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The development of a campus web routing application for pedestrians and wheelchair users

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THE DEVELOPMENT OF A CAMPUS WEB ROUTING APPLICATION FOR
PEDESTRIANS AND WHEELCHAIR USERS
By
Allison Catherine Bergman, Bachelor of Arts
Presented to the Faculty of the Graduate School of
Stephen F. Austin State University
In Partial Fulfillment
Of the Requirements
For the Degree of
Master of Interdisciplinary Studies
STEPHEN F. AUSTIN STATE UNIVERSITY
August 2010
UMI Number: 1487310
All rights reserved
INFORMATION TO ALL USERS
The quality of this reproduction is dependent upon the quality of the copy submitted.
In the unlikely event that the author did not send a complete manuscript
and there are missing pages, these will be noted. Also, if material had to be removed,
a note will indicate the deletion.
UMT
Dissertation Publishing
UMI 1487310
Copyright 2010 by ProQuest LLC.
All rights reserved. This edition of the work is protected against
unauthorized copying under Title 17, United States Code.
®
ProQuest
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P.O. Box 1346
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© Copyright by, Allison Catherine Bergman
2010
All Rights Reserved
ABSTRACT
The purpose of this project was to create an on-line routing application producing
the most efficient routes that were defined by the shortest time to complete the given
route within Stephen F. Austin State University. Efficiency was tested by timing
pedestrians and wheelchair users, each traveling specific routes. This project revealed
that efficiency was affected by the mode of transportation, the individual's capabilities,
and the individual route characteristics. Route parameters within the web routing
application included items such as color schematics of the website, specific barriers,
steps, and stops within the routes. The interactive web routing application allowed the
user to input both customized stops and barriers in addition to using steps as barriers for
wheelchair users. Once the application was created, a survey was produced through
Qualtrics™ that determined the user-friendliness of the interactive web routing
application and clarity of instructions had been identified. Constructive responses from
the survey were incorporated into the web routing applications to enhance user
friendliness.
?
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
I would like to acknowledge the overall support from the Stephen F. Austin State
University community including Charles Ashton, Jason Raines, Ken Conner, Buddy
Reich, and Zac Seiden. A special thanks goes to Jeff Williams in the GIS lab in the
Aurthor Temple College of Forestry Building for allowing me 24/7 administrative access
to their ArcGIS® Server. I also would like to thank the Columbia Regional Geospatial
Services at SFASU for technical support and the extended use of their GPS equipment
and the Center for Regional Heritage Research for the Graduate Assistantship. I also
would like to thank my Thesis Committee, Dr. Darrel McDonald, Dr. Daniel
Scognamillo, Dr. David Lewis, and Mr. Chuck Lopez, for their constant and ongoing
support throughout this thesis and dedication to reviewing my thesis. I would also like to
thank P.R. Blackwell and Mike Coffee for going out of their way to make this web
routing application public. To my parents, Mary and Steve Bergman, and my sister,
Caitlin Bergman, thank you for the love, moral support and financial support, positive
encouragement, and faith throughout this endeavor. I would also like to thank Linda
Dorsett for her constant editing advice. To my friends Richard Brooks, Elizabeth Dutton,
Sam and Melinda Price, Karen Knust, and AyIa Rodriguez, thank you for allowing me to
relentlessly bounce ideas off of you guys. This thesis would not have been possible
without the help and support from everyone involved.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
ABSTRACT
i
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
ii
TABLEOFCONTENTS
iii
LISTOFFIGURES
iv
LISTOFTABLES
vi
CHAPTERl
1
Introduction
1
GLOSSARY
11
CHAPTER 2
14
Literature Review
14
CHAPTER 3
25
Methods
25
CHAPTER 4
48
Results
48
CHAPTER 5
53
Discussion
53
Recommendations
56
Conclusions
59
APPENDIX A - METHODS
64
APPENDIX B - RESULTS
77
APPENDIX C - FORMS
97
REFERENCES
102
VITA
105
iii
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1 Traffic Congestion at SFASU during Lunchtime
5
Figure 2 Path Blocked off Because of SFASU Campus Maintenance
6
Figure 3 Students Waiting to Take the Elevator at SFASU
Figure 4 Study Area Boundary within SFASU Campus
7
10
Figure 5 U-Access: A Web-based system for routing pedestrians of differing
abilities (Sobek and Miller, 2006, p. 281)
21
Figure 6 GP Service example: shortest route on a street network (ESRI® GP Service
example, 2009)
26
Figure 7 Part One of the Data Collection Process
28
Figure 8 Part Two of the Data Collection Process
Figure 9 Selected Buildings with Georeferenced Floor Plans to Included Hallways
30
and Bathrooms and the Construction Area
32
Figure 10 Organization of the Geographically Referenced Data and Toolboxes
34
Figure 11 The Overall Process of Creating a Geoprocessing Task
Figure 12 Section of Route 3 that Caused the Wheelchair Users to Slow Down
39
55
Figure 13 Individual Line Feature within Pedestrian Route Dataset Highlighted in
Light Blue
Figure 14 First Demonstration of Wheelchair Route Dataset Adjustments
64
65
Figure 15 Second Demonstration of Wheelchair Route Dataset Adjustments
Figure 16 Adjustment for the Non-Traversable Network Error
66
67
Figure 17 Pedestrian Geoprocessing Model
Figure 18 Wheelchair Geoprocessing Model
68
69
Figure 19 The Wheelchair Geoprocessing Model within an ArcMap™ Document
70
Figure 20 Illustration of Pedestrian Routes 1 and 2
71
Figure 21 Grass Areas and SFASU Buildings
Figure 22 Illustration of Wheelchair Routes 1, 2, and 8
72
73
Figure 23 Illustration of Wheelchair Routes 3 and 4
74
iv
Figure 24 Illustration of Wheelchair Routes 5, 6, 7, and 9
Figure 25 SFASU Pine Log Article Printed February 22, 2010
75
76
Figure 26 The Lumberjack Walk and Roll Web Mapping Application Illustrating an
Example Route
Figure 27 The Lumberjack Walk and Roll Application Illustrating an Alternative
Wheelchair Route
82
83
Figure 28 Consent Form Used for Wheelchair Testing Page One
97
Figure 29 Consent Form Used for Wheelchair Testing Page Two
98
Figure 30 SFASU IRB Approval Form for the Wheelchair Testing
Figure 31 SFASU IRB Approval Form for the Survey
99
100
Figure 32 Initial Web Routing Application Home Page Used for the Survey
101
?
LIST OF TABLES
Table 1 Methodology Used to Create the Line Feature Dataset
35
Table 2 Steps Taken to Prevent a Non-Traversable Network Error
37
Table 3 Total Student Enrollment Count for the Central Classroom Buildings
42
Table 4 Pedestrian Testing Routes 1 and 2 Results
77
Table 5 Wheelchair Testing Routes 1, 2, and 8 Results
78
Table 6 Wheelchair Testing Routes 3 and 4 Results
79
Table 7 Wheelchair Testing Routes 5, 6, 7, and 9 Results
79
Table 8 Initial Instructions for The Lumberjack Walk and Roll Web Application
80
Table 9 Edited Instructions
81
Table 10 The SFASU Mapping Application Survey Results
84
Vl
CHAPTER 1
Introduction
Mapping the most efficient routes has become important for universities to keep
pace with continuous, ongoing expansions and modifications, and many advantages arise
from a thorough knowledge of these routes through campuses. This study defined
efficiency as the shortest time between two points. Because both pedestrians and
wheelchair users had different requirements to find manageable routes between locations
within the Stephen F. Austin State University (SFASU) campus, both types of users
would benefit from a web-based routing application through having access to the most
efficient routes. These two specific methods of travel were chosen to map through a
combination of usefulness and practicality. This project generated a web routing
application system for Stephen F. Austin State University with an efficient routing
approach for both pedestrians and wheelchair users.
Routing software. The overall concept of using the Global Positioning System
(GPS)1 and on-line applications for routing has grown in popularity. One researcher that
had used geographically referenced data referred to Geographic Information Systems
(GIS) as: "a computer system for capturing, storing, querying, analyzing, and displaying
geographically referenced data" (Chang, 2006).
1A glossary is located at the end of Chapter 1 to assist the reader with geospatial
terminology.
1
Environmental Systems Resource Institute, Inc. has developed software technology for
use with geographically referenced data since 1969 (ESRI®, Inc. Company History,
2009). Google Maps™ mapping service and Google Earth™ have been available to the
public since 2005. Google Maps™ had three options for directions ("by car, by public
transit, and walking") (Google™, 2009). Yahoo!® Maps produced different options
available for drivers such as reverse directions and round trips (Yahoo!®, 2010). Both
Yahoo!® Maps and Google Maps™ marketed methods to provide alternate routing for
website users. Drivers have used the option to GPS in their cars for simple directions to
their destinations. Apple's® iTunes® included navigation applications built specifically
for the iPhone® (Gattermann, 2010). On-line applications have recently emerged for
wheelchair routing. Universities also began to utilize web-based routing applications; for
example, web routing sources for Universities included the University of Maryland
(Maryland, 2010), University of Utah (Utah Routing, 2010), and The University of
Ottawa (Ottawa, 2010).
Objectives. The primary objective of this project involved producing an
interactive web routing application for the Stephen F. Austin State University campus
pertaining to pedestrians and wheelchair users. Because distance and time were used to
define route efficiency, the second objective was to determine whether or not the routes
with the shortest distances and the routes with the shortest travel times described the
same routes for selected routes throughout the campus. The third objective was to design
a questionnaire to acquire feedback from students, faculty, and staffai Stephen F. Austin
2
State University who used the web routing application. The study consisted of campus
architecture present between the years 2006 and 2010.
Justification. When students registered for classes and moved into dorms, a major
concern involved the buildings' proximity to other campus facilities. During the
registration process, students had many questions including how long it would take them
to get from his or her dorm to his or her classes and if sufficient time existed between
classes to get to the next class. This task proved even more challenging for wheelchair
users, who needed to consider extra barriers, such as steps and curbs. With the web
routing application available, wheelchair users could locate barrier-free accessible routes
throughout the campus. On selected days, massive numbers of students navigated during
the lunch hour and before classes between the Baker Patillo Student Center and the R. W.
Steen Library (Figure 1). The first and second days of classes during the fall semester
were notorious for student overcrowding. These crowded walkways often caused people
to wonder if it really would be faster to go around buildings rather than follow main
sidewalks. At times SFASU maintenance temporarily closed paths (Figure 2). A web
routing application available for students and staff could give them the advantage of
knowing when their route would be obstructed if incorporated into the university web
system.
Before classes began, the long lines at the elevators (Figure 3) meant that people
would have to wait until the second elevator arrived. Long lines seemed even more
difficult for wheelchair users according to a SFASU student who used a wheelchair on
campus. Some students got in a hurry to get to class, and wheelchair users did not have
3
easy access to the elevators. Unlike pedestrians, wheelchair users did not have the option
to take the stairs and so had no choice but to wait.
**&*&*'
3fe
;.*--r;
f
Figure L Traffic Congestion at SFASU during Lunchtime.
1 **?.'. V
'- *&'.%.
Figure 2. Path Blocked off Because of SFASU Campus Maintenance.
6
Figure 3. Students Waiting to Take the Elevator at SFASU.
7
Wheelchair users faced a unique set of challenges for which a web routing
application could make traveling more independent. One student who used both electric
and manual wheelchairs described that he initially learned his way around by having
someone on campus show him the wheelchair accessible routes. This web routing
application allowed wheelchair users to discover remotely and independently the most
efficient routes. SFASU provided campus maps dispersed throughout the university,
particularly at the Baker Pattillo Student Center and the R.W. Steen Library. Students
who required more information regarding curb cuts and accessible routes were
encouraged to visit the Office of Disability Services at SFASU where Director Mr. Chuck
Lopez suggested routes that students would find easier to travel (C. Lopez, Personal
Communication, August 2007).
People with disabilities placed high value on becoming fully independent.
Having access to accessible route information proved not only necessary to their mobility
but, also to their mental health and well-being. Maloff and Wood stated, "When planning
activities in unfamiliar places, mobility-impaired people need to know in advance
whether they will encounter any such barriers. They often count on the cooperation of
others in supplying this information" (Maloff and Wood, 1988). This project enabled
people to have access to the route with the shortest distance and to find alternative routes
for pedestrian and wheelchair users within the SFASU campus. This project could make
life easier for SFASU students, staff, and faculty who walk or roll through the university
by providing one less worry to people who navigate through the campus.
8
Currently few routing studies exist on both timing pedestrians and wheelchair
users on specific routes. Published in March 2009, an article entitled "Personalised
routing for wheelchair navigation" stated:
Clearly current research projects do not fully address all the needs of the wheelchair
users, and there is a need for a wheelchair navigation system that considers
environmental barriers and the user's aversions to certain obstacles such as slope as
the user has his or her own preferences. (Kasemsuppakorn and Karimi, 2009, p. 25)
One aspect of pedestrian and wheelchair user routes that had not been thoroughly
researched within universities was the amount of time it took for students to travel
specific routes.
Assumptions and limitations. Assumptions regarding this web routing application
included that the users obey all traffic laws, follow sidewalks, and observe safety
guidelines while traveling through the campus (Figure 4). The instructions listed within
the methodology of this thesis were created with Arclnfo® version 9.3 and 9.3.1 and
ArcGIS® Server version 9.3. The maps and data within this application and thesis were
created using ArcView® 9.2 and Arclnfo® versions 9.2 to 9.3.1. This interactive web
routing application covered the Stephen F. Austin State University central campus area
(Figure 4). The application did not prove compatible with JAWS™, a screen reader used
by persons with visual impairments, and it had limited web browser capabilities. This
web application included only steps and curbs as barriers for wheelchair users with
recognition that other barriers such as texture, slope, rain, and turns exist. Alternative
routes also were provided at the user's discretion.
9
"WTl
j~
? es. a
Study Area Boundary within
Sfc&3 Stephen F. Austin State University: Nacogdoches, TX
t
?
' ¿3 Legend
Boundary
Buildings
S
olumbia
I
Arthur li'mplel olfegi'iif l>ur*'«rv »biI Agiit-ultu it
Ue Informauon System!
'féjé&F Laboratory
May 23, 2010
Software: ArcView 9.2
?*
Projected Coordinate System
NAD 1 983 StatePlane Texas
Central FIPS 4203 Feet
0
ß -Amad
±* -nWmmh P*
Figure 4. Study Area Boundary within SFASU Campus.
10
200 400
800
Feet
A
A
GLOSSARY
Note. Most definitions were based on ESRI® and Trimble® products.
ArcCatalog™- A software product created by Environmental Systems Research Institute,
Inc. (ESRI®) used to build the containers in which the geographically referenced data
and tools were held.
ArcMap™- A software product created by Environmental Systems Research Institute,
Inc. (ESRI®) used to edit geographically referenced data.
Attribute- A description of a feature stored within a feature class or shapefile.
Basemap- Consists of data layers used as the background of the map. These data layers
described the area of the main focus of the map. Example data layers for the basemap
included in this thesis were aerial imagery, walkways, football stadium, and tennis courts.
Barriers- Consist of specific locations, used through the Network Analyst™ extension,
defined by the website administrator or user, the produced route will not navigate.
Differentially Correct- The act of using data recorded within base stations to provide a
higher accuracy for the data collected through using a GPS unit.
Digitizing- The act of manually entering data through the Editor toolbar within the
ArcMap™ software.
Feature- An individual point, line, or polygon stored within a feature class or shapefile.
Feature Class- An object stored within a geodatabase that was used to contain individual
geographically referenced data sets. A single feature class could be assigned only one
feature type (polygon, line, point, multipoint, MultiPatch™, turn, dimension, or
annotation features). Feature classes can be stored and created within a geodatabase or
feature dataset.
Feature Datasets- An object stored within a geodatabase that can be assigned a
coordinate system to hold multiple feature classes.
Line Feature- The term used to describe individual lines within the pedestrian and
wheelchair line and Network dataseis.
Geodatabase- An object created by Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc.
(ESRI®) to organize geographically referenced data and tools. A geodatabase could only
be created within ArcCatalog™.
11
Geographie Information Systems (GIS)- As defined by Chang, "a computer system for
capturing, storing, querying, analyzing, and displaying geographically referenced data"
(Chang, 2006).
Geoprocessing Model- A set of automated functions which allowed the user to activate a
process within the Network Analyst™ extension through ArcMap™ which allowed the
user to answer questions regarding the route. This tool was created within
ModelBuilder™ and stored within a model. This model was then stored within a
toolbox.
Geographically Referenced Data- A term used to describe data that included spatial
features, topology, and attribute information.
Geoprocessing Service- Created within ArcGIS® Server, a service that consists of the
geoprocessing model.
Geoprocessing Task- Created within ArcGIS® Server, a task that invoked a set of
functions within a process that accessed the Network Analyst™ extension within
ArcGIS® Server. This task allowed the user to answer questions regarding the route.
Georeferencing- A process that described the act of overlaying an image on top of a
geographically referenced dataset. For example, images of the floor plans were overlaid
on top of the buildings that were referenced to a coordinate system.
Global Positioning System (GPS)- A system which allowed the collection of geographic
data from satellites. For example, this thesis collected latitude and longitude data.
Magnetic Declination- The angle between grid north and true north.
Map Service- Created within ArcGIS® Server, a service that consists of a basemap built
within ArcMap™.
ModelBuilder™- The workspace in which the geoprocessing model was built.
Network Dataset- The dataset used by the Network Analyst™ extension within
ArcMap™ and ArcCatalog™. This dataset included the junctions, edges, and turn
elements. This dataset can be created only from a line dataset stored within either a
shapefile or feature dataset. This dataset can be created only within ArcCatalog™ if the
Network Analyst™ extension is activated.
12
Network Junctions- A point shapefile or feature class that was created as the Network
dataset was created. This file described the locations of which the routes could turn.
Junctions were placed at the beginning and end of every line feature within the Network
dataset.
Non-traversable Network Error- An error incurred by the Network Analyst™ extension
when the user tried to include a stop on a line feature that previously included a barrier.
Route Layer- A data layer created by the Network Analyst™ extension, using the new
route tool, stored only within an ArcMap™ document. This is the reason for the
pedestrian and wheelchair models being edited through ArcMap™ instead of
ArcCatalog™.
Shapefiles- An object used to contain an individual geographically referenced dataset. A
single shapefile could only be assigned one feature type (polygon, line, point, multipoint,
and MultiPatch™). This object can also include a defined coordinate system.
Snapping- An option within the Editor tool bar located in ArcMap™ which allowed
users to attach individual features or sections of a feature to another feature.
Split- A term used to describe the action of breaking a line feature stored within a
shapefile or feature class.
Stops- Consist of specific locations, used through the Network Analyst™ extension,
defined by the website administrator or user, the produced route will navigate.
Toolbox- An object created within a folder or geodatabase through ArcCatalog™ and
used to store geoprocessing models.
Topology- As defined by the ESRI® glossary, "A spatial relationship between data"
(ESRI® http://resources.arcgis.com/glossary/term/658).
Trimble® GeoXH Handheld- A device (owned by the Columbia Regional Geospatial
Service Center at SFASU) used to collect data for this project.
TruPulse® 360 B Laser- A device (owned by the Columbia Regional Geospatial Service
Center at SFASU) used to help collect GPS data from a distance.
Vertex- The points from which lines were created. Individual points within point
dataseis could also be referred to as a vertex.
13
CHAPTER 2
Literature Review
Defining the parameters of the web routing application proved an important
aspect of this study to test and compare research. Was the route output by the web
routing application going to be defined by the shortest distanced route or the route with
the shortest time? The answers to these inquiries were first researched through other
studies on pedestrians and wheelchair users. These studies specifically timed pedestrians
and wheelchair users on given routes, testing how they reacted to different situations.
Research also was conducted on how different travel methods related to various
conditions. Next, the individual route selections and route preferences for both
pedestrians and wheelchair users were researched. After evaluating alternative methods
for defining the parameters of the routes for both pedestrians and wheelchair users, the
author created a user-friendly method to deploy a campus web routing application.
Previous studies. Previous studies found that pedestrians and wheelchair users
had distinctive needs to be pursued for this research. These studies isolated specific
variables that affected the specific method of travel to determine just how profoundly the
variable affected the user. Studies ranged from testing disabled pedestrians to testing
electric and manual wheelchair users.
With a total of 155 participants, a study entitled "Toward the Characterization of
Building Occupancies for Fire Safety Engineering: Capabilities of Disabled People
Moving Horizontally and on an Incline" tested disabled pedestrians on separate parts of
routes within a building that would be used to exit during a fire (Boyce, Shields, and
14
Silcock, 1999, p. 51). The isolated segments of the routes included horizontal and
inclined surfaces (ramps and stairs). Horizontal routes were 50 meters long and included
90 degree turns. The routes were based on fire code travel distances. The ramps tested
included three and four degree slopes with a handrail, and the timing device used within
this study was described as a hand-held digital stopwatch. The travel time of the routes
was measured to within 0. 1 second. Tests included one wheelchair user traveling uphill,
horizontally, and downhill. The wheelchair user moved faster on the uphill ramp than the
downhill ramp; however both sloped ramps recorded speeds lower than the horizontal
ramp. Tests did not specify whether the user used a manual or electric wheelchair. The
authors speculated that the user exercised more caution traveling downhill on the ramp,
causing the travel time to be slower. The authors also concluded that added turns within
the route contributed to the complexity and duration of travel time for disabled
pedestrians (Boyce, Shields, and Silcock, 1999, p. 51- 67).
Brubaker, McLaurin, and McClay (1986) sought to determine how much a side
slope actually affected a manual wheelchair user. Two different manual wheelchairs
(standard and sport) were tested using one athletic wheelchair user. The side slope was
tested by attaching a manual wheelchair to a treadmill in an effort to maintain a constant
zero degree slope and two-degree side slope throughout the testing. Tests used the same
person to compare the results (Brubaker, McLaurin, and McClay, 1986, p. 55-57). The
tests isolated the drag force, having the user travel at constant speeds (three and four
km/hour) for both slopes and chairs. The authors concluded that although a higher drag
force was predicted, they were surprised by the magnitude of drag force, causing the
15
wheelchair user to work significantly harder traveling the route (Brubaker, McLaurin,
and McClay, 1986, p. 55-57). This study demonstrated that the manual wheelchair user
had control in traveling both slopes at three and four km/hr using both a standard and
sport chair. This study also demonstrated that the amount of effort the manual
wheelchair user exerted while traveling routes directly affected travel time.
Route selection. The method that pedestrians and wheelchair users used to choose
the routes they traveled and which routes they preferred to travel were researched. A
study by Reginald G. Golledge entitled "Path Selection and Route Preference in Human
Navigation: A Progress Report" tested the logic people use to create their routes. The 32
people tested in this study were shown a map with two locations and then shown the
route that they would take. The route descriptions studied consisted of the routes with the
fewest turns, longest leg first, preference for curves, shortest route, most aesthetic,
preference for diagonals, and other criteria. The majority of test subjects chose the
shortest distanced route and the route with the least time. It also was recorded that people
changed their routes to less complex travel routes (Golledge, 1995, p. 207-222).
Golledge (1995) also determined what route people would choose during a realworld scenario. A sample of 32 students and staff were timed traveling paths between
two locations. These participants were instructed to take the routes and then fill out a
questionnaire. The routes taken and the amount of time it took for the people to complete
routes were recorded. People wrote in the questionnaire that their route choices for this
study were based on the shortest route, least time, and route proceeding in the direction of
the destination (Golledge, 1995, p. 207-222).
16
Golledge defined wayfinding as "the process of determining and following a path
or route between an origin and a destination" (Golledge, 1999, p. 6). This thesis project
allowed people to create their personalized route prior to visiting SFASU. By helping
students, staff and visitors to engage in the wayfinding thought process, this project
allowed the website user to successfully identify customized routes within a defined
network. A properly designed computer system would be expected to produce the most
efficient customized route to help the user make the best possible route decision. For
example by incorporating marked and unmarked crosswalks within the routes the user
might choose to take the crosswalk when crossing the street. Other routing applications
regarding wheelchair users and pedestrians have been created.
MAGUS™ (Modeling Access with GIS in Urban Systems) was created at the
University College Northampton located in Northampton, UK. This was a wheelchair
routing application created by using the Network Analyst™ extension within the software
program ArcView™ version 3.3. This application had used algorithms to calculate the
routes. The authors of the routing application intended that the users could install
software on their computers and then use the application from their home. Before the
program was built, a questionnaire went out asking wheelchair users to rate 22 possible
barriers. The barrier ratings were separated out by the wheelchair types (manual assisted,
manual self propelled, and motorized). The top three barriers for all three wheelchair
types included steps, supervised crossings, and unsupervised crossings. The fourth rated
barrier for manual assisted and manual self-propelled wheelchairs was pieces of fixed
street furniture, whereas the fourth rated barrier for motorized wheelchairs was raised
17
manhole covers (Beale, Field, Briggs, Picton, and Matthews, 2006, p. 68-81).
MAGUS™ allowed the user to first select his or her wheelchair type (manual selfpropelled, manual assisted, or powered) and fitness level. Then the user could select
from the options: shortest route, route with the fewest steps, crossings with lights, the
optimum route, the avoidance of bad surfaces, and limiting the route to crossing only at
crosswalks. The user then selected a one-way route as opposed to a round trip. The user
entered the points either by entering the street name or by clicking on the map. After all
choices were made, the user selected an icon to create a route. The application was
assessed by wheelchair users who tested the application and filled out a survey (Beale,
Field, Briggs, Picton, and Matthews, 2006, p. 68-81).
Weight methods. The article entitled "Personalised Routing for Wheelchair
Navigation" (Kasemsuppakorn and Karimi, 2009) described three different weight
methods the authors tested to find the best path for wheelchair users at the University of
Pittsburg. This study included how different weight methods affected the route distance.
The authors determined the weight score of each item by using surveys, taking into
consideration uneven surface, cracks score, and manhole score. They developed three
different methods to weight the preferences, compared the results, and determined which
method they created would best reflect the results of the route preferences. Although
they did not include the travel time of the routes, they used the wheelchair users' route
parameters along with the application and weighted route parameters and their
importance (Kasemsuppakorn and Karimi, 2009, p. 24-54).
18
Interactive campus maps. The University of Utah had four interactive campus
maps in its history: U-Access (Sobek and Miller, 2004), the University Campus Map
(Utah Campus Map, 2010) the Construction Impact Tool (Utah Construction Impact
Tool, 2010), and the Routing tool (Utah Routing, 2010). The three current campus maps
{University Campus Map, the Construction Impact Tool, and the Routing tool) were
created using ArcGIS® Server and JavaScript™ coding.
U-Access was a web routing application created by Adam Sobek in 2001-2002 for
the University of Utah using the Java programming language: "Three ability levels
recognized by U-Access were: (1) peripatetic, meaning walking on foot without
assistance, (2) aided mobility, meaning requiring the assistance of a cane, walker, or
crutches, and (3) wheel-chair users" (Sobek and Miller, 2006, p. 269-287). The journal
article, "U-Access: A web-based systemfor routing pedestrians ofdiffering abilities",
also described the program as a "World Wide Web-based system that allows users to
obtain shortest pedestrian routes through a build environment which are feasible with
respect to their physical abilities" (Sobek and Miller, 2006, p. 269-287). The authors
found that these three different limitations could require completely different paths and
distances at the University (Figure 5). Through the evaluation of the application, Sobek
found that the U-Access not only impressed students with disabilities by giving them
shorter routes than they normally take, but also created a demand for this program: "The
consensus is that U-Access is not only a useful application but, also a necessary tool. One
question repeatedly asked was: 'Why don't we have this application available to us?' "
19
(Sobek, 2004, p. 79). Because of political influences and liability issues, it was not
published on the web as originally intended (A. Sobek, Personal Communication, 2007).
20
Peripatetic Route
448 meters
Kingsbury
U
0.Q.IOJI = »
Student Union
Building
Aided Mobility Route
505 meters
Kingsbury Hall
Student Union
Building
Wheeleh air User Route
510 meters
Kingsbury Hall
Student Union
Building
Figure 5. U-Access: A Web-based system for routing pedestrians of differing abilities
(Sobek and Miller, 2006, p. 281).
21
The University of Utah campus map (Utah Campus map, 2010) also used
ArcGIS® Server for its web routing software. The campus buildings were filtered
according to name, code, number, department, food venues, and event venues. When the
user selected a building name from the dropdown menu, a window popped up not only
locating the building, but, also displaying a title, address, code, building number, link to
departments, and a picture of the building with an option to view a larger picture of the
building. By clicking the print symbol at the top right hand corner of the window,
another window popped up allowing the user to print the information of the building and
zoom in and out of the campus map before printing. Extra data layers included
accessible, construction, wireless, TRAX / shuttle stops, and satellite view. The current
campus map was located at: http://www.map.utah.edu/index.html (Utah Campus map,
2010).
Because of ongoing construction, the university decided to make an interactive
Construction impact tool (Utah Construction impact tool, 2010). This web routing
application allowed users to query for projects by searching the construction projects by
either name or date. The map included data layers such as TRAX Station, campus shuttle
stops, accessible entrances, accessible parking, stairs, construction areas, traffic alerts,
satellite imagery, and trees. The construction areas were located on the map by a triangle
symbol with an exclamation mark inside. When the user clicked on the construction
symbol, a window popped up describing the traffic restrictions. The user could click on a
button labeled major projects to obtain more information about the particular construction
site. When the user clicked on the specific project, another window popped up of a map
22
displaying the detailed information about the area covered by the construction. A short
description of the construction as well as alternate routes for pedestrians and
recommendations for disabled students were also included in the map. The current
Construction impact tool for the University of Utah was located at:
http://www.digit.utah.edu/cit/cit.html (Utah Construction impact tool, 2010).
The University of Utah also utilized a web routing tool entitled Routing (Utah
Routing, 2010). This tool had two tabs: pedestrians and delivery vehicles. Pedestrian
routes were based on the sidewalks within the university. Pedestrian and delivery vehicle
tabs had drop down menus for starting locations and ending destinations. The application
allowed the user to click the first dropdown menu and select either click map to add a
point or the name of a building. A second dropdown menu directed the user to select
either click map to add a point or to select the name of a building for the ending
destination. Next came two mobility choices: walking and wheelchair. The wheelchair
paths omitted any sidewalks that had a slope consisting of six degrees or steeper. The
delivery vehicle tab had similar options for entering the routes' beginning and ending
locations. The delivery vehicle tab had extra options such as finding routes for
maintenance trucks, one-ton single axle trucks and semi-trucks. The current University
of Utah Routing tool was located at:
http://www.geoinnovative.com/webMaps/UTAH/route2/index.html (Utah Routing,
2010).
The University of Maryland had an accessible web interactive routing campus
map application built specifically for wheelchair users and pedestrians (Maryland, 2010).
23
Options included route filters such as: no stairs, sloped curbs only, and no steep inclines
to allow the user access to a personalized route. An on-line video described extra
capabilities included within the application: "We decided to allow users to change
features like wheelchair accessible building entrances, steps, steep hills, handicap
parking, curb cuts, construction, muddy paths, and indoor navigation like elevators and
handicap accessible bathrooms, classrooms, and doorways" (FASTR, 2010). The Open
Street Map© mapping software used in this application allowed anyone to change the
features.
ThinkWrap®, a growing software company, created interactive campus maps
using Google Maps™ mapping service. The University of Ottawa, a ThinkWrap® client
(ThinkWrap®, 2009), created a web interactive routing application (Ottawa, 2010). This
interactive campus map allowed users to choose between the most direct routes and
warmest routes. This application also instructed users to take the shuttle bus if a warm
route could not be determined. The current campus map for the University of Ottawa
was located at: http://www.uottawa.ca/maps/. In a blog advertising ThinkWrap®, Nael
El Shawwa described the advantages of interactive campus maps and possible
applications that can be used to create them through the use of Google Maps™ mapping
service as the routes' ability to travel through buildings, along overpasses and between
buildings (Shawwa, 2009). Campus mapping applications continue to emerge as
communities discover the need and the process to create them with available software.
24
CHAPTER 3
Methods
Learning to use the Network Analyst™ extension within ESRI' s® Arclnfo®
versions 9.2-9.3.1 application enabled the author to narrow down the specific data sets
and data types needed for the application and helped the author to decide the exact design
of the datasets. ESRF s® GP Service example: shortest route on a street network along
with the example dataset proved invaluable for the completion of this project (ESRI® GP
Service example, 2009). Along with the example geoprocessing model (Figure 6) ESRI®
also provided a detailed set of instructions.
Other books and websites such as Extending ArcView GIS: with Network Analyst,
Spatial Analyst and 3D Analyst by Tim Ormsby and Jonell Alvi (Ormsby and Alvi,
1999), the ArcGIS ™ 9: ArcGIS ™ Network Analyst tutorial (ESRI®, 2006) and on-line
help guides proved useful as well (Husdal, 2008). Reading through the materials and
testing how the data reacted with several different designs of the set up allowed the
author to make an informed decision about the necessary data. The main types of data
chosen to generate this application were geographically referenced features.
25
The Calculate Shortest Route and Text Directions model is illustrated below. There is one input variable, Input
Stops, which are points. The shortest route visits the stops based on the digitized sequence. The model adds
the user digitized points as stops to an existing Route network analysis layer, performs a solve to determine
the shortest route, generates driving directions, and writes them to a text file.
fi
Add Locations
RouteBefoce
Solve
SorvedRoute
Solve
fi
Seleet Data
Directions
Calculate Shortest Route
and Text Directions Model
Shortest
Route
Text
Directions
Calculate Shortest Heute enti Text Directions mode/
Figure 6. GP Service example: shortest route on a street network (ESRI® GP Service
example, 2009).
26
The objective for this project was to create and implement a geographic
information systems web routing application that enabled people to create the most
efficient routes throughout the campus at Stephen F. Austin State University. From
personal observations and interviews, it was determined that the majority of people at
Stephen F. Austin State University were pedestrians; however, wheelchair users also
could find this application extremely useful. Therefore, target audiences of this web
application were pedestrians and wheelchair users. Internet accessibility proved critical
for the production and testing of this application.
Data collection. The first step in the study was to determine the types and
features of the data needed to complete the project (Figure 7). Before collecting data, the
author talked with multiple people about what items should be included in the specific
dataseis. First, the author talked to the University Police Department at Stephen F.
Austin State University about safety guidelines. Mr. Chuck Lopez, the director of
Disability Services at Stephen F. Austin State University, was consulted to find out
specific wheelchair users' needs. Mr. Lopez said that wheelchair users should not travel
through parking lots (C. Lopez, Personal Communication, Summer 2009).
27
Determine
the Data
Needed to
Complete
the Project
View the
Previously
Verify the
Previously
Collected
Data
Collected
Data
Figure 7. Part One of the Data Collection Process.
28
Students at Stephen F. Austin State University were asked what they would want
included in the application. One student (pedestrian) said he wanted to see images of the
floor plans that included the locations of the elevators and bathrooms of each floor of
every building on campus. Another student (wheelchair user) agreed that the bathrooms
should be included. Before collecting locations of the features using GPS units, the
author consulted with the Columbia Regional Geospatial Service Center at SFASU.
Multiple dataseis previously collected by the Columbia Regional Geospatial
Service Center at SFASU were a great asset in the creation of the web routing
application. The initial dataseis collected from the Columbia Regional Geospatial
Service Center at SFASU included aerial imagery from both 2005 and 2009, a polygon
feature class describing the walkways and buildings, and point feature classes such as
doors, curb cuts, and handicap parking. Verification of the data prior to using the
datasets consisted of creating a map book that included the dataseis to verify. Using a
map book allowed the author to collect new data manually (measuring distances with a
tape measure) at the same time verifying that the data is correct (Figure 8).
Data layers had to undergo editing because 2005 and 2009 imagery and partial polygon
walkways were used as the background for digitizing the line feature datasets. Some of
the areas along campus only had partial polygon walkways because of thick forest
coverage and tall buildings there for it was necessary to hand-measuring some of the
centerlines of the sidewalks. Richard Brooks, another graduate student, assisted a great
deal with measuring some of these areas when using a measuring tape. A measuring
wheel and measuring tape were used to measure some routes.
29
Collect
New Data
Verify the
Modify
Data
the Data
Figure 8. Part Two of the Data Collection Process.
30
Accuracy of the topology of the data between the doors, buildings, and walkways proved
extremely important. The relationships between the location of the steps, the ramp, and
the door to the building were recorded.
Floor plans of the selected buildings (Figure 9) throughout the campus were
georeferenced to obtain the hallway and bathroom locations. These selected buildings at
Stephen F. Austin State University included: L. E. Griffith Fine Arts, T. E. Ferguson
Liberal Arts, R. E. McGee Business, Chemistry, Robert T McKibben Education, Art,
Forestry Building, Stephen F. Austin Administration, Paul L. Boynton, Thomas J. Rusk,
Tom and Peggy Wright Music Building, Hall 16, Vera Dugas Liberal Arts North,
Nursing and Math, E. L. Miller Science, Hall 14, Lucille Norton, Health and Physical
ED, R. W. Steen Library, Hall 5 (Wisely), Human Sciences Building South, Human
Sciences Building North, Hall 17 (Steen), and the Baker Pattillo Student Center.
Determining which buildings to include rested largely on the availability of the floor
plans obtained from Mr. Ken Conner at the Physical Plant at Stephen F. Austin State
University. Georeferencing images of the floor plans over the existing building data
enabled digitization of the line feature classes over the hallways and allowed inclusion of
the exact locations of the restrooms within a point feature class.
31
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Figure 9. Selected Buildings with Georeferenced Floor Plans to Included Hallways and
Bathrooms and the Construction Area.
32
The data used for this application were stored within multiple geodatabases
(Figure 10). Separate geodatabases were created for the basemap, pedestrians, and
wheelchair user dataseis. Within the geodatabases, feature datasets were created to store
the individual feature datasets within feature classes. These feature datasets were entitled
pedestrian, wheelchair, and basemap. The geographically referenced data were then
stored in multiple feature classes located within the individual feature datasets.
The line feature datasets were created for both pedestrians and wheelchair users
with distinct parameters. The pedestrian line network feature class passed through
sidewalks, parking lots, and selected buildings and used crosswalks to cross the streets.
The wheelchair line network feature classes included the sidewalks, crosswalks, curb
cuts, steps, curbs, and selected buildings. After the previously created data were viewed,
a GeoXH GPS unit (software TerraSync™) and TruPulse® 360 B laser were used to
collect step locations. The Columbia Regional Geospatial Service Center at SFASU also
generously provided the GPS equipment and training regarding TerraSync™ and GPS
Pathfinder® Office Software. The magnetic declination also was adjusted within the
TruPulse® 360 laser. The software application GPS Pathfinder® Office Software was
used to import the data, differentially correct the data, and export the data to create
shapefiles. The shapefiles were then imported in to several feature classes within the
geodatabases.
33
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Figure 10. Organization of the Geographically Referenced Data and Toolboxes.
34
The creation of the line network feature classes (Table 1) for both the pedestrians and
wheelchair users began with digitizing 2005 aerial imagery and polygon sidewalk feature
data class. Hallways were digitized after an image of the floor plan was georeferenced to
the building layer (Figure 9). The GeoXH GPS unit also was used to collect some of the
line data locations for the line feature dataset.
Table 1
Methodology Used to Create the Line Feature Dataset
1 . Turn on the Network Analyst™ extension in both ArcMap™ and ArcCatalog™ .
2. Create a line feature class through digitizing.
3. Create each line segment (Figurel3, Appendix A) as an individual line feature within
the feature class.
4. Snap each line feature to the adjacent line intersection at the Vertexes.
5. Georeference building floor plans to include hallways. This allowed the correct exit
to be used to create the route when the user clicks in the center of the building within
the ArcGIS® Server application.
At the time the Garner Apartment complex was being torn down, therefore
construction was addressed by the creation of a polygon feature class of the blocked off
area (Figure 9). The author overlaid the polygon feature class on the pedestrian and
wheelchair line feature classes and the 2005 imagery. Using the Editor toolbar within
35
ArcMap™, the author deleted the area of the line feature class datasets that went through
the construction area. Once the line feature class was created for both pedestrians and
wheelchair users, the Network dataset was created.
The dataset had to be modified to prevent a non-traversable network error. A
non-traversable network error occurred every time the user would try to create a stop
through on the Network dataset where the line had a barrier within ArcMap ™ (within the
ArcGIS® Server routing application this error was referred to as a geoprocessing error).
This error would prevent the program from producing a route. Therefore specific steps
were taken in the creation of this dataset to dramatically lesson the likelihood that the
user would click on a line feature that had a barrier (Table 2).
36
Table 2
Steps Taken to Prevent a Non-Traversable Network Error
1 . Zoom in to the area when the scale bar reads 2 feet.
2. Snap the steps to the line feature.
3. Select the line feature that the steps are located.
4. Delete a small portion of the line (about one foot) around the steps.
5. Create a new line feature and snap the line to the adjacent Vertexes.
6. Rebuild the Network dataset after all the edits were completed.
7. When steps covered only half of a sidewalk, the specific section of the line feature
was split into two lines instead of one line to describe the sidewalk (Figure 14,
Appendix A).
8. The a ramp design was incorporated to the line feature dataset by creating a triangleshaped line to go around the steps (Figure 15, Appendix A).
9. Two new junctions should appear where the line was split and recreated (Figure 16,
Appendix A).
37
Basemap. A basemap was initially created within an ArcMap™ document to
provide the background for the web application. Multiple settings such as symbology,
map scale, and the specific data layers were chosen to customize the web application
view. The basemap was added to the web application through the map service option.
Geoprocessing models. ESRI® defined a geoprocessing model as a set of tool
sequences (ESRI®, 2008). The two geoprocessing models (Pedestrians and Wheelchair
users) used within this project were first created within ArcMap™ documents (Figures 17
and 18, Appendix A). Before creating the web routing application, the geodatabases and
ArcMap™ documents were copied over to the server. After the geoprocessing models
were tested and saved within ArcMap™ documents (Figure 19, Appendix A) the
geoprocessing services were created through the use of ArcGIS® Server Manager
(Figure 11). Once the geoprocessing services were created they could then be imported
as a geoprocessing tasks to be used within the web application (Figure 11).
38
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Figure 11. The Overall Process of Creating a Geoprocessing Task.
39
Web routing application. The GIS Laboratory within the Arthur Temple College
of Forestry and Agriculture at Stephen F. Austin State University made administrative
access to a separate server that included ArcGIS® Server available for students.
ArcGIS® Server was accessed by using a remote desktop connection to the server. The
server allowed access to the ArcGIS® Server for the Microsoft® .NET Framework and
the ArcGIS® Server Manager ArcGIS® Instance. The ArcGIS® Server Manager
ArcGIS® Instance provided a user-friendly environment to create a web routing
application that did not require programming.
Efficiency. This web routing application was set up to generate the shortest
distanced routes along a sidewalk dataset for pedestrians and wheelchair users. Both of
the geoprocessing models were created to allow users to input their unique set of
locations to get the most efficient routes. Alternative routes could be accessed by the
user incorporating their unique set of barriers. The geoprocessing task would then
produce the next most direct route. Although efficiency was defined as the shortest time
to complete the given route this web routing application was limited to only producing
the most direct routes. ESRI® had a tutorial titled Slopes, Sharp Turns, and Speed:
Refining Emergency Response Networks to Accommodate Steep Slopes and Turn Rules
written by Mick Price, Entrada/San Juan, Ine (Price, 2008). This tutorial was based on
how vehicles respond to slopes and turns and used the speed limits for the average miles
per hour. The same method could not be used for wheelchair users and get accurate
results when compared with the collected wheelchair user data.
40
This author determined that the speed limit varied drastically between wheelchair
type (electric vs. manual) and uphill vs. downhill slope. The author also tested if the
approximate travel time could be obtained from the web routing application for both
pedestrians and wheelchair users. It was found that not enough tests were run to prove or
disprove that travel time could be incorporated to get average results for pedestrians or
wheelchair users throughout the entire SFASU campus. More testing needed to be
completed to determine if an alternative method is capable of giving accurate travel time
for wheelchair users (manual and electric) and pedestrians. Because of this travel time
was excluded from the current web routing application instructions. With that said, here
is what was accomplished through the pedestrian and wheelchair route tests.
Pedestrian route tests. The routes to test pedestrians were selected by the first
locating the highest cluster of students at SFASU. The author found that the locations of
the highest population of student classes (Table 3) were located within a centralized
location of the campus (Figure 21, Appendix A). The most centralized route was located
between the Baker Pattillo Student Center and the R. W. Steen Library (Figure 20,
Appendix A). A conversation with the Director of the Office of Institutional Research
(K. Hall, personal communication, March 24, 2008) yielded times and locations of the
highest population densities for the Fall 2005 and proved to be the only semester data
available at the time of the testing. The pedestrian testing was completed in April 2008.
Later data regarding the following semesters were made available (Table 3). This
information was important because it allowed the author to view when the the majority of
students would be on campus around 10 minutes prior to the class time.
41
Table 3
Total Student Enrollment Countfor the Central Classroom Buildings
Building Name
Fall 2005 Fall 2006 Fall 2007 Fall 2008 Fall 2009
Ferguson
9564
10036
9848
10467
10405
Science
6297
6574
6560
6333
6826
Business
5522
5792
5779
5776
5841
Nursing and Math
4390
4441
5099
5698
5212
Education
4018
4273
5100
4192
2438
Knowing these times allowed the author to determine when the SFASU campus would be
most croweded throughout the average week. The second route was generated by using
Network Analyst™ extension to create the next most direct route at the same time
avoiding the crowds.
Pedestrians were first timed walking two routes during high traffic times to
determine if extra travel time proved necessary during times the campus was highly
crowded. The focus group for the pedestrian tests was SFASU students. The majority of
the participants came through Dr. Boyd's class as he offered extra credit to students who
participated. The students were instructed to walk their normal pace to achieve the most
accurate average miles per hour rate at SFASU. With this test, 30 people were timed
walking from the Baker Pattillo Student Center (Location 1) to the R.W. Steen Library
(Location 2) traveling the shortest distanced route (Figure 20, Appendix A).
Next each person was timed walking the next alternative route coming back from
the R. W. Steen Library to the Baker Pattillo Student Center (avoiding the traffic
congestion). The sample size of 30 people derived from basic statistics requirements
42
(Spatz, 2001). The location of classrooms in the center of campus seemed traditionally
the busiest area (Figure 21, Appendix A).
Another component leading to the high congestion of people concerned the
landscape design near the Stephen F. Austin statue. In addition to the cluster of buildings
designated specifically for classrooms, four large areas of grass lay around the statue
(Figure 21, Appendix A). Previously, students cut through the grass habitually to get to
their classes, and this constant traffic prevented the grass from growing in certain areas.
Mr. Mark HoIl, from SFA Grounds and Transportation, said that these areas were
strategically blocked off by fences and bicycle racks to prevent students from taking the
shortcuts through the grass (M. HoIl, Personal Communication, April 4, 2008). This
strategic use of barriers caused students to cluster in a smaller area already prone to
traffic congestion. These buildings surrounded a commonly-used route traveling from
Baker Pattillo Student Center (Location 1) to the R.W. Steen Library (Location 2) (Figure
20, Appendix A).
Equipment used for tests included blue tape to mark the beginning and ending
locations of the route, walkie-talkies, a clipboard, a map illustrating the two routes, and
calibrated stopwatches. Attached to a clipboard was a visual description of both Route 1
and Route 2. Participants first viewed a map displaying the two routes. The observer
was stationed at Location 1 (Baker Patillo Student Center), and with the aid of a
stopwatch, and a set of walkie-talkies for communication, the observer timed each subject
walking from Location 1 (Baker Pattillo Student Center) to Location 2 (R. W. Steen
43
Library). As the subjects completed the test, the observer timed and recorded the data on
the chart.
Wheelchair tests. Both manual and electric wheelchair users were timed taking
different routes based on slope differences and recommendations from Mr. Chuck Lopez,
Director of the Disability Services at Stephen F. Austin State University, for alternate
routes using the same testing procedures as those used for pedestrians. The wheelchair
user had a walkie-talkie, and the author had a walkie-talkie. After directing the person to
the start location, the observer stood at the other end of the route and communicated
through the walkie-talkie "one, two, three, start." The calibrated stopwatches started the
tests on the word "start" each time for consistency. Before the wheelchair tests were
administered the appropriate consent and IRB forms were completed (Figures 28, 29, 30,
and 31, Appendix C).
Route 1 was chosen because of the steep slope directly leading to the Human
Services Building (Figure 22, Appendix A). Since it had a slope ranging from 2.4% to
5.0%, wheelchair users usually avoided this area when traveling uphill. Timed testing
was completed traveling uphill and downhill on both sides of the street (Figure 22,
Appendix A).
Route 2 for wheelchair users was from the T. E. Ferguson Liberal Arts Building
through the Liberal Arts North Building (Figure 22, Appendix A). A bridge connected
the buildings on the second and third floors. This route was tested as an alternative route
that avoided the use of a sidewalk area with a slope above 5%. The timing started from
the moment the wheelchair user pressed the button to open the door into the building and
44
ended the moment the wheelchair made it outside. The route was tested when only one
elevator was operational in the T. E. Ferguson Liberal Arts Building. The testing was not
rescheduled to keep the tests as realistic as possible according to the daily scenarios
students might encounter.
Routes 3 and 4 were tested because Mr. Chuck Lopez specifically directed
wheelchair users to take the sidewalk across from the Health Services Building versus
using the sidewalk adjacent to the Health Services Building (Figure 23, Appendix A), so
the author took the length of time it takes for an electric and manual wheelchair to travel
from both sidewalks on both sides of the streets going uphill. Students were encouraged
to take the longer route because of the steepness of a driveway protruding through the
sidewalk which caused users to slow down and take their time to cross, and the average
slope of the route seemed less across the street. All test subjects were reminded
constantly to travel safely through the duration of the testing. The full length from
crosswalk to crosswalk was tested rather than the specific areas around the Health
Services Building because it seemed more realistic that students would travel the full
distance.
Routes 5, 6 and 7 between the E. L. Miller Science Building and the Chemistry
Building were chosen for testing because the Physics Department at SFASU used them
when rolling equipment into the building (Figures 24, Appendix A). The SFASU Physics
Department Chair, Dr. Harry Downing, suggested the area might make a good alternative
route for wheelchair users. Three main routes that one could travel between the E. L.
Miller Science Building and the Chemistry Building were located (H. Downing, Personal
45
Communication, Summer 2009). Route 5 was 972.50 feet 6; Route 6 was 1,1031 feet;
and Route 7 was 1,033.75 feet long. Route 6 had more of a downhill slope than Route 5
as the paths turned into the area in between the E. L. Miller Science Building and the
Chemistry Building. Route 5 had a sharp 90-degree turn in between the buildings. Route
7 had the longest distance of all three routes, but with the addition of the downhill slope
and the exclusion of the sharp turn.
Routes 8A and 8B (Figures 22, Appendix A) were tested because they made good
comparisons to each other. Routes 8A and 8B were located on opposite sides of the same
street. Both sides of the street were tested because they had elevation differences. Route
8B (Figure 22, Appendix A) pulled the wheelchair to the left constantly as the sidewalk
sloped sideways slightly whereas route 8A appeared more level (Figure 22, Appendix A).
Route 9 was tested as the most direct route between the Baker Pattillo Student Center and
the R. W. Steen Library (Figure 24, Appendix A).
Survey. Upon completion of the web routing application, a survey was used to
obtain feedback from students and staffai Stephen F. Austin State University about
possible improvements and general comments regarding the school grounds accessibility.
Qualtrics™ was used to distribute the survey electronically. The target groups for the
survey were SFASU students, staff and faculty. The user had to be on the SFASU
network to access the web application and use the web application to fill out the survey.
To use the application, a person went to the homepage created within Google Sites
Creator™ (Figure 32, Appendix C). Both instructions and safety guidelines were placed
on the home page. After reading through the instructions and safety guidelines the user
46
was then able to select the link to the web routing application and then go back to the
homepage and select the second link to get to the survey. A total of 40 people
participated in the survey: four wheelchair users and 36 pedestrians. Ads announcing the
web application and the survey went into the MySFA™ announcements, SFASU Pine
Log™ (Figure 25, Appendix A), and the SFA Today™ Faculty & Staff Daily Edition.
Dr. Michael Walker offered extra credit to his students who participated in the survey,
and Mr. Chuck Lopez also contacted the wheelchair users about the survey.
47
CHAPTER 4
Results
Web routing application. The primary result of this project was the development
of a web application that allowed wheelchair users and pedestrians to map the most
efficient routes (Time and Distance) within SFASU (Figure 26 and 27, Appendix B). To
use the application, a person went to the homepage created within Google Sites
Creator™. The home page (Figure 32, Appendix C) introduced visitors to the purpose of
the site and had pictures of selected views within the campus as the background. Visitors
read through the instructions and then clicked on the link to the application.
By clicking on the hyperlink to the web application, the user was directed to the
web application. Next the user selected a method of travel. After the user selected a
method, a window popped up, allowing the user to click the arrow and then click his or
her desired location(s) on the map. The window listed the features to choose, allowing
the user to delete, replace, and rename his or her destination(s) (Figure 26, Appendix B).
After completing his or her selections, the website users clicked submit, and the most
efficient route appeared (Figure 27, Appendix B).
Pedestrian testing. The goal of the pedestrian testing was straightforward: to
determine which route took the shortest time during high traffic times. Route 1 was
mutually excluded from alternate Route 2 because traffic congestion existed throughout
the entire path (between the R. W. Steen Library and Baker Patullo Student Center),
especially during lunch. Often students left classrooms, congregated in front of the R.W.
Steen Library, and walked in masses to the cafeteria at the Baker Pattillo Student Center.
48
Measuring the routes using the ArcGIS™ measuring tool, the most direct path (Route 1)
from the Baker Pattillo Student Center to the R.W. Steen Library had a length of 840 feet
(Figure 20, Appendix A). With a difference of only 500 feet, Route 2 from the R.W.
Steen Library back to the Baker Pattillo Student Center traveled around the R. E. McGee
Business Building in 1,340 feet. Route 1 had an average time of 2.77 minutes (2 minutes
and 18 seconds), and Route 2 had an average time of 4.34 minutes (4 minutes and 17
seconds) (Table 4, Appendix B). Several participants within this study found the second
route confusing. One participant had four people walking slowly in front of him or her
during Route 1, and Route 2 still ended up taking almost twice as long to complete. The
average speed at which the students traveled Route 1 was 3.45 miles per hour. The
students completed Route 2 at 3.51 miles per hour.
Wheelchair testing. Routes IA and IB showed that the manual wheelchair could
travel the downhill route 50 seconds faster than uphill because of the change in direction
of the travel (Table 5, Appendix B). On the other side of the street, the manual
wheelchair completed the downhill route 56 seconds faster than the uphill route (Table 5,
Appendix B). The electric wheelchairs showed only a small change in time, with the
downhill route mostly being the fastest. Only a slight difference existed with Route IA
(uphill) being 5-6 seconds faster than Route IB (downhill). Route 2 data showed that
electric wheelchairs completed the same routes almost twice as fast as manual
wheelchairs (Table 5, Appendix B). Routes 3 and 4 data showed that the wheelchairs'
slowing down at the drive caused both the manual and electric wheelchairs to make better
time on a slightly longer route (Table 6, Appendix B). Routes 5, 6, and 7 show where
49
slope, sharp rums, and experience traveling the routes affected the travel time. During
the first attempt at Route 6, the manual wheelchair received the same time as Route 5
even though Route 5 had a shorter distance (Table 7, Appendix B). Taking advantage of
the downhill slope, the manual wheelchair participant had a 20-second decrease in travel
time for Route 6 (Table 7, Appendix B). This decrease in travel time also demonstrated
that Route 6 could have a faster travel time than Route 5 (Table 7, Appendix B). Routes
8A and 8B data showed the timing as about the same for both electric and manual
wheelchair users, including slight discrepancies in the time (Table 5, Appendix B).
Route 9 compared to Routes 5, 6, and 7 was completed in the shortest time by both
manual and electric wheelchair users (Table 7, Appendix B). Tables also were included
within the appendix that described the average miles per hour for each individual electric
and manual wheelchair users for each route. This was important to include because it
showed how drastic the miles per hour changed for each given route and method of
travel.
Shortest route versus travel time. As the results of the testing showed, some
routes with a longer distance could have a shorter travel time. Because of this fact, this
web routing application was designed to produce alternative routes at the users'
discretion. The user could incorporate his or her personal barriers as individual
preferences to produce the next available shortest distanced route.
Survey results. A web-based survey provided valuable information with regard to
The Lumberjack Walk and Roll web routing application (Table 10, The SFASU Mapping
Application Survey, Appendix B). Users submitted their opinions on a variety of topics
50
relating to the web application, its usefulness, and specific attributes throughout the
SFASU campus (Table 10, The SFASU Mapping Application Survey, Appendix B). Out
of 40 people who responded to the survey, only four of them used wheelchairs. Each
participant has had a positive experience using his or her wheelchair at SFASU. When
asked to list specific barriers at SFASU, students commented that the East College
Cafeteria sidewalks seemed difficult to navigate by more than one person. Because of
width; students also cited flooding (on the campus sidewalks), heavy traffic, and the
Garner construction as barriers. In future releases of this application, participants
mentioned that they wanted to know the estimated travel time and to see more descriptive
building features such as stairways, elevators, and surface texture. Users also indicated
that the instructions seemed difficult to follow (Table 10, Appendix B).
Changes made to the web application. Because of constructive comments about
the instructions, editing clarified the original instructions (Table 8, Appendix B).
Research question number 17 allowed the participants to rate the clarity of the
instructions (Table 10, Appendix B). The purpose of this question was to determine if
people could understand the instructions and if the instructions needed adjustment to
make the web application more user-friendly. The survey question number 17 asked
"The instructions for the use of this application are clear and concise."(Table 10,
Appendix B) Using a likert scale participants stated if they either strongly disagreed,
disagreed, neither agreed nor disagreed, agreed, or strongly agreed. A total of 38 people
answered this question. Five people strongly disagreed; 17 people disagreed; four people
neither agreed nor disagreed; nine people agreed, and three people strongly agreed that
51
the instructions seemed clear and concise. A faculty member, at Stephen F. Austin State
University, who did not think the instructions were clear and concise, was asked to edit
the instructions (Table 9, Appendix B). This survey proved critical in determining
exactly what needed changing within the web application.
52
CHAPTER 5
Discussion
Web routing application. Using ArcGIS® Server Manager to create the web
routing application allowed the administrator easy access to edit the data using
ArcMap™ and then post the data online without needing to know how to program. In
addition to eliminating the need to know complex programming, ArcGIS® Server also
allowed for a higher security protocol for the application. As users had the ability to
input their own personal barriers for there personal route they did not have the ability to
change or edit the overall route data created by the administrator.
Survey. The Lumberjack Walk and Roll web routing application was posted
online through the use of a student server at the GIS Lab within Arthur Temple College
of Forestry and Agriculture at Stephen F. Austin State University. Because this was a
student server, it could only be accessed through the school's network. Students and staff
who wanted to use the web application most likely were at Stephen F. Austin State
University physically or linked through a virtual server. Therefore, the survey was
geared toward SFASU students, staff, and faculty. Because the web routing application
was accessed online the author felt that it was necessary for the users to be able to
complete the surveys online. Qualtrics™ proved to be a useful method to allow students
and wheelchair users the opportunity to provide feedback through the web.
Route testing. Through timing both pedestrians and wheelchairs on specific
routes at Stephen F. Austin State University it was also observed how pedestrians and
wheelchair users react within a campus environment. During the study the results of the
53
electric wheelchair tests started to show consistency from the beginning were as the
manual wheelchair users speed varied according to each route. One test subject who used
both electric and manual wheelchairs suggested that the top speed for electric wheelchair
would most likely be their average speed if the user could maintain their current speed
throughout the route. The individual wheelchair user abilities and route aspects such as
slope would have a greater influence on the travel time of a manual wheelchair user.
While slope overall had a greater affect on manual wheelchair users this testing showed
that slope also could have an affect on travel time for electric wheelchair users. This idea
was particularly apparent when comparing the travel time results from Routes 3 and 4
(Table 6, Appendix B). Route 4 had a slightly less travel time for both the manual and
electric wheelchair users even though it had a longer distance than Route 3. The main
difference between the two routes was that Route 3 had a section of the driveway
protruding through the sidewalk, forcing every wheelchair user to slow down as he or she
passed the area (Figure 12).
54
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Figure 12. Section of Route 3 that Caused the Wheelchair Users to Slow Down.
55
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The manual wheelchair's speed increased from 3.12 MPH (Route 3) which had a
distance of 801.83 feet to 3.50 MPH (Route 4) which had a distance of 805.83 feet. The
electric wheelchair's speed increased from 5.16 MPH (Route 3) to 5.33 MPH (Route 4).
Subtle changes in routes throughout the SFASU campus can add to the total travel time
for manual and electric wheelchair users. The time spent waiting for the elevators can be
varied throughout the semesters at SFASU. The total travel time Route 2 (Table 5,
Appendix B) for electric wheelchair users taking the third floor varied from 2.18 minutes
to 5 minutes. Increase in traffic congestion can cause pedestrians and wheelchair users to
wait at elevators for longer amounts of time. This is significant because wheelchair users
have a need to take the elevators on campus where as pedestrians can take the stairs.
Importance. With this program available, more students and visitors would have
a better working knowledge of direct and alternative routes the area through which they
travel, making travel safer and overall more efficient. Because SFASU had a growing
number of students each year, people could naturally wonder if they could make it to
class or work in a shorter time, and the school would prepare for this inquiry from the
general public. Because one could not predict how individual pedestrians and wheelchair
users would react to specific routes, this web routing application provided a unique
method for users to access to the shortest distanced route as well as all alternate routes for
pedestrians and wheelchair users.
Recommendations
This study highlighted the need for updating the web routing application data
because the Stephen F. Austin State University campus frequently changed. As building
56
construction progressed and the campus evolved, the routes with the most traffic
congestion changed as well. Over time the writer witnessed extensive renovation to the
SFASU campus, including the addition of a parking garage to the Baker Patullo Student
Center. When construction was underway at the Baker Pattillo Student Center, routes
that students usually took became blocked, and the crowds took what appeared to be the
next most available route. Therefore this application was in constant need of updating.
Respondents also stated that they needed updated imagery (Table 10, Appendix B).
Although unavailable at the time, updated imagery at sufficient resolution was necessary
for the users.
Route dependencies. Only distance served as a factor to adjust for the most
efficient route within the web routing application. Pedestrian testing showed that
pedestrians could maneuver effortlessly around crowded areas. Both manual and electric
wheelchair users have to travel the longer path. During the electric wheelchair testing, it
was shown that the top speed remained the constant speed unless the user had to slow
down for bumps, slope, turns, elevators and crowds. Manual wheelchairs took almost
twice as long to take the same routes. The route in which wheelchair users had to slow
down the most during high traffic time involved taking two elevators.
According to the testing, elevators should be timed individually per building, and
these tests should be run when the buildings are closed (at night when the building is
empty), during average hours (in between classes), and right before class (during the
times they are used the most), also recording how long it takes for a person starting when
he or she lines up to take the elevator in class room buildings right before the times with
57
the most students. If students knew exactly how long they could wait, they might be
persuaded to take the stairs.
To prove through extreme standards that traffic congestion really does have an
effect on pedestrians and wheelchair users, testing should be done on the first and second
day of the fall semester classes, using the same routes as in this study. The purpose
would be to note an increase or decrease in the average speed the test subjects would
travel for a given path. With students attending to classes for the first time at the
beginning of the year, the writer witnessed the Stephen F. Austin State University
campus becoming extremely overcrowded with students on campus purchasing books,
registering, paying bills and finding their way around during the first two days of the fall
semester.
Survey. In hindsight several more questions needed to be added to the survey to
make it easier to understand. Question number two read; please select the mobility
type(s) that apply to you; 1 . Pedestrian, 2. Pedestrian (I have used an electric wheelchair
before), 3. Pedestrian (I have used a manual wheelchair before), 4. Pedestrian (I have
used both an electric and manual wheelchair before), 5. Manual wheelchair user, 6.
electric wheelchair user, 7. 1 have both used an electric and manual wheelchair on a
regular basis, and 8. Other. The survey should have been made as simple as possible.
First, the question should have read, "I am a pedestrian or wheelchair user." Then, if the
person selected wheelchair user, the next question should have read, "electric wheelchair,
manual wheelchair, or both." Because a participant stated that the web application
seemed geared toward people who knew GIS, another question about the participant's
58
GIS experience should have been included. The title, The Lumberjack Walk and Roll,
should include more of a descriptive purpose. A YouTube™ video of a screen capture
set of the instructions could be completed to optimize the ease of understanding. Another
survey could be administered to evaluate the effectiveness of the rewritten instructions.
Mobile application. Recommendations include creation of a mobile component
for this web routing application. The web application loaded on an iPhone®; however,
the geoprocessing services were not usable because currently this web routing application
was not accessible by a cell phone. New technology is constantly getting upgraded and
updated, and this web routing application could be evaluated and upgraded in the future.
Conclusions
Stephen F. Austin State University had a record-breaking enrollment during fall
2009 of 12,845 students, exceeding fall 2008 values by 7.1% (Census Report, 2009).
Resident Halls experienced overcrowding, and sidewalks had higher traffic during the
lunch hour and before and after classes. This project accomplished several goals: 1) It
produced an interactive web routing application campus map for Stephen F. Austin State
University; 2) It tested if the routes with the shortest distances and the routes with the
shortest travel times described the same routes throughout the campus. 3) It allowed
students, faculty, and staff at Stephen F. Austin State University to use the web routing
application and provide feedback.
The web routing application, The Lumberjack Walk and Roll, proved a success.
This web routing application was produced by using the Network Analyst™ extension
within ArcGIS® Server. Two geoprocessing models were successfully completed by
59
using the ModelBuilder™ application within ArcMap™, ArcCatalog™, and the Network
Analyst™ extension. Now that the web routing application has been created and tested
maintaining the application will take fewer steps.
1 . Print out a basemap displaying the necessary route data used within the
web routing application.
2. Visually assess while walking around the campus where the new
construction and route adjustments need to be made.
3. Draw the changes on the basemap that need to be made to the data to keep
the application current.
5. Edit the route data through digitizing within ArcMap™.
6. Build the network dataset to accept the changes.
7. The paths connecting the data to the web routing application may need to
be reset through ArcGIS® server manager to accept the changes within
the web routing application.
8. When adding multiple geoprocessing models to a single ArcSDE®
geodatabase it is necessary to keep them within a single toolbox.
Once the application is uploaded to the SFASU server and the files are connected
appropriately the application needs regular maintenance to update data to ensure the
routes would be current. Field collected GPS data by using GeoXH GPS units are not
necessarily needed to update the web application. The person updating the web
application could simply walk through the campus with a printed out image of the created
60
pedestrian and wheelchair route networks (line data used within the web routing
application), imagery, steps (point data used within the web application), sidewalk
polygon, and a pen. They could then draw on the map using a pen or pencil where any
changes throughout the campus regarding steps, sidewalks, curb cuts, and crosswalks
occur.
Then when the technician updating the application had the necessary information
they could then make the changes by editing the necessary route feature classes. This
researcher found that it was easier to update the data without using a GPS unit. Most of
the data that was originally collected by the GeoXH and the TruPulse® 360 Bluetooth
Laser needed to be edited through digitizing even going through the step data
individually and updating the magnetic declination. After the step data were snapped to
the route data the researcher determined that further adjustments were required within the
data in order to maximize the area the web routing application user could place a stop or
barrier location without receiving an error. These specific steps were described in more
detail in the methodology section of this thesis. This researcher also advised that the data
should be continuously tested and evaluated.
In this researchers' opinion currently the best ways to know if the route data are
working correctly are to test the routes on an ongoing basis through the Network
Analyst™ extension within ArcGIS® and also by testing the web routing application. If
the web routing application fails to produce a known route the data within that particular
area, it needs to be further examined. The route network data could be missing a junction
61
or there may be another design flaw. The web routing application users should be able to
easily communicate their needs and suggestions to the web application administrator.
Qualtrics™ proved to be useful communication tool for web routing application
users to anonymously provide feedback to the administrator. Users were more than
willing to state their opinions (Table 1 0, Appendix B). They could also communicate if
any design factor existed within the route network or aspects of web routing application
that they wanted changed. The ability to communicate an error within the data that
needed to be adjusted also was used. Continued use and updating of the web routing
application should be updated as new ArcGIS® Server versions are released and users
recommendations come forward. As the web application continues to be updated further
route testing is necessary.
Whereas new routes have become available as the SFASU campus has evolved,
some routes have stayed the same. Route testing for pedestrians and wheelchair users
should continue to take place. From the researcher's experience of nine years living on
the SFASU campus, the most crowded days at SFASU located between the R. W. Steen
Library and the Baker Pattillo Student Center were on the first and second day of classes
of the fall semester. If pedestrian traffic congestion caused a longer distanced route to be
completed within a shorter amount of time, this factor would most likely be seen during
these two days. As most students and staffare busy on the first and second day of the fall
semester it was regrettably hard to find wheelchair user participants to test these routes
during these days and time (around noon) of the highest traffic congestion.
62
Through the route testing both the pedestrian and wheelchair user results provided
this researcher with a greater understanding of the complexities for individual routes and
users. The web routing application users were able to input multiple locations to travel
and custom barriers providing them with individualized routes. This methodology
allowed users access to available alternative routes within the application. This thesis
produced a feasible method to produce and maintain the web routing application that the
Stephen F. Austin State University campus can maintain in the future. Most importantly,
this thesis demonstrated a direct need for the web routing application at Stephen F.
Austin State University.
63
APPENDIX A - METHODS
Task:
Create New Feature
?
Target: pedestrian
V Stoß Editing
m Save Edits
Move
Split..
**" Divide.
• Buffer...
'? Copy. Parallel..
More Editing Tools
?
E^- Validate Features
SQapping...
Options
Figure 13. Individual Line Feature within Pedestrian Route Dataset Highlighted in Light
Blue.
64
Steps Covering Half of the Sidewalk:
Stephen F. Austin State Universiy
Legend
^j O Steps
Pedestrian
Buildings with the Hallways Included
Buildings
EAST COLLEGE CAFETERIA
Columbia
? Center
^
Arthur Temple CulIejie«<rFiirfiln »ml Agrivultun-
Laboratory
April18, 2010
Software: Arci nfo 9.3
HALL 14 I
15 Feet
Projected Coordinate System:
NAD 1983 StatePlane Texas
Central FIPS 4203 Feet
Figure 14. First Demonstration of Wheelchair Route Dataset Adjustments.
A Ramp Designed to Go Around the Steps:
Stephen F. Austin State Universiy
Legend
Steps
Pedestrian
Buildings
?
Lumberjack Village
1
olumbia
I ArtburlVmplt-f ullrgr<jf ruri-slr> null Agrít-ulturt'
de Information Systems
Laboratory
April 23.2010
Software: Arclnfo 9.3.1
Projected Coordinate System:
NAD 1983 StatePlane Texas
Central FIPS 4203 Feet
6 Feet
Figure 15. Second Demonstration of Wheelchair Route Dataset Adjustments.
66
Adjusting for the Non-Transversable
Network Error
Legend
Steps
Pedestrian ND Junctions
1 Pedestrian
til'olumbia "^^
.Center
I Arthur ?«af1? C«lu»t!? «f Fwrvtfry «pj Agriculture
p——pMc Information Syitems
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April 18, 2010
Software: Arclnfo 9.3
0
1
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1
'
'
Projected Coordinate System:
2 Feet
'
¦
'
NAD 1983 StatePlane Texas
Central FIPS 4203 Feet
'
Figure 16. Adjustment for the Non-Traversable Network Error.
67
Pedestrian Geoprocessing Model
Route layer
I
from mxd
Add
Locations A
Barriers
I
Add
Locations B
Network
Network
Analyst
Analyst
Analyst
Laver A
Laver B
Laver C
Solve A
Network
\
Solve B
Network
Analyst
Laver D
Select Data
Final
Route
Output
Note. This is a representation of the original model created to enhance readability.
Figure 1 7. Pedestrian Geoprocessing Model.
68
Wheelchair Geoprocessing Model
Route layer
Barriers
from mxd
Add
Locations A
Add
Locations B
Add
Locations C
Network
Network
Network
Analyst
Analyst
Analyst
Analyst
Laver A
Laver B
Laver C
Laver D
Solve A
/
Network
So ve B
Network
Analyst
Laver E
Select Data
Final
Route
Output
Note. This is a representation of the original model created to enhance readability.
Figure 18. Wheelchair Geoprocessing Model.
69
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Figure 19. The Wheelchair Geoprocessing Model within an ArcMap™ Document.
70
s:
Route Testing: Pedestrian
Baker PattiUo Student Center
Legend
1 ^- 2 Route 1
2—— 1 Route 2
Partial
Walkways
I
I Buildings
Rusk Building
Chemistry
Building
E. L. Miller Science
T. E. Ferguson
Building
Liberal Arts
Building
Route 1
Route 2
C
R. E. McGcc Business
Building
T
olumbia
\rlhur templi- (iillei:i· ofl
^U
Vgrirulture
phic InfomMtton Syitemi
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May 18, 2010
Software: ArcView 9.2
Projected Coordinate System
NAD 1983 StatePlane Texas
Central FIPS 4203 Feet
R. W. Steen Library
o
25
I
Figure 20. Illustration of Pedestrian Routes 1 and 2.
71
50
100
m Feet
I I ""SV
Grass Areas and SFASU Buildings
aa&*M*
Rusk Building
Legend
Grass Areas
Chemistry ;
Building
Partial
Walkways
Buildings
¡ T. E. Ferguson
E. L. Miller Science
Liberal Arts
Building
Building
Robert T. McKibbcn
R. E. McGee Business
Education Building
Building
olumbia
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*rlh»r lt'mplt I cillryf «G I
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nu Agrii'ultu
phk Informition Sjvtenu
Nursing and Math
Building
Laboratory
May 23, 2010
R. W. Steen Library
Software: ArcView 9.2
Projected Coordinate System: M
NAD 1983 StatePlane Texas T|
Central FIPS 4203 Feet
0
25
50
100
I Feet
Figure 21. Grass Areas and SFASU Buildings.
72
&
0 Routes 1 , 2, and 8
Human Services
Routes
Vera Dugas
IC& ID
Liberal Arts North
Routes
1A& IB
Building
3
Route 2
Robert T. McKibben
Education Building
T. E. Ferguson
Liberal Arts
Building
Route 8 B
R. E. McGee Business
Building
1 E. L. Miller Science
Building
Legend
Route 8A
olumbia
Route IA
Route IB
Route IC
'^m
Arthur leiniili-MilltTii-iJf riin-M
Ue Informanoii Systems
Laboratory
Route ID
Route 8A
May 17, 2010
Route 8B
Software: ArcView 9.2
Route 2
I Projected Coordinate System:
NAD 1983 StatePlane Texas
Central FIPS 4203 Feet
Partial
Walkways
Buildings
200
rziFeet
Figure 22. Illustration of Wheelchair Routes 1, 2, and 8.
73
Routes 3 and 4
Health Services
Forestry
Building
Lumberjack Lodge
Route 3
Route 4
iolumbia
Ceni
\nhur Tt'iniilt' (-'olh'üt- uf Fuivstn jiuu Agru'iiilura
phlc InfornuttDO Syrtems
Laboratory
Legend
I
2 Route 3
East College
I
2 Route 4
Partial
Cafeteria
May 18, 2010
Software: ArcView 9.2
Projected Coordinate System: I
NAD 1983 StatePlane Texas
Central FIPS 4203 Feet |
Walkways
Buildings
Figure 23. Illustration of Wheelchair Routes 3 and 4.
74
Routes 5, 6, 7, and 9 [ Baker Pattillo Student Center
Route 9
Route 5
Rusk Building
Kennedy
Chemistry
Building
Auditorium
Vera Dugas
Liberal Arts North
Building
Route 6
E. L. Miller Science
T. E. Ferguson
Building
Liberal Arts
b
Route 7
Building
V
C
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R. E. McGcc Business
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6
7
9
¡phlc Information Syitema
Laboratory
May 18, 2010
Software: ArcView 9.2
j Projected Coordinate System:
Partial
Walkways
Buildings
3.
NAD 1983 StatePlane Texas
Central FIPS 4203 Feet
d
W. Stccn Library
\
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37.5
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Figure 24. Illustration of Wheelchair Routes 5, 6, 7, and 9.
75
75
.
—
150
,
=3 Feet -
Interactive map can help find quickest way to class,
grad student asking for help in testing effectiveness
By Paige Beasley
Gow.f3i-viN3 Ws;Ttn
An SFA graduate student
has developed an interactive campus map that can
help people find the quickest, and easiest, way to their
campus destination, and she
is looking for people to help
her test its effectiveness.
Allison Bergman, Dallas
grad student, is looking for
heap from students and faculty to complete her master's
thesis by visiting her Web application, The Lumberjack
Walk and Roll, and taking
a brief survey that explains
their experience with the application.
The Web site, http://siles.
5500gle.com/site/thelumberiackwalkandroll, presents
instructions to her project
application allows users
to input their current and
pedestrians, but also special
paths for wheelchair users
her thesis when she first
desired locations, and the
that will detour the user
application will highlight
away from steps and toward
wheelchair ramps. The site
also has maps of hallways
"When I was a freshman,
I used to take a map of campus and a ruler and try to
find the quickest route to
my classes so that I wouldn't
be late," Bergman said. The
idea eventually evolved into
the most efficient route to
their destination, much like
Google Maps would do for
inside several of the build-
The application not only
features paths for ordinary
ings on campus as well as
location of many restrooms.
Bergman got the idea for
driving directions.
ENGLISH
County Judge
Accountability, Transparency and Progressive Government
economic Development:
and enables users to access
y Finalized negotiations with Bio Mass Plant - 300 jobs
¦/ Assisted tax abatement for new Garrison nursing homefor 25 jobs
j /Maintained same tax ratefor last 3 years
easiest routes through campus.
COUNTY PROIECTS:
^ Reduced ¡ail overcrowding by 100 saving tax payers $250,000 per year...every year
·/ City'/County partner to purchase combined law enforcement software
y Enhanced county 911 addressing
Bergman is asking people
) test her Web application
before 5 p.m. Wednesday
GRANTS:
and then take a brief sur-
·/ Ceneratoi grantfor schools, and rural water districts $436,000
S Melrose water grant $250,000
S Shelter/civic center grant $ô million
vey. Users can suggest how
y Emergency operations center $1.5 million
fa make the site belter and
S $100,000 summer yout'i work program
easier to navigate.
Bergman said she will
take every piece of advice
c'íí¡ ,1 ix^ives from Hie survey
into consideration.
"I want genuine answers
frani people on the survey so
thai ! can make this Web application better," Bergman
said. "1 want people to use
their imagination on what
they want included in the
application."
As long as the user is on
the SlA campus, the Web
her thesis.
!-Elect toe
a map of SFA. The interactive campus map will allow
pedestrians and wheel chair
users to find the fastest and
came to SFA.
A Personalized
Import
Car Service
1216 SE Stallings Drive
Nacogdoches, TX 75961
(936)-569-6467
Dennis Davis
Owner
EXPERT DIAGNOSTIC & REPAIR
Figure 25. SFASU Pine Log Article Printed February 22, 2010.
76
APPENDIX B - RESULTS
Table 4
Pedestrian Testing Route 1 and 2 Results
Name
Route 1
Minutes
Seconds
52
34
59
5
MPH
4
3
3
4
4
57
4
7
5
46
34
45
52
26
55
35
1
29
43
25
43
4
4
3
4
4
3
4
4
5
4
3
3
3
4
3
4
14
37
51
46
50
46
24
7
56
55
46
Average
Route 2
Minutes
4
4
5
3
4
4
4
4
2.77
3.45
77
4.34
Seconds
36
59
19
54
16
6
39
10
95
31
18
53
12
28
14
46
58
33
57
31
51
14
2
5
55
50
37
41
22
37
MPH
3.51
Table 5
Wheelchair Testing Routes 1, 2, and 8 Results
Route Title
Date
Mode
Feet
Minutes
MPH
Route IA
30-Jun-09
Electric
367.33
0.75
5.57
Route IA
29-Jun-09
Manual
367.33
1.42
2.95
Route IA
7-Jul-09
Electric
367.33
0.75
5.57
Route IA
14-M-09
Electric
367.33
0.67
6.26
Route IB
9-Jul-09
Electric
367.33
0.72
5.82
Route IB
13-Jul-09
Manual
367.33
0.58
7.16
Route IB
14-M-09
Electric
367.33
0.78
5.33
Route IB
Electric
367.33
0.58
7.16
Route IB
14-Jul-09
14-M-09
Electric
367.33
0.60
6.96
Route IC
13-M-09
Manual
365.83
1.45
2.87
Route IC
14-Jul-09
Electric
365.83
0.67
6.24
Route IC
9-M-09
Electric
365.83
0.67
6.24
Route ID
9-M-09
Electric
365.83
0.58
7.13
Route ID
13-Jul-09
Manual
365.83
0.52
8.05
Route ID
14-Jul-09
365.83
0.57
7.34
Route 2 2nd Floor 30-Jun-09
Electric
Electric
N/A
2.87
N/A
Route 2 2nd Floor 30-Jun-09
Electric
N/A
2.10
N/A
Route 2 2nd Floor 29-Jun-09
Manual
N/A
4.02
N/A
Route 2 2nd Floor 20-Jan-10
Route 2 3rd Floor 30-Jun-09
Electric
N/A
3.58
N/A
Electric
N/A
2.45
N/A
Route 2 3rd Floor 30-Jun-09
Electric
N/A
2.18
N/A
Route 2 3rd Floor 29-Jun-09
Manual
N/A
4.73
N/A
Route 2 3rd Floor 20-Jan- 10
Electric
N/A
5.00
N/A
Route 8A
9-Jul-09
Electric
422.50
0.72
6.70
Route 8A
2-Jul-09
Manual
422.50
1.03
4.65
Route 8A
2-Jul-09
Manual
422.50
0.87
5.54
Route 8B
Electric
Manual
422.17
0.72
6.69
Route 8B
9-Jul-09
2-Jul-09
422.17
0.90
5.33
Route 8B
2-Jul-09
Manual
422.17
0.78
6.12
Quantity
78
Table 6
Wheelchair Testing Routes 3 and 4 Results
Route Title
Date
Mode
Feet
Minutes
MPH
Route 3
29-Jun-09
Manual
801.83
2.92
3.12
Route 3
30-Jun-09
Electric
801.83
1.77
5.16
Route 4
29-Jun-09
Manual
805.83
2.62
3.50
Route 4
30-Jun-09
Electric
805.83
1.72
5.33
Quantity
Table 7
Wheelchair Testing Routes 5, 6, 7, and 9 Results
Route Title
Date
Mode
Quantity
Feet
Minutes
MPH
Route 5
30-Jun-09
Electric
1
972.50
2.02
5.48
Route 5
2-Jul-09
Manual
1
972.50
2.68
4.12
Route 5
8-Jul-09
Electric
1
972.50
2.00
5.53
Route 5
8-Jul-09
Electric
1
972.50
2.22
4.99
Route 5
14-Jul-09
Electric
1
972.50
1.72
6.44
Route 6
30-Jun-09
Electric
1
1031.00
2.03
5.76
Route 6
2-Jul-09
Manual
1
1031.00
2.68
4.37
Route 6
2-Jul-09
Manual
1
1031.00
2.35
4.99
Route 6
8-Jul-09
Electric
1
1031.00
1.92
6.11
Route 6
14-Jul-09
Electric
1
1031.00
1.75
6.69
Route 7
8-Jul-09
Electric
1
1033.75
1.90
6.18
Route 7
14-Jul-09
Electric
1
1033.75
1.73
6.78
Route 7
2-Jul-09
Manual
1
1033.75
2.57
4.58
Route 9
30-Jun-09
Electric
1
807.75
1.52
6.05
Route 9
2-Jul-09
Manual
1
807.75
2.20
4.17
Route 9
13-Jul-09
Manual
1
807.75
1.77
5.20
Route 9
8-Jul-09
Electric
1
807.75
1.47
6.26
Route 9
20-Jan-10
Electric
1
807.75
1.87
4.92
Route 9
28-Feb-10
Electric
1
807.75
1.37
6.72
Route 9
28-Feb-10
Electric
1
807.75
1.37
6.72
Route 9
28-Feb-10
Electric
1
807.75
1.37
6.72
Table 8
Initial Instructionsfor The Lumberjack Walk and Roll Web Application
Choose your method of travel, and use the mouse to left click either pedestrian or
wheelchair.
You now have two options: stops or barriers.
Left click the arrow first next to stops.
Now left click the locations on the map where you want to create the most efficient route.
To create alternative routes, you can click the arrow next to barriers, and then select the
locations on the map that you don't want the route to travel.
You can also rename the features on the list by selecting the icon resembling a table, then
filling out the form.
Click select to create the route based on your stops and barriers.
For best results click inside the classroom buildings when classes are a part of your
routes.
If you get an error, just try again by choosing your stops in a slightly different location. It
just means the stops you selected did not produce an applicable route
After reading the instructions, please click this link to visit "The Lumberjack Walk and
Roll". This website is only accessible on the SFASU campus.
http://144.96. 16 1 . 1 02/routes/default.aspx
After using the mapping application, please click this link to take the survey.
http://sfasu.qualtrics.com/SE?SID=SV_abG5gwlPkQJXrlW&SVID=Prod
80
Table 9
Edited Instructions
Getting oriented
Click on the link so the map appears
Look at the top left and click on your method of transportation
pedestrian
wheelchair
Two white boxes appear on the left of the map
the top box is for choosing your beginning and ending destination
the bottom box is for choosing any area you may wish to avoid
To choose beginning and ending destinations
Click on the arrow on the right side of the "stops" (destination) box
Click on the buildings where you will begin and end your travel
Click on the "submit" button
Your travel path will appear in green
Repeat steps 1-4 for different travels
If you wish to avoid a particular area
To choose areas to avoid
Click on your method of transportation, as above
Click on your destinations by following the process described above
Click on the arrow on the right side of the barriers (areas to avoid) box
Click the area on the green travel path that you wish to avoid
Click "submit" and your new travel path will appear in green
Repeat steps 1-5 as necessary
Additional instructions and troubleshooting
If you want to delete a destination or area to avoid, click on it in the white box and then
click on the "X" on the left of the white box
If you get an error, just try again by clicking on your stops in a slightly different location.
For best results click inside the buildings
81
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Figure 26. The Lumberjack Walk and Roll Web Mapping Application Illustrating an
Example Route.
82
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Figure 27. The Lumberjack Walk and Roll Application Illustrating an Alternative
Wheelchair Route.
83
Table 10
The SFASU Mapping Application Survey Results
1 . I have used "The Lumberjack Walk and Roll" mapping application. I have also read
all of the information on the homepage before starting this survey. By answering yes to
this statement and continuing this survey, I acknowledge that I understand the importance
to answer each question and/or statement truthfully to the best of my ability. I also give
my consent for the results of this survey to be used in the publication of a master's thesis,
but no names will be associated with any of the data presented. I understand that
participation in this study is voluntary; I may withdraw at any time without penalty, and
any data collected is confidential.
# Answer
Response
1
Yes
39
2
No
1
"Total
Statistic
"
40
Value
Total Responses 40
2. Please select the mobility type(s) that apply to you;
# Answer
Response
1
34
Pedestrian
2 Pedestrian (I have used an electric
wheelchair before)
3 Pedestrian (I have used a manual
wheelchair before)
4 Pedestrian (I have used both an
1
1
0
electric and a manual wheelchair
before)
5
6
7
Manual Wheelchair User
Electric Wheelchair User
I use both an electric and manual
1
0
2
wheelchair on a regular basis
8 jDther
'" Total"""
0
39
Total Responses 39
84
3. How often did you use the wheelchair?
#
1
Answer
Never
2
3
4
Less than Once a Month
Once a Month
2-3 Times a Month
5
Once a Week
6
2-3 Times a Week
Response
0
0
0
0
0
0
2
7 Daily
2
Total
Statistic
Value
Total Responses 2
4. How often do you use a wheelchair?
#
1
2
Response
Answer
Never
Less than Once a Month
3
Once a Month
4
2-3 Times a Month
5
6
Once a Week
2-3 Times a Week
0
0
0
0
0
0
2
2
7 Daily
Total"
Statistic
Value
Total Responses 2
5. How long did you use the wheelchair? i.e.
Days,
Months, or
Days,
Months, or
Years?
Text Response
23 years
Statistic
Value
Total Responses 1
6. How long have you used a wheelchair? i.e.
Years?
Text Response
40 years
I have used it all my life. ( 27) years.
85
Statistic
Value
Total Responses 2
7. Have you used a wheelchair on the Stephen F. Austin State University campus?
# Answer
Response
1
Yes
4
2_._No_
._... J)
Total
4
Statistic
Value
Total Responses 4
8. Was your experience using your wheelchair on the Stephen F. Austin State University
Campus a positive experience?
# Answer
Response
1
Yes
4
2
No
0
Total
Statistic
™4
Value
Total Responses 4
9. What challenges or issues made you select no?
Text Response
Statistic
Value
Total Responses 0
10. What made the experience positive?
Text Response
SFA is a pretty wheelchair friendly campus. Some of the inclines are a bit difficult when
I use my manual chair.
I don't have to worry if there is a place I can't get to on campus. ...I have been to a school
that i have worried about that.
it is a very wheelchair accessible campus
86
Being able to see all the various routes from each building aid me in knowing a safe route
to take in case of an emergency.
Statistic
Value
4
Total Responses
1 1 . Since the answer was other, please elaborate;
Text Response
Statistic
Value
Total Responses 0
12. Please select the phrase that best describes you;
#
Answer
Response
1
2
SFASU Student
SFASU Staff
3 SFASU Faculty
27
7
3
4
j_
Other
"Total
Statistic
38
Value
Total Responses 38
13. Gender;
#
Answer
Response
1
2
Male
Female
Total
15
Statistic
23_
38
Value
Total Responses 38
14. Age;
#
1
2
3
4
Response
Answer
18-22
23-30
30-40
21
4
8
4
other
Total
J7
87
Statistic
Value
Total Responses 37
15. Please select your classification as a student at Stephen F. Austin State University;
# Answer
Response
1
7
Freshman
2 Sophomore
6
3
4
5
Junior
Senior
Graduate Student
11
3
()
Total
27
~
Statistic
Value
Total Responses 27
16. I am on the Stephen F. Austin State University campus _
# Answer
Response
1
2
0
1
3
2
0
4
5
3
4
2
0
days a week.
0
0
6
5
16
7
8
6
7
6
14
"
Total"
""
Statistic
38
Value
Total Responses 38
17.
Strongly
Disagree
Disagree Neither Agree nor
Disagree
Agree Strongly
Agree
Responses
A. This application meets my needs as an individual
2
3
14
16
88
38
B. I would not change any of the schematics of this website.
4
15
4
13
2
38
C. The instructions for the use of this application are clear and concise.
5
17
4
9
3
38
D. I wish I had this application available during my first semester at Stephen F. Austin
State University.
3
2
11
12
10
38
18. How would you change the website?
This is a good application, however it is not relavent to the average pedestrian. On the
otherhand, it would be very useful to someone who have mobility imparements...
Application worked fine for Ped but returned "Error" for wheelchair. Make the route line
a brighter color.
I would make it more user friendly. It was very difficult to use at first.
I would make the map come up quicker. It was a bit slow. None of the pedestrian paths
went through the tennis courts or the field next to the Ree Center that I use every
morning. I would include more information on that side of campus.
I would put arrows when the "best" route to take was shown. I would also make the entire
map visible at once.
Create a button to get to the website, the hyperlink is not obvious and could be better
suited as a large button to access.
spelling - walkways, hallways; directions more concise - when I double clicked - which is
usual, it made several "features" so be sure to explain 1 click, barrier added them to the
map rather than finding a way around the barriers as I expected; not all of the hallways
89
are in the buildings; roads/car traffic streets need to be more clearly located - but overall a
great idea, especially for new faculty, staff, and students!
I would make it more clear and less congested for people who are not good at reading
maps.
I would add handicapped available parking spaces for all parking lots.
I would have liked better instructions on how to use it. I fumbled through the first couple
of times. I had to open a new tab to keep the instructions open and then read line by line.
It would be nice to have an export capability to either smartphones, electronically or
print. It feels as if you need to know ARCGis. If this is for the sfasu community, by just
entering the building names or location and what to avoid and then hitting submit to
generate the map may be better. This may eliminate clicks and confusion. Not sure if you
can have a front interface and then let the ARCGis do the calculation.
The directions are really complex, but i think the program has the potential to be very
efficient.
Make it more user friendly and organized! I have No Idea what I am doing, other than
posting my daily route.
I would make the website more user friendly with easier ways to control my destination.
Definitely make it accessible to those off of campus. That way when potential students
visit or community members visit, they'll be able to have access to it at their home. Those
who visit campus and are confined to wheelchairs, etc. also need to the best route to
places on campus. In fact, I would suggest to somehow give access to the outside
community before you finish your evaluation of this idea. I think you'll get a better idea
of what's needed in your survey. Just an idea. Great job, by the way! Handicap persons
should applaud you for your service to them! :)
I'm frustrated that this is a graduate student's thesis. What a waste of time! This campus is
not large enough to warrant something like this, and the functionality of the application is
elementary at best. I'm not impressed, and I think SFASU's college of forestry should
NOT support endeavors like this in the future. This is an undergrad thesis at best - this
student should have to complete a GRADUATE LEVEL thesis to graduate. Not
something as elementary as this. I hope you guys didn't spend too much time on this.
What an embarrasment for the school of forestry.
The instructions are confusing and I needed assistance to make it work, and even with
your help it worked differently on my Mac. There are lots of steps to get it to do what I
90
wanted, so making it simpler somehow would be great. Change "feature #" to the actual
feature (i.e., "feature 10" as the Ag bldg should just say "Ag bldg").
The instructions were not very clear - 1. "You now have two options: stops or barriers."
(At first, I didn't understand what this meant. I don't think you need to mention that you
have two 'options', because you can't do the barriers option on it's own. You must first
choose your stops and then include barriers, if you want. This needs to be explained more
clearly.) 2. "Left click the arrow first next to stops." (I clicked on the arrow to the left of
the box. This did nothing, so I clicked on the pointer icon to the right of the box. I guess
this is the intended 'arrow' so this needs to be clarified). The program is very interesting,
but I think it needs to be refined for more direct routes. I asked for directions from the
Rusk Building to Miller Science Building and it didn't give me the closest option of going
out the back door of Rusk and directly over to the Science Building. I also chose a route
from Liberal Arts North to the Education Building and it had me go over to near the front
of the Human Services Building and then down the sidewalk to the Education Building.
Make the instructions quite a bit more clear, and make it so that the zoom in/out buttons
don't cause such a drastic change in zooming with just one click.
Total Responses 1 7
19. Is the phrase "The Lumberjack Walk and Roll" a good title for the Stephen F. Austin
State University mapping application?
1
Yes
2 No
Total
30
8_
38
"~
20. Please suggest alternate names for the website.
SFA'S ACADEMIC MAZE
Something more descriptive or add a subtitle... "SFA Routing Aid for Mobility
Impaired" is not "catchy" like "Walk & Roll" but it would give users some kind of idea of
what the application is for...
Jack Map
Quickest Way Possible!
Speed it Up!
What's your Route?
What's your route? Speed it up! Best way!
SFASU Interactive Campus Map
91
Lumberjack walk and roll sounds like some sort of fund raising event where people can
walk and/or roll for pledges; at least that's what comes to my mind when I see that.
Change the name to simply what it is: The Interactive SFA Campus Accessibility Map: or
the interactive accessibility map. Something with interactive and accessibility in the title
is the way to go, I think,
Total Responses 7
21. This web application should be included in the Human Resources orientation at
Stephen F. Austin State University.
1
Yes
10
2__No__
CL
Total
10
22. This web application should be included in the SFA 101 course.
1
Yes
2 No_
Total"
24
3__
~27
""
23. Please list any specific barriers, conditions, or situations that make route travel
difficult for pedestrians and wheelchair users at Stephen F. Austin State University.
Traffic... Many of the main pedistrian routes go through the middle of parking lots.
The many steps and stairs outside on the SFA campus. Especially near the Ferguson and
Rusk buildings.
University is the most accessible street on my side of campus, but it's not the quickest
way to the Ree Center. For wheel chair users the tennis courts are difficult to reach. The
parking lot next to the tennis courts is the best entry into the Ree Area and the campus.
Stairs, steps up to doors,
As a pedestrian the worst condidtions are really just college students driving and not
paying attention especially at driveways even with cross walks.
regular flooding locations (with every rain, even minimal)
Areas where there is little sidewalk like on the street the art building is on can make
travel difficult for wheelchair users.
92
Tearing down Gamer has made parking and walking from East College street to the Ree
Center a little longer. But that is the only complaint I have.
CONSTRUCTION. THE SMALL WALKWAY AROUND EAST COLLEGE
CAFETERIA.
narrow side walks, (east college Caf) Construction
Class releases/time when there is more congestion. Special events.
The only thing that i would recommend is the course is detailed.
It would be alot easier if pedestrians or wheelchair users could go the route behind the
library to be able to cut across the parking lot to go to the east college cafeteria, but there
is construction. So now there is a longer route to get there.
The area between the Chemistry building and Science building may be hard to commute
for a person in a wheelchair.
The construction to Garner hall.
None
Some of the textured surfaces can be jarring when going over them in a wheelchair.
Some of the sidewalks at SFA are too small for more than one person, and it is sometimes
hard to pass people on the sidewalks. Also, when it rains, all of the cobblestone
sidewalks, particularly between the Student Center and the Library, get really slippery
and are sometimes hard to walk on.
Rain - even for pedestrians there are several buildings on campus whose entrances get
flooded easily making even walking difficult.
I know it cannot be helped, but heavy traffic is a HUGE issue.
None. Unless of random construction.
Total Responses 2 1
24. What items would you like included in future releases of this application?
93
Better explanation of the purpose of the application on the actually mapping page.
Perhaps estimated travel time? It would estimate how many minutes walking (or rolling)
your route on the map will take you.
Alternate routes time and distances versus regular routes.
In-building features, like stairs, elevators, hallways and classrooms.
Arrows to show which directions the "best" route is showing to go. and more clear
markings of barriers.
updated imagery
notation of doors with automatic entries, where are the elevators in the buildings
I would mark areas where there is sidewalk and where there is just a street and also busy
areas so people will know what to expect.
Dorms and Parking Lots
A BETTER MAP. IT IS DIFFICULT TO HANDLE THAT ONE.
better map
Most wheelchair users start out in specific parking spaces. Maybe including the handicap
parking areas as a starting point will work.
It would be more interesting if it showed a visual of the actual route instead ofjust a line.
Maybe show a video of a digital object or person moving through the route, so you can
get a better feel of where you're going.
N/A
none.
be able to alter the line by dragging it manually
Surface texture information.
Showing of handicapped parking spaces in all lots and parking garages.
It would be really awesome if every building would eventually have hallways mapped
out.
94
I'm not sure.
incline and weather conditions of the sidewalks/ roads becuase of added time for Manuel
wheelchair users.
Total Responses 21
25. Please add any general comments about this web application.
It was pretty accurate.
Useful tool for folks in a wheelchair.
It is a good tool for new students who don't know how to get places on campus.
Some of the pop up menus were cumbersome, and the map window wasn't static.
I think it is a great idea that helps many people
The points that are placed on the map need to be larger and more obvious it is difficult to
see where the points were placed.
Could be very useful to some students
Frankly, I thought it to be an amazing and beneficial concept for current and future
students, community members, etc. I can't imagine being confined to a wheelchair and
not knowing where the handicapped doors are to each building. I would be a nervous
wreck. So this application would definitely serve a purpose to better their lives. Thank
you for doing this.
keep going! good start (relies a bit too heavily on the user having an understanding of
GIS) need to have instructions/help accessible from within the application
This application could be a good tool for freshmen.
VERY GOOD IDEA! I WISH I WOULD HAVE THOUGHT OF IT!
wonderful idea
Application didn't work for me.
I'm not if this will be looked at or considered. However, visually imparled pedestrians or
wheelchair users may benefit from this. Text-to-speech capability should be considered.
95
It is very complex and i found it difficult to operate.
make the route for the pedestrians with a picture or visual of someone walking. Also have
the wheelchair users with a wheelchair .
It is a good idea for first year students.
makes it easier to find classes at the beginning of the semester
This seems to be a useful application. I only suggest some rewording/clarification for
steps 3-5. The stops and barriers options have several arrows so indicating that the user
should left click the 'add features' arrow would be easier to follow.
Great job! I hope you make tons of money selling your service to other universities!
Very impressed with this idea.
Embarasment for me. I'm a forestry student hoping to complete a GIS certificate, and this
makes me want to apply elsewhere. It makes me physically sick that this is an
individual's graduate research.
You've missed a junction, apparently, between the two ag buildings on the west side of
campus. This is a GREAT idea that you should license! ! ! ! ! !
I really love this website, and I think it is a great idea.
This is pretty good. It needs more refinement and better instructions.
I've said all that I need to say.
Total Responses 27
96
APPENDIX C - FORMS
Route Study
2009
This research study is conducted to accompany a proposed thesis titled "Development of web-
based application for mapping routes on university campuses using GIS" by Allison Bergman.
The purpose of testing the length of time to complete selected routes through the use of
pedestrians, bicyclists, and or but not limited to wheelchair users is to use Network Analyst
Extension™ within the IiSRl™ software program ArcGIS™. The tests will be able to answer
two main questions, "Is the shortest distanced route the most efficient?' and 'Are there areas on
campus in which the alternative route travels through a building in conjunction with the
destination building shorter in the length of time of completion versus traveling around the
buildings?' For example, the Liberal Arts North building and the Ferguson building have a
bridge linking them on the second and third floor. The duration of the subject's participation is
determined by the individual and length of the chosen routes.
Risks: The risk is no different than you would normally encounter while traveling through
Stephen F. Austin State University. Please keep in mind that during the summer there are
children and visitors louring the campus. With this in mind, we ask that you follow safety
guidelines throughout the participation of this study. Please initial that you understand and agree
to comply with the following:
_______I am allowed to wait for a group of people to pass during the timed route, and I
understand that I am encouraged to do so for safety and testing purposes.
_______I will not use my cell phone during the timed route.
_______I will not stop to visit with people during the timed route.
___I am able to communicate through the walkie-talkie, to the test administrator, any time
during the timed route for assistance.
_______If given a GPS unit during the study, I understand that its purpose is to record the route
that I take.
_______I am free to withdraw from this study at any time by notifying the test administrator.
The benefits of the tests will have a direct impact within website application within regards to the
produced routes. The confidentiality of data will be maintained and stored within the high
security location of the Columbia Regional Geospatial Service Center. The testing results will
anonymously be published within the thesis.
Figure 28. Consent Form Used for Wheelchair Testing Page One.
97
If you have any questions within regard to this study or the participant's rights as an individual
please contact Allison Bergman at (cell phone) 936-591-2921 or the faculty advisor Darrel L.
McDonald at 936-468-1347. Participation is voluntary, refusal to participate will involve no
penalty or loss of benefits to which the subject is otherwise entitled and the subject may
discontinue participation at any time without penalty or loss of benefits to which the subject is
otherwise entitled. The subject or the subject's legally authorized representative will receive a
copy of the informed consent.
, have read this form or it has been read to
I, (print name)
me and 1 understand the contents of this form.
Participant Signature
Date
Figure 29. Consent Form Used for Wheelchair Testing Page Two.
98
Sriii'HhN F.Austin SiATt University
Institutional Review Board for the Protection of Human Subjects in Research
PO Box 13046, SFA Station · Nacogdoches, Texas 75962-3046
Phone (936) 468-4402 · Fax (936) 468-4015 · E-mail: irb@sfasu.edu
TO:
RH:
Darrel McDonald & Allison Bergman
Forestry Box 1 3074 / Columbia Regional Geospatial Service Center
Nacogdoches, TX 75962
Development of web-based applications for mapping routes on university campuses
using GIS
Case#AY2009-ll37
TYPE OF RESEARCH:
Thesis
^/¿¿£—
FROM: Michael E. Walker, Chair, IRB-H
DATE:
6/19/09
I would like thank you for submitting your project entitled "Development ofweb-based
applicationsfor mapping routes on university campuses using GIS" to the IRB for review. It
has been reviewed and has been Approved, with the revisions submitted. The revisions to the
consent form seem appropriate to reinforce the importance safety to the participants.
Your project has approval through 6/19/10, should you need additional time to complete the
study you will need to apply for an extension prior to that date. The IRB should be notified of
any planned changes in the procedures during the approval period, as additional review will be
required by lhe IRB, prior to implementing any changes, except when changes are necessary to
eliminate immediate hazards to the research participants.
The researcher is also responsible for promptly notifying the IRB ofany unanticipated or adverse
events involving risk or harm to participants or others as a result of the research.
All future correspondence regarding this project should include the case number AY2009-1 137.
AY2009-1137
Expedited
Figure 30. SFASU IRB Approval Form for the Wheelchair Testing.
99
S T HPUL N F. A l'SNN STA ?? UNI VERSI I Y
lnstltutionat Review Board for the Protection of Human Subjects In Research
PO Bo» 13046, SFA Station ¦ Nacogdoches, Texas 75982-3046
Phone (936) 468-4402 · Fax (936) 466-401 5 · E-mail: ¡rb@sfasu.edu
TO:
RE:
Darrell McDonald & Allison Bergman
Columbia Center
Nacogdoches, TX 75962
THE DEVELOPMENT OF A CAMPUS WEB-BASED MAPPING APPLICATION
FOR STEPHEN F. AUSTIN STATE UNIVERSITY
Case«AY2010-1062
TYPE OF RESEARCH:
Thesis
FROM: Michael E. Walker, Chair, IRB-H
DATE:
2/12/2010
I would like thank you for submitting your project entitled "THE DEVELOPMENT OF A
CAMPUS WEB-IiASED MAPPING APPLICA TlON FOR STEPHEN F. AVSTINSTA TE
UNIVERSITY" to the IRB for review. It has been reviewed and has been Approved, with the
revisions submitted, based on the following review criteria:
CFR §46. 101(b)(2) Research involving the use of educational tests (cognitive, diagnostic,
aptitude, achievement), survey procedures, interview procedures or observation of public
behavior, unless:(i) information obtained is recorded in such a manner that human
subjects can be identified, directly or through identifiers linked to the subjects; and (ii)
any disclosure of the human subjects' responses outside the research could reasonably
place the subjects at risk of criminal or civil liability or be damaging to the subjects'
financial standing, empioyability, or reputation.
Your project has approval through 2/12/201 1 , should you need additional time to complete the
study you will need to apply for an extension prior to that date. The IRB should be notified of
any planned changes in the procedures during the approval period, as additional review will be
required by the IRB, prior to implementing any changes, except when changes are necessary to
eliminate immediate hazards to the research participants. The researcher is also responsible for
promptly notifying the IRB of any unanticipated or adverse events involving risk or harm to
participants or others as a result of the research.
All future correspondence regarding this project should include the case number AY20IO-I062.
Chair CFR §46.101(b)(2)
ure 31. SFASU IRB Approval Form for the Survey.
100
Compare versions (The Lumberjack Walk and Roll)
Page I of 2
[Jicfcr^heCu* t C tj*jrrjac
:r«û- ItBU IC:t1.
About
^
Instructions:
Pina iud eiroutfi iho insuwEicna ci
Inj Uk cútele
htipi/'siles.google.com.'site/thelumberjackw'alkandroll/sjstem'app/pages/admia'comparc'.'v.'u... 4/4/2010
Figure 32. Initial Web Routing Application Home Page Used for the Survey.
101
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Route Navigation in Urban Spaces. The Carographic Journal, 43, 68-81.
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building occupancies for fire safety engineering: capabilities of disabled people
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Brubaker, C. E., McLaurin, C. A., & McClay, Irene S., (1986). Effects of side slope on
wheelchair performance. Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development,
23, 55-57.
Census Report. (2009). Retrieved October 19, 2009, from
http://www.sfasu.edu/research/docs/census/Fall09-Census-Report.pdf
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ocessing%3F
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102
Golledge, Reginald G. (1999). Wayfinding behavior: Cognitive mapping and other
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http://www.google.com/corporate/history.html
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from http://www.husdal.com/arc/2008/06/25/09-travel-cost/
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104
VITA
Allison Catherine Bergman was born in Piano, Texas inl982. After receiving a
diploma from Bishop Lynch High School, Dallas, Texas, in the Spring of 2001, she
attended Stephen F. Austin State University starting Fall, 2001. After obtaining a
Bachelors of Fine Arts from SFA double majoring in Criminal Justice and Photography
in 2006, she continued her education at Stephen F. Austin State University. As an
Engineer Intern at the City of Nacogdoches, Teaching Assistant to Dr. McDonald, and
Graduate Assistant for the Center for Regional Heritage Research at SFASU, she became
proficient within the field of Geographical Information Systems. In June, 2010, Allison
joined Trow Engineering Consultants, Houston, TX and is currently a Temporary GIS
technician.
Permanent Address: 3111 Quenby Ave.
Houston, TX 77005
Style APA
Allison C. Bergman typed this thesis.
105
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