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Affects to body mass index with parents knowledge of their child's body mass index

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Body Mass Index 1
Affects to Body Mass Index with Parents Knowledge of Their Child's Body Mass Index
Tracy Lynn Rettmann
In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the
Master of Science in Education
Action Research Project
Southwest Minnesota State University
May 2010
UMI Number: 1485753
All rights reserved
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UMI
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UMI 1485753
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Body Mass Index 2
Abstract
This research project examined whether guardian involvement played a factor in a
child's body mass index. In addition this study identified the difference in the body mass
indexes of different genders. The study took place at a small Southwestern rural
Minnesota school district during the 2009 school year. Ninety third and fourth graders
were analyzed. Data from this were compiled. The data was analyzed to determine
whether the gender of a student has an effect on how quickly the student's body mass
index could change and whether guardian involvement would make a difference in the
student's body mass index. The findings of this study revealed that neither gender nor
guardian involvement made a difference in the student's body mass index. Results of the
study will provide relevant information for educators and parents who are interested
improving a student's body mass index.
Body Mass Index 3
Action Research Committee
The members of this committee appointed to examine the action research of Tracy
L. Rettmann find it satisfactory and recommend that it be approved.
Marilyn Strate, Chair
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Katherine Wilhelmi
Body Mass Index 4
Acknowledgments
Thank you to the students and parents of the small Southwestern rural Minnesota
school district, your willingness to participate in this study was greatly appreciated.
Thank you to Marilyn Strate for your exceptional leadership, hard work, and
motivation. Your resourceful approach and timely feedback made the completion of this
study possible.
Thank you to my fiance, Nathan for giving me the time, support, and
encouragement I needed in order to complete my masters program. Your patience and
understanding while I spent many hours on the computer were greatly appreciated. Thank
you to my dad for always cheering me on and believing in me. I could not have done this
without your support and love. Lastly, thank you to my wonderful mother. Without you
this dream would have never come true. You have sacrificed so much to allow me to
complete my dream. I love you all!
Body Mass Index 5
Table of Contents
Abstract
2
Action Research Committee
3
Acknowledgments
4
Table of Contents
5
Chapter
1. Introduction
8
Statement of Problem
8
Research Questions
9
Significance of the Study
9
Definition of Terms
9
Delimitations, Limitations, and Assumptions of the Study
10
Organization of the Study
10
2. Review of Selected Literature and Research
Introduction
12
Overview of the Body
12
Body Composition
13
Body Mass Index
13
Childhood Obesity Problems
16
Health Concerns
16
Life Long Problems
17
Body Mass Index 6
School and Education
Weight Loss Techniques
17
19
Schools
19
Parental
19
School Problems
Bullying
Benefits of a Healthy Lifestyle
20
20
21
Eating
21
Exercise
21
Summary
23
3. Research Methodology
24
Research Design
24
Population and Sample
24
Data Collection Procedures
24
Data Analysis
25
Summary
25
4. Findings
27
Response Rate
27
Demographic Data
28
Findings Related to the Research Questions
29
Summary
34
5. Summary, Conclusion, Discussion, and Recommendations
35
Body Mass Index 7
Summary
35
Purpose
35
Literature Review
36
Methodology
38
Findings
39
Conclusions
42
Discussion
42
Recommendation for Practice
43
Recommendation for Further Study
43
References
45
Appendixes
A. Bi-weekly Healthy Lifestyle Newsletters Letter to Parents/Guardians.
47
B. Letter to Parents/Guardians
54
Body Mass Index 8
CHAPTER 1
Introduction
"Poor health habits among elementary students restrict lifetime opportunities
when the whole point of education is to expand them" (Kretchmar, 2008). Physical
education and health teachers have an important role in shaping the minds of their
students. Many physical education programs are looked at as fun and games for the
students, when in fact they are learning opportunities.
Guardians have the most influence on children when it comes to teaching them
proper ways to live. As children, they are only able to eat what is served to them or what
is placed in cupboards or refrigerators. This makes the choices the guardians make at the
grocery stores more important than saving money. Their influences also carry over into
the physical activities that they do or do not do. To keep obesity rates and health issues
low, children need to learn both the importance of healthy eating and daily exercise. This
is an important age group to work with because of the changes they will be going through
with starting school, making new friends, and the hormonal body changes they will be
experiencing.
Statement of the Problem
"Overweight children ages 6 to 11 more than tripled over the past three decades"
(Greene, 2007). The purpose of this study was to determine if guardian involvement
played a factor in a child's body mass index. In addition this study identified the
differences in the body mass indexes of different genders.
Body Mass Index 9
Research Questions
The following research questions guided this study:
1. Will the implementation of bi-weekly Healthy Lifestyle newsletters given to
the guardians, affect the body mass index of a third or fourth grader?
2. Does the gender of a student have an effect on how quickly the student's body
mass index can change?
Significance of the Study
This study is important to investigate because of the number of children who are
overweight or obese. Health and physical education teachers need to focus on teaching
the benefits of a healthy lifestyle and weight management. These ideas also need to be
conveyed to the guardians.
The audience for this study is any educator, administrator, or guardian who has an
interest in a child's health. The results of this study may be beneficial to any individual
who is interested in incorporating guardian involvement to the health of a child.
Definition of Terms
The following definitions are provided to ensure understanding of these terms
throughout the study. The researcher developed all of the definitions.
Implementation. In this study, implementation means to distribute letters to the
guardians.
Bi-weekly. Something that occurs every other week.
Body Mass Index 10
Healthy Lifestyle newsletters. A paper with suggestions about ways to improve a
child's health created by the researcher.
Guardians. A person who has the majority of the responsibility to care for the
child in the study.
Gender. The sex of the student.
Body Mass Index. The child's weight in pounds multiplied by 705, then divided
by the number of inches tall the child is and then divided one more time by the number of
inches tall the child is.
Quickly. In this case, it is a period of four months.
Change. In this study, the difference of the pre to post body mass index tests.
Delimitations, Limitation, and Assumption of the Study
The results of this study were limited by the following:
1. The study is limited to students in a small Southwestern rural Minnesota
school.
2. The study relies on the parents from the small Southwestern Minnesota school
to implement the laid out suggestions in the bi-weekly newsletter.
3. The study is limited by the amount of time available to conduct this study.
Organization of the Study
This study was organized into five chapters. Chapter 1 presented the introduction,
statement of the problem, research questions, significance of the study, definitions of
terms, limitations, delimitations, and assumption of the study. Chapter 2 provides a
review of literature including a study of children's body mass index and a background of
Body Mass Index 11
childhood obesity and the problems associated with it. Chapter 3 presents the
methodology, instrumentation, and data analysis procedures. Chapter 4 provides the
results of the analysis of data. Chapter 5 includes a summary, conclusions, a discussion,
and further recommendations for further study.
Body Mass Index 12
CHAPTER 2
Review of Selected Literature and Research
Chapter two provides a review of selected literature about childhood obesity; it
discusses body composition and body mass index, the components of healthy lifestyles
with eating and exercising, childhood obesity problems for in health and life-long
problems, managing obesity techniques for both schools and parents, and the assessment
for public schools in Arkansas.
Overweight children have many health and emotional problems while growing
up. A concern other than the problems that occur in childhood obesity is the number of
children who are becoming obese and remain that way their entire lives. "Overweight
children ages 6 to 11 more than tripled over the past three decades" (Greene, 2007). The
increase in the amount of children who are becoming overweight and obese are doing so
at a much younger age and faster rate. According to Ludwig (2007) new generations are
destined to have more health problems and be fatter than the generation before them.
To keep obesity rates and health issues low, children need to learn both the
importance of healthy eating and daily exercise. "The 2005 United States Department of
Agriculture (USDA) report Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommends at least 60
minutes of daily physical activity for children 6 to 11 years old" (Greene, 2007). This is
an important age group to work with because of the changes they will be going through
with starting school, making new friends, and the hormonal body changes they will be
experiencing.
Body Mass Index 13
Educating people about the negative affects obesity has on a person, is a way to
reduce the cases of childhood obesity in the world. A major reason for the rise in obesity
is junk food and lack of movement. The entire population must change its attitude about
unhealthy eating, and daily exercise should be incorporated into everyone's daily routine.
By creating a healthier lifestyle, the world's statistics on obesity in children would begin
to decrease.
Overview of Body
Body Composition
Body composition is what makes up the human body and determines what parts
of the body are needed for survival compared to the parts that are considered excess.
Within the body, there is both essential and non-essential body fat that each plays
different roles in the human body. The non-essential body fat is what varies in each
individual person depending on how much extra non-essential body fat each has (Duffy,
2008). The definition of obesity means an excess amount of body fat, according to
eMedicine (2009). This excess amount of body fat is stored around major organs and
right underneath the skin (Duffy, 2008). Since the excess body fat is stored around the
major organs and close to the top of the skin, it is both harmful to the body and can easily
be seen. By being close to the organs that do the main function for the body, the fat
causes those organs to work harder to do their jobs.
Body Mass Index
A child's body mass index takes only his or her height and his or her weight into
consideration. To determine the body mass index (BMI) of a child they must first be
Body Mass Index 14
weighed on a scale and his or her height measured in inches. The child's weight in
pounds is first multiplied by 705, that number is then divided by the number of inches tall
the child is. The last step is to take the last number and divide it again by the number of
inches tall the child is (eMedicine, 2009). The number from this is considered the child's
BMI and is then used by putting it into a chart to determine what that number means.
This figure from eMedicine (2009), is an example of how to check the body mass
index of children by putting their BMI number to see where he or she is rated on the
chart. The number that was determined by the formula above will be on the left side of
the chart and the age of child is listed on the bottom of the chart. Find where the two
numbers meet together and the chart reads if the child is in the normal, at risk for being
obese or obese range.
BMI
Percentile
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Body Mass Index 15
This chart is one that used universal with the percentile of when a child is
considered in the three different ranges of weights. If the child falls lower than the normal
range he or she would be considered underweight and that is also considered unhealthy.
According to Clark (2008), a child is considered overweight if he or she is in the
85th to 94th percentile and obese if he or she is in the 95th percentile or higher. Since the
body mass index only takes height and weight into consideration it can easily be
measured with a simple scale and tape measure.
According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (2007), once a child's
BMI is calculated, the number is plotted on the BMI-for-age growth chart for either girls
or boys. The BMI number is used to obtain a percentile ranking. The percentile indicates
the relative position of the child's BMI number among children of the same sex and age.
The figure shows the weight status categories used with children as underweight, healthy
weight, overweight, and obese. BMI-for-age weight status categories and the
corresponding percentiles are shown in the following figure.
Figure 2. Weight status categories and BMI categories.
Weight Status Category
Percentile Range
Underweight
Less than the 5th percentile
Healthy weight
5th percentile to less than 85th percentile
Overweight
85th to less than the 95th percentile
Obese
Equal to or quarter than the 95th percentile
Body Mass Index 16
Childhood Obesity Problems
Health concerns
Children who are overweight have both health concerns at a young age, along
with prolonged health issues that follow them into adulthood stemming from their
younger years. Health conditions that also once were only seen in adults are now
becoming more frequent in children. Some of the examples of this include high blood
pressure, type-two diabetes, liver disease, and disordered breathing during sleep (Daniels,
2006).
According to Alters (2007), "obesity is dangerous because it can lead to diabetes,
cardiovascular disease, and cancer". These health issues in children have increased the
amount of studies being done to determine all the risks associated with overweight
children. Problems that have been determined to be caused by childhood obesity include
depression, asthma, type-two diabetes, sleep apnea, and cancer (Alters, 2007; Daniels,
2006; eMedicine, 2009; Lemay, Elfenbein, Cashman & Felice, 2007). Genetics plays a
huge role in how likely children are to be overweight. "A child with an obese parent,
brother, or sister are more likely to become obese" (eMedicine, 2009). Families tend to
eat many of the same foods and do many of the same activities or lack of activities.
According to eMedicine (2009), there are three things that can help to determine
when to seek medical attention for a child and his or her weight. The first is if a parent or
school personnel thinks the child is overweight and they believe there are health concerns
that need to be dealt with. The second includes the child themselves talks about concerns
Body Mass Index 17
with his or her weight, while the last is if the child cannot keep up in sports or while
doing physical fitness things with his or her peers. These are guidelines to help parents
know when their child is more than just a little heavy. When children bring up their
weight, they will understand better that a doctor is someone who can help them get more
physically fit and is there to help with their weight problem.
Life-Long Problems
Life-long problems are not always seen in children when they are overweight, but
become more apparent as the child becomes older. These problems are many times worse
than the problems that children experience at a younger age, but come about because of
the extra weight they had as a child. eMedicine (2009) points out that health problems
have all been connected to people being obese as a child, heart disease, stroke, certain
types of cancer, osteoarthritis, gout, and gallbladder disease, (p. 10)
School and Education
Arkansas was the first state to pass an act that required schools to have its
students' body mass index accessed and to report the findings annually to their parents.
The entire study was confidential and the calculations to determine what the students'
body mass index were the standard procedures used. This test was designed to be cost
effective, so it was affordable for all schools to do, along with proper training given to all
of the people who administered the test. The equipment that was used at each school cost
$60.00 (Justus, Ryan, Rockenbach, Katterapalli & Card-Hiiginson, 2007). Taking $60.00
and spreading this cost out between students in each of the schools, it cost pennies per
child.
Body Mass Index 18
The key purpose of this act was "to combat childhood obesity" (Justus, Ryan,
Rockenbach, Katterapalli & Card-Hiiginson, 2007). By sending letters home to the
parents to give them information on their child's health, the schools took another step
towards trying to get children both active and to eat healthier. Many parents are not aware
of how to check their child's body mass index, along with knowing what the child's body
mass index means. By having someone who is trained to administer the test and then
report to the parents the results, the parents would know they are getting an accurate
account as to how overweight, underweight, or normal their child's weight is.
Of the three years the test had been conducted, the percentages of schools that
participated was between 94% to 99%. There was between 14-17% of students for all
three years who were unable to be assessed, while the most common reason being that
students were absent from school on the day the testing was being conducted. Also, each
year between 5% to 6% of students were not tested because their parents or guardians
would not allow it. The percent of overweight children that have gotten tested has gone
down very little over the first three years it was done. The first year the percent was
38.1%, while the second year it only dropped to 38.0%. In the third year it dropped to
37.5% of students being overweight (Justus, Ryan, Rockenbach, Katterapalli & CardHiiginson, 2007). Although the number of children who are overweight has not dropped
significantly, the low drop is better than the rise many experts have been seeing in the
number of overweight children in the past thirty years.
"In 2005, the Institute of Medicine recommended that schools conduct annual
physical assessments of their students' weight, height, and body mass index (BMI), and
Body Mass Index 19
that schools send this information to parents" (Green, 2007). Since this study was first
started in Arkansas, six more states have followed suit and tried the assessment. These
states include Illinois, Maine, New York, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, and West Virginia.
No results of those studies were put in along with this assessment and the researcher
could not find any information as to what the outcomes of those states have been.
Weight loss Techniques
Schools
Schools have the ability to shape students' minds and to give them knowledge in
physical education. Educators can also give the students the ability to learn how to eat
properly and learn what good fitness consists of. Krethmar stated, "Poor health habits
among elementary students restrict lifetime opportunities when the whole point of
education is to expand them" (2008). By not teaching students ways to stay healthy and
what it means to both have a healthy weight and to keep their bodies healthy, teachers are
limiting what students will be able to do for the rest of their lives. Krethmar's article
about physical education explains how there is no law saying health-oriented physical
education classes cannot be fun. For teachers to get their students to want to get the
exercise in class, they have to find witty ways to get the health objectives done in a way
that is positive for the students. Teachers are able to get their students to learn about
health, practice safe and practical ways to be physically active and also to produce the
games or activities that will keep the children interested in what they are doing.
Parental
Body Mass Index 20
Children should be taught to avoid snacking between meals, especially when
watching television, playing on the computer, or doing homework. These are the worst
times for children to be snacking because they are doing other activities and do not
realize how much food they are consuming. These are also times that many parents are
not watching their children, which leads to unhealthier snack choices for the children.
Kumanyika and Grier (2006) explained that commercials advertise high-calorie, lownutrient foods during commercials that are primarily watched by younger children (p. 1).
This advertisement leads to children wanting those types of foods and eating them while
doing activities that do not burn calories.
Kumanyika and Grier, "examine several aspects of the home environment breast-feeding, television viewing, and parental behavior - that may contribute to
childhood obesity but be amenable to change through targeted interventions"(p. 1).
Knowing that there are things to teach parents and ways to help parents understand how
to help their children either fight obesity and prevent it, shows that there is hope for
children in the future. This can help save children who are already fighting this disease.
School Problems
Bullying
Bullying is rated as the top health concern by parents of children ages 6-13 who
are either overweight or obese (Janssen, Craig, Boyce & Pickett, 2004). These behaviors
can include physical, verbal, relational, and sexual harassments. All of these behaviors
can contribute to both short and long-term social and psychological problems. Short-term
affects could include isolation and poor self-esteem, while long-term affects could
Body Mass Index 21
include heart, bone, hormone, or reproductive difficulties (Janssen, Craig, Boyce &
Pickett, 2004).
Benefits of a Healthy Lifestyle
Eating
Healthy eating is a way to help children bring their body mass index down. It
helps to lower calories being taken in that are not needed. According to eMedicine
(2008), when a children have become overweight their "dietary habits have shifted away
from healthy foods (such as fruits, vegetables, and whole grains) to a much greater
reliance on fast food, processed snack food, and sugary drinks" (p. 2).
"Low-income children are at excess risk to obesity..."(Kumanyika & Grier, 2006,
p. 189). The foods that are eaten by children in low-income families are many times not
as nutritious as foods that children eat if they are from a wealthier family.
Children today are eating more fried and fast food types instead of homemade
meals. Homemade meals help keep children healthier because parents know what is
going into the food, they are able to control the portion sizes, and include healthy types of
food like vegetables, fruits, and many other types of food.
Parents can teach children healthy eating styles by doing three simple items. First,
the pantry needs to be cleaned out and replaced with only healthy style foods. Secondly,
the parents should change their eating habits to match their child's. Last, send the child to
school with a healthy lunch. This sends a message that the child is dealing with his or her
weight problem.
Body Mass Index 22
Exercise
Fat kids are inactive because they are fat and not fat because they are inactive.
These children find it hard to exercise because they run out of breath which makes them
not want to take part in any types of exercise. They will lose more weight through
healthy, life-long changes to their diet than through physical activity.
Regular physical activities for a child can include walking, riding bike, using
stairs instead of an escalator or elevator, parking the car at the end of the parking lot and
walking to the entrance of the store, doing chores, or do family exercise activities.
Strength training exercise can lead to an increase in muscle mass. These types of training
activities could include sit-ups, crunches, leg lifts, pushups, pull-ups, knee bends, heel
raises, or arm curls with free weights.
Current recommendations state that children should strive for at least 30 minutes
daily of moderate intensity physical activity (Summerfield, 1998). An alternate approach
that may be equally beneficial would be to engage in three 10 minute bouts of moderate
intensity activity throughout the day (Summerfield, 1998). This is a total accumulation of
at least 30 minutes.
Schools that promote regular exercise have a significant impact on reducing
childhood obesity, along with increased academic performance, self-esteem, and
improvement of quality of life.
Exercise may not always be what people consider fun, but making it as enjoyable
as possible will keep students encouraged and wanting to participate. Researchers have
shown that by giving monetary rewards to people for doing something that is good for
Body Mass Index 23
them that they do not really like doing will make them participate more (Wilkinson,
2008). To bring this down to the children's level, giving rewards that do not include food
can help to encourage them to stay active.
Summary
The review of literature examined the need to focus time and effort into
preventing and working with children who are overweight or at risk of becoming
overweight. Parents' knowledge and acceptance of their child's body mass index has
shown to slightly decrease the percent of children who are overweight and not allow the
number to increase like the last 30 years.
The review of literature examined a number of ways to improve children's body
mass index at a younger age to allow for a healthier life as an adult. The literature
discussed ways to improve children's health at both school and home. It also explored a
variety of problems and concerns that come with childhood obesity.
Body Mass Index 24
CHAPTER 3
Research Methodology
The purpose of this study was to identify the number of students who are
overweight or obese. In addition, the study determined whether the gender of a student
had an effect on how quickly the student's body mass index could change. The following
research questions were addressed:
1. Will the implementation of bi-weekly Healthy Lifestyle newsletters, given to
guardians, affect the body mass index of a third or fourth grader?
2. Does the gender of a student have an effect on how quickly the student's body
mass index can change?
Population and Sample
The population of this study consisted of 45 third graders and 45 fourth graders in
a small Southwestern rural Minnesota school district in the fall of 2009. From this
population, 47 were boys and 43 were girls. Casual-comparison sampling was the method
the researcher chose for this study. The school district that was obtained was due to
convenience for the researcher.
Data Collection Procedures
On September 16, 2009, the researcher measured the height and weight of all of
the third and fourth graders who were at school that day. This information was used to
determine the pre-body mass index of the student. The researcher sent bi-weekly Healthy
Lifestyle newsletters (see Appendix A) to all of the guardians of one of the fourth grade
Body Mass Index 25
classroom students and one of the third grade classroom students. First, a letter was sent
to the parents/guardians (see Appendix B) of the children with the body mass index of the
student along with what body mass index means and how it can affect a student's health.
The Healthy Lifestyle newsletter had tips for guardians about different eating, nutrition,
and exercise options to help their child improve his or her body mass index. The
researcher conducted the post-body mass index on December 18, 2009 during the
student's physical education class.
Data Analysis
Research question one asked, "Will the implementation of bi-weekly Healthy
Lifestyle newsletters given to the guardians effect the body mass index of a third or
fourth grader?" In regards to this question, means and standard deviations were computed
with the information recorded from the two tests. The researcher used this information to
determine if the implementation of a bi-weekly Healthy Lifestyle newsletter affected the
body mass index of the students.
Research question two asked, "Does the gender of a student have an effect on
how quickly the student's body mass index can change?" Intake of the pre and post body
mass index survey corresponded to this question. Means and standard deviations were
computed. The data obtained provided information in regards to how effective the biweekly Healthy Lifestyle newsletters were in regards to the student's body mass index.
Summary
Chapter 3 provided details concerning the design of the study. The population and
sample were described along with a description of the survey used in the study. Data
Body Mass Index 26
collection and data analysis procedures were discussed. The results from the survey
questions are presented in Chapter 4.
Body Mass Index 27
CHAPTER 4
Introduction
Chapter 4 provides results of the study. The purpose of the study was to determine
if guardian involvement played a factor in a child's body mass index. In addition, this
researcher identified the difference in the body mass indexes of different genders. This
investigation was important because of the number of children who are overweight or
obese.
Specifically, the research answered these research questions that guided this
study:
1. Will the implementation of bi-weekly Healthy Lifestyle newsletters given to
the guardians, effect the body mass index of a third or fourth grader?
2. Does the gender of a student have an effect on how quickly the student's body
mass index can change?
Chapter 4 presents the results of this study. The response rate of the Body Mass
Index Test used for this study, demographic information, findings related to each research
question, and a summary of the results are included in this chapter.
Response Rate
The population of this study consisted of 45 third graders and 45 fourth graders in
a small Southwestern rural Minnesota school district in the fall of 2009. Of the 90
students, 70 (77.78%) were present for both days for height and weight measurements. Of
the 70 students weighed and measured on both days, 70 (100%) were analyzed. The
analyses of data were based on the height and measurements of 70 students.
Body Mass Index 28
Demographic Data
The demographic characteristics of third and fourth graders who were weighed
and measured both days were obtained on September 16, 2009 and December 18, 2009.
The data were analyzed according to grade level and gender of the student. Table 1
displays the demographic data from students weighted and measured both days.
Table 1
Demographic Data
Characteristics
Frequency
Percentage
Third Grade
45
50
Fourth Grade
45
50
Total
90
100
Male
47
52
Female
43
48
Total
90
100
Grade
Gender
The data in Table 1 revealed that 45 (50%) of the students weighed and measured
were third graders and 45 (50%) of the students were fourth graders. Forty-seven (52%)
of the students were males and 43 (48%) were females.
Body Mass Index 29
Findings Related to the Research Questions
This section represents data to answer research questions of this study. Data
collected from both days of height and weight measurements are addressed with each
research question.
Research question one asked will the implementation of bi-weekly Healthy
Lifestyle newsletters, given to guardians, affect the body mass index of a third or fourth
grader. The height and weight measurements of students on both days were used to
answer this question. The researcher sent bi-weekly Healthy Lifestyle newsletter to all of
the guardians of one of the third grade classroom students and one of the fourth grade
classroom students. The first newsletter stated the body mass index of the student along
with what body mass index means and how it can affect a student's health. The Healthy
Lifestyle newsletters had tips for guardians about different eating, nutrition, and exercise
options to help their child improve his or her body mass index.
Table 2 lists the means and standard deviations for the classrooms that received
the bi-weekly Healthy Lifestyle newsletters and the classrooms who did not receive them.
Table 2
Classroom Comparisons
Body Mass Index Measurements
M
SD
18.47
3.62
Third Graders without Letters
19.07
3.02
Fourth Graders with Letters
22.23
5.09
Test One
Third Graders with Letters
Body Mass Index 30
22.24
8.27
Third Graders with Letters
18.49
3.85
Third Graders without Letters
19.11
3.13
Fourth Graders with Letters
21.66
5.08
Fourth Graders without Letters
21.46
8.16
Third Graders with Letters
+0.02
+0.23
Third Graders without Letters
+0.04
+0.11
Fourth Graders with Letters
-0.57
-0.01
Fourth Graders without Letters
-0.78
-0.11
Fourth Graders without Letters
Test Two
Differences
The data in Table 2 revealed that the third graders who received Healthy Lifestyle
newsletters had a median increase of 0.02 in their body mass index. The standard
deviation increased by 0.23 for the third grade class who received letters as well. The
third grade class who did not receive letters had a median increase of 0.04 in their body
mass index and their classroom had a 0.11 increase in standard deviation.
The fourth graders who received Healthy Lifestyle newsletters had a median
decrease of 0.57 in their body mass index. The standard deviation decreased by 0.01 for
the fourth grade class who received letters as well. The fourth grade class who did not
Body Mass Index 31
receive letters had a median decrease of 0.78 in the body mass index and their classroom
had a 0.11 decrease in standard deviation.
Table 3 lists the means and standard deviations separately for the females for the
third and fourth grade classrooms that both received and did not receive Healthy Lifestyle
newsletters.
Table 3
Female Comparisons
Body Mass Index Measurements
M
SD
Third Graders with Letters
18.65
2.95
Third Graders without Letters
19.75
3.17
Fourth Graders with Letters
22.19
6.21
Fourth Graders without Letters
19.30
1.96
Third Graders with Letters
18.38
2.89
Third Graders without Letters
20.01
3.33
Fourth Graders with Letters
21.33
5.93
Fourth Graders without Letters
18.16
1.04
Third Graders with Letters
-0.27
-0.06
Third Graders without Letters
+0.26
+0.16
Test One
Test Two
Differences
Body Mass Index 32
Fourth Graders with Letters
-0.86
-0.28
Fourth Graders without Letters
-1.14
-0.92
The data in Table 3 reveals that the female third graders who received Healthy
Lifestyle newsletters had a median decrease of 0.27 in their body mass index and a
decrease of 0.06 in standard deviation. The third grade classroom that did not receive
Healthy Lifestyle newsletters had a median increase of 0.26 in their body mass index and
an increase of 0.16 in standard deviation.
The female fourth graders who received Healthy Lifestyle newsletters had a
median decrease of 0.86 in their body mass index and a decrease of 0.28 in standard
deviation. The fourth grade classroom that did not receive Healthy Lifestyle newsletters
had a median decrease of 1.14 in their body mass index and a decrease of 0.92 in
standard deviation.
Table 4 lists the means and standard deviations separately for the males for the
third and fourth grade classrooms that both received and did not receive Healthy Lifestyle
newsletters.
Body Mass Index 33
Table 4
Male Comparisons
Body Mass Index Measurements
M
SD
Third Graders with Letters
18.22
4.16
Third Graders without Letters
18.40
2.50
Fourth Graders with Letters
22.27
3.45
Fourth Graders without Letters
24.44
9.85
Third Graders with Letters
18.54
4.68
Third Graders without Letters
18.22
2.42
Fourth Graders with Letters
21.95
3.81
Fourth Graders without Letters
23.93
9.66
Third Graders with Letters
+0.34
+0.52
Third Graders without Letters
-0.18
-0.08
Fourth Graders with Letters
-0.32
+0.36
Fourth Graders without Letters
-0.51
-0.19
Test One
Test Two
Differences
Body Mass Index 34
The data in Table 4 reveals that the male third graders who received Healthy
Lifestyle newsletters had a median increase of 0.34 in their body mass index and an
increase of 0.52 in standard deviation. The third grade classroom that did not receive
Healthy Lifestyle newsletters had a median decrease of 0.18 in their body mass index and
a decrease of 0.08 in standard deviation.
The male fourth graders who received Healthy Lifestyle newsletters had a median
decrease of 0.32 in their body mass index and an increase of 0.36 in standard deviation.
The fourth grade classroom that did not receive Healthy Lifestyle newsletters had a
median decrease of 0.51 in their body mass index and a decrease of 0.19 in standard
deviation.
Summary
Chapter 4 provided data to answer the research question of this study. The
researcher found that the third grade classes both had an increase in their body mass
indexes. Both of the fourth grade classes had an overall decrease in their body mass
indexes. Furthermore, it was also discovered that overall both the female and male
students had a decrease in their body mass index. In Chapter 5, the researcher interprets
the findings. Final conclusions are drawn and recommendations for further study are also
discussed in Chapter 5.
Body Mass Index 35
CHAPTER 5
Summary, Conclusion, Discussion, and Recommendations
Chapter 5 contains five sections. In the first section, a summary of the study is
presented. The second section focuses on conclusions from the results of the data
analysis. The third section discusses the results and conclusions of the study. The fourth,
and final section, presents recommendations for practice and further study.
Summary
This study examined the number of students who are overweight or obese. In
addition, it studied whether the gender of a student has an effect on how quickly the
student's body mass index could change.
Purpose
To keep obesity rates and health issues low, children need to learn both the
importance of healthy eating and daily exercise. "The 2005 United States Department of
Agriculture (USDA) report Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommends at least 60
minutes of daily physical activity for children 6 to 11 years old" (Greene, 2007). The
purpose of this action research was to determine the number of students who are
overweight and whether the gender of a student has an effect on how quickly the
student's body mass index could change.
This study addressed the following research questions:
1. Will the implementation of bi-weekly Healthy Lifestyle newsletters given to
the guardians, affect the body mass index of a third or fourth grader?
Body Mass Index 36
2. Does the gender of a student have an effect on how quickly the student's body
mass index can change?
Literature Review
Overweight children have many health and emotional problems while growing
up. A concern other than the problems that occur in childhood obesity is the number of
children who are becoming obese and remain that way their entire lives. "Overweight
children ages 6 to 11 more than tripled over the past three decades" (Greene, 2007). The
increase in the amount of children who are becoming overweight and obese are doing so
at a much younger age and faster rate.
Educating people about the negative affects obesity has on a person, is a way to
reduce the cases of childhood obesity in the world. A major reason for the rise in obesity
is junk food and lack of movement. The entire population must change its attitude about
unhealthy eating, and daily exercise should be incorporated into everyone's daily routine.
By creating a healthier lifestyle, the world's statistics on obesity in children would begin
to decrease.
Body composition is what makes up the human body and determined what parts
of the body are needed for survival compared to the parts that are considered excess.
The definition of obesity means an excess amount of body fat, according to eMedicine,
2009. This excess amount of body fat is stored around major organs and right underneath
the skin (Duffy, 2008). Since the excess body fat is stored around the major organs and
close to the top of the skin, it is both harmful to the body and can easily be seen. By being
Body Mass Index 37
close to the organs do the main function for the body, the fat causes those organs to work
harder to do their job.
According to Clark (2008), a child is considered overweight if he or she is in the
85th to 94th percentile and obese if they are in the 95th percentile or higher. Since the
body mass index only takes height and weight into consideration it can easily be
measured with a simple scale and tape measure.
Children who are overweight have both health concerns at a young age, along
with prolonged health issues that follow them into adulthood stemming from their
younger years. Health conditions that also once were only seen in adults are now
becoming more frequent in children. Some of the examples of this include high blood
pressure, type-two diabetes, liver disease, and disordered breathing during sleep (Daniels,
2006).
Life-long problems are not always seen in children when they are overweight, but
become more apparent as the child becomes older. These problems are many times worse
than the problems that children experience at a younger age, but come about because of
the extra weight they had as a child.
Schools have the ability to shape students' minds and to give them knowledge, in
physical education. Educators can also give the students the ability to learn how to eat
properly and learn what constitutes good fitness. Children should be taught to avoid
snacking between meals, especially when watching television, playing on the computer,
or doing homework. These are the worst times for children to be snacking because they
are doing other activities and do not realize how much food they are consuming.
Body Mass Index 38
Knowing that there are things to teach parents and way to help parents understand how to
help their children either fight obesity and prevents it, shows that there is hope for
children in the future. This can help save children who are already fighting this disease.
Healthy eating is a way to help children bring their body mass index down. It
helps to lower calories being taken in that are not needed. According to eMedicine
(2008), when a child has become overweight their "dietary habits have shifted away from
healthy foods (such as fruits, vegetables, and whole grains) to a much greater reliance on
fast food, processed snack food, and sugary drinks" (p. 2).
Fat kids are inactive because they are fat and not fat because they are inactive.
These children find it hard to exercise because they run out of breath which makes them
not want to take part in any types of exercise. They will lose more weight through
healthy, life-long changes to their diet than through physical activity. Exercise may not
always be what people consider fun, but making it as enjoyable as possible will keep
students encouraged and wanting to participate. Researchers have shown that by giving
monetary rewards to people for doing something that is good for them that they do not
really like doing will make them participate more (Wilkinson, 2008). To bring this down
to a child's level, giving rewards that do not include food, can help to encourage them to
stay active.
Methodology
Casual-comparison sampling was the methodology used for this study. In order to
collect data, the research measured the height and weight of all of the third and fourth
graders who were at school that day. This information was used to determine the pre-
Body Mass Index 39
body mass index of the student. The researcher developed bi-weekly Healthy Lifestyle
newsletters (see Appendix A) that were given to all of the guardians of one of the fourth
grade classroom students and one of the third grade classroom students. The researcher
conducted a post-body mass index measurement to determine any change with the
students.
The population of this study consisted of 45 third graders and 45 fourth graders in
a small Southwestern rural Minnesota school district in the fall of 2009. From this
population 47 were boys and 43 were girls. In total 70 (100%) of the 90 students were
analyzed from the participating school district. Seventy (100%) of the pre and post body
mass index measurements were completed and the data from the completed
measurements were used to answer the research questions of this study.
Findings
Data analyses provided the following findings:
1. In regards to the demographic data, students analyzed were females (48%) and
males (52%).
2. Nineteen third graders who received bi-weekly Healthy Lifestyle newsletters,
had a starting body mass index measurement of M = 18.47 and SD = 3.62.
3. Eighteen third graders, who did not receive the bi-weekly Healthy Lifestyle
newsletters, had a starting body mass index measurement of M = 19.07 and
SD = 3.02.
Body Mass Index 40
4. Nineteen fourth graders who received bi-weekly Healthy Lifestyle
newsletters, had a starting body mass index measurement of M = 22.23 and
SD = 5.09
5. Fourteen fourth graders, who did not receive the bi-weekly Healthy Lifestyle
newsletters, had a starting body mass index measurement of M = 22.24 and
SD = 8.27.
6. Nineteen third graders who received bi-weekly Healthy Lifestyle newsletters,
had a final body mass index measurements of M = 18.49 and SD = 3.85.
7. Eighteen third graders who did not receive bi-weekly Healthy Lifestyle
newsletters, had a final body mass index measurement of M = 19.11 and SD =
3.13.
8. Nineteen fourth graders who received bi-weekly Healthy Lifestyle
newsletters, had a starting body mass index measurement of M = 21.66 and
SD = 5.08.
9. Fourteen fourth graders who did not received bi-weekly Healthy Lifestyle,
had a final body mass index measurement of M = 21.46 and SD = 8.16.
10. Nineteen third graders who received bi-weekly Healthy Lifestyle newsletters
had a difference in their body mass index measurements of M = +0.02 and SD
= +0.23.
11. Eighteen third graders who did not receive the bi-weekly Healthy Lifestyle
newsletters had a difference in their body mass index measurements of M =
+0.04 and SD = +0.11.
Body Mass Index 41
12. Nineteen fourth graders who received bi-weekly Healthy Lifestyle newsletters
had a difference in their body mass index measurements of M = -0.57 and SD
= -0.01.
13. Fourteen fourth graders who did not receive the bi-weekly Healthy Lifestyle
newsletters had a difference in their body mass index measurements of M = 0.78 and SD =-0.11.
14. The difference in the body mass index of the third grade females who received
letters is M = -0.27 and SD = -0.06, and M = 0.26 and SD = 0.16 for the third
grade females who did not receive the bi-weekly Healthy Lifestyle
newsletters.
15. The difference in the body mass index of the fourth grade females who
received letters is M = -0.86 and SD = -0.28, and M = -1.14 and SD = -0.92
for the fourth grade females who did not receive the bi-weekly Healthy
Lifestyle newsletters.
16. The difference in the body mass index of the third grade males who received
letters is M = 0.34 and SD = 0.52, and M = -0.18 and SD = -0.08 for the third
grade males who did not receive the bi-weekly Healthy Lifestyle newsletters.
17. The difference in the body mass index of the fourth grade males who received
letters is M = -0.32 and SD = 0.36, and M = -0.51 and SD = -0.19 for the
fourth grade males who did not receive the bi-weekly Healthy Lifestyle
newsletters.
Body Mass Index 42
Conclusions
Two major conclusions were drawn from this study. The first conclusion
addresses research question 1. The second conclusion addresses research question 2.
1. The implementation of bi-weekly Healthy Lifestyle newsletters given to the
guardians of the third and fourth graders in a rural southwestern Minnesota school district
did not have an effect on the student's body mass index.
2. The gender of a students in the rural southwestern Minnesota school district did
not affect how quickly the student's body mass index changed.
Discussion
Extensive research has been conducted to determine the cause of obesity, but it
continues to show that children need to learn both the importance of healthy eating and
daily exercise. According to Ludwig, (2007) new generations are destined to have more
health problems and be fatter than the generations before them.
A major reason for the rise in obesity is junk food and lack of movement. The
entire population must change its attitudes about unhealthy eating, and daily exercise
should be incorporated into everyone's daily routine.
In conclusion, schools have the ability to shape students' minds and to give them
knowledge in physical education. Educations can also give the students the ability to
learn how to eat properly and learn what good fitness consists of. Much empirical
research has yet to be done in regards to children's' body mass index. Those working in
the education fields will need to be aware of students' body mass index and continue to
learn ways that can assist these individuals in leading a healthier lifestyle.
Body Mass Index 43
Recommendations for Practice
Based on the results and conclusions of this study the following recommendations
for practice are suggested:
1. Through this research it has shown the body mass index of third and fourth
graders in this rural southwestern Minnesota school district are above a healthy number
and need to be lowered to improve the health of these students. To accomplish this more
attention needs to be put on how to improve the body mass indexes of the students.
2. To make an effective physical education classroom, student's body mass index
should be taken on a regular basis with the results sent to the students' guardians to allow
the guardians and the teachers to see improvements or lack of improvements in each
student. Based on the regular body mass index tests, students can then be given a proper
physical education program to improve their body mass index.
Recommendation for Further Study
This study was limited to the results of one rural southwestern Minnesota school
districts third and fourth grade classes whose students were present on the day of the
body mass index was conducted. It is recommended that this study be replicated with
other students in other areas of Minnesota or in other parts of the United States before
generalizations can be made.
Another recommendation for further study is to expand the study to include
elementary and middle school students. A comparison could then be made on the
Body Mass Index 44
different types of interventions and strategies that work on improving a student's body
mass index.
With the amount of time between the pre and post body mass index test, it is
recommended that more time is allowed between the two measurement dates. This
amount of time would allow for more bi-weekly healthy Lifestyle newsletters to be
distributed to the guardians of the children and ways to help the guardian modify their
eating intake, knowledge of healthy lifestyles, and exercise needs to meet the needs of
each child.
Body Mass Index 45
Reference List
Alters, S. (2007). Obesity. Farmington Hills, MI: Thomson Gale.
Center for Disease Control and Prevention. (2007, June 10). About BMIfor children and
teens. Retrieved March 19, 2009, from http://www.cdc.gov/healthyweight/
assessing/bmi/childrens_bmi/about_childrens_bmi .html.
Clark, L. (2008). The complex and untidy science of childhood obesity mirrors the
complexity of practice. Journal of Specialist in Pediatric Nursing, 13(3), 141-143.
Daniel, S. R. (2006). The consequences of childhood overweight and obesity. Future of
Children, 16(1), 49-67.
Duffy, L. M. (2008). Comparison of the Futrex-5000 A/WL and the Tanita BF-350 to
measure percent body fat. Unpublished master's thesis, Southwest Minnesota
State University, Marshall, MN.
eMedicine Health (2009). Obesity in Children. Retrieved March 2, 2009, from
http://www.emedicinehealth.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=58701&pf=3&pa
ge=l
Greene, B. (2007). Calories in, calories out: Food and exercise in public elementary
schools, 2005. National Center for Education Statistics. Retrieved February 11,
2009 from http://nces.ed.gov/Pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=2006106
Janssen, I., Craig, W., Boyce, W., Pickett, W. (2004). Associations between overweight
and obesity with bullying behaviors in school-aged children. Official Journal of
the American Academy of Pediatrics, 113(5), 1187-1194.
Body Mass Index 46
Justus, M. B., Ryan, K. W., Rockenback, J., Katterapalli, C., & Card-Higginson, P.
(2007). Lessons learned while implanting a legislated school policy: Body mass
index assessments among Arkansas's public school students. Journal of School
Health, 77(10), 706-713.
Kretchmar, R. S. (2008). The increasing utility of elementary school physical education:
A mixed blessing and unique challenge. The elementary School Journal, 108(3),
161-170.
Kumanyika, S., & Grier, S. (2006). Targeting interventions for ethic minority and lowincome populations. Future of Children, 16(1), 187-207.
Lemay, C. A., Elfenbein, D. S., Cashman, S. B., & Felice, M. E. (2007). The body mass
index of teen mothers and their toddler children. Matern Child Health Journal,
12, 112-118.
Ludwig, D. (2007). Childhood obesity: The shape of things to come. JAMA, 357(23),
2325-2327.
Summerfield, L. M. (1998). Promoting physical activity and exercise among children.
Washington DC: Clearinghouse.
Wilkinson, E. (2008). Can you pay people to be health? The Lancet, 371(9621), 13251326.
Body Mass Index 47
Appendix A
Bi-weekly Healthy Lifestyle Newsletters
Body Mass Index 48
1. Learning to cook helps kids to learn about nutrition and healthy eating. They
are growing up with fast food and junk food at their fingertips, which is part of the reason
why child obesity is on the rise!
2. It will help to boost a child's self-esteem. If your child needs a boost of self
confidence, cooking in the kitchen will help to do just that. They will learn to accomplish
a task, learning something important and contributing to the family at the same time.
3. It will help to create family time and bonding with your child. It may take a
longer time to get the meal or snack ready, but the memories with your child are
priceless. Just remember to keep your patience as your child is learning new things.
4. Children will be more apt to eat what they have made. Perhaps, it is the
enthusiasm of creating something themselves, but they will be more likely to eat
whatever they had a hand in making.
5. Kids need to learn real lessons in science, language, math and creativity and
helping cook is a way for children to get lessons in all of these areas.
6. It is a way to teach children how to work together on a team, whether it's with a
parent or with brothers and sisters.
Here is an easy kid's recipe to try today!
Cross between pizza and grilled cheese
Ingredients
Instructions
2 slices of white bread
1. Butter 2 pieces of bread.
Butter
2. Cook 2 pieces of bread in skillet on stove.
Pizza sauce
3. Put pizza sauce on the buttered side of bread.
Pepperoni
4. Add sausage, pepperoni & mozzarella cheese.
Sausage
5. Put pieces of bread together and ENJOY!
Mozzarella cheese, shredded
Body Mass Index 49
Healthy Alternatives t o
Halloween Candy & Ways
t o keep it more healthy!
~ Raisins (Individual Boxes)
~ Peanuts (Individual Boxes)
~ Pop-Tarts
~ Juice Boxes (100% Juice)
~ Microwave Popcorn
~ Cereal Bars
~ Decide with children before
Halloween a reasonable amount of
candy to eat each night
~ Make sure children eat supper
before they Trick-or-Treat
~ Parents need to be role models
by not eating too much candy
themselves
~ Walk, don't drive, if possible, to
get some physical activity while
candy collecting
~ Parents should inspect all candy
before children eat any of it
Playing outsicje together
as a family t o increase
physical activities and
health benefits everyone!
~ Target Squirting - Set plastic
cups on the top of a fence and
have children squirt them off with
water guns. Create games by
making different cups worth
different points, or making it a
race!
~ Scavenger Hunt - Create a list
of 20 or more things that can be
found in nature outside your home.
Send kids on a hunt to try and
collect as many of the items as
possible.
~ Obstacle Course - Let your kids
create a course from toys, bikes
and other things found in your
yard. Participate with them by
going through their course and
designing one for them.
REDUCE SODA A N D SWEET DRINKS
Soft drinks and sugary juices should
d -be ^
a treat,
not a primary drink for children.
L
J
Reduce the amount of soda and juice you bring
into the house to help reduce
'
1 L holidays
temptation. Allow the drinks on special occasions such as
~ L;,J
-L 1
~,:
birthdays
and
Body Mass Index 50
•
•
•
;-/ ^
• i-i,
•
Building strong bones
Grow and develop healthily
Improve concentration at school
Improve their coordination, balance and strength
•
Maintain a healthy weight
Easy Changes to Make in your Home
Here is a list of 5 easy changes that parents can make around their houses to help improve the
lifestyle of both their children and themselves!
1. Do an hour of activity per day - Children need at least 60 minutes of activity each day.
There are many ways to get them active, including being active as a family, learning how to get
motivated, and coaching sports teams.
2. Choose water as a drink - Water is the best thirst-quencher you
can give kids. In contrast, sugary drinks are not only unhealthy but actually
make children thirstier.
3. Eat more fruits and vegetables - Research shows that kids aren't
eating enough fruits and vegetables. Find out about benefits of eating fruits
and vegetables and learn simple ways to incorporate them into everyday
meals.
4. Turn off the TV or computer and get active - Two hours a day. That's the
recommendation for the maximum time kids should be in front of a TV or computer screen.
Setting limits for these activities brings real benefits.
5. Eat fewer snacks and select healthier alternatives - Snacking
happens when children are hungry. If they're hungry you need to have
healthy snacks on hand. You can also work on feeding them up during
meals so they don't get hungry.
Body Mass Index 51
Make a Tree of Thanks for the
family.
After the food:
There is always so much focus on foods
during this time of year that you don't
want to forget about being active as well.
Here is list of fun outdoor things to do
while your children have a few days off
of school.
1. Draw with sidewalk chalk
What you will need Twig with branches
Basket
Floral Foam
Silk Leaves
2. Go for a family walk
3. Plant seeds in a cup
4. Jump rope
White card stock
5. Ride bikes
Black Marker
6. Play soccer
Hot glue gun
7. Throw a Frisbee
American Moss
How to make it Fill basket with floral foam. Pack it in
tight so that it will not move around.
8. Fly a kite
9. Play volleyball
10. Go bowling
Insert twig into floral foam until secure.
11. Play dodgeball
Hot glue one silk leaf for each member
12. Play tag
of your family onto the end of each
branch.
Write each family member's name on
pieces of card stock.
Hot glue one name below each leave
Arrange American moss over the top of
the basket and hot glue in place.
Place on holiday table.
13. Play Catch
14. Play with your pets
15. Make a campsite in your yard
16. Build a fort
17. Go to the park
Body Mass Index 52
Don't let the winter season caught you and your family off
guard. Being prepared will help the whole family during
the long cold winter months!
Take Vitamin C for colds - studies have shown that vitamin C eases the intensity of cold
symptoms by 23 percent and can shorten a cold's duration by a few days.
Make sure all children get the flu shot and have a doctor checkup.
Have games and family books in an easy to find location for really cold
and snowy days.
Drink more water - increase the amount of water your family drinks
because it flushes toxins and impurities from the body and helps in
quicker recovery from colds and flu.
Stock your vehicles for winter - this is a great way to teach children about car safety during
the cold winter months. Here is a list of a few things to make sure you have in your
vehicles.
o
A jacket and gloves for each member of the family
o
A winter first aid gift - hand warmers, children's cold medicine, tissues
o
Blankets
o
Flashlights
Go through your children's closets and make sure they have winter clothes that fit them.
Also pack up the clothes that they can no longer wear and donate it to clothing drive.
Get shovels and snow removal equipment out and check for repairs that
are needed before the snow comes!
Have children help test all smoke detectors and carbon
monoxide
detectors.
- Make it a family event to pack up all summer and fall outdoor equipment (pots and
plants, games, toys, lawn chairs, ect.).
Body Mass Index 53
••I
1
Shoe Box Relay Race
Supplies:
Tootsie Rolls
One shoe box for each team
One bell for each team
Two mittens for each team
Two bowls for each team
Set up:
Place tootsie rolls, in a bowl, at the opposite end of the room.
Hang a bell, from the ceiling, over the tootsie roll bowl
How to play:
Divide the children into two or more relay teams. When you say "GO", the first child
from each team will put on the mittens, step in the show boxes and race to the other end
of the room where they will ring the bell with their nose. They are then to pick up a
tootsie roll out of the bowl and race back to their team still wearing the mittens and shoe
box. They then pass the mittens and shoe box to the next child on their team, sit down,
and eat their tootsie roll. The first team to finish eating their tootsie rolls wins!
Rudolph Sandwiches
Take a peanut butter and jelly sandwich, cut it crossways for a
triangle. Put two raisins for the eyes, five or six raisins for the
mouth, broken pretzel bits for the horns, and a bright half a
IRS
RUD01
Mm* vwn^Miimtemtt
SfctiiMiMMHr
cherry for the nose. You now have a sandwich that looks like Rudolph the Red-Nosed
Reindeer!
BfHB
Body Mass Index 54
Appendix B
Letter to Parents/Guardians
Body Mass Index 55
Dear Parents/Guardians of XXX,
This letter is to inform you of your child's Body Mass Index, and the health risks
associated with a child's weight. Your child's height is XX inches, her weight is XX
pounds, and her Body Mass Index is XX.XX.
Here is a chart that helps to show where your child's Body Mass Index lays on a
chart. This chart shows what a healthy Body Mass Index is for different ages of children.
The different areas show if your children's Body Mass Index is within the normal and
healthy range, or if is too low or too high for his or her age group.
BMI
Percentile
12 -
|
10 -I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 i i 1 1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
Age (yrs)
Health concerns for children are becoming more public because of the health risks
associated with being overweight as a child. Studies have shown overweight children are
at high risk for diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cancer, asthma, depression, and sleep
apnea.
Genetics plays a role in the Body Mass Index of a child, but more importantly,
parents and guardians of children play the key role in determining if children acquire
good eating and exercise habits, or negative eating and exercise habits.
Further letters will provide activities for families to do together to stay fit and
active, along with meal ideas that children can help prepare!!
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