вход по аккаунту


Acculturation levels and adjustment in African women

код для вставкиСкачать
UMI Number: 3462974
All rights reserved
The quality of this reproduction is dependent upon the quality of the copy submitted.
In the unlikely event that the author did not send a complete manuscript
and there are missing pages, these will be noted. Also, if material had to be removed,
a note will indicate the deletion.
Dissertation Publishing
UMI 3462974
Copyright 2011 by ProQuest LLC.
All rights reserved. This edition of the work is protected against
unauthorized copying under Title 17, United States Code.
ProQuest LLC
789 East Eisenhower Parkway
P.O. Box 1346
Ann Arbor, Ml 48106-1346
Student's name: Tomike Lana-Olaseinde
Dissertation Title: Acculturation Levels and Adjustment in African women.
Name and Degree
Institution Affiliation
Jerry Westermeyer, PhD (Chair)
Adler School of Professional Psychology
Steven Migalski, PsyD
Adler School of Professional Psychology
Lisa Lavella, PsyD
Adler School of Professional Psychology
"I can do all things through Christ who strengthens me."
A wise African adage goes "it takes a village to train a child." In my
educational quest, it has truly taken a village of support. I must begin by
appreciating my family for believing in me especially my mother, Ruby Lana who
from the beginning of this journey has encouraged me and has shown me how to
be a strong woman through all things. Special thanks to my father, High Chief
Lana for motivating me to succeed in ways unimaginable and providing an
avenue to explore and learn my Nigerian heritage. To my "big sister" Tawanda
Tobin who fondly refers to me as "Bobo" and who always seemed interested even
when I talked about the most boring things, I love you. Last but not least, my
gratitude goes to my "Auntie Bobbie" who taught me about my African American
heritage and instilled pride in my identity, Thank you.
I am grateful for my mentors in Christ: Pastors Olumide Oluwole and
Funmi Adewole who have shown me how to walk with God and have helped me
to stand in the most trying times of my life. I appreciate all the women who
participated in the study for making this possible and with special thanks to Ms.
Elizabeth Ibitoye who persisted in making sure there was a degree of diversity
among the samples.
I want to say a huge thank you to all of my friends who have stood with
me, cried with me, and rejoiced with me regardless of how big or small.
I am deeply indebted to my committee: To Dr. Westermeyer who has
encouraged this project and built my confidence, and showed me that I could
complete it. To Dr. Migalski, you taught me how to listen, to be patient, and to be
efficient. To Dr. Lavella, you have a quiet yet strong spirit. You taught me
openness and acceptance.
Finally, and most importantly, I give all the glory and honor to Jesus
Christ who is my Lord and Savior. It is only through His mercy and grace that
this and everything that I am is possible!
Curriculum Vitae
Tomike Lana-Olaseinde
Chicago, IL
PsyD Student, Clinical Psychology
Adler School of Professional Psychology, Chicago, Illinois
American Psychological Association - accredited program
2010 (anticipated completion)
Certificate in Substance Abuse (CADC) April, 2009
Adler School of Professional Psychology, Chicago, Illinois
MAC, Counseling Psychology, August 2008
Adler School of Professional Psychology, Chicago, Illinois
MA, Individual Options {Honors), December 2004
University of Illinois at Springfield, Springfield, Illinois
Concentration: Social Service Administration & Diversity Management
BA, Psychology {Honors), December 2002
University of Illinois at Springfield, Springfield, Illinois
Major 1: Psychology
Major 2: Legal Studies
Internship Experience
Hartgrove Hospital, Partial Day Program
Position: Psychology Intern
Provided individual, group, and family therapy. Completed diagnostic and
psychological assessment.
Practica Experience
Hazelden, Chicago, August 2008- June 2009
Substance Abuse Certificate
Chicago, IL
Position: Intern
Responsible for facilitating twelve-step groups focused on the abstinent
model of recovery and to address chemical dependency and related issues
providing helpful feedback to promote recovery.
Hartgrove Hospital, Partial Program (Day) July 2007-July 2008
Chicago, IL
Position: Therapy Extern
Conducted brief therapy for approximately 9-16 weeks. Provided
individual, family, and group therapy in addition to facilitating case
management services.
United Stand, Chicago, May 2006-June 2007
Chicago, IL
Position: Diagnostician
Performed diagnostic and psychological assessment with children and
adolescents from low socioeconomic status.
God's School, May 2004-July 2004
Treasure Beach, Jamaica
Position: Teacher and coordinator of services for MA in Individual
Developed curriculum for pre-k to 6th grade students and taught pre-k and
kindergarten. Developed fund development strategies and coordinated
resources in the community. Coordinated resources and supervised three
students on the trip to ensure they met program requirements and worked
with a variety of diverse persons.
Volunteer /Service Work
The Lord's Table Ministries, August 2006-present
Chicago, IL
Position: Program Director
Developed the transitional housing program for the homeless members of
the ministry. Responsible for writing publications for the ministry.
Supervises the financial aspects of the ministry and volunteers. Provides
referrals to members for agencies in the community. Teaches English as a
Second Language (ESL) classes
Adler Psychology Honors Program, June 2007
Chicago, IL
Mentored an ethnic minority student to help her successfully transition
from her university as she started graduate school and attended workshops
to facilitate the adjustment process with the student.
Big Brothers, Big Sisters, 2002-2004
Springfield, IL
• Mentored eight-year-old girl
• Met with "little sister" weekly
Awards and Scholarships
Diversifying Higher Education in Illinois (DFI), 2005-present
Graduate Fellowship, Adler Professional School of Psychology
University of Illinois at Springfield, International Honors Award,
University of Illinois at Springfield, Whitney Young, 2002-2004
Graduate Fellowship
PSI CHI, National Psychology Honor Society, August 2002-Present
Professional Affiliations and Leadership Roles
Illinois African American and Latino Higher Education Alliance
(IALHEA), 2008
Student Affiliate of American Psychological Association (APA), since
December 2003
Master's Thesis
Title: Eradication of Female Genital Cutting in West Africa: Preserving
the Cultural Tradition of Coming of Age in the 21st Century
Chair: Dr. Jan Dreogkamp
Thesis defense: December 2003
Yoruba and its dialects: used it to communicate with parents of African
children in practicum settings
Table of Contents
Chapter I
Chapter II
Review of Literature
Chapter III
Chapter IV
Chapter V
List of Appendices
Appendix A: Informed Consent Form
Appendix B: Demographic Questionnaire (DQ)
Appendix C: Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS)
Appendix D: Collective Self-Esteem Scale (CSE)
Appendix E: Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE)
Appendix F: Acculturation Stress Scale (ACS)
List of Tables
Table 1: Descriptive statistics for categorical outcome variables
Table 2: Descriptive statistics for continuous and demographic variables
Table 3: Descriptive statistics for outcome variables
Table 4: Correlation matrix comparing the relationship between demographic and
outcome variables
Table 5: Spearman rank correlations among outcome variables
Table 6: Comparison of single and married on acculturation
Acculturation and adjustment is a topic that has been and that continues to be
studied with immigrant populations. This study was an attempt to examine if
acculturation is associated with adjustment in Nigerian women. The study
hypothesized that high acculturation levels would lead to low depression scores
and high self-esteem levels. Additionally, this study also hypothesized that low
acculturation levels would predict high levels of stress and anxiety. Finally, this
study examined levels of acculturation and marriage. A sample included 82
Nigerian women who volunteered to participate from a religious organization.
The Measures utilized were Acculturation Stress Scale (ACS), Rosenberg SelfEsteem Scale (RSE), Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS); and the
Collective Self-Esteem Scale (CSE). All of these variables namely depression,
anxiety, stress, self-esteem, and some demographic information were studied with
acculturation. The results showed that women with higher acculturation levels
reported significantly less symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress than
women with lower acculturation in this group reported. In regard to self-esteem
(collective & personal) and acculturation, the results indicated that higher
acculturation levels correlated with reported higher self-esteem. Additionally, the
results indicated that women who were married were trending higher
acculturation levels compared to single women in the study. The results validated
the original hypotheses. It is also interesting to note that the results are consistent
with several studies on acculturation.
Chapter 1
The field of psychology is moving to a stance of cultural sensitivity.
Cultural sensitivity involves acquiring knowledge and skills needed to meet the
needs of diverse clients especially in assessment and treatment planning.
Acculturation levels indeed influence the way clients experience their world, view
themselves, and will influence their treatment seeking behavior and its outcomes.
This study examined how acculturation influences adjustment through studying
variables such as depression, self-esteem, anxiety, and demographic information
namely immigration, length of stay, marital status, education, and SES in African
women, specifically, Nigerian.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between
acculturation levels and adjustment in African women, specifically Nigerian.
Consequently, this study sought to determine if variables such as self-esteem,
depression, anxiety, and other demographic information that, for this study
constitutes adjustment are associated with acculturation.
Many acculturation studies focus on other ethnic populations particularly
Asians, African Americans, and Hispanics (Shen & Takeuchi, 2001 & Ramos,
2005). Acculturation studies commonly focus on its relationship to ethnic identity
and language (Ramos, 2005, & Farver, Xu, Bhadha, Narang, & Lieber, 2007).
This study, however, included demographic information and culture orientation,
such as collectivism and/or individualism. Moreover, there is little research on
African acculturation studies as it relates to depression, self-esteem, and anxiety
in the US. The explanation for this is possibly the fact that, often, African
immigrants are categorized as African Americans and are believed to have similar
racial and ethnicity issues. This study aimed to understand these variables as they
relate to adjustment associated with acculturation with African women.
This study will enable us to understand acculturation in terms of Nigerian
women in addition to understanding their views of acculturation as it relates to
their collective culture. This will aid professionals to increase cultural
competency and enable them to provide better-suited treatment for African
This study proposed the following:
a) Women with higher acculturation levels will report fewer
symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress.
b) Women with higher acculturation will have higher selfesteem.
c) Women, who are married, will have higher acculturation
Assumptions and limitations
This study assumed that the participants responded honestly. The study
further assumed that their responses and reports give an accurate measure of their
symptoms and that other information asked in the research package was
One of the limitations of this study is that the sample is specific and not
representative. This sample consisted of African immigrant women, specifically;
Nigerian and it will be difficult to generalize the information to other African
immigrant women. Additionally, this is a correlation study, which has its
limitations within itself such as its inability to explain the causal relationship
between related variables.
Chapter II
Review of Literature
The idea of acculturation is one of interest and research, as it relates to
mental health for ethnic minorities and immigrants. Acculturation "is a term
generally referring to the psychosocial adjustment and adaptation to a new culture
for people from another culture" (Shen & Takeuchi, 2001, p. 388). Furthermore,
research has also established that the relationship between acculturation and
mental health is a complex one. Cuellar, Bastida, and Braccio (2004) support this
notion as they purported, that even though the relationship, that is, acculturation
and mental health, might be complex, "but with many significant and discernable
findings" (p. 449). In other words, acculturation greatly influences an
individual's adjustment and psychological functioning. Consequently, it is agreed
among social scientists '"it has been acknowledged as the most prominent
construct in psychological research involving multicultural populations
(Ponterotto, Baluch, & Carielli, 1998)' (Dillon, Felix-Ortiz, Rice, De La Rosa,
Rojas, and Dunan, 2009)."
Acculturation "can greatly affect psychological functioning as it entails
adjustment in person-environment fit for new social cultural conditions" (Ramos,
2005, p. 95). Of recent, research in this area has developed into a more integrated
perspectives approach; however, acculturation proves hard to study because of its
dynamics and meaning to diverse people. Shen and Takeuchi (2001), suggest,
generally, acculturation is conceptualized in terms of a linear process as regards to
mental health. Pires, Stanton, and Ostenfeld (2006) explain a linear process of
acculturation "whereby the expatriate would increasingly learn and adopt the
culture of the mainstream, following a straight line pattern from the home to the
host culture until assimilation is achieved" (p. 159). The unidirectional process of
acculturation suggests, "Immigrants are pressured to adapt to the host culture and
in doing so, change their values and behaviors" (Smokowski, Rose, & Bacallao,
2010, p. 134).
Farver, Xu, Bhadha, and Narang (2007) view the acculturation process
orthogonal and as a result, it has many facets and "must be considered in
understanding immigrant psychological functioning" (p. 187). However, Farver
et al. (2007) present Berry's (1993) argument that one cannot speak of
acculturation without considering ethnic identity and their effects on immigrants
psychological functioning. Kurman, Eshel, & Sbeit (2005) discuss Berry's
acculturation model (1990, 2001) that immigrants face two issues that pertain to
their host country namely, "whether to maintain their former cultural identity or
whether to develop closer relations with members of the host society and accept
its values" (p. 594). Berry further suggests that "yes" or "no" answers to this
dilemma results in four acculturation attitudes. The acculturation attitudes are as
Assimilation is a readiness to adopt the new lifestyle and abandon a large
part of one's former identity; integration constitutes the desire to adopt elements
of the new lifestyle without abandoning one's former values and identity;
Marginalization represents (a) a lack of interest in retaining one's former identity
or developing a new one or (b) a lack of ability to do so. These acculturation
attitudes are not mutually exclusive; each individual displays some degree of each
(Kurman, Eshel, & Sbeit, 2005).
Shen and Takeuchi (2001), suggest, generally, acculturation is
conceptualized in terms of a linear process as regards to mental health. They
argue that there are three types of relationships that have been speculated namely,
positive, negative, and curvilinear. Based on the premise that acculturation means
the process of adaptation to a new environment, the first relationship
"acculturation is regarded as the evidence that the individual has successfully
adjusted to the new environment and, in fact, has become a member of the
mainstream society demonstration competence in social and occupational
functioning" (p. 389). The second perspective proposes that a higher level of
acculturation leads to "the individual's sense of dissonance and conflict. . . . in
attempts to achieve a balance between two cultures, individuals may experience
more psychological deterioration in mental health" (p. 389). Finally, the
curvilinear relationship between acculturation and mental health perspective
suggests, "people halfway through the acculturation process are most susceptible
to psychological disorders" (p. 389). The authors explain that the stress of trying
to cope with life changes accompanying acculturation may leave this group of
individuals more vulnerable to mental disorders. However, they argue that people
who are not acculturated and highly acculturated a simply more comfortable with
their "respective cultural systems" (p. 389). These are some of the issues that this
study attempts to answer.
Acculturation studies often times measure language and ethic
identification as the predominant stressor to assimilation. Acculturation stress by
definition is, "stress stemming from difficulties of acculturation has been
operationalized as stress as a result of culture or language difficulties" (Paukert,
Pettit, Perez, & Walker, 2006, p. 405). Moreover, as defined by Vahdet and
Semra (2008) "acculturative stress refers to the psychological, somatic, and social
difficulties that may accompany acculturation process" (p. 2). However, realizing
the complexity of acculturation and acknowledging that language and ethnic
identification are important, depending on the culture, other variables for
consideration are the type of culture a person(s) is/are from namely, coUectivist or
individualistic. Furthermore, acculturative stress is usually "manifested in the
form of depression (because of culture loss) and anxieties (because of
uncertainties)" (Zeynep & Berry, 1996 p. 240).
On the other hand, acculturative stress is not necessarily negative "it may
also be a positive force that enhances an individual's psychological functioning.
The outcome depends on a number of factors influencing the relation between
acculturation and mental health" (Dona & Berry, 2001, p. 60).
Some authors present the argument that language has the least to do with
acculturation stress. "In certain ethnic populations, maintenance of greater culture
values was found to be associated with: decreased self-esteem, an increased state
and trait anxiety, and depression; whereas, language and ethnic identity had
minimal influence on mental health" (Vahdet & Semra, 2008 p. 2). In other
words, the greater the acculturation level namely, the further the individual is
removed from their original culture, the more reported mental health issues.
Furthermore, the concept of biculturalism has emerged from the study of
acculturation. Biculturalism simply purports that an individual can gain
competence within "two cultures without losing his or her own cultural identity"
(Vahdet & Semra, 2008 p. 2). However, these authors also report "bicultural
identity is sometimes disguised to avoid the negative discriminations in a host
community, whereby intolerance and prejudices against other cultures prevailed"
(Vahdet &Semra, 2008 p. 2). Interestingly, many immigrants perceive
biculturalism as a "handicap" in the acculturation process, which increases
acculturation stress for these individuals (Vahdet &Semra, 2008).
The current literature on acculturation often omits these two variables:
intolerance and prejudices. They play a significant role on how well an individual
can adjust to a new culture that may be the opposite of his/her own.
As earlier established, acculturation is difficult to measure because it is
hard to measure an individual's values and beliefs. However, it can be simplified
when evaluated in relation to symptoms and affect states. This has resulted in
studies that discuss acculturation in terms of depression, job stress levels,
socioeconomic status (SES), and self-esteem. In this study, acculturation is
studied as it is associated to self-esteem namely, individual and collective,
depression, anxiety, and stress. In addition, demographic information such as
marital status, education, immigration status, and SES will be studied in
connection to acculturation. The population studied will be African women,
specifically Nigerian women.
There are many of acculturation studies of African-Americans, AsianAmericans, and Hispanic-Americans. These studies mostly depict cultural
adjustment in varying subcultures within the mentioned ethnic groups leaving out
other immigrant populations. The U.S. Census Bureau defines "immigrants as
lawful permanent residents and foreign-born as anyone who was not born an
American citizen." The field of psychology and other helping fields are moving
towards a model of cultural competency. Historically, psychology models had the
tendency to believe that people were homogenous, and as a result,
psychopathology and treatment were a "one size fit all." However, research
shows that people are diverse and it is necessary for psychologists to consider
culture in assessment, conceptualizing, and treatment planning. In an effort to
accommodate this diversification, psychologists are called to acquire the
knowledge and skills relevant to specific populations with whom they work.
There are several African immigrants who live in the United States.
However, it is important to hone in on the Nigerian population because of their
predominance in the current study. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, (2000),
there are approximately 134, 940 Nigerians living in the US. The census reports
57,945 are females or 42.9 percent. These reports only take account of persons
who are "foreign-born" and not people who were born in Nigeria.
Historical Background of Nigeria and Nigerian Immigration
Nigeria formed under the colonization of the British Empire received its
independence in 1960 with remnants of the Western world such as language,
judicial system, education, religion, and values/belief system still intact. It is not
difficult to find a westernized, yet a very traditional Nigerian. In terms of
government, Nigeria often fluctuates from military to civilian. Recently in 1999,
a new constitution was established. Currently, under civilian rule, the
petroleum/agricultural (33.1%) based economy still struggles for stability. This
generally interprets that up to 70% of Nigerians work in agriculture.
Nigeria, the most populous country of Africa boast of 250 ethnic groups
(CIA fact book). Although there are several languages and dialects, all legal
transactions and documents are in English, the lingua franca of the nation. The
life expectancy for males is 46.8 years, and for females it is 48.08 years in
addition to the infant mortality rate reported at 92.99 per 1000 live births. Life
expectancy and mortality rates are influenced by AIDS, and the risk of other
infectious diseases is very high. In fact, Nigeria is ranked third in the world in
terms of the HIV infection rates (CIA).
Nigeria's Gross Domestic Product (GDP) as of 2004 was $2400 per capita
placing 70% its peoples below the poverty level (CIA, 2010). Of course there are
several reasons people emigrate from their countries. Nwadiora (1995) suggests
that the "push pull" theory explains the reasons why people emigrate. According
to this theory, push factors are "negative variables that force a move away from
their homeland and the pull factors are those variables that attract immigrant
refugee to another country" (p. 61).
Lewis (2000), identifies the main "push pull" factors as economic, asylum,
and socio-cultural. Socio-cultural factors may include strong family ties that will
ease the acculturation processes such as boarding, knowledge on how to access
resources, and transportation. Therefore, it is safe to conclude that Nigerians
emigrate due to the "push pull" factors and socio-cultural variables.
With a slight understanding of the historical background of the Nigerian
people and possible reasons for migration, it would be appropriate to explore
some perceptions on mental illness. Nigerian views on mental illness are
important to this study because the instruments utilized are tools used to assess for
western constructs related to stress, depression, and anxiety.
Adewuya and Makanjuola (2008) conducted a study to examine social
distance towards people with mental illness in Nigeria. The study found that: one
third of the participants knew a family member or friend who had a mental illness
and only 4.9% had cared for an individual who had a mental illness.
Interestingly, they also found that "supernatural" factors were the cause of mental
illness and "more than half of the participants perceived the mentally ill to be
dangerous and mental illness has a fair to poor prognosis" (p. 394).
Furthermore, 82% of the participants would not marry a mentally ill
person and 62% would not consider sharing a room with a person with a mental
illness. However, this finding is consistent with findings in the western world.
The authors compared their study with the stigma related to mental illness in
Germany and Canada and concluded that the percentages where surprisingly
One of the most salient findings in Adewuya and Makanjuola (2008) study
as it relates to the current study is "a strong correlation between belief in
supernatural causation of mental illness and a high rate of social distance towards
people with mental illness. Belief in supernatural causation might make close
association with the mentally ill unattractive and even perceived as risky" (p.
394). Adewuya and Makanjuola (2008) concluded that the implications of this
notion influence treatment seeking behavior and that "western medical care will
be futile and may lead to alternative methods of treatment" (p. 394). These
perceptions with definitely influence treatment-seeking behavior in the west and
most definitely how the Nigerian women in this study answered the questions that
pulled for symptoms of mental illness.
Depression and Acculturation
Shen and Takeuchi, (2001), attempted to study the role of acculturation
and its direct and indirect impact on depressive symptoms through various
correlates, which included social economic status (SES) and social support in
Chinese Americans. They found, acculturation correlated with SES, and they also
found that higher acculturation was associated with higher stress, which, in turn,
contributed to higher depressive symptoms.
Another study by Ramos, (2005), that studied acculturation and depression
among Puerto Ricans in the US showed that higher acculturation levels were
associated with higher depression ratings among males in the sample. The author
suggested that this finding is a result of "gender specific" stressors, particularly
ones impinging on men's traditional identify schemas" (p. 101). In other words,
acculturative stress may be induced by their dual identification to a mainland,
such as, US and Puerto Rican cultures. However, they also found that loweracculturated individuals in the study suffered from depression because of multiple
stressors such as "unfamiliar and frequently hostile environment, which may lead
to feelings of inadequacy, worthlessness, and helplessness" (p. 101).
As mentioned earlier in this paper, there are many acculturation studies of
Hispanic, African American, and Asian American populations but it is difficult to
find studies particularly African specific. The research on these cultures is
essential because it gives a fundamental understanding for better treatment
planning for collective cultures. Due to the statistics quoted in the paragraphs
above in terms of the likelihood of a professional encountering an African for
services, it would be an ethnocentric bias to ignore the needs of this population.
Self-esteem and Acculturation
Some research put forth the argument that it is of great importance to
study acculturation in conjunction with self-esteem and internalizing problems.
The rationale is according the Smokowski et al. (2010), " (a) adaptation to
conflicting cultural messages can cause acculturation stress that leads to anxiety
and depression and (b) multiple dimensions of cultural orientation may be linked
to internalizing symptoms and self-esteem in different ways" (p. 134).
In a study of 347 Hispanic early adolscent youth that examined the
relationship between acculturative stress and self-esteem as it related to substance
abuse they found that ethnic identity was positively related to risk for substance
use and accuturative stress and self-esteem mediated the relationships of hispanic
cultural orientation to alcohol use (Zamboanga, Schwartz, Hernadez, and Tyne,
2009). Expanding on the mediational finding, "the relationship between
acculturative stress and self-esteem was negatively related to both the likelihood
and extent of achohol use (Zamboanga et al., 2009). This simply implied that.
Luthenen and Crocker (1992) argued that intergroup studies on selfesteem rely on personal identity: Self-concept is based on self-description and
personal attributes such as skills and abilities and ignores that fact that intergroup
behavior often involves social identities: self-concept derived from similarities to
which one group belongs. However, Tuner (1982) purported that "in ethnically
diverse settings, identification with one's ethnic group is often accentuated."
Therefore if one more strongly identifies with their ethnic group in a pluralist
setting, acculturation will be less and acculturative stress will be higher.
However, if one's self-esteem is solely based on one's self concept, then
acculturation might be higher depending on the individual's self-esteem: positive
or negative view of oneself.
Collective self-esteem (CSE) as defined by Luthenen and Crocker (1992)
as self-esteem derived from one's group members and evaluation of those groups.
Giang and Wittig (2006) suggested that "since CSE is similar to ethnic identity in
connoting positive group evaluation, CSE is theoretically similar and linked with
Berry's ethnic identification dimension of acculturation, such that the greater CSE
should be related to a preference for high ethnic identity or separation or
integration strategies" (p. 728). In other words, depending on an individual's
level of CSE, it will influence one's acculturation level and strategies.
"Individuals with high regard to for their ethnic group might be more comfortable
pursuing intergroup interactions or vice versa. One the other hand, higher CSE
might be related to greater ethnocentricity and isolation from other groups" (p.
In short, positive CSE might affect individuals in two ways: increase
acculturation due to an openness or minimization to host culture. Giang and
Wittig (2006) conducted a study using data from 427 high school students to
investigate the relationship among adolescents' acculturation strategies, personal
self-esteem and collective self-esteem. They found "by examining self esteem at
both the personal and collective levels, we showed the adaptiveness of
acculturation strategies differs depending on which aspect of the self-esteem is
being predicted (p. 737).
Stress and Anxiety and Acculturation
Interestingly, much of the research on acculturation and stress show that
the longer an individual stays or he/she is born in the host country, the greater
their stress level becomes. "Analysis form the National Longitudinal Survey of
Adolescent Health has shown an inverse relationship between birth and wellbeing" (Smokowski, Rose, & Bacallao, 2010, p. 134). In other words, an
individual born in the host country is more likely to exhibit symptoms of
acculturative stress. These authors further reported, "first and second generation
immigrants reported healthier well-being status as compared to youth with three
or more generations of family members born in the US" (Smokowski, Rose, &
Bacallao, 2010, p. 134).
Further buttressing this evidence, a review of literature found that "the
negative impact acculturative stress can have on individuals' lives, it is logical to
theorize that acculturative stress would relate to emotional experience. Several
studies indicate that acculturative stress is related to symptoms of anxiety and to a
lesser extent depression" (Paukert, Pettit, Perez, & Walker, 2006, p. 407).
Moreover, in the research, acculturative stress is related more to anxious
symptoms than to depressive symptoms. According to Paukert et al.,
"acculturative stress correlated moderately with negative affect, even after we
controlled for self-esteem and satisfaction for social support" (p. 414).
In summary, acculturation is a complex process that includes a variety of
factors. Research attempts to explain the process and continues to speculate on
issues related to acculturation. In addition, there are several studies that examine
many immigrant populations in the United States however; this is the first study
that examines Nigerian women. This study is an attempt to understand how
acculturation influences social adjustment as it is related to depression, stress,
anxiety, and marriage.
Chapter III
Sample Employed
The participants in this study were sampled from a church, Jesus House
Chicago in Albany Park in Chicago. The membership of this church is African
with 80% of its membership being Nigerian. There were 82 participants who
volunteered to participate in the study. All participants were females who ranged
in age from 20 to 76 with an average age of 34 (SD=11 years). Participants
reported being married (47.6%), single (40.2%), divorced (2.4%) or other (1.2%).
Seven participants (8.5%) did not report their marital status. Participants' average
number of years of education was 14.3 (SD=6.9). Most participants reported their
religion as Christian (84.1%). One subject reported being Catholic and two
participants reported being Muslim. Ten participants did not report their religion
(12.2%). Participants reported their income between zero and $25,000 (15.9%),
$25,000 and $50,000 (14.7%), $50,000 and $75,000 (28.1%), $75,000 and
$100,000 (11%), $100,000 and $150,000 (8.5%), and $150,000 and above (11%).
Eighteen participants (22%) did not report their income.
Participants reported being in the United States between one and 30 years
with an average of 12 years (SD=7.2 years). Most participants reported that they
were educated in the United States (75.6%), followed by Nigeria (13.4%), and the
United Kingdom (2.4%). Seven participants did not report their country of
education (8.5%). Most participants reported that their country of birth was
Nigeria (76.8%), followed by the United States (13.4%), and unreported (9.8%).
Most participants reported that they are first generation (73%), while others
reported being second (10%) or third (5%) generation. Ten participants did not
report their immigration status (12%).
Instruments Utilized
The instruments utilized were combined in a package to be completed by
the participants. The first part consisted of demographic information such as age,
marital status, nationality, number of years of education, and a generation that
best described immigration history.
Acculturation Stress Scale (ACS). For the acculturation measure, the
Acculturation Stress Scale (ACS) was employed. The ACS is a nine-item
instrument developed to measure the psychological discomfort African Americans
experienced assimilating into an unfamiliar cultural environment. To date, the
scale has been tested in 86 African American high schools and 34 African
American colleges. The ACS was correlated with self-esteem measures including
the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RES) and resulted in negative correlations.
Thus, if self-esteem is high, acculturation stress is low or vice versa. The three
criteria utilized to construct this instrument were items that (a) a sense of
alienation experienced in social encounters could be measured, (b) determine if
interactions with other ethnic groups, and (c) items to determine if an individual
desires to change their group affiliation.
Evidence of the concurrent validity for the ACS is based on its correlation
with Spielberger Trait Anxiety Scale and Rosenberg SES. As a result, and
because of its short and easy scoring and correlation with the Rosenberg SES, it
was selected for this study. The researcher made some changes to the language in
the ACS to accommodate the population studied. On the Acculturative Stress
Measure, the following questions were changed to reflect an adult audience.
Question 1 was changed from: "I get especially nervous going into a room full of
people if I am going to be the only one of my racial group" to "I get especially
nervous going into a room full of people if I am going to be the only one of my
nationality." Question 2 was changed from: "I get nervous when several people
from a different racial group approach me" to "I get nervous when several people
from a different nationality approach me." Question 3 was changed from "I feel
pretty uneasy in classes or meetings when there's no one from my own racial
group nearby" to "I feel pretty uneasy in situations when there's no one from my
own nationality nearby." Question 4 was changed from: "People from other
racial group seem to talk and act strangely and often don't know how to behave
properly toward me" to "People from other nationalities seem to talk and act
strangely and often don't know how to behave properly toward me." Question 5
was changed from: "It is difficult to really trust someone if they're from a
different racial background" to "It is difficult to really trust someone if they're
from a different nationality." Question 6 was changed from "Students from other
racial backgrounds often act as if they don't want to get to know me just because
I'm of a different race" to "Individuals from other nationalities often act as if they
don't want to get to know me just because I'm of a different nationality."
Question 7 was changed from "In this school, I am often treated more like a
member of my racial group than as an individual person" to "In this
neighborhood; I am often treated more like a member of my nationality than as an
individual person." Question 8 was changed from "Students from certain racial
backgrounds generally get treated better than others in this school" to "Individuals
from certain nationalities generally get treated better than others in this
neighborhood." Question 9 was changed from "Many kids at school put people
down just because they're from racial groups other than their own" to "Many
individuals in my neighborhood put people down just because they're from
nationalities other than their own."
Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE)/ The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale
(SES) is a 10-item self-report measure of global self-esteem. It consists of 10
statements related to overall feelings of self-worth or self-acceptance. The items
are answered on a four point scale ranging from strongly agree to strongly
disagree. It is easily administered to general populations, which was a
determining factor in this study. The Rosenberg SES has demonstrated good
reliability and validity across a large number of different sample groups. Scores
range from 10-40 with higher scores indicating higher self-esteem.
Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS). The Depression,
Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS) is a 42-item instrument that measures three
negative emotional states often found in clinical practice: depression, anxiety, and
stress. The DASS was developed through a series including several clinical
samples. The result is clinically reliable, valid, and sensitive that measure three
common client experiences. For purposes of this study, the scales of depression
and anxiety have been separated from the stress scale. This reduce the
administration time and amount of items included in the whole package.
Collective Self-Esteem (CSE). Finally, the Collective Self-Esteem (CSE)
is a 16-item scale designed to measure social or collective identity. This is
essential for the population studied because of their collective culture and in this
study; the collective identity will be called "social adjustment." The CSE focuses
on the respondents' level of social identity based on their memberships in groups.
The CSE is composed of four subscales: membership, private, public, and
identity. The CSE is short, easy to score, and has correlations to several measures
of self-esteem including the Rosenberg SES.
Procedures Followed
The researcher spoke with the leader of the women's group to solicit
during a Sunday service (that is when the attendance is high) for women to
volunteer to participate in the study. The women who volunteered stayed after the
service and the researcher distributed the survey in the sanctuary. The researcher
explained to the participants their rights before collecting the signed consent form.
Participants simply returned the survey packet to researcher after they had
completed it.
Chapter IV
A correlation matrix (was developed for demographic variables (marital
status, income, years of education, and years in US) and outcome variables
(acculturation, self-esteem, depression, anxiety, and stress) shown in Table 4.
Spearman rank correlations were used to combat extreme positive skewness in the
outcome variables. Table four shows the results found that income was positively
correlated with being married (p=. 62, p<. 01) and more years in the US (p=.34,
p<.01) and negatively correlated with depression (p= -.29, p<.05), anxiety (p= .47, p<.01), and stress (p= -.35, p<.05). Number of years in the US was positively
correlated with being married (p=. 31, p<. 01) and negatively correlated with
acculturation (p= -.25, p<. 05). No significant correlations were found for years
of education and other demographic variables or the outcome variables.
Hypothesis 1
It was hypothesized that if levels of acculturation are high, reported
feelings and/or symptoms of depression will be low. It should be noted that lower
scores on the ACS is indicative of higher acculturation levels and higher scores
are indicative of lower acculturation levels. Sixteen subjects' data were eliminated
from the depression scores due to missing data. A Spearman rank correlation was
conducted due to the extreme positive skewness of the data. The Spearman rank
correlation is a non-parametric test that does not require data to meet the same
assumptions (i.e. normality, homoscedasticity, and linearity) of the Pearson
correlation. Results found a significant positive correlation between acculturation
and depression (p=. 52, p<. 001), suggesting that as acculturation increases,
depression decreases (Table 5). It should be noted that depression scores were
subclinical for this sample.
Hypothesis 2
It was hypothesized that if levels of acculturation are high, self-esteem
will be high. A Spearman rank correlation was performed due to extreme positive
skewness of the data. Results (show in Table 5) found a significant correlation
between acculturation and collective self-esteem as measured by the CSE (p=-.21,
p=. 03) and a significant correlation between acculturation and self-esteem
measured by RSE (/?=-.3 8, p<. 001). Bearing in mind that a lower score on the
ACS is indicative of higher acculturation these results suggest that as
acculturation increases, self-esteem (personal and collective) increases.
Hypothesis 3
It was hypothesized that if acculturation levels are low, stress will be high.
Fourteen subjects were eliminated due to missing information. A Spearman rank
correlation was performed. Results shown in Table 5 found a significant
correlation between anxiety and acculturation (p=. 50, p<. 001). In low
acculturation levels higher stress levels are noted.
Hypothesis 4
It was hypothesized that if acculturation levels are low, anxiety levels will
be high. Fourteen subjects were eliminated due to missing information. A
Spearman rank correlation was conducted. Results found a significant correlation
between anxiety and acculturation (p=. 53, p<. 001). These results are consistent
with the hypothesis that low acculturation levels are associated with higher
anxiety levels.
Hypothesis 5
It was hypothesized that women, who are married, will have high
acculturation levels. Due to the low number of subjects who were divorced (n=2)
or reported "other" marital status (n=l), a comparison was made between single
(n=33) and married (n=39) subjects. An independent t-test was conducted.
Levene's test confirmed homogeneity of variances (F(l, 70)=.19, p=.66). Results
found that married women (M= 14.97, SD=6.97) trended towards higher
acculturation scores than single women (M=18.15, SD=6.97) and considering
once again the lower scores on the ACS is indicative of higher acculturation
Chapter V
In this study acculturation was examined as it related to adjustment in a
sample of Nigerian women. Adjustment in the context of this study was defined
as acculturative stress that is manifested through symptoms associated with
depression, anxiety, and stress. The result of this study has lead to valuable
information about Nigerian women in the US.
The demographics of the study showed that income was important because
it increased when the participants were married and spent more years in the US.
Therefore, the women in this study who were married made more money and their
income increased as they spent more time in their host country. Additionally, the
results showed that the increase in income influenced a decrease in depression,
anxiety, and stress symptoms.
An explanation in the research reported by Aycan and Berry (1996),
summarized Moghaddam, Taylor, and Wright (1993) argument that adaptation is
a multifaceted phenomenon. Adaptation is comprised of three critical elements:
"positive feelings and satisfaction with one's situation, development of positive
interpersonal relations with members of the host culture, and some level of
effectiveness in carrying out the necessary tasks at hand" (p. 242). A possible
explanation for the results mentioned above in this study; is better adjustment to
environment and a supportive relationship with spouse.
Acculturation and Symptoms of Depression
This study proposed that women with higher acculturation levels would be
better adjusted by reporting fewer symptoms of stress, depression, and anxiety.
There is much evidence in the research that supports this premise that more
acculturation supports more adjustment in immigrants. For example, Knipscheer
and Kleber (2010) completed a literature analysis and concluded "most empirical
evidence suggests that separated and marginalized migrants experience more
acculturative stress than well integrated migrants" (p. 370).
Therefore, this may suggest "an overall positive relationship between level
of acculturation and health, implying that better acculturation leads to good
health, or at least fewer health problems and psychological distress" (Knipscheer
& Kleber, 2010, p. 370).
The results of this study showed that as the levels of acculturation
increased, symptoms of depression decrease. In other words, the women in this
study with higher acculturation levels might be experiencing these critical
elements: satisfaction with their situation and positive relationships with people of
the host country described by Aycan and Berry (1996) there by reducing
depressive symptoms.
Essentially, even though this study confirmed this hypothesis, higher
acculturation reported less depressive symptoms. It continues to be important that
the intricacies of acculturation, such as a person's satisfaction with situations and
relationships and how well they are able to adjust to daily life, continues to be
Although there is support in the research that shows a negative
relationship between acculturation and mental health, a "higher level of
acculturation to the dominant society was associated with more mental disorders,
more symptoms of depression, and an increase in alcohol consumption"
(Knipscheer & Kleber, 2010, p. 370). It still remains questionable, however, as to
the cause of the increase of mental disorders and alcohol consumption even
though it is related to acculturation.
Acculturation and Length of Stay in the US
Additionally, higher acculturation levels were assumed to be correlated
with the number of years spent in the US. Thus, women who had lived longer in
the US, would report less acculturation stress. The results indicated that the more
years spent in the US, the less the participants reported symptoms associated with
acculturation stress. It is interesting that the research showed this relationship
consistently based on the effects of acculturation on self-esteem, which will be
discussed later in this section.
Furthermore, Penrice & Brook (1996) found that post immigration
variables such as unemployment, poor accommodation, discrimination, and social
isolation were all significantly associated with levels of anxiety and depression.
Therefore, the sooner these variables were resolved, the less stress the individual
experiences. Reflectively, according to the research, these results in the sample of
Nigerian women are reflective of post immigration status thereby explaining the
reasons possible for women who have spent considerable time in the US may
have considerably less acculturation stress.
Acculturation and Self-esteem
Self-esteem was studied in relation to acculturation. This study proposed
that participants with higher acculturation levels would have higher self-esteem.
Collective and personal self-esteem was measured and they showed a similar
pattern of correlation in regards to acculturation that is, as acculturation increased,
self-esteem increased.
Giang &Wittig (2006) conducted a study with adolescents on strategies for
acculturation and personal and collective self-esteem and found that "both
acculturation dimensions (instruments used for study) were correlated with
personal and collective self-esteem" (p. 725). The authors of this study utilized
the acculturation measure Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM) and the
identical measures used in this study for personal self-esteem, the Rosenberg
(RSE) and the Luhtanen & Crocker's collective self-esteem measure.
Their results were similar to this one: personal and collective self-esteem
are correlated. In terms of self-esteem, the authors found that ethnic identity was
The study found that ethnic identity is positively linked to personal self-esteem.
With respect to collective self-esteem, this study showed that individuals with
higher ethnic identity believe that others have more positive views about their
ethnic group (i.e., higher public CSE). We also found that high ethnic identity is
associated with greater feeling regarding the importance of ethnicity to one's selfconcept (i.e., identity CSE) and worthiness as an ethnic group member (i.e.,
membership CSE). Conversely, higher ethnic identity was also linked to fewer
negative attitudes towards one's ethnic group member (Giang & Wittig, 2006, p.
Although in this study, CSE was not separated into its original three
subscales: public, identity, and membership collective self-esteem, nor was ethnic
identity measured. The results, therefore, might be used to explain the current
findings. Yet, it is a viable explanation that the participants in this study and the
way they perceive their ethnicity relate directly to CSE. If they feel accepted by
their cultural group, it is more likely to be an increase of self-esteem, especially
when acculturation might be viewed as a bridge between the host and traditional
Furthermore, a study was conducted that examined adherence to Asian
and European cultural values as it related to CSE among Asian American college
students found that "adherence to Asian values was a positive predictor of the
importance of identity dimension of collective self-esteem" (Kim & Omizo, 2005,
p. 412). Consistent with the current findings in this study, it becomes clear that
higher acculturation levels influence self-esteem when acculturation is viewed in
a positive light.
Smokowski et al. (2009) conducted a study utilizing Latino adolescents
and showed "that the increased length of time in the US was significantly related
to lower self-esteem among adolescents" (p. 133). These authors reviewed a
study by Schwartz, Zamboanga, and Hernandez (2007) of Latino adolescents and
reported that the researchers found that there is a strong inverse relationship
between acculturative stress and self-esteem. In other words, as acculturative
stress increased, self-esteem decreased which might be associated with feelings
of inadequacy to acculturate. "Problems inherent in the acculturation process
were associated with lower self-esteem, and in turn, self-esteem appeared to be
an important mediator between acculturation variables and behavioral outcome"
(Smokowski et al., 2009, p. 135). When this statement is applied to the current
study, it can be inferred that higher self-esteem is associated with higher
acculturation levels.
Acculturation and Stress/Anxiety
This study proposed that participants in this study with low acculturation
levels would have high anxiety. The results found that the higher acculturation
levels were associated with less anxiety and/or stress. Breslau, Borges, Hager,
Tancredi, Gilman, (2009) examined immigration to the US varied by origin and
age at immigration and risk for mood and anxiety disorders. The researchers
found that, among Mexicans, Eastern Europeans, Africans, and Caribbean people
the lifetime risk was minimal for developing these disorders for immigrants who
arrived into the US after the age of 13 compared the increased risks for
immigrants who made the transition before the age of 13. Interestingly, not only
did the risk increase for those who immigrated at a younger age but also it was
equal to US born immigrants. The bottom-line of this study indicated that the
"association between risk for mood and anxiety disorders is due to the differences
between people who spent their early childhood in the USA and those who spent
their early childhood outside of the USA" (Breslau et al., 2009, p. 1123).
This study might possibly suggest that acculturation and adjustment are
intertwined for as simple as it may sound; older children as suggested earlier,
might have a solid understand of their culture of origin whereas, younger children
may have difficulty acculturating into their parents' culture because they are
acculturated to the host country.
These findings of this study and the research are similar that is, women
who have spent a longer time in the US are more acculturated and experience less
anxiety and stress. It might also indicate that the more acculturated women were
more homogenous to US indigents that is, they expressed and coped with
symptoms similarly.
Although there is limited research directly related to these areas, there are
several studies that discuss acculturative stress in terms of discrimination,
socioeconomics, identity, psychotic disorders, suicidal preoccupation (Awad,
2010), (Akinde & Lester, 1994), (Weiser, Werbeloff, Vishna, Yoffe, Lubin,
Shmushkevitch, Davidson, 2007), and (Roosa, Weaver, White, Tein, Knight,
Gonzales, Saenz, 2009).
The research also shows that homogeneity in immigrant group in terms of
SES status reduces acculturative stress. "Lower SES neighborhoods probably
provided these families in which most mothers were born in Mexico with more
opportunities for social interaction and access to social support than they would
find in other neighborhood types" (Roosa et al., 2009, p. 25). The authors
concluded that due to the similarity that was share among the community, it made
living in a lower SES neighborhood more comfortable and less stressful.
Weiser et al (2007) found that when immigrants from a "nondiscriminated majority ethnic group become part of a discriminated minority
ethnic group in a host society to which they are not acculturated, there is an
increase in the incidence of psychotic disorders" (p 1113). They concluded in
their study that, immigration was associated with increased "hospitalization for
schizophrenia" (p. 118) however, cautioned clinicians to be aware of cultural
differences and misdiagnoses.
Acculturation and Marriage
The results of this study showed that married women showed a trend of
higher acculturation levels compared to single women. There is not much
research on this topic however, it can be said that married women in this study
might experience less acculturative stress because of the support of a spouse.
In conclusion, this study ascertained important information about Nigerian
women who are immigrants in the US. The results showed more acculturation
decreased the report of symptoms of depression, stress, and anxiety. As the
research has shown higher acculturation levels have less risk of adaptation
In terms of self-esteem and acculturation, acculturation has a negative
and/or positive impact on self-esteem. In the study, women who had higher
acculturation levels had higher self-esteem (personal and collective). It can be
explained that Nigerian culture is collective and individualism is often not
encouraged therefore, deviation from traditional values is not acceptable this
finding is also consistent with the research (Smokowski et al., 2009). Therefore a
balance of both types of self-esteem may be indicative of higher acculturation.
This study also showed that married women were more acculturated than
single women, which is consistent with the other findings in this study. Married
women might possibly have higher self-esteem (not studied), and less adaptation
stress. Finally, research on acculturation shows both the positive and negative
parts of stress related to it. The general consensus of all the research is that
acculturation does have an effect on the individual. This study attempted to
explore the association of acculturation levels on adjustment on African women.
The results showed several relationships and concluded that acculturation levels
are associated with adjustment in positive and negative manners. The important
point at this juncture as this study relates to psychology as a whole and
multicultural therapy is that this set of Nigerian women are likely to receive
services from US practitioners and this study creates an awareness in terms of
how rapport and treatment goals might be established. For example, this study
showed that acculturation levels affect self-esteem. For a clinician understanding
the importance of collective self-esteem versus personal self-esteem is key for a
solid relationship and therapeutic competence to be formed.
Limitations and Strengths
An important limitation of this study was that none of the scores of the
participants were non-clinical that reflects a bias and portrays a health picture
Nigerian women immigrant status. It must be mentioned that most of the women
in this study had a religious affiliation. Religion could have served, as a
protective factor in terms of stress that accompanies acculturation and it was not
measured in this study.
Another limitation to consider is the instruments utilized. The DASS is an
instrument that is based on assessing symptoms in distinct categories defined by
western values. Unfortunately, stress, depression, and anxiety might be express
differently in this population and also accounted for the non-clinical scores
The study sample was obtained in a metropolitan city. Although results
might be similar to other cities in the US, acculturation scores would probably
look different in less urban area or among Nigerian women who did not have the
support that the participants have namely among a homogenous population
(religion, gender, education, ethnicity). It is recommended that the acculturation
status of the spouses be studied in conjunction with their wives to understand how
their levels of acculturation might have an impact on the relationship.
A strength of this study can be mentioned as well. A study as specific as
this one has never been illustrated in any previous research with immigrant,
Nigerian women. In this study at least 73.2% (Table 2) of the participants were
first generation immigrants. This study showed consistent findings with other
populations as it relates to acculturation. Finally, this was a correlation study,
which merely showed associations among variables without a full explanation of
how the variables influence each other. Overall, this study attempted to examine
the complexity of acculturation levels and adjustment among African women
although very specific, remains relevant for clinical implications when working
with this population.
Adewuya O. A. & Makanjuola, O. A. (2008). Social distance towards people with
mental illness in Southwestern Nigeria. Australian and Zealand Journal of
Psychiatry, 42, 389-395.
Akande, A. & Lester, D. (1994). Suicidal preoccupation, depression, and locus of
control in Nigerians and American. Person. Individual Diff. 16, (6), 979.
Awad, G. (2010). The impact of acculturation and religious identification on
perceived discrimination for Arab/Middle Eastern Americans. Cultural
and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 16(1), 59-67. doi: 10.1037/a0016675.
Aycan, Z. & Berry, J. (1996). Impact of employment -related experiences on
immigrants' psychological well-being and adaptation to Canada.
Canadian Journal of Behavioral Science, 28(3), 240-251
Barlow, K. M., Taylor, D. M., & Lambert, W. E. (2000). Ethnicity in America
and Feeling "American." The Journal of Psychology, 134, 6, 581-600.
Breslau, J., Borges G., Hagar, Y., Tancredi, D, & Gilman, s. (2009). Immigration
to the USA and risk for mood and anxiety disorders: Variation by origin
and age at immigration. Psychological Medicine, 39, 1117-1127. doi:
Cuellar, I., Bastida, E., & Braccio, S., M., (2004). Residency in the United States,
Subjective Well-Being, and Depression in an older Mexican -Origin
sample. Journal of Aging and Health, 16, 447-466. doi:
Central Intelligence Agency (2009). The world fact book: Nigeria. Retrieved from
Dillon, F. R., Felix - Ortiz, M , Rice, C , Rojas, P., Rui, D. (2009). Validating the
multidimensional measure of cultural identity scales for Latinos among
Latina mothers and daughters. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority
Psychology 15(2), 191-201. doi: 10.1037/aOO 15321.
Dona, G. & Berry, J. W. (1994). Acculturation attitudes and acculturative stress of
Central American refugees. International Journal of Psychology, 29(1),
Gamst, G., Dana, R. H., Der-Karabetian, A., Aragon, M , Arellano, L. M., &
Kramer, T., (2002). Effects of Latino acculturation and ethnic identity on
mental health outcomes. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 24(4),
479-504. doi: 10.1177/0739986302238216.
Gul, V. & Kolb, S. (2008). Acculturation, bicultural identity, and psychiatric
morbidly in young Turkish patients in Germany. Turkish Journal of
Psychiatry, 1-7.
Farver, J. M., Xu, Y., Bhadha, R. B., Narang, S., & Lieber, E. (2007). Ethnic
Identity, acculturation, parenting beliefs, and adolescent adjustment: A
comparison of Asian Indian and European American families. MerrillPalmer Quarterly, 53(2), 184-215.
Giang, M. T. & Wittig, M. A. (2006). Implications of adolescents' acculturation
strategies for personal and collective self-esteem. Cultural Diversity and
Ethnic Minority Psychology, 12(4), 725-739. doi:10.1037/1099.12.4.725.
Kim, S. K. & Omizo, M. M. (2005). Asian and European American cultural
values, collective self-esteem, and self-efficacy among Asian American
college students. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 52, 3, 412-419. doi:
Knipscheer, J. W. & Kleber, R. J. (2007). Acculturation and mental health among
Ghanaians in Netherlands. International Journal of Social Psychiatry,
53(4), 369-383. doi: 10.1177/0020764007078344.
Kurman, J., Eshel, Y., & Sbeit, K. (2005). Acculturation attitudes, perceived
attitudes of the majority, and adjustment of Israeli -Arab and JewishEthiopian students to an Israeli University. The Journal of Social
Psychology, 145(5), 593-612.
Lewis, J. V. (2000). Black immigrant women: Psychological adjustment to US
Culture. ProQuest Dissertation and Thesis database. (UMI No.
Luhtanen, R. & Crocker, J. (1992). A collective self-esteem: Self-evaluation of
one's social identity. Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.
7«(j;, 302-318.
McDonald, J. H. (2009). Handbook of Biological Statistics (2nd Ed.). Baltimore,
Maryland: Sparky House Publishing.
Nwadiora, E., (1995). Alienation and stress among black immigrants: An
exploratory study. The Western Journal of Black Studies, 19, (1), 58-71.
Paukert, A. L., Pettit, J. W., Perez, M , & Walker, R (2006). Affective and
attribution features of acculturative stress among ethnic minority college
students. Journal of Psychology, 140, (5), 405-419.
Pernice, R. & Brook, J. (1996). Refugees' and immigrants mental health:
association of demographic and post immigrant factors. Journal of Social
Psychology, 136(4), 511-519.
Pires, G., Stanton, J., & Ostenfeld, S., (2006). Improving expatriate adjustment
and effectiveness in ethnically diverse countries: marketing insights. Cross
Cultural Management: An International Journal, 13(2), 156-170. doi:
Ramos M. B. (2005). Acculturation and depression among Puerto Ricans in the
Mainland. Social Work Research, 29, 2, 95-105.
Roosa, M. W., Weaver, S. R., White, R. M. B., Tein, J., Knight, G. P., Gonzales,
N., & Saenz, D. (2009). Family and neighborhood fit or misfit and the adaptations
of Mexican Americans. American Journal of Community Psychology, 44,
15-27. doi: 10.1007/sl0464-009-9246-8.
Shen, B. J. & Takeuchi, D. T. (2001). A structural model of acculturation and
mental health status among Chinese American. American Journal of
Community Psychology, 29(3), 387-418.
Smokowski, P. R., Rose, A. R. & Bacallao, M. (2009). Influence of risk factors
and assets on Latino adolescents' trajectories of self-esteem and
internalizing symptoms. Child Psychiatry Human Development, 41, 133155. doi: 10.1007/sl0578-009-0157-6.
United States Census Bureau, (2004). Question and answer center. From
Turner, J.C. (1982). Towards a cognitive redefinition of the social group. In H.
Tajefel (Ed.), Social identity and intergroup relations (pp. 15-40).
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Weiser, M., Werbeloff, N., Vishna, T., Yoffe, T., Lubin, G., Shmushkevitch, M.
& Davidson, M. (2008). Elaboration on immigration and risk for
schizophrenia. Psychological Medicine, 38, 1113-1119. doi:
Zamboanga, B. L., Schwartz, S. J., Jarvis, L. H, &Tyne, K. T. (2009).
Acculturation and substance use among Hispanic early adolescents:
Investigating the mediating roles of acculturative stress and self-esteem.
Journal of Primary Prevention, 30, 315-333. doi:10.1007/sl0935-0090182-z.
Appendix A
give my consent to participate in the
research study of Tomike Lana (researcher-).
I understand that
1. This participation is voluntary and without force, and I am free to
withdraw from this agreement at any time.
2. This research is for purposes of completing a requirement toward the
researcher's attainment of her doctoral degree.
3. My participation involves answering of questionnaires and may last up to
15 minutes.
4. I am free to ask questions of the student and receive explanations about
the research study and my rights as a participant.
5. I will not be identified by name in this project. All information is
confidential and my identity will be disguised.
6. If I have any questions regarding this study, I can contact the supervisory
researcher Dr. Westermeyer at the Adler School of Professional
Psychology at 312-201-5900 ext 210, the researcher, Tomike LanaOlaseinde at (217) 553-1306, or The IRB committee at the Adler School
The researcher has explained the above rights to me as a subject and has informed
me that this consent will remain in a confidential file.
Your Name Printed:
Witness' Name Printed:
Researcher's Signature:
Appendix B
Parti: DQ
Marital Status
Household Income:
• $0-$5,000
• $5,000 - $9,999
• $10,000 - $14,999
• $15,000-$24,999
• $25,000 - $34,999
• $35,000 - $49,999
• $50,000 - $74,999
• $75,000 - $99,999
• $100,000-$149,999
• $150,000 or more
Number of years of education:
Last grade completed in school:
1 - 2 years of college/university
3 - 4 years of college/university
Graduate school +
In what country did you complete your last year of school?
Circle/check the category that best applies to you. Circle only one.
• A = You were bom in another country other than the USA.
• B = You were bom in the USA; either parent bom in another country.
• C = You were bom in the USA, either parent was bom and 1 or more
grandparents were bom in another country.
• D = You and your parents bom in the USA and at least one grandparent
bom in another country with the remainder bom in the USA.
• E = You and your parents bom in the USA and all grandparents bom in
the USA.
What country were you bom in:
Number of years living in the US:
Appendix C
Part 2: DASS
Please read each statement and circle a number 0, 1, 2 or 3 that indicates how much the
statement applied to you over the past week. There are no right or wrong answers. Do not
spend too much time on any statement.
The rating scale is as follows:
Did not apply to me at all
Applied to me to some degree, or some of the time
Applied to me to a considerable degree, or a good part of time
Applied to me very much, or most of the time
I found myself getting upset by quite trivial things
1 2
I was aware of dryness of my mouth
1 2
I couldn't seem to experience any positive feeling at all
1 2
I experienced breathing difficulty (e.g., excessively rapid breathing,
breathlessness in the absence of physical exertion)
1 2
I just couldn't seem to get going
1 2
I tended to over-react to situations
1 2
I had a feeling of shakiness (e.g., legs going to give way)
1 2
I found it difficult to relax
1 2
I found myself in situations that made me so anxious I was most
relieved when they ended
1 2
I felt that I had nothing to look forward to
1 2
I found myself getting upset rather easily
1 2
I felt that I was using a lot of nervous energy
1 2
I felt sad and depressed
1 2
I found myself getting impatient when I was delayed in any way
(e.g., elevators, traffic lights, being kept waiting)
1 2
I had a feeling of faintness
1 2
I felt that I had lost interest in just about everything
1 2
Reminder of rating scale:
0 Did not apply to me at all
I felt I wasn't worth much as a person
1 2
I felt that I was rather touchy
1 2
1 Applied to me to some degree, or some of the time
2 Applied to me to a considerable degree, or a good part of time
3 Applied to me very much, or most of the time
I perspired noticeably (e.g., hands sweaty) in the absence
of high
temperatures or physical exertion
1 2
I felt scared without any good reason
1 2
I felt that life wasn't worthwhile
1 2
I found it hard to wind down
I had difficulty in swallowing
1 2
1 2
I couldn't seem to get any enjoyment out of the things I did
1 2
I was aware of the action of my heart in the absence of physical
exertion (e.g., sense of heart rate increase, heart missing a beat)
1 2
I felt down-hearted and blue
1 2
I found that I was very irritable
1 2
I felt I was close to panic
1 2
I found it hard to calm down after something upset me
1 2
I feared that I would be "thrown" by some trivial but
unfamiliar task
1 2
I was unable to become enthusiastic about anything
1 2
I found it difficult to tolerate interruptions to what I was doing
1 2
I was in a state of nervous tension
1 2
I felt I was pretty worthless
1 2
I was intolerant of anything that kept me from getting on with
what I was doing
1 2
I felt terrified
1 2
I could see nothing in the future to be hopeful about
1 2
I felt that life was meaningless
1 2
I found myself getting agitated
1 2
I was worried about situations in which I might panic and make
a fool of myself
1 2
I experienced trembling (e.g., in the hands)
1 2
I found it difficult to work up the initiative to do things
1 2
Appendix D
We are all members of different social groups or social categories. Some of such
social groups or categories pertain to gender, race, religion, nationality, ethnicity,
and socioeconomic class. We would like you to consider your memberships in
those particular groups or categories, and respond to the following statements on
the basis of how you feel about those groups and your memberships in them.
There are no right or wrong answers to any of these statements; we are interested
in your honest reactions and opinions. Please read each statement carefully, and
respond by using the following scale:
1 = Strongly disagree
2 = Disagree
3 = Disagree somewhat
4 = Neutral
5 = Agree somewhat
6 = Agree
7 = Strongly agree
1. I am worthy member of the social groups I belong to.
2. I often regret that I belong to some of the social groups I
3. Overall, my social groups are considered good by others.
4. Overall, my group memberships have very little to do with
how I feel about myself
5. I feel I don't have much to offer to the social groups I
belong to.
6. In general, I'm glad to be a member of the social groups I
belong to.
7. Most people consider my social groups, on the average, to
be more ineffective than other social groups.
8. The social groups I belong to are an important reflection
of who I am.
9. I am a cooperative participant in the social groups I belong
10. Overall, I often feel that the social groups of which I am a
member are not worthwhile.
12 3 4 5 6 7
12 3 4 5 6 7
12 3 4 5 6 7
12 3 4 5 6 7
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
12 3 4 5 6 7
12 3 4 5 6 7
12 3 4 5 6 7
12 3 4 5 6 7
12 3 4 5 6 7
11. In general, others respect the social groups that I am a
member of.
12. The social groups I belong to are unimportant to my sense
of what kind of a person I am.
13.1 often feel I'm a useless member of my social groups.
14.1 feel good about the social groups I belong to.
15. In general, others think that the social groups of which I
am a member are unworthy.
16. In general, belonging to social groups is an important part
of my self-image.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
12 3 4 5 6 7
12 3 4 5 6 7
12 3 4 5 6 7
12 3 4 5 6 7
12 3 4 5 6 7
Appendix E
Part 4: RSE
Below is a list of statements dealing with your general feelings about yourself. If
you strongly agree, circle SA. If you agree with the statement, circle A. If you
disagree, circle D. If you strongly disagree, circle SD.
On the whole, I am satisfied with myself.
At times, I think I am no good at all.
I feel that I have a number of good qualities.
I am able to do things as well as most other people.
I feel I do not have much to be proud of.
I certainly feel useless at times.
I feel that I'm a person of worth, at least on an equal plane
with others.
8. I wish I could have more respect for myself.
9. All in all, I am inclined to feel that I am a failure.
10.1 take a positive attitude toward myself.
Appendix F
Part 5: ACS
Listed below are a number of statements concerning personal feelings or attitudes
that you might have. Please indicate the most appropriate answer to each question
on your answer sheet using the following:
1 = Disagree
2 = Somewhat Disagree
3 = Somewhat Agree
4 = Agree
5 = Strongly Agree
1. I get especially nervous going into a room full of people if I am going
to be the only one of my nationality.
2. I get nervous when several people from a different nationality
approach me.
3. I feel pretty uneasy in situations when there's no one from my own
nationality nearby.
4. People from other nationalities seem to talk and act strangely and
often don't know how to behave properly toward me.
5. It is difficult to really trust someone if they're from a different
6. Individuals from other nationalities often act as if they don't want to
get to know me just because I'm of a different nationality.
7. In this neighborhood, I am often treated more like a member of my
nationality than as an individual person.
8. Individuals from certain nationalities generally get treated better than
others in this neighborhood.
9. Many individuals in my neighborhood put people down just because
they're from nationalities other than their own.
12 3 4 5
12 3 4 5
12 3 4 5
12 3 4 5
12 3 4 5
12 3 4 5
12 3 4 5
12 3 4 5
12 3 4 5
Table 1
Descriptive statistics for categorical outcome variables
Marital Status
Not reported
Not reported
Not reported
Table 2
Descriptive statistics for continuous and demographic variables
Demographic Variable
Years of Education
Years in US
Table 3
Descriptive statistics for outcome variables
Acculturation (ACS)
Self-Esteem (CSE)
Self-Esteem (RSE)
Outcome Variable
Note. ACS = Acculturation Stress Scale; DASS = Depression, Anxiety, and
Stress Scale; CSE = Collective Self-Esteem; RSE = Rosenberg Self-Esteem.
Table 4
Correlation matrix comparing the relationship between demographic variables
and outcome variables
Years of
Married subjects
Years of Education
Years in US
Note. ACS = Acculturation Stress Scale; DASS = Depression, Anxiety, and Stress
Scale; CSE = Collective Self-Esteem; RSE = Rosenberg Self-Esteem.
Numbers for relationships vary between 75 and 82 depending on the availability
of the data.
*p<.05, **p<.01 (2-tailed), Spearman correlation.
Table 5
Spearman rank correlations among outcome variables
Stat. Test
Note. Subjects with missing data were removed. ACS = Acculturation Stress
Scale; DASS = Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale; CSE = Collective SelfEsteem; RSE = Rosenberg Self-Esteem.
**p<0.01 (1-tailed), *p<0.05 (1-tailed).
Table 6
Comparison of single and married subjects on acculturation
Marital Status
Note. DV=acculturation
Без категории
Размер файла
2 006 Кб
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа