kelso to be a center of IWW activity and decided it was inadequate to
accommodate an increase in population of this size. Long then began to envision building
a proud new city, not just another mill town, and sent Vandercook out to acquire the land,
a task he completed in three days in January 1922.190
As R. A. Long had just spearheaded a national monument project, his patriotism
and optimism were without limits (discussed in Chapter III). He conceived of Longview
during an era of prosperity and optimism (and also fear of labor radicalism in the
188
McClelland, Longview, 1949, 10.
189
For more on the Long-Bell Company in the South, see Helen King, "The Economic History of
the Long-Bell Company," M. S. Thesis, Louisiana State University, 1936.
190
Many farmers were in debt from building dikes to protect their land from freshets, as a Kelso
man declared, "In fact everybody over there was broke when Long-Bell came in. It was the luckiest thing
that ever happened to them when they had the chance to seil out." See McClelland, Longview, 1949, 10, 1416, and 32.
203
Northwest), and to a man who had gone west from Kentucky to Kansas and built a
lumber empire from a failed hay business, a city further west in a country rich in raw
materials was bound to succeed. In January 1922, R. A. Long said to a Portland, Oregon,
newspaper reporter:
Since we started our planning for their country our ideas have enlarged as
we went along. It is possible that they will continue to enlarge. We like the
spirit of the people in this country. It is indeed a wonderful country. But I
have grave doubts that the people as a whole realize the tremendous
opportunities at their door. ... The town that is to be erected must be the
very best and most up to date that can be built.191
R. A. Long brought J. C. Nichols, president of the J. C. Nichols Investment
Company, and several Long-Bell directors to the site in March 1922.192 Nichols was
highly regarded by Long who said: "If I were to pick out the leading citizen or the most
useful citizen in Kansas City today [1927], it would be J. C. Nichols."193 To design the
city, Nichols and Long looked to renowned city planner George Kessler of Kansas City,
who died shortly after his work at Longview was completed in March 1923, and S.
Herbert Hare of the landscape design firm Hare & Hare, who planned sections of J. C.
Nichols' Country Club district in Kansas City, did the platting and planning of Longview
(Figure 64).194
191
McClelland, Longview, 1949, 55.
192
The "Kymokan" trip in early March included R. A. Long, J. C. Nichols, Frederick Bannister,
Mack B. Nelson, J. D. Tennant, Jesse Andrews, J. H. Foresman, and S. M. Morris. See McClelland,
Longview, 1949,21.
193
194
McClelland, Longview, 1949, 33.
Kessler Boulevard and Kessler Elementary School were named in George Kessler's honor.
Kesser had designed the plan for Longview Farm and the parks and boulevards system in Kansas City. J. C.
Nichols refused Long's offer to undertake Longview as a real estate venture or direct the work since he
would have to spend two to three weeks a year in Washington. Instead, Nichols served as realty consultant
and without pay for this position. He returned to Longview 25 years later to see the results of his 1922
contribution. See McClelland, Longview, 1949, 34 and 40.
204
Since Henry F. Hoit had been R. A. Long's architect for nearly 17 years, Long
wanted to continue to use Hoifs services. However, when Long was putting together his
team of designers in the spring of 1922, he did not immediately hire Henry Hoit. At the
1923 dedication ceremony, only one architect was singled out—Arch Torbitt. In fact, A.
Norman Torbitt (as his drawings are signed) realized the designs of Henry F. Hoit—the
building sketches are among the archival material at WHMC and the measured drawings
list Hoit, Price & Barnes as Associate Architects. Although the exact reasons for this
arrangement remain unknown, there are several plausible reasons. Hoit, Price & Barnes
may have been too busy to travel to Washington state. Also at the end of World War I,
they had numerous commercial projects in Kansas City, including the transformation of
the Continental Hotel to the Kansas City Athletic Club between 1919-1923 (Figure
65).195
Another possible reason for this arrangement was that Hoit, Price & Barnes were
no longer associated with The American Institute of Architects (AIA). After a
controversy arising from allegations of unprofessional conduct by Thomas R. Kimball,
Competition Advisor for the Liberty Memorial competition, Henry F. Hoit resigned his
position as president of the AIA Kansas City chapter and formed a new organization
taking with him more than half of its members.196 In spring 1922, amidst the initial
195
See Appendix for discussion of the transformation of the Kansas City Athletic Club.
196
The correspondence of R. A. Long in the Liberty Memorial Association, Liberty Memorial
Association historical records, The National World War One Museum Research Center (LMA) reveals the
nature of the controversy. After the trial ended with a verdiet of "absolute acquittal," Thomas Kimball sent
R. A. Long a copy of the allegations and asked Long to provide a statement noting whether he was
correctly quoted in the document in the spirit of being "prepared." See T. R. Kimball to R. A. Long, 10
April 1922 (LMA). Long was under the impression that the allegations against Kimball were pending and
offered to discuss the matter with Hoit directly ".. .in a personal conference I may be able to get Mr. Hoit to
withdraw this charge." See R. A. Long to T. R. Kimball, 14 April 1922 (LMA). However, when Kimball
205
design decisions for his new city, Long was concemed about Henry Hoifs standing in
the AIA, writing the secretary of the AIA Kansas City: "From this file I take it that Mr.
Hoit is not a member of either the local chapter or the National. I am very desirous of
håving a list of those who are now member [s] of the National chapter and of those who
recently resigned."197 After acknowledging that the local chapter wanted to "maintain a
friendly attitude toward these former members as they feel confident that [they would
eventually] apply for readmission to the Institute and to the local chapter," James Burton,
Assistant Secretary of the AIA, admitted to the back story:
The twenty-five architects who withdrew formed a new organization,
which they call "The Kansas City Architectural League." Mr. Hoit is the
president of this organization and, in fact, from what Mr. Van Brunt tells
me it seems he was the "ring leader" in the fight which was made on Mr.
Kimball and which resulted in the break-up in the local chapter of the
American Institute of Architects. He was in charge of the handling of the
case against Mr. Kimball on the floor of the national convention last year
and, according to the report, showed considerable animus against Mr.
Kimball. Mr. Kimball, however, treated the entire proceedings as simply
the result of a difference of opinion regarding a matter of policy. In other
words, Mr. Kimball assumed that the attack on him did not involve any
personal animosity and at the conclusion of the argument and, as I
understand it, after the decision had been rendered in his favor, he sought
out Mr. Hoit and attempted to shake hands with him but Mr. Hoit refused
his hand and stated vehemently "that he would shake hands only to
wrote the letter, he had been acquitted of all chargés, "I am no longer personally interested. My suggestion
had wholly to do with certain rumors that the attack on the Competition and the Institute was going to be
resumed at the June Convention of the Institute, and for fear it might result in some sort of unpleasant and
undesirable notoriety for the Memorial project and its promoters, it occurred to me that it would be
advisable to be prepared with some brief, succinct and telling evidence of the nature to discredit the
sincerity and honest purpose and method of the attack that was made, and the chargés that were
formulated." Instead, Kimball seemed to be writing to Long to "get even" with Hoit under the guise of his
concern that Hoit make "a vicious effort to get even." See T. R. Kimball to R. A. Long 17 April 1922
(LM A).
197
198
R. A. Long to James Burton, Jr., 31 May 1922 (LMA).
Burton listed the competitors that resigned—Greenbaum, Hardy & Schumacher, Keene &
Simpson, and Hoit, Price & Barnes—noting, "Of these the first two were prize winners in the competition."
206
The unpleasant situation did not dissuade Long from contacting Hoit or asking
his firm to design seminal buildings around Jefferson Square in Longview, Washington.
However, none of the partners of Hoit, Price & Barnes were licensed in the state of
Washington, which may be the ultimate reason for hiring another firm to handle the
construction of the buildings on-site.
In 1916, A. Norman Torbitt designed a pavilion in Phelps Grove Park in
Springfield, Missouri, which was designed by George E. Kessler and Hare & Hare.
In
November 1922, R. A. Long recommended Torbitfs architectural services for the
Longview project.200 Torbitt relocated to Washington in January 1923, and sat for his
Washington licensing exam on 29 December 1924.201 With his Washington license,
Torbitt oversaw the construction of Hoit's designs. Significantly, Torbitfs AIA affiliation
was noted after his nåme on the drawing for the Proposed City Building.
Henry F. Hoif s sustained client-patron relationship with R. A. Long, the overall
stylistic choice of the buildings, and the sketches available in the Barnes Collection at the
Western Historie Manuscript Collection (WHMC) indicate that Hoit, Price & Barnes
See James Burton, Jr., to R. A. Long, 31 May 1922 (LMA). Mr. Long called the assistant secretary—the
next letter refers to "our conversation this morning," which also stated that Thomas Wight, W. D. Wight,
Fred E. McElvain, McKecknie & Trask, and Smith, Rea & Lovit resigned from the AIA. This letter ends
correspondence on this topic. See James Burton to R. A. Long, 1 June 1922 (LMA).
199
The Phelps Grove Park SGF Park Board Meeting 17 March 1916 Minutes lists "Mr. Torbitt to
prepare sketch for Phelps Grove pavilion" and in the 12 May 1916 Minutes, "Architect Torbitt to advertise
for bids on pavilion for Phelps Gr." See Book 1, page 47 and 48.
Archibald Norman Torbitt (1883-1958) was a partner in Miller, Opel & Torbitt in Springfield,
Missouri, from 1907 to 1917. In addition to the pavilion in Phelps Grove Park he designed the "Old"
Courthouse in Springfield, Missouri. He was in architectural practice in St. Louis from 1918 to January
1923. From 1923 to 1928, Torbitt worked solo under the corporate nåme Archibald N. Torbitt, Architect, in
Seattle. (See Appendix for references and expanded biography.)
200
R. A. Long to S. M. Morris, letter dated 10 November 1922. Longview Library collection, file
L-46 labeled "A. N. Torbitt Employment Contract."
201
Tobitt applied for the Washington license the same month he arrived on 31 January 1923.
207
designed the library, passenger station, city hall, post office, apartment buildings, a
junior high school, and a park shelter. Torbitt translated these sketches into construction
drawings and a few of the measured drawings with Torbitt's nåme are among the nearly
200 sketches in the Barnes collection.
In November 1922, Herbert Hare described the tentative plans presented to the
Long-Bell directors:
The framework on which the city is built is a series of main thoroughfares,
some radial and some more or less circumferential. These form main lines
of traffic from various bridges to and around the center of the city.
Alternate routes and by-passes are provided, so that while traffic is invited
to the central business district, it is not forced through it. Four of the radial
thoroughfares converge upon a central park area, but it is to be noted that
the main business street, providing through traffic, is one block away from
this park, so as to preserve uninterrupted business on both sides. The radial
leading from this park to the southeast is offset along this through street in
such a way as to avoid interruption of railroad trackage [sic] facilities in
connection with the industrial district.
The spaces between these main thoroughfares are filled in for the most
part by an order ly arrangement of rectangular streets. This gridiron
pattern, however, is not extensive enough in any one unit to become
monotonous, and is not carried across the main radials.202
On 6 December 1922, Long met the board of directors and their wives to explain
the extreme amount of work that lay ahead: in Washington, they ventured to do in three
years what took twenty years to do in the South.203 Fully developed, Longview,
Washington, was envisioned as a city with 75,000 residents, which would make it the
largest planned city built since Pierre Charles L'Enfant (1754-1825) designed the District
202
The main business street was not 15* Avenue, one block off the civic center, as the planners
intended. Instead, it was Commerce Avenue, which took the place of 13* Street. See McClelland,
Longview, 1949, 36.
203
McClelland, Longview, 1949, 3.
208
of Columbia in 1791-1801.204 R. A. Long was building Longview as his legacy, as W.
D. Smith, an employee member of the 4-L union who met R. A. Long in a Kelso cafe in
July 1922 wrote in the 4-L Bulletin:
Instead of a large, cold, calculating money grabber [that Smith had
expected], I found a friendly, smiling man whose words, tone, and attitude
expressed a desire to build usefully, who is going to build a monument to
himself and his company here in the west and ... that he wanted the last
chapter of his life's book to read so those who came after would say,
"Well done, Mr. Long."205
The Long-Bell Company hurried to complete the city to reduce its financial
burden—Longview and the mills were costing more than anyone had anticipated and they
needed to begin sawing and seiling real estate as soon as possible. The plans were
completed in August 1922 for the layout of the streets, utility lines, parks, and the various
zones and buildings that the company knew it would have to construct to get the town
started. Long-Bell added Letcher Lambuth to the staff to manage the real estate
operations on site, giving Lambuth the added responsibility of naming the streets.206 On 7
204
Growth envisioned by the planners was never achieved and reached only 34,660 by 2000
according to the United States census.
205
Smith, W. D. "A Picture of R. A. Long (As seen by an employee)" Four L Bulletin (August
1922): 7-8 (available at the University of Oregon Special Collections).
206
Benjamin Letcher Lambuth (1890-1974) trained as a lawyer and turned to real estate
developments in Seattle. However, he was also a noted angler and the first to collect and identify
northwestern trout-stream insects and tie flies designed to imitate the naturals. Collectors continue to prize
his innovative construction of spiral bamboo fly rods. His diary from 1935-1937 was published
posthumously—Letcher Lambuth, The Angler's Workshop. [Reed College, Portland, Oregon]: Champoeg
Press, 1979. See Steve Raymond and August C. Kristoferson, Nervous Water: Variations on a Theme of
Fly Fishing. Guilford, Connecticut: The Lyons Press, 2006, 62.
Lambuth named the streets after trees, states, and two of the least distinguished presidents,
Harding and Garfield crossed with numbered avenues. The main thoroughfares were named after special
geographical names with two exceptions—Kessler Boulevard and Vandercook Way. In 1925, they renamed
Missouri Street to Nichols Boulevard. See McClelland, Longview, 1949, 37.
209
September 1922, Lambuth wrote to Long: "On October 1, 1922, you will have under
construction five dormitories, 300 houses, a hotel and certain street improvements."207
The pace was alarming to Hughes Bryant who had come to Longview in January
1923 as a building supervisor. Bryant complained that Longview was being built without
definite plans, specifications, or even working plans being furnished to the contractors for
bids. Long replied, "As we needed these buildings as quickly as possible, we have
thought it best to proceed along the lines we have used even though the ultimate cost
would be quite a bit more."208
Beginning in the winter of 1922-1923, crews worked day and night to finish the
Monticello Hotel and enough landscaping and roads around the Jefferson Square, the
city's main square, to make a credible show to visitors due in July 1923. This six-story
steel, brick, and white terra cotta hotel had 160 rooms with baths on the upper floors and
mahogany paneling in the lobby (Figure 66). The furniture arrived from Chicago all at
once in an 18-car train. Built before roads were complete in the middle of farmland, the
Monticello Hotel was a massive building that advertised the confidence of Long-Bell
enterprise.209 The hastily constructed Monticello Hotel had immediate problems. Guests
were unaware that the plumbing was not connected to the new sewer system. The
facilities emptied into the basement, which served as a temporary septic tank—tours of
207
McClelland, Longview, 1949, 44-45. In May, the First National Bank was organized with a
capital of $125,000. The Longview Public Service Company was formed to provide electrical and water
service and to run the bus line. B. H. Smith, Jr. was transferred from the South to be assistant manager. The
Longview Public Service Company began with a capital stock of $2,500,000. See McClelland, Longview,
1949, 47-48.
208
McClelland, Longview, 1949, 45-46. Bryant and Long had been acquainted since the erection
of the R. A. Long Building in 1906 (discussed previously).
209
McClelland, Longview, 1949, 49.
210
the new building were careful to avoid this area. Overall, the show was successful and
by October of 1923, the Long-Bell Company had constructed 357 buildings of all kinds.
Twenty-six retail stores were in operation and the estimated population that year was
4,000.210
The city centered on a park named Jefferson Square (now the R. A. Long Park)
surrounded by the major civic buildings (library, post office, and city hall) as shown in
this plan with lots numbered (Figure 64). The proposed plan with colonial style buildings
is depicted in a painting (Figure 67). The Monticello Hotel was located in the most
prestigious lot #138 west of Jefferson Square, on the same axis as tree-lined Broadway
Street. Lots #139 and #137 appear to have apartment buildings similar to the "Suggestion
for Apartment House" sketch laid out by Henry Hoit (Figure 68). The building on Lot
#140 is unidentified.
The painting shows three buildings on lot #125. The center building was similar
to Hoit's sketch for "City Hall" (Figure 69). A measured sketch signed by both Torbitt
and Hoit, Price & Barnes indicates that this was the initial concept (Figure 70). Evidently,
the architects were asked to scale back the building. A subsequent plan was further
reduced from 172 feet wide to 130 feet wide with an auditorium extending from the rear
of the building (Figure 71). Later, the auditorium was removed and the width of the
building reduced to 109 feet (Figure 72). Hoit worked out a floor plan to include the
210
By October of 1923, forty-four miles of streets had been graded, twenty-four miles had been
graveled, six miles were paved, and seventeen miles of sidewalks had been built. By July 1924, the
population had increased to an estimated 5,800 with forty business buildings completed or were underway.
Nearly a 1,000 students were enrolled in schools and 400 men were attending bible class. By this time, a
total of 165 business lots and 1,118 residential lots had been sold and 1,196 lots fully paid for. They had 32
miles of gravel streets, 7.57 miles of paved streets, 17.2 miles of sewer lines, and 31.9 miles of water
mains. They continued to build as a somewhat slower pace until 1927 when the project came to a halt. See
McClelland, Longview, 1949, 49.
211
essential services in another sketch (Figure 73). The measured drawings, again
showing Torbitfs nåme, gave the never-realized final plan (Figures 74 and 75). In the
painting, the city hall appears to be flanked by two buildings that look like Hoifs "Post
Office Suggestion" (Figure 76). Hoit's post office also was not realized. Opposite the
Monticello Hotel are two large blocks (lots #111 and #112) platted for residences flanked
by triangular park blocks (#110 and #113).211
The Longview Public Library on lot #127 was the only one of Hoifs designs
realized on Jefferson Square (Figure 77). The committee disagreed on placement of the
library on the civic square; some favored the treeless south side of the square, which
would obscure Skidville, a temporary shantytown housing workers, from the center
square. Ultimately, however, the library was located on the north side.212 In the painting,
the library block mirrors the city hall block flanked by two buildings resembling the
"Post Office Suggestion." Hoit, Price & Barnes worked out multiple schemes (Figure 78)
and completed the initial sketches (Figure 79). Torbitt then translated these sketches into
measured drawings (Figure 80).
The library was Mr. Long's first major gift to the city and was lauded in material
advertising the city through the 1920s, because it demonstrated the civility of the city—
Longview was not just a mill town like those that grew organically around mills before
211
Longview's first city hall rented space on the second floor of a building on Commerce Avenue.
In 1930 with funds from the Public Works Administration (WPA), they built a permanent city hall with a
police station and fire department attached on lot #111. With WPA funds, in 1934, they built a post office
where it was originally planned on lot #124. Both buildings demonstrate the Art Deco aesthetic typical of
WPA projects. See McClelland, R. A. Long's Planned City, 245 and Cowlitz County, Washington,
"Cowlitz County Parcel Search - USA Post Office (Account #R021632)." [Web Site] (Longview, WA:
2006, accessed 19 November 2009); available from
http://www.cowlitzinfo.net/applications/cowlitzassessorparcelsearch/; Internet.
212
McClelland, R. A. Long's Planned City, 141.
212
the war, but a respectable family-oriented town with higher aspirations that valued
education. Dedicated on 26 April 1926, the library building cost $150,000. However, in
the hurry to get a beautiful building to adorn the Civic Center, the planners overlooked
the need for books and an operating budget. The interior of the library was simple, bright,
with marble floors—and notably empty when it opened (Figure 81). The library budget
for 1927 was $21,309 or a quarter of the city's total income.213
The city had hoped to be a railroad center and was positioned at the south end at
the river corridor where the Northern Pacific Railroad had laid the first rails in the Pacific
Northwest region in the 1870s, but the railroads were on the Kelso side of the river.
When the railroad rejected the lumber company's use of the rails fearing an accident
caused by a fallen log—the Long-Bell Company ran its own company line called the
Longview, Portland & Northern Railroad (LP&N). Mr. Long was of the generation that
viewed trains as progress. In this pre-automobile frame of mind, a passenger station
would give the visitors of Longview their first impressions of the city. Therefore, the
architecture of a passenger station was a priority. Located at the terminus of Broadway on
a straight axis with the Monticello Hotel across the landscaped boulevard, it had to be an
impressive counterpoint to the hotel.
Because Mack B. Nelson felt that Longview was already costing too much, he
urged that they should halt grandiose plans. As a result, instead of using funds from the
213
A book drive resulted in an accumulation of largely unwanted volumes. Long provided more
money ($10,000) to purchase the library's initial holdings. Additionally, the operating cost for the library
was overlooked. The property value of Longview was only $5,400,000, so it required a tax rate of $4 per
$1,000 of the assessed property value, so the operating budget of $21,309 equaled a quarter of the city's
total income. This budget came with optimistic extended hours of 10 a.m. to 10 p.m. six days a week and 3
to 5 p.m. on Sunday. Long paid the operating cost for 1927, but wrote that he expected the city to pay for it
in 1928, with remaining needs covered by the Long-Bell Company. The library board cut the operating
costs down to $1,000 a month. See McClelland, R. A. Long's Planned City, 1998, 142.
213
company, Mr. Long offered $125,000 of his own money to build the passenger
station. Henry F. Hoit completed the passenger station in 1925 using the same neocolonial style as the library, with red bricks and white terra cotta (Figure 82). The
columned entry was punctuated by a tall clock tower (Figure 83). A covered walkway
protected travelers as they waited for trains in the rear. Long rented the station to LP&N
although it was 1928 before the Interstate Commerce Commission approved it and began
rail service in Longview with four daily stops. With the train era passed, the station
struggled and closed after a devastating flood in 1933, but the building continued to serve
the community as a hospital.214
Through the 1920s, Long continued to donate to Longview, putting his and his
company's finances at risk. When Long's May 1924 campaign to raise money for a nondenominational church failed, he took out a $70,000 loan to provide for the community's
spiritual needs. Long mortgaged the R. A. Long Building in Kansas City to pay for the
Robert A. Long High School, his last major gift to the city. William Ittner, noted architect
of educational buildings, designed the high school costing $750,000 (erected 1927-
214
Many contested the location of the passenger station. Kelso filed a protest with the Interstate
Commerce Commission because they thought that it was unsafe to operate a passenger train on tracks
maintained by a logging company. Trains began running in 1928, but by 1932, the railroads regretted the
decision to run trains to Longview. Maintenance chargés resulting from split runs at Kelso and Longview
came to $7,574 per month with only $1,500 in fares from the Longview ticket office. At a 1932 meeting to
consider the problem, 82-year-old Long persuaded them to continue passenger service with an impassioned
speech. The following year, a flood washed out the bridge across the Cowlitz and the tracks north of
Ryderwood. By the time the bridge was rebuilt, Long-Bell had sold the tracks between Longview and
Vader for $4 million. The railroad company saw no value in repairing the tracks and closed the station. See
McClelland, i?. A. Long's Planned City, 1998, 171-172.
The building served the community as the Cowlitz General Hospital with 35 beds from 1935 to
1966. The Health Department declared the building unfit for use as a hospital and the city broke ground on
a new Cowlitz General Hospital on 6 August 1966, later renamed Monticello. The original railroad station
was then demolished. See Robert D. West, "Kelso-Longview, Washington" [Website] (Milwaukee,
Wisconsin: Milwaukee School of Engineering, accessed 18 November 2009); available from
http://people.msoe.edu/~westr/longview.htm, Internet.
214
1928).215 Henry Hoifs plan for a Junior High School went unrealized, along with a
park shelter and other building projects (Figure 84 and 85).
In 1927, the industrial town project came to a halt. By then, the city had ample
buildings and services, and awaited the natural population growth that would fill in the
vacant space ready with streets and utilities.216 However, the population of Longview did
not grow anywhere near the expected 50,000 by 1930—the 1930 census counted only
6,260 residents. Many people who worked at the Longview mill established hornes in
Kelso where the population grew 181% between 1920 and 1930, and others settled
outside either city.217
Moreover, the Oregonian printed this excerpt from the Minneapolis Journal in
August 1925:
215
Long had promised himself early on that the youth of Longview were to have the finest of
schools—something far better than he had as a boy in rural Kentucky. See McClelland, Longview, 1949,
138-140.
William Butts Ittner (1864-1936) graduated in 1884 with the first class granted diplomas by
Washington University's Manual Training School. He continued to study Architecture at Cornell
University, traveled to Europe and trained in the office of Eames & Young. From 1889 to 1891, he
practiced alone. Then he entered brief partnerships with William Foster and Link & Rosenheim. Ittner was
the president of the St. Louis Chapter of the American Institute of Architects from 1893-1895. In 1897, he
was elected to the new office of Commissioner of School Buildings for the Board of Education and served
until 1910, but continued to act as "consulting architect" until October 1914. He designed fifty schools
buildings in St. Louis and hundreds of schools in over 25 other states. His father, Anthony Ittner, was
elected to Congress in 1877.
216
The Depression hit and it would be 25 years after the city's founding before it began to pro vide
improved area for new residential sections. McClelland, Longview, 1949, 50.
217
At first Longview employees were expected to live and shop in the fledgling city. Tom P. Fisk,
a Kelso lawyer, explained to Mr. Long what was happening: "People in the Northwest pacific coast are
somewhat inclined to radicalism and are rather independent in their attitude toward life. Any attempt at
coercion is resented by them. I know that the impression is general that the company is insisting that
persons employed by Long-Bell shall live in Longview and they are expected to purchase real estate and do
their trading in that town. I think that you have the right to expect that they do all these things, but I am of
the opinion that the method heretofore pursued has not been the best method for bringing about such result.
... Merchants in Kelso tell me that they are patronized by hundreds of people living in Longview who
come to Kelso to trade and say that they do so for the reason that they do not propose to be dictated to as to
their placed of trading." See McClelland, Longview, 1949, 67.
215
The Minneapolis Journal had interested itself in a discussion of the largest
American city, taking as its text the prediction of a 'nationally known
statistician' that the seat of the great American metropolis will finally be
on the Pacific coast. The Journal then makes comparison to Los Angeles,
San Francisco, Seattle and Portland, in the order named, and is
complimentary enough to each of them. Then it proceeds with this
startling observation: 'If the contentions of the big four were to be made
ironical by an upstart and rank outsider beating them all, what gnashing of
teeth and chagrin would befall. There is Longview, a city laid out by a
lumber company. It is on the Columbia itself not so far up the estuary,
where the flood is broad and deep. It commands all Portland and Seattle
territory. Longview might very possibly be the Pacific New York in the
twenty-first century.218
During the early 1920s, community planning and design changed with America's
needs for an increasingly industrial and technological society, and Longview was one of
the "first post-war manifestations of this awakening."219 Simultaneously, however,
Longview was an end of an era—the era of unbridled optimism and endless expansion.
In 1927, Geddes Smith visited Longview and criticized it in an article published
in The Survey. He was especially critical of the "curiously regimented sections [and]
'additions' each with its nåme and fixed boundaries, each with its own scale of rent and
minimum building values." He was especially critical of a low-income area of town
called Skidville, temporary structures pulled in on skids to house workmen. In 1927,
when Smith visited, families of six to twelve people lived in these two-room shacks for
$7 a month. He wrote:
Perhaps they are gone now [1927], but off on one fringe of the town I
found a row of quite new and apparently permanent houses, spaced about
three feet apart, with two or three rooms apiece, and like the Skidville
218
219
McClelland, Longview, 1949, 58.
Mellier Goodin Scott. American City Planning Since 1890. (Berkeley, CA: University of
California Press, 1969), 234.
216
cabins, with outdoor toilets to be shared by several families. The sight was
somewhat perplexing in a model town.220
Smith also disapproved of the of the long distances between buildings and the
type of unnatural, pre-planning that inconvenienced its first citizens:
Here stood the hotel, far from the railroad. There beside it the public
library, far from most of its readers. At the center of town, the shops, far
from the customers. A town doesn't grow that way left to itself. Is there no
middle course between the wasteful process of spreading, tearing down
and spreading again, that most cities go through (but which is at least
organic and natural) and this business of condemning your early settlers to
live for years with the stark, gaping skeleton of a city? 221
The Long-Bell Company overestimated the control that the company would have
as to where future employees would live and shop. Additionally, too much emphasis was
given to railways and not enough to the automobile. In his optimism for building a city,
Mr. Long had not considered the actual cost of running public services (library, schools,
government, hospital, fire, police) before there was a large enough tax base to support
them.222 Another unexpected hindrance was the enactment of a federal income tax, which
decreased the personal funds that Long could donate to future building projects. Though
optimistically striding into the future based on expectations of the past, R. A. Long did
not accurately assess the present. This was the folly of Longview (although many people
in the speculative 1920s were guilty of the same shortcoming). Longview planners
envisioned the future city as a continuation of one based on the architecture,
transportation, social strata, division of wealth, and even the industry of the past. The
McClelland, Longview, 1949, 43.
McClelland, Longview, 1949, 43.
McClelland, R. A. Long's Planned City, 1998, 142.
217
spirit of Longview was essentially among the last of these planned cities of the long
nineteenth century.
Nevertheless, most of the reviews of Longview lauded its plan, in contrast to
Geddes Smith. They did not see a "stark, gaping skeleton of a city," but a city prepared to
meet its future.223 This world after World War I was indeed different, as the era of the
single industry-aristocrat waned while commissions from corporate patrons waxed.
Additionally, in the 1920, city boss Tom Pendergast became a major influence in the
construction industry of Kansas City. The city of the future is the theme of the next
chapter, which for Hoit, Price & Barnes came in skyscrapers, a massive convention
center, and a new architectural aesthetic, to be known as Art Deco.
McClelland, Longview, 1949, 43.
'•'"
i
'.-•"hv
Figure 64. Hare & Hare, city center plan, Longview, Washington. (Barnes Collection,
022.020, WHMC-KC.)
Figure 65. Hoit Price & Barnes, Kansas City Athletic Club, 1921. (Reprinted from John
Albury Bryan, Missouri 's Contribution to American Architecture. St. Louis: St. Louis
Architectural Club, 1928, 198.)
219
Figure 66. Architect unknown, Monticello Hotel, photograph tåken 26 July 1923.
(Reprinted from John M. McClelland, Jr., R. A. Longs Planned City. Longview,
Washington: Westmedia Corporation, 1998, 30.)
Figure 67. Painting showing the envisioned Jefferson Square surrounded by public
buildings, 1926. (Reprinted from John M. McClelland, Jr., Longview. Portland, Oregon:
Binfords & Mort Publishers, 1949, 79.)
220
y »
• : > ' . -
-'.X-i^': .^-- >ti"ix..j;V.iJ-L....j: m'.v-i[tBt,.=i..^uftJ£'Jg|v•:
•ÆfM-i. -JAI ; J i - r - r ;•«-#*&.
••Mk&åm
#rm,vx
er pi.*.
/ • •
Figure 68. Hoit, Price & Barnes, Apartment House Suggestion, Longview, Washington
(Barnes Collection, 022.020, WHMC-KC.)
«*»
V
il
.Mr
i.ii
Figure 69. Hoit, Price & Barnes, City Hall for Longview, Washington, elevation sketch.
(Barnes Collection, 022.020, WHMC-KC.)
•;-;);,
Lii
,
) .
f 4 i"
.- ir i"if
f "fT _ i*
i
Figure 70. Arch N. Torbitt and Hoit, Price & Barnes, Proposed City Building for
Longview, Washington (Barnes Collection, 022.020, WHMC-KC.)
221
tJ'
^
;• ••:
^L:M
1
^fe-.'»-1 -
• ;,.--•
Figure 71. Hoit, Price & Barnes, City Hall for Longview, Washington, preliminary sketch.
(Barnes Collection, 022.020, WHMC-KC.)
4K-'v
Figure 72. Hoit, Price & Barnes, City Hall for Longview, Washington, later preliminary
sketch. (Barnes Collection, 022.020, WHMC-KC.)
•V£ I- *£i-\
•\i
ipfiiB
• r
'
f vil.
• v: 1
..tøpc...
'. V .
4
i! - II
.1
U
-
:-•.•]—1,,,.!
J"
T
^
;
'
Figure 73. Hoit, Price & Barnes, City Hall for Longview, Washington, plans. (Barnes
Collection, 022.020, WHMC-KC.)
Figure 74. Arch N. Torbitt and Hoit, Price & Barnes, City Hall for Longview,
Washington, final plan. (Barnes Collection, 022.020, WHMC-KC.)
Figure 75. Hoit, Price & Barnes, City Hall for Longview, Washington, elevation drawing.
(Barnes Collection, 022.020, WHMC-KC.)
Figure 76. Hoit, Price & Barnes, Post Office for Longview, Washington (Barnes
Collection, 022.020, WHMC-KC.)
Figure 77. Hoit, Price & Barnes, Library in Longview, Washington, front facade.
(Photograph by Robert D. West, 2008.)
Figure 78. Hoit, Price & Barnes, Library for Longview, Washington, sketches of the first
floor labeled scheme #1 and scheme #2. (Barnes Collection, 022.020, WHMC-KC.)
Figure 79. Hoit, Price & Barnes, Library for Longview, Washington, elevation sketch.
(Barnes Collection, 022.020, WHMC-KC.)
224
i,
4*>
«a»-
fl
""•"^Sft»*""""""
r*, ii i
U-Ui
!i i F!
i
-a
... - | ^ . ^
03 Pi,
gORn
•.
,t-
Hf m
1 i 1 i" - a IB
*^-*
^
fei,—j£-i.
IMHftnlfttWWli
E
i;1 i'l
13
. 0
Figure 80. Arch. N. Torbitt and Hoit, Price & Barnes, Library for Longview, Washington,
final elevation drawings. (Barnes Collection, 022.020, WHMC-KC.)
225
Figure 81. Hoit, Price & Barnes, Longview Public Library, 1922, check out desk.
Notice the empty bookshelves. (Reprinted from John M. McClelland, Jr., R. A. Long's
Planned City. Longview, Washington: Westmedia Corporation, 1998, 141.)
Figure 82. Hoit, Price & Barnes, Passenger Station for Longview, Washington (Barnes
Collection, 022.020, WHMC-KC.)
Figure 83. Hoit, Price & Barnes / A . N. Torbitt, Longview Passenger Station, 1925, detail
of tower, left; waitingroom, right. (Reprinted from John M. McClelland, Jr., R. A. Long's
Planned City. Longview, Washington: Westmedia Corporation, 1998, 171-172.)
Figure 84. Hoit, Price & Barnes, Junior High School for Longview, Washington (Barnes
Collection, 022.020, WHMC-KC.)
«fc
% i
1
h ",i;ir
-:•;-.
Cptjij
f****
Jt
*
!
rz.
3 L . •• -
_o
-Jt)t.i™za l a u t . .
Figure 85. Hoit, Price & Barnes, Shelter House for Park in Longview, Washington (Barnes
Collection, 022.020, WHMC-KC.)
227
CHAPTERIV
HOIT, PRICE & BARNES: NEW PARTNERS IN A NEW ERA
Sociologists aptly label Henry F. Hoifs generation "New Worlders" because his
generation of architects, industrialists, and businessmen were literally building the new
world—as the first two chapters demonstrate—hornes, hospitals, churches, entire cities.
Hoit was among the last of this generation and Longview perhaps demonstrated the
culmination of manifest destiny. They based the design of the new world stylistically on
European models in an historical mode. After World War I in 1919, Henry Hoit named
two young architects as partners Edwin Price (1884-1957) and Alfred Barnes (18921960), who greeted the future with optimism and hope.1 In the 1920s and 1930s, Hoit,
Price & Barnes designed skyscrapers and a massive convention center in a new
architecrural aesthetic, later termed Art Deco, resembling a vision of the future.2
1
Unbeknownst to them, the 1920s would be the best years of their young lives. They were
unfortunate to be born in the generation that demographers named "Hard Times" or the "Lost Generation."
Elwood Carlson described this generation as standing "with one foot in the 19 century and the other in the
20th century. We call them the Hard Timers. The hard times that give them their nåme included a world
war, a disastrous economic depression, and then another world war, a string of calamities that all but
smothered the adult lives of this entire generation." See Elwood Carlson, The Lucky Few: Between the
Greatest Generation and the Baby Boom (New York: Springer Science and Business Media, 2008), 18.
Hoit was 21 years of age in 1893 and might remember the three-year "Panic of 1893." All would
have experienced the three-year recession following World War I, but the early twentieth century had been
one of prosperity and optimism.
2
Generally, "Modernists" held academic styles, bourgeois culture, and the old hierarchy of power
in contempt. By the mid 1920s, modernism had been adapted to an aesthetic used to in advertising, film,
and clothing, and anything fashionable. In 1925, the Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et
Industriels Modernes played a crucial role in dictating the appearance of the Art Deco interior to the world
and was the source of the term "Art Deco" that was applied to this style by historians in the 1960s. See
Patricia Bayer, Art Deco Interiors: Decoration and Design Classics of the 1920s and 1930s (London:
Thames and Hudson, 1990), 7.
228
After World War I, Europe was in ruins and the United States as a new world
power.3 Even before the war, the United States began to level class strata with income tax
and collective bargaining for labor unions. Women who took jobs as nurses, clerks,
secretaries, and in industrial positions to help the war effort changed societal norms and
following the war, women's suffrage became an international trend.4 Social, political, and
economic changes accelerated in the prosperous 1920s, an era that relied less on the
goodwill of the industrial-aristocrat and more on corporations' building projects.
Congress passed an income tax in 1913, which was increased to fund war efforts
and when the war ended, tax supporters hoped to retain the tax to encourage class equity.5
3
The Spanish American War may mark the first instance of the United States becoming a world
power, when it acquired the Philippines in 1898. Their participation in the First World War secured the
United States as a world power along the lines of France and England.
4
Before World War I, only New Zealand (1893), Australia (1902), Finland (1906), and Norway
(1913) gave women the right to vote. During the war, suffrage was granted to women in Denmark (1915)
and Canada allowed women who were British subjects with a close relative in the army to vote on this
man's behalf (1917, extending it to all Canadian women in 1919) and the British allowed women over age
30 to vote (1918, extending it to all British women in 1928). Women in Austria, Germany, Poland, and
Russia were granted suffrage in 1918 as they were liberated. Following the war, voting rights were
extended to women in the Netherlands (1919), the United States (1920), Sweden (1921), Britain and
Ireland (1928), and Spain (1931).
In the United States, it became acceptable for young, employed, single, middle-class women to
rent apartments, go out without chaperones, and smoke in public. The character Millie Dillmount in
Thoroughly Modem Millie exemplified this new kind of women. Florence "Flossie" Harding (1860-1924)
also represented this new woman although she was 60 years old in 1920 and not single since 1891. As a
divorcee, she supported herself and her son, pursued a younger man, Warren Harding and an excellent
manager, she turned his newspaper, the Marion Star, into a financial success. She focused her managerial
skills toward his presidential campaign. Media savvy, she cultivated relationships with the press and was
the first First Lady to take a public role in the campaign giving interviews and posing for photographs and
Flossie's public persona helped him win 60% of the national vote, an unprecedented margin of victory. See
George Roy Hill, "Thoroughly Modem Millie." 138 minutes. United States: Universal Pictures, 1967,
RandolphC. Downes, The Rise of Warren Gamaliel Harding, 1865-1920 (Ohio University Press, 1970)
and Carl S. Anthony, Florence Harding: The First Lady, the Jazz Age, and the Death of America 's Most
Scandalous President, New York: Quill and W. Morrow & Company, 1998).
5
In 1913, the 16th Amendment to the Constitution gave Congress legal authority to tax both
individual and corporate incomes, but the wealthy did not feel its impact until March 1917 when Congress
introduced a corporate excess pro fits tax, which taxed profits above a "reasonable" rate of return.
Businesses earning more than 8%, paid taxes according to a steep rate schedule. Individuals were taxed an
excess profits tax on incomes over $6,000. People with more modest means were taxed 2% on incomes
over $1,000 ($2,000 for married couples). After the U.S. declared war on Germany on 6 April 1917, taxes
229
Obviously, business owners bitterly opposed the tax, which rose to 77% on the largest
incomes by 1920. The income tax was the largest single reason that the era of the
industrial-aristocrat ended, but this was not evident in the 1920s because of an impression
that the United States could return to pre-war prosperity. In the 1920 election, Warren G.
Harding (1895-1923) ran against Progressive James M. Cox (1870-1957) with the slogan
"Return to Normalcy," which called for an end to the era of progressive activism and a
return to the laissez-faire form of government of the McKinley presidency.6 The
corporate consolidation that began during World War I flourished under smallgovernment conservatives led by U. S. Presidents Warren G. Harding and Calvin
Coolidge.7 Biographers Howard H. Quint and Robert H. Ferrell described the regulatory
state under Coolidge as "thin to the point of invisibility."8
Membership in unions reached a high point in 1920 and although prosperity
brought low unemployment and high wages, union membership steadily declined
throughout the 1920s.9 Between 1923 and 1929, with an average unemployment rate at
increased. In 1920, consensus determined that wartime tax rates were unsustainable and reduced taxes in
1921, 1924, 1926, and 1928. See Joseph J. Thomdike, Paul Milazzo, and Michael Leclair. "Tax History
Museum" in Tea History Project at the Tax Analysts [Web Site] (Tax History Project, 1997-2006, accessed
13 July 2009); available from http://www.tax.org/Museum/1901-1932.htm; Internet.
6
During the war, the United States governmenfs War Industries Board determined industrial
priorities, fixed prices, and converted plants to meet Federal Government needs. The War Labor Board,
established to settle industrial disputes became the model for a national system of labor management
relations in the 1930s.
7
Both administrations embraced laissez-faire policies. Harding's 1921 Budget and Accounting
Act created a federal office to ensure efficiency (often reduction) in public expenditures. Taxes for
individuals in the top tax bracket fell from 73% to 58% with the 1921 Revenue Act, the first tax reduction
intended to spur economic expansion. The 1924 Revenue Act further decreased personal income taxes.
8
Howard H. Quint and Robert H. Ferrell, Calvin Coolidge; University of Massachusetts Press,
1964, 72.
9
Before the United States entered World War I, laborers organized into unions and fought for
better working conditions. Unlike the Wobblies mentioned in Chapter III, many unions rallied toward the
war effort and gained wider public acceptance.
230
only 3.3%, the 1920s were a good time to be in business and more people considered
themselves comfortable, affluent, or wealthy than ever before.10 The speculative real
estate market allowed entrepreneurs to begin massive building projects in Kansas City
and across the nation. The public sought to get rich quickly and many began making
dubious investments and or by looking to "industry geniuses" like John J. Raskob.11 John
Kenneth Galbraith wrote about the real-estate market in Florida:
They wanted to believe that the whole peninsula would soon be populated
by the holiday-makers and the sun-worshippers of a new and remarkably
indolent era. So great would be the crush that beaches, bogs, swamps, and
common scrubland would all have value. The Florida climate obviously
did not insure that this would happen. But it did enable people who wanted
to believe it would happen so to believe.12
In Kansas City boosters believed that Kansas City would be the New York of the
Midwest. Henry C. Haskell, Jr., wrote:
10
This unemployment rate contrasts to nearly 25% unemployment, or 13 million people, in 1933.
By comparison, the level of national unemployment reported in October 2009 was 10.2%. See Robert
VanGiezen and Albert E. Schwenk, "Compensation from before World War I through the Great
Depression" in Compensation and Working Conditions, edited by Bureau of Labor Statistics available on
United States Department of Labor [Website] (accessed 15 November 2009); available
http://www.bls.gov/opub/cwc/cm20030124ar03pl.htm, 2001 and "The Labor Force Statistics from the
Current Population Data base" in Bureau of Labor Statistics (Washington, D.C.: United States Department
of Labor, accessed 15 November 2009); available from
http://data.bls.gov/PDQ/servlet/SurveyOutputServlet?data_tool=latest_numbers&series_id=LNS14000000;
Internet.
The Federal Reserve index of industrial production, which had averaged only 67 in 1921 rose to
110 by July 1928 and reached 126 in June 1929. For example, in 1926, 4,301,000 automobiles were
produced and by 1929, the automobile industry produced 5,358,000 automobiles (a figure that compares to
1953's 5,700,000 new car registrations.) See John Kenneth Galbraith, The Great Crash 1929 (New York:
Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company, 2009), 2.
11
John J. Raskob (1897-1950) was a financial executive and businessman for DuPont and General
Motors. Market speculators believed that he was one of the "big men" who controlled the stock market.
The Empire State Building (1931) was his speculative real estate venture. In an article entitled "Everybody
Ought to be Rich" in The Ladies' Home Journal, Raskob advised on how the proletarian could get rich.
After explaining a moderate and reasonable investment plan that would take twenty years, he proposed an
investment trust, which would allow the poor man to increase his capital just as the rich man. Raskob's
plan was praised as "the greatest vision of Wall Street's greatest mind." See Galbraith, 52-53. John J.
Raskob's plan appeared in the Literary Digest, 1 June 1929.
12
Galbraith, 3-4.
231
The recklessly ambitious Liberty Memorial movement characterized Kansas
City in its rambunctious 1920s. At no time in the city's history had its
leadership been more confident of manifest destiny. ... Kansas City had
itself, gateway to the West, the future city of a million. And everybody
knew it would be unlike any other city of a million ever built by
mankind.13
This speculative real estate market was a blessing for Hoit, Price & Barnes. In
1919, R. A. Long began the Liberty Memorial project and the city at Longview,
Washington, simultaneously. Together these projects marked the end of the Hoit-Long
collaboration.14 The same year, Henry F. Hoit and his new partners began to design under
their new nåme Hoit, Price & Barnes. Edwin M. Price began working for Howe, Hoit &
Cutler in 1905 at age 21. Hoit took an interest in the young man's career and encouraged
him to study at M.I.T., which he did from 1907-1908. Upon returning to Kansas City and
after the death of Frank Howe, Hoit assigned Price to the position of designer and chief
draftsman giving him the responsibility to develop his sketches into working drawings
(see Chapter III). Price was made a partner in 1913, but the firm's nåme remained
unchanged.15 An aspiring civil engineer, Alfred Barnes, joined Henry F. Hoifs office as a
13
Henry C. Haskell, Jr. City of the Future: A Narrative History of Kansas City, 1850-1950.
Kansas City, Missouri: Frank Glenn Publishing Co., Inc., 1950, 117. The city boosters were already
delusional. The city relied on the surrounding agricultural industry. The bottom fell out of the beef market
between 1920 and 1921 and ranchers and feeders were stuck with mortgages based on inflated land prices.
Corn dropped from a high of $ 1.40 per bushel in 1919 to $0.40 per bushel in 1922. Wheat dropped from
more than $2.00 to below $1.00. See Haskell, 117.
14
Actually, Long called the first meeting for the Liberty Memorial Association in December 1918
a couple months before he traveled to the site that would be the city of Longview, Washington. The
archival material of the Liberty Memorial Association includes much information about when Mr. Long
was away in Washington, Oregon, or Weed, California, because he delegated duties and in some instances
sent telegrams to communicate.
15
Born in Webb City, and raised in Fort Smith, Arkansas, Edwin Price attended public schools.
Observing his ability to draw, his father encouraged him to begin training as an architect at a young age in
the office of H. I. Gottard in Fort Smith, Arkansas. In 1903, Price moved to St. Louis and worked for Legg
& Holloway, Eames & Young, Weber & Groves, and the 1904 Louisiana Purchase Exposition. Edwin
Price's training history came from Giles Carroll Mitchell, There Is No Limit: Architecture andSculpture in
Kansas City (Kansas City: Brown-White Company, 1934), 88 and 133.
232
16
seventeen-year-old in 1909. The plucky and ambitious teenager was the target of
hazing, perhaps because he was the grandson of Asa Beebe Cross, Kansas City's first
Professional architect. The quote by Daniel Burnham that Barnes kept on his desk shows
his ambition as parallel to that of the pioneering architects nearly fifty years his senior:
Make no little plans: they have no magic to stir men's blood and probably
themselves will not be realized. Make big plans: aim high in hope and
work, remembering that a noble, logical diagram once recorded will never
die, but long after we are gone will be a living thing, asserting itself with
ever-growing insistency. Remember that our sons and grandsons are going
to do things that would stagger us. Let your watchword be ordered and
your beacon beauty. 17
Barnes's resilience and ability brought him to the attention of Hoit who soon
appointed him head draftsman.18 After 10 years, Henry Hoit rewarded Barnes with a
partnership and announced Edwin M. Price and Alfred Edward Barnes as partners
changing the firm's nåme to Hoit, Price & Barnes in 1919.
Liberty Memorial Competition and a Shift of Stvle
More information on the St. Louis architectural firms are available in Carolyn Hewes Toft's
articles "Jerome Bibble Legg (1838-19??)," "Thomas Crane Young (1858-1934)," "William Sylvester
Eames (1857-1915)," and "Albert Bartleton Groves." [Web Site] (St. Louis: Landmarks Association of St.
Louis, Inc., accessed 24 October 2009); available http://www.landmarks-stl.org/architects/ and
http://stlouis.missouri.org/501c/landmarks/architectsl2.html; Internet.
16
Alfred Barnes was born in Kansas City on 5 March 1892.
17
Mitchell, 88-89. Daniel Burnham (1846-1912) is posthumously quoted as saying this in Charles
Moore, Daniel H. Burnham, Architect, Planner ofCities. Vol. 2 (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1921), 147.
18
In later years, Mitchell remarked that Mr. Barnes was known for his kindness and, like Hoit
before him, took an interest in training young draftsmen and helping them start out on their own, as evident
in a story that Mitchell tells about him, "One morning, Mr. Barnes noticed that a pigeon had flown
headlong into the terra cotta wall. It was injured and awkwardly hopped about on the terrace. Mr. Barnes
brought it into the drafting room, emptied a wire waste-paper basket, and turned the basket upside down
over the bird. He fed the bird, and took care of it until it regained its strength. Then he took it out and
released it. It was an example of Mr. Barnes' kindness, and was not unlike the attitude he took with many
young draftsmen training them, and starting them out better prepared to take care of themselves." See
Mitchell, 92.
233
The first two major designs by Hoit, Price & Barnes, the Liberty Memorial
Competition entry and designs for buildings in Longview, Washington, were clearly a
continuation of the historicizing aesthetic that Henry F. Hoit used on earlier commissions
for R. A. Long.19 However, attitudes were changing and with it, a style was needed that
looked toward the future, not the past. This historicizing style symbolized the past, not
the future. The firm did not win the competition; the winning entry of the Liberty
Memorial Competition (1919-1921) heralded a dramatic shift in the style of the firm from
historical to modern.
Of the eleven top entries, eight were classically inspired, which attests to the
general consensus among architects that the European precedent for military memorials
was most appropriate in the United States.20 The entry by Hoit, Price & Barnes placed
eighth and was very similar to a majority of the entries, as Sarajane Abers notes: "It is
difficult now to understand just how and why the judges rated the very similar 'also rans'
as they did. The [entries] show very little to choose between" (Figure l). 21
Mr. Long's preference for the classically inspired architecture chosen for his
previous commissions changed. Perhaps the days of train travel from Kansas City to the
19
Domestic architecture continued to use historicizing styles, but after 1919, the firm designed far
fewer houses, likely due to the imposed income tax. They designed two fraternity houses: the Kappa Kappa
Gamma house (1927) at the University of Kansas and the Alpha Tau Omega (1929) at the University of
Missouri—Columbia, where Tennessee Williams lived during its first year at MU. The houses get
progressively more humble throughout the 1920s.
20
The classically inspired entries include: (2nd) Cret & Zantzinger, Borie & Medary, (3rd)
Greenbaum, Hardy & Schumacher; (5th) Keene & Simpson, (7th) Wight & Wighfs, (8lh) Hoit, Price &
Barnes, (9*) Brostrom & Drotts, (10th) Bliss & Faville, and (1 lth) Selby H. Kurfiss. In 6"1 place, Edward
Delk of Kansas City who collaborated with Armstrong & De Gelleke of New York City entered a design
featuring a soaring Gothic tower surmounted with a winged female colossus and elegant classical buildings
inspired by the Italian Renaissance. For a discussion of all the entries, see Sarajane Sandusky Aber. "An
Architectural History of the Liberty Memorial in Kansas City, Missouri 1918-1935." Thesis, University of
Missouri-Kansas City, Kansas City, 1988.
Abers, 36-37.
234
Pacific Northwest inspired his love of the American West. Perhaps his opinion was
swayed with a growing sense of nationalism during the war or a discussion with architect
Harold Van Buren Magonigle, who the committee consulted as an expert advisor in
memorials and who was the ultimate winner of the competition.22 Among Long's Liberty
Memorial Association correspondence from February 1919, hastily typed notes define
that the memorial should be: American and Western.23 The discussion on representation
indicated their ideal monument and the eventual outcome of the competition:
(3) It must be representative. It must represent the donors. Who are they?
Americans. Then the Memorial must be American. It must breathe the
spirit of Americanism. General concepts may be blown from across seas,
but they must flower in American designs. By all that differentiates
America from Europe, this Memorial must be differentiated from
European memorials. Of course if there is nothing distinctive in America,
then there should be nothing distinctive in American Memorials—an
Egyptian pyramid, a Roman arch, an Italian Campanile, any old thing will
do—oW thing, mark you. But if there be a distinction, this distinction
should show in this Memorial you are about to build. We are Americans;
we are also Westerners, and this Memorial, if it be typical of its donors,
should be distinctively Western. Its unbreathed [sic] spirit should be the
spirit of the west. There must be, somehow, the suggestions of largeness,
of wide free spaces, of plains that stretch on an [sic] on, of loose limbed
rivers, of the bulk and granite of huge mountains. Its material should be
granite of huge mountains. Its material should be western. Italian marble is
all right—for Italy. Egyptian granite is all right—for Egypt—but the stuff
for this Memorial should be digged [sic] out of Western hills. Rough hewn
too, it ought to be, as is our West, with no hint of petty Attic smoothness.
"Ah," but you say, "this calls for artists and their dreams." Precisely, The
whole matter of design is for the experts, not for us. Tell the architects
22
Harold Van Buren Magonigle (1867-1935) was born at Bergen Heights, New Jersey, received a
public school education, and began his career in architecture as a youth. He was employed successively in
the New York offices of Vaux & Bradford, Charles S. Haight, and McKim, Mead & White. While at the
last office in 1904, he won the Rotch Traveling Scholarship and spent three years studying in Europe. He
had also attended the Academie des Beaux Arts in Paris. Magonigle collaborated with sculptor Robert
Aikten and was best known for his memorials.
The pages are not signed, however based on pagination style, margins, and what words are
capitalized; I believe were written by Long. Additionally, it says, "...we are westerners." I doubt
Magonigle considered himself a Westerner.
235
what spirit you want clothed, in bronze or stone, but do not tell them how you
want it clothed. Dress making is for the dress makers art for artists.
A national architectural competition to choose a design for the Memorial included
several invited competitors and all Kansas City architects.25 The AIA's Architecture
editorially commented that the competition brought a number of original designs that
all show a new wholesome, vital tendency to get away from purely
traditional forms and styles and to make architecture more an expression
of our own times, of American ideals, of the noble purposes the memorial
commemorates.26
The article exaggerated because only two entries demonstrated the ideals
embodied in this quote and heralded the modern style of the 1920s: the winning design
by Harold Van Buren Magonigle (announced 28 June 1921) and the 4th place entry by
Bertram G. Goodhue of New York (Figure 2).27 In an American Architecture article,
Fiske Kimball pointed out that Goodhue's and Magonigle's designs were similar in their
Loose typed pages found in February 1919 correspondence (LMA).
25
Nationally recognized architectural firms in Kansas City perceived entries by local architects
less worthy compared to those by outside contestants. By fall 1921, Kansas City architects' feelings of
disenfranchisement had intensified. As president of the Kansas City Chapter AIA, Henry F. Hoit became
the voice of the dissention, likely mixed with personal feelings of exclusion fueling his vehemence. Early
in the organization, R. A. Long personally invited Hoit to advise to the committee along with George
Kessler. When Thomas Kimball was invited to act as Competition Adviser, he recommended Magonigle as
an expert advisor and Hoit was marginalized. Eventually, the Kansas City Chapter of the AIA brought
chargés of unprofessional conduct against Mr. Kimball before the attention of the Board of Directors of the
AIA. See Executive Committee Kansas City Chapter AIA (signed by Samuel Greenebaum, Secretary) to
Board of Directors, The American Institute of Architects, 28 October 1921 (LMA).
Although they were the only Kansas City firm to place in the competition, Samuel Greenebaum,
Arthur R. Hardy and Ramon Schumacher resigned their membership with the AIA following the
competition and joined the Kansas City Architectural League led by Henry Hoit. See James Burton, Jr. to
R. A. Long, 31 May 1922 (LMA).
26
27
"The Liberty Memorial at Kansas City." Architecture 44 (August 1921): 241.
"Competition," Western Architect 20, Plates 5-8. Goodhue's 4th place entry received as much
attention as Magonigle's and more than the 2nd and 3 rd place entries and Abers suggests that such unusual
attention the fourth place winner is indicative of Goodhue's lofty professional position. Coverage appeared
in "Competition," Architecture 44, 235, 238, plates CIX-CXI; "Competition," Western Architecture 30,
plates 5-8; Talbot Faulkner Hamlin The American Spirit in Architecture (New Haven: Yale University
Press, 1926, 220.); Fiske Kimball, American Architecture (Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill Company, 1928).
See Abers, 32.
236
"vast blocklike masses," but Magonigle's design was "simpler and more impressive"
than the former, which recalled "the massive German monuments of the Imperial
period."28 Magonigle's design drew on Classical principles but broke away from the
columns, pediment, and dome formula. He infused his austere, abstract geometrical forms
with Egyptian symbolism, a style considered appropriate for memorials (Figure 3). The
stripped down Classicism would become the trademark of the art deco style and even
more so in the Works Progress Administration style of the 1930s.29 Commentary from the
American Stone Trade journal was reprinted in the Kansas City Star:
About twenty-five centuries have elapsed since Dinocrates designed and
built the Pharos of Alexandria of Macedonia. Since that time nothing to
compare with it has ever been attempted. Comes now Magonigle to
Kansas City with a total eclipse of the ancient Grecian master and his
work, with a greater design all his own, one that is to inspire this and
future generations of Americans with the noblest sentiments of loyal
patriotism. While all the elements of art, balance, proportion and
appropriate ornamentation are present, there is no slavish adherence to any
school of the past. Perhaps it will be the first worthy model of the new
American type that has been prophesized from time to time.30
H. Van Buren Magonigle's renderings for "an altar high erected in the skies,"
with their great buttressed walls, were beautifully executed and the accompanying
description, "The Flame of Inspiration, guarded by the Spirits of Courage, Honor,
Patriotism, and Sacrifice..." was eloquent.31 This was a new American type of
Kimball, 207-208. Incidentally, Goodhue won another competition that Thomas Kimball had
conducted for the Nebraska State Capital in 1922.
29
The limestone was local from the Argentine area of Kansas City, Kansas, and the walls on the
low buildings were of Indiana Limestone.
30
Fred K. Irvine, editor American Stone Trade to J. E. McPherson, reprinted in the Kansas City
Star, 22 Octoberl921.
31
"The Competition for the Liberty Memorial." Architecture 44 (August 1921): 235 and H. Van
Buren Magonigle, "A Memorial at Kansas City, Missouri," Journal of the American Institute ofArchitects
237
architecture and widely published architectural renderings by Hugh Ferriss catapulted
this idea of the city of the future in the American mindset (Figure 4).
This image of the city and the speculative commercial real estate market
accelerated the construction of tall office buildings. Edwin Cochran entitled his 1916
book on Cass Gilbert's Woolworth Building (1910-1913) a "Cathedral of Commerce,"
which emphasizes the patron group of these buildings: corporations. The floodlighting
and glowing upper stories of the Woolworth Building set a standard that these buildings
should illuminate the night sky (Figure 5). The 1916 New York City Commission on
Building District and Restrictions limited the height of tall buildings in proportion with
the width of the street. Compliance with this ordinance was termed "setbacks," where the
mass of the building was incrementally reduced at higher levels. Similar restrictions were
soon adopted by cities around the nation. In 1922, the Chicago Tribune announced a
competition for their new building in Chicago. The winning entry was a neo-Gothic
skyscraper by Hood & Howells (1924) crowned with a series of flying buttresses (Figure
6). However, another competition entry heralded a change in aesthetics, as Hugh Ferriss
wrote (Figure 7):
The more significant designs, published in book form, constituted a
valuable collection of modern trends. ... The design which was awarded
the second prize proved to be the passport to the American scene of
Architect Eliel Saarinen of Finland, whose presence has already
influenced our most recent buildings and whole point of view may, before
long, influence our larger civic projects.32
9 (August 1921): 266; and "The Competition for a Memorial of Kansas City," Western Architect 30 (July
1921): 70.
32
Hugh Ferriss, The Metropolis ofTomorrow (New York: Ives Washburn, 1929), 26. Hugh Ferriss
(1889-1962), a native of St. Louis, trained as an architect at Washington University in St. Louis. In 1912,
he began as a delineator for Cass Gilbert in New York City and beginning in 1915, he worked as an
architectural delineator independently. By 1920, he developed a moody style, often depicting buildings at
238
The stripped down Classicism as revealed in Magonigle's design of the
Liberty Memorial and setbacks demonstrated by Eliel Saarinen's competition entry were
interpreted in Ferriss's moody renderings. Ferriss's visions of the city of the future were
widely published in print media and entered the 1920s popular imagination—the future
city was radiant, illuminated, and oriented vertically with towering buildings (Figure 8).
Advertisements in Fortune Magazine used such images to seil optimism and confidence
in the future (Figure 9).33
The young partners in Hoit, Price & Barnes eagerly embraced this new style for
their optimistic, prosperous city. During this period, there was no doubt that Kansas City
was to be "Centropolis," or the metropolis in the center of the country. The population
was booming; the city was building at a faster rate than most cities in the United States.
In 1906, in The Western Contractor, Mr. Pennock compared the growth and optimism of
the early twentieth century to that of previous decades when he called Kansas City "The
Chicago of the West."34 In the first two decades of the twentieth century, residential
building in Kansas City reached a peak beyond anything known before and the local
belief in home ownership left the city critically short of rentals for newcomers, often
young men and women moving to the city from rural areas. From 1923 to 1926, an
night lit by floodlights. His drawings were regularly featured in Century, the Christian Science Monitor,
Harper 's Magazine, and Vanity Fair and influenced a generation of architects and influenced popular
culture. His original drawings are held by the Drawings & Archives Department of the Avery Architectural
and Fine Arts Library at Columbia University, but many of them were published Many of his drawings
were published in The Metropolis ofTomorrow in 1929.
The Fortune Magazine advertisement was for an investment company and printed in 1932. It
demonstrates an overly optimistic view of the future to distract from the grim reality of the economy. Other
interpretations of the city of the future, such as Fritz Lang's imagery in his 1927 film "Metropolis"
underscored a sinister future.
34
"Construction News: R. A. Long Building." The Western Contractor 5, no. 17 (1906): 5.
239
apartment boom added a total of 11,000 rental units. J. C. Nichols's Country Club
Plaza flourished during the 1920s and many of the imposing new apartments surrounded
this district. The city gained a reputation as a good place to live.35 Between 1925 and
1926, the city added three,newly built high schools. A 1937 article in The Architectural
Forum described the city's favored location with "some 40-odd railroad lines, the
convergence of important national highways and almost all transcontinental air routes,"
encouraging the city's aspirations as a central metropolis.36
Following World War I, Kansas City entered an economic boom.37 Construction
peaked in 1925 in terms of total dollars and number of buildings for the city and by 1928,
the energy of the boom cycle was nearly gone. The turning point in the economy began in
early 1928, as major investors pulled out of the market, the masses entered and the nature
of the economic boom changed, as economic historian John Kenneth Galbraith stated:
The mass escape into make-believe, so much a part of the true speculative
orgy, started in earnest. ... While the winter months of 1928 were rather
quiet, thereafter the market began to rise, not by slow, steady steps, but by
great vaulting leaps. ... Individual issues sometimes made gains of 10, 15,
and 20 points in a single day's trading.38
Even before 1920, Kansas City had been studied as a new conception of orderly, protected city
planning. Following behind the development of the park and boulevard system, the Country Club Plaza
gave Kansas City a national reputation as "a good place to live in." This city became a model for fine
residential districts. Before 1925, the city had Westport High School, Central High School, and Northeast
High School. Between 1925 and 1926, it added Southwest High School, The Paseo High School and East
High School. The Southeast High School was built in 1938. See Haskell, 118 and 120.
36
"Kansas City Auditorium: Alonzo H. Gentry, Voskamp and Neville, Hoit, Price and Barnes,
Associated Architects, Erwin Pfuhl, Structural Engineer," Architectural Forum 66 (1937): 216-28.
37
By 1928, the economic boom cycle was nearing an end and the residential cycle had ended a
few years earlier. See George Erhlich, "The Rise and Demise of the Architectural League of Kansas City
[with a Note on Architectural Record Keeping in the Region]," Kawsmouth: A Journal of RegionalHistory
1, no. 2 (1999): 64-73, 70.
38
Galbraith, 11.
240
Although the number of business buildings constructed declined in the late
1920s, dollar expenditures remained high through the decade. Construction in the
commercial building market contrasted to the housing market where both the number of
buildings and the dollars spent declined. These figures indicate that in the late 1920s,
Kansas City businesses were constructing very large and costly commercial buildings.39
By the 1920s, Kansas City operated on a system of bribes and corruption to the
extent that Life Magazine later called it "the most sinful town in the U. S."40 Tom
Pendergast began as an advocate of labor and by the 1930s, his power extended into
Missouri politics and nationally.' Pendergasfs legitimare business was concrete, but as
many as 25 businesses have been linked to him and an accurate count is impossible. In
the Kansas City construction industry, Pendergast-referred businesses received city
contracts and tax breaks and honest and dishonest builders had to use Pendergast
products and rent Pendergast machinery or suffer constant harassment from city and
county inspectors.41 Both legitimate and illicit businesses paid the machine regular
^Ehrlich, 71.
40
41
"A Dazzling Bank for Dallas." Life Magazine, 28 February 1955, 61-65.
Pendergasfs businesses dealt with construction and liquor and therefore touched almost
everyone in Kansas City. In 1928, Boss Tom established the Ready Mixed Concrete Company
(headquartered at 908 W. 25* Street) with Michael Ross, who controlled Ross Construction. Ready Mixed
operated a large and well-equipped modern plan for mixing concrete, along with a fleet of twenty-five or
more concrete-mixing trucks. Before the invention of mixing tucks, crews mixed the concrete at the
construction site, thoroughly raking water, sand, and gravel back and forth into a cement mixture. Ready
Mixed's trucks saved, for an average batch, the work of six to eight men, so it usually came in with the
lowest bid in competition for contracts. Most of the rigged bidding took place for small jobs, such as
sidewalk repairs, where independent contractors needed to have their names on a special approved list to
have a chance of receiving a contract. Of course, to avoid tribute with city inspectors, all prudent
independent builders used Ready Mixed and other Pendergast business products. See Lawrence H. Larsen
and Nancy J. Hulston. Pendergast! Columbia, Missouri: University of Missouri Press, 1997, 85-86.
The names of other companies in which Pendergast knowingly held stock could have filled a small
telephone book, including sanitary services, coal, eigars, liquor distribution, and insurance. The machine
controlled the issuing of liquor licenses and quickly had a monopoly. When prohibition ended, he and his
partners restarted the T. J. Pendergast Wholesale Liquor Company and it became one of the largest liquor
241
tribute, a sort of privately collected tax calculated as an operating cost as part of an
unorthodox manner of doing business in Kansas City.42 Hoit, Price & Barnes were not
exempt from these conditions. Reportedly, Pendergast had a hand in the Kansas City
Power & Light and Fidelity Bank Buildings along with the construction of high schools
and paving Brush Creek near the County Club Plaza. Although direct evidence of specific
activities associated with the Pendergast machine was rarely documented and even more
rarely added to archival material, the Western Historie Manuscripts Collection in Kansas
City has a diary that was opened during the Municipal Auditorium project. It has only
one entry—Hoit, Price & Barnes made an appointment with Tom Pendergast to solve a
specific problem whose nature and solution remains unknown.
A high-rise skyline became a status symbol of a progressive city, and Hoit, Price
& Barnes contributed three of Kansas City's tallest buildings: Southwestern Bell
Telephone Building, Fidelity Bank Building, and Kansas City Power & Light Building.
These buildings defined the skyline and represented the economic power and optimism of
Kansas City. With each successive building, the firm broke records for the tallest
building in the region and drove the skyline ever higher. In 1930, The Kansas City Star
printed a graphic comparing new construction with the Liberty Memorial, which at 217
wholesalers in the United States. The Pendergast machine's construction interests included: Centropolis
Crusher, Eureka Petroleum, Mid-West Pre-Cote, Public Service Quarries, Midwest Asphalt Material,
Kansas City Limeolith, Mid-West Paving, Missouri Asphalt, Kansas City Concrete Pipe, Pen-Jas Oil,
Massman Construction, Welch-Sandler Cement, Gidinsky Construction, Missouri Contracting, Dixie
Machinery and Equipment, and Boyle-Pryor Construction. Several operated out of the same addresses as
Ross Construction and Ready Mixed. The full extent of his holdings remains unknown since he used the
names of other corporations for concealment. See Larsen 86.
42
All local powers—regulating, taxing, and licensing—were under machine control. "On a sliding
scale, firms throughout Kansas City contributed 5 to 10 percent of their annual gross to machine
collectors." How much money went directly to T. J. Pendergast can only be conjectured. See Alan Hynd,
The Giant Rillers (New York: R.M. McBride & Company, 1945), 192-193 and Larsen, 86-87.
242
feet was still higher than the early office skyscrapers (from left to right): Phillips
Hotel (204 feet), Southwestern Bell Telephone Building (394 feet), Fidelity Bank
Building (453 feet), Kansas City Power & Light Building (477 feet), the Bryant Building
(28-story), and the Dierks Building (211 feet) (Figure IO).43 New York City's skyline
dwarfed that of Kansas City; the Woolworth Building (1913) was the tallest American
building at 792 feet. The Eiffel Tower (1889) in Paris, at 984 feet, was the tallest edifice
in the world until the Chrysler Building in New York City was completed in 1930 at
1,047 feet. A mere eleven months later, the Chrysler Building was trumped by the nearby
Empire State Building by Shreve, Lamb & Harmon (1931), which remained the world's
tallest building until 1954 and the tallest in the United States until 1974. The Empire
State Building, at 1,250 feet, was more than 2 Vi times taller than the Kansas City Power
& Light Building, but these comparisons should not diminish the attention the city
received in the 1920s as a new inland metropolis, the nation's Third City. Chicago's
tallest building, Holabird & Roofs Chicago Board of Trade Building, which stood 605
feet and 44 stories, was completed in 1930.
An addition to the Southwestern Bell Telephone Building demonstrates an early
historicizing tall office building and transitioned between the firm's early phase of the
commercial structures, exemplified with the R. A. Long Building, and the later Art Deco
landmarks. The Southwestern Bell Telephone Building was completed in two phases.
The first phase, completed in 1919, demonstrated a moderately high structure for its time
with Gothicizing details. The innovative use of new technology following World War I
43
"New Structures Here This Year Will Rear Towers Piercing the Sky Higher Than the Liberty
Memorial Shaft." The Kansas City Star, 11 May 1930, Dl.
243
allowed the architects to transform the building to suit post-war requirements in 19241929. Although stylistic trends were mo ving towardthe modem style, currently referred
to as Art Deco, Hoit, Price & Barnes continued to use highly detailed Gothic decoration.
The Fidelity Bank and Kansas City Power & Light Buildings are symbols of the
hubris of the United States prior to World War II. The Kansas City Power & Light
Building moreover demonstrates technical innovation with its lantern. These Art Deco
skyscrapers show Kansas City growing toward a metropolis like those expressed in the
renderings of Hugh Ferriss mentioned previously. The Fidelity Bank and the Kansas City
Power & Light Buildings by Hoit, Price & Barnes sumptuously express the Art Deco
style. These buildings also serve as monuments to the future that city boosters envisioned
when they saw the city on the verge of becoming an inland metropolis. Today, these
buildings remain landmarks of the city's skyline. Unfortunately, they also illustrate a
Kansas City that might have been; their construction straddled the event that would
prevent Kansas City from ever reaching its envisioned "Centropolis"—the stock market
crash in October 1929.
Following this devastating economic shift, the optimism of the city remained high
and Hoit, Price & Barnes received the commission for the Municipal Auditorium, a
massive convention center. This project, funded with WPA funds channeled to Kansas
City because of Pendergasfs infiuence, sustained them through the worst part of the
Depression.
244
Figure 1. Hoit, Price & Barnes, Liberty Memorial Competition entry (8th Place), 1921.
(Reprinted from Sarajane Sandusky Aber, "An Architectural History of the Liberty
Memorial in Kansas City, Missouri 1918-1935." Thesis, University of Missouri-Kansas
City, 1988, Figure 15.)
Figure 2. Harold Van Buren Magonigle, Liberty Memorial Competition entry (Ist Place),
1921. (Reprinted from Sarajane Sandusky Aber, "An Architectural History of the Liberty
Memorial in Kansas City, Missouri 1918-1935." Thesis, University of Missouri-Kansas
City, 1988, Figure 3.)
Figure 3. Harold Van Buren Magonigle, Liberty Memorial, detail of figures on the tower.
(Photograph by James Goode, 2010.)
Figure 4. Harold Van Buren Magonigle, Liberty Memorial, 1926, view from the
northwest. (Drawingby HughFerriss, Hewlett, Journal of AlA, 1926.)
246
Figure 5. Cass Gilbert, Woolworth Building, New York City, with lighting designed in
1913 and c. 1916. (Reprinted from Dietrich Neumann, Architecture of the Night, New
York: Prestel, 2002, 102-103.)
Figure 6. Hugh Ferriss, rendering of Howell & Hood's Chicago Tribune Building.
(Reprinted from Hugh Ferriss, The Metropolis ofTomorrow. New York: Ives Washburn,
1929, 27.)
247
my
ai
III
i
)
il; i
inni «i -i
nil II i
i*
flrøm
a i l l a,
Figure 7. Eliel Saarinen, Chicagp Tribune BuildingEntry, 1922, runner up. (Reprinted
from The International Competition for A New Administration Buildingfor the Chicago
Tribune MCMXXII. New York: Rizzoli, 1980, plate number 13 and 14.)
Figure 8. Hugh Ferriss, "An Imaginary Metropolis, Business Center." (Reprinted from
Hugh Ferriss, The Metropolis ofTomorrow. New York: Ives Washburn, 1929, 113.)
248
Figure 9. "Advertisement: The New Business of Retailing Money," for the Household
Finance Corporation, Fortune Magazine (January, 1932), 92. (Reprinted from Roland
Marchand, Advertising the American Dream: Making Wayfor Modernity, 1920-1940.
Berkeley: University of California Press, 1985, 255.)
~~"
7<E»f STMJCTUREVHtRE THIS JEAR WJLL REAR T01YERS" PIERCMG .ilHE SK* HIOHER THAU JUE LIBERTY MEMORIAL SHATT.
Figure 10. Comparison of tall buildings in Kansas City. (Reprinted from "New Structures
Here This Year Will Rear Towers Piercingthe Sky Higher than the Liberty Memorial
Shaft." The Kansas City Star, 11 May 1930, Dl.)
SOUTHWESTERN BELL TELEPHONE COMPANY BUILDING. 1917-1919 AND 1924-1929
In 1917, the Southwestern Bell Telephone Company hired Henry F. Hoit to work
with their company architect to design the Administration and Equipment Building
(currently known as Oak Tower) at located at 324 East 1 lth Street (Figure 11). This
headquarters building was built in two phases, the first phase demonstrating a revival
style typical of the firm's oeuvre before World War I and used standard technology used
in a tall commercial building. The company needed to expand its space and in 1929, Hoit,
Price & Barnes used advances in technologies and changes in building codes to add
fourteen additional floors making it the tallest building in the city until another building
by the firm surpassed it a short time later.
During the consolidation of the telephone companies that resulted in the largest
corporation in the world, the Southwestern Bell Telephone Company chose Kansas City
as its headquarters.44 A 1912 biography of an executive revealed the relative newness of
the telephone technology, especially long-distance service:
In 1878, Alexander Graham Bell, Gardiner G. Hubbard, and Thomas Sanders formed the Bell
Telephone Company in New Haven, Connecticut, to exploit Bell's invention, the telephone. Through
several mergers the company was renamed American Bell Telephone Company. In 1882, American Bell
acquired controlling interest in the Western Electric Company, which became its manufacturing unit.
Gradually, American Bell came to own most of Western Electric's licenses, collectively known as the Bell
System. On 2 March 1885, the American Telephone and Telegraph Company was incorporated, a
subsidiary of American Bell charged to build a long distance telephone network.
After BelPs patent expired in 1894, over 6,000 independent telephone companies went into
business in the United States bringing the telephone to previously unwired areas—the number of
telephones increased from 285,000 to 3,317,000 between 1894 and 1904. Unfortunately, there was no
interconnection between the companies and subscribers to different companies could not call each other.
On 1 March 1912, the unified management of the Bell System Consolidated the Missouri and Kansas
Telephone Company (founded in 1882) with the Southwestern Telegraph and Telephone Company of
Texas-Arkansas, the Pioneer Telephone and Telegraph Company of Oklahoma, and the Bell Telephone
Company of Missouri. In 1920, when these companies merged under the named Southwestern Bell
Telephone Company, it became the largest corporation in the world. The Bell System was a governmentsanctioned monopoly regulated by the U. S. F. C. C.
250
.. .he is living and working in the hope of seeing at no distant day the
telephone regarded as much a necessity in every house as the sewing
machine and the refrigerator are today. He believes, in the view of the
present rapid development of the industry, it is only a question of a decade
or so before telephone conversation over long distance lines will be as
common as local service is now, and even cheaper.45
When the company secured Henry F. Hoit as architect, he was in the midst of
designing Tulsa's first skyscraper for oil baron Joshua Cosden, a 16-story building
completed in 1918 (Figure 12).46 The Cosden Building used a then-popular neo-Gothic
In 1974, the U. S. government filed an antitrust suit against AT&T. In its 1982 settlement, AT&T
agreed to divest itself of the Bell operating system—long distance separated from local service. Divestiture
on 1 January 1984 rendered the Bell System dead. Instead, the United States had a new AT&T (long
distance) and seven regional Bell operating companies. However, from 1920 to 1999, the Southwestern
Bell Telephone Company was branded as Southwestern Bell. In 2000, the telephone system was
restructured again and Southwestern Bell Telephone Company is now a subsidiary of AT&T with its
headquarter in Dallas, Texas. See "History of AT&T" in AT&T Corporate [Web Site] (Dallas, Texas:
AT&T Intellectual Property, 2005, accessed 27 November 2009); available from
http ://www.corp.att.com/history/; Internet.
45
Eugene D. Nims, a Bank Director and the First Vice President and Treasurer of the
Southwestern Group of Bell Telephone Companies, came from Oklahoma and had interests in Texas,
Oklahoma, Arkansas, and Louisiana. See "Eugene D. Nims." in Men ofAffairs in Greater Kansas City,
edited by The Kansas City Press Club, 210-11 (Kansas City: Gate City Press, 1912).
In 1919, he was elected president of the Southwestern Bell Telephone Company and moved the
headquarters from Kansas City to St. Louis the following year. See "Eugene Dutton Nims." In Missouri:
Special Limited Supplement, 210-11 (Chicago: The American Historical Society, Inc., 1920).
46
"Office Building for Cosden and Co., Tulsa, Olka." American Architect 115, no. 2270 (1919):
plates 212-15. In 1910, Joshua Cosden (1881-1940) established a refinery in Bigheart, Oklahoma, and then
in Tulsa in 1913. He incorporated the Cosden Pipe Line Company and the Cosden Oil and Gas Company
controlling the crude oil and its transportation to his refinery. In 1917, he Consolidated these into Cosden
and Company under Delaware law. Around 1917, his wealth was estimated at $35-50 million and he
maintained houses in New York, Florida, and Rhode Island. Henry F. Hoit completed his Tulsa residence.
Aviation went hand in hand with the oil industry and in 1919 Tulsans had accomplished the nation's first
interstate shipment of goods by air, from Tulsa to Kansas City. Perhaps Cosden became acquainted with
Hoit, Price & Barnes during earlier trips, or sought the firm because of their reputation. Cosden lost his
fortune in the Depression, but built it up again before he died in 1940. See "Cosden's Rise From Clerk to
Oil Chief Oklahoma Romance," Daily Oklahoman (Oklahoma City), 21 April 1918; "Business: Cosden to
Cover" Time Magazine, 15 July 1935; Kenny Franks, The Rush Begins: A History of the Red Fork,
Cleveland and Glenn Pool Oil Fields (Oklahoma City: Oklahoma a Heritage Association, 1984); and Carl
Gregory, "Tulsa" in Oklahoma Historical Society's Encylopedia of Oklahoma History & Culture [Web
Site] (Stillwater, Oklahoma: Oklahoma State University Electronic Publishing Center, 2007, accessed 27
November 2009); available from http://digital.library.okstate.edU/encyclopedia/entries/T/TU003.html;
Internet.
Hoit, Price, & Barnes designed Cosden's private railroad car, which was lavishly decorated by W.
Baumgarten and Co. See Barnes Collection, 012.017, Western Historie Manuscripts Collection, Kansas
City (WHMC-KC).
251
style similar to that used in the Southwestern Bell Telephone Building. The floor plan
of the Cosden building was simple—open on the first floor, simple arrangement of
offices on intermediate floors, and an open promenade on the roof (Figure 13). The neoGothic details in the terra cotta are especially similar to the Southwestern Bell Telephone
Building in Kansas City (Figure 14).47
Design of the Southwestern Bell Telephone Building began in 1917 and Henry
Hoit worked with I. R. Timlin who as the Southwestern Bell Telephone Company
architect that worked from St. Louis served as associate architect (Figure 15).48 The
Kansas City building was the first of many Southwestern Bell Telephone buildings
completed during Timlin's career. In 1919, the Swenson Construction Company
completed construction of the twenty-story building consisting of fourteen floors used as
office space and six floors for heavy telecommunication machinery and a pipe gallery.49
The floor plan of the Southwestern Bell Telephone Company Building in Kansas
City was similar to that of the R. A. Long Building (see Chapter III) (Figure 16). The
elevator lobby formed the center of both plans with the elevator shafts, stairs, and service
areas nearby concentrating the weight of the building in the center.50 Both buildings had a
large open room to the left of the main entrance; the telephone building had a storeroom
rather than a banking room. An open light court on both buildings surrounded a sky lit
room on the first floor; the telephone building used it for commercial space. Offices on
47
The Cosden Building (now the Mid-Continent Building) was added to the National Register of
Historie Places (NR-79002029) in 1979 and remains one of Tulsa's most recognizable buildings.
Giles Carroll Mitchell, There Is No Limit: Architecture and Sculpture in Kansas City. Kansas
City: Brown-White Company, 1934, 88.
49
The structure was erected without one human sacrifice, and only one injury. See Mitchell. 91.
50
Mitchell. 91.
252
upper floors were arranged around central corridors so that most offices had access to
windows around the court and had increased light and ventilation.
The neo-Gothic style chosen for both the Cosden Building and the Southwestern
Bell Telephone Building was in keeping with a national trend. Mitchell recalled that even
as construction progressed on the Southwestern Bell Telephone Building, Edwin Price
devoted many hours to the preparation of many full-sized drawings. From prints of these
drawings, H. F. Simon modeled the designs in clay.51 During the nineteenth century, the
Gothic style had become especially associated with cathedrals and its adaptation for tall
office buildings related to the idea of a "cathedral of commerce."52 In addition to the
winning entry to the Chicago Tribune tower competition (mentioned earlier), the
Woolworth Building in New York (1913) and the Wrigley Building in Chicago (19191924) are two notable examples of the style.
Soon after the Southwestern Bell Telephone Building in Kansas City was
completed in 1919, the corporation outgrew its headquarters building.53 As the economy
expanded, land values in the downtown business district rose accordingly, thus making
vertical expansion more desirable. The architects discovered that the Southwestern Bell
Telephone Building would be an excellent candidate as three conditions coalesced to
allow for vertical expansion: (1) the actual loads of the machinery were less than the
estimated loads; (2) the Kansas City Building Code was amended to allow for increased
stresses on the existing steel structure; (3) new lightweight concrete was developed.
51
Mitchell. 91.
52
Edwin A. Cochran, The Cathedral of Commerce: The Highest Building in the World (New
York: Broadway Park Place Company, 1916).
53
In 1926, the company moved its headquarters to a new massive building in St. Louis.
253
The original plan devoted six floors to heavy telecommunication machinery
and a pipe gallery. Hoit, Price & Barnes designed the building with heavy floor
construction to support estimated live loads per square inch of 400 pounds for the battery
rooms, 175 pounds for certain equipment floors, 150 pounds for the remaining equipment
floors (up to and including the eleventh floor), and 75 pounds for the twelfth floor and
those above.54 However, after completion, a survey of the existing building showed that
the actual live loads for equipment were less than expected.
Kansas City amended its building code to include the Standard Specification of
the American Institute of Steel Construction, which permitted increased fiber stresses in
figuring the flexure of steel to 18,000 pounds and the maximum stress in columns to
15,000 pounds per square inch.55 Additionally, the improved steel reinforcement reduced
the amount of concrete needed in columns resulting in an overall reduction of weight of
floor construction.56 The columns erected in 1919 for a twenty-story building were
designed according to the existing building codes. The new code increased the maximum
compressive stress to 15,000 pounds per square inch allowing the existing columns to
carry the weight of additional stories. A danger of increasing the loads on the existing
columns was an increase in elastic compression. The terra cotta facing on the lower
54
Arthur T. North, "The Experience of Buildings: Some of the Exigencies of Modern
Architectural Practice." The American Architect, advanced copy located in the WHMC-KC (1928): 613.
55
The American Institute of Steel Construction formed as an association of steel manufacturers to
promote uniform practice in the industry, including setting standards for the design, fabrication, and
erection of structural steel for buildings. Beginning in the early 1920s, they developed the Standards
Specification for Structural Steel for Buildings adopted by the American Institute of Steel Construction in
1923. Updated over the years, this code is used today. See J. Stanley Rabun, Structural Analysis of Historie
Buildings: Restoration, Preservation, and Adaptive Reuse Applications for Architects and Engineers (New
York: John Wiley & Sons, 2000), 212-214.
56
"First Buildings Employing Structural Lightweight Concrete" in Lightweight Concrete, 9-11.
Washington: Expanded Shale Clay and Slate Institute, 1971, 9.
254
stories would not take the added compression and expansion occurring in hot weather
without damage to the facing, so horizontal expansion joints filled with permanently
elastic cement were cut all around the building at alternating floors, just beneath the steel
shelf-angles, which supported the facing.57
The third condition came from an innovation in the concrete material. Research
during World War I improved the durability and strength of lightweight concrete and, by
1919, lightweight structural concrete offered the building industry significant
construction economies.58 This concrete used a coarse aggregate of crushed, vitrified,
burned shale rather than limestone and weighed 100 pounds per cubic foot while
limestone concrete weighed 150 pounds per cubic foot.59 A concrete block of this
material still offered a high degree of insulation, nominal shrinkage factor, and uniform
compressive strength equal or superior to heavyweight block with cement content.
Founded in 1920, the Haydite Company in Kansas City, Missouri, introduced shale
aggregate to the commercial construction market.60 In 1922, Hoit, Price & Barnes likely
witnessed an experiment using this material in the new gymnasium at the Westport High
School in Kansas City, originally constructed c. 1913 (Figure 17). Architect Charles A.
Smith used this material because of the poor load-bearing characteristics of the soil on the
site.61 Hoit, Price & Barnes were the first to employ shale aggregate in a major building
"North, 618.
58
"First Buildings Employing Structural Lightweight Concrete," 9.
59
North, 614.
60
The Haydite Company in Kansas City, Missouri, was the first commercial plant dedicated to
expanded shale aggregate in 1920.
61
"First Buildings Employing Structural Lightweight Concrete," 10.
Charles Ashley Smith (1867-1948) began working in the architectural offices of Bell and Hackney
in Iowa at age 16. In 1887 as a draftsman, he came to Kansas City with William Hackney, his partner,
255
project in 1928-1929. Architectural engineer Alfred Barnes calculated that the use of
shale aggregate concrete with strength of 2,400 pounds per square inch saved 33-1/3% in
dead weight.62 By adopting a 50 pound per square foot live load for all the new floors
(except three where 125 pound was used), they could use a lighter two-way solid floor
lightweight concrete slab construction and further reduce the live and dead loads.63 They
also adopted the lighter weight concrete for roof slabs and fireproofing.64
With the lightweight concrete, the exterior columns could support a maximum
twenty-four stories and the interior columns thirty stories (Figure 18). Setbacks at the
twenty-second and twenty-fifth floors equalized the difference by transferring a portion
of the exterior wall load to the first row of the interior columns.65 This design complied
with the Kansas City zoning ordinance, which ordered a setback at 180-feet above the
grade.66 With this material and certain design considerations, they could add fourteen
floors (conventional concrete permitted only eight) allowing Hoit, Price & Barnes to
nearly double the aboveground height of the building. Now with twenty-eight floors, the
coming five years later. Smith served as architect to the Kansas City School Board from 1898 to his
retirement in 1936. In his career, he designed more than 50 schools in the Kansas City School District. As a
principal in the firm Smith, Rea & Lovitt form 1910 to 1921, he designed the YMCA Building at 1822 The
Paseo, the Kansas City Club on Baltimore and the Firestone Building on Grand. He completed the Fine
Arts Building (1941) on the UMKC campus and the Unity Temple at 47* and Jefferson (1948) as a solo
architect.
"North, 614.
"North, 614-615.
64
The Kansas City zoning ordinance ordered a setback at 180-feet above the grade. See North,
618 and Mitchell, 89-90.
65
Backing up the terra cotta faced walls with Haydite concrete brick gave a minor dead load gain.
See North, 615.
66
North, 618 and Mitchell, 89-90.
256
Southwestem Bell Telephone Building became the highest building in the state with a
distance from the sidewalk to the top of the building of 392-feet.67
Of seven distinct designs developed, Hoit, Price & Barnes chose the most
pleasing and practical from the engineering standpoint.68 The additional floors furnished
the large open floor area allowing the company the greatest flexibility in its use (Figure
19). The additional height increased wind stresses on the building. The light court caused
a greater proportion of force concentrated on the east and west wings. To counter this, the
architects braced the wings together with trasses across the outer end of the court at the
thirteenth, sixteenth, and nineteenth floors (Figure 20). The trusses encased with
concrete were faced with terra cotta. Wind stresses required reinforcement of four interior
columns through the fourteenth story and pipe gallery. Twelve l-Vi-inch bars and heavy
banding reinforced the columns from the thirteenth to the sixteenth floors.69
When completed, the building addition showed a total dead load reduction of
more than nine million pounds through use of lightweight expanded shale aggregate.70
The Expanded Shale and Clay Institute noted that after 28 days compressive strength of
the lightweight concrete was 3,500 pounds per square inch, which was an unprecedented
The Kansas City Power & Light Building is a much higher building now. Nevertheless, the
telephone building may claim a little glory in the fact that the ball on top of the flagpole was the highest
man-made object in the state of Missouri. See Mitchell. 90.
68
Of the seven schemes developed, the ration of usable floor area to cubic foot volume varied
from 1:18.3 to 1:16.75 in the final design. In this design, the completed structure was twenty-eight stories,
with fourteen floors added instead of six, a gain of 133-1/3 per cent. See North, 614.
69
70
North, 615.
Six-million-pounds through the use of lightweight structural concrete, and three-million-pounds
through the use of Haydite brick in the walls in place of structural clay units.
257
high at the time, "and the building has stood for almost 40 years as a demonstration of
the practicality and economics of lightweight structural concrete."71
Architectural historian George Ehrlich stated: "The two-part construction of the
Telephone Building argued for a continuation of an earlier mode of cladding design."72
But it was not so straightforward; Timlin seemed to have suddenly and completely shifted
styles around 1928. In 1924, he completed a telephone building in Tulsa in a neo-Gothic
style. Then, he worked with Mauran, Russell & Crowell of St. Louis on a massive new
headquarters building in St. Louis, completed in 1926, which was also neo-Gothic style
(Figure 21).73 In 1928, Timlin used a stripped down Art Deco Style for the residential
exchange building in Houston.74 In 1930, Timlin then returned to Tulsa to vertically
expand the building he finished in 1924. The Tulsa building straddled his stylistic shift
and he chose an Art Deco style for the 1930 expansion resulting in neo-Gothic styling on
the lower portion and Art Deco on the upper floors (Figure 22).75 Anachronistically, for
the San Antonio building built between 1931 and 1932 at the height of the Art Deco
style, Timlin turned to an exuberant Baroque ornament (Figure 23).76
"First Buildings Employing Structural Lightweight Concrete," 10. The concrete was mixed onsite, uncommon before the day of the ready-mix plant, with relatively crude mixing equipment. Technical
problems in producing uniform and workable mix and forming the concrete in columns and beam forms
were overcome with the expertise developed at the University of Kansas.
72
Ehrlich, 92.
73
This building remained the tallest building in the city until 1969.
74
The Southwestern Bell Telephone Building in Houston cost Sl.7 million and served 14,500
customers. See Houston Chronicle, 8 April 1928.
75
Mary Ann Anders, "Public Utility Buildings Constructed in the Zig-Zag Art Deco Style in
Tulsa, Ok 1924-1930" in Inventory Nomination Form, edited by Preservation Office Oklahoma Historical
Society (Tulsa, Oklahoma: National Register of Historie Places, 1982), 3.
76
Jay C. Henry, Architecture in Texas, 1895-1945 (Austin, Texas: University of Texas Press,
1993), 183.
Although the Southwestern Bell Telephone Company dealt in a new
technology, it was a large and conservative company.77 Decades later, in 1982, company
architect Ben Ball stated why two different styles were chosen for the building in Tulsa:
Southwestern Bell is a conservative company operated by conservative
men. Naturally, their building reflects this. Since in the early 20's Gothic
architecture was 'mainstream' that was what was built. By the time of the
1930 addition, however, Art Deco was a well established commercial
style.78
Fortunately, the levels of the Kansas City building did not show a sudden stylistic
shift like layers of earth on an archaeological site as the Tulsa building had. The 1928
expansion corresponded to the original 1919 neo-Gothic stylistic choice. The
Southwestern Bell Telephone Building was expected to remain the tallest building in
Kansas City. As such, the south, east and west facades assumed primary design. The
building was located on the northwest corner of 11* and Oak Street with the east and
south facades facing streets with the main entrance on the south. The west facade, or
alley elevation, assumed the same importance as the east and south facades because it
faced the heart of downtown retail district.79 As in the original building, tall finials
capped the top level of the 1929 addition (Figure 24).80 The terra cotta facing allowed
more opportunities for enriching ornament at an economical cost (Figure 25). Hoifs
"The telephone company provided equipment capable of taking care of any emergency. For
instance, anticipating the possibility of something happening to the city's electric power, the company
equipped the plant with storage batteries to supply immediate power, and a dynamo that, if the current
remained off for any length of time, could supply enough power to maintain uninterrupted service." See
Mitchell. 91.
78
Anders, 3.
79
North, 618.
80
Lightning struck the original building several times shattering the tops of the finials. To protect
the ornamental finials, platinum-tipped bronze air terminals projected through the tops of higher finials at
the setback levels and the top. These air terminals acted as lightning rods by grounding the finials to the
steel frame by brass pipes and copper cables. See North, 618 and Mitchell. 90-91.
259
office specified the anchoring of each piece of terra corta to the frame of the
building.81 The deeply pierced terra cotta gave the building strong contrasts at higher
elevations, especially when illuminated by floodlights at night (Figure 26). The battery of
200 floodlights, with 500-candle-power, was officially turned on the night on 23 May
1929 to the amazement of spectators.82 Mr. E. T. Mahood, after gazing upon the building
and the wonderful lights, remarked, "It is truly a cathedral of communication."83
Hyperbolically, Henry M. Wethy proclaimed:
... suddenly a sight of dazzling beauty and splendor breaks on my vision.
Standing out above the foggy cloud mists, far to the west, is a castle that
eclipses all my childhood fancies; a castle far more glorious, far more
splendid, far more inspiring than any Taj Mahal that ever housed the ashes
of earthly greatness. All my dreams of the beauties of the spires of
Byzantium, when the sun touches them from across the Bosphorus [Strait],
are realized. The majesty and grandeur of a Spanish castle, the fantasies of
the pleasure dome of Kubla Khan, the richness of ancient Atlantis, are
mine for a moment and I am inspired, and my soul is lifted above the
sordid hum of a great city setting its machinery in motion. The sun has
broken through the upper mists and shines lovingly on the new addition to
the Telephone Building as it looms far above the dark, damp mists, gilting
[sic] it with an overlay of purest gold.
I do not know who designed the upper stories of our new addition, but the
man who did it has imagination, and imagination is God-given. If he has
not yet seen the results of his mind and pencil as the rising sun kisses its
eastern face, high above the cloud banks, on a misty morning, he has not
yet realized how much he has added to the little beauty in this wistful life
of ours, or how much he has added to the grace and elegance of the city as
a whole.84
81
Mitchell. 90-91.
82
Lighting displays were planned for every Saturday and Sunday nights.
83
[Kansas City Star, April 1929], article from Vertical File--Southwestern Bell Building, MVSC.
Other articles in this file are dated April, 1929.
84
Henry M. Wethy, article perhaps cut from the Kansas City Star, available in the Vertical File on
the Southwestern Bell Building of the Missouri Valley Special Collections. Other articles in this file dated
April 1929.
260
The Architectural League of Kansas City presented the Southwestern Bell
Telephone Administration Building the Medal Award for Excellence in Architectural
Design in 1929 in the commercial classification.85 In the spring of 1929, Hoit, Price &
Barnes moved their offices from the Davidson Building to the Southwestern Bell
Telephone Building, leasing the western half of the twenty-fifth floor, which opened on
to a tile paved terrace.86
Hoit, Price & Barnes seized the opportunities to expand their building upwards
with excellent results and encouraging other firms to expand vertically. Additionally,
many cities amended or removed the laws that limited building heights. In a 1928 article
in The American Architect, Arthur North reported: "The practical surety of expansion and
increased land values resulted in many buildings being erected with foundations and
columns designed to support future added stories."87
Promotional material produced by the Southwestern Bell Telephone Company
conveyed faith in the ever-growing economy, boasting:
Last year $4,100,000 was expended to provide additional telephone cable,
build new lines, add switchboards, and place two more dial offices in
service. $21,000,000 will be expended for similar enlargement of plant
and equipment during the five years from 1928-1932 inclusive.88
The Architectural League of Kansas City (ALKC) and the Kansas City Chapter of the American
Institute of Architects (AIA-KC) never treated each other as rivals; they worked together on architectural
issues that concerned all Kansas City architects. By May 1930, the ALKC and AIA-KC voted to
amalgamate the two organizations. See George Ehrlich, "The Rise and Demise of the Architectural League
of Kansas City [with a Note on Architectural Record Keeping in the Region]." Kawsmouth: A Journal of
Regional History 1, no. 2 (1999): 64-73.
86
Mitchell. 91-92.
87
North, 613-20.
88
"Climbing Upward" promotional material from the Southwestern Bell Telephone Company,
Vertical File on the Southwestern Bell Building of the Missouri Valley Special Collections. Other articles
in this file dated April 1929.
Even after the stock market crashed, the company stayed optimistic and Hoit, Pnce &
Barnes finished additions in 1931. While working on these additions, the firm was also
completing two excellent examples of tall office buildings in the Art Deco style which
are the subject of the next part: the Fidelity Bank Building and the Kansas City Power &
Light Building.89
The Southwestern Bell Telephone Building was modernized beyond recognition in the mid
1970s and renamed "Oak Tower." See Appendix.
262
Figure 11. Hoit, Price & Barnes and I. R. Timlin, Southwestern Bell Telephone Building.
(Reprinted from Robert Askren Photograph Collection, P35, Box 1, Folder 10, #1, MVSC
and George Ehrlich, Kansas City, Missouri: An Architectural History, 1826-1990.
Columbia, Missouri: University of Missouri Press, 1979, 90.)
Figure 12. Hoit, Price & Barnes, Cosden Building, Tulsa, Oklahoma, 1919. (Reprinted
from "Office Building for Cosden and Co., Tulsa, Okla." American Architect 115, no.
2270 (1919): plate 212.)
-4-—dl n jf Z
I— ,_^ ,i...i4...tiJ
.****#
Figure 13. Hoit, Price & Barnes, Cosden Building, Tulsa, Oklahoma, 1919, plans.
(Reprinted from "Office Building for Cosden and Co., Tulsa, Okla." American Architect
115, no. 2270 (1919): plate 213.)
\
•"'f
:
•^'^C - o • 6 - o ; ^
-\>
-;>_
"'»*"
li:
- ,j
Figure 14. Hoit, Price & Barnes, Cosden Building, Tulsa, Oklahoma, 1919, facade details.
(Reprinted from "Office Building for Cosden and Co., Tulsa, Okla." American Architect
115, no. 2270 (1919): plate 214-215.)
264
ti»'»': lin:-' tmmm
]|.'!.»V.u..' U l J>. ?»ÆSSff!»
<«S -*> - * •
• •> *~»
^*-*
r~»
*£>• rtf r+»
•» **f |
.ST i« sti ii l i i 151 H
''? W
ilii fli
fii fff
w ''i?•'v?
mBå
ll!l
HSSSri/tf
iSfe:
Figure 15. Hoit, Price & Barnes, Southwestern Bell Telephone Building, 1919, facade.
(Reprinted from "Main Office Building, Southwestern Bell Telephone Co., Kansas City,
Mo." American Architect l\6, no. 2284 (1919): Plate 123.)
-»
>
T
.fl:-
*
l
r
• L ^ L »
i
f
j
•Th
L- -;.:! - . t : : l .::!••
i
~4
• J — r l _ J tT._^
i4
. *.1.1-1-4-
Figure 16. Hoit, Price & Barnes, Southwestern Bell Telephone Building, 1919, plan for
first and thirteenth floors. (Reprinted from "Main Office Building, Southwestern Bell
Telephone Co., Kansas City, Mo." American Architect 116, no. 2284 (1919): Plate 124.)
265
Figure 17. Charles A. Smith, Westport High School, Kansas City. (Reprinted from
William C. Bruce, High School Buildings. Milwaukee: The American School Board
Journal, 1913, 75.)
Figure 18. Hoit, Price & Barnes, Southwestern Bell Telephone Building, 1928,
construction; side facade, left; rear fa9ade with light well, right. (Reprinted from Arthur T.
North, "The Experience of Buildings: Some of the Exigencies of Modern Architectural
Practice." The American Architect (1928): 616 advanced copy in the WHMC-KC.)
266
r
f""T""l
i
L
r " "*""» s" " i
TTJ
i
• U t
i
.
I/
- J
(TL
tj
i j
*\«f
- pi
'—s
.
i
fr
ent
(
- Vi
t f • « m,
:
M}=h l- T i H H ! • IK'; RF] II" !*! " h i [X • *
«.— i . i. i . _. i , J t. *s.. - . . . . *. *. v! a
* ' I' t ' I' i ".1
Figure 19. Hoit, Price & Barnes, Southwestera Bell Telephone Building, 1928, plan of the
16th, 19th, and 22nd floors. (Reprinted from Arthur T. North, "The Experience of
Buildings: Some of the Exigencies of Modern Architectural Practice." The American
Architect (1928): 616 advanced copy in the WHMC-KC.)
Figure 20. Hoit, Price & Barnes, Southwestern Bell Telephone Building Headquarters, as
it looks today; upper stories south and east facade (left), lower stories, center; west and
north facades (right). (Photographs by author, 2009.)
267
Figure 21. Mauran, Russell & Crowell and I. R. Timlin, Southwestern Bell Telephone
Building, St. Louis, 1926. (Reprinted from "St. Louis Buildings," in Vince's St. Louis
[Website]. St. Louis, 2005, accessed 27 November 2009; available
http://www.vincesstlouis.com/buildings/bl 16.html; Internet.)
Figure 22.1. R. Timlin, Southwestern Bell Telephone Switching Building, Tulsa,
Oklahoma, 1929. (The Beryl Ford Collection/Rotary Club of Tulsa, Tulsa Historical
Society, Tulsa City-County Library.)
268
Figure 23.1. R. Timlin, Southwestern Bell Telephone Building, San Antonio, Texas, 193132. (Reprinted from Jay C. Henry, Architecture in Texas, 1895-1945. Austin, Texas:
University of Texas Press, 1993, 183.)
Figure 24. People atop the Southwestern Bell Telephone Building watching the Graf
Zeppelin, 28 August 1929. (General Collection, P l , Aircraft-Blimps, #4, MVSC.)
269
•,*r
Figure 25. Hoit, Price & Barnes, Southwestern Bell Telephone Building, detail of terra
cotta. (Reprinted from George Ehrlich, Kansas City, Missouri: An Architectural History,
1826-1990. Columbia, Missouri: University of Missouri Press, 1979, 91.)
- t.
Figure 26. Hoit, Price & Barnes, Southwestern Bell Telephone Building, 1928, details of
1 lth street spandrels. (Reprinted from Arthur T. North, "The Experience of Buildings:
Some of the Exigencies of Modern Architectural Practice." The American Architect
(1928): 616 advanced copy, located in the WHMC-KC.)
ART DECO SKYSCRAPERS: FIDELITY BANK AND KANSAS CITY POWER & LIGHT BUILDINGS
As Hoit, Price & Barnes added the finishing touches to their 392-foot
Southwestern Bell Telephone Building in 1929, two more tall offices buildings were
underway that would stretch the skyline into the heavens (Figure 27). The design
processes for the Fidelity Bank and the Kansas City Power & Light (KCP&L)
overlapped, but the Fidelity Bank Building was completed first in 1930 and at 465 feet
became the tallest building in Missouri (Figure 28). Then in 1931, the 487-foot tall
KCP&L Building raised the skyline 31-stories with a crowning 97-foot-high tower and
became Missouri's tallest building (Figure 29).90
These tall buildings were the result of a speculative real estate market and
corporate consolidation that began during World War I and flourished under laissez-faire
policies of U. S. Presidents Warren G. Harding and Calvin Coolidge. Like the telephone
companies (discussed previously), the electricity and banking industries Consolidated.
Appointed company president in 1917, Joseph Porter oversaw the electric company's
1919 expansion and reincorporation as the Kansas City Power & Light Company
(KCP&L).91 Likewise, the Fidelity National Bank and Trust Company (Fidelity Bank)
A building's exact height is difficult to measure because of expansion/shrinking and the
decision to include sub-levels or surmounting antennae. The height of the KCP&L Building varies between
470 and 487 feet tall. The ground level of the SWBT Building is nearly 50 feet higher than the ground of
the KCP&L Building makes the SWBT Building appear higher. See "Tallest Building in Missouri?" The
Fidelity Spirit, February 1932,18; Tim Engle, "Lighting the Way: Things Are Looking up for the Power &
Light Building." The Kansas City Star, 2001, [6]; "How High Is Up? Or How Do You Measure
Buildings?" The Powerlite (1955): 4-5; "Highest Man Made Point in Missouri." The Udylite News 4, no. 1
(1932): 1; and Giles Carroll Mitchell, There Is No Limit: Architecture andSculpture in Kansas City.
Kansas City: Brown-White Company, 1934, 88 and 146.
91
Joseph Franklin Porter (1863-1942) studied civil engineering at Iowa State College in Ames by
gas lamp while Thomas A. Edison and J. H. Vale put electric lights to practical use in the small mill town
of Appleton, Wisconsin. Porter graduated in 1884 and was unable to find employment in the railroad
271
continued to grow and acquire other banks.92 Joseph Porter commissioned Hoit, Price
& Barnes to design the KCP&L Company's first building to consolidate its offices in one
building. Similarly, in August 1931, Henry C. Flower, Fidelity Bank's founder and
chairman of the board of directors, summed up the bank's situation:
It must be self-evident that there is neither economy nor efficiency in
conducting one business in disconnected and unrelated buildings. We were
thus confronted with the important problem of eliminating this waste and
concentrating our working forces. Our new building will obviate all of this
waste and bring all departments under one roof and one directing head.
This saving along would amply justify a new building.93
With work flowing into the office of Hoit, Price & Barnes, in 1929, the architects
moved into the 25 th floor of their newest major building, the Southwestern Bell
Telephone Building. They were working at capacity on drawings for the KCP&L
Building (among others) when they received a commission for a tall office building for
the Fidelity Bank. This commission allowed Hoit, Price & Barnes to expand their
practice and rent an additional floor above their current offices with views of the
downtown center that they were transforming. Giles Mitchell, who observed the
architects' office at work, described the division of labor within the firm:
industry, so he began work as a lineman for the new light and power company in Des Moines. After three
years, Edison appointed Porter to rebuild the already obsolete Appleton plant and after completing this task,
Porter rose as an innovatør in the electricity field and headed the Kansas City Power and Light Company
from 1917 to 1938. Giles Mitchell described him as a "large, friendly, healthy looking individual with a
closely clipped mustache." See Mitchell, 93.
The nåme Kansas City Power and Light Company was changed in 1921 with the consolidation of
the Carroll County Electric Company—they replaced the word "and" with an ampersand. See Robert A.
Olson, Kansas City Power & Light Company: The First Ninety Years (New York: The Newcomen Society
of North America, 1972), 15-17.
92
In 1919, the National City Bank of Kansas City merged with the Fidelity Trust Company and
the bank became the Fidelity National Bank and Trust Company, which expanded with the acquisitions of
the New England National Bank and Trust Company in 1929 and the Western Exchange and the Liberty
National Banks in 1930. See "Historical" in The Fidelity Spirit, February 1932, 6.
93
Mitchell, 142-143.
272
In the architect's office, each of the three members of the firm shared in the
responsibility. Mr. Hoit studied just how to get the most satisfactory
building with the available funds. Mr. Price with pencil and tracing paper
worked to see how graceful and ornamental he could make the structure.
Mr. Barnes gave most of his attention to questions relating to the structural
and mechanical features, which were usually numerous in that building.
[Mr. Hoit oversaw all work executed in the office.] In the drafting room,
the general drawings were made under the direction of Mr. Meriwether,
the mechanical drawings under the direction of Mr. Cassell, and the
structural drawings under the direction of Mr. Glass.. ,94
When the firm received the bank commission, architect Kent Frohwerk left
Dennison & Hirons of New York and returned to Hoit, Price & Barnes to become the job
captain for the bank drawings.95 Mitchell described Mr. Frohwerk and the atmosphere of
the staff responsible for the design of the Fidelity Bank Building:
Mr. Frohwerk was tall, slight, his brown mustache waxed and his sandy
hair thinned on top. He was generous with encouragement, and every
draftsman worked to win from him some words of praise. His drafting
table was in the middle of the room. Behind him was a large file of
drawers. On top of the file was an eighth-inch scale model of the building
project, a row of reference books, four metal boxes from Mr. Price's file,
94
Mitchell, 94.
95
David Kent Frohwerk (1898-[unknown, after 1962]) Graduated from the University of Kansas
in 1922. He had been the president of the School of Engineering's honorary architectural society (See
"Whafs Happening on Mount Oread." Graduate Magazine: University of Kansas, May 1922, 9.) At some
point he left for New York City and worked with Dennison & Hirons. He also attended Columbia
University in New York City. They dissolved in 1929, and Frohwerk returned to Hoit, Price & Barnes in
Kansas City. After his work with Hoit, Price & Barnes, which included the Fidelity Building, Telephone
Addition, Tuberculosis Hospital and the Kansas City Athletic Club, Frohwerk worked as an associate
architect along with Robert Bloomgarten under Clarence Kivitt, on the Katz Drug Store in Kansas City in
1934. He was listed in the 1956 and 1962 American Architects Directory. See Richard W. Longstreth, The
drive-in, the supermarket, and the transformation of commercial space in Los Angeles, 1914-1941 (Boston:
MIT Press, 2000), 266 and America Institute of Architects Questionnaire for Architect's Roster and /or
Register of Architects Qualified for Federal Public Works" form, dated 16 May 1946, available from
http://communities.aia.org/sites/hdoaa/wiki/Wiki%20Pages/ahd4000550.aspx.
Dennison & Hirons, established 1909 in New York City with principle architects, Frederick
Charles Hirons (1883-1942) and Ethan Allen Dennison (1881-1954), dissolved in 1929. They produced
many commercial structures in the Beaux-Arts and Art Deco styles and entered the Chicago Tribune
Competition. After the firm dissolved, Hirons formed a two-year partner ship with F. W. Mellor of
Philadelphia and then practiced under his own nåme until he retired in 1940. Dennison continued to
practice in New York as head of Ethan A. Dennison & Associates.
273
and the telephone. Hanging on a rack nearby was his overcoat, one pocket of
which usually bulged with the last detective magazine.
A dozen other draftsmen had their table lined along the windows. In one
corner Mr. Glass and his three men concentrated on steel calculations.
There was good-natured banter. Every noon one of the boys would bring
back a large sack of gumdrops. There was a congenial feeling in the
drafting room that would be hard to duplicate. The mechanical set of
drawings were made downstairs under the direction of Mr. Cassell. Mr.
Brunt was the architecfs superintendent at the job.96
Fidelity Bank Building
Since 1902 the Fidelity Trust Company of Kansas City had operated out of a
building on the southeast corner of Ninth and Walnut Streets known as the "Old Post
Office Building."97 This building's signature clock allowed the bank to adopt the slogan,
"Under the Old Town Clock." In 1905-1906, Howe, Hoit & Cutler (then operating under
the nåme Van Brunt & Howe) designed an addition and lavishly remodeled the interior
and adapted the lower stories for banking functions and the upper stories for rental
purposes (see Appendix) (Figure 30). Even with the expansion, the Fidelity Bank
outgrew their building and eventually rented space in other buildings. The Fidelity Spirit
described the old building as "beautiful in its massive simplicity but wasteful in its great
high ceilings and wide corridors, out modeled and obsolete."98 The bank decided to
96
Mitchell, 144.
97
Chartered on 24 June 1899, the Fidelity Trust Company began in the east room of the main floor
of the prestigious downtown New York Life Building by McKim, Mead & White on July 10, 1899.
The original Post Office Building (later the Federal Court Building) was constructed from 1880-83
with 115 feet on Ninth Street and 168 feet on Walnut Street. See "History of the Old Building from the
Fidelity Spirit of June, 1930" reprinted in the Fidelity Spirit, February 1932, 6-7.
98
The Fidelity National Bank and Trust Company was referred to in short as the Fidelity Trust
Company. Subsidiary companies included Fidelity Savings Trust Company, Fidelity National Corporation,
and the Fidelity Safe Deposit Company. With each merger, they moved tenants out floor by floor, until
274
replace it with a prestigious modem office tower large enough for all bank personnel
with both room to continue to expand and space so the bank could again profit from
renting office space.
With the drawings for both buildings underway, Henry Hoit announced the firm's
intentions for the Fidelity Bank Building:
The structure will be of the highest type of steel frame and will rest upon
solid rock twenty-six feet below the street. The frame will be fireproofed
with concrete and floor slabs will be of reinforced concrete. The clock
towers crowning the building will permit the continuance by the Fidelity
National Bank and Trust Company of their slogan, "Under the Old Town
Clock," and it is this slogan that will furnish the key for the silhouette this
building will give to the Kansas City skyline, the second highest building
in Kansas City and in the state of Missouri."
On the morning of 11 September 1930, men employed by the Monarch Wrecking
Company began to tear down the staunch masonry walls of one of the heaviest and
substantial buildings in Kansas City. This Old Post Office Building had housed the
Kansas City offices of the Federal Government for 16 years and the Fidelity Bank for
another 28 years.100 The Kansas City Journal reported:
The Fidelity, håving outgrown its old quarters, is erecting this unique and
monumental 32-story building, rather than a smaller building to house
only the bank, thus evidencing its faith in the future of our wonderful city
bank departments, except two shops on Walnut Street, occupied the entire building. The bank overflowed
with personnel and rented space at several other locations including the R. A. Long Building.
99
Mitchell, 144-145.
100
Typical of masonry construction before the use of concrete or steel in frame buildings, some of
the walls of the old Post Office Building were four feet thick. See Mitchell, 142.
From Saturday, 30 August 1930 at noon to Labor Day, 1 September 1930, the bank moved into
four locations—at 900 Walnut Street; R. A. Long Building, 10th and Grand; 1000 Grand Avenue; 1012
Grant. The Safe Deposit was moved at 5:00 a. m. Tuesday, 2 September 1930, to begin demolishing the old
building with wreckers on 12 September 1930. See "Chronologically" in The Fidelity Spirit, February
1932, 13.
The Fidelity Bank Building committee obtained the services of Hughes Bryant, who had worked
with the firm on projects since 1907. See Mitchell, 146.
275
and thus also contributing to Kansas City's present development and
dominance.101
Once the Old Post Office building was demolished, the new Fidelity Bank was
quickly constructed on the site, which measured 169 feet 6 inches on Walnut Street and
110 feet 6 inches on Ninth Street with an alley off Ninth Street. Excavation of the bank's
site began on 20 October 1930. After smoothing the sides of the excavation hole, the
placement of sheet piling prevented cave-ins. On 20 November, caissons were carried
down to bedrock 26 feet below the street. The steel frame was erected in only four
months—from 15 December when a steel derrick to 23 April 1931. Common by 1930,
fireproofing concrete encased the steel frame and reinforced concrete floor slabs were
installed. The first tenants moved in less than one year after excavation on 1 October
1931. Only seventeen months after excavation began, the Fidelity Bank re-opened for
business in its new building on Monday morning, 1 February 1932.102
The bank's new edifice rose 465 feet 4 inches above the sidewalk on the southeast
corner of Ninth and Walnut Streets. Including the towers, it equaled a thirty-five-story
building with thirty usable floors plus a sub-basement, which occupied the full width of
the south 48 feet of the property.103 Four equally proportioned, rectangular setbacks
101
"The Fidelity's Contribution." Kansas City Journal Post, 28 December 1930. (MVSC Vertical
File—Buildings—Fidelity.)
102
"Chronologically" in The Fidelity Spirit, February 1932, 13 and "Description of New Fidelity
Bank Building by the Architects, Hoit, Price & Barnes" in The Fidelity Spirit, February 1932, 10.
103
The sub-basement housed only mechanical equipment including transformers, pumps, water
heaters, ventilation plant, and switchboards. See Mitchell, 145-146 and "Description of the New Fidelity
Bank Building," 10.
276
divided the elevation (Figure 31)104 The first setback occurred atop the fourth floor,
80 feet above the sidewalk. The shaft (reduced to 60 by 151 feet) rose to the 26* floor
and set back again (54 by 148 feet) before climbing to the thirty-first floor and roofline of
the main building and topped with twin towers connected by an enclosed arcade.
The facade of the first four stories, which were occupied by the bank, were faced
with better materials than the rest of the buildings; Indiana limestone over a granite base
covered the street facades and the return on the south and east facades with brick and
terra cotta on the alley facade. The remaining fifth to thirty-second floors were finished
with brick and ornamented with terra cotta, as Mr. Doherty of the Thompson-Starrett
Construction Company wrote on 20 January 1931, "We are unable to buy Indiana
Limestone as a substitute for Face Brick on the Fidelity National Bank and Trust
Company Building [because it would cost] a Net Extra to the owners of $30,000.00."105
The models were made by the Kansas City Architectural Decorating Company, which
was chosen over a Chicago company so construction would not be slowed.106
Laws in most cities required setbacks to allow sunlight to reach street level. The 1923 Kansas
City Ordinance mirrored that of New York City and required the first setback to begin at 180 feet above
sidewalk level.
105
Hughes Bryant of R. A. Long Building to J. F. Porter, Lester W. Hall, A. R. Jones, W. D.
Johnson, H. C. Flower, Robt. B. Fizzell, cc Hoit, letter 20 January 1931, WHMC-KC.
io6 j j p g chose a Kansas City firm over a Chicago one for the stone models in a letter dated 28
January 1931: "...We would much prefer to have these models made by Mr. Simons (Kansas City
Architectural Decorating Company). His work is in every way satisfactory and there will be the added
advantage in criticizing the models more often as he goes along, which will, of course, save us considerable
time in not håving to go to Chicago." See Hoit, Price & Barnes to Mr. Doherty dated 28, January, 1931,
WHMC-KC.
The original mold for an ornamental frieze of sunflowers lining a mezzanine-level wall was east in
Joliet, Illinois. See Jim Davis, "Invested in the Past: Developers Renovate Historie Space to Create
Demand from New Users." Kansas City Business Journal 24, no. 7 (2005): 15.
277
The roofs of the clock towers were of copper finished "verde green."107
Because the clock on the new building was at a much higher elevation than the old
building, the architects designed a much larger clock—the largest in the Midwest—with a
diameter of 15 feet, a minute hand 8 feet 6 inches long, and an hour hand 6 feet long.108
The center of the three main entrance doors in the center of the Walnut Street
facade featured a carved marble clock with bronze numerals and hands. A business
entrance on the south end of the Walnut Street facade gave access to the elevator lobby
through a long corridor lined by a eigar stand. Six high-speed passenger elevators rose to
the 33rd floor arcade between the towers. 109
The bank occupied the vault floor through the fourth floor and rented five shops
on the first floor with independent entrances and storefronts facing Walnut Street (Figure
32).110 The first floor centered on public space for the Savings Bank with space for the
Bond Department officers. A handsome marble staircase from the Walnut Street entrance
vestibule provided direct access to the two-story banking room from the street.
Alternately, the handsome elevator lobby with a carved marble frieze and entablature,
and the bronze gates accessed the banking room from the south.
"Description of New Fidelity Bank Building by the Architects, Hoit, Price & Barnes" in The
Fidelity Spirit, February 1932, 10.
108
Mitchell, 145; Jeffrey Spivak, "A Dream of Living High in KC: Skyscraper Condos Planned
Downtown." The Kansas City Star, 24 December 2003, Al.
109
The elevators operated at a speed of 850 feet per minute. At the time, the automatic push button
control and power operated doors on the elevators were remarkable. The banking quarters contained two
private elevators serving the bank floors between the vault and the fourth floor. A freight elevator at the
service entrance of the building served basement and bank floors. A lift located in the sidewalk on Walnut
Street served the sub-basement. See "Description of the New Fidelity Bank Building," 10.
110
The Fidelity Bank's Safe Deposit Company, Trust Department, and Investment Department
occupied the basement. In addition to housing the safe deposit vault, the basement had lobbies, vaults,
committee rooms, coupon booths, printing room, purchasing department, storage rooms, lockers for bank
employees, and ladies' rooms.
278
Hoit, Price & Barnes described the main banking room as "an exceedingly
handsome room of the Classic design with modernized Classic details."111 Mitchell
described it as monumental in character, dignified by restraint, and modem in detail.112 A
mezzanine on the third floor surrounded the second-floor banking room (34 feet 8 inch by
87 feet 6 inches), which measured 38 feet from the marble floor to the ornamental plaster
ceiling. Beneath the mezzanine, a three-foot deep arcade separated the lobby from the
front of the tellers' cages and the officers' space.113
A variety of rich marbles and bronze decorated the banking room and arcade, "the
details of which, while of the spirit of Classic," according to the architects, "reflect the
modern influence of today." Floors of marble and terrazzo used three shades of
Tennessee marble bordered with Belgium Black marble (Figure 33). The open mezzanine
featured an original marble hand railing overlooking the bank room. Black and Florido
créme marbles with gold detailed the pilaster bases, counter fronts, and railing for
officers' spaces. Grand fluted Botticino marble pilasters lined the lobby of the main
111
"Description of Main Banking Room and Executive Offices of Fidelity Bank Building: By the
Architects, Hoit, Price & Barnes," The Fidelity Spirit, February 1932, 13.
112
113
Mitchell, 145-146.
The savings department and the new quarters for handling bonds and investraents were located
on the first floor. See Mitchell, 145-146 and "Description of the New Fidelity Bank Building," 10-11.
This arcade contained cage fronts and officer's quarters—East had 24 wickets for payingreceiving tellers, country collections, and coupon and statement counters; North had 4 wickets for exchange
and 4 wickets for city collections; West had 3 wickets for collaterals, 5 wickets for discounts. Most of the
west side contained space 16 officers, 5 stenographers, 3 consultation rooms, and one private office. Behind
the cages were the posting machines of the accounting department, stenographers, and consultation rooms.
The mezzanine in the southwest corner of the main banking room was the private office for the officers in
charge of out of town bank accounts, and the officers' locker rooms. On the third floor to the east of the
upper part of the bank lobby were the officers for the President and his secretary, the Directors' room
officers for the Chairman of the Board and his secretary, and an office for the Executive Committee. At the
north of the third floor and extending well over into the west side was the Trust Department. The tax,
credit, and mortgage departments occupied the remainder of the west side of the third floor. The fourth
floor was occupied by the country bookkeepers, transit, clearing house, federal reserve, cash collections,
analysis, mailing, auditing and new business departments and the telephone equipment and operators'
room. See "Description of the New Fidelity Bank Building," 10-11 and Mitchell, 145-146.
279
banking room from the base on the second floor to the omamental Florido creme
marble facing the capitals on the third floor. Above the pilasters, an entablature and
ceiling of molded plaster were decorated with colors of marbles—grays and coral with
blues, greens, and gold (Figure 34).11
Chased and etched bronze ornamented the room with American black walnut
details. Three great bronze chandeliers with molded glass illuminated the main lobby
with other bronze lighting fixtures. Bronze cage fronts in the banking room were finished
with a low bronze rail wicket. The gates of the cage fronts and the six 4-by-8-foot check
desks were also beautifully detailed with chased and etched bronze.115 All windows of the
main banking rooms had beautiful mohair curtains.
The executive offices—for the Executive Committee, President, and Directors—
had walnut wainscots, textured walls, decorated plastered ceilings with antique satin
dråpes on the windows and deep pile carpets of black background with figured patterns in
grays, gray-greens and rose covering the floors. The Directors' room (22 by 54 feet) was
more richly adorned—floor to ceiling walnut paneling enriched with hand-carved figures
"Description of Main Banking Room and Executive Offices of Fidelity Bank Building," 13. In
1946, the Federal government installed a drop ceiling to hi de sprinkler pipes and heating and cooling ducts,
which covered the original ceiling. In 2005, Jennifer Walker restored the ornamental plaster ceiling
featuring a zodiac by following old photographs and molds as guides and matching damaged portions of
the plaster to the initial design. Scotiabank financed the $1 million restoration of the bank lobby (now
19,000-square feet of office space), which was directed by Corgan Associates, Inc, Berger Devine Yaeger
Inc. and Berkebile Nelson Immenschuh McDowell Architects with U. S. Engineering Company and Walter
P. Moore. See Fred Blocher, "Taking It from the Top." The Kansas City Star, 3 February 2005, Cl; Charlie
Anderson, "909 Walnut." Supplement to the Kansas City Business Journal, 7-13 April 2006, 12; Jonna
Lorenz, "Commercial, Residential Blend Successfully at 909 Walnut." Kansas City Business Journal 35,
no. 27 (2007): 16 and Davis, 15-17.
115
"Description of Main Banking Room and Executive Offices of Fidelity Bank Building," 13. A
system of pulleys concealed in the ceiling allowed the three large chandeliers in the huge main banking
room to be raised and lowered permitting easy accessibility to clean the etched glass or to replace light
bulbs. See Mitchell, 146.
280
and moldings; door heads and window valances with inserts of rich brown, red, and
gold tooled leather; and a mahogany ceiling embellished in black, red, and gold.116
Each floor above the fourth provided open rental space with ample windows
detailed with a fine grade of American Walnut for all millwork and opening directly to
outside light and unobstructed views. Each floor had restroom facilities for both men and
women and the building had the latest telecommunications equipment available. m A
Hoit, Price & Barnes draftsman was contracted to modify each floor using three-inch
hollow tile partitions—a service designed to encourage corporations to rent entire floors.
Kansas City Power & Light Building
Like the Fidelity Bank Building, construction time for the KCP&L Building was
short—only nineteen months.118 Hoit, Price & Barnes began the design of the KCP&L
Building before the Fidelity Bank Building. However since the engineering design of the
KCP&L Building was more complex, construction began after the Fidelity Bank Building
and was completed in 1931 at a cost of about $4 million.
"Description of Main Banking Room and Executive Offices of Fidelity Bank Building," 13.
117
"Description of Main Banking Room and Executive Offices of Fidelity Bank Building," 11-13.
The SWBT Company installed the latest telephone equipment including 110 telephones, 18 trunk lines
connecting with the downtown exchange, a manual switchboard, and a dial switching installation to handle
the company's 2200 daily calls, all without human operators. This system is familiar to most readers today.
Each telephone had an extension number allowing employees to call within the office using this shortened
number. Additionally, employees making outgoing calls dialed "9" and the dial equipment selected a
vacant trunk line and the dial tone was heard. See "Telephone System of the Most Modern Type: Dial
Inter-Communicating System Installed," The Fidelity Spirit, February 1932, 18-19.
118
The Western Radio Company building was demolished on 7 April 1930. The basement was
excavated between April and June 1930. In July, shoring reinforced walls until steel was in place. See "A
Pictorial History of the Building of Our Building: Photographs Furaished by A. E. Bettis, Vice-President
and Titles Furaished by G. O. Brown." The Tie XII, no. 8 (1932): 4-11.
The Thompson-Starrett Construction Company supervised construction of
both buildings.119The Long Construction Company excavated the site and readied the
foundation.120 The building's foundation extended 42 feet below street level and rested
upon a bed of solid rock. The Kansas City Structural Steel Company began erecting the
steel framework on 4 August 1930 and by 22 September, the steel frame was up to the
fourth floor auditorium where enormous silicon steel girders spanned the auditorium.
These 60 ton girders—the largest steel members ever fabricated in Kansas City—carried
the heavy loads in the framework above the auditorium and the gymnasium.121 The first
six floors of the KCP&L Building contained as much steel as the recently completed 26floor Bryant Building (1930) by Graham, Anderson, Probst & White (Figure 35).122 By
the end of November, the shaft of the skeleton was past the first setback on the sixteenth
floor and was complete by 3 January 1931. Even before the skeleton was complete,
workers began to flesh out the steel skeleton with tons of brick, concrete, and stonework
119
Thompson-Starrett Construction Company of Chicago (general), Merrit & Co. (lockers),
Lonsdale Brothers (general alterations), E. D. Hornbrook (ventilation), Bailey-Reynold Gar Fix Company
(fixtures for the alterations), Henry Oharas (painting, decorating for the alterations), Squire Electric
Company (wiring for alterations), Winslow Brothers Company (bronze gates for the alterations), Swenson
Construction Company (general contractors), Sellers & Marquis Roofing Company (roof contractor), Old
American Company (roof specification)
120
Mitchell, 95.
121
Six huge girders (68 by 15 feet), which arrived on 16 September 1930, required two hoists to
lift each girder and took an hour to raise each section. The girders contained plates so large that only two
mills in the country were equipped to roll them. Four of these girders supported the weight over the
auditorium and two over the gymnasium. Silicon steel was used because it is one-third stronger than
ordinary carbon steel and had a web three and one-sixteen-inches thick and reinforced steel plates an inch
thick. See "Huge Girders of Silicon Steel Used to Carry Heavy Loads in Framework of New Building:
Heaviest Steel in This Section of the Country Used in Erecting Framework of New Building." The Tie X,
no. 10(1930): 1.
122
"Building Safely." The Tie XII, no. 8 (1932): 13.
282
on the lower floors.
123
Completed on 5 October 1931, the KCP&L Company occupied
the building on 16 November.124
The facade of the KCP&L Building measured 131 feet along Baltimore Avenue
and 100 feet along 14th Street. This near-square plan lent itself to ornamental setbacks
over half of the total building's facade telescoping the building, culminating in a 97-V4
foot lantern extending above the roof of the thirty-first floor (Figure 36).125 The Indiana
limestone edifice rested on a granite plinth of cut stone like the Fidelity Bank Building.126
Originally planned in brick and terra cotta, the material of the facade was changed to
limestone after an agreement between the KCP&L Company and the Indiana Limestone
Company. The project provided employment for Indiana Limestone Company employees
in exchange for a more beautiful, higher quality material at a slightly higher cost than
brick cladding.127 The details and the moldings in the center of the KCP&L Building
were cut stone, with some details carved in terra cotta to save money as indicated in a
letter from the contractor to Hoit, Price & Barnes:
"A Pictorial History of the Building of Our Building: Photographs Furnished by A. E. Bettis,
Vice-President and Titles Furnished by G. O. Brown." The Tie XII, no. 8 (1932): 4-11 and "A Few
Interesting Facts About Our New Building: Program Includes a Very Comprehensive Plan for Exterior
Lighting; Probably Occupy About Sept. Ist." The Tie ([1930?]): 5.
124 « ^ pjctorial History of the Building of Our Building," 4-11 and "The Architecfs Angle on the
New Kansas City Power & Light Building: Hoit, Price & Barnes, the Architects, Give Us the Following
Interesting and Enlightening Story." The Tie, 9.
When KCP&L decided to construct a building, it entered into a 99-year lease which stipulated an
annual rental of $18,000 for a five-year period, and thereafter in increasing amounts, and finally upon the
basis of 5% of the valuation of the property. KCP&L purchased the site outright in January 1932 for a price
of $500,000. See "WhatHas Time Wrought?: Looking Backing from 14th and Baltimore." The Tie XII, no.
8(1932): 1.
125
"The Architecfs Angle," 9.
126
"A Few Interesting Facts About Our New Building: Program Includes a Very Comprehensive
Plan for Exterior Lighting; Probably Occupy About Sept. Ist." The Tie ([1930?]): 5.
127
"We Move October 15th, Maybe: Beauty of New Building and Efficiency of Its Equipment
Bring Thrill of Pride." The Tie: 5, 5.
283
The Kansas City Structural Steel chargés for the changing of the shelf angles
to accommodate the omissions of Terra Cotta lintels is running very high
and eating up all the savings that resulted from this change. We are now
endeavoring to eliminate this charge by changing back the Terra Cotta
lintels.128
The original design of the KCP&L Building may have been more like that of the
Fidelity Bank Building with two towers based on idiosyncrasies in the building's
silhouette and plan. Unfortunately, the stock market crash hindered the full project.
Reportedly, in January 1930, the KCP&L Company was contemplating whether to erect
the entire KCP&L Building or temporarily to stop at the twentieth floor.129 Because Hoit,
Price & Barnes expanded the SWBT Building vertically, the vertical expansion of the
KCP&L Building was a feasible option.
Perhaps the architects convinced the KCP&L directors that completing one of the
two towers would allow them to benefit from the prestige of the lighted tower and expand
128
Thompson-Starrett to Hoit, Price & Barnes, 20 January 1931, WHMC-KC.
Ornamental material was changed to terra cotta in the cornice section at the corners, the roundels
in the frieze, the column capitals and ornamental bands at the fourth-floor spandrel. Additionally, Mr. Hoit
wanted the sill section to remain stone for the sake for sharpness and jointing. The use of stone for the
scalloped band coursed above the fourth-floor spandrels and the sills resulted in a very small price increase.
See Hoit, Price & Barnes to Thompson-Starrett Company, 19 January 1931, WHMC-KC, Box 20).
Both the KCP&L and Fidelity Bank buildings used the same composite of limestone to cement.
The mortar for the limestone portion of the building was composed of one part Magnolia cement, one part
hydrated lime and five parts sand for the setting of the stone and all the back-up work. This mixture was
used for the KCP&L and Fidelity Bank Buildings for setting of the stone and the parging on the back of the
stone. See Hoit, Price & Barnes to Mr. R. E. Doherty of Thompson-Starrett Company, 4 November 1930
and R. E. Doherty to Hoit, Price & Barnes, 13 November 1930, WHMC-KC, Box 20).
H. F. Simon of Kansas City Architectural Decorating Company furnished the models for the cut
stonework. Hoit, Price & Barnes to Thompson-Starrett Company, 2 January 1931 and 3 January 1931,
WHMC-KC, Box 20.
All the stone and terra cotta anchors used in this building were cadmium plated by the Udylite
Process. Hoit, Price & Barnes were are ardent sponsors of the Udylite Process. See "Highest Man Made
Point in Missouri," The Udylite News, 2.
The roof used one coat of Old American Asphalt Primer, 4 thicknesses of Old American asphalt
felt, five coatings of Old American roof asphalt and the specification was applied under Haydite and topped
with promenade floor tile. See an advertisement, Vertical File: Buildings: Kansas City Power & Light,
MVSC.
Engle, [3].
284
horizontally with a second tower in the future (Figure 37). The building currently sits
on the southeast quarter of the city block with a parking lot on the southwest corner
where a second tower would fit perfectly. The west facade of the KCP&L Building lacks
fenestration where the elevator shafts abut the wall (Figure 38). In other office towers,
Hoit, Price & Barnes placed the elevator bank near the center of the building to maximize
the number of interior offices with access to fresh air and natural light through the
windows. If a second tower mirrored the existing building to the west, the elevator bank
would sit in the center of the building consistent with their other designs. Although the
KCP&L Building was half as large and gives over space to a gymnasium and auditorium,
it had eight passenger elevators, which is quite high compared to the larger Fidelity Bank
Building's six elevators. m The Kansas City Star wrote:
We found no mention of twin towers in either newspaper stories or
KCP&L literature from the construction period. The utility didn't even
occupy the entire building when it opened. Why would it have needed a
second tower? But... a drawing of a twin-spired [sic] Power & Light
Building does exist. It was reportedly done by a fellow in KCP&L's
mapping and drafting department, apparently in the 1950s. David
McBrayer, a corporate writer for KCP&L and current unofficial historian,
tells us the rendering was 'just a design exercise' and never seriously
considered. The west side happens to be where the elevator banks are.
John "Woody" Woodman, 74, a 51-year employee, says that years ago a
neighbor, an old man then, who'd worked on the building as a hoisting
engineer told him the original plan was for a twin-tower structure. The
story went that because of the Depression, the plan was scrapped. T v e
heard that from a lot of people besides (him) even,' Woodman says."131
The KCP&L Building had eight passenger elevators each with automatic pneumatic power
operated car gates and hatch doors and capable of a speed of 900 feet-per-minute. Four local elevators
stopped at floors one to fourteen. Four express cars operated between floors fourteen and twenty-nine and
stopped at the fourth floor (auditorium), when necessary. At night, two express elevators served all floors.
The freight elevator serviced all the floors from the sub-basement to the 18* floor. The freight and tower
elevators had hand-operated gates and doors and manually operated car switch control, and an annunciator
system for receiving calls from the floors. See "The Architecfs Angle," 17.
1
Engle, "Lighting the Way," [6].
285
The KCP&L Building had all the modem technologies installed. The
pneumatic tube system with over five miles of tubes costing $65,000 was the most up-todate intra-office communication method available—compressed air shot money, mail,
magazines, and messages to a central station where a tube dispatcher routed the contents
to the proper tubes. A visitor to the building's opening remarked, "The speed with which
the tubes travel from one station to another is almost unbelievable."132 An air-cooling
system and a plant costing approximately $70,000 cooled, filtered, and regulated the
temperature and humidity of the air in the first five floors, which were used by customers
and contained the auditorium.133 The building had three water heating system points.134
The KCP&L Company occupied the building from the sub-basement to the
eighteenth floor. The first through third floors included rooms to display merchandise and
offices to serve the public. The uses of the fourth through ninth floors indicated the
"Almost 2,600 Employees and the Families Attend 'Employees' Opening,' November 23-25."
The Tie: 12. The KCP&L pneumatic tube system contained five miles of welded stainless steel tubing with
two tubes running from the dispatching room to 100 stations. The dispatching room and each station
contained blowers, which sucked air from the tubes creating a vacuum to pull containers through the tubes.
The dispatching room had two blowers: a 75 horsepower motor (10,000 cubic-feet of air per minute) and a
15 horsepower motor (2,000 cubic feet of air per minute). Air leaks, improperly shut doors, and multiple
user errors contributed to frequent system malfunctioning. See "Tube System Most Complete One West of
Chicago; Five Miles Long: Rules for Successful Operation." The Tie: 16; "We Move October 15th, Maybe:
Beauty of New Building and Efficiency of Its Equipment Bring Thrill of Pride." The Tie, 5; and Janice Lee,
"Kansas City Power & Light," Building Profilefor the Missouri Valley Special Collection (Kanss City:
Kansas City Public Library, 1999). 3.
133
"We Move October 15th, Maybe: Beauty of New Building and Efficiency of Its Equipment
Bring Thrill of Pride." The Tie, 5. The fourth and fifth floors contained a 1,030-seat auditorium, later
named Thomas A. Edison Hall, equipped for motion pictures and containing a foyer, stage (24-by-56 feet
with a 38 feet wide proscenium), auditorium (64-by-85 feet with 736 opera chairs on the main floor),
balcony (64-by-37 feet with 294 opera chairs), women's parlor and dressing rooms with indirect lighting
arranged in the color cycles like the lantern. See "The Architect's Angle," 10 and Lee, 2-3.
134
Water was distributed from three different points, heated by three systems and pumped to the
upper floors by internal pumps because the pressure in the city mains was inadequate. Two systems were
used to heat the building, and contemporary promotional material boasted that enough electricity to supply
a town of 6,000 inhabitants was used by the two electric substations. See "We Move October 15th, Maybe:
Beauty of New Building and Efficiency of Its Equipment Bring Thrill of Pride." The Tie: 5, 5.
286
company's concern for the entertainment, education, and physical health of its
employees in the era of prosperity, since so much space was given to non-business
functions.135 The tenth to eighteenth floors flexibly suited multiple functions: housing
various departments, display rooms (including an All-Electric "Ideal" demonstration
kitchen), classrooms, a handball court, recreation room, and executive offices
prominently placed on the eighteenth floor. The KCP&L Company designated those
floors above the eighteenth for future expansion, leasing them to tenants in the interim.
One of the first tenants was First National Television, Inc., an innovative technological
company.136
The revolving doors of aluminum and plate glass of the main entrance on the
center of Baltimore Avenue facade led into the two-story, opulently decorated
merchandise display rooms. The business entrance on 14th Street accessed the company
offices via the main elevator lobby along the western side of the building. Like the main
lobby of the Fidelity Bank Building, a mezzanine surrounded this two-story display room
leaving an open well measuring 35 by 43 feet (Figure 39). A grand staircase began in the
On floors six and seven, a gymnasium with a floor mounted on cork to avoid carrying vibration
to the building frame doubled as a ballroom. The seventh floor had a medical examination clinic and
waiting room (with two doctors employed by the legal department). The eighth floor had two handball
courts and demonstration rooms with "ideal small shops" and "model apartments." The ninth floor
originally housed a library, omitted in the final plan. See "The Architecfs Angle," 9-11, Lee, 1, and "A
Few Interesting Facts About Our New Building," 5.
136
First National Television, Inc. occupied the twenty-ninth and thirtieth floors. First National
Television, Inc. began as a school with sixty young men studying "this new radio marvel" under the
direction of pioneering teachers. On 24 September 1932, the television broadcasting station complied with
license requirements and began broadcasting regular programs by 5 December 1932. The lantern contained
four floors; the second (or Thirty-Second floor of the building) was the main observation floor with
observation balconies on the four sides. The remaining floors above housed machinery and flood lighting
equipment. See Lee 3 and Mitchell 96.
287
center on the west side of the room and climbed to the second-floor along the north
and south walls joining the sales rooms of the first and second stories.
The architects described the ornamentation as "modernized classic details," but
the KCP&L ornamentation was decidedly less classicizing than that of the Fidelity Bank
Building. The display rooms were surmounted by an ornamental ceiling with beams and
an ornamental cornice around the walls on each level bordered with glass panels set in
frames of white metals, which indirectly gave the lobbies a glint. The mezzanine was
carpeted and the first floor was detailed with a two-toned Travertine marble floor
geometrically patterned with terrazzo of several colors divided with white metal stripping
forming floral patterns and sunbursts (Figure 40). The lobby was predominately Blue
Belge marble with ashlar walls, Tennessee marble wainscot, and architraves and carved
pediments of doors of pink Brocato Fleuri marble. The wrought-aluminum balustrades
and walnut handrails detailed the Blue Belge marble stairway and perimeter of the
mezzanine. The square piers and walls had a Blue Belge marble base detailed with black
banding. Rectangular wrought-aluminum panels detailed the perimeter of the mezzanine,
formed decorative friezes, and formed capitals on the piers. All the cases and fixtures in
this room were of marble, walnut, white metal, and glass.137
In the elevator lobby, walls were finished in American walnut with Florido Cream
wainscots and the corridors featured plaster cornices and patterned Tennessee marble and
Italian terrazzo floors. The metal doors of the eight main passenger elevators depicted
7
See Lee, 2; Tim Janicke, City of Art: Kansas City 's Public Art (Kansas City: Kansas City Star
Books, 2001), 50; and "The Architecfs Angle," 10-11. The women's retiring and toilet room was also on
the second floor and all toilets were wainscoted and partitioned with Missouri marble with terrazzo floors
in all toilets.
288
allusions to power and light similar to the building's exterior. The Art Deco detailing
extended to metal work, such as the handsome white east metal mailbox.138 The grilles
for both buildings were not standard; each was specifically detailed for the room's
interior (Figure 41). Likewise, the elevators in the KCP&L Building incorporated the
sunburst motif and the U. S. Mail box was highly styled (Figure 42). Drawings for the
bronze details were done in the office of Hoit, Price and Barnes and translated into
working drawings by Michaels Art Bronze Company.139
Exterior Ornamental Details
By 1929, Hoit, Price & Barnes, along with most architects in the nation, were
working in a modern style and described the KCP&L Building as "designed in the spirit
of today with its vertical lines climbing skyward, clothed in granite, and carved and
molded limestone, aluminum and plate glass."140 A trademark feature of this style, later
termed Art Deco, was the use of multiple setbacks as in the design of both the Fidelity
Bank and the KCP&L Buildings. However, the setbacks on the KCP&L Building created
a telescoping, vertical perspective and better represented this feature of the Art Deco
style. Both buildings used similar geometric ornamentation, another characteristic of the
Art Deco style. Architect Ted Seligson likens the style of Art Deco employed on the
138
"The Architect's Angle," 10-11 and Janicke, 51.
139
Lee, 2. The installation of the gates on the stairs was by the Southwest Ornamental Iron
Company. See F. H. Blauw of the Southwest Ornamental Iron Company to Hoit, Price and Barnes, 8
September 1933, WHMC-KC, Box 20.
140
"The Architecfs Angle," 9.
289
KCP&L Building with Native American art: "Indians used the sunbursts and sun
themes, and those, combined with the theme of electricity in this case, worked
beautifully."141
Understandably, the decoration of the KCP&L Building alludes to the
corporation's business: power and light. For instance, terra cotta panels located on twostory display windows, which once featured new electric appliances, were subdivided
into five sections with two alternating images depicting power and light (Figure 43).142
The "power" image had wavy lines (water) cascading down a columnar stylized organic
form. Although the Kansas City Power & Light Company generated power with coal
rather than water, cascading water was more stylistically appealing than burning coal.
The alternating image depicted "light" with a radiating sun atop a similar stylized
columnar organic form, which grew from a wheel or gear-like form, perhaps
demonstrating artificial rather than natural light. The forms on all these panels mirrored
the skyscraper itself with setbacks and a radiating lantern. Variations on these motifs,
particularly sunbursts, decorated key locations on the exterior, such as the cast-iron
canopies and seven other panels above the first floor balconies (Figure 44). A dramatic
sunburst design is prominent over the central entrance on the east facade and beneath the
sunburst on the intrados of the entrance, a medallion with radiating lines (Figure 45).
Topping the building, the lantern also prominently features a sunburst (Figure 46).
The Fidelity Bank building used motifs of cornucopia (Figure 47). The main
entrance door was topped with an ornate canopy featuring a clock (Figure 48). The
141
142
Janicke, 50-51.
Today, BNIM Architects uses the windows to spotlight some of the firm's building projects or
the work of local artist and designers.
290
configuration above the door on the doorframe of a bountiful swag between bucrania
evokes the interior of the altar to the Ara Pacis Augustus (Figure 49). Both the altar and
the doorframe show a garland overflowing with fruit and flowers symbolizing a bountiful
harvest. Along the sides of the doorframe ornately stylized, geometric vegetative forms
displayed roundels with three alternating classical themes: a seated Pegasus with one leg
elevated, a fish perhaps a flounder, and the profile of a beardless man, perhaps indicating
a Roman coin. Together, these symbols refer to prosperity and good fortune.
Ornamental Lighting
Beginning with the illumination of the Woolworth's building in New York,
exterior illumination was integral to the design of a tall office building. Most buildings,
like the Fidelity Bank Building, used a series of floodlights pointed onto the shaft of the
building from each of the setbacks. Because the KCP&L Company specialized in the
relatively new power and light technologies, they aimed to "achieve the ultimate in
ornamental lighting" making the building an advertisement.143 The architects stated, "The
flood-lighting will be one of the most striking features of the building."144 The exterior
lighting of the building, including a multi-colored lantern that consumed enough power to
"Gigantic Pillar of Light and Color a Nightly Spectacle: Power and Light Building Will Be a
Lofty Shaft of Brilliance, Culminating in a Glittering, Changing Wave Sweeping Down the Spectrum from
Shade to Shade." The Kansas City Star, 23 August 1931, [front page] and "Highest Man Made Point in
Missouri." The Udylite News, 1.
"The Architecfs Angle," 11.
illummate 360 five-room houses and offered a light show as distinctive as the
building' s architecture.'45
W. L. Cassell, mechanical and electrical engineer in the Hoit, Price & Barnes
architectural office, along with the technicians from the KCP&L Company considered
matters of light diffusion and conducted extensive experiments with translucent and
transparent building materials, glass cutting, and sand blasting. Standards placed near the
curb on the sidewalk and in the canopies over the entrances and balconies on the fourth
and fifth floors, along with many batteries of white floodlights placed in setbacks,
reflected off the light gray/buff limestone facade, making the building appear as though it
were glowing at night. The illuminated shaft was visible from the hills of five Missouri
and Kansas counties (Figure 50).146 To achieve an unbroken gleaming surface, Cassell
used two types of floodlights—diffusing and concentrating—installed at the setbacks at
the sixteenth, twentieth, twenty-second, and twenty-seventh floors to achieve an
"absolutely even application of the light."147 The diffusing lenses illuminated areas near
the light source while beams of light from concentrating lenses traveled 300 to 350 feet
before striking the building's surface. The floodlighting banks on the thirty-first and
thirty-second floors reflected off the exterior of the crowning tower in amber, green, and
red light in an alternating pattern of blending colors.148
145
"Missouri's Highest Man-Made Point, Now Ribbed in Steel, Will Be a Glass Crown by Day
and a Glowing Point of Light by Night, Surmounting a 478 1/2-Foot Shaft of Brilliance and Color." The
Kansas City Star, 23 August 1931, front page and Janicke, 51. The system used 434 floodlights divided
between 500-watt lights and 1,000-watt lights. The total connected load was 245 kilowatt in white lights
and 125 kilowatt in colored lights, and aggregate of 370 kilowatt. See "Gigantic Pillar," [front page].
146
"Gigantic Pillar," [front page].
147
"Highest Man Made Point in Missouri." The Udylite News, 1.
148
"Gigantic Pillar," [front page] and "The Architecfs Angle," 11.
292
The tower, which began at the thirtieth floor, was nearly 100 feet tall, roughly
one-fifth of the total height of the shaft (Figure 51).149 The topping crown was a
mammoth steel dome—a network of Udylite-plated structural steel, 28 feet in diameter,
32 feet high, weighing eight tons (Figure 52).150 In addition to the alternating lights on
the exterior, the tower was lit from the interior with alternating and blending colors
visible through four large windows and the topping glass crown of light. The glass used
on the dome obscured the powerful lights shining beneath it and sharply defined the apex
of the building with crown of red light silhouetted against the night sky.151 Beneath the
dome glowing a solid red, the cut prismatic glass in the tower's windows refracted the
light rays and animated the lighting scheme making it appear to sparkle as it rotated
through white, green, amber, and ruby lights, blending into each other successively every
thirty seconds and creating many other shades through each transition.152 The
combination of the colored floodlights on the exterior of the tower and the lights shining
from within blended into a spectacular night show, automatically controlled and adjusted
149
"Highest Man Made Point in Missouri." The Udylite News, 1.
150
The steel ribs support three-eights-of-an-inch thick wired and hammered plate glass forming a
strong and enduring surface. See "Highest Man Made Point in Missouri." The Udylite News, 2.
151
"Missouri's Highest Man-Made Point," [front page].
152
"The Architecfs Angle," 11. Southeast Ornamental Iron Works made the crowning tower. Bar
Rusto Corporation of Kansas City completed the Udyliting process. Each of the tower's windows contained
heavy plate glass measuring 26-!/2-by-6-'/2 feet and cut to be prismatic. The prisms, sand-blasted into
diamond shapes, refracted the light rays emanating from the tower to obtain a glittering effect in the night
sky. See "Highest Man Made Point in Missouri." The Udylite News, 2 and Janicke, 51.
The blending of colors listed is below:
Exterior beams on Tower
White and green to
White to
White to amber to
Amber to
Amber and Green to
Green
Interior lights from windows
Ruby remaining
Ruby to
Ruby and green to
Green to
Green and ruby to
Ruby
293
from a remote control panel board in the building's basement. On 23 August 1931,
The Kansas City Star described the rotation of flickering colored lights:
... As though a diamond of grotesquely immense proportions were being
turned slowing this way and that in sunlight so that it would glitter and
sparkle, giving off, light beams of seemingly unending variance of
color.153
The elaborate lighting design was visible during peak nighttime hours. Since the
building was in aviation space, the building was equipped with a neon safety beacon to
warn passing planes during off-peak nighttime hours. The warning beacon used the thennew technology known then as a solar switch—the fading of natural light automatically
illuminated the warning beacon when the lighting system was not in use.154
Opening Hard Times
But in 1930, optimism for a towering future city was apparent in the last line of a
Kansas City Star article: "How long will any one high point maintain that sky
supremacy? Already there is discussion of buildings that might have more than thirty-two
"Gigantic Pillar," [front page].
5
The warning beacon had neon tubes placed in the tip of the final cap which glowed white light
while the flood lighting system operated. This lighting system was used until 2005, although increasingly in
need of repairs. From 1974 to 1982, lights were stationary because replacement parts for the rotating
mechanism were unavailable. Blue lights celebrated the 1985 Royals World Series win. Floodlights
concealed within the recessed steps that once illuminated the upper levels were turned off for energy
conservation. In 2001, original hardware that still lit the building required $80,000 to fix the lights and
rotating mechanism on the tower. Color Kinetics of Boston brought the lighting system into the 21 st century
with a computer-driven system of light-emitting diodes (LED). Each incandescent light bulb used 1,000
watts of electricity, while each LED array used only 50 watts—saving almost a $50,000 a year. LED arrays
should last for 100,000 hours—about 25 years of nighttime use. See "Missouri's Highest Man-Made
Point," [front page]; "Gigantic Pillar," [front page]; Robin Henshaw, "Q: How Long Has the Power &
Light Building Been Showing Different Lights at the Top of the Building?" The Kansas City Star Magazine 4,
no. 3 (1994); "Happy Birthday to You & You & You!" Historie Kansas City Foundation Gazette, no.
May/June (1982), 14; Hearne Christopher, Jr., "Downtown Landmark Has a Heavy Load of Light Questions."
The Kansas City Star, 23 October 2001, E4: 2; Dave Helling, "Power and Lights, Lights, Lights: Landmark
Could Show 16 Million Color Combos." The Kansas City Star, 15 December 2005, Al: 2-3.
294
floors."155 Opening in 1931, the KCP&L Building excited enough interest that Boy
Scouts gave tours to approximately 800 people each month for 25 cents each to raise
money for their organization.156 The Society of the American Institute of Architects
presented the Fidelity Bank Building the Medal Award as the best example of Kansas
City architecture in the commercial classification for the year 1931.157
The Fidelity Bank's newsletter The Fidelity Spirit celebrated the building, but the
statement indicates the hard times that had already begun:
Fidelity's splendid new building with its office tower already a success,
will impress upon Kansas City and the Southwest the nåme of an
institution which has built a building that is a civic asset. Built when
buildings can be built cheaply, it has given employment to hundreds of
workers, artisans and producers at a time when employment counted
greatly.158
When construction began on the Fidelity Bank Building in September 1930, not a
single tenant had signed up to lease floor space. The bank executives rallied to make the
building a success.159 Charles S. Alves, a vice-president of the bank, explained the value
of fine architecture to a potential tenant using words such as "beauty, grandeur, unity, and
power" and evoking Vitruvius's "Firmitas, Utilitas, Venustas [Stabilty, Utility, Beauty]."
He continued in a letter:
"Telephone Building to Lose Height Record to Two Rivals." The Kansas City Star, 11 May
1930, Dl.
156
The Boy Scouts took visitors to the observation deck, equipment rooms, and auditorium.
Previously, on November 23 to 25, almost 2,600 employees and families attended the employee opening
with approximately 400 on the first rainy night, more than 1,000 on the second and another 1,000 on the
third night. See "Almost 2,600 Employees and the Families Attend 'Employees' Opening,' November 2325." The Tie: 12, Mitchell, 96, and Lee, 3.
157
This was before the Kansas City Architectural League and the Kansas City Chapter of the
American Institute of Architects reunited. See Mitchell, 146; Spivak, A9.
158
"Fidelity's Equipment is Complete," The Fidelity Spirit, February 1932, 19.
159
Mitchell, 146.
295
Since the beginning of civilization, it had been an accepted fact that the
intelligence of a people or nation could be measured by their architecture.
Always there has been a definite value accorded the quality of structure.
... Built at a fortunate price period we are able to offer at normal cost an
extraordinary business abode, which we believe will yield muen in feeling
and lasting satisfaction to those who occupy it and reflect itself in the
result obtained in the years to come.160
Although the bank had planned to celebrate laying the cornerstone, they frugally
abandoned an elaborate ceremony. Instead, in the presence of a few witnesses on 8 April
1931, they closed and sealed a copper box, placed it in the cornerstone, and without
fanfare laid the cornerstone.161 The Fidelity Bank was liquidated in 1933.162
Although the economic downturn began months earlier, the collapse of the stock
market in 1929 halted growth across the country. The 1930 census "would confirm that
the population gains [in Kansas City] that had become an accepted way of life for the past
sixty years were likely over. In fact, by 1930, the population ceased to grow."
Although Hoit, Price & Barnes's Fidelity Bank and Kansas City Power & Light
160
Mitchell, 147-148.
161
"The Corner Stone" in The Fidelity Spirit, February 1932, 9. The copper box contained current
daily papers, envelopes from Hoit, Price & Barnes and Thompson-Starrett Co. (the builders), an 1880
penny found in the wall during the destruction of the old building, the bank's financial statements, booklets,
picture of the building, roster of personnel, a collection of coin and currency, and 58 copies of Fidelity
Spirit from 1914 to 1931 (running history of the bank). The Fidelity Spirit of May 1931 records a complete
list of the contents.
162
On 22 June 1933, the Fidelity National Bank and Trust Company Organization Committee,
which included J. F. Porter, chairman, J. J. Lynn, and George R. Hicks, sent their large depositors,
including Hoit, Price & Barnes, a letter offering stock. Hoit, Price & Banes invested a $1500 subscription
for 100 shares to the Union National Bank. See Barnes Collection, Box 25, folder "General Business 1934-1937 Inc. - Correspondence," WHMC-KC.
163
Ehrlich,93.
296
Buildings remain iconic symbols of the city, their stories heralded the end of Kansas
City's glory days (See Appendix).164
Hoit, Price & Barnes were sustained through the Depression by governmental
works, notably the Municipal Auditorium, their final major commission. This
monumental building (discussed in the next section) would also receive accolades before
the firm ultimately became a casualty of the Depression.
164
The Fidelity Bank Building and the KCP&L building were both the center of renovation
projects. The Fidelity Bank building was added to the National Registry on 14 August 1997 and today is
higher rent apartments. The KCP&L Building became the center of an entertainment district naraed after
the building: The Kansas City Power & Light District.
297
Figure 27. Comparison of Kansas City skyscrapers by elevation. (Reprinted from "How
High Is Up? Or How Do You Measure Buildings?" The Powerlite 1955, 4.)
HM
ili
4a
«i • • .
--•*
1:
'1
«u
ss !'**
- s «3
!u MSS!!"'
SS V. '• "«
n
M 5 !*;! !M! •u«
«ii •*u 33
«2 S3;!
•• •• «i
I ! " « ri
.. SS ISS
•"•• _
„ ,I u • • ] i ;
" • • «I • « ;
* • «•» I I a< i t: «
I I s«
o i»w
a
" •• i i i i i . SS; SS; SS
• > •• I I I I l i i * " " -
1
II
I I I I I I M '
• « .ii l i i i i j i
<> * • i i •
• • • • I I i l %i i
•
li
I, . . • ( • • • • • i f
III Ull
ø V V
Figure 28. Hoit, Price & Barnes, Fidelity Bank Building, 1931. (General Collection P1,
Buildings-Fidelity, #11 and P35, Box 1, Folder 13, #17, MVSC)
298
Figure 29. Hoit, Price & Barnes, Kansas City Power & Light Building, northeast facade.
(Photograph by Anthony Ladesich, 2009.)
M l M I t a fKfcNMj.!ni
*
•!~%^m^,--
'•'•'•'
*';.• »•
:*:
m v
«~-**fc*
r.r. £. a. >'
j.
.i'
r
Figure 30. Van Brunt & Howe, Old Federal Building reconstructed for the Fidelity
Company, 1903. (Plate reprinted from Supplement to the Architect andBuilder, June
1903.)
299
ES3
Hi—xr
Xi—ur
Figure 31. Fidelity Bank Building, drawing showing the setbacks. (Drawingby author,
2010.)
Ul
ffW/v.^gJ
•
r.
•L-.
OTER
«
a
•
33
~^
trffcrf ta
i.
JU
"iri
T W
{ C:X ^P-TU- —jrUL
^ ^ Sfl
1
T
[ C.
... . t r W r l
•Ti
nar*-
i
>
i" V
£J
m « e
i
•LprT:
.TllTI-lfiili.i.
_„,. j....„, ._»..„. « r a
Figure 32. Hoit, Price & Barnes, Fidelity Bank Building, floor plans. (WHMC drawings
021.002.)
Figure 33. Hoit, Price & Barnes, Fidelity Bank Building, main banking room showing floor
andpilasters today. (Photographs by author, 2009.)
Figure 34. Hoit, Price & Barnes, Fidelity Bank Building, main banking room, ca 1931.
(Missouri Valley Special Collection, P35, Box 5, #2.)
301
Figure 35. Photograph tåken from a rooftop on Main Street along 1 lth Street in Kansas
City, c. 1935. Graham, Anderson, Probst and White's Bryant Building(1930) is on the
right and Hoit, Price & Barnes's Southwestern Bell Telephone Building (1928) is in the
distance. (General Collection P1, Streets-1 lth, #5, MVSC.)
Figure 36. Kansas City Power & Light Building, setbacks. (Drawingby author, 2010.)
302
Figure 37. Hoit, Price & Barnes, Kansas City Power & Light Building, original double
tower design. (Reprinted from Tim Engle, "Lightingthe Way: Things Are Lookingup for
the Power & Light Building." The Kansas City Star 2001, [page unknown]).
Figure 38. Hoit, Price & Barnes, Kansas City Power & Light Building, west facade.
(Photograph by author, 2009.)
303
J
r ^q?garqp4ifiir
^^Taor
i
Figure 39. Kansas City Power & Light Building, plan. (Drawingby author, 2010.)
Figure 40. Hoit, Price & Barnes, Kansas City Power & Light Building, main lobby and
stairs. (Photograph by author, 2009.)
j
Sf r i wm
Figure 41. Hoit, Price & Barnes and Michaels Art Bronze Company, grills in the KCP&L
and Fidelity Bank Building. (Photograph by author, 2009.)
Figure 42. Hoit, Price & Barnes and Michaels Art Bronze Company, KCP&L elevator
lobby and U. S. mail box. (Photograph by author, 2009.)
Figure 43. Hoit, Price & Barnes, Kansas City Power & Light Building, lower two story
window and detail of terra cotta panel in window. (Photograph by author, 2009.)
305
Figure 44. Hoit, Price & Barnes, Kansas City Power & Light Building, east facade detail
of terra cotta panels andbalcony. (Photograph by author, 2009.)
Figure 45. Hoit, Price & Barnes, Kansas City Power & Light Building 1931; east entrance
and detail of intrados. (Photograph by author, 2009.)
306
Figure 46. Kansas City Power & Ligjit Building, upper floors and tower, detail of the
lantern, and window from lantern interior. (Courtesy of James Good, 2010 and reprinted
from "How High Is Up? Or How Do You Measure Buildings?" The Powerlite, 1955,4.)
Figure 47. Hoit, Price & Barnes, Fidelity Bank Building, west facade detail and close-up
of panel. (Photograph by Dawn Sanders, 2009.)
""
""""
' *""
"""", " * "
fill lill III
" : i | B " i i i l i . .. -mnij- MIM J
* _
'
&?*-.* :
Figure 48. Hoit, Price & Barnes, Fidelity Bank Building, detail of center door.
(Photograph by Dawn Sanders, 2009.)
Figure 49. Altar to the Ara Pacis Augustae, garland motif detail with bull skulls.
(Reprinted from Erika Simon, Ara Pacis Augustae. Greenwich, Connecticut: New York
Graphic Society, Ltd., 1968, 7.)
308
• i « W * » S «•«•"I 0«c«rt<
#7 s
*Voon > » r « « m u H
Figure 50. Kansas City Power & Light Building, Drawingdepictingthe placement of
exterior lighting. (Reprinted from "Gigantic Pillar of Light and Color a Nightly Spectacle."
The Kansas City Star, 23 August 1931, [front page].)
Figure 51. Hoit, Price & Barnes, Kansas City Power & Light Building, as lit today.
(Reprinted from Dietrich Neumann, Architecture of the Night: The Illuminated Building.
New York: Prestel, 2002. 154 andphotography by Anthony Ladesich, 2009.)
Figure 52. Steel Structure of the top of the lantern. (Reprinted from "Highest Man Made
Point in Missouri." The Udylite News 4, no. 1, 1932, 2.)
310
MUNICIPAL AUDITORIUM, 1936
The dynamic energy driving Kansas City at the end of the nineteenth century is
epitomized by the city's reconstruction of its convention center in only 90 days. Frederick
E. Hill designed the first convention hall in Kansas City, which opened 22 February
1899; fourteen months later fire destroyed it on 4 April 1900, only ninety days before the
National Democratic Convention was to open there (Figure 53). Determined not to lose
this convention, Kansas City rallied and rebuilt the hall by 3 July 1900.165 The second
convention hall was similar in size and design, but was more elegantly detailed than the
first with a Renaissance-style arcade on piers detailed with roundels rather than rough
brick arches on the street level. The open peristyle with paired columns on the upper level
became an arcade with double engaged columns between each arch and the roof was
ornamented with a balustrade. The hall served many conventions, including the National
Republican Convention in 1928, but its hasty reconstruction gradually proved unsuitable.
Kansas City rapidly outgrew this structure and the city needed a new hall to
accommodate national conferences and embody the growing prestige of the city. In 1936,
the estimated population of Kansas City, Missouri, was 425,000 and for the metropolitan
area nearly 750,000.166 In the 1920s, city politicians began to lobby for a bond program to
support a variety of public city and county improvements, called the "Ten Year Plan," an
165
William Jennings Bryan, the youngest major presidential nominee in U.S. history at age 36,
received his second presidential bid in Kansas City, but running as an anti-imperialist for the second time to
incumbent President William McKinley.
166
The 1930 census recorded 399,746 people in Kansas City, Missouri. The metropolitan area
included Kansas City, Kansas, and the suburban communities. See Eugene C. Zachman, The New
Municipal Auditorium (Kansas City: Fratcher Printing Company, 1936), 4.
311
effort of Conrad H. Mann, president of the Chamber of Commerce and a tireless city
booster. After failing to win the two-thirds majority votes needed to pass the "plan" in the
1928 election, the stock market collapsed while proponents nonetheless made plans to
resubmit it to voters. In this radically transformed economic situation, Mann knew the
multifaceted improvement proposal would be dead so he sought the support of the city's
political machine headed by "Boss Tom" Pendergast.167
Politics in Kansas City in the 1920s and 1930s operated on bribes and "corruption
thrived in a manner that Americans today associate with third world countries."168 Asa
Hulton, a political analyst for the St. Louis Globe-Democrat, wrote about Pendergast's
political power on 7 December 1930: "With an organization capable of bringing to the
polls more than 100,000 voters, as was demonstrated on November 4, Pendergast in 1932
will be able to throw 60,000 or 75,000 votes to his slate of candidates in the Democratic
primary." Hulton concluded that Pendergast held the balance of political power in the
Missouri Democratic Party.169
George Ehrlich, Kansas City, Missouri: An Architectural History 1826-1976 (Kansas City,
Missouri: Historie Kansas City Foundation, 1979), 93.
Although Conrad H. Mann (1871-1943) was a Republican, he was non-partisan and worked
closely with the Pendergast machine. He held the elected position of president of the Chamber of
Commerce for six years from 1928 to 1933 breaking precedent for length of tenure and retiring with the
status of permanent honorary president. See William M. Reddig, Tom 's Town: Kansas City and the
Pendergast Legend (New York: J. B. Lippincott Company, 1947), 179-180.
Reddig wrote that Mann was "the expansive spirit that gave Kansas City a lift at a time when
most of the country was going into a prolonged economic recession. And his was the function that enabled
all interests to work with the political machine in the most ambitious building venture undertaken since the
days when the city's park and boulevard system was designed and built under the direction of Kessler,
Meyer and Nelson." See Reddig, 180.
168
Kenneth H. Winn, "It all Adds Up: Reform and the Erosion of Representative Government in
Missouri, 1900-2000" Missouri Secretary of State Robin Carnahan [Website] (Jefferson City, Missouri:
Missouri State Archives, accessed 2 December 2009); available from
http://www.sos.mo.gov/archives/pubs/article/article.asp; Internet.
169
St. Louis Globe-Democrat, 7 December 1930. Quoted in Lawrence H. Larsen and Nancy J.
Hulston. Pendergast! Columbia, Missouri: University of Missouri Press, 1997. 88.
312
Many working-class Kansas Citians dearly loved "Boss Tom" because he
gave his supporters thousands of government jobs, which were especially valued during
the Depression.170 He paid medical bilis, provided Thanksgiving turkeys, and distributed
coal to the city's poorest neighborhoods. In turn, the struggling voters happily supported
the party with their own wellbeing in mind. Pendergast explained his particular view of
governance and public support:
Whafs government for if isn't to help people? They're interested only in
local conditions—not about the tariff or the war debts. They've got their
own problems. They want consideration for their trouble in their house,
across the street or around the corner—paving, a water main, police
protection, consideration about taxes. They vote for the fellow who gives
it to them. If anybody's in distress, we take care of them—especially in
the poor wards. If they need coal or clothes, or their rent is overdue, we
help them out—in and out of season. We never talk about politics. ...
I know all the angles of organizing and every man I meet becomes a
friend. I know how to select ward captains and I know how to get to the
poor. Every single one of my ward workers has a fund... and when a poor
man comes to old Tom's boys for help we don't make one of those
investigations like these city charities.171
The Pendergast machine had tremendous influence on state politics as well.
Federal Judge Merrill Otis remarked that those seeking political office went to
Pendergast: "He who would be governor, he would be senator, he who would be judge
and he who was content to be only a keeper of the [dog] pound."172 This line of
170
Some government service began and ended with the picking up of a paycheck. See Winn, "It
all Adds Up."
171
172
Winn, "It all Adds Up."
Winn, "It All Adds Up."
Judge Merrill E. Otis (1884-1944), appointed by Calvin Coolidge in 1925, served as federal Judge
in the United States District Court for the Western District of Missouri to 1944. He was a Prohibitionist and
partisan Republican who strongly opposed Franklin Roosevelt and his New Deal, and deplored the
Pendergast machine. In 1937, Otis, with four federal grand juries, began to bring indictments against
Pendergast. See Lawrence H. Larsen and Nancy J. Hulston. Pendergast! (Columbia, Missouri: University
of Missouri Press, 1997), 124 and 126.
313
supplicants would include Harry S. Truman and James Reed, who became U. S.
Senators when Judge Guy Park became governor in 1932. Pendergast had even more
power in Missouri politics than the governor, as Winn described:
Franklin Roosevelt, who had received strong Pendergast support in the
presidential election, recognized political reality and by-passed [Governor]
Park, turning over federal patronage in Missouri to Pendergast as well. It
was, in fact, a Pendergast crony who became responsible for handing out
all of the Works Progress Administration (WPA) jobs in the state; half of
these jobs went to Kansas City, making "Tom's Town" a dynamic force in
theMidwest. 173
Pendergast and Mann made a deal: Mann's Committee of 1,000, composed
largely of GOP businessmen, planned the Ten Year Bond Program, conducted the
campaign, and attempted to supervise the execution of the program. The incentive for
Pendergast was that his machine would directly control how the program spent millions
of dollars, but this arrangement was not a direct payoff or back room arrangement;
precautions insured that the money was spent properly. However, because Pendergast
already controlled much of the materials, machinery, and labor in the city's construction
industry, a large share of the business would fall to Pendergast and his interests, who
would reap large profits.174 The Committee of 1,000 enlisted the best engineering,
business, and political minds to work out the details, approving projects based on need
and popular preference at a series of public hearings. The committee assembled plans and
presented them to the public in a special election with the slogan, "Make Kansas City the
173
Winn, "It All Adds Up." The WHMC-KC has archival information on the U.S. Work Projects
Administration, Historical Records Survey, Missouri, 1935-1942 (C3551). Future research could conduct
an inventory.
Larsen, 88-89 and Reddig, 182. Pendergasfs businesses dealt with construction and liquor and
therefore touched almost everyone in Kansas City. See Appendix for a discussion of Pendergasfs business
affairs.
314
Greatest Inland City," enhanced by a promotion that gave the city the nickname
"Heart of America."175 With a large voter turnout during the special election, due to
Pendergasfs support, the Ten Year Plan was adopted in 1931.
Over a period of ten years, the plan called for an expenditure of $32 million for
city projects and an additional $7,995,000 for county projects. Later federal aid money
was added to the Ten Year Plan to bring the total actually spent under the plan to an
estimated $50 million.177 The Ten Year Plan produced the Jackson County Courthouse
(1934) and City Hall (1935-1937), both by Wight & Wight, with and each facing 12th
Street from the north and south between Oak and Locust Streets (Figure 54). After the
City Hall and Jackson County Courthouse moved to their new locations, the previous
structures were razed and the City Market was expanded with its first new building, the
Central Warehouse Building, constructed in 1939 (Figure 55). The plan also provided for
Edwin J. Shannahan (birth unknown-1944), a member of the Fratemal Order of Eagles, which
held its national convention in Kansas City in 1914, coined the nåme The Heart of America in 1911.
Shannahan described, "It is the spirit the nåme suggests that is even more significant [than the nåme]. The
word 'America' gives it a patriotic flavor and the world 'Heart' stands for all that is noble in life—
affection, sympathy, enthusiasm, hospitality, generosity and other warm attributes which Kansas City
possesses." The Commercial Club adopted the nickname as a permanent designation. Arthur Pryor (18701942) a trombone virtuoso and soloist with the Sousa Band composed a "Heart of America March"
dedicated to Ed Shannahan. John Philip Sousa (1854-1932) chose Pryor's march as the official song for
Camp Funston, located on Fort Riley southwest of Manhattan, Kansas, in World War I and thousands of
Midwestern soldiers marched away to its sound. Shannahan held the position of city director of personnel
from 1926-1930 by Pendergasfs grace. See Reddig, 176-177.
76
This was the largest vote ever registered at a special election. Kansas City celebrated the event
with a Jubilee of Progress, with five days of entertainment including a rodeo, airplane, and auto-gyro show.
Reddig, 182 and Larsen, 89.
177
The Federal public employment programs of the New Deal began with the Civil Works
Administration money (CWA), which began in the fall of 1933 and ended spring 1934. The CWA took
millions of relief recipients off the federal "dole" and employed about 4 million workers at its peak in
January 1934 with regular wages and not supervised by social workers. The Works Progress
Administration (WPA) absorbed many of the projects begun under the CWA plan when it began in 1935.
The Works Progress Administration was renamed Work Projects Administration and lasted until 1941. It
was the largest New Deal agency. See William W. Bremer, "Along the American Way: The New Deal's
Work Relief Programs for the Unemployed." The Journal of American History 62 (1975): 636-652.
315
new police buildings, hospital extensions, parks, playgrounds, and other city
improvements.178 As construction finished on the Fidelity Bank and Kansas City Power
& Light buildings, it became clear that America had entered the worst economic
depression yet known; but implementation of the many elements in the Ten Year Plan
ultimately protected Kansas City from the worst manifestations of the Depression.
Ironically, rampant graft created an island protected from the surrounding financial
chaos.
Erected at a cost of $6,500,000, the Municipal Auditorium was the largest of a
group of public improvements proposed in the Ten Year Plan.179 So as to make the new
convention hall convenient for both the Kansas and Missouri sides of the city and to
place it within easy walking distance of the hotel, theater, and shopping districts, city
officials chose a block directly south of the current convention center, bounded by
Central, Wyandotte, 13th, and 14th streets; and in 1931, City Manager H. F. McElroy,
began to procure the site.180
The Ten Year Plan included funds for paved roads and completed one of the most extensive
county highway systems in the country as well as traffic ways and boulevards, a new water works system,
sewer extensions, and flood protection. Reddig, 182.
The Bond Committee worked out a plan to create a maximum number of jobs by dispensing with
tractors and excavating machinery wherever possible and substituting picks, shovels and wheelbarrows.
Controversy began when the Republicans and the Kansas City Star, run by William Rockhill Nelson
complained that one thousand of fifteen hundred jobs went to Democrats. Agitation over discrimination
grew steadily louder.
179
180
Zachman, 4.
In 1931, the city purchased 40 acres from General John W. Reid for a little more than one
million dollars. Reid had paid $2,000 for it after he immigrated to Kansas City from Hezekiah, Poland, in
1856. Mr. Henry Hucke, an employee of the Kansas City Power & Light building in the 1930s,
remembered this block was the location of a pond—the "Ole Swimming Hole" in the summer and a skating
rink in the winter. See Mitchell, 113 and "What Has Time Wrought?: Looking Backing from 14th and
Baltimore." The Tie XII, no. 8 (1932): 11.
316
On 5 January 1932, McElroy announced the decision to divide the
architectural services between the firms of Hoit, Price & Barnes and that of Alonzo
Gentry, Voskamp & Neville, another Kansas City firm. Both offices made preliminary
studies, but the office of Alonzo Gentry, Voskamp & Neville largely prepared the
drawings for the general construction. The drafting staff consisted of men from both
offices. The drawings for the mechanical work were prepared under the direction of Mr.
Cassell of Hoit, Price & Barnes. Giles Mitchell acknowledged the work of Joseph D.
Murphy of the Gentry office (winner of the 1929 Paris Prize of the Society of Beaux-Arts
Architecture), whom he suspects contributed materially in the final design for the
building(Figure56). 181
The Municipal Auditorium intended to provide facilities for every kind of
garnering, from the smallest lecture or concert to the largest convention, exhibition, or
athletic show.182 The program requirements of the auditorium included several venue
areas: an arena (seating about 15,000 persons), an exhibition area (150,000 square feet for
all varieties of exhibitions), a theater for plays, operas and concerts (seating about 3,000
people), a Little Theater for small music recitals and performances, several committee
rooms (seating 25 to 500 people), administration offices, and the usual foyers, hallways,
and service rooms. It had a complex set of electrical and mechanical installations—miles
of lights, ducts, pipes, and wiring—but air-conditioning and lighting of the building was
181
Mitchell, 113-114. The circulation system of the Auditorium may have inspired a young
architect in the firm named Clarence Kivett who joined the firm as a junior architect to work on the Kansas
City Power & Light Building (see Chapter V).
182
Zachman, 4.
317
controlled centrally.183 Although it required continuous air conditioning and artificial
lighting of the interior, the small number of windows permitted a constant interior
temperature and helped eliminate traffic noise. The few windows allowed natural light
into the offices for the staff and some of the committee rooms.184
An early plan that was discarded combined the stage and the main auditorium,
although this idea added flexibility, the huge 5,000,000 cubic foot interior made a stage
impracticable. Another difficulty was placing the small theaters so that they would be of
ample size but still have adequate circulation. A solution was to eliminate the theaters
and introduce a small plaza in front of the building; but this was discarded because the
need for theaters was greater than the advantages of a plaza. The final solution used
multiple levels with independent entrances. Architectural Forum elaborated:
Attempting to squeeze in two theaters on one level reduced the arena to a
shape that was nearly square. Subsequent study of other large auditoriums
revealed that such a shape was preferable for reasons of visibility and
acoustics. When increased space became available, through the removal of
one theater to another level, the square shape was maintained. It also made
possible a roof construction carried on only four points of support with
250-ton trusses carrying the load in each direction. On this plan the
excellent system of circulation appears: as finally developed it became the
most notable single feature.185
Preliminary sketches showed a classically inspired Art Deco facade with an
arcaded portico (Figure 57). One sketch attempted windows, but as the size of the
building became more apparent, the multiplicity of the motifs diminished. As the
development progressed, the building became more nearly a windowless mass. The final
"Kansas City Auditorium," Architectural Forum 66 (1937): 217.
Zachman, 2.
"Kansas City Auditorium," Architectural Forum, 218.
form omamented by strong bands of terra cotta or carved stone in the place of
windows and columns was evident in the lower sketches. The evolution of the exterior
massing was the obvious result of the functions of the interior space.186
The building took three years of architectural study and two years of construction
(Figure 58). When completed, Kansas City had the second largest and most completely
equipped auditorium in the country. The final design covered the entire city block with
exterior dimensions of 426 by 332-feet; its height was equal to that of a ten-story office
building. Four main venues were housed within the convention hall: Arena, Music Hall,
Little Theater, and Exhibition Hall.187 Each of the larger units of the Municipal
Auditorium was separate from the others, with its own entrances and exits, ticket offices,
lounges, rest rooms and service facilities. Within the convention center, visitors could
view a play or opera, have a wedding reception or executive banquet dinner, watch a
basketball game or wrestling match, and view an exhibition of heavy machinery all
without interfering with the other simultaneous events.188
The plan for the Municipal Auditorium used an ingenious method of stacking
functions (Figure 59). Individual entrances accessed the Little Theater, Grand Foyer via
the ticket lobby, and the Music Hall foyer from 13th Street on the north.189 The Exhibition
Hall had its entrance on the south to 14th Street. The Arena opened to concourses on the
186
"Kansas City Auditorium," Architectural Forum, 220-221.
187
"Kansas City Auditorium," Architectural Forum, 216; Zachman gives dimensions of 419 by
332 feet. See Zachman, 1-2.
188
In addition to the four main areas of the building, the Municipal Auditorium provided thirtyone committee rooms, seating 25 to 500 people. See Zachman, 3.
189
The Exhibition Hall was accessible to all parts of Municipal Auditorium and had direct access
from the auditorium plaza garage. See Kansas City New Discoveries Daily, "Kansas City Convention
Center," (Kansas City, Missouri: Kansas City Convention & Visitors Association, [2009]), 10.
319
east and west, the Grand Foyer, and 14th Street via a ramp system. Color aided the
circulation through the building as well as added a festive mood. Different colors clearly
differentiated the various types of circulation. Since the original conference hall located
on this site burned to the ground in 1907, ease of evacuation was especially important; a
capacity crowd of 45,000 people could escape in eight minutes. Architectural Forum
remarked, "To have produced a building of such remarkable flexibility was no mean
achievement."190
On the north side of the building, through the center aluminum doors, a visitor
entered the Grand Foyer through the main ticket lobby with four ticket windows (Figure
60). !91 The Grand Foyer was the circulation center of the building from where one could
access the Little Theater, the Arena, and the Music Hall foyer through a reception
192
room.
The Little Theater in the northeast corner of the building, accessed from the north
door and the Grand Foyer through an exterior promenade and balcony, could
accommodate 1,000 guests (Figure 61). The octagonal room, surmounted by an ornate
ceiling and lavishly decorated with stylized Art Deco lighting fixtures, had a small stage
190
"Kansas City Auditorium," Architectural Forum, 216-217.
191
The ticket lobby had walls of Roman travertine with bands of Sienna travertine and yellow
terrazzo floors with staggered narrow bands of brown, a purple-gray ceiling, and 44 black, aluminum light
fixtures arranged in fourrows. See "Kansas City Auditorium." Architectural Forum, 223.
192
In the Grand Foyer, red Levanto marble walls and reddish brown Rojo Alleante marble
columns were accented with a gold and ivory ceiling with square lighting fixtures. "Kansas City
Auditorium." Architectural Forum, 223.
320
area in the southeast corner of the room provided for small theater productions,
recitals, or presentations.193
The Music Hall was a self-contained venue with its own box office, coat check,
restrooms, concessions, reception room from the Grand Foyer, and a direct entrance on
the north side of the building with an independent lighted marquee. The 3,600-squarefoot Music Hall foyer, with its grand staircase, provided circulation to the mezzanine
(Figure 62).194 The staircase was topped by a ceiling sculpture by Albert Stewart (Figure
63). 195 Cleverly, the actual Music Hall Auditorium surmounted the Little Theater and
Grand Foyer and was accessed through the mezzanine. The Music Hall could seat 3,000
people and was decorated in the most up-to-date style with the latest technology. For
example, Architectural Forum related this special note: "An elaborate theater
switchboard has been reduced to the size of an organ console and is worked from the
orchestra pit" (Figure 64).196
Zachman, 3. The rear Little Theater was originally decorated with walnut Flexwood walls,
Breche Orientale marble columns, floors with light and dark maple stripes, black Formica doors, ivory and
gold ceiling, and a bronze under Montana travertine railing on the Mezzanine. See "Kansas City
Auditorium," Architectural Forum, 224.
194
The walls of the grand stairway to the Music Hall were decorated with Sienna Melange marble
wainscot detailed with bands of Breche Orientale marble and orange-red walls above with horizontal
plaster moldings detailed in gold leaf. See "Kansas City Auditorium," Architectural Forum, 225.
195
Albert Stewart (1900-1965) was an American sculptor who immigrated from Kensington,
England, as a child and was orphaned shortly afterward. He studied at the Beaux-Arts Institute of Design
and the Art Students League of New York with the help of a wealthy benefactor Edwin T. Bechtel. During
the 1930s, he worked as a Works Progress Administration artist and did many architectural sculptures
including the friezes of the Buffalo City Hall (1931), and the 333 North Michigan Building in Chicago.
Stewarfs lighting fixtures inspired the Sky Stations atop Bartle Hall's four pylons. He also sculpted the
reliefs on the exterior of the Municipal Auditorium.
The paintings on the stair landing and mezzanine were by Ross Braught (1898-1983), an
American painter. He began his studies at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts. In 1921, he was
awarded the prestigious Emlen Cresson Memorial Traveling Scholarship.
196
"Kansas City Auditorium." Architectural Forum, 217. The Music Hall auditorium was
decorated in plum-colored corded silk fabric with quartered walnut wainscot and horizontal bands of gilded
plaster covered the walls. The carpets of green, gold, and black on plum-color background contrasted with
321
The illuminated center marquee on the north side of the building announced
the activities in the 14,000-seat Arena using a sports lighting system (Figure 65). The
decoration of the Arena was described as "a stupendous blue [which needed no
ornamentation] to make this one of the most distinguished large interiors in the
country."197 The detailing came in the use of bands of black glazed terra cotta on the
boxes and exhaust ventilation grilles. The back wall of the boxes were light gray-green
accented with orange-red terra cotta bands and a chrome yellow ceiling. The Arena had a
large independent box office, show office, 3,600-square-foyer, coat-check, multiple
restrooms, and concession stands on all levels.198 Promenades circled the Arena allowing
visitors to enter the floor, upper, and lower balconies through the most direct means.199
On the north and south ends of the promenade, ramps allowed access to the Exhibition
Hall below.
The Exhibition Hall situated below the Arena had four acres, or 46,000-squarefeet, of floor space on the lower and mezzanine levels (Figure 66). Massive piers in the
the coral-colored mohair seats. The acoustical plaster ceiling was unpainted. See "Kansas City
Auditorium." Architectural Forum, 225.
Unfortunately, modernizing the Music Hall resulted in the loss of the original Art Deco
decoration. To accommodate large-scale traveling stage productions, the Music Hall was redesigned with a
much larger stage, new lighting and acoustical system and new seats with ADA accessibility. The current
seating capacity is 2,363 with orchestra seating for 1,185, loge and box seating for 260, and balcony seating
for 918. Measurements from Kansas City New Discoveries Daily, 10 and Zachman, 3.
197
"Kansas City Auditorium." Architectural Forum, 217. Alternately, Zachman states that the
Arena was built to seat 15,000 people. See Zachman, 3. The original thick wooden floor used blocks cut
end to end and remains today. See "Kansas City Auditorium," Architectural Forum, 223.
198
Currently, it has 7,316 permanent seats, 2,405 on risers and a capacity for 1,000 seats in a
theater-style on main floor. The seating is upholstered. The Arena has been updated with a Daktronic
scoring system with two 9-by-12-foot Mitsubishi LED boards for superior digital quality images. See
Kansas City New Discoveries Daily, 10.
199
The wainscot in the promenade around the Arena was brown-red Ark Fossil marble painted a
dull orange above with a pale green ceiling and green terrazzo floors. The square lighting fixtures were
similar to those in the Grand Foyer. See "Kansas City Auditorium," Architectural Forum, 223.
322
hall supported the weight of the auditorium above (Figure 67). The slope of the site
allowed the Exhibition Hall direct street access to 14th street on the south end of the
building through an entrance lobby (Figure 68). Visitors could also access the mezzanine
of the Exhibition Hall from Wyandotte Street on the east through additional entrances
Figure 69).200 Additionally, large service doors on the southwest corner of the Municipal
Auditorium allowed large equipment into the buildings and a steam shovel could be
brought into the exhibition space without being dismantled.201
Exterior
In the summer of 1933, the designers were discouraged when it appeared there
would be a lack of funds to decorate and finish the building; as Mitchell related, its
ornamentation would "be left to the caprice of future generations."202 In October 1933,
however, officials rejoiced when the federal government announced plans to promote
employment by aiding construction with funds from the Federal Emergency Administration
of Public Works (Project No. 954). On 6 March 1934, the federal government approved the
low bid of $3,753,280 submitted by the construction firm of Parti, Ring & Fleisher. Later,
the government granted an additional $1,135,000 from its public works fund to finish the
Zachman, 3. In the Exhibition Hall, the back walls were painted red-brown. The piers were
light gray on two sides and orange on the other sides. The ceiling was ivory over the main Exhibition Hall
with a bright chrome yellow mezzanine. The entrance lobby to the Exhibition Hall had marble walls with
bronze and aluminum bands, aluminum and glass doofs, and a brown ceiling with a small amount of gold
leaf. The Wyandotte Street entrance had columns of brown glazed terra cotta, chrome and yellow ceilings,
and turquoise blue doors with black trim. See "Kansas City Auditorium," Architectural Forum, 222.
201
"Kansas City Auditorium," Architectural Forum, 217.
202
Mitchell, 114.
323
auditorium.203 The omamental program on the building's exterior illustrates the civic,
artistic, athletic, and commercial purposes of the building as well as celebrating the
agricultural and industrial activities of the Midwest. Generally, the linear, low relief
panels have a two-dimensional quality and over-emphasized the figures' musculature.
The exterior elevation was divided into three parts: a granite base; a horizontally
incised stringcourse composed of a narrow band, a row of squares, and a second narrow
band that overhangs the row of squares by about 6 inches and a broad upper mass (Figure
70). The uppermost portion consisted of a mass of smooth limestone and a cornice. The
elevation of the stringcourse remains level while the granite base widens along the
sloping east and west facades increasing from four rows (about 12 feet) to a maximum of
eleven rows high (or two stories) on the south elevation. The broad stringcourse that
separates the lower portion of the facade from the mass above brings the entrance level of
this massive structure to a human scale.
The north and south facades were each divided into three bays with the center bay
projecting slightly from the side bays, which were carved with bands that extend around
the corner. The east and west facades were divided into two bays (Figure 71). Horizontal
bands wrapped around the corners of the building, which alternated with three bands of
glazing on the east and west (Figure 72). The wide east and west facades had many
auxiliary exits that connected to wide concourses leading to the sidewalk on the north
side of the building for Arena crowds (Figure 73). The east facade had street level doors
that allowed the Exhibition Hall crowds to exit directly onto the sidewalk (Figure 74). On
the west facade, the doors on the ground floor were primarily service doors rather than
203
Mitchell, 114.
324
public circulation doors. The east facade had the majority of the windows with a twostory block projecting from the building beneath the stringcourse (Figure 75). The
glazing allowed light and ventilation to Offices and conference rooms. The west facade
had five sets of three windows, interrupting the rhythm of the squares of the stringcourse,
and a projecting carved stone panel framing an additional band of 15 windows, evenly
spaced just above the stringcourse and surmounted by five port windows. As on the east
side, the stringcourse on the west facade stays level around the building and is broken by
a series of windows in a stone recess, port windows, and horizontal flags.
Aluminum details add a metallic sparkle to exterior in the doors, windows, and
vents as well as awnings (Figure 76). An illuminated aluminum awning with a marquee
announces the event behind each of the main entrances (Figure 77). Flags detail the north
and south facades and once projected horizontally over the east and west concourses
displaying "flags of all nations ... to add color to the impressive picture."204 On the north,
the flagstaffs rose vertically from above the awning (Figure 78). On the south facade, the
standards flanked the entrance to the Exhibition Hall and projected from the stringcourse
(Figure 79). The squares in the stringcourse were spaced to accommodate the width of
the aluminum base, with a small window behind it to raise the flags easily. Behind the
flags carved verticals interrupted the upper facade of smoothed limestone (Figure 80).
Additionally, on the south facade, sets of three windows broke the rhythm of the
horizontal limestone on the lowest elevation and seven windows atop the awning allowed
light into the Exhibition Hall foyer.
Zachman, 2.
325
On the south fa9ade, over the entrance to the Exhibition Hall, inscribed in the
smoothed limestone above was a tribute to commerce (Figure 81):
COMMERCE HAS MADE ALL WINDS HER MESSENGERS, ALL
CLIMES / HER TRIBUTARIES, ALL PEOPLE HER SERVANTS YET
FROM THE / LAND SHE DRAWS HER SUSTENANCE AND HER
STRENGTH
Above the inscription, a relief designed by Albert Stewart depicted a man and a
woman standing on a base with two projecting metal roundels in front of a stylized
rectangular panel with five incised vertical stripes topped by two rows of eleven stars
(Figure 82). The woman's awkward stance had her body facing forward, her right foot in
profile facing right, and her head in profile looking at the man to her left. Above her right
shoulder, she held a cog in her left hand while her right hand held a compass and
masonry tools at her side. The man on the right mirrored her stance, but less awkwardly.
His hands rested on an inverted blacksmith hammer on the left side of his body. The
hammer rested on an anvil with a torch burning with an open flame behind him. The
activities of the man turned raw materials into products of industry, such as steel. The
woman held the useful results of these products: gears from steel, architecture from stone.
The north facade had three entrances under its own aluminum awning and
marquee for the Little Theater, Arena, and Music Hall. The center bay above the Arena
doors bore an inscription, beneath three medallions, announcing, "MUNICIPAL
AUDITORIUM: MONUMENT TO THE PUBLIC SPIRIT AND CIVIC IDEALS OF
THE PEOPLE." The medallions represented the civic ideals of the people—art, civic
ideals, and sport—and the purpose of the structure (Figure 83). The left medallion
represents "arts" and depicts a woman wearing a peplos sitting with outstretched legs
upon a cloud racing the center medallion. She played a harp (music) with a winged
horse or Pegasus rearing up in the background (poetry). The center medallion, "civic
ideals," portrayed a bearded man sitting like a cult statue in an ancient Greek temple with
his right arm grasping a scroll (law, knowledge), his left hand over his right shoulder
pointing up like an ancient statue of Constantine (wisdom), and an owl sitting on his left
(intellect). The use of a bearded man underscored the reference to Greek philosophers.
The medallion on the right represented "sport." Mirroring the position of the woman in
the left medallion, a man with outstretched legs sat upon rocks with a laurel tree (victory)
in the background. The recumbent, beardless, nude man held a discus (athletics) on his
lap with a crudely rendered oversized hand.205
A relief on the west facade (the exterior wall of the Music Hall) had a relief
depicting "theater" (Figure 84). Three figures formed an isosceles triangle above the
words "COMEDY DRAMA TRAGEDY" (Figure 85). A standing robed woman held the
comedy and tragedy masks flanked by two nude recumbent figures (drama). On the left
was a recumbent woman looking up with cascading hair holding a trumpet in an open
hand (comedy). On the right, a man mirrored her in a downcast posrure, clutching a
sword with a fisted hand (tragedy). Two medallions on the west facade represented
"industry" and "agriculture" (Figure 86). The industry medallion on the north end
depicted a standing man wearing trousers and work boots pouring molten liquid into a
form with steam billowing behind him. In the background to the right was an anvil and
205
The north facade has two cornerstones: the east end dates the building (laid on 29 November
1934) and describes the dedication, "for all good government" and the west cornerstone credited the
architects and builders. An additional plaque on the west end informed that this project received funding
from the Federal Emergency Administration of Public works, "PROJECT NO. 954."
blacksmith hammer. On the south end of the building, a barefoot woman stood in a
simple short-sleeved long dress, her hair pulled back into a bun with a braid over her
forehead, plowing a field.
The medallions on the east facade generally portrayed a Missouri theme. A
barefoot pioneer wearing long trousers reclined on a tree stump with oak leaves at his
feet, holding a cattle show stick, a long pole with a rope at the end to loop over the bull's
horns. In the background to the right of the man, a cow stood facing front. The medallion
on the south end showed a pioneering woman with the theme of "transportation."
Alluding to Kansas City as a transportation center, a reclining woman held a walking
stick with a wheel at her feet, and a train engine with an airplane flying appeared
overhead in the background.
After the Municipal Auditorium was completed, the old convention center was
razed and a commemorative structure was built that leads to parking beneath Barney
Allis Plaza (Figure 87).206
In the introduction to The New Municipal Auditorium (1936), McElroy wrote:
The Auditorium is an expression of the faith that the citizens of Kansas
City have in the future of their Community, their State and their Nation.
Its construction was authorized by them to maintain their City's position
as a dominant convention center, and to provide a meeting place where
they and their neighbors might gather for recreational and cultural
purposes.
Geographical location, hotel and transportation facilities make Kansas
City the ideal location for conventions and meetings of every sort.207
The plaque celebrates the quickness in its initial construction: "In 1900 Kansas City's new
convention hall / located on this site was consumed / by fire that same night the invincible / Kansas City
spirit arose again and the / hall was rebuilt in ninety days. That / building was razed in 1937 when the /
Municipal Auditorium was completed / Alonzo H. Gentry / Edgar B. Voskamp / Architects / Swenson
Construction Company / Builders."
After the Municipal Auditorium opened, Eugene C. Zachman described the
style as "dignified monumental style that is strictly modern without being freakish."208
Perhaps Mr. Zachman was referring to the more avant garde modernism growing in
Europe, which could hardly have been more different from the Classicism than that used
by Hoit, Price & Barnes. The stark International Style or Dutch DeStijl, seen in Garret
Rietveld's house for Mrs. Truus Schrøder (1924) in the Netherlands might have been
what Zachman had in mind as "freakish" modernism (Figure 88). When the Municipal
Auditorium opened in 1935, Architectural Forum called it "one of the 10 best buildings
of the world."209 Photographer and historian G. E. Kidder-Smith included it in list of the
500 most important architectural works in the United States, and many other books on
American Art Deco include this as one of their featured buildings.210 The Municipal
Auditorium was the last major building of Hoit, Price & Barnes before the firm
succumbed to the dearth of building projects during the Depression.
207
Zachman, 1.
208
Zachman, 4.
209
"Kansas City Auditorium," Architectural Forum, 216.
G. E. Kidder-Smith, Source Book of American Architecture: 500 Notable Buildings from the
10th Century to the Present Time (New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 2000).
Figure 53. First Convention Hall (1899, burned 1900) and Second Convention Hall (1900,
demolished). (Native Sons of Kansas City, "Municipal Auditorium Scrapbook." SC63,
microfilm roll 23, MVSC.)
Figure 54. Wight & Wight, Jackson County Courthouse and City Hall, 1934-1937.
(General Collection (Pl), City Hall-12th Street, #7, MVSC.)
330
Figure 55. Central Wholesale Building at the City Market, during construction in M y
1931. (General Collection, P l , City Market, #29, MVSC.)
Figure 56. Hoit, Price & Barnes and Alonzo H. Gentry, Voskamp & Neville, Municipal
Auditorium, daytime view from 13th and Central and from 13th & Wyandotte at night.
(Kansas City Philharmonic Orchestra Scrapbooks, SC71, #7.5, Box 7, Folder 2, #5 and
General Collection, P1, #14, MVSC.)
111 1(11111
H H
» i i
B p l |p! pj,jP ^ pst
•T VTT"("T"t
' «y-t
" . - • fe ir
•^.r-.r-*-..;^
i.
Figure 57. Hoit, Price & Barnes and Alonzo H. Gentry, Voskamp & Neville, Municipal
Auditorium, development drawings. (Reprinted from "Kansas City Auditorium,"
Architectural Forum 66, 1937, 220-221.)
Figure 58. Hoit, Price & Barnes and Alonzo H. Gentry, Voskamp & Neville, Municipal
Auditorium, during construction. (Reprinted from "Kansas City Auditorium,"
Architectural Forum 66, 1937, 228.)
tT'-"-'1 ' :" L_„_„_J t;r -_4i:
• J r1— i t \
-~
1 W
j
f
«"y—,„im«„ «w •»•— *mmt
' f
* x
-—-—<•—••»
= > >-Nj- r-7
; ^
1
,
'r x j
r^.
r jf
;J i—1
;iici
i-
T-
;'
r-^
vxir"<
13
r, r
DB.;.
t^D . . ^
Z
1
*.•
* .
1
• ' • v . / —
Vill
i-j
ep
i-i! to
h
\
%/
L\
••
IJ-I
r
/j
;
• K^^n.^''''
\T°*
'• . }——
• Mr"
""*• "*'• >>>\
•3 j—<
I i!
—«1 j l i n l i
ta
•^ rc
Figure 59. Hoit, Price & Barnes and Alonzo H. Gentry, Voskamp & Neville, Municipal
Auditorium, plans. (Reprinted from "Kansas City Auditorium," Architectural Forum 66,
1937,216.)
Figure 60. Hoit, Price & Barnes and Alonzo H. Gentry, Voskamp & Neville, Municipal
Auditorium, Grand Foyer. (Photographs by author, 2009, except lower right image is
reprinted from "Kansas City Auditorium," Architectural Forum 66, 1937: 223.)
Figure 61. Hoit, Price & Barnes and Alonzo H. Gentry, Voskamp & Neville, Municipal
Auditorium, Little Theater with seats and empty. (General Collection, P l , Municipal
Auditorium-Interior, #4 and #7, MVSC.)
St/
Figure 62. Hoit, Price & Barnes and Alonzo H. Gentry, Voskamp & Neville, Municipal
Auditorium, Music Hall mezzanine. (Photograph by author, 2009.)
Figure 63. Hoit, Price & Barnes and Alonzo H. Gentry, Voskamp & Neville, Municipal
Auditorium, Music Hall stairway. (Reprinted from "Kansas City Auditorium,"
ArchitecturalForum 66, 1937, 225.)
335
Figure 64. Hoit, Price & Barnes and Alonzo H. Gentry, Voskamp & Neville, Municipal
Auditorium, Music Hall auditorium. (Willis Castle Memorial Photograph Collection, P6,
Folder 369 and Robert Askren Photograph Collection, P35, Box 1, Folder 27, #5,
MVSC.)
Figure 65. Hoit, Price & Barnes and Alonzo H. Gentry, Voskamp & Neville, Municipal
Auditorium, Arena and detail of boxes in Arena. (Robert Askren Photograph Collection,
P35, Box 1, Folder 28, #9, MVSC.)
336
Figure 66. Hoit, Price & Barnes and Alonzo H. Gentry, Voskamp & Neville, Municipal
Auditorium, Arena section drawing. (Reprinted from "Kansas City Auditorium,"
Architectural Forum 66, 1937, 227.)
Figure 67. Hoit, Price & Barnes and Alonzo H. Gentry, Voskamp & Neville, Municipal
Auditorium, Kansas City, 1935, Exhibition Hall with machinery and empty. (Glass Slide
Collection, P21, Box 1, Folder 15, #12 and Willis Castle Memorial Photograph Collection,
P6,Box2,Folder35,#5.)
337
i
d
!* «i
•
r-
• r
L
«i_
" '
\{
. . lJ
:
'il
• •
i
Figure 68. Hoit, Price & Barnes and Alonzo H. Gentry, Voskamp & Neville, Municipal
Auditorium, Exhibition Hall plans. (Reprinted from "Kansas City Auditorium,"
Architectural Forum 66, 1937, 227.)
Figure 69. Hoit, Price & Barnes and Alonzo H. Gentry, Voskamp & Neville, Municipal
Auditorium, Exhibition Hall lobby from south entrance on 14th Street and foyer of east
entrance on Wyandotte Street. (Reprinted from "Kansas City Auditorium," Architectural
Forum 66, 1937, 222.)
Figure 70. Hoit, Price & Barnes and Alonzo H. Gentry, Voskamp & Neville, Municipal
Auditorium, view of east facade from southeast corner. (Photograph by author, 2009.)
Figure 71. Hoit, Price & Barnes and Alonzo H. Gentry, Voskamp & Neville, Municipal
Auditorium, west facade from southwest corner. (Photograph by author, 2009.)
-jf i
wm
i m
*
''
"
l
Figure 72. Hoit, Price & Barnes and Alonzo H. Gentry, Voskamp & Neville, Municipal
Auditorium, windows on north end. (Photograph by author, 2009.)
Figure 73. Hoit, Price & Barnes and Alonzo H. Gentry, Voskamp & Neville, Municipal
Auditorium, west facade concourse. (Photograph by author, 2009.)
Figure 74. Hoit, Price & Barnes and Alonzo H. Gentry, Voskamp & Neville, Municipal
Auditorium, view of the east facade from street level. (Photograph by author, 2009.)
Figure 75. Hoit, Price & Barnes and Alonzo H. Gentry, Voskamp & Neville, Municipal
Auditorium, detail of medallions east facade. (Photographs by author, 2009.)
Figure 76. Hoit, Price & Barnes and Alonzo H. Gentry, Voskamp & Neville, Municipal
Auditorium, detail of door and window on east facade. (Photograph by author, 2009.)
JU vnmnnMnnp
±afc
-_»,.
n ni nnP
I..T n - i — r r r r •-—^^ -»*»»**«*-«ft».
1
£y t-vi"
nn
•mi
Figure 77. Hoit, Price & Barnes and Alonzo H. Gentry, Voskamp & Neville, Municipal
Auditorium, south facade entrance to the Exhibition Hall. (Photograph by author, 2009.)
Figure 78. Hoit, Price & Barnes and Alonzo H. Gentry, Voskamp & Neville, Municipal
Auditorium, Music Hall entrance. (Photograph by author, 2009.)
Figure 79. Hoit, Price & Barnes and Alonzo H. Gentry, Voskamp & Neville, Municipal
Auditorium, Exhibition Hall entrance on the south facade. (Photograph by author, 2009)
Figure 80. Hoit, Price & Barnes and Alonzo H. Gentry, Voskamp & Neville, Municipal
Auditorium, detail of flags on south facade. (Photograph by author, 2009)
/ -
•a
•r
Figure 81. Hoit, Price & Barnes and Alonzo H. Gentry, Voskamp & Neville, Municipal
Auditorium, south facade panel and inscription. (Photograph by author, 2009.)
344
Figure 82. Hoit, Price & Barnes and Alonzo H. Gentry, Voskamp & Neville, Municipal
Auditorium, south facade panel detail. (Photograph by author, 2009.)
iSKSJ»
Figure 83. Hoit, Price & Barnes and Alonzo H. Gentry, Voskamp & Neville, Municipal
Auditorium, north facade medallions. (Photographs by author, 2009.)
Figure 84. Hoit, Price & Barnes and Alonzo H. Gentry, Voskamp & Neville, Municipal
Auditorium, west facade, detail of northern half. (Photograph by author, 2009)
iiiii'1" •
l
N
., , v. fl Åi
-'..'• Å . L U l
V"
'^i\
-\
Figure 85. Hoit, Price & Barnes and Alonzo H. Gentry, Voskamp & Neville, Municipal
Auditorium, west facade, panel detail. (Photograph by author, 2009.)
346
Figure 86. Hoit, Price & Barnes and Alonzo H. Gentry, Voskamp & Neville, Municipal
Auditorium, west facade medallions. (Photographs by author, 2009)
Figure 87. Hoit, Price & Barnes and Alonzo H. Gentry, Voskamp & Neville, Municipal
Auditorium, structure to commemorate the original convention hall, entrance to garage.
(Photograph by author, 2009.)
Figure 88. Gerrit Rietveld, House for Mrs. Schroder, Utrecht, The Netherlands, 1924.
(Visual Resource Center Slide Collection, accession #91-5145, University of Oregon
Libraries.)
348
CHAPTERV
CONCLUSION
The firm that had began as Van Brunt & Howe and continued through the
partnership of Hoit, Price & Barnes is representative of American architecture practice in
the years during which they were active between 1901 and 1941. They worked within the
national trends in the speculative real estate market caused by exponential population
growth due to immigration in a city that began as essentially a blank canvas (as a
shantytown of good-enough construction, which was demolished during the 1903 fiood).
In the early twentieth century, as an orderly city protected by city planning with the parks
and boulevards system that resulted from the implementation of the City Beautiful
Movement, and graced by the Country Club Plaza. Kansas City had a national reputation
as a progressive city and a "good place to live." The firm's work defined the mainstream
during Kansas City's most important era, when it had the resources and aspirations to
become Centropolis, or America's third city, the new Chicago. This led to truncated
execution of some of the firm's designs, notably the Christian Church Hospital complex,
the city of Longview, Washington, and the Kansas City Power & Light Building.
However, their oeuvre as a whole serves as a snapshot of American architecture in the
early twentieth century.
The burgeoning Kansas City population after 1903 needed hornes and
ecclesiastical buildings. After the new partners cut their teeth on the Palace of Varied
349
The burgeoning Kansas City population after 1903 needed hornes and
ecclesiastical buildings. After the new partners cut their teeth on the Palace of Varied
Industries at the 1904 Louisiana Purchase Exposition in St. Louis, Howe, Hoit, & Cutler
provided the city's best examples in the churches for the Christian (Disciples of Christ)
Church and the B'nai Jehudah synagogue. Their prestigious domestic architecture filled
the new neighborhoods outlined by the tree-lined parks and boulevards system ranging
from modest apartments to the city's most prestigious houses, such as the Braley,
Nelson and Long residences. In this new city, the firm responded to their patrons' desire
to possess "old" things by designing in revival modes. This is especially evident in the
architect-patron relationship between the firm and Henry F. Hoit (solo) and R. A. Long
Long's commissions demonstrated the architectural ambitions of one of the richest men in
America, culminating in his desire to design an entire city as his legacy—Longview,
Washington.
After World War I, as was evident in Kansas City with the winning entry for the
Liberty Memorial Competition, the stylistic mood of the nation shifted. With two new
partners, Hoit, Price & Barnes led the city in the implementation of this new geometric,
machine-formed modern sty le with the city 's landmark commercial buildings.
Additionally, these works demonstrate a shift in patronage from the individual to the
corporation under the shadow of the Pendergast political machine. The speculative
commercial real estate market boom in the in the 1920s pushed sky lines higher with
buildings that served as status symbols for the city of the future. After the stock market
350
crash of 1929, the political machine of Tom Pendergast, which channeled federal
funds into the city for building projects, shielded Kansas City from the worst effects of
the Depression. After the completion of the largest of these projects, the Municipal
Auditorium, Hoit, Price & Barnes struggled in the depressed economy, as did others, with
few new building projects. In the 1930s, they completed designs for three houses (only
one confirmed as built and the others located in Fort Smith, Arkansas). The firm is also
credited with workingon other projects aided by governmental funds, includingthe Estes
Park Library addition (1935), Mount Vernon State Sanatorium (1936), Fire StationNo. 4
(1939-1940), and the Kansas City Police Department information station (1941).
Soon after, in 1941, Hoit, Price & Barnes dissolved the firm. The reported reason
of the dissolution was additional pressures placed on the construction industry after the
United States entered World War II and shifted to war material production. However, the
firm disbanded before the United States entered the war. Perhaps the partners anticipated
the inevitable changes that war would bring. Alternately, the health of two of the partners
may have been a factor. In 1941, Henry Hoit, age 69, and Edwin Price, age 57, retired.
Hoifs obituary stat ed that he had been ill for about eight years before his death in 1951.1
Perhaps symptoms of his illness plagued him earlier. Price's obituary referred to a long
illness.2 Alfred Barnes continued work as coordinating engineer at the Lake City Arsenal
1
Henry Hoit passed away after suflering a cerebral hemorrhage in 1951 (aged 78). He had been in
ill health for about eight years, but not confined to the home. See "Henry F. Hoit Is Dead: He Was
Architect for the City' s Tallest Structure" Kansas City Star, 30 May 1951, 3.
2
Edwin Price and his wife, Mary Moore Price, moved to Houston, Texas, and then to Arkansas,
their native state. Price died in Van Buren, Arkansas, after a long illness (aged 73). See "Edwin M. Price
351
and later was associated with the Long Construction Company. He retired in 1958
and died in Kansas City on 11 May 1960.
This was the end of an era in Kansas City in other way s. Shortly after the
completion of the auditorium, Tom Pendergast had a falling out with Governor Stark
followingthe 1936 election and Stark began to enforce the vice laws ending the nightlife of
Kansas City and the prevalence of Kansas City jazz. As Pendergast lost political power,
he no longer had the ability to attract large projects to the city, and it suffered
economically along with the rest of the nation. In 1939, Pendergast was arraigned on tax
evasion, ending his political career. Kansas City's boisterous heyday was over.
Kansas City recovered with the United States economy following World War II.
Optimistically, in 1954, Life Magazine characterized Kansas City as a "boosterconscious town whose only big problem is how to handle its own rapid growth. A
thriving cattle-trading and distribution center, it is living strenuously though its muscled
middle age."3 This was not entirely true. The population boom ceased during the 1930s,
and when it resumed following the Second World War the surrounding suburbs grew
rather than the city center. According to the 2000 census, fewer than 50,000 additional
people live in Kansas City than lived there in 1930. With transcontinental air travel and a
Is Dead: Former Architect Here Dies in Arkansas." Kansas City Star, 11 January 1957, Obituaries, 28 and
"Obituary for Alfred Edward Barnes, or Alfred Barnes, Architect with Hoit, Price & Barnes in Kansas City,
Dying on May 11, 1960," Kansas City Times, May 12, 1960, 30.
Edward Clark and Howard Sochurek, "Kansas City and St. Louis: Picture Portfolio Shows
Some Contrasts between Striving City and a Settled One," Life Magazine, 29 March 1954, 106.
shift from train transportation to trucking via the more flexible highway system, the
city did not continue to grow as a commercial hub.
The Kansas City Power & Light Buildingheld the title as tallest buildingin
Kansas City until 1977 when Fujikawa Conterato Lohan & Associates (the descendant
office of Mies van der Rohe) built the IBM Plaza (now 2345 Grand), just one foot taller
at 477 feet and 28 stories. However, at these heights, the status of the Kansas City
sky line was already known throughout the region. On 28 February 1955, Life Magazine
had compared the new Dallas sky line to Kansas City (Figure 1). Obviously, the New
York City sky line dwarfs both cities; but this comparison showed that Kansas City's
historie stature had now been eclipsed by the expanding city of Dallas, Texas.
Legacv
Had the firm not dissolved in 1941, the career of Clarence Kivett, who joined the
firm as a junior architect to work on the Kansas City Power & Light Building, may have
continued this story, even after World War II. Inspired by the circulation system of the
Municipal Auditorium, Kivett used a similar system in his designs for stadiums. The
Depression forced Hoit, Price & Barnes to fire him and he went into business for himself
in 1931.4 After World War II, he formed a firm with Ralph Myers. Kivett & Myers's
Clarence Kivett (1905-1996) was known as Clarence Kivovitch until he changed his nåme
shortly after graduating fom the University of Kansas in 1928, worked for Madorie & Bihr before Hoit,
Price & Barnes. Following employment there, he went into business for himself in 1931 and managed to
scrape by through the tough times with remodeling buildings. He enlisted during World War II. After the
government lifted restrictions on construction materials, he formed a firm with Ralph Myers. Kivett &
Myers's designs received more than 200 awards through their career. See Joe Gose, " 'Incredible
353
many award winning designs, includingthe Kansas City International Airport and
stadium designs, stand apart.5 Arrowhead and Roy als (now Kauffman) Stadiums,
completed in the early 1970s, defied the trend toward multipurpose stadiums and are
notable for the use of ramps that allow masses of people to enter and exit the stadium
simultaneously. The Municipal Auditorium offered a prototype of this system. Kivett &
Myers became the major architectural firm in post-World War II stadium design, which in
turn, fathered most architectural firms specializing in stadium design in the United States.
So, in a tangential direction, the influence of Van Brunt & Howe, and of Hoit, Price &
Barnes, continued through to the end of the twentieth-century.
Inspiration' Is Gone: Clarence Kivett, a Leading Force in Kansas City Architecture, Dies at 91," The
Kansas City Star, 5 December 1996, [front page] and Al3.
5
Kivett and Meyer helped make Kansas City the world capital for designing sports fecilities;
HNTB (which absorbed Kivett and Meyer when they retired), HOK (now Populous), and Ellerbe Becket
have designed most oftoday's modern stadiums and ballparks See Scott Cantrell, "Clarence Kivett
Helped Give Kansas City Its Look," The Kansas City Star, 12 April 1998, J6.
354
DAZZLER FOR DåLLåS
HOW SKYUNES MEASURE UP
æn
•l\ 'Jrt.-<*.iA
TOWMIMO OVt« D A U A t . H.-^Ui. %*!,.,... I ILiA BMIM*SW ' W " » WS
COMFAICO TO HOUSTON, Jh»tU. r ,.,hV .u^n».,-»—1 g*^» t'*lL« « 1 ^ .
4 l «-PBHT *Ff H'rtlWl"€l"* l * t » f * - R * & « ti ) Mt.* l i W I { i ^
1
* f U fe
NEW MUM MIST
PROTECTS EVEN THE 2 |N 5
WHO PERSPIRE FREELY
HIOMII THAH KANSAS CITY. t k l b i ' t n ! * > . ( ir^lfee ft««r «arf U*l.t
).<• tøwdkU* tS»£l ft K i l * lt<j*;ii v tMMxif ( l i U l J , O l * 11*11 H I » fl,).
N*-w S$u*i* Mi*i * } i * « i$***lt>r*M uty
fwrtfMMtiM m&anih «aaal fmrtut*tf\. tUmlm<
mi ratle h«-ta <*§i!>>rt*f*!»«»&«- tu j w i * s l
««før « J *é*»' !«»**£—- M f B if ym* * r *
røi* mf i h r 2 i i ) J who f*r«{«ire f t t H y ,
Mura Mist »|yr*v» t.« t »{tm MII. I l
drue1* fatat - wttn*i rw«, *»««'( lirij*,
Cwmplrtdj « t i r UH Rt-rawd ftiw»-~wwt'i
daoufi" d«4i*iBte ishrw* J'»r ptni^tituu
I
I
prt t*e*m bUim Mtmt
Al ftli uwlftritH ftm«l«*i* GUQltf*
h«xacM*roph«n«
t F*fXH i " ' ;*" *»•-* i w . i t i
ØWAMfØ I V MOT yOMt, 0 * B « «rf! Ha* «nw ålmraptwg imwnli to
*tti«i>t l<n H«flh»lUm I1** K ***!**#(Wtf» tutlar tlun« i l * 6§l|rM m DkUlfc.
J
Figure 1. "How Sky lines Measure Up" to the new Dallas sky line (Reprinted from "A
Dazzling Bank for Dallas." Life Magazine, 28 February 1955, 64.)
355
APPENDIX A
PROFILES OF THE FIRM'S PARTNERS AND MAJOR PATRONS
Frank Mavnard Howe (1849-1909)
_
1849 July 20 Born Arlington, Massachusetts to Andrews Howe
of Townsend, Massachusetts, a descendent of the
old lines of Hoews who settled in New England in
the colonial days. His mother was Clara B. Tucker
of Pepperell, Massachusetts. Educated in public
schools, Cotting Academy in Arlington
1
I
I
I
I
I
Took a special course in architecture at the
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
^
Entered the Massachusetts Institute of Technology as member of the first
class in the newly formed Architectural Department (Graduated)
1868
As a student, he entered the office of Ware & Van Brunt, architects in
Boston for of practical training. He remained here for several years.
Worked at the office of the supervising architect of the Treasury for one
year.
Returned to the office of Ware & Van Brunt to "take charge."
1871
Married Miss Mary E. Wyman of Arlington with whom he had two
daughters: Katherine and Dorothy)
1878
Studied abroad
1880
Formed partner ship with Arthur H. Dodd of Boston, but in 1882, this was
dissolved. Withey says, "Then for a few years practiced in association
with Arthur H. Dodd. On the termination of that partnership, he joined Mr.
Van Brunt and until 1885." (See Men who are Making Kansas City states
1882, but it also misprints Ware's retirement date.)
1881
Named partner under the nåme Van Brunt & Howe when W. R. Ware
retired
1885
Van Brunt & Howe establishes a Kansas City. Howe moves to Kansas
City to complete work for the Union Pacific Railway. Van Brunt remained
in Boston planning and executing a number of important commissions
lncludmg the Harvard Medical School, Public Libraries at Cambridge and
Dedham and building on the Wellesley College.
1888
Van Brunt joins Howe in Kansas City. (Most sources state that Van Brunt
moved to Kansas City in 1888, but John Albury Bryan states this was in
1887. See Bryan, Missouri 's Contribution to American Architecture, 83.)
1893
Firm was part of the Commission of Architects at the World's Columbian
Exposition in 1893. Designed the Electricity Building.
1899
Elected an Associate of the American Institute of Architects; Partner
Henry Van Brunt was elected President of the American Institute of
Architects
1901
Elected Fellow of the American Institute of Architects
Sought new partners so that Van Brunt (now aged 69) could retire
1903 April 7 Partner Van Brunt dies.
1904
Firm was part of the commission at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition
1904 Dec.
Firm transferred to Howe, Hoit & Cutler upon Van Brunfs death
1907 Jan. 7
Partner William H. Cutler dies (aged 33). Partnership continues as Howe
& Hoit.
1908 July 6
Toured Great Britain, Holland, Germany and France with his wife and
daughter, Miss Dorothy Howe, in the hope of recovering his failing health.
Unfortunately, when they returned on October 7, his health had not
improved.
1909 Jan. 5
Died of heart disease complicated by a disease of the liver in his home,
1707 Jefferson Street, at 7:30 p.m. (aged 59). He had been ill since March
or June 1908. He left his wife, Mrs. Mary Howe, two daughters, Miss
Dorothy Howe and Mrs. Katherine (Catherine?) Howe Munger, and a 3year-old grand child, Nancy Munger. Burial is at Mount Washington
cemetery
Clubs
American Institute of Architects (Associate in 1899, Fellow in 1901)
Papyrus Club of Boston
Kansas City Club
Commercial Club
President of the Knife and Fork Club
President of the Symphony Orchestra
Sons of the Revolution
32nd degree Mason
Member of the Ararat Temple, Mystic Shrine
357
"His principal avocations were painting the water colors and music. He played the piano
and the pipe organ." ("Frank M. Howe Dies of Heart Disease: Was an Architect of
International Note." Kansas City Journal, 5 January 1909,3.)
Henrv Ford Hoit (1872-1951)
1872
Born in Chicago
Began his architectural training at a young age in
the office of H. I. Gottard in Fort Smith, Arkansas
1898
Graduated with Honors from Massachusetts
Institute of Technology, studied architecture;
member of the Delta Kappa Epsilon fraternity
1901
Mo ves from Massachusetts to Kansas City to join the firm of Van Brunt &
Howe after receiving an invitation from his friend William Cutler
1903 April 7 Named partner; firm transferred to Howe, Hoit & Cutler upon Van Brunt's
death
1907
Cutler dies. Firm continues at Howe & Hoit
1909
Howe dies. Hoit continues alone under his own nåme.
1913
Took Edwin M. Price as partner (Partnership nåme does not change)
1919
Took Alfred E. Barnes as a partner; firm nåme changed to Hoit, Price &
Barnes
1938
Received a fellowship from the American Institute of Architects for
Professional leadership and accomplishments
1941
Retired when firm was dissolved due to the imposition of war conditions
on construction
1951
Died at home, 838 West 58* Street, after suffering a cerebral hemorrhage
(aged 78). He had been in ill health for about eight years, but not confined
to the home.
Clubs
Country Club Christian Church member
Kansas City Club member
Former member of the Mission Hills Country Club
358
William H. Cutler (1874-1907)
1874
Born (native of Cincinnati, Ohio)
Educated in Cincinnati city schools
Studied architecture in Chicago
1897
Graduated from Massachusetts Institute of
Technology, studied architecture
Continued to train in Boston offices
Worked for three years in the firm of Frost & Granger
1901
Moved to Kansas City and joined the firm of Van Brunt & Howe
1903 April 7 Named partner; firm transferred to Howe, Hoit & Cutler upon Van Brunt's
death
1907
Died Sunday, January 6 at St. Luke's hospital in Kansas City, Missouri of
typhoid fever. He had been ill about two weeks. He was unmarried. His
body was tåken to Chicago for burial (aged 32)
Edwin Morgan Price (1884-1957)
1884
Born in Webb City, Arkansas
Began his architectural training at a young age in the
office of H. I. Gottard in Fort Smith, Arkansas.
1903
Worked for Legg & Holoway, Eams & Young, Weber &
Goves, and the Louisiana Purchase Exposition.
At some point, before 1907, he had partnered with L.G.
Wilson under the nåme Wilson & Price at 814 Sharp
Building, Kansas City. A business card in the
correspondence files at WHMC (K00004, box 67, files labeled 18721907.)
1905
Began work in the firm of Howe, Hoit & Cutler in Kansas City
1907-8
Temporarily left Howe, Hoit & Cutler to take a course in architecture at
the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Member of Alpha Tau Omega
fraternity
He returned to the office. The Price home in Kansas City was at 6415
Valley Road.
1913
Named as a partner of Henry F. Hoit (Partnership nåme does not change)
1919
359
Partnership nåme changes to Hoit, Price & Barnes after Alfred E. Barnes
joins the firm.
1941
Firm dissolved when war conditions imposed on construction. Price and
his wife moved to Houston, Texas and then to Arkansas, their native state.
1953
Mrs. Mary Moore Price, wife, dies at the Price home in Van Buren,
Arkansas after suffering a heart attack a month prior. She and Price had a
daughter Mrs. James T. Cahill (4023 W. 67* Street Prairie Village,
Kansas) and a son Edwin J. Price of Austin, Texas.
Remarried (2nd wife is not named in Obituary)
1957
Died in his home in Van Buren Arkansas after a long illness
"He devised the architectural garf for such skyscrapers as the Power & Light building,
the Telephone building, and the Fidelity building, no w the Federal Office Building."
("Edwin M. Price Is Dead: Former Architect Here Dies in Arkansas." Kansas City Star,
11 January 1957, Obituaries, 28.)
"One of his toughest problems was the top of the Power and Light building, handling the
great lantern effect, with an elevator shaft crowding in." ("Edwin M. Price Is Dead.")
Alfred Edward Barnes (1892-1960)
1892 March 5 Born in Kansas City (grandson of Asa Beebe Cross,
Kansas City's first professional architect. Brother is
Asa B. C. Barnes, who he affectionately called
"Alphabet." Both lived in the Waldo-Westmoreland
Community and was a member of committees in
1921. (Asa B. C. Barnes represented the American
Architect 315 East 10* Street, KCMO. I found a
business card)
1909
Aspiring to be a civil engineer, he began work in the
office of Henry F. Hoit at age 17 as a draftsman.
Studied by extension with the Society Beaux Arts Architects
Appointed head draftsman
1919
Named partner - Firm nåme changed to Hoit, Price & Barnes
1921
Waldo-Westmoreland Community Association Committee member;
Sewer Committee and Welfare Committee
1931
Married Clara Knotter, a teacher at the Barstow School for Girls
360
1941
Firm dissolved when war conditions imposed on construction.
Barnes continued work as coordinating engineer at the Lake City Arsenal
during World War II.
Associated with the Long Construction Company
1958
Retired from the Long Construction Company
1960 May 11 Died in his home, 439 East Fifty-fifth Street, in Kansas City (aged 68); He
left his wife and two daughters, Mrs. David Conrath, of Pittsburgh, and
Miss Catherine Anna Barnes, of the home, and a grandson.
Clubs
President of the Kansas City chapter of the American Institute of Architects in 1936
President of the Architectural League of Kansas City in 1925 and 1926
Member of the American Society of Civil Engineers
Member of the Society of Military Engineers
Member of the Kansas City Club
Native Sons of Kansas City
St. Andrew's Episcopal Church
Active for 29 years in the development of the Kansas City Art Institute
Member? Of the Kansas City Gun Club (He had his named printed on the inside of the
club's Constitution By-laws and shooting rules that perhaps belonged to
Maj. A. B. Cross, because his nåme is printed on the front. I found in
correspondence files.)
ASSOCIATED ARCHITECTS
Archibald Norman Torbitt (1883-1958)
1883 July 1
born Mexico, Missouri,
1903
married Vernice Leigh Opel (b. 6 June 1883, Jefferson City, MO; d. 1 July
1931 Seattle, WA) in Jefferson City, MO
Children
Charles Lawson Torbitt (b. 18 September 1904, Jefferson City, MO; d. 22
September 1978, Seattle)
Harry Edward Torbitt (b. 11 February 1907, St. Louis, MO; d. 1991
Chicago, IL),
Bonny Leigh Torbitt McGhie (b. 18 June 1916, Springfield, MO; d. 1998
Port Townsend, WA)
Martha Jane Torbitt (birth/death unknown).
361
1903-1907
draftsman
1907-1917
Partner in Miller, Opel & Torbitt in Springfield, Missouri,
Completed pavilion in Phelps Grove Park, which was designed by George
E. Kessler and Hare & Hare, and the "Old" Courthouse in Springfield,
Missouri.
1919-1923
He was in architectural practice in St. Louis
1923-1928
Worked solo under the corporate nåme Archibald N. Torbitt, Architect, in
Seattle and completed the Piedmont Apartments in Seattle, Lincoln School
in Mt. Vernon, among other commercial and residential structures.
1928-1931
Partnered with Daniel Riggs Huntington under the corporate nåme
Huntington & Torbitt in Seattle.
Daniel Riggs Huntington was born 24 Decemberl871. Huntington was an
accomplished painter and studied with Eustace Ziegler. Prior to partnering
with Torbitt, Huntington was Architect for the City of Seattle (1917-1922)
and associated with Schack, Huntington & Loveless (1913-1916) and
Schack & Huntington (1908-1912). See Michelson, #1976 and #2356
c. 1956
married Edith Taylor (b. 1885-1900; d. after 1960), married about 1956
1958 Sept 22 died 22 in Seattle, Washington
Sources for Archibald Norman Torbitt's Biographv
Phelps Grove Park SGF Park Board Meeting Minutes, 17 March 1916, Book 1, page 47.
Phelps Grove Park SGF Park Board Meeting Minutes, 12 May 1916, Book 1, page 48.
"Phelps Grove Park History: Indians, the Lake, the Zoo, and So Much More." [Web
Site], accessed 12 November 2009.); available from
http://www.uhnaspringfieldmo.com/phelpsgroveparkhistory; Internet.
Michelson, Alan. "Pacific Coast Architecture Database (PCAD)." [Web Site] 2005,
accessed 12 November 2009.); available from
https://digital.lib.washington.edu/architect/architects/2662/; Internet.
Thruman, Allissa, "Hoquiam Register of Historie Places Nomination-Hoquiam City
Hall." Hoquiam, Washington: Office of the City Planner, City of Hoquiam, 2009,
7.
Warren, Fred. Genealogical data. [Web Site] 2003, accessed 14 November 2009;
available from http://www.warrenclan.Org/cossaboom/datl3.htm#15; Internet.
Washington State Licensing application.
362
MAJOR PATRONS AND OTHER PEOPLE OF INTEREST
Robert Alexander Long / Long-Bell Lumber Company
Born and raised in Shelby County, Kentucky. At age 22,
he left to seek his fortune in the west. "After a short visit with an
uncle in Kansas City, Long tried his hand in the hay business in
Columbus, Kansas" and failed. When he had his hay sheds torn
down, he realized the value of lumber—he made more money for
the lumber from his shed than he originally paid for the material
to build them. His enterprise Long-Bell lumber company made
him a fortune.
Thomas "Boss Tom" Joseph Pendergast (1873-1945')
In 1928, Boss Tom established the Ready Mixed Concrete
Company (headquartered at 908 W. 25* Street) with Michael
Ross, who controlled Ross Construction. Ready Mixed operated a
large and well-equipped modern plant for mixing concrete, along
with a fleet of twenty-five or more concrete-mixing trucks. Before
the invention of mixing tucks, crews mixed the concrete at the
construction site, thoroughly raking water, sand, and gravel back
and forth into a cement mixture. Ready Mixed's trucks saved for
an average batch the work of six to eight men, so it usually came
in with the lo west bid in competition for contracts. Most of the rigged bidding took place
for small jobs, such as sidewalk repairs, where independent contractors needed to have
their names on a special approved list to have a chance of receiving a contract. Of course,
to avoid tribute with city inspectors, all prudent independent builders used Ready Mixed
and other Pendergast business products. See Larson, 85-86.
The names of other companies in which Pendergast knowingly held stock could
have filled a small telephone book, including, sanitary services, coal, eigars, liquor
distribution, and insurance. The machine controlled the issuing of liquor licenses and
quickly had a monopoly. When prohibition ended, he and his partners restarted the T. J.
Pendergast Wholesale Liquor Company and it became one of the largest liquor
wholesalers in the United States. The Pendergast machine's construction interests
included: Centropolis Crusher, Eureka Petroleum, Mid-Wes Pre-Cote, Public Service
Quarries, Midwest Asphalt Material, Kansas City Limeolith, Mid-West Paving, Missouri
Asphalt, Kansas City Concrete Pipe, Pen-Jas Oil, Massman Construction, Welch-Sandler
Cement, Gidinsky Construction, Missouri Contracting, Dixie Machinery and Equipment,
and Boyle-Pryor Construction. Several operated out of the same addresses as Ross
363
Construction and Ready Mixed. The full extent of his holdings remain unknown since he
used the names of other corporations for concealment. See Larson 86.
Arraigned on tax evasion in 1939, Pendergast's political career ended. He had some
enemies previously to the 1936 election, notably newspaperman William Rockhill
Nelson. However, his downfall was believed to have occurred after a falling out with
Lloyd C. Stark, who he had endorsed for governor in 1936. In 1939, Pendergast was
arraigned for income tax evasion on a bribe received to pay off gambling debts. He
served 15 months in prison at Leavenworth and then lived quietly at his home at 5650
Ward Parkway Kansas City until his death in 1945. Harry S Truman shocked many when
he attended Pendergast's funeral a few days after being sworn in and a weeks before he
succeeded Franklin D. Roosevelt as President.
APPENDIX B
CATALOGUE OF KNOWN BUILDINGS
This catalogue is not definitive, but contains my working notes. Its inclusion is
intended to help future scholars find resources on individual buildings by Howe, Hoit &
Cutler and Hoit, Price & Barnes.1
Catalogue is organized by buildingtype then by date.
Ecclesiastical
365
Domestic
370
Commercial
398
Educational
436
Health Institutions
438
Other Projects
443
Photographs by author unless otherwise noted.
365
ECCLESIASTICAL BUILDINGS
Oakhurst Methodist Episcopal Church
4300 East 18,h Street (18,h and Spruce Streets)
Owner: Protestant Episcopal Church, Kansas City
Architect: Van Brunt and Howe
Date: 1904
Cost: $25,000
The first protestant church in Kansas City was the M. E.
Church, South, located on 5* Street between Delaware and
Wyandotte Streets. Completed in 1852, this brick church was used
has a hospital for confederate prisoners wounded in the battle of
Westport. Nathan Scarritt was amember. See Whitney, 412.
The fecade of the Oakhurst M. E. Church was native limestone with a tile roof and featured
pointed arch on the stained glass windows. The auditorium had seating for 407 people on the main floor,
and an additional 172 people in the galleries. The Sunday school rooms accommodated 542 pupils large
rooms for social and athletic purposes including parlors, toilet rooms, and a kitchen were located under the
Sunday school. See " Construction News: Oakhurst Church." The Western Contractor 3, no. 4 (1904): 1.
The M. E. Church, the first expression ofMethodism in the United States began in 1784 and
became the major component of the present United Methodist Church. Historically, lay pastors and circuit
riders traveled by horseback to preach the gospel and establish churches; consequently, a crossroad
community without a Methodist congregation is rare. The earliest M. E. Church in North America drew
members from the middle-class trades. Their emotional and demonstrative styles ofworship, condemned
by contemporary Congregationalists and Presbyterians, were punctuated by exhortations and testimonials.
Slaves and women, who outnumbering men, publicly shared their testimonials and were among the earliest
leaders. See "History of the M. E. Church" from
http://www.trinitykc.org/templates/System/details.asp?id=37894&PID=423009, accessed 17 June 2009.
Bethal Missionary Baptist Church of Jesus Christ with pastor Rev. J. J. Woods currently
occupies the building, which appears to have a new asphalt roof and aluminum siding across the front
fecade. In earlier photographs on Google Maps, the front appears to be stucco and painted white.
Saint Paul's church (proposed)
36' and Wyandotte Streets
Dates: 1904; 1905-1906
Cost: $33,000 excluding the organ and stained glass windows.
Notes: The church that now stands at 40 and Main (11 East 40*
Street) was drawn by William Barnes Fall and based on an
earlier design by Henry Van Brunt (more likely the firm Howe,
Hoit & Cutler operating under the nåme Van Brunt & Howe). The earlier attempt to built a new
church was aborted.
The Western Contractor—vol. 3, no. 3 (1904): 1.
366
Independence Boulevard Christian Church
2905 Independence Avenue / 606 Gladstone Boulevard
(Independence Blvd. & Gladstone Avenue)
Owner: Christian Church, Disciples of Christ / R. A. Long
Date(s): designed in 1904, built 1905, annex in 1910
Cost: $125,000
Architect: Van Brunt & Howe (1904); Howe, Hoit & Cutler (1906);
Hoit (1910)
1906 Builder: Hollinger & Mitchell; Ernest Klos (stall alt); Kornbrodt Cornice Co. (gal. iron.
Work on old building); Holslag & Co. (decorations); G. W. Huggins (changes at church); Lynn E.
Bowman (plumbing); Wakefield M & T Co. (baptistery tiling); Kronbrodt Kornice Ko. (repairing
baptistery); J. J. Murtha Carpenter; W. N. Gedwey (alt church); Pittsburg Plate Glass Co. (glass fer
gym); G. W. Huggins; Holslag & Co. (decoration & painting); D. Sutter (alterations feiding doors, etc);
W. C. Wiedermann Louvres in dome; Huttig Mill work Co.; L. Rene Gaiemire (wiring dome)
1910 Contractors: G. W. Huggins (general); Squire Elec. & Construction Co. (wiring); Tuttle &
Pike (survey); Lynn E. Bowman (plumbing, moving vac. Cleaner, heating) Gardener Bro (electric
wiring); Richard & Conover (hardware); Denton Foote & Co. (vacuum cleaner); Bunting-Stone Hardware
Co. (lighting fixtures fer basement); Richards & Conover (lockers); Bunting-Stone Hardware Co. (light
fixtures); G. G. Burkholder (telephone fer annex); Robert Keith Furniture & Carpet Co. (cushions for
seats, gym bldg); Emery, Bird, Thayer D. G. C. (pictures for church); Winslow Bros. Co. (2 electroliers);
Bunting-Stone Hdwr. Co (wiring electoliers); Costelow-Canham Elec. Co. (wiring for Vac. Cleaner);
Lynn E. Bowman (re-setting vac. Cleaner on concrete floor, life rail for gym);
1919-1920: Lonsdale Brothers (general); F. G. Johnson (painting, cornice, etc); McShane Bell
Foundry Co. (Chime 11 Bells) - Job Cost Log (Box 9, felder c 1909-c 1917)
Notes: Hollinger & Mitchell report the fcllowing sub-contracts for the church: brick, cut stone
work, lumber, mill work, sheet metal, painting, and windows of the colonial style and other glass. The
heating will be let by the architects.
Notes: Formerlly called Prospect Avenue Christian Church (Independence Avenue and Gladstone
Boulevard), Van Brunt & Howe, 1904: " Although this structure was finished afier Van Brunt's death, it
was deigned by the Van Brunt & Howe firm. The structure is Grecian Ionic style and cost $100,000 (5).
The church is now known as the Independence Bolevard Christian Chruch, but the congregation was fom
a church at 6th and Prospect that burned (4)
"Messrs. Hollinger & Mitchell, general contractors, 1214 Main Street report that the fcllowing sub
contracts for the Christian Church corner of Independence Avenue and Gladstone boulevards are yet to be
let: Brick, cut stone work, lumber, mill work, sheet metal, painting and windows of the colonial style
and other glass. The heating will be let by the architects Van Brunt & Howe." See "Construction News:
Christian Church Corner of Independence Avenue and Gladstone Boulevards." The Western Contractor 3,
no. 2(1904): 1.
American Architect and Bulding News, 26, Dec 1903, xii.
Becker and Millstein. " Independence Boulevard Christian Church." In Religious Properties Survey 1992.
Kansas City: Missouri Department ofNatural Resources Historie Preservation Program, 1993.
The First Eighty Years: Independence Boulevard Christian Church, 1966, p. 22
"Independence Boulevard Christian Church." [Web Site] (Kansas City: Independence Boulevard Christian
Church, 2009, accessed 19 June 2009.); available from http://www.ibcckc.org/index.html:
Internet.
Kansas City Times—19 March 1973; 13 December 1946; 7 Oet. 1966
Kansas City Star—10 September 1905; 3 February 1910; 2 May 1917; 1 January 1920
The Western Contractor—vol. 3, no. 46 (1904); vol. 4, no. 39 (1905): 1; vol. 3, no. 2 (1904): 1.
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log (Box 9, foldere 1909-c. 1917); Drawings: 023.010 1910 gymnasium
building
367
B'Nai Jehudah Svnagogue / Jewish Temple
1511 East Linwood Boulevard
Owner: B'Nai Jehudah Congregation, M. C. Reefer, board of
directors / Mrs. H. H. Mayer (table)
Date(s): design 1906-7; construction 1907-08
Designer: William H. Cutler
Architect: Howe, Hoit & Cutler
Cost: $150,000
Contractors): Taylor & Wiems Construct. Co. (general);
MacMahon Pluming and Heating Co. (sewer); Kaw Boiler Works
(smoke stack); Cotter-McDonnell Plumbing & Heating Co.
(plumbing); Superior Mfg. Co. (pews); Lewis & Kitchen (heating, ventilation); Curtain & Clark
(hardware); Kansas City electrical Construction Co. (electric wiring); John LaFarge (art glass); Jos. F.
Sturdy (decorations); Wahle, Phillips Co (electrical fixtures); H. H. Eages (painting SS rooms); A. C.
Blodgett (drainage); Charles Brizendine (setting pews); J. V. Pardee (drain and trap for cement gutter);
Superior Mfg. Co (additional new pews);
1911 Contractors: Wahle Phillips Co. (standards); Costelow-Carrhann Elect. Co.; M. H. Rice
(marble tables); Ernst Klos (carpenter work for table)
Notes: Currently called the Linwood Multi-purpose Center; in the Job log there is a remark on the page
with the Taylor, Nims Const. Co contract, "Aug 13-07 - claim ten days time afo strike"
"A Jewish Temple to Cost $100,000." The Architect & Builder ofKansas City 22, no. 6 (1907): 6.
Becker and, Millstein. "B'nai Jehudah Temple." In Religions Properties Survey 1992. Kansas City:
Missouri Department ofNatural Resources Historie Preservation Program, 1993.
Kansas City Times—6 June 1908.
Kansas City Star—5 February 1949.
Western Contractor—16 January 1907, p. 5; vol. 4, no. 48 (1905): 3; vol. 5, no. 19 (1906): 5; vol. 5,
no. 14(1906): 1.
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log, Box 9, folder c. 1905-c. 1910 and Box 9, folder c. 1909-c. 1917; Drawings:
007.008 1906-1907 Howe, Hoit & Cutler; Howe & Hoit
Church of Christ / First Christian Church
1000 Kentucky Street (Berkley and Kentucky Streets) Lawrence,
Kansas
Owner: Christian Church, Disciples of Christ
Date(s): design 1907; construction 1908
Contractors): W. T. Hutchins (excavation & foundation); Albert
Brewer (brick work); J. W. Gliddens (cut stone); J. A. Benson
(drainage); Manhattan Construction Co (general plumbing,
heating, wiring); Southwestern Furniture Mfg. Co. (pews);
Campbell Glass & Paint Co. (art glass)
"Construction News: Van Brunt & Howe." The Western Contractor 3, no. 46 (1904).
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log, Box 9, folder c. 1905-c. 1910; Drawings: 009.009 1907 Howe & Hoit
(Image is a screen shot of the historie pic that they have on the websitehttp://www.fcclawrence.org/index.php?option=com_oziogallery&Itemid=18)
368
Linwood Boulevard Christian Church with Baptisterv also Called
the South Side Christian Church
Linwood Blvd and Forest
Owner: Christian Church, Disciples ofChrist
Construction Date(s): 1904-09
Cost: $50,000
Contractors): Harvey Stiver (repair and painting); Lonsdale Bros.
(general); Electric Wiring Co. (wiring); Lynn E. Bowman
(plumbing); Ford Bros. Glass Co. (art glass window); Kansas
City Steam & Hot Water Heating Co. (heating); American
Seating Co. (pews, pulpit furniture); Richards & Conover Hardware Co. (hardware); L. C. Ross &
Co. (electric fixtures outside aud.); Wahle Phillips & Co. (elec. fix. aud); Holslag & Co.
(decorations); Chas Brooke (Lettering); Calhoun Mantel & Tile Co. (marble and tile); L. F. Kleeman
Mig. Co. (music rack)
1914 Addition (J. B. & Mary Atkins Memorial Hall) Contractors: Tuttle & Pike (survey); Cunningham
Plumbing & Heating Co. (plumbing and heating); K. C. Electric Construction Co. (wiring);
Campbell Glass & Paint co. (art glass); Satterlee Electric Co. (electric fixtures); Bailey-Reynolds Gas
Fix. Co. (electric fix.); Henry Ohans (decorations); Bunting-Stone Hardware Co. (old part); Satterlee
Electric Co. (2 standards); Western Waterproofing Co. (waterproofing basement at west end);
Richards & Conover Hardware Co.
Kansas City Star—-28 Aug, 1904, p. 6
Western Contractor—\ol 3, no. 30 (1904): 1; vol. 3, no. 46 (1904); vol. 3, no. 27 (1904): 1.
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log, Box 9, foldere. 1905-c. 1910; Job Cost Log, Box 9, foldere. 1909-c. 1917;
Drawings: 023.008 1904 Van Brunt & Howe, 007.007 1904; 1905; 1908 Howe, Hoit & Cutler;
Howe & Hoit
(Reprinted: Postcard of the Linwood Boulevard Christian Church, c. 1915, from the Mrs. Sam Ray
Postcard Collection (SC58) at the Missouri Valley Special Collections, Kansas City Public Library)
Jewish Temple (alterations to old buildingl
11 and Oak Streets
Owner: B'nai Congregation / Ada E. Waddell
Date: 1908, 1911
Contractors: A. E. Madorie (general); M. P. Connor P & H Co. (plumbing and Heating); Randall Bros
Electric Co. (wiring); Richards & Conover; K. C. Chandelier & Bross Mfg. Co. (fixtures); CostelowCauham Elec. Co. (repair wiring in 1911)
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log Box 9 April 28, 1911 Repairing the gutter and roof for the Old Jewish
Temple at 11 and Oak for Leonard Everett (agt.)
Saint George's Episcopal Church and parish house
2917 Tracy Avenue (29 Street and Tracy Avenue)
Owners: Protestant Episcopal Church in Kansas City (now
Providence Missionary Baptist Church)
Date: 1909
Architect: Howe & Hoit
Builder: William A. Row
Cost: $50,000 for the parish house and the property
Contractors: Tuttle & Pike (1907 surveys for 33rd & Paseo, 1909
survey for Tracy & Troost); James Smith (1909 iron work parish house); Lovejoy Planing Mills
(mill work parish house); Phoenix Cut Stone Co.; Kerkerurg & Roebben (sheet metal); A. J. Shirk
Roofing Co. (roofing); L. F. Kleeman Mig. Co. (cover for holy water receptacle); Denton Foote &
Co. (electric lighting); K. C. Steam & Hot Water Heating Co. (plumbing); J. B. Winters (painting);
J. E. Loewer Wire & Iron Works (balcony railing); K. C. Architectural Decorating Co. (Plaster
Caps); Arthur B. Mueller H Co. (heating); Jack W. Anderson (plastering); Richards & Conover
(hardware).
369
Contractors for the rectory: Phoenix Store and Lime Co. (cut stone); Squire Electric Co. (wiring);
Halliwell Cement Co. (wall safe); Kerkering & Roebher (sheet metal); Richards & Conover
Hardware; Rood & Mclntyre (heating); K. C. Steam & Hot Water Heating Co. (plumbing); J. B.
Winters (painting); Calhoun Mantel & Tile Co. (marble & Tile); J. W. Anderson (plastering);
Kansas City Mantel Co. (fireplace); L.C. Ross & Co. (electric fixtures); Jemmers Mig. Co. (Cormpo
Ornaments); Wakefield Mantel & Tile Co.; Lynch Watkins (cement); Lyle Rock Co. (rubble); J.
Faller (drain)
Water Permit #40401; Building Permit #24735;
Western Contractor—July 14, 1909, p.4 and March 10, 1909, p.10
Becker and Millstein. " St. George's Parish." In Religious Properties Survey 1992. Kansas City:
Missouri Department ofNatural Resources Historie Preservation Program, 1993.
Manon, Calvin. St. George's Episcopal Church the First 75 Years. Kansas City: [St. George's Episcopal
Church the First 75 Years], 1966, 7-8.
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log, Box 9, foldere. 1909-c. 1917
WHMC-KC Drawings; 009.008 (1909 Howe & Hoit; HPB); 009.010 (1909 Howe & Hoit); 181.021 (n.
d. Howe & Hoit sketch)
(Image fom Millstein, Becker /. " St. George's Parish." In Religious Properties Survey 1992. Kansas
City: Missouri Department ofNatural Resources Historie Preservation Program, 1993.)
Epiphanv Episcopal Church
309 West Eim Street Sedan, Kansas (today Sedan is about 4 hours
south of Kansas City by car)
Date: 1910, altar 1915
Architect: Howe & Hoit
Cost: $5,200 (excluding the site, windows and fiirniture)
Contractors: Western Cab. Fix. Co. (Altar for church); Jaccard
Jewelry Co. (plate for altar); Campbell G & P Co. (stained
glass windows)
"In 1906, The Rev. Dr. Frank Campion Armstrong, an
Englishman, became the Vicar of Epiphany Mission in Sedan. Shortly thereafter, Amanda Ann
Loomis gave to Epiphany a quarter of a block on the corner of Eim and Spruce Streets. This included
a farne house, which was moved fom the corner to the south side of the site. This house was the
Rectory until June 1957 when it was sold to make way for the present house. The church property
on Chautauqua Street was sold in 1906 for $1,750.00. Plans were obtained from Howe and Hoyt, a
Kansas City architectural firm, for a new stone church to be constructed similar to the country
churches of England. The church was completed within a year at the cost of $5,200. 00, excluding the
site, windows or fiirniture. On February 16, 1909, Epiphany was consecrated. The finished church is
commonly considered one of the most attractive small churches in Kansas and has 3 stained glass
windows, one ofwhich is aTiflany." See "Epiphany Episcopal Church Welcomes You!—Our
History" [Web Site] (Sedan, Kansas: Epiphany Episcopal Church, 2009, accessed 8 June 2009.);
available fom http://www.epiphanvsedan.org/content/rector search#Our%20Historv: Internet.
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log, Box 9, foldere. 1909-c. 1917
(image fom http://www.episcopal-ks.org/congregations/sedan.html)
370
First Church of Christ Scientist
1758 Tauromee Avenue (18* Street and Tauromee Avenue) Kansas
City, Kansas
Owner: First Church of Christ Scientist; now owned by Iglesia La
Esperanza Cristiana Evangelical
Architect: Henry F. Hoit
Date(s): 1913-1918, corner stone says 1927
Contractors: Eugene Drier (basement & basement heating); John
E. S. Erickson (drainage); E. D. draper (plumbing basement);
J. C. Chaney (wiring); E. L. Noel Electric Co.; Bunting Hardware Co. (lighting fixtures & hardware)
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log, Box 9, foldere. 1909-c. 1917; Drawings: 009.013 1917 Henry F. Hoit
Saint Elizabeth's Church and Parish
DEMOLISHED—2 East 75tK Street (75* and Main Streets)
Owner: Catholic Church (Bishop Thomas Lillis, Father Edward J.
Hayes)
Date(s): 1920-1922
Architect: Hoit, Price & Barnes
Contractors: Tuttle-Ayers-Woodward Engineering (Survey)
.-•»
-
**••">*,
: ' • • • .
V
f'
" Fr. Hayes began preparations fcr building a church in
1919, and the exterior ofthe first church was completed in 1922. The interior ofthe church remained
unfiirnished for thirteen years, however. During the next several years, several finishing elements were
added to the interior ofthe church, including plaster on the walls, pews, woodwork, altars, Stations ofthe
Cross, confessionals, an organ, and stained glass windows. By the time the church was dedicated on April
22, 1935, the exterior also had two stone towers (one with bells) added, and the feith community had
grown to 265 fåmilies. It was a vibrant part ofthe Waldo community. ... By 1960, the old church had
become too small and could no longer meet the growing demands ofthe parish. The master ficilities plan
called for the original structure to be tom down and a larger church erected in its place. For nineteen
months, Masses, weddings, and other celebrations were moved to Memorial Hall while the current church
was under construction. The present church was dedicated on September 21, 1961." See "Parish History."
[Web Site] (Kansas City: St. Elizabeth Parish, 2009, accessed 17 May 2009.); available from
http://www.steke.org/history.htm; Internet.
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log, Box 9, foldere. 1909-c. 1917
WHMC-KC Drawings: 070.002 1922 HPB; 013.010 1922 HPB
(Image from: "Parish History." [Web Site] (Kansas City: St. Elizabeth Parish, 2009, accessed 17 May
2009.); available from http://www.stekc.org/history.htm; Internet.)
DOMESTIC BUILDINGS
Chisham residence
705 North Fourth Street Atchison, Kansas
Owner: James M. Chisham, director in the Atchison Water Co.,
stockholder in the First National Bank, member of Trinity
Episcopal Church. (Connelley)
Current Owners: Allan and Shelby Kremske, 913-367-7221
Date: 1904
Cost: $5,000
Architect: Van Brunt & Howe
Notes: 2-story shingle frame dwelling 33 x 37 feet. It will have a
shingle roof, wood cornices, attic, basement, D. S. glass, some art glass, interior finish in oak, floor
oak, cypress and hard pine, bath, mantels, combination mght, fiimace, heat
371
Connelley, William E. A StandardHistory ofKansas andKansans. Chicago: Lewis Publishing Co.,
1918; Book transcribed by Carolyn Ward and Baxter Springs Middle School students available fom
http://skvwavs.lib.ks.us/genweb/archives/1918ks/. accessed 1 M y 2009, Internet.
The Western Contractor—vol. 3, no. 27 (1904): 1, vol. 3, no. 9 (1904): 1.
Ewins residence and stable
409 Gladstone Boulevard (Scarritfs Point)
Owner: Frank P. Ewins of the Ewins-Childs Hotel Co., proprietors
of the Savory Hotel
Date(s): 1904
Cost: $11,000
Architect: Van Brunt & Howe, approved by Hoit
Contractors: G. W. Huggins (1910 repairing garage)
NR Date: 12/1/1997 (Point South Historie District)
The Kansas City Star, 30 M y 1905.
Water Permit #12842, 27 May 1896, D. O. Smart (Plumber); K. C. D. 1896 D. O. Smart res. 2904
Independence Avenue
The Western Contractor—vol. 3, no. 4 (1904): 1.
Woodward, Emily F. and Sherry Piland. "409 Gladstone Blvd. / Frank P. Ewins Residence." In
Historie Inventory, #1875. Kansas City: Landmarks Commission, 1982.
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log, Box 9, foldere. 1909-c. 1917
WHMC-KC Drawings: 004.025 1904 Van Brunt & Howe (approved by Hoit)
Dalkeith flats
DEMOLISHED—11* and Forest Avenue
(Now the site ofthe Salvation Army)
Owner: Estate of E. Whyte
Architects: Howe, Hoit & Cutler
Date(s): 1904-1906
Cost: $30,000
Notes: four story modem brick, stone-trimmed apartment building 64 x 83 feet and containing eight
apartments. The building will have its own steam heat and power plant or sufficient capacity to
operate and heat a duplicate ofthe above building, which is to be erected when this one is completed.
The interior will be modem construction and corresponding appurtenances throughout.
Contractors: E. E. Rosenberg (tipping out chimneys); Louis Grieb
Notes: three stories and a basement with a flat roofmade ofbrick and stone.
The Western Contractor—-Vol. 3, no. 41 (1904): 1; vol. 3, no. 14 (1904): 1.
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log, Box 9, foldere. 1905-c. 1910
WHMC-KC Drawings: 007.014 1904 HHC
Home for Five School Teachers
DEMOLISHED—3618 Forest Avenue
Date: 1905
Architect: Howe, Hoit & Cutler
Notes: for co-operative purposes built for five schoolteachers: Miss
Emma J. Lockett, Miss L. Kate Biggs, Miss Mary E. Flaven,
Miss Mary Schmidt and Miss Jane Connell. It will have 13
rooms with five bedrooms and dining room. The first floor will
be finished with white oak and the second with white oak and
white enamel. The floors will all be hard wood and the rooms
will have a five-foot wainscoting. (KC Star);
Landmarks commission neighborhood survey in the 1940s
The Kansas City Star, 30 July 1905.
(Image Reprinted form Kansas City Star)
Bowersock residence
641 East 45* Street (Rockhill)
Owner: Justin D. Bowersock, lawyer. Mrs. Bowersock was one of
the founders of the Sunset Hills School.
Date(s): 1905
Cost: $35,000 (combined with Doggett)
Architect: Howe, Hoit & Cutler
Piland, Sherry and Uguccioni. "641 East 45th Street / Justin
Bowersock Residence." In Historie Inventory, #2601. Kansas
City: Landmarks Commission, 1980.
The Kansas City Star, 30 July 1905.
The Western Contractor—vol. 3, no. 46 (1904).
"Mrs. Bowersock Dead." The Kansas City Times, 21 November 1936
Water Permit #25995
WHMC-KC Drawings: 015.009 1919 HPB
Tschudv residence
2 Janssen Place, Lot 1 / 36* and Janssen Place (Hyde Park)
Owner: John Henry Tschudy, president ofthe J. H. Tschudy
Hardwood Lumber Co. in Kansas City
Date(s): 1905, 1911
Architect: Howe, Hoit & Cutler
Contractors: Hollinger & Mitchell
1911 Contractors: K. C. Slate & TileRoofCo. (repair roof); E.
Klos (material and labor); Dierks Lumber Co.
NR Date 11/7/1976 (Janssen Place Historie District)
Kansas City Star, 24 October 1948; "Some ofthe New Houses Building or Recently Built in Kansas
City," 30 July 1905.
Tax Assessment Grid, Director ofRecords, Jackson County Courthouse
Miszezuk, Karel and Ed Miszezuk. "Kenneth Space Residence / Eric Van Benshoten Residence / John
Henry Tschudy Residence / #2 Janssen Place." In Historie Inventory. Kansas City: Landmarks
Commission, 1980.
The Western Contractor—vol. 8 (1909): 3.
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log, Box 9, felder c. 1909-c. 1917
WHMC-KC Drawings: 007.003 1905 HHC; Tuttle, Ayers and Woodward (civil engineers)
Doggett residence & barn
635 East 45 ,h Street (Rockhill)
Owner: Frederick S. Doggett, Manager ofthe Blossom House
(1048 Union Ave)
Date(s): 1906
Cost: $35,000 (combined with Bowersock)
Architect: Howe, Hoit & Cutler
Contractors): Eimer E. Rosenberg (general); Chamberlain Metal
W . S . Co. (weather strips); Bunting-Stone Hardware Co.; Cote (barn fcundation); J. L. Appleton
(painting not in Rosenberg contract); E. C. Yates (" graintorial work" plastering grading, etc); A.
Flood (plaster-barn); Richards & Conover (hardware); work done by Mr. Doggett (drainage,
plumbing, heating electrical wiring); E. E. Miller (light metal & tile); Forrester Siverson Const. Co.
1911 City Directory, Kansas City
Piland, Sherry. "635 East 45th Street / F. S. Doggett Residence." ln Historie Inventory. Kansas City:
Landmarks Commission, 1983.
The Western Contractor—vol 3, no. 46 (1904); vol. 3, no. 12 (1904): 1.
Water Permit #25994
WHMC-KC WHMC-KC Job Cost Log, Box 9
WHMC-KC Drawings: 007.002 1904, 1905 HHC; Tuttle, Ayers and Woodward (civil engineers)
373
Horton residence
79 Prospect Street (Prospect Park) White Plains, New York
Owner: Charles A. Horton, President of Hope Webbings Co.
(textiles), Rhode Island
Cost: $11,445
Date(s): 1906
Architects: Howe, Hoit & Cutler
Contractor: Thompson & Alexander
Notes: the Hope W ebbing Mill was the larges in the world at the
height of its success fom 1889 to 1914. Horton became president in 1916 after the death ofDr.
Fenner H. Peckham.
1915 Directory (per Elaine Massena at the White Plain Historical Society)
Mattiello, Dorothy. "Hope Global Celebrates Its 125 Year Anniversary." Cumberland, RI: Hope Global
Division ofNFA Inc., 2008, see chapter 5.
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log, Box 9, foldere. 1905-c. 1910
WHMC-KC Drawings: 007.004 n. d. HHC
(Image provided by Chris 0'Keefe, c. 2009)
Littlefield residence
DEMOLISHED—3523 Warwick Boulevard
Owner: Walter Littlefield, lawyer (843 New York Life Bldg)
Date(s): 1906
Contractors): E. E. Rosenberg (general); J. V. Pardee (plumbing); A. B. Mueller Heating Co. (heating);
Richards & Conover Hardware Co.; Mathews Electric Co. (wiring); Bailey-Reynolds Gas Fixture
Co.; E. Roemer (mantel); Wakefield Mantel & Tile Co.; decorations by Mr. Hoit
Notes: The address in the Job Cost Log is 3521 Warwick. Water Permit lists address as 3523 Warwick.
S. Stoddard added a garage in 1915. Residence demolished for a multi-Émily housing complex in
1957. The owner at the time was International DeMolay Holding Co.
Permit #48711, 7 January 1957, to "Wreck 2 sty brick and farne res 2000 sq. ft. Bond 2661".)
1911 City Directory, Kansas City
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log, Box 9, foldere. 1905-c. 1910
Long residence (repair)
DEMOLISHED—2814 Independence Avenue
Owner: Robert Alexander Long
Date(s): 1906 (roofrepaired), 1908 (house remodeled)
Contractors): Henry Weis Cornice Co (repair roof); G. W. Huggins (remodeling-general); K. S. Chaud
& B. Mig Co. (gas/electric fixtures); G. G. Clarkson (grading); Jos. H. Stowe (residence layoutpaddock fence and pergola); Geo. W. Huggins (gen. gate lodge); K. C. Steam & hot Water H. Co.
(gate lodge-heating); O. J. Sutter (gate lodge, greenhouse, conservatory-plumbing); Lord & Burnham
(greenhouse-superstructure); G. W. Huggins (conservatory & Pergola-general); G. W. Huggins (base
ofgreenhouse-general); G. W. Huggins (residence); the Aeolina Col. (organ); G. W. Huggins
(residence-general); G. W. Huggins (residence-plumbing); Wm. H. Janson & Co. (Bronze work);
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log, Box 9, foldere. 1905-c. 1910
Wallace residence
3515 Gladstone Boulevard (Scarritt Point)
Owner: Theodore B. Wallace, lawyer (400 New England Bldg)
Date(s): 1906
Cost: $10,000
Architect: Howe, Hoit & Cutler
NR Date: 12/1/1997 (Scarritt Point North Historie District)
Contractors: Harvey Stiver (general); Woodville Smith (electric
wiring); Kansas City Furnace Co. (heating); J. V. Pardee
(plumbing); Decorations selected by Mr. Hoit; Richards &
Conover (hardware); The Fixture House Co.
374
1911 City Directory, Kansas City; Water Permit #31145
The Western Contractor—vol. 5, no. 25 (1906): 6 (address listed as 3501 Gladstone).
Piland, Sherry, "3515 Gladstone Blvd. / Theodoric B. Wallace Residence," In Historie Inventory,
#3198. Kansas City: Landmarks Commission, 1983.
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log, Box 9, foldere. 1905-c. 1910
Bird residence. "Elmhurst"
DEMOLISHED—Northwest corner of 36 and Pennsylvania /
36 and Broadway (Roanoke)
Owner: Joseph Taylor Bird, Sr., Vice-President and General
Manager of the Emery, Bird, Thayer Dry Goods Co. ( I l '
Walnut and Grand Ave)
Date(s): 1907
Architect: Howe, Hoit & Cutler; Howe & Hoit
Contractors): Adelbert Myers (driveway); Hollinger & Mitchell
(wood gates, paddock fence); Kleeman, Trotter & Co (Stone
fence and Gates); Donnelly & Son Construction Co (Stonework); W. T. Osborn & co (stone fence
conduits and wiring); Edward Roeiner (mantal & bookcase work)
Bone, D. M. "Photo ofthe J. T. Bird Residence Called 'Elmhurst' with Large Wrought Iron Gates."
Annual Review of Greater Kansas City Illustrated (1908): 97.
1911 City Directory, Kansas City
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log, Box 9, foldere. 1905-c. 1910 and Box 9, foldere. 1909-c. 1917)
(Image reprinted from Annual Review of Greater Kansas City Illustrated, 97)
Hagerman residence (additionl
DEMOLISHED—3515 Warwick Boulevard
Owner: Frank Hagerman
Date(s): 1907
Contractors): Carl A. Nilson (general); MacMahon Plumbing & Heating Co (heating); Chamberlin
Metal Weather Strip Co.; Squire Electric Co. (wiring); Wakefield Mantel & Tile Co.
Kansas City Star, 21 November 1897; Demolished
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log, Box 9
Hoit residence
DEMOLISHED—3771 Washington Street
Owner: Henry F. Hoit, Architect (315 E. 10*)
Date(s): 1907
Contractors): A. E. Malone (general); E. C. Yates (concrete); Louis Grieb (foundation); J. C. Kimmel
(heating); Will J. Orlean & Co. (painting); Richards & Conover Hardware Co.; A. Flood; Squire
Electric Co. (wiring); Eph. Doherty (plumbing)
Notes: Landmarks Commission has a record for a repair for fire loss on the second floor (18 Feb. 1914) for
Henry F. Hoyt; Henry Hoit is listed in the 1911 Kansas City Directory
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log, Box 9, foldere. 1905-c. 1910
Smith residence Calterations')
Warwick Blvd.
Owner: Edward W. Smith
Date: 1907
Contractors: Lonsdale Brothers (general); E. D. Hombrook (plumbing)
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log, Box 9, folder c. 1905-c. 1910
Plumb residence (alterations)
Emporia, Kansas
Owner: Mrs. P. B. Plumb
Date: 1907
Contractors): American Sash and Door Co. (millwork for sleeping porch)
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log, Box 9, foldere. 1905-c. 1910
375
C, Campbell residence. "White Gables"
DEMOLISHED—3524 Main Street (Main NW corner of 36,h),
Hyde Park
Owner: Charles Campbell, President of Campbell Glass & Paint
Co. (1400 W. 11*), Vice-Pres Fidelity Trust Co. (Walnut SE
corner 9*) and Chairman ofBoard Central Coal & Coke Co.
(600-609 Keith & Perry Bldg)
Date(s): 1908-1909, conservatory 1913
Architect: Howe & Hoit
Contractor: Tuttle & Pike (survey); Lonsdale Bros. (general); E. D. Ellsworth (florist); Louis Grieb
(excavation and foundation); MacMahon Co. (plumbing, heating, etc); Kansas City Mantel Co. (tile
and marble work); Herrick Refrigerator & Mig. Co. (ice chests); K. C. Electrical Construction Co.
(wiring); Sanitary Dust Removing Co.; Richards & Corrover (hardware); C. G. McCleary (four
Driveway Piers); Bremer Cut Stone Co. (four gate posts); Joseph F. Sturdy (decorations, etc); John
Lippert (painting); Larson Supply Co. (sewers); American Sash & Door Co. (mantels); K. C.
Chand. Brass Mig. Co. (Comb & Elec Fixtures); Frank Tilk Ornamental Iron Mig; Todd Conway
(Concrete work); William Galloway (vases, etc); Lonsdale Bros (alterations to Billiard rooms, and
building a conservatory); C. G. McCleary & Son (setting chimney caps); American Screen Mig. Co.
(1913 screens); A. A. MacMahon (heating conservatory and alt heating); Lonsdale Brothers
(conservatory, etc); Monarch Weather Strip Co. (1914)
1911 City Directory, Kansas City
"Campbell Residence." The Western Architect 12, no. 15: 36.
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log, Box 9, folder c. 1905-c 1910 and Box 9, folder x 1909-c. 1917
WHMC-KC Drawings: 181.027 n. d. sketch Howe & Hoit
Eaton residence
4337 Campbell Street (South Hyde Park)
Owner: John A. Eaton, Lawyer Geni Solicitor, Kansas City Mexico
& Orient Ry Third Floor United States & Mexican Trust Co. Bldg
Date(s): 1908
Architects: Howe & Hoit
1911 City Directory, Kansas City
Builder: Hayse Beverforde (1908); AAA Property Imp. Co. (1966)
"4337 Campbell St. / Eaton Residence." In Historie Resources,
wptshp459, #2405. Kansas City: Landmarks Commission, 2001.
Water Permit #36276; Building Permits #22482, #23006
Havens residence
4501 Holmes Street (Rockhill)
Owner: Joseph D. Havens, head of the Joseph D. Havens Co.,
printers (108 W. 9,h)
Date(s): 1908 (add. 1948)
Cost: $10,000-12,000
Architect: Howe & Hoit
Contractors): Louis F. Hartman (general); A. B. Mueller Heating
Co. (heating); Erhardt & McCann (plumbing); E. S. Cousin
Electric Co. (wiring); Western Sash & D. Co. (remodeling doors); E. S. Cornice Elec Co. (wiring);
Pitts burg Glass Co. (mirrors); Western Sash and Door Co. (remodeling doors); Curtin & Clark
Hardware Co. (hardware); J. H. Stone (carpenter work);
1911 City Directory, Kansas City
Building Permit #24701 A; Water Permit #35599
"His a New England Home: The Residence of J. D. Havens Ins. Building at Forty-Fifh and Holmes."
The Kansas City Star, 17 April 1908.
Piland, Sherry. "4501 Holmes / J. D. Havens Residence." In Historie Inventory, #2254. Kansas City:
Landmarks Commission, 1983.
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log, Box 9
376
Hendrix residence (alterations)
3248 Norledge Place
Owner: Bishop E. R. Hendrix
Date(s): 1908
Contractors): Campbell G. & P Co. (glass); Geor. F. Bender (painting); Walter B. Groves
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log, Box 9, felder c. 1905-c. 1910
Minor residence and garaee (alterationsl
2627 Troost Avenue
Owner: Dr. W. E. Minor
Date: 1908-1911
1908 Contractors): Calhoun Mantel & Tile Co. (floors and wainscoting bath); J. V. Pardee (plumbing)
1910-1911 Contractors: Lonsdale Bros; E. Klos (bathroom); American Sash and Door Co. (tile);
Simmous & Collopy (plumbing); p W. F. Ragland (plastering); Squire Elec & Const. Co. (wiring);
WHMC-KC Job Cost Logs, Box 9, c. 1905-c. 1910 and Box 9, c. 1909-c. 1917
White residence (repair)
616 East 36,h Street
Owner: J. B. White
Date: 1908
Contractors: G. W. Huggins
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log, Box 9, folder c. 1905-c. 1910
R. Campbell residence
29 West 53rd Street
Owner: Robert J. Campbell, Manager of Campbell Glass and
Paint Co. (1400 West 1 l ,h Street)
Date(s): 1909
Cost: $7,500
Architect: Howe & Hoit
Contractors): Daniel Sutter (general); M. P. Connor Plumbing
& Heating (plumbing, heating); Electric Wiring Co. (wiring);
Wake Field Mantel & Tile Co.; J. N. McGrath (painting);
Richards & Conover Hardware Co. (hardware); K. C.
Chandelier & Brass Mfg. Co (electric fixtures); K. E. J. Burrows & Co. (sewers); Monarch Metal
Weather Strip Co (weather strips); E. C. Yates (granitoid work); Henry Swanson (grading and
sodding); Ernst Klos (1911 repair work); W. H. Wood (1911 work on cesspool);
Notes: two story residence 27 x 38 feet, shingle roof, attic and basement, oak and yellow pine interior
finish, one mantel, two baths, electric lighting, hot water.
1911 City Directory, Kansas City
The Western Contractor—vol. 16, no. 10 (1909): 9, vol. 8 (10 March 1909): 10.
NR Date: 5/26/2000, Simpson-Yeoman' s/Country Side Historie District (Boundary Increase)
Betz, M. and L. L. Briscoe. "29 W. 53rd Street / Robert J. Campbell Residence." In Historie
Inventory, #2997'. Kansas City: Landmarks Commission, 1990.
Water Permit #39474, 27 April 1909
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log, Box 9, foldere. 1905-c. 1910)
377
Charles residence / apartments
3607 Pennsylvania Avenue (Roanoke)
Owner: Mrs. Mary A. Charles, widow of Augustus L. Charles
Date(s): 1909-10
Status: the residence is not "The Writer's Place." From the
exterior, I see no evidence ofthe apartments.
Contractors: C. E. Closser (carpentry, etc); A. Sutermeister
Stone Co. (stone work); W. W. Field (heating); Hanson &
Wright (plumbing); Bunting-Stone Hardware Co. (hardware);
1911 City Directory, Kansas City
Goldstein, David, " A Mansion fcr the Muse: Writer' s Place will
provide the space to think and talk and toil." The Kansas City Star, profile section, p. El and E7
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log, Box 9, foldere. 1909-c. 1917
WHMC-KC Drawings: 009.002 1909, 1910 Howe & Hoit; 017.015 n. d. Hoit, Price and Barnes
Gofle residence
47 West 53rd Street
Owner: Wallace C. Gofle, (Gofle & Carkener, 101 Board of Trade
Bldg), Member ofthe Grain Commission
Date(s): 1909-10; 1937
Cost: $18,000
Architect: Howe & Hoit; Hoit, Price, & Barnes-architects 1937,
Lonsdale Brothers-builders 1937
Contractors: Lonsdale Brothers (general); Tuttle & Pike (survey);
J. W. Taylor Construction Co. (general); O. J. Sutter
Plumbing Co. (plumbing); Arcade Elec. Const. Co. (wiring); E. D. Hornbrook (heating); Star
Cornice & Roofing Co. (light metal); Guy Briden (cesspool); Harrigan Safe Co. (wall safe); BuntingStone Hardware Co. (hardware); A. L. Bosse (painting); Wakefield Mantel & Tile Co. (mantels);
American Sash and Door Co. (tile work); E. F. Hill (grading and sodding); E. J. Burrows Co.
(screens); superior metal weather strip Co.; J. j . Bard (dry wall); Independence Planning Mill;
Notes: Two stories, basement, attic, 51 x 55 feet, stone shingle roofj plumbing, 2 baths, toilets, art and
sheet glass, oak, birch and poplar interior finish, tile and yellow pine floors, mantels, combination
light fixtures, steam heat, cementing, decorating, etc.
1911 City Directory, Kansas City
Uguccioni. "47 W. 53rd Street / Wallace C. Gofle Residence." In Historie Inventory, #3301. Kansas
City: Landmarks Commission, 1981.
Water Permit #34665; Building Permit #9389; Building Permit #3764A
The Western Contractor—vol. 17, no. 2 (1909): 4.
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log, Box 9, folder .c 1909-c. 1917)
WHMC-KC Drawings: 009.003 (1909, 1910 with alterations and additions Howe & Hoit; HPB);
083.023 (n. d. HPB)
Lona residence / Corinthian Hall
3218 Gladstone Boulevard (Scarritfs Point)
Owner: Robert Alexander Long,
Date(s): 1909-1912
Cost: $100,000
Architect: Henry F. Hoit
Builder: George W. Huggins
Contractors) for stable: Geo. W. Huggins (general); Richards &
Conover (hardware); Randall Bros Electric Co. (wiring);
MacMahon Co. (plumbing and heating); Charles W.
Hornbrook (stable fittings); K. C. Chand & Brass Mfg. Co. (gas & Elect. Fix); W. A Miller
Elevator Mfg. Co. (hand lif); A. J. Phillips Co, (screens);
Contractors) for residence: Cudworth Axtell & Co. (survey); Todd-Conway Concrete Construction Co.
(residence layout-approaches to driveway); Jos. H. Stone (residence layout-paddock fence and
378
pergola); Geo. W. Huggins (general gate lodge); Kansas City Chandilier & Brass Mig. Co (fixtures);
Gladstone & Indiana: L. F. Kleeman Mfg. Co. (plant benches in conservatory); Chares W. Burriss
(painting iron work in stable); 1909-11 Miscellany; Wm Baumgarten & co. (lamps for fence);
Ferdinand Vichi (vases for entrance); Isaak Robinson (driveway); Maynard Wholesale & Ret.
Nurseries (trees); Kansas City Nurseries; Kornbrodt Kornice Kompany (garbage cans); Squire
Elevator Construction Co. (meters); The Galloway Terra Cotta Co. (vases for the premises); Pehl
Manufacturing Co. (lining and covers for marble vases); C. C. Maynard (trees); E. D. Hornbrook
(drain at NW Corner ofresidence); K. C. Nurseries (trees); the enos Co. (lights for gate posts); A.
Sutermeister (fence, extra foundation, etc); Wm H. Jackson (Andirous, etc); Emery, Bild, Thayer D.
G. Co (billiard room forn); brunswick Balke Collender Co. (pool table); Enos Co. (electric fixtures in
billiard room); Chicago Great Western R. R. Co (trat on Billiard Table); American Sash and Door
co. (Billiard Room fireplace); William H. Hoops & Co. (Audirous, etc); Robert Keith Fum &
Carpet Co. (rubber mats and cocoa mats); J. W. Jenkins Sous Musee Co. (pianola piano); Wm.
Baumgarten & Co. (piano case, music cabinet, piano bench, 3 piece for sideboard and side tables,
dining room ornaments); Edeo Roenner (music cabinet); Mitchell Vance Co (library Elec Standard);
Wm Baumgarten & Co (cloud shades west entrance); Newton & Coit Co. (Two music cabinets);
Brunswick-Balke Collender Co. (Klondike table); Wm. Baumgarten & Co. (billiard room
decorations); MacMahon PJlumbing & Heating Co. (changes and additions to heating plant);
Hollinger Construction Co. (general, coal bin); Squire Electric & Construction Co. (wiring coal bin);
E. D. Hornbrook (changing plumbing and heating pipes);
3218 Gladstone: Flour City Ornaments Iron Works (grille for 2d organ); Jacques Steel Co. (grilles &
frame of new organ); Mr. Lattern (work in preparing organ rooms)
Contractors) forremodeling Schmelzer House on Ind Ave & Walrond: Geo. W. Huggins (general);
MacMahon Co. (plumbing, heating & gas piping); K. C. Chand. & Brass Mfg. Co (gas & electirc
fixtures); Geo A. F. Bender (painting); A. J. Phillips Co. (screens); G. G. Clarkson (grading); K. C.
Steam and Hot Water Co. (gate Lodge, conservatory, and greenhouse-heating); Richards & Conover
Hardware Co. (hardware gate lodge & conservatory); O. J. Sutter (gate lodge, greenhouse, and
conservatory-plumbing); J. O. Wootton Electric Co. (wiring); Lord & Bumham (greenhousesuperstructure); G. W. Huggins (conservatory and Pergola-general); G. W. Huggins (base of
greenhouse); Aeolian Co (organ in the residence); McMahon P & H Co. (heating-residence);
Miscellanies in 1915-1916
Contractors for Residence Layout at Gladstone and Walrond: C. G. Clarkson (grading & sodding SW
park); Wm. Galloway; E. D. Hornbrook (water service); G. W. Huggings (drivewary)
After R. A. Long died on 15 March 1934, " Corinthian Hall" became property of his two daughters.
They took what they wanted from the house. Loula moved the black walnut beams from the library
into the dining room of the main residence at Longview Farm, where she lived. She cut the green and
cream rug in the breakfåst room out of the center of the carpet in the Townhouse. She also brought
out the fireplace. See Jones, 119 and 157.
After the house was sold, Loula moved the mahogany beams from the living room ceiling to the
Longview dining room. See Jones, 178.
Long's daughters donated the Corinthian hall in 1939 to the newly formed Kansas City Museum
Association. In 1940, the house began a new life as a museum ofhistory and science. The exterior
remained intact, but the interior rooms were modified. Much of the architectural ornamentation was
retained in the main rooms behind false ceilings and walls installed to preserve them. The stablecarriage house was converted into an exhibition space for natural history and remained so through the
twentieth century. In the last decade, the museum has begun to restore it to original fiinction to
display Loula's carriages, equine artifåcts, and awards.
The stable-carriage house was converted into the MuseunTs Natural History Halls in the 1950s and is
now being carefiilly restored with sensitivity toward its original design. See the Kansas City
Museum's Friends of the Museum Newsletter, August 2009.Notes: now the Kansas City Museum of
History and Science, resolution # 55782; two buildings were moved offthis property to
accommodate the building (Woodward, HI)
Description: Located on three acres on a bluffoverlooking the Missouri River Valley. Five of the six
original structures remain including Corinthian Hall (70-room, four-story Beaux Arts limestone
379
residence); the Carriage House; and the Conservatory
NR Date: 11/14/1908; 12/1/1997 (R. A. Long House, Scarritt Point North Historie District)
Woodward, Emily F. "3218 Gladstone Blvd.: R. A. Long Residence / Kansas City Museum ofHistory
/ Corinthian Hall." In Historie Inventory, #2984. Kansas City: Landmarks Commission, 1981.
Kansas City: A Place in Time. Kansas City Landmarks Commission, 1977, 90.
Kansas City. The Kansas City Chapter of the American Institute of Architects, 1979.
Water Permit #46701, 8 September 1911, R. A. Long
Building Permit #9308, 4 June 1909, 3212 Glads. Blvd. Archt. Howe & Hoit bldg. Geo. W. Huggins
$100,000 Owner: R. A. Long - 3 sty. - brick-stone-concrete, tile roof 65' x 110' K. C. D. 1912pres. Long Bell Lumber Co. r. 3218 Gladstone.
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log, Box 9, felder c. 1905-c. 1910) and WHMC-KC Job Cost Log, Box 9,
felder c. 1909-c. 1917)
WHMC-KC Drawings: [number missing] (1907 Howe & Hoit); 008.008 (1907, 1912 with carriage
house, stable, tool house and coal room Van Brunt and Howe; Howe & Hoit; Hoit, Henry); 008.009
(1907 with lodge. conservatory Howe & Hoit); 008.010 (1909, 1910 Howe & Hoit); 008.011 (1909
Howe & Hoit); 008.012 (1909 w pergola, fences, and gates Howe & Hoit); 008.013 (1908 w/
greenhouse. gates, elevator Howe & Hoit; Des Moines Bridge and Iron Works); 008.014 (1909 w/
portico and porte cochere Howe & Hoit)
Stalev residence
720 Gleed Terrace (Hyde Park)
Owner: Mrs. Lou L. Staley, widow of Madison Staley
Date(s): 1909-1910
Cost: $15,000
Architect: Howe & Hoit, Roger Gilman (associate architect)
Builder: C. R. Munger
NR Date: 11/21/1980 (Hyde Park Historie District)
' : : .r.jJts: ..i
Notes: Two storfes, stone, cement, brick, tile roof, modem
plumbing, art glass, 52 x 54 feet.
The Western Contractor—vol. 17, no. 3 (1909): 3; vol. 16, no. 20 (1909): 12; vol. 8 (21 July 1909): 3;
vol. 8 (19 May 1909): 12.
Building Permit #9381, #64100; Water Permit #40414
1911 City Directory, Kansas City
Perry, Milton F. " Residence, 720 Gleed Terrace / L. L. Staley Residence." In Historie Inventory,
#3172. Kansas City: Landmarks Commission, 1977.
«Vfc'",f tru
F. Taylor residence with garage
DEMOLISHED 3615 Gillham Road (between 36,h and 371")
Owner: Fred A. Taylor, Treasurer and Manager of John Taylor Dry
Goods Co. (1034 Main Street)
Date(s): 1909-1910
Contractors: Tuttle & Pike (survey); Louis Breitag & sons
(general); E. D. Hombrook (heating and plumbing); Denton
foote & Co. (wiring); Kansas City Nurseries (moving trees);
Bunting-Stone Hardware Do. (hardware); McCray Refrigerator Co.; American Sash and Door Co.
(Tile and marble); F. G. Kemper (fisher wall safe); The Enos Col. (electric fixtures); Columbian Steel
Tank Co. (gasoline tank and pump); E. T. Burrows Co. (screens); Kansas City Mantel Co.
(fireplace); Campbell Glass and P Co. (library glass); Superior M. N S. Co (weather streips); E. F.
Hill (grading and sodding); Standard Sidewalk Co. (grained work); A. Sutermeister Stone Co.
(cutting number in step)
1911 City Directory, Kansas City Missouri
WHMC-KC Job Cost Logs, Box 9, felder c. 1909-c. 1917
WHMC-KC Drawings: 009.001 1909 Howe & Hoit; Henry F. Hoit
380
Wilsonia Apartments. flat buildings for Thomas Wilson
2101-2103 Linwood Boulevard (Linwood Boulevard and Garfield
Avenue)
Owner: Thomas Wilson
Date(s): 1909
Architects: Howe & Hoit
Contractors: E. S. Cowie Elec. Co. (wiring); Calhoun Mantel &
Tile Co. (tile); M. P. Conover Plumbing & Heating Co.
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log, Box 9, foldere. 1909-c. 1917
WHMC-KC Drawings: 009.004 n. d. Howe & Hoit
r
*5sr,
i_,'
"**!*,
'W»^
»l
i
Dunlap residence
1020 West 53rd Terrace (53rd & Sunset Drive); address originally
1019 West 53rd Street
Owner: Edwin W. Dunlap, I. B. Dunlap & Co. Insurance
Date(s): 1910-1911
Cost: $12,000
Architect: Henry F. Hoit
NR Date: 11/21/1980 (Hyde Park Historie District)
Contractors: Tuttle and Pike (survey); E. K. Campbell Heating
Co. (heating); W. F. Rayland (plastering); C. G. McClary &
Son (setting chimney caps); W. S. Dickey Clay Mig. Co. (chimney caps)
Water Permit #43884; Building Permit #26061
Becker, Linda F. " 1020 W. 53rd Terrace / Edwin Dunlap Residence." In Historie Inventory, #1722.
Kansas City: Landmarks Commission, 1986.
1911 City Directory, Kansas City; City Directory 1910
WHMC-KC Job Cost Logs (Box 9, foldere. 1909-c. 1917
WHMC-KC Drawings: 010.001 1910 Henry F. Hoit
Fennellv residence
3600 Warwick Boulevard (54* & Belleview Avenue)
DEMOLISHED or PROJECT
Owner: John Fennelly, Treasuer of Hall-Baker Grain Co. (608
Board of Trade Bldg)
Date(s): 1910
Contractors: Tuttle & Pike (survey)
1911 City Directory, Kansas City
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log, Box 9, folder .c 1909-c. 1917
WHMC-KC Drawings: 011.006 n. d. Henry F. Hoit
l^rl
Hook residence
4525 Kenwood Avenue (Rockhill)
Owner: Ingraham D. Hook, a lawyer and Assistant City Counselor
Date(s): 1910
Architect: Henry F. Hoit
Builder: P. J. Morley (general); Denton Foote & Co. (wiring);
Richards & Conover hardware Co. (hardware); Lynn E. bowman
(plumbing); Cunningham Plumbing and Heating Co. (heating);
Kansas City Mantel & Tile Co.; Bunting-Stone Hardware Co.
(lighting fixtures)
1911 City Directory, Kansas City
Piland, Sherry. "4525 Kenwood / Ingraham D. Hook Residence," in Historie Inventory, #2197. Kansas
City: Landmarks Commission, 1983.
Water Permit #44294; Building Permit #26478
Western Contractor, 2 November 1910, p. 8
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log, Box 9, folder c. 1909-c. 1917
ull B fl * M
i» III 0 D i ; •,
381
Long Garage
205-211 Indiana Avenue (Scarritt Point)
Owner: Robert Alexander Long
Date(s): 1910-1911
Architects: Hoit, Price & Barnes
Contractors for Toolhouse / Schmelzer House at Gladstone &
Indiana: G. W. Huggins (general and fence); MacMahon P & H
Co. (heating); Richards & Conover Hdwe Co. (Hardware);
Squired Electric Co. (wiring); Winslow Bros. Co. (Bronze
Tables, Long College, Tokyo Japan);
Contractors for Garage at Indiana and Windsor: Tuttle & Pike (survey); G. W. Huggins (general); E. H.
Brandbury (grading); Enos Co. (electric fix.); G. G. Burkholder elec. Co. (wiring); S. F. Bowser &
Co. (gasoline, oil tank); Lynn E. Bowman (plumbing and heating); Richards & Conover Hardware
Co. (hardware); Squire Electric Construction Co. (wiring for tem lts & rectifier); Mr. Murtha (garage
greenhouse); Pehl Manufecturing Co. (sash lift); Lynn e. Bowman (heating and plumbing of Garage
greenhouse);
Notes: Has been converted into a multi-fcnily dwelling
Wolf, Bradley, " 207 N Indiana Ave: Robert A. Long Servant Quarters and Garage." In Historie
Resources Survey, ne-sce-0003. Kansas City: Landmarks Commission, 2006.
Building Permit; Water Permit #42775 (February 1911, R.A. Long)
1920 Census: EllaFrazier, servant; Herbert Jarrett, Landscaper/gardener, Knied Hanssen, Chauffer; Carl
Peterman. All servants of the Longs lived at this residence. Originally the garage and living quarters
for Robert A. Long gardener and chaufleur. (KCHR)
WHMC-KC Drawings: 012.001 1910 Hoit, Price & Barnes
Bowman residence
5820 State Line Mission Hills, Kansas
Owner: Jacob A. Bowman, general manager C. E. Matthews
Lumber Co (1020 R. A. Long Bldg)
Date(s): 1911-1912
Architect: Henry F. Hoit
Contractors: Tuttle & Pike (survey); H. L. Greene (general heating
and plumbing); Richards & Conover Hardware Co. (hardware);
1913 City Directory, Kansas City
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log, Box 9, foldere. 1909-c. 1917
WHMC-KC Drawings: 011.003 n. d. Henry F. Hoit
Embrv residence and garage
3628 Harrison Boulevard (Hyde Park)
Owner: Herbert H. Embry, secretary and treasurer Dey-Embry
Motor Car Co. (1721 McGee)
Date(s): 1911
Architect: Henry F. Hoit
Contractors: Tuttle & Pike (Survey); L. Crosby & Son (general);
Costelow-Canhaun Elect (wiring); Lynn E. Bowman
(plumbing); Bunting Stone Hardware (hardware); Wakefield
Mantel & Tile Co. (tile work, bath, fireplace); J. C. Kimmel
(furnace); J. W. Jenkins Const. Co. (granite work, grading, and retaining wall); Alex Johnston (stone
steps and buttresses); Bailey-Reynolds Gas Fix. Co (fixtures); American Screen Mig. Co (screens); J.
W. Jenkins Cement Construction Co.; Costelow-Canham Electric Co.
1913 City Directory, Kansas City
Michalak, Joan. "Residence, 3628 Harrison Blvd. / Herbert H. Embry Residence." In Historie
Inventory. Kansas City: Landmarks Commission, 1978.
Water Permit #46179; Building Permit #29346
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log, Box 9, foldere. 1909-c. 1917
382
Flower residence (alteration & additions)
Gillham & Locust / 38 and Gillham / 38 and Janssen / 39 and Gillham (different addresses on
different j cl)
Owner: Henry c. Flower
Date: 1911-1913
Contractor: J. R. Vansant (general); G. W. Huggins (tearing down shed); Grant Renue (foundations); J.
C. Kimmel (fiirnace); Ernst Klos (labor); W. F. Ragland (plastering); Denton, Tool & Co. (wiring);
MacMahon Plumbing & Heating Co. (plumbing & heating); Charles Weller (cistern); Kansas City
Sash & Door Co.; A. Sutermeister & Co. (cut stone); F. L. Kleeman M%. Co. (fence); Joseph A.
Suydan (papering); N. C. Neilsen (water service); K. C. Structural Steel Co. (steel & iron);
Kornbrodt & Kornice Ko. (sheet metal); W. F. Ragland (plastering); K. C. Mantel Co. (fireplace,
bathroom floors); Curtin & Clar Hardware Co. (hardware); Superior Metal W & Co. (weather strips);
Robbins Mig. Co. (screens); Wakefield Mantel and Tile Co. (mantels); Bunting-Stone Hardware Co.
(fixtures, hardware); MacMahon Co. (plumbing); E. K. Campbell Heating Co. (heating); Denton
Engineering Co. (wiring); Brunswick-Balke Collender Co. (refrigerator); Chamberlin Metal weather
strip Co.; American & Venetian Mantel Co. (Terrazzo Floor); Murphy Door Bed Co.; W. W.
Robinson (Fence, Storm Door, 3 Storm windows); American Screen Mig. Co. (screens)
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log, Box 9, felder x 1909-c. 1917
Smith residence (sun parlor addition")
Armour Boulevard
Owner: Edward W. Smith
Date: 1911
Contractors: Lonsdale Bros. (general); Bunting-Stone Hardware Co. (electric fixtures); Henry O'hause
(decorations); American Sash and Door Co. (marble & tile); Richards & Conover (hardware);
Chamberlin Metal Weather Strip Co. (weather strips); Costelow-Canham elec. Co. (wiring); James
W. Louttit (repointing joints); E. D. Hornbrook (plumbing and heating); E. J. Burrows Co. (screen);
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log, Box 9, felder c. 1909-c. 1917
Avlsworth residence
836 Westover Road
Owner: George A. Aylsworth, Treasurer Alysworth-Neal-Tomlin
Grain Co. (238 Board of Trade Bldg)
Date(s): 1912
Cost: $14,000
Architect: Henry F. Hoit
Contractors: Butler-Weaver Realty Co.; Tuttle & Pike (survey); in
1913, Dr. Carl H. Bryant hired HPB to build a garage with contractors Robb O. Smith (general);
Bunting-Stone (hardware)
"Aylsworth Residence." Western Contractor 17 (1912): 23.
1913 City Directory, Kansas City
Water Permit #49137
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log, Box 9, folder c. 1909-c. 1917
Cosden residence
1606 South Carson Avenue (Riverview) Tulsa, Oklahoma
(Stonebraker Heights addition, Block 6, Lots 1, 2, north half of
3)
Owner: Josh S. Cosden, founder of the Cosden Oil Co. (later MidContinent Oil Co.). Cosden was dubbed "Prince of Petroleum"
by the press and was one of the first oil barons. He was worth
over fifiy million dollars by the age of 39 and was known for a
flamboyant manner of living and entertaining.
Date(s): 1912 (National Register date)/ plumbing and heating in 1914-possibly two projects
Cost: $12,000 (the most expensive residence in Tulsa at that date)
Architect: Henry F. Hoit
. ' * . . • * ! •
383
Landscape Architeets: Hare & Hare
Notes: "The finest materials and crafsmanship were lavished on Mission Manor at the time ofits
constmetion in 1912. Deep red brick, beveled glass, white oak, and brass hardware compliment the
home's simple lines. The soaring entry hall, with its oak staircase, rails and floor, is particularly
notable for its craftsmanship and use of costly, unblemished oak. Such a generous use of oak was too
ofien later covered with paint, requiring expensive stripping procedures to restore. A wide, bright,
tiled sun porch, spacious rooms, tree-shaded double lot and features such as the hydrotherapeutic
shower (with " spleen" and " liver" sprays, among many others) added by the second owner, James
Chapman, give Mission Manor much of it is special character." (NRHP form)
Contractors: Toune Butcher Supply Co. (reffigerator); H. O McClure (hardware); H. J. Brickner
(general); Watt Plumbing Co. (plumbing and heating); Arthur Todhunter (mantels); Electric Supply
Co. (wiring & Vac. Cleaner); Bailey-Reynolds G. F. Co. (fixtures and fireplace trimmings; Robb
Keith Carpet & Furniture Co. (fiirnishings and decorations)
Feller, Margaret and Michael Stewart. " Mission Manor / Cosden-Feller House / 1606 South Carson
Avenue Tulsa, Oklahoma." In National Register of Historie Places Inventory Nomination Form.
Washington, DC: United States Department of the Interior- National Park Service, 1980.
Tulsa World—"The House that Josh Built," 2? November 1979; "Historie Preservation Conference
Scheduled," 24 February 1980.
"The Joshua S. Cosden Mission Manor Home," Tradition Realty Ltd., 1979
Tulsa City Directories, Tulsa City-County Library, 400 Civic Center
National Register of Historie Places
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log, Box 9, folder c. 1909-c. 1917, November 1917: J. S. Cosden paid $1,390
for the excavation of four houses. This makes me question the photograph that was sent1"* perhaps it
does not match because it is for one of the other four houses.
WHMC-KC Drawings: 010.004 1915 Henry F. Hoit; Hare & Hare
Hi eks residence
1025 West 54,h Street
Owner: George R. Hicks, Vice-President and Secretary of the
Bowman Hicks Lumber Co. (1315 R. A. Long Bldg)
Date(s): 1912, 1924, 1927
Notes: "Three stories Colonial design with large living room,
sunroom, large Colonial wood paneled hall, dining room,
library, six bedrooms, three baths, and abilliard room. The
outside dimensions are 47 x 47 feet. It occupies a site 200 x 225
feet on 44 Street. Plans, specifications and construction work
are being looked afier from the offices of C. L. Brown and C. F. Mack. Hoit, Price & Barnes
completed additions on the house for Gordon T. Beaham in 1938."
Building Permit #29729; Water Permit #50251
1913 City Directory, Kansas City
ne Kansas City Star, 9 June 1912.
Busby, Marjean. "House Used in Movie to Get New Look." The Kansas City Star, 21 January 1990.
In 1989, this house was used in the filming of" Mr. & Mrs. Bridges" (1990) starring Paul Newman and
Joanne Woodward.
1990 AS ID Home of the Year
WHMC-KC Drawings: 016.001 (1924, 1927 Hicks/Beaham HPB); 083.016 (1937; 1938 Beaham HPB)
W. Jaccard residence
DEMOLISHED—5232 Sunset Drive (Block B, Lot 4 Sunset Hill)
Owner: Walter M. Jaccard, Pres Jaccard Jewelry Co. (1017
Walnut)
Date(s): 1912-1913
Cost: $29,000
Architect: Henry F. Hoit
Contractor: Long Construction Co. (general plumbing, heating &
wiring); Richards & Conover (hardware); Kansas City Architectural Decorating Co. (ceiling);
384
Monarch Metal Weather Strip Co.; Bunting-Stone (Hanging Fixtures);
Notes: Lots 4 and 8 of Block B are now a group ofhouses grouped with the address 5300 Sunset Place.
Building was part of a 1945 survey (still standing then).
1913 City Directory, Kansas City
Building Permit #10849 issued to W. M Jaccard on 25 January 1913; Arch. H. Hoit; Builder Long
Const. Co.; Amount $29,000
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log, Box 9, foldere. 1909-c. 1917
WHMC-KC Drawings: 010.002 1912 HPB
(Image reprinted from a 1940s survey)
A. Smith residence
214 West Concord Avenue
Owners: A. I. Smith
Date(s): 1912
Cost: $8,000
Contractor: Butler-Weaver Realty Co.
National Register 11/5/81 Case #0047-D
Notes: The drawing notes design for Mrs. A. I Smith, however, the
KCHI states, "The earliest known resident ofthis house (1914),
was George Aylsorth, a member of the Alysworth-Neal-Tomlin
Grain Co.. In 1914, A. I. Smith (widow) lived at the Claremont Hotel, but George Aylworth's
address is listed as 214 West Concord Ave.
Piland, Uguccioni and Sherry. " 214 West Concord Avenue / George Aylsworth Residence." In Historie
Inventory, Kansas City: Landmarks Commission, 1981.
The Western Contractor—vo\. 21, no. 593 (1912): 25.
Water Permit #48303; Building Permit #28762
WHMC-KC Drawings: 011.007 n. d. Henry F. Hoit
Breitag residence
3703 Jarboe Street (3703 West Prospect Place)
Owner: Louis Breitag
Date(s): 1913
Cost: $10,000
Architect: Henry F. Hoit
Builder: Louis Breitag, Louis Breitag & Son, contractors
Notes: "The original site of the Kansas City Inter-State Fair.
These properties were sold to the Roanoke Investment Co.
and, with movement southward out of Quality Hill, became a
éshionable residential neighborhood." (Woodward)
1913 City Directory, Kansas City shows him living at 1525 Cherry; 1914 directory shows him at 3703
Prospect Place
1914 City Directory, Kansas City
The Western Contractor—vol. 24, no. 646 (1913): 27.
Woodward, Emily F. and Sherry Piland. "3703 Jarboe Street / 3703 West Prospect Place / Louis
Breitag Residence." In Historie Inventory, W161A. Kansas City: Landmarks Commission, 1982.
Water Permit #51301, 2 May 1913, Louis Breitag
K. C. D. 1914 Louis Breitag & Son
385
Cochran residence
612 Brush Creek Boulevard (Rockhill)
Owner: Forrest C. Cochran, Vice-President ofthe Fidelity Trust
Co. (Walnut SE Cor 9,h)
Date(s): 1913-1914
Architect: Henry F. Hoit
Contractors: R. V. Jones (general); Tuttle & Pike (survey);
Cunningham Plumbing and Heating Co. (Pl & heat); L. R.
Gainswire (wiring); Monarch Metal Supply Co. (weather
strips); Kerr Freed & Garvey Wall Paper co. (decorations); the
Higgin Mig. Co. (screens);
Piland, Sherry. "612 Brush Creek Blvd. / F. C. Cochran Residence." In Historie Inventory, #1794.
Kansas City: Landmarks Commission, 1980.
1914 City Directory, Kansas City
The Western Contractor (21 May 1913): 30.
Water Permit #51552; Building Permit #30610
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log, Box 9, foldere. 1909-c. 1917
WHMC-KC Drawings: 011.004 n. d. Henry F. Hoit
Diecks Residence and Garage (possible alterations onlv")
412 Gladstone
Owner: Herman Dierks, vice-president of Dierks Lumber & Coal Co. (7m Floor Gates Bldg)
Date: 1913-1915
Contractor: C. C. Person & sons (general); W. C. Wiedermann (garage roofing); American Screen Mig.
Co. (screens); K. C. Slate & Tile Rig. Co. (residence roof); J. R. Vansant Constr. Co. (alt);
Pittsburgh Plate Glass Co. (5 Mirrors in doors); McCray Refidgeraor Co. (refridgerator); K. C. Slate
& Tile Roofing Co.; American Electrical Equipment Co.; Cotter-McDonnell; R. Keurp (strip for
mirror); Wakefield Mantel & Tile Co. (batn room tile); H. J. Schmidt (painting); Bunting-Stone
Hardware Co.; Lonsdale Bros. (painting)
1915 City Directory, Kansas City
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log, Box 9, foldere. 1909-c. 1917
Faxon residence
210 West 53rd Street
Owner: F. Thomas Faxon, Secretary ofthe Faxon and Gallagher
Drug Co. (8* NW cor Broadway)
Date(s): 1913
Cost: $9,000
Architect: Henry F. Hoit
Builder: W. C. Robinson (general): Tuttle & Pike (survey);
Richards & Conover Hardware Co (hardware); Cahhoun Mantel
& Tile Co. (tile and mantle); American Electric Equipment Co.
(wiring); E. K. Campbell Heating Co. (heating); FulwerBanzhof Plumbing & Heating (plumbing); American Metal Weather Strip Co.
1914 City Directory, Kansas City
Uguccioni. "210 W. 53rd Street / Thomas Faxon Residence." In Historie Inventory, #3212. Kansas
City: Landmarks Commission, 1981.
NR Date: 9/6/1984 (Simpson-Yeoman's / Country Side Historie District)
Water Permit $53018; Building Permit #31172; Building Permit #71206
The Western Contractor~vo\. 25, no. 670 (1913): 25.
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log, Box 9, folder .c 1909-c. 1917
WHMC-KC Drawings: 011.005 n. d. Henry F. Hoit
German Residence (Alteration / Addition)
3524 Charlotte
Date: 1913, 1921
386
Contractors: A. Suttermeister Stone Co. (1921 stone for buttresses & copings); Lonsdale Brothers (1921
sidewalks); Western Cab. And Fix. Co (1913 mantel);
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log, Box 9, folder .c 1909-c. 1917
Longview Farm
Lee's Summit, Missouri
Owner: Robert Alexander Long
Date(s): 1913-16
Contractors: Lonsdale Bros. (general); Denton Eng. & Const. Co. (wiring); Spence Turbine Cleaner Co.
(Vacuum Cleaner); Viking Refrigerator Co. (refiigerator); Cunningham P & H Co. (plumbing,
heating); MacMahon P & H Co. (heating, showhorse barn, dairy barn and mill house); Richards &
Conover Hdwr. Co. (hardware for owners res); Robert Keith Furn & Carpet Co. (decorations and
firrnishing); Kerr Freed & Garvey (papering service quarters and owners res.); Aeolian Co. (Owner's,
Organ); Crane Co. (Owner's, bath room trimmings (Owners' s, 3rd floor lavatory); Russell Bronze
Co. (Owner's electric fixtures); Bailey-Reynolds Co. (balance offixtures); Bailey Reynolds Gas
Fixture Co. (fireplace trimmings, owner's); Vince Chandelier Co. (fixtures formgrs houses, boarding
house, garage, and showhorse barn); A. J. Shirk Roofing Co. (Joliel gravel); Seth Thomas Clock
Co. (clock in showhorse barn); Findley Art Co. (framing photos of Miss Long's horses); Galloway
Terra Cotta Co. (pottery in gardens); Baker & Corkwood Mfij. Co. (awning and flag pole for Spencer
& Hook houses, roundhouse barn, Owner's and general mgr residences); Lord & Burnham (heating
greenhouses); Lonsdale Bros (foundation of greenhouses); Cunningham P & H Co. (plumbing for
Dairy Group & Power House Group); K. C. Elevator Mfij Co. (lifi for milk house); K. C. Slate &
Tile Roofing Co. (weather vane for milk house); Satterlee Electric Co. (electric Fixtures for gate
lodge #2); L. G. Biggs (sign "private Drive"); Pottier & Stymurs (painting "The Meeting of the
Ways"); J. E. Loewer Wire & Iron Works (area railings of owners res.); Stephens Gas-Electric Leland
Co. (fixtures of office building, church and school); Robert Keith Fum. Co. (davenport for office);
Meneely Bell Co. (bell for church); American Seating Co. (Church Furniture & School desks); Robt.
Keith Fumiture & Carpet Co. (carpet for church schoolhouse); Bailey Reynolds Gas Fix. Do. (dining
room fire screens); K. C. Wire & Iron Works (fire escape for boarding house); Miscellanea 1916
(Brooke's Sign works- sign "office"; Satterlee Elect. Co-church lamps; Bailey-Reynolds Andions for
office and glass for lantern sold Cosden and fixture for clubhouse and adiron & fire sets for clubhouse
and pergola fixtures and 2 vases and fixtures for reception room of the showhorse barn; Gates-potteries
vase; J. M. Moore and Sons -fåming pictures for office; Bailey-Reynolds (2 electric fixtures for new
harness room in 1916); Miscellanies in 1917
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log, Box 9, foldere. 1909-c. 1917)
WHMC-KC Drawings:
005.001 1913 garage and power house Henry F. Hoit; Kansas City Structural Steel Co.; Alphonse
Custodis Chimney Co. [New York]
005.003 1913 bridge over Mouse Creek Henry F. Hoit
005.004 1914 show horse barn and clock Henry F. Hoit; Kansas City Structural Steel; Seth Thomas
Clock Co.
005.006 1913, 1914 plot plans: Sunnv Slope Farm Henry F. Hoit
005.007 1914 dairy barn Henry F. Hoit; Louden Machinery Co. [Fairfield, IA]
005.008 1916 conservatory, sleeping pavilion, shelter, swimming pool, grandstand, pergola Henry F.
Hoit; Lord and Burnham Co. [Chicago, Illinois]
005.010 1916 maps of Longview and entrance to Longview Henry F. Hoit
005.011 1913, 1915 residence and terrace Henry F. Hoit; Hoit. Price & Barnes
005.012 1913 draught horse group [implement shed, wagon shed, work horse barn, boarding house]
Henry F. Hoit
005.013 1913 dairy group [calfand dairy barn, milk house] Henry F. Hoit
005.014 1913 ferm workers' residences Henry F. Hoit; Hoit, Price & Barnes
005.015 1913-1916 misc. ferm structures [church, school, office, greenhouse, barns, power, bridge, etc
Henry F. Hoit; Worley and Black [consulting engineers]
181.031 n. d. sketch of church and school Henry F. Hoit
387
Herr residence and garage
1017 West 57111 Terrace
Owner(s): B. F. Herr
Date(s): 1914
Cost: $20,000
Architect: Henry F. Hoit
Builder: W. C. Robinson (general); Tuttle & Pike (survey);
Fulurer-Barzhof Plumbing and Heating Co. (heating); Stephens
Gas-Electric Appliance Co. (fixtures); Denton Eug & Const. Co. (wiring); J. A. Suydan Dev. Co.
(interior painting); Bunting-Stone Hardware 9incinerator); Tulmer Banzhof Plb. & Heating. Co.
(plumbing); Richards & Conover (hardware)
Notes: Hoit, Price & Barnes altered the house for William J. Brace in 1923; 1915 City Directory,
Kansas City lists Benjamin F. Herr (lumber) at 3636 Harrison Boulevard
KCLR # 2067 (listed under Campbell)
The Western Contractor—vol. 27, no. 736 (1915): 25.
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log, Box 9, folder c. 1909-c. 1917
WHMC-KC Drawings: 010.007 (1915, 1923 Herr residence Henry F. Hoit); 015.012 (1923 Brace
terrace, additions, proposed alterations HPB)
Hoflman residence (project)
45* Street Between Oak and Rockhill Road
Owner J. W. Hoflman
Date: 1914
Contractors: Tuttle & Pike (survey)
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log, Box 9, folder c. 1909-c. 1917
Neal residence and garage
836 West 57 Terrace Kansas City
Owner: Mr. and Mrs. Clarence A. Neal, Assistant chief Engineer of
the Union Bridge & Construction Co.
Date(s): 1914-1915
Architect: Henry F. Hoit
Contractors: Long Construction Co. (all)
1915 City Directory, Kansas City
Building Permit #32132
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log, Box 9, folder c. 1909-c. 1917
WHMC-KC Drawings: 010.017 1917 Henry F. Hoit
.. \ J /
- Mh • fea.'
5
'
Nelson residence
5500 Ward Parkway Kansas City
Owner: Mack B. Nelson, 2d Vice-President of the Long-Bell
Lumber Co. (8* and 91 floors of the R. A. Long Bldg)
Date(s): 1914-1915
Cost: $185,000
Architect: Henry F. Hoit
Landscape Architect: Hare & Hare
1912-1916 Contractors: J. R. VanSant Construction Co. (general);
Tuttle and Pike (survey); A. Stone (excavations and foundations); Fulmer-Manzoh Pl & H Co.
(water service); Tilleson & Weber (plumbing); Failey Bros P & H Co. (heating); L. Rene Gaiermie
(wiring); Kleeman Mig. Co.; Colombian Steel Tank Co. (bath tub); Flour City Our fron Works
(iron balustrade, iron doors); Torme Butcher Supply co. (refrigerator); Duff& Repp (reported by Mr.
Nelson); Guisorn-Russell Co. (skylight wheel); Lord & Burnham (ffeight on gear); Detroit Shoreance
Co. (bath tub enclosures, no glass); W. H. Jermens Mfg. Co (ceiling); Bailey-Reynolds Gas Fix.
Co. (electric fixtures); Spencer-Turbine Cleaner Co. (vacuum deaner); Associated Glass Workers Co.
(skylight glass); American Sash & Door Co. (cases); Standard Asbestos Mig & Insulating Co.
(change to Tillesmer Works); Bell Line Crushes Co. (Rock); Galloway Terra Cotta Co. (13 vases,
388
F. O. B. Philadelphia); American Screen Mig. Co. (screens);
1918-1919 Contractors fer fence: Tuttle-Ayers-Woodward Eng. Co. (survey); J. R. Vansant Const. Co.
(fence piers-seven); J. G. Wilson Corp (Venetian Blinds for south porch);
Notes: Mack B. Nelson moved in December 24, 1915. The walls were bare and there were no Christmas
decorations that year. However, in following years, Christmas became a big event in the Nelson
house. The atrium has removable leaded glass room and held a 20 foot Christmas tree. They usually
had dinner in the main dining room for 20 or more people.
Auctioned in 1956 for $51,000 to Mrs. Mary Hudson Vandegrift for investment purposes.
In 1968, it was purchased by 26-year-old Wade William III, a motion picture producer to display his
collection of antique fcrniture and art objects. He thought some of the 34 rooms were too big with 11
foot ceilings and dwarfed his objects, so he divided a few.
1915 City Directory, Kansas City
The Kansas City Times, 18 April 1956, 1, 2.
The Western Contractor, 25 November 1914, p. 25
Morgan, Sally. "Old Mansion on House Tour." The Kansas City Star, 28 November 1971, 1, 6.
Millstein, C. " 5500 Ward Parkway / M. B. Nelson Residence." In Historie Inventory, #2702. Kansas
City: Landmarks Commission, 1986.
Water Permit #53257, 26 January 1914; Building Permit #11340, 7 November 1914
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log, Box 9, folder c. 1909-c. 1917 and Box 9, folder c. 1909-c. 1917)
WHMC-KC Drawings: 010.005 (1914 garage. planning plan Henry F. Hoit; HPB; Hare and Hare);
087.026 (1914 Henry F. Hoit)
Snider residence
320 East 45lh Street (45,h and NW corner of Oak) (Rockhill)
Owners: Ortho C. Snider / Pauline E. Snider, Prescott & Snider
(310 First National Bank Bldg)
H U . _.
JL, - _1
Date(s): 1913-1914
Cost: $11,000
Architect: Henry F. Hoit
Contractors: Tuttle & Pike (survey); Long Construction Co.
(general); W. H. Dow (plumbing); Bunting-Stone Hardware Co.
(hardware); E. K. Campbell Heat. Co. (heating); Squire Elect. & Conover Co. (wiring); American
Sash and Door Co. (marble and tile); American Metal Weather Strip Co.; McBree Green
Manufåcturing Co. (screens); Bailey-Reynolds Gas Fixtures Co. (electric fixtures); American Screen
Mfg. Co. (screens);
Notes: Historie Inventory also listed as 4520 Oak; Currently called the "Bates House" and serves as the
Liberal Arts School for the Kansas City Art Institute. Might have also been owned by Lillis at some
point.
1915 City Directory, Kansas City
" One of the Newer Kansas City Hornes: A Design along Gothic Lines." The Kansas City Star, 12
December 1915, 5b.
Glenn, Patricia B. "320 E. 45th / Otho C. Snider Residence / 4520 Oak." In Historie Inventory, #2923.
Kansas City: Landmarks Commission, 1982.
Water Permit #53011, 11 November 1913, J. C. Long
Building Permit #31509, 19 February 1914, O. C. Snider (owner); Henry F. Hoit (arch).
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log, Box 9, foldere. 1909-c. 1917
WHMC-KC Drawings: 015.001 1919, 1920 Hoit, Price & Barnes
389
Snider residence
116 East 46,h Street (118 East 46,h Street)
Owner: Howard L. Snider, Secretary Kansas City Home Telephone
Co. (1018 Baltimore Ave)
Date(s): 1914
Architect: Henry F. Hoit
Contractors: Dooley and Drumbeler (general); Farley Bros Heating
& Plumbing (plumbing and heating); K. C. Electric
Construction Co. (wiring); William Stack (dirt); Richards &
Conover (hardware);
Notes: Currently " Southmoreland on the Plaza: an Urban Inn" owned by a woman named Nancy
1915 City Directory, Kansas City
Glenn, PatriciaB. "116 E. 46th Street." In Historie Inventory, #2181. Kansas City: Landmarks
Commission, 1980.
Water Permit #43927 Tom Drumheler, Building Permit, 14 January 1914 H. L. Snider (owner); Dooley
& Drumheler (bldr.); Henry F. Hoit (arch.); K. C. D. 1914 Tom D. Drumheler (carpenter)
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log, Box 9, foldere. 1909-c. 1917
WHMC-KC Drawings: 011.008 n. d. Henry F. Hoit
A. Tavlor residence with alterations
DEMOLIHSED—3741 Forest Avenue
Owner: Allen A. Taylor
Date(s): 1913-1914, 1920
1913 Contractors: Tuttle & Pike (survey)
1920 Contractors: Long Construction Co. (alterations);
Notes: Demolished in 1963 to build a rectory for the Bishop/Lillis Catholic School (now DeLaSalle
Educational Center)
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log, Box 9, folder c. 1909-c. 1917
WHMC-KC Drawings: 010.006 1914 Henry F. Hoit, HPB
Vernon Apartment Flats
Owner: Mrs. Carrie H. Veronon
Date: 1914
Contractors: Willard B. Weaver (all); Senferb Bros Hardware Co. (finish hardware); Bunting-Stone
Hardware Co. (bathroom fittings);
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log, Box 9, foldere. 1909-c. 1917
C larke residence
5212Belleview
Owner: Bertrand R. Clarke or F. J. Moss, President of the
American Sash & Door Co.
Date(s): 1915
Architect: Henry F. Hoit
Contractors: Long Construction Co. (general); Tuttle-Ayers
Woodward Eng. Co. (survey); W. H. Dow (plumbing); BaileyReynolds Gas Fix. Co. (fixtures); Bunting-Stone Hardware Co.
(hardware); A. Holtinan (heating); L. R. Gaiennie (wiring);
Becker, Linda F. "5212 Belleview / F. J. Moss Residence." In Historie Inventory. Kansas City:
Landmarks Commission, 1986.
Building Permit #37761; Water Permit #55953
City Directory
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log, Box 9, folder c. 1909-c. 1917
WHMC-KC Drawings: 010.009 1915 Henry F. Hoit
390
Crowe residence falterations)
DEMOLISHED—3615Gillham Road (Gillham was once called Oak
Street)
Owner: John P. Crowe, President of J. R. Crowe Coal & Mining
Co. (217 Dwight Bldg), President Shaw Transfer Co. (209-213
W. 14,h)
Date(s): 1915-1916
Architect: Henry F. Hoit
Contractor: Long Const. Co. (general); Jacobson & Co. (mantel); W. H. Dow (plumbing)
Notes: Replaced by a large apartment complex that faces the hollow. It was standing for the survey of the
Kenwood addition in the 1940s.
1914 City Directory, Kansas City
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log, Box 9, foldere. 1909-c. 1917
WHMC-KC Drawings: 010.011 1915-1916 Henry F. Hoit
(photograph reprinted from a 1940s survey)
Lee Residence (sleeping porch addition)
4330 McGee
Date: 1915-1916
Architect:
Contractor: American Sash and Door Co. (mill work); Higgins Mfg. Co. (weather Strips);
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log, Box 9, foldere. 1909-c. 1917
Lillis residence
400 East 45th Street (Rockhill) Kansas City
Owner: Jerry Lillis Residence
Date(s): 1915-1919
Architect: Henry F. Hoit
Builder: Joseph Hellman
Notes: Currently called the "Bishop House" and served as NelsonAtkins Museum of Art offices until 2008.
Piland, Sherry. "400 East 45th Street / Jerry Lillis Residence." In
Historie Inventory, #3626. Kansas City: Landmarks
Commission, 1980.
Permit #35565
WHMC-KC Drawings: 010.008 1915 Henry F. Hoit
Alison residence
Detroit Avenue and 19 Street Tulsa, Oklahoma
Owner: A. T. Alison
Date(s): 1916
WHMC-KC Drawings: 010.012 1916 Henry F. Hoit
"Oakwold" Bole residence and garage
1718 South Cheyenne Avenue West (Riverview) Tulsa,
Oklahoma
Owner: George S. Bole
Date(s): 1916 (drawing); 1919 (HP form)
Architect: Henry F. Hoit
Contractors; James Hammond Construction Co. (general);
MacMahon Plumbing and Heating Co. (plumbing & heating);
Bailey-Reynolds Chandelier Co. (electrical fixtures); Bunding
391
Hardware Co. (hardware); Spencer Turbine Var Co. (C. Jacobson Agent); Electric Supply Co.
(wiring);
Simmons, David, Historie Preservation Resource Identification Form, 30 October 2005.
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log, Box 9, foldere. 1909-c. 1917)
WHMC-KC Drawings:
• 015.004 1916 residence and garage Henry F. Hoit
• 015.005 1927. 1928 residence and garage HPB
• 015.006 1924 horse barn, club house and Ozark lodge HPB
• 015.007 1929 swimming pool and pavilion HPB
• 015.008 1928 terra cottaplans HPB; Patterson Steel Co.; Kansas City Terra Cotta and Faience Co.
• 083.028 n. d. snow guard fence HPB
• 085.002 1927-1929 details HPB
(Image provided by State Historie Preservation Office/Oklahoma Historical Society)
Peters residence. garage and grounds
1228 West 55 Street
Owner: C. C. Peters (Emery, Bird & Thayer Dry Goods Co.)
Date(s): 1916
Cost: $35,000
Architect: Henry F. Hoit
Landscape Architect: Hare & Hare
Contractors: Joe Hellman (general); U. S. Engineering Co. (heating
and plumbing); R. N. Hodge Elect. Co. (wiring); Senfert Bros Hardware Co. (hardware); American
Screen Mfg. Co. (weather strips and screens); Standard Asbestos Mfg. & Insulation Co. (covering
pipes in 1918); U. S. Engineering Co. (additional radiators in 1918)
Western Contractorsol. 29, no. 792 (1916): 21.
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log, Box 9, foldere. 1909-c. 1917
WHMC-KC Drawings: 010.010 1915 Henry F. Hoit; Hare & Hare
Perrv residence and garage
1217 West 55* Street (current) / 1335 Santa Fe Road (original)
Owner: J. W. Perry
Date(s): 1916-1917
Architect: Henry F. Hoit
Contractors: Tuttle-Ayers-Woodward Engineering Co. (survey):
Permanent Co. (water sollener); Long Construction Co.
(general); MacMahon P & H. Co. (heating); Sanitarium
Equipment Co. (shower); Cunningham Plumbing & Heating
Co. (plumbing); Toune Butcher Supply Co. (reffigerator); L. R. Gaiermie (wiring); Bunting
Hardware Co. (Hardware); Atwood Vacuum Machine Co. (vacuum deaner); American Screen Mig.
Co.; The J. G. Wilson Corporation (venetian Blinds);
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log, Box 9, folder c. 1909-c. 1917
WHMC-KC Drawings: 011.001 1917 Henry F. Hoit
Young residence
1225 North Main Street Hutchinson, Kansas
Owner: Lewis B. Young, President & Treasurer of Kansas Grain
Co. in 1913 and President of Consolidated Flour Mills in
1919
Date(s): 1916
Architect: Henry F. Hoit
WHMC-KC Drawings: 010.015 1916 Henry F. Hoit
392
Bralev residence and garage
3 Dunfcrd Circle / 1405 Dunfcrd Circle (Sunset Hill)
Owner: C. A. Braley
Date(s): 1917-18
Architect(s): Henry F. Hoit; Hoit, Price & Barnes
Builder: Long Construction Co.
WHMC-KC Drawings: 010.013 1916 Henry F. Hoit; HPB
Keith residence. garage and sleeping porch
1001 West 58* Terrace (SW corner of 58th St. Terrace and Belleview)
Owner: Robert Keith
Date(s): 1917-1918
Cost: $22,936
Architect: Henry F. Hoit
Contractor: Long Construction Co. (general); McCray Refiigerator Co. (refiigerator); Richards and
Conover Hardware Co.; Denton Eng. & Construction Co. (electric wiring); Cunningham Plumbing
& Heating Co. (plumbing); Broleen & Erickson (concrete work); U. S. Engineering Co. (heating);
The Associate Glass Workers Co. (decorative glass window, stair landing); American Screen Mig.
Co (weather strips and screens); Reliance Brick Co. (extra sidewalk brick); E. D. Hornbrook
Plumbing and Heating (garage)
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log, Box 9, felder c. 1909-c. 1917
WHMC-KC Drawings: 010.016 1917 Henry F. Hoit; additions by HPB
McAlester residence
5221 Santa Fe Road Mission Hills, Kansas (drawing) / West 55
Street (modern address)
Owner: Dr. A. W. McAlester
Date(s): 1917
WHMC-KC Drawings: 010.014 1917 Henry F. Hoit
Nichols residence (proposal)
1025 Huntington
Owner: J. C. Nichols
Date(s): 1917
Notes: The 1917 measured drawing was specifically fcr Hampstead Gardens Block 7 Lot 6, however no
building permits were issued. Instead, building permits indicate that Boillot & Lauck built the house
on this si te in 1927.
WHMC-KC Drawings: 010.018 1917 Henry F. Hoit
Markham. Jr. residence and garage
Tulsa, Oklahoma
Owner: J. H. Markham, Jr.
Date(s): 1914-1920
Architect: Henry F. Hoit
Contractors: Lonsdale Bros. (general); Mendell Hardware Co.
(plumbing & heating); Bunting-Stone Hardware Co.
(hardware); Viking Refiigerator Dept Western Cab. Fixture Co.;
Spencer-Turbine Cleamer Co. (vacuum deaner); Bailey-Reynolds Gas Fixture Co. (fixtures; fireplace.
fiimishings); Deshon-Davison Co. (wiring); Robert Keith Fumiture and Carpet Co.; U. S. Water &
Steam Supply co. (bathroom trimmings); Pittsburgh Plate Galss. Co. (one plate glass 1'9" x 4');
John H. Kitebau & Co. (incinerator); A. Sutermeister Stone Co. (stone fcuntain); George A. Fuller
Construction Co. (fountain);
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log, Box 9, foldere. 1909-c. 1917
393
WHMC-KC Drawings: 011.002 1920 Henry F. Hoit; HPB
Hoose residence
1246 West 591" Street
Owner: Fred C. Hoose
Date(s): 1921
Architects: Hoit, Price & Barnes
Builder: Clarence E. Ennis
WHMC-KC Drawings: 015.003 1921 HPB
W. Smith residence
5833 Ward Parkway
Owner: Mrs. W. J. Smith (Elizabeth), widow
Date(s): 1921-1922
Architects: Hoit, Price & Barnes
Builder: James E. Taylor
Millstein, C. "5833 Ward Parkway / Elizabeth Smith Residence,"
Historie Inventory, #3168. Kansas City Landmarks
Commission, 1986.
Water Permit #69858, 8 August 1922; Building Permit #13240,
10 August 1922
"Construction News: Mrs. W. J. Smith." The Western Contractor 42 no. 1128 (1922): 36.
WHMC-KC Drawings: 015.010 1921 Hoit, Price & Barnes
Courtright residence
3919 RoanokeRoad
Owner: Mrs. C. G. Courtright
Date(s): 1922
Architects: Hoit, Price & Barnes
Status: The relative size of the house and the shape of one chiminy are the
only things that resemble the drawing. It is clear that the house has been
subdivided into apartments with some additions. Perhaps the additions
obsure the original building.
WHMC-KC Drawings: 015.010 1922 HPB
Dierks residence
5939 Overhill Road Mission Hills, Kansas
Owner: Fred H. Dierks
Date(s): 1924
Architects: Hoit, Price & Barnes
WHMC-KC Drawings: 015.002 1924 HPB
Knotts residence (alterations and additionsl
82nd and Holmes Street
Owner: W. A. Knotts
Date(s): 192
WHMC-KC Drawings: 016.003 1926 Hoit, Price & Barnes
\ kl \ l- ' '
394
McDowell residence
6117 Mission Drive Johnson County, Kansas
Owner: Dr. Bert J. McDowell
Date(s): 1926
Architects: Hoit, Price & Barnes
WHMC-KC Drawings: 016.005 1926 Hoit, Price & Barnes
Merriman residence
8130 Kenwood Street (82nd and Holmes)
Owner: Dr. C. S. Merriman
Date(s): 1926
Architects: Hoit, Price & Barnes
Notes: formerly at corner, but smaller newer houses have built up
around it.
WHMC-KC Drawings: 016.004 1926 Hoit, Price & Barnes
Kappa Kappa Gamma chapter house
Lawrence, Kansas
Owner: Kappa Kappa Gamma
Date(s): 1927
Architects: Hoit, Price & Barnes
WHMC-KC Drawings: 014.004 1927 Hoit, Price & Barnes
(Photograph by Julia Elman)
Beck residence
Miami, Oklahoma
Owner: George W. Beck, Jr.
Date(s): 1928
Architects: Hoit, Price & Barnes
WHMC-KC Drawings: 083.026 1928 Hoit, Price & Barnes
(contains floor plans but no elevations)
mirs:'
if-J • • • < r a g ^
J
E. Jaccard residence (presumed a proposaP
Block B, Lot 8 Sunset Hill
Owner: Ernest Jaccard, Vice-President Jaccard Jewelry Co. (1017 Walnut)
Date(s): 1928
Notes: No proof that this house was built. No building permits were issued. The Sanborn Map shows
no house on this site (Sanborn Map, Kansas City, Vol. 6, 1917-1945, page 800, available at the
Missouri Valley Special Collections). Lots 4 and 8 of Block B are now a group of houses grouped
with the address 5300 Sunset Place.
In 1913, Ernest Jaccard lived at 1225 Linwood Boul.
1913 City Directory, Kansas City
WHMC-KC Drawings: 016.006 1928 Hoit, Price & Barnes
Titus residence
Tulsa, Oklahoma
Owner: C. W. Titus
Date(s): 1928-29
Architects: Hoit, Price & Barnes
WHMC-KC Drawings: 016.009 1928, 1929 group a HPB:
016.010 1928, 1929 group b HPB; 016.011 1928, 1929 group c HPB; 016.012 1928, 1929 group d
HPB; 016.013 1928, 1929 group e HPB; 016.014 1928, 1929 group fHPB; 016.016 1928, 1929
395
group h HPB; 016.017 1928, 1929 group i HPB; 016.018 1928, 1929 group j HPB; 016.019 1928,
1929 groupkHPB; 016.020 1928, 1929 group 1 HPB; 084.013 1929 HPB; 084.014 1928, 1929
house 3 HPB
Lynn residence (alterations and additions)
5440 Brooklyn
Owner: J. J. Lynn
Date(s): 1928
WHMC-KC Drawings: 016.007 1928 HPB
Better Home residence exhibition at Convention Hall fExhibition-)
Convention Hall Kansas City, Missouri
Date(s): c. 1929
Notes: It is possible that this exhibition was at the Fourth annual Better Hornes and Building
Exposition and Flower Show, March 18-23, 1929, sponsored by the Real Estate Board of Kansas
City, Missouri. I need to get some proof or reference of it.
WHMC-KC Drawings: 083.024 n. d. HPB
Alpha Tau Omega fraternitv chapter house
Columbia, Missouri
Owner: Alpha Tau Omega Fraternity
Date(s): 1929
Architects: Hoit, Price & Barnes
Notes: three story + attic storey. Symmetrical design. German/Austri an design on front fecade. Door
with rounded lunette.
Notes: Tennessee Williams writes ofpledging and moving into the new house when it is completed in a
letter to Cornelius Coffin Williams on Oet. 3, 1929, "They are just completing a new chapter house
- one of the finest on campus." (Williams, Tennessee, The Selected Letters of Tennessee Williams,
1920-1945. p. 30, 32-33). September he returns to the house and there are definitely effects ofthe
depression—fewer retuming students because they could not find work during the summer. The
house stops fiirnishing soap, etc. (see page 55). He moves out because it was too expensive on page
110. Transfers to the A.T.O House in Iowa City, Iowa
Notes: Playwright and novelist, Thomas "Tennessee" Williams, class of 1930, lived in this house fer
one year. (http://www.ato.org/av/gi_6mous.shtml). He memorialized his best friend and roommate at
ATO fer one semester, Harold Mitchell in A Streetcar Named Desire by using his nåme for
Blanche's suitor Harold Mitchell (Mitch) (pp. 30, 124)
WHMC-KC Drawings: 014.006 1929 HPB; 083.039 1929 HPB
Voorhees residence
Oklahoma City, Oklahoma
Owner: Leon Voorhees
Date(s): 1929
Architects: Hoit, Price & Barnes
WHMC-KC Drawings: 017.002 1929 HPB
McCormick residence
441 East 65,h Street
Owner: W. H. McCormick
Date(s): 1936
Architects: Hoit, Price & Barnes
WHMC-KC Drawings: 017.013 1936 HPB
Hall residence (addition')
396
1228 West 55™ Street
Owner: Porter T. Hall
Date(s): 1936-37
WHMC-KC Drawings: 017.004 1936-1937 Hoit, Price & Barnes
Echols residence
Fort Smith, Arkansas
Owner: W. J. Echols, Jr.
Date(s): 1937
Architects: Hoit, Price & Barnes
WHMC-KC Drawings: 017.003 1937
HPB
A
fø-'-
Cravens residence
Fort Smith, Arkansas
Owner: Fadjo Cravens
Date(s): 1938
Architects: Hoit, Price & Barnes
WHMC-KC Drawings: 017.005 1938 HPB
' w
«^*iit,*
.*'" '. .'*'•" ->l.-
• ..gxX^
^.^.ul..-U.T.
i.t^. •vi-W-W/^
"• ^ '''••"
y|2' *"•• J"" -JJ l ^ w ^ r ; • - i ,
; . E : ! Til j M ; ' J g j f K-;..;1 \
Mahood residence (alterations')
627 W. 67,h Street
Owner: E. T. Mahood
Date(s): 1938
WHMC-KC Drawings: 083.020 1938 HPB
Schoolev residence (alteration of terrace and elevation)
1014 West 37* Street
Owner: Arthur Schooley
Date(s): 1938
WHMC-KC Drawings: 017.007 1938 HPB
Porter house
Johnson County, Kansas
Owner: Joseph F. Porter, President of the Kansas City Power and
Light Co.
Date(s): 1941
Architects: Hoit, Price & Barnes
L
Notes: MVSC has photographs ofhis home in Martin City, Missouri in 1933.
WHMC-KC Drawings: 083.010 1941 HPB
Browning residence (proposaP
Tulsa, Oklahoma
Owner: H. K. Browning
Date: Unknown
WHMC-KC Drawings: 083.041 n. d. HPB; 017.008 n. d. HPB
Clark residence (addition')
423 West 66* Terrace
Owner: Lee Clark
Date: Unknown
WHMC-KC Drawings: 017.009 n. d. HPB
Coventry residence (alteration')
Overland Park, Kansas
»S.
397
Owner: Miss Jean Coventry
Date: Unknown
Notes: The drawings only include floor plan sketches. This might be a proposal only.
WHMC-KC Drawings: 083.027 n. d. HPB
Huselton residence (alterations to the floor plan)
28* and Prospect Avenue
Owner: Howard Huselton
WHMC-KC Drawings: 017.012 n. d. HPB
Jones residence
Chanute, Kansas
Owner: Hugh T. Jones
Architects: Hoit, Price & Barnes
Notes: According to Charles and Phyllis Sesher of the Chanute
Historical Society, the house is at 132 South Steuben Avenue
and is referred to as the "Robinson House." It was owned by
only two Émilies: the Jones and the Robinsons. Hugh Jones
was an antique dealer and his femily lived there for 40 years.
The house has been turned into a rental and has been " chopped
up." The house is currently for sale by Malson Realty. I called
Sheri Calhoon, owner of Malson, on 5/14/09 to get more information. I also emailed her an image of
the floor plan.
WHMC-KC Drawings: 083.006 n. d. HPB
McKenna residence
1607 West 67 Street Johnson County, Kansas
Owner: Roy McKenna
Architects: Hoit, Price & Barnes
Notes: This residence is not located at this intersection. All the
houses are newer. I think that the house was demolished and the
land parceled into smaller lots.
WHMC-KC Drawings: 017.010 n. d. HPB
Nobel residence ("addition of a porcri)
421 WestoverRoad
Owner: Harold M. Nobel
Date(s): 1938
WHMC-KC Drawings: 017.006 1938 HPB; 083.012 1938 HPB
Parish residence (addition of a Green House / Palm House)
Mission Hills, Kansas
Owner: J. A. Parish
Date(s): Unknown
WHMC-KC Drawings: 083.022 n. d. HPB
Price Estate (remodeling)
1123 North 14,h Street Fort Smith, Arkansas
Date(s): Unknown
WHMC-KC Drawings: 083.013 n. d. HPB
W ard residence
Fort Smith, Arkansas
Owner: Claude W ard
Architects: Hoit, Price & Barnes
WHMC-KC Drawings: 083.017 n. d. HPB
L.
irt
r "*"
i 1*
fa,,..
f "•! W Ikr h—P?
«"
•
ra --
f*1
•t
398
Wells residence. recreation room
117 West 65* Terrace
Owner: S. R. Wells
Architects: Hoit, Price & Barnes
WHMC-KC Drawings: 017.011 n. d. HPB
COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS
Savov Hotel (additions and remodeling old portion)
219 West 9,h Street
east wing constructed inl888; 1903 remodeled and west wing and Savoy Grill added
Architects: Simeon E. Chamberlain (c. 1888); Van Brunt & Howe (c. 1898-1900); Howe, Hoit & Cutler
(1903); Unknown (c. 1905-1906)
Contractors (1905-10): S. J. Hayde Contracting Co (excavation and general for the addition and general
remodeling old portion); E. D. Hornbrook (plumbing and heating); W. T. Osborn & Co. (electric
Wiring and fixtures); Otis Elevator Co. (Elevators and Dumb Waiters); Bunting Stone Hardware
Co. (hardware); Calhoun Mantel and Tile Co.; Henry Wise Cornice Co. (Elevator Closures and
skylights on remodel); Colby Brothers (sliding fire doors) Brunswick-Balde-Collender Co. (Buflet
Fixtures and Room Trim); Holslay & Co. (interior decoration grille room); Van Kannel Revolving
Door Co. (Revolving D o o r - Grill room); Kleeman & Tutter (elevator grill); Kansas City Stained
Glass Works (glass for domed and flat skylight); Frank Tiln Ornamental Iron Works; S. J. Hayde
Cont. Co.; Hoslag & Co. (decorations cafo and dining room); Whitecomb Cabinet Co.
Contractors (1916): C. E. Graham (painting); Friel & Foley; Southwest Wire and Iron Works (repair 9
St. Fire escape); Holslay & co (decorations); Fred. E. Geiss / Advance Electric Co. (wiring); W. N.
Gedwey (general); Southeewt Wire & Wiron Works (Hardware Ladies Entrance);
Owner: Arbuckle Brothers; Frank P. Ewins
Description: See pamphlet "Hotel Savoy: A BriefHistoiy of a Kansas City Landmark" by Valerie Lee
Notes: "Built in four separate phases, the Neo-Classical and Art
"Nouveau hotel and restaurant unites 19th century wood frame construction with 20th century
steel fåming. The northeast wing, designed by Chamberlain, was constructed by the Arbuckle
Brothers, the "Cofibe Kings" of Kansas City.
" Succeeding additions were financed by the Ewins-Child Hotel Co., which was also responsible
for the Savoy Grill." (http://www.kclibrary.org/district-tour)
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log (Box 9, foldere. 1905-c. 1910), 1905 additions
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log (Box 9, folder. C. 1909-c. 1917), 1916 alterations
WHMC-KC Drawings:
•
004.015 1901 addition Van Brunt & Howe
•
004.016 1902, 1905 south addition Van Brunt & Howe; HHC
•
004.017 1904 addition Van Brunt & Howe
•
008.001 1902, 1910, 1916 additions/alterations Van Brunt & Howe; HHC; Henry F. Hoit
•
008.002 ND w/ alterations Van Brunt & Howe; HHC
•
008.003 1902, 1910, 1916 Van Brunt & Howe; HHC; Howe & Hoit
•
008.004 1905 HHC; Howe & Hoit; Des Moines Bridge and Iron Works; Hoit, Henry
•
008.005 1905 west additions HHC
•
008.006 1905-06 with alterations. west additions HHC; Howe & Hoit
•
008.007 1916 Henry F. Hoit
399
Adler & Co, (alterations to store font-)
1210 Main Street Kansas City, Missouri
Owner: B. Adler & Co.
Date(s): 1905
Contractors): The People's Cab Words (general).
Notes: There is one entry on the job log on Jan 2 fer $165
Armorv (tentative plans)
Architects: Howe, Hoit & Cutler
Owner: Commercial Club
Date: 1905
" Construction News: Armory." The Western Contractor 4, no. 28 (1905): 1.
Bavard Building (alterations-)
1212-1214 Main Street
Owner: Nathaniel Thayer
Date: 1905
Contractors: Otis Elevator Co. (elevator); D. Sutter (general); MacMahon Co. (plumbing & heating); J.
O. Wootton Co. (wiring)
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log (Box 9, foldere. 1905-c. 1910)
Dickev fectorv and warehouse
Between 20 and 21 s streets on Harrison
Owner: W. S. Dickey
Date: 1905
Notes: composition roof, basement, double strength glass, interior finish of office yellow pine, gas and
electric light, steam heat
The Western Contractor—vol. 4, no. 31 (1905): 1.
Puff and Repp Furniture Store
1222-1226 Main Street Kansas City, Missouri
Owner: Fred H. Ealy, tailor
Date(s): 1905-06
Cost: $40,000
Contractors): Louis Grieb (excavation, foundation); Harvey Stiver (general); A. B. Mueller Heating Co.
(heating); Wiedermann & Purcell (plumbing); Bunting-Stone Hardware Co.; Mathews electric Co.
Notes: Brick building, dimensions of 29 x 75 feet, two storfes high, designed for six storfes.
Composition roof, plate and art glass, Yellow pine interior finish, gas and electric light. (Western
Contractor)
The Western Contractor—vol 4, no. 31 (1905): 1 and 4, no. 32 (1905): 1.
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log (Box 9, foldere. 1905-c. 1910)
WHMC-KC Drawings: 007.006 1905-06 HHC
Emery. Bird. Thaver Dry Goods Co. additions on Grand Ave.
incorporating Old Times bide., store, hotel, garage. warehouse
17* and Grand Ave. [garage and warehouse] Kansas City
Date(s): 1889/90; 1905
Architect: Henry Van Brunt of Van Brunt & Howe
The Western Contractor 5, no. 3 (1906): 2.
WHMC-KC Drawings: 009.006 (1908 and 1917 Howe & Hoit;
Henry F. Hoit); 012.003 (1917 garage Henry F. Hoit 18* &
McGee); 037.003 (1905 HHC); 037.006 (1909 Howe & Hoit);
166.001 (n. d. HHC)
«f
. it. b£-
400
Emerv. Bird. Thaver Dry Goods Co. warehouse
Southeast corner of 16* and Walnut Street
Architects: HHC
Builder: Lonsdale Bros., contractors
Date: 1905-1908
Cost: $70,000
Contractor: W. M. Edwards (sidewalk & driveway); William
Davis (repair old warehouse); W. A. Bovard (old warehouse);
Lonsdale Brothers (wood enclosures around west elevator); P. J. McDonald; Tuttle & Pike; G. W.
Johnson Mig. Co. (fire escapes); M. P. Connor P & H Co (sewer connections); Lonsdale (general
alterations in 1915); S. F. Bowser & co. (1915 gasoline storage)
Notes: New warehouse adjoined the warehouse on the south, erected on three rows of concrete piles.
The Western Contractor 4, no. 28 (1905): 1.
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log (Box 9, felder c. 1905-c. 1910 and c. 1909-c. 1917)
Hospital and Hotel Building
1008 Oak Street
Owner: Dr. William E. Minor / Midland Realty Co.
Date: c. 1905
Contractor: Lonsdale Bros. (closure bet. Bldgs.); E. J. Spencer (foundations); Geo. W. Huggins
(general); Otis Elevator Co. (elevators); Bunting-Stone Hardware Co. (hardware); MacMahon Co.
(heating); J. O. Wootton Co. (electric wiring); E. D. Hornbrook (plumbing); Superior Metal
Weather Strip Co.; K. C. Chandelier & Brass M%. Co. (electric fixtures); Wakefield Mantel & Tile
Co. (extra bath room floors); T. G. Schweger Construction Co. (screens);
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log (Box 9, felder c. 1905-c. 1910)
Hutchinson Water. Light & Gas Co. plant (remodeling and enlarging')
Hutchinson, Kansas
Architect: Howe, Hoit & Cutler
Date: 1905
Cost: $5,000
Notes: brick and steel with a composition roof Enlarging is being done in order to make room for new
dynamos, boilers and other machinery
The Western Contractor A, no. 31 (1905): 1.
Long Building / People's Bank and Trust Co. / United Missouri Bank /
Office for J. J. Lynn - R. A. Long Building / Federal Reserve Bank first floor. R. A. Long Building
928 Grand Avenue (10 and Grand)
IK,'"
Owner: Robert Alexander Long / Hughes Bryant Agt.
Date(s): 1905-08
Architect: Howe, Hoit & Cutler
Builder: C. Everett Clark Co. (Kansas City & Chicago General
Contractor)
Subcontractors included Tuttle & Pick and Cudworth & Axtell (survey,
estimate of grading); Gorman & Drury (grading); C. Everett Clark Co.
(general); Standard Plunger Elevator Co (elevators); MacMahon
Plumbing & Heating Co. (sewer to Walnut Street); Otis Elevator Co.
(elevators); Atlas Engine Works (boilers); Automatic Heating Co. (Paul
Stem System); Cutler Mfg Co. (mail chute); L. H. Prentice & Co. (heating); Aetna Machine Works
(ash conveyer); Western Electric Co. (generators, motors); Fitchburg Steam Eng. Co. (steam engines);
Cotter-McDonnell Plumbing & Heating Co. (plumbing, heating, power piping, general extras); Colby
Bros. (safety gates); Kaw Boiler Works (boiler breeching); Squire Electric Co. (wiring);
U. S. Water & Steam Sup. Co. (meters); Hecla Iron Works (fountain); Holslag & Co. (decorations); B.
R. Electric & Tel M%. Co. (power cable); Enos Co. (electric light fixtures); Baily-Reynolds G. F. Co.
(electric fixtures); W. T. Osborn & Co. (switchboard); Western Cabinet and Fix Mfe. Co. (eigar case);
401
Henry Weis Formica Co. (installing ventilations); Kleeman, Trotter & co. (Iron guards over sky light);
Prickel M. & G Co. (engine room tiling, etc.) Sash ventilator manufectured by the Acorn Brass
Manufecturing Co. provided the ventilation for the numerous offices.
1911 Contractors: Tuttle & Bailey Mig. Co. (ventilators); Bunting-Stone Hardware Co. (hooks for
directors' windows)
1915 Contractors (alterations for reserve bank): Associates Glass Workers Co. (Art Glass in office); Holy
Jones Agt Adelberk E. Coleman, Successor to Chicago Ornamental Iron Works); K. C. Wire & Iron
Works (wire elevator guards); E. L. Marty Cast Iron Grating (east sidewalk); K. C. Structural Steel Co.
(steel); The Mosler Safe Co. (vestibule and money chests); Flour City Ornamental Iron Works
(Entrance Grille); Voska-Bremer Marble Co. (marble firing vault)
In 1944, the City National Bank and Trust Co., currently UMB Financial Corporation, moved to the
R. A. Long Building. Fortunately, the exterior remained intact as seen in this 1975 photograph. In 2000,
UMB started a major renovation of the building with a goal to restore the exterior of the building by
repairing damage and replacing needed details with replicas. On the exterior of the building, the engaged
columns on the east ficade have been replaced with granite plinths.
However, the 1940s "modernization" destroyed much of the original interior and removed many
interior walls on most of the floors to allow an open office with the flexibility where private offices were
built as needed. On most floors, the 2000 renovation simply removed all construction from the 1940s,
finished the exterior walls, laid carpet; mounted ceilings, and installed basic mechanical and electrical
systems. The eighth and fourteenth floors still contained a feir amount of the original interior, so they
were designated "historie preservation floors." On these floors, renovatørs reversed changes to the floor
plan over the years, cleaned and restored marble wainscoting and wood trim, repaired damaged historie
doors or other details (or replaced them with replicas), and installed period replica lighting.
Long' s former office was partially restored because the south and east walls were stripped to bare
brick and the north and west walls had been removed. With the original plan of the office and a single
photograph, renovatørs created a design that approximates the feeling of the office, though not entirely
accurate. The photograph of the north wall shows the detail of the original room. However, the work to
reproduce this detail was not possible within the allotted time, so the north wall was not recreated. The
office now contains mahogany paneling throughout, restored stained glass, a feux fireplace, and period
lighting. The original wood floor required minor patching, re-sanding, and re-staining.
The box beam ceiling in Mr. Long's office on the eighth floor had ornamentation between each beam.
The box beam ceiling and decorative patters between the beams had all been painted over with the
exception of four that were concealed beneath fluorescent light fixtures. These only had holes poked
through them from anchoring the lights to the ceiling. Overall, the original ceiling in Mr. Long's office
remained in decent shape, although some reconstruction was required. Fifteen replicas made from the best
surviving ornament were silk-screened onto canvass and installed in the renovated room. Additional
murals discovered behind the old exterior walls were in poor condition. Restorers made replicas using the
same silk-screen process as the ceiling. Because one mural was completely absent, a mirror image of
another was used its place.
NR Date: 1/8/2003 (R. A. Long Building)
The Western Contractor—vol. 5, no. 2 (1906): 2, vol. 4, no. 34 (1905): 1, and vol. 5, no. 17 (1906): 5.
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log (Box 9, folder c. 1905-c. 1910)
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log (Box 9, folder c. 1909-c. 1917)
WHMC WHMC-KC Drawings 062.001 (n. d. HHC); 085.006 (n. d. fire escape HHC; Joseph Halsted
Co.); 085.007 (n. d. terra cotta HHC): 085.008 (n. d. shelving HHC); 085.011 (n. d. iron works.
ornamental HHC; Hecla Iron Works); 085.012 (n. d. mail box HHC; Cutler Manuficturing Co.);
085.003 (1902-1906 elevator): 062.001 (1904-1906 boiler HHC: Atlas Engine Works); 085.005
(1904-1906 miscellaneous mechanical HHC); 128.040 (1905 office building for - erection diagrams and
details of column HHC); 129.003 (1905 office building for - chimney bracing, details of columns and
girders, erection diagrams HHC); 129.005 (1905 office building for - diagonal bracing around chimney,
structural design HHC); 129.006 (1905 office building for - structural design material requirement
HHC); 129.007 (1905 office building for - structural specification material order HHC); 129.008 (1905
office building for - structural specification material order HHC); 129.009 (1905 office building for structural specification HHC); 129.010 (1905 office building for - structural specification HHC);
402
128.037 (1905 office building for - includes details of girders HHC); 006.001 (1905-1907, 1920 with
offices for Long-Bell Lumber Co., and Frick Building Annex HHC; Henry F. Hoit; HPB; HenriciLowry Eng. Co.; Fitchburg Steam Engine); 006.003 (1906, 1920, 1922 with offices for Long-Bell
Lumber Co. and Pickering Lumber Co. HHC; Howe & Hoit; HPB); 085.009 (1906 marble and
granite HHC; Pickel Marble and Granite Co.); 085.010 (1906 Iron work. stairs HHC; Brown Brothers
Manuiacturing Co.); 128.038 (1906 office building for - framing plan for north half ofroofHHC);
128.039 (1906 office building for - revised details ofcolumns and girders HHC); 128.041 (1906 office
building for - details of girders HHC); 129.001 (1906 office building for - structural HHC; engineer:
Des Moines Bridge and Iron Works); 129.002 (1906 office building for - structural HHC; engineer:
Des Moines Bridge and Iron Works); 129.004 (1906 office building for - structural design, erection
diagrams HHC); 129.011 (1906 office building for - structural specification HHC); 129.012 (1906
office building for - structural specification HHC); 130.001 (1906 office building for - diagram of
chimney bracing, elevator arrangement HHC); 006.002 (1907-1908 HHC); 009.017 (1914 Henry F.
Hoit; Kansas City Structural Steel; Mosler Safe Co.); 006.004 (1920, 1921 with electrical substation
"u" HHC; Hoit, Price and Barnes; Hedrick and Huff Henrici-Lowry; K.C. Struct. St,; KCPL);
019.011 (1921 I5' Floor HPB); 018.015 (1926 HPB); 083.003 (1945 for KCP&L Co. - Water
recovery system HPB)
Midland Realty Co Business Building or Business (Reliance) Building
NW corner of 10' and McGee
Owner: Dr. William E. Minor; Midland Realty Co.
Date: c. 1905
Contractor: Tuttle & Pike (survey); Lonsdale Brothers (connection between buildings-general, 10* and
Oak); Chamberlin Weather Strip Co.; E. H. Bradbury (excavation and foundation); MacMahon Co.
(sewer to Grand Ave.); American Air Cleaning Co (vacuum Cleaner); Bunting-Stone Hardware Co.
(hardware); J. H. Stone (general); James P. Graham & Co. (plumbing); W. S. Mail Chute
Equipment Co. (mail chute); Otis Elevator Co. (elevator); Lewis & Kitchen (heating); Squire
Electric Co. (wiring); Colby Brothers (safety gates); Superior Metal Weather Strip Co.; Frank Tilk
Ornamental Iron Works, (Frt. Elevator Car); K. C. Chandelier & Brass Mig. Co (electric Fixtures);
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log (Box 9, foldere. 1905-c. 1910)
Water. Gas & Light Co. (addition)
Hutchinson, Kansas
Date(s): 1905
HHC prepared plans for a boiler house and, in 1905, a brick smokestack 165 feet high on a concrete
foundation.
" Construction News: Water, Gas & Light of Hutchinson, Kansas." The Western Contractor 4, no. 41
(1905): 1.
United Cigar Store # 204 (alterations for old Drug Store)
802 Delaware Street
Owner: United Agar Stores Co.
Date: 1905-1906
Contractors: Harvey Stiver (general); American Luxfer Prism Co. (prisms); Bunting-Stone Hardware
Co.; Kansas City Mantel Co (patching tile work); W. T. Osborn & Co. (electric wiring); Hollinger
& Mitchell (general); Eph Doherty (heating and plumbing); Weisborough Bros. (sidewalk); S. J.
Hayde Contracting Co.; H. W. Morris
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log (Box 9, folder c. 1905-c. 1910)
403
931-22 W. 8" Street commercial building
931-22 W. 8,h Street Kansas City, Missouri
Date(s): 1906
Architect: Howe, Hoit & Cutler
Notes: WP#31142
The Western Contractor, July 4, 1906, p. 7, and August 8, 1906
Bird store, hotel, garage and warehouse w/Additions
11* and Walnut
Owner: Joseph Taylor Bird, Sr.
Date(s): 1906-07
Contractor(s): Henry Weis Cornice Co. (gutters, panes for drainage to Grand Ave sidewalk); J. A. Ritzler
Cornice and Orn. Co (ventilation Grand Avenue side); Lonsdale Bros. (wood enclosures around
west elevator on the warehouse); W. M. Edwards (sidewalk and driveway for the warehouse on 16
and Walnut); M. P. Connor Plumbing & Heating Co. (sewer connections for 16* and Walnut)
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log (Box 9)
Browning King & Co. (alterations to store ffontsl
11"1 & Main
Owner: Browning King & Co.
Date(s): 1906
Contractor: American Luxfer Prism Co (Prism glass); S. J. Hayde Cont. Co (general); Hubach Cabinet
Co. (Interior work)
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log (Box 9, folder c. 1905-c. 1910)
Etnerv. Bird. Thaver D. G. Co
1 lth & Walnut
Date: 1906
Contractor: Henry Weis Cornice Co. (Gutters & Panes) for drinage Grand Ave. Sidewalk; J. A. Ritzler
Cornice & Ores. Co. (ventilator) for ventilator on Grand Ave sidewalk; W. C. Wiedermann (repair
to 11' and Marquise); Lonsdale Bros (general on 1909 bridge between E. B. Bldg & Jaccard Bldg);
Lonsdale Bros. (1909 general on seventh story, 1909 Grain Ave Extension, 1909 below the third
floor, 1910 repairing warehouse); Flanagan Bros Mig Co. (1909 vault alterations); Fogel & sons
(vault shelves); Richards & Conover Hardware Co.; W. A. Bovard (1910 shoring new columns, etc.
Warehouse and Stable); Frank Tiek Ornamental Iron Works Co. (fire Escape SE corner); George W.
Johnson Mig. Co (1909 alterations Kimmear Arch Door); E. D. Hombrook (1910 alley drainage and
heating walnut St. Vestibule); W. A. Bovard (1910 shoring and putting in a new post on
warehouse); Lonsdale Bros (1910 repariing warehouse); Daniel Sutter (general for 1911 balcony
kitchen store); George W. Johnson Mfg. Co. (fire door 1911 balcon kitchen store);
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log (Box 9, folder c. 1905-c. 1910 and c. 1909-c. 1917)
Fidelity Trust Co. (alterations'): "Old Post Office Building"
9* and Walnut
Dates: 1906
Contractors for the 1905-1906 remodeling: Wilson & Lonsdale (general), Turner Bros. (stone
foundation), A. Sutermeister (cut stone), Chas. McCleary (brickwork), Armourdale Foundry
(ironwork), Zahner Mig. Co. (metal work), Grant Renne (shoring), Western Sash & Door Co.
(millwork), Campbell Glass & Paint Co. (plate terra cotta), Bryant Supply Co. (brick), Current
River Lumber Co. (lumber), C. A. Brockett Cement Co. (cement and lime); Merritt & co. (lockers);
Frank Tilk Ornamental Iron Works; Lonsdale Bros (general for alterations to the Coupon Rooms
and Vault lobby); E. D. Hombrook (ventilation); Bailey-Reynolds Gar Fix Go. (fixture); Henry
Ohans (painting & decorating); Frank Tilk Ornamental Iron Works; Squire Electric Co. (wiring);
Winslow Bros. Co. (bronze gate)
The original Post Office Building (later the Federal Court Building) was constructed fom 1880-83
with 115 feet on Ninth Street and 168 feet on Walnut Street. Raising fonds for the clock caused delays,
404
but it was finally installed on 10 October 1885 with one or two government officials losing their jobs
over the clock episode.
In 1905-06, Howe, Hoit & Cutler (the predecessors ofHoit, Price & Barnes then operating under the
nåme Van Brunt & Howe) designed an addition to the bank. They lavishly remodeled the interior and
adapted the lower stories fcr banking functions and the upper storfes for rental purposes.
The principal addition consisted of a two-story structure that extended across the entire Walnut Street
fåcade thirty-feet deep in a style in a material that conformed to the existing building. This addition and
complete removal of the post office floor of the old building allowed the creation of a great banking room
(50 x 110 feet and 26-feet high) that was at the time one of the largest west of the Mississippi River.
A monumental entrance in the center of the building offWalnut Street led to the great public lobby
surrounded by a gallery with cages with bronze grills running east and west through the room. Below the
gallery on the main floor at the west end were the private offices and reception rooms for the officers and
their customers. Flanking the main entrance was the president's office and various smaller rooms to the
right and a ladies' reception room to the lefi. On the ground floor, north of the main entrance to the
banking room was a wide vestibule and passageway with a staircase and elevator to the upper floors.
Immediately north of this, on the ground floors and corresponding rooms on the floor above, the Union
Pacific Railway Co. had city ticket and freight offices and space for an additional railroad Co. was on the
southwest corner.
The small windows, which formerly occupied the east end of this room, were replaced by a group of
great windows extending nearly fom floor to ceiling and filled with high grade decorative glass that
increased light rather than diminished it. The armored safe deposit vault (17-feet wide by 26-feet long)
was immediately south of the great banking room with the entrance in full view of the banking room and
protected by massive bronze grilles and barriers. A gallery on the second floor accessed the handsome
director's room on the on the southeast corner and various smaller rooms along the gallery.
The bank was finished in light tones—tile and marble floors, marble wainscoting and counters, and
bronze and mahogany details. The walls and ceiling of the banking room were treated with elaborate
stucco and relief work. The four walls of the great room were decorated with a wide frieze, which
illustrated the story of Kansas City.
The remodeled building retained a small yard and stood isolated with its own little park in the midst
of the city's busiest center. In 1913, a bookkeeping room replaced much of the 25-foot wide lawn at the
south of the building running from street to alley, leaving only a small plot of lawn at the northwest
corner of the tract. Each year, new sod was laid and carefully mowed; it was the city' s most expensive
lawn until the destruction of the building in 1930.
"History of the Old Building from the Fidelity Spirit of June, 1930" reprinted in he Fidelity Spirit,
February 1932, 6-7.
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log (Box 9, folder c. 1905-c. 1910)
"Re-Constructing the Old Federal Building: At Ninth and Walnut Streets, fcr the Fidelity Trust Co., of
Kansas City." Kansas City Architect andBuilder 18, no. 6 (1903): 16-17.
Dr. William E. Minor (alteration of Old Building & Installation of Vault)
317 East IO1" Street (10 and McGee)
Date: 1906-1907, 1910
Owner: Dr. William E. Minor/ Midland Realty Co. / LauraB. Minor
Contractor: S. F. Bendure (general); Eph Doherty (changing water & steam pipes); K. C. Fly Screen
Mfg. Co. (screens)
1910 alterations contractors: Pittsburgh Glass Co. (glass and prism glass); J. A. Massey (repair plaster);
Armourdale Foundry Co. (iron work); American Sahs and Door Co. (molding, window sash); w. F.
Rayland (plaster); Ernst Klos (labor); Cunningham H & P Co (heating and plumbing); Calhoun
Mantel and Tile Co. (marble and tile); Frank Tilk Our Iron Wroks, (stairs); W. F. Ragland
(plastering entrance to Basement);
10th & Oak Street alteration Contractors in 1913: Voska-Bremer Marble Co. (marble); F. H. Morris
(electric work);
1914 Sanitarium Contractors: Bunting Stone Hardware (electrical fixtures)
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log (Box 9, folder c. 1905-c. 1910 and Box 9, folder c. 1909-c. 1917)
405
New England Building
108-110 W. 9a Street (9th and Wyandotte)
Owner: New England Mutual Life Insurance Co.
Date: 1906
1906 Contractor(s): Frank Tilk Ornamental Iron Words Co. (elevator closures)
1910 Contractors: Lonsdale Bros (general); Acme Sheet Metal Works (steel celing)
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log (Box 9, foldere. 1905-c. 1910 and Box 9, c. 1909-c. 1917)
Shubert Theater Building (DOUBLE CHECK WHMC-KC
DRAWINGS: 1 later called the Victor Building
10 Street & Baltimore Avenue
Owner: Shubert Building Co. / A. E. Stilwell
Date(s): 1906
Architect: Howe, Hoit & Cutler
Cost: $500,000
Contractors): Des Moines B & I Works (steel); Flanagan Bros.
(extra of steel chargés); William Showen; Jos. Pringle & Son
(excavation, refilling & concrete); Lonsdale Brothers; Electric
Wiring Co.; Leo N. Leslice; Walter & Co. (plastering);
Richards & Conover Hardware Co.; Western Sash & Door
Co. (mill work); Jahner Mig. Co.; Formor & Ulrich (heating
& plumbing); Builder's Material & Supply Co.; The Fixtures House Co. (electric fixtures);
Pittsburg Plate Glass Co.; Zahner Mig. Co. (ventilation); Lonsdale Brothers
Notes: "Plans are on the boards ofHoyt, Hoyt & Cutler, architects, for another large office building.
This is to be the eight-story steel and brick structure to -up on the northwest corner of Tenth and
Baltimore immediately east of the Shubert theater, now under course of construction. A. E. Stilwell
is supposed to be the financier behind the enterprise. The building is to cost about $500,000 and
will have a ffontage of 120-feet on the Baltimore and sixty-feet on Tenth street. It is to be fireproof
throughout. Interior details have not been completed, excepting to provide for five elevators, two of
them to go to the roof, indicating that there may be a roofgarden eventually." ("Construction News:
Shubert Building." The Western Contractor 5, no. 26 (1906): 7.)
Notes: The Victor Building is the same as the Shubert Building. "In 1908, this was the scene on Tenth
street, looking west from Main street. The street car was on the Roanoke line, whose south terminus
at that time was Thirty-ninth and Summit streets, where it served the feshionable new Roanoke
residential district adjoining Roanoke park. Several horse and buggy rigs are parked on both sides of
the street, and only one early model automobile is in sight. The Rothschild & Sons store is in the
left foreground, on the southwest corner of Tenth and Main.The United Cigar store is shown in the
right foreground. Next, the Valerius Cafe sign indicates the basement restaurant in the 8-story
fireproof Victor building. Ned Douthat remembers the eating house as a popular noon garnering
place for businessmen. There was a fine stringed orchestra, excellent cuisine and the specialty of the
house, navy bean soup. The white Georgia stone columns of the First National Bank can be seen on
the right side of the picture. The marquee over the entrance of the Sam C. Shubert theater is in the
background, at right. The old Victor building has been razed to make room for the new Ten Main
building which occupies nearly a square block." (Ray, Mrs. Sam (Mildred), Kansas City Times, 7
December 1968).
"Construction News: Shubert Building." The Western Contractor 5, no. 26 (1906): 7.
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log (Box 9, foldere. 1905-c. 1910)
WHMC-KC Drawings: 007.011 n. d. proposed plan HHC
(Shubert building is the 8-story building just past the theater, photograph c. 1920, MVSC General
Collection (Pl), Streets-10th, Number 8).
Thompson warehouse
Coates and Hopkins - 8m St. Subdivision (920 W. 9m Street) Kansas City, Missouri
Owner: Hugh E. Thompson
Date(s): 1906
Contractors: Tuttle & Pike (survey); Lonsdale Bros (removing brick well and shoring roof); Geo. W.
406
Huggins (general); Mohine Elevator Co. (elevator); W. T. Osborn & Co.; Geo. W. Honson Mig.
Co. (fire escapes); MacMahon Co. (sewer connections at 931-933 W. 8 );
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log (Box 9, folder c. 1905-c. 1910)
WHMC-KC Drawings: 007.012 1906 HHC; 007.012 1906 HHC
Pickering Lumber Co. Offices in Long Building
10* and Grand
Owner: W. R. Pickering Lumber Co.
Date: 1907
Contractors): C. E. Clark co (mahogany finish); Bailey Reynolds Gas Fixture Co.; Henry Ohans
(decoration); Campbell paint & glass Co.;
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log (Box 9, folder c. 1905-c. 1910)
Wood and Huston bank building
Marshall, Missouri
Owner Wood & Huston bank
Date(s): 1906
Contractors: E. R. Page (general); B. F. Naylor Furnace & Plumbing Co. (underground drainage,
plumbing and heating); E. Howard Clock Co.; Marshall Light Heat & Power Co. (electric wiring);
Richards & Conover Hardware Co.; Calhoun Mantel & Tile Co. (marble vault & foundation);
Wakefield Mantel & Tile Co.; J. Kenwood & Sons Carpet Co. (electric fixtures); Whitecomb
Cabinet Co.; I. L. Appleton (extra painting and canvassing); Campbell Glass & Paint Co (ceiling
lights); Emery, Bird, ThayerD. G. Co. (Seltees)
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log (Box 9, folder c. 1905-c. 1910)
WHMC-KC Drawings: 007.001 1906 HHC; Howe & Hoit; A.H. Andrews Co. (Chicago); Herring, Hall
and Marvin
Reliance Building for Midland Realtv Co. oflice and sanitarium
DEMOLISHED—10* and McGee (214 E. 10,h Street)
Owner: Midland Realty Co.
Date(s): 1907 or 1918
Architect: Howe & Hoit
Notes: KC Star November 5, 1907; KC Star April 26, 1908, p.14
WHMC-KC Drawings: 130.009 1918 HPB
Beckham Building (alterationsl
910 Grand Avenue Kansas City, Missouri
Owner: Robert Alexander Long
Date(s): 1907
Contractors): Fotter McDonnell P & H Co (plumbing); C. Everett Clark Co. (general)
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log (Box 9, folder c. 1905-c. 1910)
United States & Mexican Trust Co. Office Building
10 and Baltimore Avenue Kansas City
Owner: United States and Mexican Trust Co.
Date(s): 1907
Contractors: Leo N. Leslie (entire building); H. D. Jenkins (water color)
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log (Box 9, folder c. 1905-c. 1910)
WHMC-KC Drawings: 006.005 1907 HHC; 006.006 1907 HHC; Art Metal Construction Co.; 006.008
1907 HHC; Howe & Hoit; 006.007 1907, 1908 HHC; Howe & Hoit
Bird garage
1608-1610 Grand Avenue
Owner: Joseph Taylor Bird, Sr.
Date: 1908
Contractors): Tuttle & Pike (survey); E. D. Hornbrook (heating); Otis Elevator Co. (elevator); Squire
407
Electric Co. (1/2 wiring); Bunting-Stone Hardware Co. (electric fixtures); W. A. Bovard (repairing
trusses)
1914 Repair Contractors: A. J. Shirk Roofing Co. (repair); Lonsdale Brothers (general);
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log (Box 9, folder c. 1905-c. 1910)
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log (Box 9, foldere. 1909-c. 1917), 1914 Repairs
Bryant Building (alterations)
1 r & Grand
Owner: Hughes Bryant, Agt.
Date(s): 1908-1909
Contractor: Walter B. Grooves (general); Vostea, Foclack & Sidle (marble telegraph counter); Kornhadt
Korice Co. (reparing skylights)
American Sash and Door Co. (tile in hall stone front for Mrs. Dawn Hible)
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log (Box 9, folder c. 1905-c. 1910 and Box 9, folder c. 1909-c. 1917)
Bryant Building (alterations for Drug Store')
11'1, & Grand
Owner: O. E. Wherrett
Date(s): 1908
Contractors: Hubach Cabinet Co. (fixtures & cases); Chapman Elevator Works (lift); Lonsdale Bros
(store front); Walter B. Groves (mezzanine floor);
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log (Box 9, foldere. 1905-c. 1910)
Bryant Building (alterations for Trader's Bank)
1 r & Grand
Owner: Trader's Bank
Date(s): 1908
Contractors: E. W. Co. (wiring)
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log (Box 9, folder c. 1905-c. 1910)
Ewins building
1825-1827 McGee Street Kansas City, Missouri
Owner: Frank Ewins
Date(s): 1908
Contractor: Daniel Sutter (general for putting on an addition story in
1916); Cunningham Plumbing and Heating (plumbing and
heating-alt bldg);
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log (Box 9, folder c. 1909-c. 1917)
WHMC-KC Drawings 009.005 (1908 warehouse. garage and office £
Howe & Hoit; Kansas City Wire and Iron Works; Freeborn
Engineering & Construction Co.); 012.010 (building for Henry ]
Hoit; HPB)
Ewins garage
17* and Grand / 1622 Grand
Owner: Frank P. Ewins / Studebaker Bros. Auto Dept.
Date(s): 1908-09
Contractors): Tuttle & Pikes (survey for garage in 1908); S. J.
Hayde Contracting Co. (general); Otis Elevator Co. (elevator);
W. T Osborn Co. (wiring); Geo. W. Johnson Mig. Co (safety
gates); F. P. Ewins (painting)
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log (Box 9, folder c. 1905-c. 1910)
WHMC-KC Drawings: 009.006 1908; 1917 Howe & Hoit;
("Warehouse and garage for Frank Ewins
Sternbergh Storehouse & Stable
6* and Penn
•".r»,'~-~, . i r - l - / . - i , - i
- ^"icr
"iiJiiytl.
"^airr"'--
* ' • — -
408
Owners: J. H. Sternbergh
Date: 1908
Contractors): Urban Construction Co. (general); E. H. Bradbury (grading); James P. Graham Co.
(plumbing); Kimball Bros. Co. (elevator); H. J. Walter (plastering); Kerr Bros & Garvey Painting
Co. (cold water paint); Frank Tilk Ornamental Iron Works, Co. (elevator door)
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log (Box 9, folder c. 1905-c. 1910)
609-611 Walnut
Owners: Childs & Jones, Agt.
Date: 1909
Contractors: W. A. Bovard (shoring)
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log (Box 9, folder c. 1909-c. 1917)
Hornbrook residence (remodelingl
Notes: this might be two commissions a residence and a storefront look at WHMC-KC Drawings:
1116-118 Oak Street Kansas City, Missouri
Owner: E. D. Hornbrook
Date(s): 1909
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log (Box 9, folder c. 1909-c. 1917)
WHMC-KC Drawings: 004.029 n. d. model bathrooms for Van Brunt and Howe; 009.007 1909
remodeling storefront for Howe & Hoit
Johnson Store Building
1310 Wyandotte
Owner: Charles Amos Johnson
Date: 1909
Architect:
Contractors: Flanagan Brothers (general); Otis Elevator Co. (elevator); E. S. Cowie electric co. (wiring);
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log (Box 9, folder c. 1909-c. 1917)
Maver Business Buiolding
101 and Grand
Owner: George S. Mayer
Date: 1909-1910
Contractors: Tuttle & Pike (survey); E. H. Bradbury (excavation & foundation); Louis Breitag & Son
(general); Bunting-Stone Hdwe. Co. (hardware); G. W. Johnson Mig. Co. (iron stairs); E. D.
Hornbrook (plumbing & heating); American Fixture Prism Co. (sidewalk lights); Arcade Elec.
Const. co. (electric work); Standard Sidewalk Co. (sidewalks); Chamberlin Metal Weather Strip
Co.; Western Gas Fixture Co. (Fixtures)
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log (Box 9, folder c. 1909-c. 1917)
New England Building (repair building')
713-717 Central
Owner: New England Mutual Life Insurance Co.
Date: 1909
Contractors: L. F. Harman (general); J. E. Loewer Iron Works (erecting fire escape)
Notes: NEMLIC also paid for the wrecking ofthe YMCA building at 810 Wyandotte. It is on the same
JCL sheet as the repair of 713 Central
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log (Box 9, folder c. 1909-c. 1917)
Whvte estate store building
1115-1117-1119-1121 McGee Street
Owner: Estate of E. Whyte
Date: 1909-1910
Contractors: Tuttle & Pike (survey); Norton Brothers (excavation); G. W. Huggins (general); Carlson &
Draper (plumbing); Otis Elevator Co. (elevator); K. C. Elect Const. Co. (wiring); E. D. Musgrove
(repair display window);
409
Building Type: MER
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log (Box 9, felder c. 1909-c. 1917)
WHMC-KC Drawings: 018.008 n. d. Howe & Hoit
Whvte store building
1313 Walnut Street
Owner(s): Frank and Will Whyte
Date(s): 1910, addition 1917
Architect: Henry F. Hoit
1910 Contractors: K. C. Construction Co. (general); Carlson & Draper
1917 Contractors: K. C. Construction Co. (complete)
Building Type: MER
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log (Box 9, foldere. 1909-c. 1917)
WHMC-KC Drawings: 018.007 1917 Henry F. Hoit
Wherrett Store Front (alteration)
11 and Grand (Bryant Building)
Date: 1910
Contractors: Lonsdale Brothers (general); E D. Hornbrook (1917 changes in heating)
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log (Box 9, folder c 1909-c. 1917)
Everett Building frepairing building)
319 East 3 l st Street
Date: 1911-1912
Owner: Leonard Everett
Contractor: W. N. Gedwey (general); L. W. Bursel Construction Co. (SE corner 15 ,n & Charlotte); K.
C. Constriction Co. (807 East 15,h Street);
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log (box 9, foldere. 1909-c. 1917)
Everett Building (remodeling building')
3829 Main Street
Date: 1911
Owner: Leonard Everett
Contractor: W. N. Gedwey (general); Lynn E. Bowerman (plumbing);
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log (box 9, foldere. 1909-c. 1917)
Muehlebach Warehouse
17 and Grand Avenue / 18* and Grand
Owner: Muehlebach Estate Co.
Date(s): 1911
Cost: $40,000
Contractors: Calhoun M & T Co. (marble and tile); bunting-Stone Hdwe. Co. (hardware); K. C.
Elevator M%. Co. (elevator);
WHMC-KC Drawings: 012.004 1911 HPB
Ritzler Metal Factorv Building
2408 East 18* Street (IS* and Wabash)
Owner: Ritzler Metal Co.
Date: 1911
Contractors: Tuttle & Pike (survey and bearings); Lonsdale Brothers (general)
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log (Box 9, foldere. 1909-c. 1917)
WHMC-KC Drawings: 012.011 n. d. Henry F. Hoit; 103.053 n. d. factorv building Henry F. Hoit
Tavlor Dry Goods Store Building falterations)
DEMOLISHED—1T and Main
Owner: John Taylor Dry Goods Co.
410
Date: 1911
Contractors: Lonsdale Brothers (general); Otis Elevator Co. (escalator);
The Kansas City Star, 16 October 1949, IA.
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log (Box 9, foldere. 1909-c. 1917)
WHMC-KC Drawings: 012.013 n. d. ri911?1 garage and store buildings at 1013 Baltimore Henry F.
Hoit, HPB
Everett Store Building
SE Corner of 15* and Wabash Kansas City, Missouri
Owner: Leonard Everett
Date(s): 1912
Contractors: Ernse Klos (labor 801 e. 15* and SW corner of31 st & Oak); J. E. Lower (W & Iron workswindow guards); Costelow-Carham Electric Co..
Notes: North elevation has four doors (two double on left and two single on right). It has enameled brick
on the colems and a cross decoration on level over the doors. It is a 1 Vi story building. The cross
patterns are in sets of twos.
Ifthis is 807 E. 15lh Street then add Contractor: Kansas City construction Co. (general for 1911
Alterations to the Builidng for Leonard Everett); K. C. Constrion Co. (general)
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log (box 9, folder c. 1909-c. 1917)
WHMC-KC Drawings: 022.004 1912 Henry F. Hoit; 022.005 1932 HPB
Ewins barn
Independence, Missouri
Owner: Frank P. Ewins
Date: 1912
Contractor: Western Sash and Door Co. (mill work); Harbison Mig. Co. (barn equipment)
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log (Box 9, folder c. 1909-c. 1917)
Jaccard Jewelry Co. (Ventilation of Store)
Date: 1912
Contractors E. D. Hornbrook (ventilation ofstore)~$311.00
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log (Box 9, c. 1909-c. 1917)
Kansas City Southern Railwav Co.
Kansas City, Missouri
Owner: Kansas City Southern Railway Co.
Date(s): 1912-1916
WHMC-KC Drawings:
•
012.019 1912 passenger and freight depot, eating house for Watts, OK Henry F. Hoit
•
012.023 1915 passenger station for Stilwell, OK Henry F. Hoit
•
012.024 1915, 1916 passenger station, road master's office and locomotive for Spiro, OK Henry F.
Hoit
•
012.027 n. d. proposed combination depot for Kansas City, MO Henry F. Hoit
McGeath. retaining wall with manhole replacement and track layout
May St. between 6* and 7* Street Kansas City, Missouri
Owner: G. W. McGeath
Date(s): 1912
This is the nearest building. I think that the actual wall is beneath the street or in the foundation of a
nearby building. I've asked Dawn to send me photos of the big white things nearby.
WHMC-KC Drawings: 012.018 1912 Henry F. Hoit; Kansas City Public Works Department
411
Lederman Ci gar Store
Fidelity Trust Building
Owner: Fred Lederman
Date: 1913
Contractors: Western Cabinet & Fixture Mfg. Co. (fixtures); Squire Electric & Construction Co. (fån);
E. D. Hornbrook (register for heating)
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log (Box 9, foldere. 1909-c. 1917)
Midland Realtv Co.
DEMOLISHED ~ Lot 6 Oak Street Kansas City, Missouri
1020-22 Oak Street is also listed on white card as Automobile Club of Kansas City
Owner: Midland Realty Co.
Construction Date(s): 1913; ca. 1974 alterations
Architect: Henry F. Hoit
WHMC-KC Drawings: [number] (1908 building for Howe & Hoit); 012.005 n. d. garage for Henry F.
Hoit (address listed as 1020 Oak Street, same?); 163.003 n. d. garage for Henry F. Hoit (address
listed as 1020 Oak Street, same?)
Midland Realtv Co. Garage and Store Building
1020-1024 Oak Street
Owner: Midland Realty Co.
Date: 1913-14
Contractors: Tuttle & Pike (survey); E. H. Bradbury (excavation & foundation); George W. Huggins
(general and wiring); E. K. Campbell Heating Co.; Farley Bros H & P Co. (plumbing); Otis
Elevator Co.; Bunting-Stone Hardware Co. (hardware); G. G. Burkholder Elet. Co. (wiring); E. K.
Campbell Htg. Co. (heating); MacMahon P & H Co. (plumbing)
Notes: Garage 1020 Oak, Store 1024 Oak
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log (Box 9, folder c. 1909-c. 1917)
Midland Realtv Estate Garage
3234-3236 Troost Avenue
Owner: Midland Realty Co.
Date(s): 1913
Architect: Henry F. Hoit
Cost: $14,000
Contractors: Tuttle & Pike (survey); Hook & Stevens (excavations); Harvey Stiver (general); M. S.
Engineering Co. (heating); Kansas City Electrical Construction Co. (wiring); E. A. Slocum
(plumbing & gas piping); Joergens Brothers (water service); Bunting-Stone Hardware Co.
(hardware);
Notes: one story, 100 x 134 feet, brick, cement, steel, plate glass, and lumber.
"Construction News: 3234-36 Troost Avenue." The Western Contractor 25, no. 670 (1913): 25.
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log (Box 9, folder c. 1909-c. 1917)
WHMC-KC Drawings: 022.019 1919, 1921 HPB and 084.017 1921 Midland Realty, new roof for
garage building HPB (nåme is different, but address is the same)
Dean, store building
3629-3635 Main Street Kansas City, Missouri
Owner: Mr. O. H. Dean
Date(s): 1915-1916, 1924
Contractors: K. C. Construction Co. (general superstructure,
foundation & grading); Tuttle & Pike (survey);
Cunningham Plumbing and Heating Co. (plumbing); A. B.
C. Electric Co. (wiring); Seuffert Bros. Hardware Co.
(hardware); American Screen Mfg. Co. (screens); Satterlee
Electric Co. (Elect. Fix Store #3); Wheeler Co. (elect fix
Scott Store)
412
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log (Box 9, foldere. 1909-c. 1917)
WHMC-KC Drawings: 018.004 1915, 1924 HPB
Dierks Building
10,h and Grand Ave 1000-1002-1004 Grand Avenue Kansas City, Missouri
Owner: Dierks Lumber Co.
Date(s): 1915 (alt to 7,h floor gates building), 1929-30; 1938
Contractors: L. M Rowland & co. (Alt 7* Floor Gates Building in 1915); H. J. Schmidt (1915
painting); Cotter-McDonnell Plumbing & Heating (alt heating); Bunting-Stone Hardware Co.
(hardware); American Elect Equipment Co. (wiring);
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log (Box 9, folder c. 1909-c. 1917)
WHMC-KC Drawings: 017.018 1930 HPB; 061.027 1929 HPB; 061.028 1938 HPB
Lee Store Building
1427-9 Troost
Owner: Benjamin B. Lee
Date: 1915-1916
Contractor: P. J. Morley (general); American Electric Equipment Co. (wiring); Bunting-Stone
(hardware); Theore Lawrence (painting restaurant walls); Miller & Haljerson P & H Co (plumbing);
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log (Box 9, foldere. 1909-c. 1917)
Union Trust Co. (Repair Building - Smith McCord Townsend D G Co.)
San Francisco
Date: 1915-1917
Contractors: M. Bridges & Son (painting): Lonsdale Brothers; Wulser Cont. Co. (plaster); Otis Elevator
Co. (repair elevator); K. C. Wire & Iron Works (elevator screens); Broleen & Erickson (repair
sidewalks); W. C. Widerman (sheet metal repairs); 1917 & 1918 Miscellany
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log (Box 9, foldere. 1909-c. 1917)
Choctaw Lumber Co. Store Building
Bismark, Oklahoma
Owners: Choctaw Lumber Co.
Date: 1916
Contractors: American Sash and Door Co. (mill work and glass); W. C. Wiedermann Cornice Co.
(skylight); John E. Lowever Wire & Iron Mig. (iron work)
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log (Box 9, foldere. 1909-c. 1917)
Ernery. Bird. Thaver D. G. Co. (alterations for 3 show windows)
11* & Grand Avenue
Date: 1916-1921
Contractor: Lonsdale Bros. (general and concrete sidewalk on walnut street)
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log (Box 9, folder c. 1909-c. 1917)
Faultless Starch Co.
1025 W. 8* Street Kansas City, Missouri
Owner: Faultless Starch Co.
Date(s): 1916; 1937-38
Note: still occupied by the Faultless Starch Co.
WHMC-KC Drawings:
• 070.012 1937 fectorv. additions & alterations HPB
• 083.029 1938 proposed alterations and additions to HPB
• 022.007 1916-1937 HPB; individual contractors
• 022.006 1937 w/ alterations and additions HPB
413
Lee Store Building (repair)
1423 Grand
Owner: Benjamin b. Lee
Date: 1916
Contractor: Geo J. Schmidt & Co. (ventilator hard); Julius Taller (retaining wall rear 15 & Troost)
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log (Box 9, folder c. 1909-c. 1917)
Lee Store Building ("alteratioh)
1102-1102a E. 15 Street
Owner: Benjamin B. Lee
Date: 1916
Contractors: P. J. Morley (general); Miller & Haljerson P & H Co. (plumbing); L. R. Gaiermine
(wiring);
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log (Box 9, folder c. 1909-c. 1917)
Scott Grocery
3625-35 Main Street Kansas City, Missouri
Owner: Vernon Scott
Date(s): 1916
Architect: Henry F. Hoit
Builder: Kansas City Construction Co.
Developer: O. H. Dean
Notes: WP#58282; WP#58283; BP#11673
Wells Fargo and Co. / Wells Fargo Express - oflice and stable
200-04 West 19* Terrace / NW Corner of Goodrich Place and C entral
Owner: Wells Fargo & Co.
Dates: 1916-17 (alt. 1979)
Architect: Henry F. Hoit
Contractors: Tuttle-Ayers-Woodward Engineering co. (survey); Lonsdale Brothers (footing test);
MacMahon Plumbing & Heating Co. (plumbing); L. Rense Gaienie (wiring); U. S. Engineering co.
(heating); Kimball Bros. Co. (elevator); Bunting Hardware Co. (hardware); Satterlee Elect. Co.
(electric fixtures); K. C. Ironite Co. (waterproofbasement);
KCLR # 355
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log (Box 9, folder c. 1909-c. 1917)
WHMC-KC Drawings: 011.011 1916 Henry F. Hoit; concrete and steel: K.C. struct. steel, Kimball
Brothers Co. Mfrs. am. steel win
Western Electric Co. Building
Owner: Missouri Interstate Paper Co.
Date: 1916-17
Contractors: Cunningham Plumbing & Heating (Rack & Hoce); Kansas City Construction Co. (Alt
Western Electric Building); Chas Hunter P & H Co (pipe coil & air vent, etc); U. S. Engineering
Co. (installing drains, sprinkler, tank); Geo J. Schmidt & Co. (sheet metal repair); Western Sign
Works (painting water tank & sign);
1917 Building 608 Central Ave Contractors: John Lippert (painting guards & fire escapes); Wulser
Contracting Co. (7411 and Central repairs, 212 W. 7th Street roofrepairs);
H. C. Ross (Sidewalk repairs for 7* and Central, Wyandotte south and in font ofwestern electric
building; and 6* and May); George J. Schmidt & co (dounaports 608-10 Central Ave); Wulser
Contracting Co. (sidewalk etc 6* and May street)
414
1801-07 McGee Street commercial propertv
1801-07 McGee Street Kansas City, Missouri
Date(s): 1917
Architect: Henry F. Hoit
Builder: Patty-Moore Co.
Baker Motor Co,
3314 Main Street Kansas City, Missouri
Owner: Sam Baker
Date(s): 1917
Architect: Henry F. Hoit
Builder: Lonsdale Brothers
Bird store, hotel, and warehouse w/Additions
SE corner 18' and McGee Street
Owner: Joseph Taylor Bird Sr.
Date(s): 1917
Contractors: Patte-Moore Co. (all);
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log (Box 9, foldere. 1909-c. 1917)
WHMC-KC Drawings: 012.003 1917 garage Henry F. Hoit
Cosden & Co. office building
4* and Boston Street Tulsa, Oklahoma
Owner: J. S. Cosden and Co.
Date(s): 1917-18
Contractors: George A. Fuller Construction Co. (general); MacMahon Plumbing & Heating (plumbing,
reffigeration & vacuum cleaning); Otis Elevator Co. (elevator); Cunningham Plumbing & Heating
Co. (heating and vent.); F. E. Newbery Elevator co. (wiring); Richards & conover Hardware co.
(hardware); City Water Works of Tulsa Oklahoma, connecting fire hydrant); Bunting Hardware Co.
(hoist gear & trolly); The master safe Co. (safe); the Lawne Butcher Supply Co. (refrigerator); K. C.
Window Shade Co. (window shades); Bailey- Reynalds Chandileir Co. (typical fixtures); Victor S.
Pearlman & Co. (special fixtures);
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log (Box 9, folder c. 1909-c. 1917)
WHMC-KC Drawings:
•
082.016 1917-1918 marble and tile work HPB
•
082.017 1917-1918 terra cotta Henry F. Hoit; Northwest Terra Cotta Co.
•
130.012 1917 Henry F. Hoit
•
130.015 1917 Henry F. Hoit
•
130.014 1917 Henry F. Hoit
•
131.001 1917 Henry F. Hoit
•
130.013 1917 Henry F. Hoit
•
082.019 1917 survey Henry F. Hoit; George A. Fuller Co. [engineer]
•
011.009 1917, 1918 ofiice building for Henry F. Hoit
•
011.010 1918 Title Guarantee and Trust Co. Office Building for Henry F. Hoit
415
Fidelity Bank Building / Fidelity National Bank and Trust Co. / Fidelity
Savings Trust Co.
901-913 Walnut Street Kansas City, Missouri 64106
Owner: Fidelity Trust Co.
Date(s): construction 1930-31
Architeets: Hoit, Price & Barnes
Builder: Thompson-Starrett Construction Co. (ofNew York and Chicago)
Notes; Currently occupied by luxury lofts
KCLR#8414
NR Date: 8/14/1997
Contractors): Merrit & Co. (lockers); Lonsdale Brothers (general
alterations for [unknown] rooms and vault lobby); E. D. Hornbrook
(ventilation); Bailey-Reynold Gar Fix Co (fixtures for the alterations);
Henry Oharas (painting, decorating for the alterations); Squire Electric
Co (wiring for alterations); Winslow Brothers Co (bronze gates for the
alterations)
1920 Alterations to the Banking Room: Lonsdale Brothers (general); The
Edward Light Co. (lighting fixtures); Alex S. Rankin (wall and gage painting, balcony rial & dr. Rm
ceiling); C. W. Carpenter & Co. (painting & stain proofinf); R. W. Hodge Elec. Co. (conduit &
wiring); Bailey-Reynolds Chandelier Co. (fixtures and chandeliers);
1919 Lunch Room on 3rd floor (R. J. Catheant (plumbing); Rankin Brothers (Paining, cleaning and
finishing woodwork); Doty & Son (general work); Chas Zeyn and Son (Misc. Items);
1917 Northeast additions: Lonsdale Brothers (general); E. D. Hornbrook (heating & ventilation); F. E.
Newbery Electic Co. (wiring);
1917 Remodeling Second Floor: (R. J. Caltheat (heating); Lonsdale Brothers (remodeling 2° floor, vault,
1917 Oak Counter & Case Bond Dept: Lonsdale Brothers (Alt, Bond Dept); Squire Electric co. (wiring);
Southwest Wire & Iron Works (bronze signs);
1915 Passageway to 2nd floor: Lonsdale Brothers (general); Colter-McDonnell Plumbing and Heating Co.
(removing plumbing and pipes); Bunting-Stone Hardsware Co. (hardware)
1916 Alteration to Old cupon Room, Ladies Rest Room, and Boiler room: Lonsdale Bros. (general); E.
D. Hornbrook (plumbing); Squire Electric construction Co (wiring);
1916 Alterations to the bank room: Henry Ohare (decoration); Satterleee Electirc Do. (electric fixtures)
1916 Alt to Ladies Room: U. S. Water & Steam Sup. Co. (Bathroom fittings); K. M. Fire Retarding
Co. (lockers); Kansas City Mantel Co. (Toilet Room next boiler room); L. R. Gaiemire (wiring for
lantern at NE corner); Bailey-Reynolds Chandelier Co. (lantern at NW. Corner)
1909 Lamp posts: Brown-Keteham Iron Works (lamp posts); Squire Electric & Construction Co
(wiring);
1910 Bank Building: Lonsdale Bros (vault alt); RizlerMetal M%. Co (canopy for desks); Campbell
Glass & Paint Co.
1911 Alteration Counter Work: Monarch Metal Mig. co (panels back of counter); Lonsdale Brothers
(changing grille work & counters)
1913 Alt and South Addition: Fillmore & Reiondskopf (decoration); Lonsdale Brothers (general); Squire
Elet & const. Co. (wiring); Otis Elevator Co (elevator); A. R. Jackosn and K. C. Showcase Works
Co. (filing cabinets); Western Chandelier Co. (electric fixture); Rankin Brothers (painting);
LC Survey-yes
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log (Box 9, foldere. 1909-c. 1917)
WHMC-KC Drawings: 012.006 1917 addition Henry F. Hoit; 021.005 1920, 1921 HPB; 021.001 1921,
1935 structural elements HPB: 021.002 1921, 1935 floor plans with individual offices HPB; 021.004
1930 interior floor plans with electrical elements HPB; 049.006 1930 HPB; 084.012 1930 HPB;
083.036 1931 HPB
Maxwell Investment Co. oflice - Home Securitv Building. alterations to 2" floor
ALTERATION- l i l l Main Street Kansas City, Missouri (SW corner ll l h & Main)
Owner: Maxwell Investment Co.
Architect: Frederick E. Mcllvain (Louis Oppenstein Building); Alterations Henry F. Hoit
Date(s): 1917; alteration 1919-20
416
Contractors for alteration: Lonsdale Brothers (general); John J. Sherwin Co. (plumbing); Richards &
Conover Hardware Co. (finish hardware); F. E. Newberry Electric Co. (wiring); American Sash &
Door Co. (show windows & bulletin Bd); Heibach Cabinet Co. (additional fixtures); Western
Cabinet & Fin Mig. Co. (millwork); Kansas City Marble & Tile Co. (marble)
Notes: Currently managed by Copaken White Blitt and named "Harzfelds" Town Pavilion
The alteration that Hoit did in 1919 appears to have tåken a large loft space and portioned it into
individual offices. There are detail WHMC-KC Drawings: for the counters with wood paneled
doors, grills, plate glass, etc. There is also a detailed drawing ofthe ceiling plan and for the marble
vault, and carved wooden panels
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log (Box 9, foldere. 1909-c. 1917)
WHMC-KC Drawings: 001.006 1919, 1920 Henry F. Hoit; HPB; 012.009 1919, 1920 Henry F. Hoit;
HPB
Welsh. store and warehouse
3360-3362 Main Street
Owner: J. D. Welsh
Date(s): 1917
Contractors: Tuttle-Ayers-Woodward (survey); Lonsdale Bros (general); Galloway & Geiss Pl & Htg
Co. (plumbing and heating); Montgomery Elevator Co. (elevator); L. R. Gaiemie (wiring);
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log (Box 9, folder c. 1909-c. 1917)
WHMC-KC Drawings: 012.002 1917 Henry F. Hoit; HPB
Southwestern Bell Telephone Co. - K. C. Exchanee Building
Owner: Southwestern Bell Telephone Co.
Date: 1917-1920
Contractors: Norton Brothers (excavation); Christopher & Simpson (steel); Bulger-WoolfCement Co.;
Holslag & Co. (lobby decorations)
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log (Box 9, folder .c 1909-c. 1917)
Baker-Vawter Co. / National Bank of Commerce
915-917 Wyandotte Street
Owner: Baker-Vawter Co.
Date(s): 1919-1920
Architects: Hoit, Price & Barnes
Builder: Long Construction Co.; Walter E. Gillham, consulting
engineer
KCLR # 10017
Millstein, Cydney E. "The Baker-Vawter Building." In National
Register of Historie Places Registration Form. Washington,
DC: United States Department ofthe Interior - National Park
Service, 1999.
"Construction News: R. A. Long." The Western Contractor 4, no.
34(1905): 1.
Description: Concrete and brick building with three bays (six
windows on second level). The roofprofile has a slightly
peaked center. The corneice is across the length ofthe ficade. The lower level ofthe elevation has a
door flanked by two difibrent window designs (the upper part ofthe windows are the same). They
difler largely because the building is on a slightly sloped site.
Notes: "In March 1920, the Baker-Vawter Co., with ofEces in Benton Harbor, Michigan, San Francisco,
Indianapolis and Holyoke, Massachusetts, hired the prominent Kansas City architectural firm to
design their local fecility. Baker-Vawter manuÉctured office supplies for their nationwide clientele.
" Around 1935, the Remington-Rand Corporation acquired Baker-Vawter and moved into the
location through 1950 when the Kansas City Sosland Emily, with interests in grain and publishing,
Consolidated their ficilities into the two-part, vertical block building."
(http://www.kclibrary.org/district-tour)
WHMC-KC Drawing: 017.016 1920 HPB; 084.010 1920 HPB; 176.024 1919 garage. warehouse HPB
417
Southwestern Bell Telephone Co.
324 E. 11* Street Kansas City, Missouri (1l" and Oak)
Owner: Southwestern Bell Telephone Co.
Date(s): design 1917; 1924; 1931; construction 1919; 1929 add; 1974-76 alts
Architects: Hoit, Price & Barnes
Builder: Swenson Construction Co.
Developer: Himmel Corporation (alts)
Description: addition of 14 floors - 1929; stucco veneered 1974-76, File.
Currently known as Oak Tower
The Southwestern Bell Telephone Building was modernized beyond
recognition in the mid 1970s and renamed "Oak Tower." See appendix.
Himmel Corporation purchased the building in 1974 and in an efcrt to
modernize the exterior in the following two years, they removed the Gothic
detailing, covered the terra cotta sur&ce was with a stucco veneer of marble
aggregate, and clad portions of it with aluminum. They also renovated the interior
without regard for historie preservation. George Ehrlich commented on the
modernization:
The resulting appearance is a powerfiil reminder of the sensitively scaled original Hoit, Price &
Barnes exterior. Whatever the accumulated problems of aging and cladding, the solution selected
represents more than an esthetic choice. It also signals some of the major problems associated with
historie preservation. (See Ehrlich, 92.)
WHMC-KC Drawings:
•
019.009 n. d. corner diagrams HPB
•
020.007 1931 administrative bldg. elevations. decorative details HPB
•
023.011 1917 office building Henry F. Hoit and Timlin, I.R.
•
046.039 1924 addition HPB
•
083.042 1939 HPB
Southwestern Bell Telephone Co. - Kansas City Toll Building
Oak and Whittier Place Oak Street Kansas City, Missouri
Owner: Southwestern Bell Telephone Co.
Date(s): 1929-31
WHMC-KC Drawings:
•
020.007 1929-1931 elevations and decorative details HPB
•
020.008 1930 mechanical and electrical HPB
•
020.011 1939 floor plans with structurals HPB
•
083.047 1938 HPB
•
159.012 1929 HPB
Kansas City Athletic Club
Other names: Continental Hotel; Continental Building; Mark Twain
Tower
106 West 11 Street Kansas City, Missouri or 1030 Baltimore Kansas
City, Missouri (11 and Baltimore)
Owner: Kansas City Athletic Club
Date(s): constructed 1919-1920; 1922-1923
Description: height = 87 m (285 ff), 22 floors
In 1917, the Kansas City Athletic Club (KCAC) selected the
architectural firm ofMcKecknie & Trask to design a 22-story hotel at ll t h
Street and Baltimore Avenue. Construction work was started and with the
steel frame of part of the building exposed, construction ceased in 1920 due
to inadequate financing. Åffer several months, in order to protect the
indebtedness due on febrication, the steel interest bid in the property and
Albert R. Jones bought a half interest in the project. In 1920, the KCAC
418
acquired rights to the structure and hired Hoit, Price & Barnes to make new plans for the fecility as a
club and residential hotel. Mitchell described: " According to the new WHMC-KC Drawings: , the
exterior would be feced with brick and terra cotta, and the fecades would be divided into interesting
proportions by means of various bands of ornament. The interior of the structure would accommodate the
activities of the athletic club, the offices of the Chamber of Commerce and other civic organizations. The
building would be equipped with many club fecilities, including a main dining room, lounge, library,
gymnasium, swimming pool, handball courts, ballroom, and roof garden." Construction resumed in
1922, and the building was opened on 1 September 1923. Hoit, Price and Barnes won the Medal Award
for Excellence in Architectural Design in 1923 in the commercial classification for the Kansas City
Athletic Club. See Giles Carroll Mitchell, There Is No Limit: Architecture and Sculpture in Kansas
City, 1934, 135-136, and 153.
Inability to meet expenses due to reduced membership during the Depression caused the Continental
Building Co. to take over the building' s operation. Continental operated most of the building as a hotel,
while letting the KCAC have six floors for its club. In 1982 the building was completely remodeled for
use as an office building and renamed the Mark Twain Tower. The Kansas City Athletic Club still uses
several floors for its facilities." (See http://www.emporis.com/en/wm/bu/?id=marktwaintowerkansascity-mo-usa, accessed 22 January 2009.)
Notes: Thursday, 4 October 1923: Grand Opening Banquet and Ball for the New Kansas City
Athletic Club with special entertainment during the banquet, Exhibition Swimming after the Banquet,
and a grand ball.<SeeInvitation in the correspondence files, MHMC KC0004 Box 67, file ca. 1893-1923.)
Saturday, May 31, 1924: The Formal Opening of the Kansas City Athletic Club held on the roof
garden. Chas. Dornberger's Famous Orchestra. (See Invitation in the correspondence files, MHMC
KC0004 Box 67, file ca. 1893-1923.)
Malcom Muir, Publisher ofNewsweek sent Barnes a letter dated November 3, 1948 explain that the
KC Club was included in an issue of the country outstanding clubs. Photograph by Nickolas Muray
"Construction News: Kansas City Athletic Club." The Western Contractor 4, no. 28 (1905): 1.
Mitchell, Giles Carroll. There Is No Limit: Architecture and Sculpture in Kansas City, 1934, 135-136.
WHMC-KC Drawings: 017.017 1923 HPB; 032.001 1919; 1925 HPB; 032.002 1922 interior
decorative details HPB; 032.003 1923 bathroom layouts, with later revisjons HPB; 032.004 n. d.
floor plans HPB; 032.005 1923 suggestion for remodeling of Hotel Kansas Citian HPB; 032.006
1919 structural steel elements HPB; 033.002 1923 electrical HPB; 033.003 1919, 1922 foundations
with later revisjons Henry F. Hoit and McKecknie and Trask; 033.005 1923 plumbing HPB;
062.003 1919 Hoit, McKecknie and Trask; 082.015 1919-1922 structural Henry F. Hoit; McKecknie
and Trask; K.C. Structural Steel Co.; 083.007 n. d. proposed alteration to lobby HPB; 083.051
1922 structurals HPB; 083.052 1919-1923 miscellaneous structurals HPB; 083.053 1919 surveys
and foundations Henry F. Hoit; McKecknie and Trask; 130.003 1923 structural details. hardware
details HPB; 130.004 1922 HPB; 130.005 1922 HPB; 130.006 1923 structural spees, elevators,
flooring materials HPB: 130.007 1922 HPB; 130.008 1919 HPB; 180.001 n. d. HPB; 180.002 n.
d. HPB
Tea Cup Inn Store Room ("remodelingl
912 Grand Avenue
Date: 1919
Contractors: Day & Son (general); Squire Electric co. (wiring)
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log (Box 9, foldere. 1909-c. 1917)
Thomton & Minor Sanitorium
Reliance Building
Date: 1919
Contractors: F. P. Smith Wire and Iron Works (east iron bronze plated sign)
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log (Box 9, foldere. 1909-c. 1917)
Southwestern Bell Telephone Co. — Linwood office
33 r and Wabash Ave Kansas City, Missouri
Owner: Southwestern Bell Telephone Co.
Date(s): 1919, 1925-26
WHMC-KC Drawings: 020.006 1919, 1925, 1926 HPB; Timlin, LR. (St. Louis)
419
Balconv (alteration)
Board of trade
Owner: Goffe & Carkener
Contractor: Lonsdale Brothers
Date: 1920
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log (Box 9, folder c. 1909-c. 1917)
Grand Hotel Co. (alterations and additions")
6* and Ann Avenue Kansas City, Kansas
Owner: Grand Hotel Co.
Date: 1920
Contractors: Tuttle-Ayers Woodward Esq. Co.
Perrv Building. garage building
8* and Minnesota Avenue
Date(s): 1920
WHMC-KC Drawings: 015.013 1920 HPB
City lee Co.
39 and Indiana Street Kansas City, Missouri
Date(s): 1922
WHMC-KC Drawings: 022.011 1922 HPB
Everett Building
1219 Oak Street Kansas City Missouri (alternate addresses, orbuildings: SE Corner 14* and Oak, 1609
Oak, NE Corner of Oak and Whittier Place)
Owner: Leonard Everett
Date(s): 1922
WHMC-KC Drawings: 022.002 1922 HPB; 022.003 1922 complex ofbuildings for, with alterations
HPB 1100-1200 Oak
Everett Store and garage
30 and Troost Avenue Kansas City, Missouri
Owner: Leonard Everett
Date(s): 1922
WHMC-KC Drawings: 022.001 1922 HPB
American Sash and Door Co. (additionsl
16 and Bellefontaine NE Kansas City, Missouri
Owner: American Sash and Door Co.
Date(s): 1922
WHMC-KC Drawings: 021.007 1922 HPB (includes and elevation)
Jaccard Jewelrv Co.
1017 Walnut Kansas City, Missouri
Owner: Jaccard Jewelry Co.
Date(s): 1923
WHMC-KC Drawings: 018.002 1923 HPB
Choctaw Lumber Co.
Wright City, Oklahoma
Date: 1924
Notes: WHMC-KC Job Cost Log Box 9 shows that the stone building was in Bismark, Oklahoma
WHMC-KC Drawings: 012.012 n. d. store building for Henry F. Hoit; 018.001 1924 filling station and
office for HPB
420
Dierks Lumber and Coal Co., department store
Dierks, Arkansas
Owner: Dierks Lumber Co.
Date(s): 1924
WHMC-KC Drawings: 017.019 1924 HPB
lone Real tv Co.
2021-2025 Main Street Kansas City (DEMOLISHED 1985, now aparking lot)
Owner: lone Real ty Co.
Date(s): 1924 (alt 1958)
Architects: Hoit, Price & Barnes
Builders: Lonsdale Brothers
WHMC-KC Drawings: 018.003 1924 HPB
City lee Co.
21 sl and Campbell Street Kansas City, Missouri
Owner: City lee Co.
Date(s): 1925
WHMC-KC Drawings: 022.014 1925 HPB
Dean, store building
NW Corner of Independence and Chelsea Avenues Kansas City, Missouri
Owner: Mr. O. H. Dean
Date(s): 1925
MHMC KC004 Box 65 has Record of WHMC-KC Drawings listing: foundation plan, 2 floor plans,
elevations & sections, section A~E & details and door Schedule, and elevations & sections of font
WHMC-KC Drawings: 018.005 1925 HPB
Dunlap Realtv Co. building
9' and Delaware Street Kansas City, Missouri
Owner: Dunlap Realty Co.
Date(s): 1925
WHMC-KC Drawings: 018.009 1925 HPB
Eastside Investment Co.
3107 Gillham Road Kansas City, Missouri
Owner: Eastside Investment Co.
Date(s): 1925
Notes: The building on this site is the "El Torreon." The
Survey Form states that it was built in 1928 by Thomas O.
Bright as a business and ballroom. With J. H. Thompson as the
contractor. So, either HPB proposed alterations for the building
that was here before the El Torreon, or they found another
architect. The WHMC-KC Drawings: to not look like this building. I suspect the plans of the HPB
building do not include a ballroom either.
WHMC-KC Drawings: 018.011 1925 business building with proposed alterations for HPB
Jones Chevrolet Co.. Inc.. revisjons for - garage for Howard
Huselton / Mainwood Garage / Belman Garage
3822-3824 Main Street Kansas City
Owner: P.G. Jones Chevrolet Co., Inc.,
Date(s): 1925, 1934
Architects: Hoit, Price & Barnes
NR Date: 6/9/1983; KLCR #7732
WHMC-KC Drawings: 015.014 1924, 1934 HPB
Cart, Doran L. "The Belman Garage: From Greaseracks to Greasepaint." Historie Kansas City
421
Foundation Gazette 10, no. 6 (1986): 6-7.
Keith Furniture and Carpet Co.
DEMOLISHED in 2005—1301-07 Baltimore Avenue Kansas City, Missouri (13,h and Baltimore)
Owner: Robert Keith
Date(s): 1925-26
Architects: Hoit, Price & Barnes; Builder: Lonsdale Brothers
Notes: In 1980 the survey nåme was Trans World Airlines Flight Operations Center
WHMC-KC Drawings: 018.018 1929 HPB; 046.015 1925 HPB; 083.038 1925 HPB; 131.002 1925
HPB; 131.003 1925 HPB; 131.004 1922 HPB
March Building
9 and Delaware Street Kansas City, Missouri
Date(s): 1925
WHMC-KC Drawings: 018.010 1925 HPB
Sewall Paint and Glass Co. / Sewall Paint and Varnish Co.
1009-1013 West 8th Street Kansas City, Missouri (8lh and Mulberry)
Owner: Sewall Paint and Glass Co.
Date(s): 1925, 1932
Architects: Hoit, Price & Barnes
WHMC-KC Drawings: 021.008 1925 HPB; 135.059 1932 6ctorv building for HPB
W eggener Building remodeling display
91 and Baltimore Avenue
Date(s): 1925
WHMC-KC Drawings: 019.010 1925 HPB
Whvte Brothers store building
DEMOLISHED—4617^1623 Troost Avenue
Owner: Whyte Brothers (Frank and Will Whyte)
Date(s): 1925
WHMC-KC Drawings: 018.006 1925 HPB
Browning building
11 and Grand Avenue
Date(s): 1926
WHMC-KC Drawings: 018.016 1926 HPB
City lee Co.
224 W. 75,h Street
Owner: City lee Co.
Date(s): 1926
WHMC-KC Drawings: 022.008 1926 HPB
City lee Co.
67* and Myrtle Avenue
Owner: City lee Co.
Date(s): 1926
WHMC-KC Drawings: 022.010 1926 HPB; 160.023 1926 Retail Store HPB
City lee Co.
85 andOlive Street
Owner: City lee Co.
Date(s): 1926
WHMC-KC Drawings: 022.013 1926 HPB
422
City lee Co.
Overland Park, Kansas
Owner: City lee Co.
WHMC-KC Drawings: 022.009 n. d. HPB
City lee Co.
Brush Creek Pkwy and Oak Street
Owner: City lee Co.
WHMC-KC Drawings: 022.012 n. d. proposed improvements for HPB
Huselton. garage alterations
NE Corner of 13* and Oak Street Kansas City, Missouri
Owner: Howard Huselton
Date(s): 1926
WHMC-KC Drawings: 015.016 1926 HPB
Pine Vallev Lumber Co., complex ofbuildings
Pine Valley, Oklahoma
Owner: Pine Valley Lumber Co.
Date(s): 1926
WHMC-KC Drawings: 018.014 1926 HPB
Dierks Lumber Co., complex ofbuildings
Pine Mountain, Arkansas
Owner: Dierks Lumber Co.
Date(s): 1927
WHMC-KC Drawings: 017.020 1927 HPB
Kansas City Telephone Building headquarters. additions
11' and Oak Street Kansas City, Missouri
Owner: Kansas City Telephone Building
Date(s): 1927
WHMC-KC Drawings: 060.012 1927 HPB; Timlin, I.R. (St. Louis)
Factorv & Store
3216-3222 Gillham Road
Owner: Ellie Sheetz, Esq. of Washington, DC
Date(s): 1927
Architects: Hoit, Price & Barnes
KCLR # 7752
Notes: 1933 two buildings joined, 106 Review. The north building was built in 1927. The south
building was built in 1928.
WHMC-KC Drawings: 021.010 1927 HPB
Martha Washington Candv Co. (Historie Nåme: Luzier Inc,-)
3830-3932 Main Street
Owner: Howard Huselton
Date(s): 1922
Architects: Hoit, Price & Barnes
WHMC-KC Drawings: 021.009 1922 with alterations. additions and
adjoining garage HPB
423
Watkins music store
NE Corner of Maple and Liberty
Maple Avenue Independence, Missouri
Owner: T. J. Watkins
Date(s): 1927
WHMC-KC Drawings: 018.017 1927 HPB
Wayside Inn for Howard Huselton
Highway 40 and Raytown Road
Owner: Howard Huselton
Date(s): 1927
WHMC-KC Drawings: 022.015 1927 HPB
Huselton. proposed building
29 and McGee Trafficway Kansas City, Missouri
DEMOLISHED?
Owner: Howard Huselton
Date(s): 1928
Notes: either the building was not built, or it has been demolished. The site is currently Union Hill
Condos.
WHMC-KC Drawings: 015.017 1928 HPB
Wavside Inn for East Side Investment Co.
Highway 40 and Highway 50
Owner: East Side Investment Co.
Date(s): 1929
WHMC-KC Drawings: 083.011 1929 HPB
Eastside Investment Co.
Owner: Eastside Investment Co.
Date(s): 1929
WHMC-KC Drawings: 015.015 1929 automobile service station
for HPB (listed on Gillham Plaza, I don't know ifthat is the
same address)
Midland Life Insurance Co.
Armour Blvd. Kansas City, Missouri
Owner: Midland Life Insurance Co.?
Date(s): 1929
WHMC-KC Drawings: 083.043 1929 HPB
Westpate estate buildings
Martin City, Missouri
Owner: Dr. Westgate
Date(s): 1929
WHMC-KC Drawings: 017.001 1929 HPB
424
Kansas City Power and Light Co. Building
1330 Baltimore Avenue Kansas City, Missouri
Owner: Kansas City Power and Light Co.
Date(s): 1930-31
Architects: Hoit, Price & Barnes
Builder: Swenson Construction Co.; Long Construction Co.
Materials: limestone faced, 30-floor steel farne structure.
Description: Crowed by a stepped back structure equal to 6 additional storfes
featuring prismatic glass panels and alternating multi-colored lights. When
completed, it was the tallest building in Missouri.
" Construction News: R. A. Long." The Western Contractor 4, no. 33 (1905): 1.
The sub-basement contained the building engineer's office, carpenter shop, and
window trimmer' s quarters, and provided a space for heavy storage. The subbasement also held mechanical equipment, transformer vaults, engine room, and
refrigerating machinery for the first and second storfes. The basement served as
storage for the repair, shipping, and stationery departments and with lockers for the
janitors and elevator boys. Men's public toilets were also located here. See "The
Architecfs Angle," 9-10.
3rd—Credit, Adjusting and Collection and Services departments and space for
the range department and demonstration rooms complete with presentations for an
ideal kitchen, home, or apartment
The 41 and 5* floors contained an auditorium, later named Thomas A. Edison
Hall, with 1,030 seats equipped for motion pictures. It contained a foyer, stage (24by-56 feet with a 38 feet wide proscenium), auditorium (64-by-85 feet with 736
opera chairs on the main floor), balcony (64-by-37 feet with 294 opera chairs), women's parlor and
dressing rooms. Indirect lighting arranged in the color cycles like the lantern (discussed below) lit the
acoustically correct auditorium, which also had equipment for sound reproduction. The auditorium had
the same Art Deco styling as the rest of the building with linoleum floor with carpeted aisles, pink
Tennessee marble wainscot, stone aisles, stone textured painted walls and an ornamental plaster ceiling,
coffered with glass panels for indirect lighting. It was beautifiilly decorated and draped in prevailing colors
of rust, silver and green. The auditorium was fiilly air-conditioned. See "The Architecfs Angle," 10 and
Lee, 2-3.
The 61 floor principally contained a 53-by-75 feet gymnasium with spectator seats and a balcony that
doubled as a ballroom allowing employees to become better acquainted with each other. See " Athletics."
The Tie: 30. The gymnasium floor composed ofpine blocks boiled in paraffin and laid end to end. The
blocks were mortised together and mounted on cork to avoid carrying vibrations to the building farne.
The floor was marked for basketball, volleyball, and indoor baseball. Floodlights in the center lighted
boxing and wrestling events. See "Athletics." The Tie: 30.
The 6 floor had rooms for physical director's office, advertising department, mailroom and
pneumatic tube dispatcher's room, air machine, and air condition and ventilation equipment for
auditorium and gymnasium and two unassigned rooms. See Lee, 2-3.
In the mid-1950s, KCP&L converted the auditorium and foyer into offices and the gym was
eventually turned into a lunchroom. See Engle, "Lighting the Way," [3] and Lee, 3.
The upper part of the gymnasium extended into the 7 floor, which was otherwise given over to the
clinic of the Medical Department including a spacious waiting room and two modem treatment rooms
with surgical equipment and laboratory fåcilities. The f floor contained locker rooms and showers as part
of the gymnasium and a clinic, toilets for men and women with a "completely equipped" ladies' rest
room. "The Architecfs Angle," 10-11.
KCP&L had two doctors on staff in the Medical Department, a division of the Legal Department.
The doctors treated minor work-related injuries, gave periodic programs on accident prevention to
employees, and taught the "prone pressure method ofresuscitation," now called CPR. The doctors also
administered physical exams to prospective employees, since " all prospective employees of the Co. were
required to pass a rigid physical examination by one of the Co. doctors before being assigned to his
particular work."See Dr. F. J. luen, M. D. "Keeping the Employee Physically Fit: The Medical
Department." The Tie XII, no. 8 (1932): 14.
The 8* floor included two handball courts, but otherwise returned to the functions of a business with
425
display and demonstration rooms for commercial and industrial power and lighting with " ideal small
shops" and "model apartments." The 8* floor also had offices for the Electric Club and managers of the
Northeast power station. See "The Architecfs Angle," 10-11.
The 9* floor was originally for a library and employee cafeterias, which were omitted from the final
plan. Janice Lee proposed that "The kitchens/cafeterias may have been eliminated because they feared
alienating downtown restaurants, to which the company hoped to seil kitchen appliances." (See Janice
Lee, "Kansas City Power & Light Building Profile." Kansas City: MVSC, 1999, 3.) Budget constraints
may have also played a part. The KCP&L Co. designated the nineteenth floor and those aboveforfiiture
expansion leasing them to tenants in the interim.
From the 10 to 15* floors, the design was flexible to suit multiple fiinctions. KCP&L used these
floors for additional display rooms and offices for various departments. (The original use of each floor
follows: 9*—cafeteria, All-Electric "Ideal" Demonstration Kitchen, display rooms, handball courts (upper
half), and Electric Range Department; 10*—Power and Commercial Lighting Department with display
rooms and Clerical Department; 11*—Bookkeeping Department and recreation room; 12* —Purchasing
and the Store's Auditing departments; 13*—Engineering and Drafling departments; 14* —Operating and
Control Department; 15 —Building Superintendent's Office, Operating & Control (additional rooms),
classroom, addressograph room, meter readers' room, tank room, and transformer vault for some
mechanical equipment for the building; 16*—Education, Municipal Steam Heating, and Underground
Construction departments; 17 —Paymaster, Auditing, and Investment departments; 18*—Executive
offices with the president's office and director's room occupying prominent places on the floor; 19 —legal
department. See "The Architect's Angle," 9-10 and Lee, 1.
WHMC-KC Drawings:
084.021 1930 architectural sheets 01-65 HPB
084.022 1930 architectural sheets 02-66aHPB
084.022 1930 electrical HPB
084.024 1930 foundations HPB
085.001 1930 mechanical HPB
084.023 1930 structurals HPB
083.018 1932 HPB
020.003 1930-31 electrical layouts HPB
020.004 1931 mechanical HPB
020.002 1931 ornamental designs HPB
020.005 1931 pneumatic tube layouts HPB
020.001 1930 floor plans HPB
048.003 1930 general office bldg of HPB
•
062.004 1930 general office bldg of- architectural HPB; Glass, C A . (structural engineer)
•
062.005 1930 general office bldg of- structural HPB; Glass, C A . (structural engineer)
Hall and Crowell Building - sprinkler tank support and penthouse
1601 Walnut Street Kansas City, Missouri (16* and Walnut)
Owner: H. F. Hall and F. G. Crowell
Date(s): 1931
WHMC-KC Drawings: 018.019 1931 HPB
Vaughn Realtv Co. warehouse and office building
2021-2027 Wyandotte Kansas City, Missouri
DEMOLISHED—Now a parking lot
Owner: Vaughn Realty Co.
Date(s): 1931
WHMC-KC Drawings: 019.001 1931 HPB
Benson Brass and Chandelier Works
DEMOLISHED—1417 Agnes Avenue Kansas City
Owner: Benson Brass and Chandelier Works
Date(s): 1932
426
New York Life Insurance Co. Building
9* and Baltimore Avenue
Owner: New York Life Insurance Co.
Date(s): 1934
WHMC-KC Drawings: 019.002 1934 HPB
Bralev Building. remodeling
111 and McGee Street
Owner: New York Life Insurance Co.
Date(s): 1935
WHMC-KC Drawings: 019.003 1935 HPB
Chambers Building
12,h and Walnut (SW corner)
Date(s): 1936
WHMC-KC Drawings: 019.004 1936 HPB
WDAF transmitter station for Kansas City Star Co.
Somerset and Mission Road Johnson County, Kansas
Owner: Kansas City Star Co.
Date(s): 1936-37
WHMC-KC Drawings: 084.015 1936; 1937 HPB
Nazarene Publishing House, proposed building
2813-2921 Troost Avenue Kansas City, Missouri
Owner: Nazarene Publishing House
Date(s): 1937
WHMC-KC Drawings: 083.045 1937 HPB
United States Supply Co. (repair to building")
DEMOLISHED—1315 w ! 12,h Street Kansas City, Missouri
Owner: United States Supply Co.
Date(s): 1937
WHMC-KC Drawings: 015.018 1937 HPB
Mid West Cold Storage and lee Corporation
5' and Kaw River Street
Owner: Midwest Cold Storage and lee Corporation
Date(s): 1938
WHMC-KC Drawings: 019.006 1938 HPB
Sargeant. Inc.
1014 Grand Avenue
DEMOLISHED? Now site of UMB bank
Owner: Perry Sargeant, Inc.
Date(s): 1938
WHMC-KC Drawings: 019.007 1938 HPB
Cook Paint and Vatnish Co.
14 and Knox Street Kansas City, Missouri
Owner: Cook Paint and Varnish Co.
Date(s): 1940
WHMC-KC Drawings: 083.034 n. d. HPB; 015.019 1940 warehouse HPB; 084.018 1940 warehouse
building for HPB
427
Dewev water tank
Manhattan, Kansas
Owner: Chauncey Dewey
WHMC-KC Drawings: 012.014 n. d. Henry F. Hoit
Garaae - alterations and additions
3344-3346 Main Street Kansas City, Missouri
WHMC-KC Drawings: 083.014 n. d. HPB
Kansas City Star, transmitter station
Somerset and Mission Road, Johnson County
Owner: Kansas City Star
WHMC-KC Drawings: 019.005 n. d. HPB
National Lumber and Creosote Co. boarding House
Kansas City, Missouri
Owner: National Lumber and Creosote Co.
WHMC-KC Drawings: 017.014 n. d. HPB
Nelly Don factory
Oak between 25 and 26 Street
Owner: Nelly Don
WHMC-KC Drawings: 083.015 n. d. HPB; 083.015 n. d. HPB
Sherron Realtv Co.
No city, Missouri
Owner: Sherron Realty Co.
WHMC-KC Drawings: 083.031 n. d. HPB
Sinclair Gas and Oil Co.
Tulsa, Oklahoma
Owner: Sinclair Gas and Oil Co.
WHMC-KC Drawings: 019.008 n. d. HPB; Birdsall, C.K.
Western Automobile Insurance Co., proposed building
Fort Scott, Kansas
Owner: Western Automobile Insurance Co.
WHMC-KC Drawings: 018.012 n. d. HPB
Fidelity Bank and Kansas City Power & Light Buildines Through Time
The fate of both the Fidelity Bank Building and the KCP&L building were
uncertain during the economic recession in the 1990s and both became the center of
uncertain renovation projects. During an attempt to renovate and convert the Fidelity
Bank building into private office or apartments, it was added to the National Registry on
428
14 August 1997, at the time the sixth tallest building in Kansas City. When the federal
government bought the building in 1946 for $3.3 million, they protected all the original
ornament by encasing it in dry wall and the ornate zodiac ceiling was protected by a drop
ceiling.1
By contemporary office standards, the buildingbecame obsolete because of its
small floor space and, in 1996, the federal government sold it for $50,000. The federal
government sold it to Blake Scott, president of 911 Walnut Inc., who hoped to rejuvenate
the structure. However, the estimated cost to convert it into offices ($5 million) or
apartments ($12 to $15 million) in addition to the cost of renovation hindered his plans.
As downtown real estate, the building had a major problem: it lacked parking. Scotts's
vacant building became a blemish on the streetscape with boarded up doors and peeling
paint.
In 1999, Sheldon Good & Com. Auctions, the workTs largest real estate auction
Co., offered the Fidelity Bank Building on 24 September 1999 with a minimum bid of $2
million as part of a global real estate auction in Chicago (simulcast in Dallas, Miami and
London) with 13 other properties. Scott pulled the Fidelity Building out of the auction
and sold it for an undisclosed amount.2
In 1992, the KCP&L Co. moved out of their namesake building and the building's
Jim Davis, " Invested in the Past: Developers Renovate Historie Space to Create Demand fom
New Users." Kansas City Business Journal 24, no. 7 (2005): 15.
2
C6.
Mark P. Couch, "Landmark Being Auctioned OS." Kansas City Star, 20 August 1999, Cl and
429
fate was tied up in litigation throughout most of the 1990s. The KCP&L Co. sold the
KCP&L Building in 1957 and leased the space they needed. Joe Weinstein, who controls
a family of companies including Gailoyd Enterprises Corporation of New York, owned
the building since 1961. In 1992, The KCP&L Co. moved into more efficient office space
at 1201 Walnut because of the building's small floors and some of its systems needed
upgrading. Bob Reeds, who ran KCP&L in the 1990s, joked that the historie elevators
were called historie because a decade would pass before you got to your floor. These
elevators were replacedby 2001.3
In 1995, a massive downtown redevelopment plan was introduced to reinvigorate
12 blocks on the southern edge of downtown through a $250 million (later $454 million,
then $628 million). Beginning in March 1998, Gailoyd Enterprises Corporation of New
York, owner of the Power & Light Building negotiated the sale of the building with
Centertainment, who wanted to make the KCP&L building the center of its new
entertainment complex downtown, the Power & Light District, named the signature
building. Initially, the KCP&L building was to be converted into a hotel. Conflict over the
building's value resulted in attempted litigation by Gailoyd Enterprises in January 1999
for financial damages caused by Centertainment's efforts to take over the building. The
lawsuit was dropped by the court and the parties entered mediation in February 1999.
The man most associated with the plan was the late CEO of AMC Entertainment, Stan
Tim Engle, "Lighting the Way: Things Are Looking up for the Power & Light Building." The
Kansas City Star, 2001, [2 and 9].
430
Durwood (AMC occupied 7 floors of the KCP&L Buildingbut moved out in 2001). Then
leasing agent Steve Brettell of Grubb & Ellis/The Winbury Group, which managed the
building, said that uncertainty over the building's fate in the project scared away
prospective tenants and that was the basis of the 2001 lawsuit against the developers. In
2001, the redevelopment project appeared all but dead.4
As the economy heated up again in the last decade, both buildings were renovated
and celebrated. The KCP&L Building became the center of an entertainment district
named after the building: The Kansas City Power & Light District. In 2000, the building
landed a major tenant occupying over 70%, Berkebile Nelson Immenschuh McDowel
Architects Inc., which spurred the remodeling of the entrance, lobby and second floor of
the building. David Allman, president of Regent Partners who aimed to turn the KCP&L
building into 198 apartment spaces for the Power & Light District said that the building
was "functionally obsolete [as an office building, because] it has low ceilings and
undersized floors. I don't think it will remain an office building" Further, he believed that
turning it into apartments would imp rove the condition of the office market downtown
by elirninating a dusty second-class space.5
Occupancy had fallen to less than 30% in 2002, less than half the average of
comparable downtown space. Renovations were estimated to cost $93 million. In 2003,
Gailoyd was approved for $35 million in reimbursements to offset the developer's public
4
Mark P. Couch, "New Setback for Power & Light Building Owner." The Kansas City Star, 15
January 1999, Cl:2 and Engle, [2 and 9] and
5
Mark P. Couch, "Power & Light." The Kansas City Star, 26 September 2000, D23: 3.
431
improvement costs, such as a garage and retain space, from the Tax Increment Financing
Commission of Kansas City and sought the same amount in 2005. Private money would
pay for the rest. Later, the city endorsed a $157.1 million Gailoyd Enterprise's plan to
renovate of the building and build a 700-space garage and condominium tower next door in
December 2005. The project received up to $37.3 million in tax incentives.6
In 2006, the building was the cause of litigation again; owner Gailoyd Enterprises
Corporation accused Kansas City Live LLC, a unit of the Cordish Co. of Baltimore that
Controls the development rights to the multi-block district, of trademark infringement.
Gailoyd alleged that they submitted "false evidence of actual and continuing use" of the
Power & Light mark to the U. S. Patent and Trademark Office. The "Power & Light
District" was the nåme given to a previous unsuccessful downtown development plan by
the late Stan Durwood founder of AMC Entertainment Inc. discussed earlier. Kansas City
Live had been reluctant to use the nåme because if its tarnished history. The suit chargés:
"Defendanfs unfair competition and false representation has been willful, deliberate and
designed specifically to trade upon the good will associated with Gailoyd's services and
trademarks."7
By October 2007, the district, an $850 million, nine-block, mixed-use downtown
project, was officially named the "Kansas City Power & Light District" after the utility
6
Jim Davis, "P&L Building Owner Returns with More Costly Rehab Plan." The Kansas City
Business Journal 24, no. 4 (2005): 6-8 and Kevin Collison, "Power & Light Update Gets Nod." The
Kansas City Star, 15 December 2005, C3:2-5.
7
Dan Margolies, "Will the Real P&L Stand Up?" The Kansas City Star, 8 June 2006, Cl:2.
432
Co. provided sponsorship. Bill Downey, KCP&L's president and CEO, said its main
reason for sponsorship was to educate visitors on energy efficiency and renewable
resources—a clock tower with a wind turbine was featured at the center of the district to
draw attention to its wind facility at Spearville, Kansas.8 In 2008, the KCP&L Co. moved
again into One Kansas City Place, currently the regjon's tallest building.9
In 2000, the Fidelity Bank Building became the beneficiary of Simbol
Commercial's $64 million redevelopment project. Before the renovation began in early
2000, Simbol Commercial purchased the building for an undisclosed amount and began a
$64 million redevelopment project. Simbol approached the project, not as a simple
renovation of a historie building, but redevelopment of the entire east side of Walnut
Street between 9th and 10th Streets.10
In 2002, Simbol Commercial connected with Housing Horizons LLC, a unit of
Kimberly-Clark Corporation of Dallas known for their paper products such as Kleenex.
Housing Horizons renovated big historie buildings around the country bringing formidable
resources to the project with the immediate payoff for of substantial taxcredits. Since the
Fidelity Building was on the National Register of Historie Places List, the redevelopers
receive historie tax credits on both the state and national levels.11 The building was within
8
RandolfHeaster, "KCP&L Makes Maik on District." ne Kansas City Star, 19 October2007, C6:l.
9
Kevin Collison, " One Kansas City Place to Be New KCP&L Digs." The Kansas City Star, 2
October2008, C l , 5.
10
Mark P. Couch, "Old Office Tower Will Get Makeover." The Kansas City Star, 6 February
2001, D4.
11
Kevin Collison, "Big Co. Looks Seriously at 911 Walnut: Kimberly-Clark Unit Could Play a
Role in Tower Renovation." The Kansas City Star, 2 March 2002, C2.
433
the boundaries of the Tower Properties taxincrement financing plan (TIF). Towerhas
used TIF revenue from the district to help cover the cost of building a new parking
garage.12 For the remainder of the project, Solomon approached the city for
unprecedented taxbreaks: 100% Chapter 353 property taxabatement for 25 years, rather
than the usual city policy of 100% for 10 years and 50% for the remaining 15. The
commission initially rejected their proposal and recommended a 100% Chapter 353 tax
abatement for the first 15 years and 50% for the following 10 years. However, they
granted the unprecedented proposal.13 In return, Solomon and Kimberly-Clark were to
invest $18.6 million in the project (before the Sprint Center arena and the Power & Light
projects had been proposed). The Kansas City Council agreed and work began in earnest
in mid-2003. Because the memory of the 2001 terrorist attacks were fresh, developers
worried that the address 911 Walnut would draw a negative allusion and requested an
address change to 909 Walnut. They renovated the former Title Building, a seven-story
building at 929 Walnut Street.14
Renovators acquired old Columbia National Bank Building at 915 Walnut Street
from United Missouri Bank and demolished it in 2002 to replace with a parking garage.
The Taxincrement Financing Commission approved the issuance of up to $8 million in
12
Mark P. Couch, "Old Office Tower Will Get Makeover," D4.
13
Kevin Collison, "Planners Endorse Fidelity Project but Officials Balk at Tax Abatement." The
Kansas City Star, 22 January 2003, C l , C8 and Kevin Collison, "Council Backs Large Tax Break." The
Kansas City Star, 28 March 2003, C3
Kevin Collison, "Old Bank Building Redeveloped into Missouri's Tallest Apartment
Complex." The Kansas City Star, 5 October 2005, C l .
434
revenue bonds for the parking garage between 909 and 929 Walnut Street. The sevenstory, 323-space parking garage will serve the 35-story building. The bonds will pay for
acquiring, building and equippingthe garage, interest and an estimated $240,000 in bond
issuancecosts.15
To meet historie preservation guidelines that trigger taxcredits, Solomon only
needed to preserve two areas, but market realities persuaded him to take extra pains to
restore the marble fluting along the soaringwalls of the second floor and especially the
bank lobby.16 Upper level exterior lights had to be restored, but the tuck-pointing and
other materials on the building's exterior aged well and only needed minor repairs.17 The
success of this reclamation project was attributed to the mix of uses—as of 2007, 90% of
the space was leased compared to about 73% of the downtown commercial real estate
market.18 Art Deco decorated pediments and an original terra cotta frieze frames the 800square-foot terrace between the two turrets. A 6-foot glass windscreen protected this
landscaped roof garden from the frequent gusts of wind on the 34-story height.19
In 2005, the Fidelity Building reopened as the 909 Walnut Apartments, a
combination of commercial and higher rent residential space. The project renovated the
909 and the former Title Building at 929 Walnut Street into 159 upscale apartments,
1S
Dan Margolies, " Bonds Approved fcr Paiking Garage." The Kansas City Star, 15 July 2004, Cl,
C5.
Davis, 16.
17
Davis, 16.
18
Jonna Lorenz, "Commercial, Residential Blend Successiiilly at 909 Walnut." Kansas City
Business Journal 35, no. 27 (2007): 16,
19
Collison, 2007, A7.
435
condos, corporate offices, a restaurant, fitness center, and a 323-space parking garage
topped by a 16,000-square-foot garden. Commercial space occupied the first four floors
and apartments with fourteen floor plans filled the remaining floors.20 The developers
expected the high-quality buildingto rent in the $1.25 per square-foot range instead of the
area's average of $1.00 per square-foot.21
At 360-feet above street level, the penthouse was highest residence in a five-state
region (Missouri, Kansas, Iowa, Nebraska, and Oklahoma). In 2007, Alan Antin and
Terry Cracraft-Antin from Leawood, Kansas, purchased the unfinished 6,100-squarefoot, four-level penthouse, which includes the top two floors in the north tower. The
Antins planned to spend $3.5 million to finish the interior and hired Joann Romano of
Architectural Elements to design the interior with three bedrooms, 4-/4 bathrooms,
kitchen, living room with a stone fireplace, rooftop terrace, and home theater linked by
staircases and a private elevator. The turrets were divided into two levels: a pair of guest
bedrooms on the lower level and a recreation room on the upper level. The 800-squarefoot recreation room on the 35th floor will include a pool table, bar, fireplace, plasma
television and exercise area. John Anderson of Prudential Realty speculated that it was
most expensive unit purchased downtown. The only original Art Deco interior left intact
is the terrazzo floor in the main elevator entrance.22
20
Lorenz, 16-17 and "Art Deco Building Revived." The Kansas City Star, 4 August 2005, 5.
21
Kevin Collison, "Council Backs Large Tax Break." The Kansas City Star, 28 March 2003, C3.
22
Kevin Collison, "Prime Penthouse Takes the Long View of KC." The Kansas City Star, 14
April 2007, A l : l , A7.
436
EDUCATIONAL BUILDINGS
Emporia Librarv
DEMOLISHED in 1974—118-120 East Sixth Avenue Emporia,
Kansas
Date: 1904-1908
Cost: $20,000
Notes: "The library was growing and needed room for expansion.
Mrs. Amanda Wicks, the new librarian in 1893, had both
courage and foresight. While she was on vacation in Detroit in
1901, she learned ofthe Carnegie fonds to establish public
libraries. On her return she immediately submitted papers for a grant. However, because ofthe
Carnegie Library already located on the College of Emporia Campus, the request was denied. A
second application to Mr. Carnegie resulted in a $22,000 donation for abuilding. Mrs. Preston B.
Plumb donated land at 6th and Market for the building site, as well as money for the architectural
services.
"The new fecility was opened to the public February 23, 1906, with a reception for the townspeople.
Unfortunately, Mrs. Amanda Wicks had moved to Montana by this time and never got to see the
library she had tried so hard to bring about. Mrs. Martha Whildin was librarian during that first year
in the Carnegie building. Miss Nora Daniel replaced her in 1920."
(http://skyways.lib.ks.us/library/emporia/Anniversary/libraryhistory.htm)
The Western Contractor—vol. 3, no. 4 (1904): 1.
(Image from the Emporia Library Website, " Anniversary Celebration Photo Gallery,"
http://skyways.lib.ks.us/library/emporia/Anniversary/Photopage.htm, accessed 8 June 2009)
Lawrence Bible School
Lawrence, Kansas
Owner: Christian Woman's Board ofMissions
Date(s): 1906
Architect: Van Brunt & Howe; Howe, Hoit & Cutler
Cost: $25,000
Description: Two stories and a basement ofbrick and stone, 45 x 65 feet, "but eventually will be enlarged
to 45 x 95 feet."
Contractor: Hollinger & Mitchell (general); Geo. W. Savage (Plumbing and Heating); E. T. Burrowes
Co. (sewers); Bunting Stone Hardware Co., W. T. Osbom & Co. (wiring); Bailey-Reynolds Gas
Fixtures Co.
The Western Contractor—vol. 3, no. 41 (1904): 1.
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log (Box 9, foldere. 1905-c. 1910)
Missouri State School of Mines and Metallurgv. ore-dressing building
Rolla, Missouri
(Currently the Missouri University of Science and Technology in Rolla, Missouri)
Owner: Board ofCurators, University ofMissouri
Date(s): 1906-1909
Contractors): Lonsdale Bros (general); Bunting-Stone Hardware Co.; Eph Doherty (heating); WrightGallagher Construction Co. (general); Work reported by Prof L. E. Young; Livesay & Wallace
(plumbing)
1909 East Wing Contractors: Robert McCain (general)
1911 Additional Story to Ore Dressing Building contractors: Robert McCaw (general); J. A. Spilman
(plumbing)
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log (Box 9, folder c. 1905-c. 1910 and Box 9, folder c. 1909-c. 1917)
WHMC-KC Drawings: 007.010 1906, 1907, 1909 HHC; Howe & Hoit; Henry F. Hoit
437
Public Librarv
Anthony, Kansas
Patron: Possibly a Carnegie Library. If so, 104 N. Springfield
Date(s): c. 1909
Notes: according to the history of the library (www.skvwavs.org/carnegie/page 27.html1. since the original
architect, " had little experience in the highly specialized work of library construction," they hired
another architect John Laurence Mauran ofMauran & Russell of St. Louis. I believe that the first
architect was Hoit. Check to see how 6r the WHMC-KC Drawings progressed and to see if and how
much he was paid.
WHMC-KC Drawings: 009.016 n. d. Henry F. Hoit
Young Men's Christian Association (YMCA) Building
810 Wyandotte
Owner: New England Mutual Life Insurance Co.
Date 1910
Contractors: Housewrecking Salvage & Lumber Co (wrecking old YMCA Building)
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log (Box 9, foldere. 1909-c. 1917)
Pembroke Country Dav School
DEMOLISHED - 51 sl and State Line Road Kansas City, Missouri
Owner: Pembroke Country Day School (Thorton Cooke Treasurer)
Date(s): 1913-14
Architect: Henry F. Hoit
Contractors: Jones and Deval (general); J. D. Moser (excavations); Western Sash & Door co. (mill work);
Fulener-Bankzhof P & H (plumbing); Kombrodl Komice Kompany (sheet metal); Interstate Htg Co.
(heating); L. R. Gaiennie (wiring); Seufect Bros Hardware Co. (hardware); Kansas City Structural
Steel Co.; J. E. Loewer Wire & Iron works (ornamental stair & pipe railing); Dierks Lumber Co.
(lumber); Waggener Paint & Glass Co.; Winslow Bros. (1917 bronze tablets for the honor roll)
Notes: "The board had already approached Henry F. Hoit, a well-known architect, to discuss the plans for
the new building. Once the contract for the purchase of the line had been signed. Thorton Cooke of
the Fidelity Trust Co. was appointed treasurer of the building fiind, and Mr. Hoit's services were
obtained for the purpose of drawing up the actual plans and specifications for the building. The R. V.
Jones Co. was awarded a contract to erect the building at a cost of $1,500. With the construction
process set in motion, the temporary board dissolved itself and a permanent organization, the Country
Day School Association ofKansas City, was established on June 30, 1914." (See Schulkin)
Notes: a new auditorium is currently under construction on its si te (2009)
Schulkin, Carl. In Pursuit of Greatness: A History of the Pembroke-Country Day School, 1910-1984.
Kansas City: Pembroke Hill School, 1985.
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log (Box 9, folder c. 1909-c. 1917), July 1914 (Thorton Cooke, Treasurer)
WHMC-KC Drawing 009.016 1913; 1914 Henry F. Hoit
Estes Park Librarv Addition
Estes Park, Colorado
Date: 1922 or 1935
Cost: $5,000
Notes: " 1922 - 1963: The Woman's Club raised $5,000 to build and fiirnish a small stone and stucco
building in Bond Park, which opened in September, 1922. The nåme was officially changed to Estes
Park Public Library and it was open five days a week. Through the generosity of Mrs. Eleanor E.
Hondius and her son Pieter Hondius, Jr., an addition was added in 1935. It more than doubled the
size ofthe library. Miss Bond retired in 1941. Ora Carr, who had been the assistant since 1938, took
over and stayed for a total of 24 years." (http://www.esteslibrary.org/about.asp?loc=36, accessed 8
June 2009)
WHMC-KC Drawings: 083.030 n. d. HPB
438
Longview Public Librarv and other public buildings
Longview, Washington
Owner: City of Longview
Date(s): 1926
Cost: Mr. & Mrs. Long donated $150,000 to build the library
WHMC-KC Drawings: 022.020 n. d. HPB; Torbill, Norman; Hare
& Hare (landscape architects)
Saint Marv's College - proposed
Leavenworth, Kansas
Owner: Saint Mary's College
WHMC-KC Drawings: 009.016 n. d. HPB
HEALTH INSTITUTIONS
Saint Marv's Hospital
101 Memorial Drive (28* and Main Streets)
Owner: Sisters of Saint Mary
Date(s): 1907-1909 (additions 1916, 1950, 1955, 1966, 1974)
Architect: Howe & Hoit
Contractors): S. J. Hayde Cont. Co. (fcundations for hospital); Flanagan Brothers (excavation); Daniel
0'Flaherty (survey); John Norom (covering fcundations); Eno B. Låne (boiler house fcundations);
Martin Carroll (reinforced concrete); Flanagan Bros Mig. Co. (brick work); A. Sutermeister Stone Co.
(cut stone); Jahner M%. Co. (light metal work); Kansas City Wire & I Works (structural steel &
iron); Borleene & Nelson (hospital concrete flooring); Flanagan Brtos Mig. Co. (hollow tile); Wm R.
Berryhill & Son; Sellers & Marguis Roofing Co. (roofing); Matt Madden (painting); M. J. Casey
(mill work, carpentry, etc); Frank Tilk Ornamental Iron Works Co. (iron stains & El. Closures);
Calhoun Mantel & Tile Co. (mantel & tile); W. T. Osborn & Co. (wiring); Mr. Morrison (filling in
rinders); Richards-Conovert Hardware; Cotter-McDonnell (heating & plumbing); E. H. Broadbury
(grading); James P. Graham Co. (plumbing)
"Construction News: St. Mary Hospital." The Western Contractor 5, no. 23 (1906): 5.
St. Mary's Hospital Highlights, q362.1 S146, v. 23, 6 May, p. 10-11.
Jackson County Medical Society Weekly Bulletin, 610.05 J14, 30 June 1956, V. 50, n. 52, p. 1510-1584.
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log (Box 9, folder c. 1905-c. 1910)
Saint Francis Hospital
Topeka, Kansas
Owner: Sisters ofCharity of Leavenworth / St. Mary's
Academy of Leavenworth
Date(s): 1908, 1913 (alterations and additions)
Architect: Howe & Hoit
1908 Contractors: Job Hollinger Construction Co. (general);
Wm. F. Sheahan (plumbing & heating); Squire Electric
Co. (wiring); Otis Elevator Co. (elevator); BuntingStone Hardware Co. (electric fixtures); Curtin & Clark
Hardware Co. (hardware)
1913 Contractors: F. M. Spencer & Son (general); Otis Elevator Co.; Jordan (wiring); Thompson
(hardware); W. F. sheaham (plumbing); Salina Plumbing Co.; M. F. Boetcher (heating);
Notes: "In 1908, the Topeka Commercial Club donated land to the Sisters ofCharity to build a hospital.
Sister Mary Germaine Kramer and Mother Mary Peter Dwyer raised $40,000 in donations so
construction could begin." (http://www.stfrancistopeka.org/body.cfm?id=36)
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log (Box 9, folder c. 1905-c. 1910 and Box 9, folder c. 1905-c. 1910)
WHMC-KC Drawings: 009.012 1908 Howe & Hoit; Henry F. Hoit
439
Saint John's Hospital - remodeling
Leavenworth, Kansas
Owner: Saint Maiy's Academy
Date(s): 1910-11
Architect: Henry F. Hoit
Contractors: R. B. Yoakum (general); Tholen Bros (plumbing, heating, wiring); McCray Refrigerator Co.
(refrigerator); Keane & Jenkins (painting); Fisher Machine Works Co. (reffigeration plant); Otis
Elevator Co. (elevator); Campbell Glass & Paint Co. (remodeling window); Windsor Mantel & Tile
Co. (tile & Marble); Monarch Metal Mig Co. (elevator ene); Bunting-Stone Hardware Co. (hardware);
Chicago Gas & Electric Fixture Mig. Co. (fixtures);
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log (Box 9, foldere. 1909-c. 1917)
WHMC-KC Drawings: 013.002 1910 Henry F. Hoit
Christian Church Hospital / Robinson Hospital
2625 West Paseo Kansas City, Missouri
Owner/Patron: Christian Church (R. A. Long)
Date(s): 1911-15
Architect: Henry F. Hoit
Builder: Job Hollinger Construction Co. (general); Tuttle & Pike
(1911 survey of 17' and Hardesty and later surveys);
Cunningham Plumbing & Heating Co. (heating and
plumbing); Farley Brothers Plumbing & Heating Co. (water
service); Johnson Service Co. (heat regulations); K. C. Electric Const. Co. (wiring); Physicians
Supply Co. (Sterlizers); Chicago Signal Co. (Telephone Jacks); Bunting Stone Hardware (hardware);
Viking Refrigerator Co. (refrigerators & water cooler); K. C. Tuec Co. (Vacuum deaner); Otis
elevator Co. (elevator and dumb waiters); Majestic Mig. Co. (kitchen equipment); American Laundry
Co. (laundry machinery); M. S. Engineering Co. (refrigerating plant); E. H. Bradbury (grading); J. H.
Knapp (drives-walks); H. W. Jonson Mauville Co. (eclectic fixtures); L. R. Gorimiinie (wiring for XRay); L. F. Kleeman Mig. Co. (window guard); D. Sutter (changing 3 doors in surgeons scrub
room); Satterlee Electric Co. (2 portable lamps for operating rooms); Teachenor-Bartberger Eng. Co.
(Cuts); L. R. Garimie (clearing tel. system); Cunningham plumbing and heating Co (additional
radiation in operating rooms); Otis Elevator Co.; Job Hollinger Construction Co. (general for the
power house and laundry); K. C. Electric Construction Co. (wiring for phone for powerhouse and
laundry); Bunting-Stone Hardware Co. (hardware); A. Allison (painting smoke stack); James P.
Cunningham (plumbing and heating changes for the pathological laboratory); Long Construction Co.
(general alterations for the pathological laboratory)
KCLR # 1029; NR Date: 10/21/2004 (Christian Church Hospital)
From 1926 to 1933, the Veteran's Administration leased hospital. In 1934, the Fairmont
Maternity Hospital moved into the former Christian Church hospitaFs nurses' residence. In 1935, the
Neurological Hospital (also known as the Robinson Clinic) purchased the buildings on The Paseo. In
1951, Fairmount Maternity Hospital purchased the property owned by the Brighton Hospital and moved to
4911 E. 27* Street. The Robinson Memorial Hospital (the Neurological Hospital) absorbed vacant
building at 1414 27* Street and was known as the Neurological Annex. A plaque near the door ofthe
nurse's house informs, "Former site of St. Anthony' s Home / Stafled by the Sisters ofCharity and the
Catholic Family and Community Services 1953-1964." In 1955 the Neurological Annex became known as
the Neurological Hospital Annex, Sister ofCharity of St. Vincent, St. Anthony's Inént Center. In 1964 it
was known as the St. Anthony's Maternity Home, Sister ofCharity of St. Vincent de Paul in Charge. The
last appearance ofthe Robinson Memorial Hospital listed at 2625 Paseo Boulevard was in 1974.
After 30 years ofabandonment, neglect, and vandalism, its $11,500,000 renovation by Cohen-Esry
Development with Gastinger Walker Hardin Architects, Inc. won a Historie Kansas City Preservation
award in 2007. The project included the complete restoration of all exterior masonry and terra cotta
features; replacement ofthe 1930s mental hospital casement security windows with exact
reproductions ofthe original windows; and restoration ofthe interior terrazzo floors and ornamental
plaster and the sixth floor roofgardens with their east metal awning supports. Today the building
serves as affordable housing for seniors. In 2005, the Administration Building became the
440
"Residences at West Paseo" with 46 units of" aflbrdable housing for senior Citizens." (Soward, 46,
60, 62-64, and 77.)
"Celebrating Preservation 2007 HKCF Preservation Awards." Historie Kansas City Foundation Gazette,
Spring-Summer 2007, 6-8.
Kansas City Star, March 26, 1916, p.9C
Smith, Sherrie Kline. "Christian Church Hospital Buildings." Kansas City, Missouri: Missouri Valley
Special Collections, 2005.
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log (Box 9, foldere. 1909-c. 1917)
WHMC-KC Drawings:
•
013.003 1911 Henry F. Hoit
•
013.004 1914 administration building Henry F. Hoit
•
013.005 1914 structural: heating, plumbing, electrical Henry F. Hoit
•
061.008 1914 administration building Henry F. Hoit
•
083.050 n. d. Henry F. Hoit
Christian Church Hospital Nurse' s Home
1414 E. 27* Street Kansas City, Missouri
Date(s): construction for nurse's home 1917-18
Architect: Henry F. Hoit
Builder: Swenson Construction Co. (general); Bailey-Reynolds
Chandelier Co. (lighting fixtures); American Screen Mig. Co
(screens); Kansas City KCLR # 9755
By 1995, nurse's house served as a Welcome House for
recovering alcoholics. In 2002 it was dedicated to the memory of
Michael D. Leahy (1947-2002), "whose years as the 6cility's
executive director was focused on making life better for all of us. He
will long be remembered for successfully fiilfilling the mission of
welcome house in helping recovering alcoholics. A humble man
who always helped others, Mr. Leahy's achievements will only be
entirely known by God and those he helped." Another plaque
indicates that the house was dedicated to the memory of Randal
Kelly (1905-1980) and reads: "This building is dedicated to the memory ofRandal Kelly (1905-1988), a
native of County Clare, Ireland whose wisdom, humor & kindness helped to brighten many lives. May
his generous heart & contagious spirit be a source of strength & inspiration to all who walk through these
doors." See plaques by the door.
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log (Box 9, foldere. 1909-c. 1917)
WHMC-KC Drawings
•
013.006 1916, 1921 plot plans and survey Henry F. Hoit
•
013.007 1915, 1919, 1920 additions Henry F. Hoit; HPB
•
013.008 1914, 1917 nurses' home Henry F. Hoit; HPB
Saint Luke's Hospital addition
111 and Euclid Avenue Kansas City, Missouri
Owner: Saint Luke's Hospital/ Church Charity Association ofKCMO
Date(s): 1913
Contractors: Tuttle & Pike (survey); Louis Greib (basement work of additions); J. Goldberg & Son (Steel
& Iron Work); Koch Butcher Supply Co. (refrigerator); Sellers & Marquis Rig Co. (roof and Light
metal -add.); American Sash and Door Co. (mill work, tile work for 3 fireplaces); Carlson & Draper
(plumbing); E. K. Campbell Heating Co. (heating); Petro-Pulp Floor Co. (floor); J. W. Hutchinson
(wiring); American & Venetian Marble Co. (terrazzo floor); A. Sutermiester Stone Co. (NE add.);
Standard Plunger Elevator Co. (elevator); Pehl Metal Products Co. (elevator doors);
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log (Box 9, foldere. 1909-c. 1917)
WHMC-KC Drawings: 012.001 1913 Henry F. Hoit
House ofGood Shepherd
68 and Troost Avenue Kansas City, Missouri
441
Date(s): 1919, 1923, 1934
Notes: "House of the Good Shepherd, Kansas City... The total number ofchildren received form the
opening of the house to 1908 was 1452, ofwhom 182 were baptized, 175 received their first
Communion and 96 were confirmed." (The Catholic Church in the United States of America, 227.)
WHMC-KC Drawings:
•
009.0015 n. d. Henry F. Hoit (no location given, might be 67' and Troost)
•
013.009 1919, 1934 convent HPB
•
084.019 1923 HPB
130.002 1919 electric iron outlet and structural details HPB
Home for Aged for The Little Sisters of the Poor / Little Sisters of the Poor Home for the Aged / Little
Sisters of the Poor Old Age Home
DEMOLISHED—5331 Highland Avenue Kansas City, Missouri (S.E. Corner ofSS"1 and Highland)
Owner: The Little Sisters of the Poor
Date(s): 1922-23
Architects: Hoit, Price & Barnes
Builders: Swenson Construction Co.
WHMC-KC Drawings: 070.027 1922 HPB; 084.016 1922; 1923 HPB; 130.011 1912 HPB; 130.010
1923 HPB; 166.042 1922 HPB
Children's State Home, receiving home
Carrollton, Missouri
Date(s): 1923-24
WHMC-KC Drawings: 014.001 1923, 1924 HPB
Carthage Hospital (Currentlv the McCune Brooks Regional HospitaD
3125 Dr. Russell Smith Way_Carthage, Missouri
Major Donors: John C. Guin, Carthage community, and the City council of Carthage
Date(s): 1924
Cost: $150,000
Notes: "By the early 1920's, the Carthage community's need exceeded the Carthage Hospital's 14-bed
capacity and a campaign was launched to finance a larger, more modern structure. In 1924, John C.
Guinn made a $75,000 contribution for the purpose of erecting a new fireproof hospital at a cost of no
less than $150,000 on the present hospital grounds in the City ofCarthage. An additional $75,000
was matched by the Carthage community following a bond election, and the City Council of
Carthage, by ordinance, named the fiiture hospital the McCune-Brooks Hospital af er Dr. Brooks and
Dr. McCune. The first patient was admitted to the new McCune-Brooks Hospital on November 4,
1929." (http://www.mccune-brooks.org/getpage.php?name=history&sub=About%20Us, accessed 8
June 2009)
Notes: in the 1920s, U. S. Highways 66 and 71 came through and for a time, the town saw a stream of
cross-country trafiic.
WHMC-KC Drawings: 083.005 1924 Hoit, Price & Barnes
Wheatlev Provident Hospital - clinic. children' s
hospital addition
1826 Forest Kansas City, Missouri
Owner: Wheatley Provident Hospital
Date(s): original 1902; addition 1925
Architects: Hoit, Price & Barnes (1925)
KCLR # 316; KCR Date: 1/3/2008
Wheatley began as an outgrowth of the Perry Sanitarium dedicated to "Negro Citizens of Kansas
City" and first operated out of the Kansas City house ofDr. John Edward Perry. In 1916, Perry enlarged
the Sanitarium with assistance from the Provident Association, the city's clearinghouse for its charity fonds
and the hospital was renamed The Provident Hospital and Nurses' Training Association. In March 1916,
charitable contributions of two groups renamed the hospital again—the New Movement Association and
442
the Phyllis Wheatley Association, named for the femous Boston slave who became America's first
important black poet. ln 1918, the Wheatley-Provident Hospital and Nurses' Training Association moved
into a building formerly occupied by the St. Joseph Parochial School at 1826 Forest (1902), now the
hospital's south wing.Because hospital administrators feared losing contributions fom their racist white
constituency, Children's Mercy oflered only one bed with "no color line." The city needed a ward where
black doctors could train and where black children could receive appropriate care, so in 1922, Dr. Katharine
Berry Richardson, co-founder of Children's Mercy Hospital, began plans for an expansion ofapediatric
clinic. She appealed to William Volker and Frank Niles who contributed $74,000 for a two-story pediatric
ward annex. Volker bought vacant land just north of Wheatley-Provident for $9,000, and he and Niles
contributed an additional $65,000. The following year, Hoit, Price & Barnes added a $65,000 a 25-bed
pediatric ward addition, to the Wheatley Provident Hospital (1925). Evident in drawings of the proposed
additions, Hoit, Price & Barnes intended another symmetrical design with a nurses' residence as the north
wing, but was never completed. Today the derelict building serves as a makeshii shelter for transients. A
very scary place during daytime, it is used as a haunted house at Halloween.
WHMC-KC Drawings: 014.003 1925, 1926 Hoit, Price & Barnes
(Photograph by author, 2009; drawing reprinted: "Wheatley-Provident Hospital."SocialPlanning:
bulletin of the Council of Social Agendes 1, no. 8 (1926): 1.)
Children' s Mercy Hospital Nurses Residence
(Independence Ave. and Highland) 1710 Independence Avenue, Kansas City, Missouri
Owner: Children' s Mercy Hospital
Date(s): construction 1927
Architects: Hoit, Price & Barnes
KCLR # 9759
Kansas City Star, 25 Dec. 1927; plD
Notes: Mercy Hospital held fimdraising drives in 1915 and 1916 for the hospital and R. A. Long was a
large contributor. The land on Independence Boulevard was donated by R. R. Brewster
Mercy Hospital, the city's "Hospital for the Little People," held fimdraising drives in 1915 and 1916 to
build a new hospital on two acres of land on Independence Boulevard donated by lawyer and trustee
of Mercy, R. R. Brewster and Mr. Long contributed along with William Volker, Charles W.
Armour, H. D. Lee and Cliff C. Jones. Mrs. Annie Bird, wife of Joseph T. Bird ofEmery, Bird,
Thayer Dry Goods Co., and their daughter Josephine, wife of Porter T. Hall, contributed property at
151 and McGee Streets to help build Nurse Hall next to Children's' Mercy Hospital.
WHMC-KC Drawings (nurses' home): 014.007 1926, 1935 and powerhouse HPB; 084.011 1926 HPB;
094.026 1926 HPB
Wade Clinic. proposed alterations to first Hoor
Hot Springs, Arkansas
Owner: Dr. H. King Wade
Date(s): 1927, 1929
WHMC-KC Drawings: 014.015 1929 HPB; 083.035 1937 HPB
Mount Vernon State Sanatorium
Mount Vernon, Missouri
Date(s): 1936
Notes: "The "Missouri State Tuberculosis Sanatorium" hospital was begun in 1906, and the ensuing
years have been replete with new names and new buildings. It is now the "Missouri State
Rehabilitation Hospital." It is associated with the University ofMissouri School ofMedicine, and
houses a veterans' home and clinic as well." (http://www.mtvernoncityhall.org/index.cfin?content=44, accessed 2009 May 17)
WHMC-KC Drawings: 014.008 1936 HPB
Hospital Cabinets by Art Metal Construction Co.
Jamestown, New York
Owner: Art Metal Construction Co.
443
Date(s): Unknown
WHMC-KC Drawings: 083.001 n. d. HPB
hospital
No city
Date(s): Unknown
WHMC-KC Drawing: 083.019 n. d. HPB
OTHER PROJECTS
Armory for the Third regiment (proposed?-)
Owner: Commercial Club
Dates: 1904
Architects: Howe, Hoit & Cutler
Cost: first contribution of $40,000 by the Union Depot Co.
Purpose: special-ized structure built to serve as training and marshaling center for the National Guard
Notes: " style is similar to the style of architecture of the English military school of an earlier date. From
the ground to the level of the second story the material will be native limestone. Above this the main
walls will be of dark hard-burned, vitrified brick, ornamented somewhat with stone trimmings. The
armory will have three distinct buildings, but which nevertheless, will be incorporated into one body.
The center building will be the drill shed: It will be approached on the center through the great arched
doorway, closed by wrought iron gates the approach giving access on the first floor to the officer's
room and general administration rooms and by double staircases to the stories above." (WC 1904)
Notes: picturesque. "The design will convey a striking suggestion of the ancient feudal castle and while it
will appear sufficiently formidable to be in keeping with its purpose the aim is that it shall be also
dignified and refined, a credit to the militia and an enduring monument of the progressive spirit of
Kansas City." (WC 1905)
The Western Contractor—vol 3, no. 29 (1904): 1 and vol. 4, no. 28 (1905).
Kansas City Casino
World's Fair, St. Louis
Date: 1904
Architect: Howe, Hoit & Cutler
Cost: $17,000
The Western Contractor—vol. 3, no. 4 (1904): 1.
Manufecturers' Association Club House
10* and Wyandotte Streets
Owner: Manu&cturers' Association
Architect: Van Brunt & Howe
Date: 1904
Cost $125,000
Notes: ample arrangements will be provided for the work of the association and particular attention paid to
the accommodation of the woman' s auxiliary. Mr. Howe, under whose personal supervision the plans
are being prepared, has submitted the rough drafts to President Swoflbrd, who has approved them.
The Western Contractor—vol. 3, no. 5 (1904): 1.
Masonic Temple building
Rolla, Missouri
Date(s): 1904
Description: "brick and stone, 90 x 55 feet, three stories, flat roof, brick cornices, basement, plate glass,
444
hardwood interior finish, floor of wood and electric light. The upper portion of the building will be
devoted to lodge rooms and the under floor to stores. The contract will be let by the architects. A
number of details concerning this new temple could not be learned as the plans have not sufficiently
developed for such a purpose. Even the cost has not yet been determined."
Western Contractor—vol. 3, no. 46 (1904) and vol. 4, no. 25 (1905).
Masonic Temple building
Milan, Missouri
Owner: Robert B. Ash, trustee
Date(s): 1906
"Construction News: Masonic Temple in Rolla." The Western
Contractor A, no. 25 (1905): 1.
WHMC-KC Drawings: 007.009 1906 HHC
>Stifeg..-.Tfi5fe^gBBS=a5aaeap«iSia55|
North Terrace Park, shelter house and bandstand
Date: 1906
Architect: Frank M. Howe
Cost: $2000
"Construction News: North Park Terrace." The Western Contractor 5, no. 19 (1906): 5.
Convention Hall
131" & Central
Owner: Convention Hall Building Co.
Date(s): 1907, alterations 1910
1907 Contractors): Lindworth, Axtett & Co (concrete steps); 1910 Contractor: Jack W. Anderson
(plastering); Pehe Mig. Co. (alteration canopies); W. H Jennens Mig. Co. (brackets)
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log (Box 9, folder c. 1905-c. 1910 and Box 9, folder c. 1909-c. 1917)
Masonic Temple (alterations')
15* and Troost
Owner: Western Consistor A. A. Scottish Rite F. M.
Date: 1907
Contractors: Wm. A. Wilson (general); Shackford Nall Paper & P Co. (decorations)
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log (Box 9, folder c. 1905-c. 1910)
Swope Social Settlement Building
Campbell Street, between 16th and 17* Streets
Owner: Thomas H. Swope
Date: 1910
Architect: Henry F. Hoit
Contractors: Lonsdale Bros. (general); Cunningham Plumbing and Heating Co. (plumbing and heating);
Randall Bros. Electric co. (wiring); Richards and Conover Hardware Co. (hardware); American Sash
and Door Co. (tile and marble); Bunting-Stone Hardware Co. (lighting fixtures); Zahner Mfg. Co.
(dryers); Wakefield Mantel & Tile Co. (tile for fireplace); Lee Payne (painting);
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log (Box 9, folder c. 1909-c. 1917)
WHMC-KC Drawings: 023.012 n. d. Henry F. Hoit
445
Mulkev Square Memorial (Proposall
NEVER BUILT—Summit between ll l h and 13* Street
Date: 1912
Architect: Henry F. Hoit
Notes: Mulkey Square is located in the northwest corner ofThirteenth and
Summit Streets. The planned pavilion, pergola, and wading pool were
not constructed. In 1913, a memorial honoring James Pendergast was
dedicated at Thirteenth Street and Madison Avenue. (See Legacy, 150.)
Lee, Janice. A Legacy of Design: An Historical Survey of the Kansas City,
Missouri, Parks and Boulevards System, 1893-1940. Kansas City:
Kansas City Center for Design Education and Research in cooperation
with the Western Historical Manuscript Collection-Kansas City, 1995.
WHMC-KC Drawings: 012.016 1912 Henry F. Hoit
Blue Hills Golf Club with alterations and additions
61 st and Lydia (Blue Hill Road and 61 sl street) Kansas City, Missouri
Owner: Blue Hills Golf Club
Date(s): 1914 (locker house and garage), 1916, 1919
Contractors: Tuttle & Pike (1912 altering club house); K. C. Structural Steel Co. (1914 locker house and
garage steel); John T. Neil (1914 lockerhouse and garage general); Carlson & Draper (plumbing); G.
G. Manning (heating); L. R. Gaiewire (wiring);
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log (Box 9, foldere. 1909-c. 1917)
WHMC-KC Drawings: 012.007 1916, 1919 Henry F. Hoit; HPB
Blue Hills Bridge
Owner: Dr. W. E. Minor
Date: 1916
Contractors: Daniel Sutter
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log (Box 9, folder c. 1909-c. 1917)
Siloam Springs garden pavilion
Excelsior Springs, Missouri
Date(s): 1917
Architect: Henry F. Hoit
Contractors: Bradley construction Co. (general)
WHMC-KC Job Cost Log (Box 9, folder c. 1909-c. 1917)
WHMC-KC Drawings: 012.008 1917 Henry F. Hoit
Mount Moriah Cemeterv
105 and Holmes Street, Kansas City, Missouri
Date(s): 1924
Architect: Hoit, Price & Barnes
WHMC-KC Drawings: 014.009 1923, 1924 HPB
Cosden private railroad car
Owner: J. S. Cosden
Date(s): c. 1924
Architect: Hoit, Price & Barnes
WHMC-KC Drawings: 012.017 n. d. Henry F. Hoit / W. Baumgarten and Co.; American Car& Foundry
446
Swope Park, suggestion for development
Swope Park Blvd, and Blue Valley Pkwy Kansas City, Missouri
Owner: Unknown
Date(s): 1927
WHMC-KC Drawings: 022.017 1927 HPB
Kansas City Municipal Auditorium
211 West 13,h Street Kansas City, Missouri (13* and 14*" between
Wyandotte and Central)
Owner: Kansas City Government? Or Body of Citizens?
Date(s): 1933-1934
Architects: Gentry, Voscamp & Neville and Hoit, Price & Barnes
CONTRACTORS: For the main portion of the building, PattiFleisher-Ring Engineering and Construction Co.; for finish of
Music Hall and Little Theater the Swenson Construction Co..
STRUCTURE: Steel—fåbricated by Kansas City Structural Steel
Co.; Granite—Cold Springs Granite Co.; Cut Stone—Indiana Limestone Corporation; Waterproofing—
membrane and ironite?? By Western Waterproofing Co. forbasement walls. ROOF: Roofing
materials—Old American Asphalt Roofing Co.; Deck—steel, Truscon Steel Co.; insulation—Armstrong
Cork Products Co.. SHEET MET AL WORK: Ornamental aluminum, bronze and iron—Southwest
Ornamental Iron Co.. HARDWARE: Interior and exterior—Russell & Erwin Manufecturing Co.,
Vonnegut Hardware Co., Oscar C. Rixson & Co., Richards Wilcox Manufåcturing Co., Chicago Spring
Hinge Co.. WINDOWS: Metal—Hope-International Casement Co.; Glass and glazing—Pittsburgh
Plate Glass Co.. WOODWORK: Hallow metal doors and trim—Niedringhaus Incorporated. FLOORS:
Wood flooring—Carter Bioxonend Co.; FLOOR COVERINGS: Carpets—Bigelow-Sanford Carpet Co.,
Incorporated. INTERIOR FINISHES: Glazed terra cotta tile—Northwestern Terra Cotta Co.; Marble—
Carthage Marble Corporation; Flexwood—U.S. Plywood Co.; Furring, lathing, and suspended
ceilings—U. S. Gypsum Co.'s materials including Sabinite acoustical plaster. ELEVATORS: by
Shepard Elevator Co.; Cabs—The Tyler Co.; Passenger Elevator enclosures—Flour City Ornamental
Iron Co.; Freight—Richmond FireproofDoor Co.. ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION: Transformers—
Westinghouse Electric Co.; Switches and Breakers—General Electric Co.; Bussway system and power
panels—Trumball Electric Co.; Lighting panels—William Wardack Co.; Electrical conduit—Buckeye,
Youngstown Sheet & Tube Co.; Light Control boards—W ard Leonard Electric Co. and Trumbull
Electric Co.; Cove and stage lighting for theater—Major Electric Co.; Cove and stage lighting for
auditorium—Curtis X-ray; floor lighting over main Arena—General Electric Co.; light fixtures—Livers
Lighting & Bronze Co.; motion picture equipment—Simples projection machines; Hall & Connelly
spotlights; Hertzner motor generator sets; Public address system—Graybar Electric Co.; Electric truck
and tractors—Automatic Transportation Co.; Electric Storage Batteries—Exide Battery Co.. GENERAL
EQUIPMENT: Stage equipment—Peter Clark Incorporated; Steel furniture—Metal Office Furniture Co.;
Seating American Seating Co.; Upholstering materials—L.C. Chase & Co., Incorporated; Check room
equipment—Vogel-Peterson Co..
PLUMBING: All plumbing fixtures—Standard Sanitation Manufecturing Co.; Pipes: Wrought iron—
Byers Pipes Co.; Steel—Spang-Chaliant Co.; Copper—Chase Brass & Copper Co.; Vacuum pumps—
Durham Co.; Gate and globe valves—Pratt??? & Cady Co.; Fittings—The Walworth Co.; Sprinkler
system—Walton Biking Co.; Water circulation pumps to air washers—Gould Pump Co.. HEATING
AND AIR CONDITIONING: Air filters and fiber glass pipe insulation—Owens-Illinois Glass Co.; Duct
insulation—Johns-Manville Incorporated; Air conditioning compressors—York lee Machine Co.; Fans
and air washers—American Blower Co.; radiation—American Radiator Co.; Temperature regulation
system—Johnson Service Co.; Remote temperature control board—The Brown Instrument Co.; Fan
motors—W agner Electric Co. and General Electric; Terope fån motor drives—Allis Chambers Co.
This list does not represent all of the contractors. A letter to Mr. Barnes soliciting services fom the
president of Seidlitz Paint & Varnish Co. dated 12 January 1932 congratulates "you and your firm on
getting the contract for drawing ofplans and specifications on the new auditorium being erected by
Kansas City under the Ten Year Plan." See WHMC KC004, Box 25, file "Municipal Auditorium Painting & Decorating / Lath & Plastering"
Description: Built during the depression of the 1930s to provide jobs for the unemployed. A special
447
election approved capital improvements bond issues by a margin of four to one. Land purchased in
December 1931 and workers began to clear the ground by hand. Jobs were provided for about 2,000 men.
Built in limestone, concrete and steel. The final cost was $6.5 mission. Included was a grant from the
federal Public Works Administration for $1,135,000. (Mildred Ray)
Ray, Mrs. Sam (Mildred), Kansas City Times, November 4, 1983 (Reprinted on the MVSC, Kansas City
Public Library website
http://www.kchistory.org/cdm4/item_viewer.php7CISOROOT =/Mrs&CISOPTR=897&CISOBOX=l&
REC=11, accessed 15 January 2009)
WHMC-KC Drawings (1934 progress Schedules HPB: Patti, Fleischer-Ring Construction Co.): 033.014;
033.014; 033.014; 033.014
Fire Station No. 4
3906 Indiana Avenue Kansas City
Owner: Unknown
Date(s): 1939-40
Architeets: Hoit, Price & Barnes
Builders: Interstate Construction Co.
Construction Dates: 1939-40
Kansas City Police Department, information station
Hwy 50 and Kensington Kansas City, Missouri
Owner: Kansas City Police Department
Date(s): 1941
WHMC-KC Drawings: 083.009 1940; 1941 HPB
Long - Forest Hill mausoleum, ervpt room for
Forest Hill Cemetery
Owner: R. A. Long
Date(s): Unknown
Nichols design panel
Sunset Hill
Owner: J. C. Nichols
Date: Unknown
Architect: Henry F. Hoit
WHMC-KC Drawings: 012.015 n. d. Henry F. Hoit
448
BIBLIOGRAPHY
ARCHIVAL SOURCES
Alfred Edward Barnes, Jr., Architectural Collection (KC0004), Western Historie
Manuscript Collection, University of Missouri, Kansas City, Missouri.
The Beryl Ford Collection/Rotary Club of Tulsa, Tulsa Historical Society, Tulsa CityCounty Library, Tulsa, Oklahoma.
Centenary History of the Churches (SC29), Missouri Valley Special Collection, Kansas
City Public Library, Kansas City, Missouri.
Collection of Magazine Article Photocopies (SC73), Missouri Valley Special Collection,
Kansas City Public Library, Kansas City, Missouri.
Glass Slide Collection, Kansas City Public Schools, Department of Visual Instruction
(P21), Missouri Valley Special Collection, Kansas City Public Library, Kansas
City, Missouri.
Henry Green Scrapbook (P12), Missouri Valley Special Collection, Kansas City Public
Library, Kansas City, Missouri.
Kansas City Philharmonic Orchestra Scrapbooks (SC71), Missouri Valley Special
Collection, Kansas City Public Library, Kansas City, Missouri.
Lenore K. Bradley Research Notes, Union Station Collections, Kansas City Museum,
Kansas City, Missouri.
Liberty Memorial Association historical records, The National World War One Museum
Research Center, Kansas City, Missouri.
LongMansion Photograph Collection (PC 12), Union Station Collections, Kansas City
Museum, Kansas City, Missouri.
Longyiew Room Collection, Longview Public Library, Longview, Washington.
Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1901-1905 (02/P0166), Missouri History Museum
Library and Research Center, St. Louis, Missouri
449
Mrs. Sam Ray Postcard Collection (SC58), Missouri Valley Special Collection,
Kansas City Public Library, Kansas City, Missouri.
Robert Askren Photograph Collection (P35) Missouri Valley Special Collection, Kansas
City Public Library, Kansas City, Missouri.
University of Oregon Special Collections, Eugene, Oregon..
Visual Resource Center Slide Collection, University of Oregon Libraries, Eugene, Oregon.
Willis Castle Memorial Photograph Collection (P6), Missouri Valley Special Collection,
Kansas City Public Library, Kansas City, Missouri.
BOOKS AND ARTICLES
"A Jewish Temp le to Cost $100,000." The Architect & Builder of Kansas City 22, no. 6
(1907): 6.
Aber, Sarajane Sandusky. "An Architectural History of the Liberty Memorial in Kansas
City, Missouri 1918-1935." Thesis, University of Missouri-Kansas City, 1988.
Adams, Charles Francis. '"Kansas City: Its Problems and Their Solution.' Speech of
Charles Francis Adams at the Annual Dinner of the Commercial Club of Kansas
City, Friday Evening, Nov. 18, 1904." Kansas City: Commercial Club of Kansas
City, 1904.
Adler, Frank J. Roots in a Moving Stream: The Centennial History of the Congregation
B'naiJehudah of Kansas City, 1870-1970. Kansas City: Congregation of B 'nai
Jehudah, 1972.
"Alfred Edward Barnes: Architect Worked on Major Buildings Hers."Kansas City Times,
12 May 1960,30.
Allen, Gregory B., Lennie Berkowitz, Ken Coit, Linda G. Cooper, Nancy Nutter, Pat
0'Neill, Jr., Charles J. Schmelzer, III, Becky Cotton Zahner, Robert L. Collins,
and Lisa Lassman Briscoe. Historie Resources Survey Plan of Kansas City.
Kansas City: Landmarks Commission of Kansas City prepared by the City
Planning and Development Department Historie Preservation Management
Division of Kansas City, Missouri in association with Thomason and Associates
Preservation Planners and Three Gables Preservation, 1992.
450
"Almost 2,600 Employees and the Families Attend 'Employees' Opening,'
November 23-25." The Tie (1932): 12.
"Alonzo H. Gentry, Architect, Is Dead." Kansas City Times, 7 February 1967,
Obituaries.
American Institute of Architects Questionnaire for Architecfs Roster and/or Register of
Architects Qualified for Federal Public Works" form, dated 16 May 1946,
available from
http://corrmivmities.aia.org/sites/hdoaa/wikiAViki%20Pages/ahd4000550.aspx.
Anders, Mary Ann. "Public Utility Buildings Constructed in the Zig-Zag Art Deco Style
in Tulsa, Ok 1924-1930," in Inventory Nomination Form, edited by Preservation
Office Oklahoma Historical Society. Tulsa, Oklahoma: National Register of
Historie Places, 1982.
Anderson, Charlie. "909 Walnut." Supplement to the Kansas City Business Journal. (7-13
April 2006): 12.
Anthony, Carl S[ferrazza]. Florence Harding: The First Lady, the Jazz Age, and the
Death of America's Most Scandalous President, New York: Quill and W. Morrow
& Company, 1998.
"The Architecfs Angle on the New Kansas City Power & Light Building: Hoit, Price &
Barnes, the Architects, Give Us the Following Interesting and Enlightening Story."
The Tie (1932): 9.
"Arthur Dunham James: Retired Architects Dies after Suffering a Heart Attack." Kansas
City Times, 28 August 1956, Obituaries.
Baker, Paul R. Richard Morris Hunt. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1980.
Baldwin, Charles C. Stanford White. New York: Dodd, Mead & Co. 1931.
Bayer, Patricia. Art Deco Interiors: Decoration and Design Classics of the 1920s and
1930s. London: Thames and Hudson, 1990.
Becker, Linda and Cydney Millstein. Religious Properties Survey 1992. Kansas City:
Missouri Department of Natural Resources Historie Preservation Program, 1993.
Bedford, Steven. John Russell Pope: Architect of Empire. New York: Rizzoli, 1998.
Bennitt, Mark. History of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition: America in Two Centuries,
An Inventory. New York: Arno Press, A New York Times Company, 1976.
451
Beveridge, Charles E. and Paul Rocheleau. Frederick Law Olmsted: Designing the
American Landscape. New York: Universe Publishing, 1998.
Blake, John Tyler. "Sinclair Lewis's Kansas City Laboratory: The Genesis of Eimer
Gantry." Dissertation, University of Missouri, Kansas City, 1998.
Blocher, Fred. "Taking It from the Top." The Kansas City Star, 3 February 2005, Cl.
Bone, D. M. "Photo of the J. T. Bird Residence Called 'Elmhurst' with Large Wrought
Iron Gates." AnnualReview ofGreater Kansas City Illustrated(1908): 97.
Bradley, Lenore K., Corinthian Hall: An American Palace on Gladstone. Kansas City:
The Kansas City Museum, 1999.
. Robert Alexander Long: A lumberman of the Gilded Age. Durham, North
Carolina: Forest History Society and Duke University Press, 1989.
Bremer, William W. "Alongthe American Way: The New Deal's Work Relief Programs
for the Unemployed." The Journal of American History 62 (1975): 636-652.
Brooks, H. Allen. Prairie School Architecture: Studies from the Western Architect. New
York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, 1975.
Bruce, William C. High SchoolBuildings. Milwaukee: The American School Board
Journal, 1913.
Brunner, Arnold W. "Synagogue Architecture," in The Brickbuilder, XVI, 3 (March
1907): 37.
Bryan, John Albury. Missouri 's Contribution to American Architecture: A History of the
Architectural Achievements in This State from the Time of the Earliest Settlements
Down to the Present Year. [St. Louis: St. Louis Architectural Club], 1928.
"BuildingSafely." The Tie XII, no. 8 (1932): 13.
Burnes, Brian, Robert W. Butler and Dan Viets. Walt Disney 's Missouri: The Roots of a
Creative Genius. Kansas City: Kansas City Star Books, 2002.
Bushnell, Michael. "Long's 'Gifts': Christian Church Hospital" in i?. A. Long Historical
Society [Website]. Lee's Summit, Missouri: R. A. Long Historical Society,
accessed 2 February 2009, available from http://www.ralonghistoricalsociety.org/;
Internet.
"Business: Cosden to Cover" Time Magazine, 15 July 1935;
"Calmly and Gallantly as He Had Lived His 83 Years, R. A. LongDied at 6:28
0'clock Last Night at Menorah Hospital," The Kansas City Times, 16 March
1934.
Cantrell, Scott. "Clarence Kivett Help ed Give Kansas City Its Look," The Kansas City
Star, 12 April 1998, J6.
Carlson, Elwood. The Lucky Few: Between the Greatest Generation and the Baby Boom.
New York: Springer Science and Business Media, 2008.
Cart, Doran L. "The Belman Garage: From Greaseracks to Greasepaint." Historie Kansas
City Foundation Gazette 10, no. 6 (1986): 6-7.
Chewning, J. A. "William Robert Ware at MIT and Columbia." Journal of Architectural
Education 33, no. 2 (1979): 25-29.
"Church History," in St. PauVs Episcopal Church, Kansas City, MO [Website]. Kansas
City: St. Paul's Episcopal Church, 2010, accessed 16 May 2010; available from
http ://stpaulskcmo.org/about/church-history; Internet.
Clark, Edward and Howard Sochurek. "Kansas City and St. Louis: Picture Portfolio
Shows Some Contrasts between Striving City and a Settled One." Life Magazine,
29 March 1954, 106.
"Climbing Upward" promotional material from the Southwestern Bell Telephone
Company, Vertical File on the Southwestern Bell Building of the Missouri Valley
Special Collections. Other articles in this file dated April 1929.
Cochran, Edwin A. The Cathedral of Commerce: The Highest Building in the World.
New York: Broadway Park Place Company, 1916.
Coles, William A. Architecture and Society: Selected Essays of Henry Van Brunt.
Cambridge: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1969.
Collison, Kevin. "Big Company Looks Seriously at 911 Walnut: Kimberly-Clark Unit
Could Play a Role in Tower Renovation." The Kansas City Star, 2 March 2002,
C2.
. "Council Backs Large Tax Break." The Kansas City Star, 28 March 2003, C3.
. "Old Bank BuildingRedeveloped into Missouri's Tallest Apartment Complex."
The Kansas City Star, 5 October 2005.
453
. "One Kansas City Place to Be New KCP&L Digs." The Kansas City Star, 2
October2008, Cl, 5.
. "Planners Endorse Fidelity Project but Officials Balk at Tax Abatement." The
Kansas City Star, 22 January 2003, Cl, C8.
. "Power & Light Update Gets Nod." The Kansas City Star, 15 December 2005,
C3:2-5.
. "Prime Penthouse Takes the Long View of KC." The Kansas City Star, 14 April
2007,A1:1,A7.
"The Competition for the Liberty Memorial." Architecture 44 (August 1921).
"The Competition for a Memorial of Kansas City." Western Architect 30 (July 1921).
"The Corner Stone." The Fidelity Spirit (February 1932): 9.
Cortissoz, Royal. Monograph of the Work of Charles A[dam] Platt, New York:
Architectural Book Pub. Company, 1913.
Coryell, Scott. "Corinthian Hall Being Built," in R. A. Long Historical Society [Website].
Lee's Summit, Missouri: R. A. Long Historical Society, 2006, accessed 17 August
2009; available from http://www.ralonghistoricalsociety.org/; Internet;
. "R. A. Long Building: R. A. Long Office Restored," in R. A. Long Historical
Society [Website]. Lee's Summit, Missouri: R. A. Long Historical Society, 2006,
accessed 2 February 2009; available from http://www.ralonghistoricalsociety.org/;
Internet.
"Cosden's Rise From Clerk to Oil Chief Oklahoma Romance." Daily Oklahoman
(Oklahoma City), 21 April 1918.
Couch, Mark P. "Landmark Being Auctioned Off." Kansas City Star, 20 August 1999,
C1,C6.
. "Old Office Tower Will Get Makeover." The Kansas City Star, 6 February
2001, D4.
. "Power & Light." The Kansas City Star, 26 September 2000, D23: 3.
"Courtland Van Brunt: Retired Architect Dies after Longlllness."Kansas City Star, 1
April 1964, Obituaries.
454
Creel, George. Men Who Are Making Kansas City: A Biographical Dictionary, 1902.
Davis, Jim. "Invested in the Past: Developers Renovate Historie Space to Create Demand
from New Users." Kansas City Business Journal 24, no. 7 (2005): 15-16.
. "P&L Building Owner Returns with More Costly Rehab Plan." The Kansas City
Business Journal 24, no. 4 (2005): 6-8
Davis, M. M. How the Disciples Began and Grew: A Short History of the Christian
Church. Cincinnati: The Standard Publishing Company, 1915.
"A DazzlingBank for Dallas." Life Magazine, 28 February 1955, 61-65.
de Breffny, Brian. The Synagogue. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc, 1978,175.
"The Death of Henry Van Brunt." American Architect and Building News 80 no. 1424
(11 April 1903): 9.
"Deaths: Mrs. Edwin M. Price: Wife of Former Architect Here Dies in Arkansas."
Kansas City Star 1953, Obituaries, 17.
"Description of New Fidelity Bank Building by the Architects, Hoit, Price & Barnes" in
The Fidelity Spirit (February 1932): 10.
Downes, Randolph C. The Rise ofWarren Gamaliel Harding, 1865-1920. Ohio
University Press, 1970.
"Edwin M. Price Is Dead: Former Architect Here Dies in Arkansas." Kansas City Star,
11 January 1957, Obituaries, 28.
Ehrlich, George. Kansas City, Missouri: An Architectural History 1826-1976. Kansas
City, Missouri: Historie Kansas City Foundation, 1979.
. "The Rise and Demise of the Architectural League of Kansas City [with a Note
on Architectural Record Keeping in the Region]." Kawsmouth: A Journal of
Regional History 1, no. 2 (1999): 64-73.
Engle, Tim. "Lightingthe Way: Things Are Lookingup for the Power & Light Building."
The Kansas City Star, 2001, [2-9].
"Eugene D. Nims" in Men ofAffairs in Greater Kansas City, edited by The Kansas City
Press Club, 210-11. Kansas City: Gate City Press, 1912.
455
"Eugene Dutton Nims" in Missouri: Special Limited Supplement, 210-11. Chicago:
The American Historical Society, Inc., 1920.
Ferriss, Hugh, Journal ofAIA, 1926.
. The Metropolis ofTomorrow. New York: Ives Washburn, 1929.
"A Few Interesting Facts About Our New Building: Program Includes a Very
Comprehensive Plan for Exterior Lighting; Probably Occupy About Sept. Ist."
The Tie ([1930]): 5.
"The Fidelity's Contribution." Kansas City Journal Post, 28 December 1930.
Fidelity Spirit: Special Building Edition. Editedby W. R. Snodgrass. Kansas City:
Fidelity National Bank and Trust Company, 1932.
"First Buildings Employing Structural Lightweight Concrete." In Lightweight Concrete,
9-11. Washington: Exp anded Shale Clay and Slate Institute, 1971.
"First Annual Meetingof the Kansas City Architectural Club." Kansas City Architect
andBuilder 17, no. 5 (1902): 7.
Ford, Susan Jezak. "Report on Municipal AuditoriumProfile." Kansas City: Missouri
Valley Special Collections, Kansas City Public Library, 1999.
. "Commerce Bank Building Profile." Kansas City: Missouri Valley Special
Collection, Kansas City Public Library, 1999.
Fowler, Richard. "R. A. Long Turning Point in My Career." The Kansas City Star, 3
November 1929, in the Vertical File-Long, R. A., M VSC, 1-2.
"Frank M. Howe Dies of Heart Disease: Was an Architect of International Note." Kansas
City Journal, 5 January 1909, 3.
"Frank M. Howe Is Dead: The End Came to the Architect at His Home Last Night."
Kansas City Times, 5 January 1909, 3.
Franks, Kenny. The Rush Begins: A History of the Red Fork, Cleveland and Glenn Pool
Oil Fields. Oklahoma City: Oklahoma a Heritage Association, 1984.
Galbraith, John Kenneth. The Great Crash 1929 New York: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt
Publishing Company, 2009.
456
Gibson, Campbell. "Population of the 100 Largest Cities and Other Urban Places in
the United States: 1790-1990." United States Census Bureau [Web Site]
(Washington, D. C : U. S. Census Population Division, 1998, accessed 19 October
2009.); available at
http://www.census.gov/population/www/documentation/twps0027/twps0027.ht
ml; Internet.
"Gigantic Pillar of Light and Color a Nightly Spectacle: Power and Light Building Will Be
a Lofty Shaft of Brilliance, Culminating in a Glittering, Changing Wave Sweeping
Down the Spectrum from Shade to Shade." The Kansas City Star, 23 August
1931, [front page].
Gose, Joe. '"Incredible Inspiration' Is Gone: Clarence Kivett, a Leading Force in Kansas
City Architecture, Dies at 91." The Kansas City Star 5 December 1996, [front
page], A13.
Gregory, Carl. "Tulsa," in Oklahoma Historical Society's Encyclopedia of Oklahoma
History & Culture [Web Site]. Stillwater, Oklahoma: Oklahoma State University
Electronic Publishing Center, 2007, accessed 27 November 2009; available from
http://digital.Ubrary.okstate.edU/encyclopedia/entries/T/TU003.html; Internet.
Grundman, Adolph H. The Golden Age ofAmateur Basketball: TheAAU Tournament,
1921-1968. Lincoln: Regents of the University of Nebraska and Bison Books,
2004.
Hailey, Charlie. "From SleepingPorch to SleepingMachine: InvertingTraditions of Fresh
Air in North America." Traditional Dwellings and Settlements Review: Journal of
the International Association for the Study of Traditional Environments 20, no. 2
(2009): 27-44.
Handlin, David. P. American Architecture. London: Thames and Hudson, 1985.
"Happy Birthday to You & You & You!" Historie Kansas City Foundation Gazette
(May-June 1982), 14.
Harrison, Lowell Hayes. A New History of Kentucky. Lexington: The University Press of
Kentucky, 1997.
Haskell, Henry C , Jr. City of the Future: A Narrative History of Kansas City, 1850-1950.
Kansas City, Missouri: Frank Glenn Publishing Co., Inc., 1950.
Hearne Christopher, Jr., "Downtown Landmark Has a Heavy Load of Light Questions."
The Kansas City Star, 23 October 2001, E4: 2.
457
Heaster, Randolf. "KCP&L Makes Mark on District." The Kansas City Star, 19
October2007, C6:l.
Helling, Dave. "Power and Lights, Lights, Lights: Landmark Could Show 16 Million
Color Combos." The Kansas City Star, 15 December 2005, Al: 2-3.
"Henry F. Hoit Is Dead: He Was Architect for the City's Tallest Structure."Kansas City
Star, 30 May 1951,3.
Henry, Jay C, Architecture in Texas, 1895-1945. Austin, Texas: University of Texas
Press, 1993, 183.
Henshaw, Robin. "Q: How Long Has the Power & Light Building Been Showing
Different Lights at the Top of the Building?" The Kansas City Star Magazine 4,
no. 3 (1994).
"Highest Man Made Point in Missouri." The Udylite News 4, no. 1 (1932): 1.
"History of the Department of Architecture," in Institute Archives & Special Collections
[Website]. Cambridge: MIT Libraries, 1995, updated 2005, accessed 27 January
2009; available from http://libraries.mit.edu/archives/mithistory/historiesoffices/arch.html; Internet.
"The History of AT&T," in AT&T Corporate [Web Ste]. Dallas, Texas: AT&T
Intellectual Property, 2005, accessed 27 November 2009; available from
http ://www.corp .att.com/history/history 1 .html; Internet.
"How High Is Up? Or How Do You Measure Buildings?" The Powerlite (1955): 4-5.
Howe, Frank. "The Development of Architecture in Kansas City, Missouri."
Architectural Record 15 (February 1904): 134-157.
Hynd, Alan. The Giant Killers. New York: R.M. McBride & Company, 1945.
Independence Boulevard Christian Church Newsletter, Kansas City: Independence
Boulevard Christian Church, 2003.
The International Competition for A New Administration Building for the Chicago
Tribune MCMXXII: Containing All the Designs Submitted in Response to the
Chicago Tribune's $100,000 Offer CommemoratingIts Seventy Fifth Anniversary,
June 10, 1922. New York: Rizzoli, 1980.
Janicke, Tim. City of Art: Kansas City's Public Art. Kansas City: Kansas City Star
Books, 2001.
458
Jones, Linda Newcom. The Longview We Remember. [Independence, Missouri]:
Storm Ridge Press, 1990.
"Kansas City Auditorium: Alonzo H. Gentry, Voskamp and Neville, Hoit, Price and
Barnes, Associated Architects, Erwin Pfuhl, Structural Engjneer.." Architectural
Forum 66 (1937): 216-28.
Kansas City: A Place in Time. Kansas City: Landmarks Commission of Kansas City
Missouri, 1977.
Kansas City New Discoveries Daily. "Kansas City Convention Center." Kansas City,
Missouri: Kansas City Convention & Visitors Association, [2009].
"The Kansas City Spirit--in the Making: R. A. Long." The Kansas City Spirit, February
1909,1.
Kidder-Smith, G[eorge] Efverard]. Source Book of American Architecture: 500 Notable
Buildings from the 10th Century to the Present Time. New York: Princeton
Architectural Press, 2000.
Kilborne, Al. Woodley andlts Residents, Images of America. Washington, D. C : Arcadia
Publishing, 2008.
Kinchin, Juliet. "Interiors: Nineteenth-Century Essays on the 'Masculine' and the
'Feminine' Room." In The Gendered Object, edited by Pat Kirkham, 12-29. New
York: Manchester University Press, 1996.
King, Helen. "The Economic History of the Long-Bell Company," M. S. Thesis,
Louisiana State University, 1936.
Kirkland, Edward C. Charles Francis Adams, Jr. 1835-1915: The Patrician at Bay.
Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1965, 6-18, 69.
Kristoferson, August C. Nervous Water: Variations on a Theme of Fly Fishing. Guilford,
Connecticut: The Lyons Press, 2006, 62.
"The Labor Force Statistics from the Current Population Data base" in Bureau ofLabor
Statistics. Washington, D.C.: United States Department ofLabor, accessed 15
November 2009; available from
http://data.bls.gov/PDQ/servlet/SurveyOutputServlet?data_tool=latest_numbers&
series_id=LNS14000000; Internet.
Lambuth, Benjamin Letcher. "A Small City Whose Growth Is Aided and Controlled by a
Plan " American City, August 1926, 186-91.
459
Landmarks Commission of Kansas City. Historie Kansas City Architecture. Kansas
City: The Commission, 1975.
Larsen, Lawrence H. and Nancy J. Hulston. Pendergast! Columbia, Missouri: University
of Missouri Press, 1997.
Lee, Janice. A Legacy of Design: An Historical Survey of the Kansas City, Missouri,
Parks andBoulevards System, 1893-1940. Kansas City: Kansas City Center for
Design Education and Research in cooperation with the Western Historical
Manuscript Collection-Kansas City, 1995.
. "Kansas City Power & Light," Building Profilefor the Missouri Valley Special
Collection (Kansas City: Kansas City Public Library, 1999). 3.
Leip, David. "1888 Presidential General Election Results," in DaveLeip 's Atlas of U.S.
Presidential Elections [Web Site]. Massachusetts: David Leip, 1997, updated
2008, accessed 29 October 2009.); available from URL:
http ://www.uselectionatlas.org/; Internet
"The Liberty Memorial at Kansas City." Architecture 44 (August 1921): 241.
"Linwood Christian Church." The Kansas City Star, 20 November 1942.
Long, R. A. "Forest Conservation." Paper presented at the Proceedings of a Conference
of Governors in the White House, Washington, D. C , 13-15 May 1908.
Longstreth, Richard W. The drive-in, the supermarket, and the transformation of
commercial space in Los Angeles, 1914-1941. Boston: MIT Press, 2000.
"Longview Public Library," in City ofLongview Washington [Website]. Longview,
Washington: City ofLongview, Washington, 2003, updated 4 November 2009,
accessed 17 November 2009; available from
http ://www.longview library .org/history .html; Internet.
Lorenz, Jonna. "Commercial, Residential Blend Successfully at 909 Wahmt."Kansas City
Business Journal 35, no. 27 (2007): 16-17.
Lowenstein, Major J. Official Guide to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition at the City of
St. Louis. St. Louis: The Official Guide Company, 1904.
Magonigle, Harold Van Buren. "A Memorial at Kansas City, Missouri," Journal of the
American Institute ofArchitects 9 (August 1921).
460
"Main Office Building, Southwestern Bell Telephone Co., Kansas City, Mo."
American Architect 116, no. 2284 (1919): plates 123-27.
Manon, Calvin, St. George 's Episcopal Church the First 75 Years. Kansas City: [St.
George's Episcopal Church the First 75 Years], 1966.
Marchand, Roland. Advertising the American Dream: Making Wayfor Modernity, 19201940. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1985.
Margolies, Dan. "Bonds Approved for Parking Garage." The Kansas City Star, 15 July
2004, Cl, C5.
. "Will the Real P&L Stand Up?" The Kansas City Star, 8 June 2006, Cl:2.
Markel, Helen. "Legendary Loula: Loula Long Combs, Great Lady of the Horse Shows,
Has Known Few Peers in Her 62 Years as a Horsewoman and Trainer of
Hackneys." Sports Illustrated, 12 November 1956.
McClelland, John M., Jr. Longview: The Remarkable Beginnings of a Modem Western
City. Portland, Oregon: Binfords & Mort Publishers, 1949.
. R. A. Long's Planned City: The Story of Longview. Longview, Washington:
Westmedia Corporation, 1998.
Meier, Richard. Recent American Architecture. New York: Jewish Theological Seminary
of America and the Jewish Museum, 1963.
Meyers, Jeffrey. Ernest Hemingway: The Critical Heritage. New York: Routledge, 1982.
Mickelson, Erik. "The Loyal Legion of Loggers and Lumbermen: The Origjns of the
WorkTs Largest Company Union and How It Conducted Business," in Strike:
Seattle General Strike Project [Web Site]. Seattle, Washington: Harry Bridges
Center for Labor Studies at the University of Washington, 1999, accessed 18
November 2009; available from
http ://depts.washington.edu/labhist/strike/mickelson.shtml; Internet.
Millstein, Cydney and Carol Grove; forward by Richard Longstreth. Houses of Missouri,
1870-1940, Suburban Domestic Architecture Series. New York: Acanthus Press,
2008.
Mitchell, Giles Carroll. There Is No Limit: Architecture and Sculpture in Kansas City.
Kansas City: Brown-White Company, 1934.
461
Moninger, Karen. "History" in Rockhill: An Historie Urban Village in Kansas City
[Web Site]. Kansas City: 2009, accessed 16 October 2009; available from
http ://www.rockhillkc.org/history .htm; Internet.
Montgomery, Rick and Shirl Kasper. Kansas City: An American Story. Kansas City:
Kansas City Star Books, 1999.
Moore, Charles. Daniel H. Burnham, Architect, Planner ofCities. Vol. 2. Boston:
HoughtonMifflin, 1921.
Moore, W. T. The New Living Pulpit of the Christian Church: A Series of Discourses,
Doctrinal and Practical, by Representative Men among the Disciples ofChrist.
St. Louis: Christian Board of Publication, 1918.
Morgan, Keith N. Charles A. Platt: The Artist as Architect. Cambridge: The Architectural
History Foundation and The MIT Press, 1985.
Morgan, Sally. "Old Mansion on House Tour." The Kansas City Star, 28 November
1971,1,6.
Mumford, Lewis. Sticks and Stones: A Study of American Architecture and Civilization.
New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1924, 56.
"Mr. Howe's New Partners." Kansas City Architect andBuilder 18, no. 6 (1903): 19.
"Mrs. Bowersock Dead." The Kansas City Times, 21 November 1936.
"Mrs. R. A. Long: Married Fifty-Three Years Ago, She Aided Her Husband in His Rise
in the Lumber Industry, and Was a Church Leader." The Kansas City Star 1928,
[page unknown] in Vertical File-R. A. Long, MVSC.
"Mrs. R. A. LongObituary." The Kansas City Times, 25 November 1928, [page
unknown] in Vertical File~R. A. Long, MVSC.
Muccigrosso, Robert. Celebrating the New World: Chicago 's Columbian Exposition of
1893. Chicago: Ivan R. Dee, 1993.
Neumann, Dietrich. Architecture of the Night, New York: Prest el, 2002.
"New Structures Here This Year Will Rear Towers Piercingthe Sky Higher Than the
Liberty Memorial Shaft." The Kansas City Star, 11 May 1930, Dl.
462
North, Arthur T. "The Experience of Buildings: Some of the Exigencies of Modem
Architectural Practice." The American Architect (1928), advanced copy located in
theWHMC.
"Obituary for Alfred Edward Barnes, or Alfred Barnes, Architect with Hoit, Price &
Barnes in Kansas City, Dying on May 11, 1960." Kansas City Times, May 12,
1960, 30.
"Office Building for Cosden and Co., Tulsa, Olka." American Architect 115, no. 2270
(1919): plates 212-15.
Olson, Robert A. Kansas City Power & Light Company: The First Ninety Years. New
York: The Newcomen Society of North America, 1972.
"Our Community: History," in City ofLongview Washington [Website]. Longview,
Washington: City ofLongview, Washington, 2003, accessed 17 November 2009;
available from http ://www.mylongview.com/community/longview_history .html;
Internet.
"Our History," in Independence Boulevard Christian Church Disciples ofChrist 606
Gladstone Boulevard, Kansas City, Missouri 64124 [Web Site]. Kansas City:
Independence Boulevard Christian Church, 2009, accessed 19 June 2009; available
from http://www.ibcckc.org/index.html; Internet.
Patejdl, Rita Neil. "Robert Alexander Long, His Life and Times," in R. A. Long Historical
Society [Web Site]. Lee's Summit, Missouri: R. A. Long Historical Society, 2006,
accessed 2 February 2009; available from http://www.ralonghistoricalsociety.org/;
Internet.
Pearson, Robert and Brad Pearson. The J. C. Nichols Chronicle: The Authorized Story of
the Man and His Company, 1880-1994. Lawrence, Kansas: Country Club Plaza
Press, distributed by the University Press of Kansas, 1994.
"A Pictorial History of the Building of Our Building: Photographs Furnished by A. E.
Bettis, Vice-President and Titles Furnished by G. O. Brown." The Tie XII, no. 8
(1932): 4-11.
Piland, Sherry. "Early Kansas City Architects: Homemaker Par Excellence."Historie
Kansas City News 2, no. 6 (1978): 1-8.
. "Henry Van Brunt of the Architectural Firm of Van Brunt and Howe: The
Kansas City Years." M. A. Thesis, University of Missouri, Kansas City, 1976.
463
Quint, Howard H. and Robert H. Ferrell, Calvin Coolidge; University of
Massachusetts Press, 1964, 72.
"The R. A. Long Building, Kansas City, Mo." American Architect andBuilding News 99,
no. 1853(1911): 148.
"The R. A. Long Building, Kansas City, Mo." Architects' andBuilders' Magazine 9, no.
1(1907): 31-35.
"R. A. Long Death Is a National Loss." The Kansas City Star, 16 March 1934.
Rabun, J. Stanley. Structural Analysis of Historie Buildings: Restoration, Preservation,
and Adaptive Reuse Applications for Architects and Engineers. New York: John
Wiley & Sons, 2000.
"Re-Constructing the Old Federal Building At Ninth and Walnut Streets, for the Fidelity
Trust Company, of Kansas City." Kansas City Architect and Builder 18, no. 6
(1903): 16-17.
Reddig, William M. Tom 's Town: Kansas City and the Pendergast Legend. New York: J.
B. Lippincott Company, 1947.
"Robert A. Long." The Kansas City Star, 26 February 1922.
Roth, Leland M. American Architecture: A History. Boulder, Colorado: Icon Editions
Westview Press, 2001.
. America Builds: Source Documents in American Architecture and Planning.
New York: Harper & Row 1983.
. A Monograph of the Work ofMcKim, Mead & White, 1879-1915, 4 volumes
(New York: Architectural Book Pub. Co., 1914-1920).
Ry dell, Robert W., John E. Findling, and Kimberly D. Pelle, Fair America: World 's Fairs
in the United States. Washington D. C : Smithsonian Institution Press, 2000.
"St. Louis Buildings," in Vince's St. Louis [Website]. St. Louis, 2005, accessed27
November 2009; available http://www.vincesstlouis.com/buildings/bl 16.html;
Internet.)
Sanderson, Ariene. A Guide to Frank Lloyd Wright Public Places: Wright Sites. 4th Ed.
New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 2001.
464
Schulkin, Carl. In Pursuit of Greatness: A History of the Pembroke-Country Day
School, 1910-1984. Kansas City: Pembroke Hill School, 1985.
Schuyler, Montgomery. "Last Words About the World's Fair," 1894 in America Builds:
Source Documents in American Architecture and Planning edited by Leland M.
Roth. New York: Harper & Row Publishers, 1983.
Scott, Mellier Goodin. American City Planning Since 1890. (Berkeley, CA: University of
California Press, 1969),
Sharp, Lucy Lee. The First Eighty Years: A Statement ofHistorical Incidents
Commemorating the Founding and Development of the Independence Boulevard
Christian Church. Kansas City: [Independence Boulevard Christian Church],
1966.
Simbol Commercial. "Art Deco Building Revived." The Kansas City Star, 4 August 2005,
1 and 5.
Simon, Erika. Ara Pacis Augustae. Greenwich, Connecticut: New York Graphic Society,
Ltd., 1968.
Sinnes, A. Cort. "Senior Focus: The Cutting Edge of Clarence Kivett." Kansas City Live!
2, no. 12 (1991): 42-46.
Smith, Sherrie Kline. "Christian Church Hospital BuildingProfile." Kansas City,
Missouri: Missouri Valley Special Collections, 2005.
"Some of the New Houses Building or Recently Built in Kansas City." The Kansas City
Star, 30 July 1905.
Soward, James L. Hospital Hill, Missouri. Kansas City: Truman Medical Center
Charitable Foundation, 1995.
Spence, Bruce. "Famous for Beauty: Farm's Fate Lies with Lake" originally printed in
The Kansas City Star, [ca. 1980] in R. A. hong Historical Society [Website]. Lee's
Summit, Missouri: R. A. LongHistorical Society, accessed 2 February 2009,
available from http://www.ralonghistoricalsociety.org/; Internet.
Spivak, Jeffrey. "A Dream of Living High in KC: Skyscraper Condos Planned
Downtown." The Kansas City Star, 24 December 2003, Al, A9.
Sullivan, Louis. "Autobiography of an Idea," 1922, in America Builds: Source Documents
in American Architecture and Planning, edited by Leland M. Roth. New York:
Harper & Row, 1983.
Summerson, John. The Architecture of the Eighteenth Century. London: Thames &
Hudson, 1986.
"Tallest Building in Missouri?" The Fidelity Spirit (February 1932): 18.
Taylor, Alva Wilmot. "Linwood Boulevard Christian Church, Kansas City, Mo."
Homiletic Review 92 (1926): 179.
Thorndike, Joseph J., Paul Milazzo, and Michael Leclair. "TaxHistory Museum" in Tax
History Project at the Tax Analysts [Web Site]. TaxHistory Project, 1997-2006,
accessed 13 July 2009; available from http ://www.tax.org/Museum/l9011932.htm; Internet.
Toft, Carolyn Hewes. "St. Louis Architects: Famous and Not So Famous," in Landmarks
Association of St. Louis [Web Site]. St. Louis: Landmarks Association of St.
Louis, Inc., accessed 24 October 2009, entries as follows:
"Albert Bartleton Groves" originally published in Landmarks Letter,
September/October 1987. available
http ://stlouis .missouri.org/501 c/landmarks/architects 12.html; Internet.
"Jerome Bibb Legg" originally published in Landmarks Letter, July/August 1989,
available http://stlouis.missouri.org/501c/landmarks/architectsl4.html; Internet.
"Thomas Crane Young" originally published in Landmarks Letter, November
1984, available http://stlouis.missouri.org/501c/landmarks/architects3.html;
Internet.
"William Butts Ittner" originally published in Landmarks Letter, January 1985,
available http://stlouis.missouri.org/501c/landmarks/architectsl0.html; Internet.
"William S[ylvester] Eames" originally published in Landmarks Letter, April
1986, available http://stlouis.missouri.org/501c/landmarks/architectsl0.html;
Internet.
"Tube System Most Complete One West of Chicago; Five Miles Long: Rules for
Successful Operation." The Tie (1932): 16.
"USA Post Office (Account #R021632)," in Cowlitz County Parcel Search [Database].
Longview, Washington: Cowlitz C ounty, Washington, 2006, accessed 19
November 2009; available from
http://www.cowlitzinfo.net/applications/cowlitzassessorparcelsearch/; Internet.
466
Van Giezen, Robert and Albert E. Schwenk. "Compensation from before World War I
through the Great Depression" in Compensation and Working Conditions, edited
by Bureau of Labor Statistics available on United States Department ofLabor
[Website] (2001, accessed 15 November 2009); available
http ://www.bls.gov/opub/cwc/cm20030124ar03p 1 .htm.
Van Rensselaer, Mariana Griswold. "The Artistic Triumph of the Fair-Builders,"
originally published in The Forum (December 1892): 527-40 reprinted in Accents
as Well as Broad Effects: Writings on Architecture, Landscape, and the
Environment 1876-1925, edited by David Gebhard, 527-40. Berkeley: University
of California Press, 1996, 73.
"We Move October 15th, May be: Beauty of New Buildingand Efficiency of Its
Equipment Bring Thrill of Pride." The Tie (1932): 5.
Wethy, Henry M. [The Kansas City Star], [April 1929], available in the Vertical FileSouthwestern Bell Building in the Missouri Valley Special Collections..
West, Robert D. "Kelso-Longview, Washington," in Places -WESTR [Website]
Milwaukee, Wisconsin: Milwaukee School of Engineering, accessed 18 November
2009); available from http://people.msoe.edu/~westr/longview.htm, Internet.
"What Has Time Wrought?: Looking Backing from 14th and Baltimore." The Tie XII, no.
8(1932): 1.
Whitney, Carrie Westlake. Kansas City, Missouri: Its History and Its People 1808-1908.
Vol.l. Chicago: The S. J. Clarke Publishing Company, 1908.
"Who's Who in Kansas City." The Kansas City Star, 18 September 1921, 1C.
"William H. Cutler Dead." The Architect & Builder of Kansas City XXII, no. 1 (1907): 3.
Wilson, William H. The City Beautiful Movement In Kansas City, The Lowell Press, Inc,
Kansas City, Missouri, 1964.
. "The City Beautiful Movement in Kansas City" (Kansas City: Kessler Society
of Kansas City, accessed 22 April 2009); available from
http ://www.georgekessler.org/; Internet.
Winn, Kenneth H. "It all Adds Up: Reform and the Erosion of Representative
Government in Missouri, 1900-2000." Missouri Secretary of State Robin
Carnahan [Website]. Jefferson City, Missouri: Missouri State Archives, accessed
2 December 2009. Available from
http://www.sos.mo.gov/archives/pubs/article/article.asp. Internet.
467
Wischnitzer, Rachel. Synagogue Architecture in the United States: Histoty and
Interpretation. Philadelphia: The Jewish Publication of Society of American,
1955.
Withey, Henry F. andElisieRathburn Withey. "Howe, FrankM.," inBiographical
Dictionary of American Architects (Deceased), 303. Los Angeles, California: New
Age Publishing Comp any, 1956.
. "William H. Cut ler," in Biographical Dictionary of American Architects
(Deceased), 157. Los Angeles, California: New Age Publishing Company, 1956.
Worley, William S. J.C. Nichols and the Shaping of Kansas City: Innovation in Planned
Residential Communities. Columbia, Missouri: University of Missouri Press,
1990.
Zachman, Eugene C. The New Municipal Auditorium. Kansas City: Fratcher Printing
Company, 1936, 4.
NEWSPAPERS & PERIODICALS
Architect and Builder (Kansas City, Missouri).
Daily Oklahoman (Tulsa, Oklahoma).
Fidelity Spirit, Fidelity Bank company newsletter, located in the Missouri Valley Special
Collections at the Kansas City Public Library, Kansas City, Missouri.
Houston Chronicle (Houston, Texas).
The Kansas City Star (Kansas City, Missouri).
The Kansas City Times (Kansas City, Missouri).
The Tie, Kansas City Power & Light Company newsletter, located in the Missouri Valley
Special Collections at the Kansas City Public Library, Kansas City, Missouri.
The Western Contractor (Kansas City, Missouri).
Документ
Категория
Без категории
Просмотров
0
Размер файла
45 414 Кб
Теги
sdewsdweddes
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа