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Video modeling and matrix training to teach pretend play in children with Autism spectrum disorder

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Video Modeling and Matrix Training 1
Video Modeling and Matrix Training to Teach Pretend Play in
Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder
A Thesis Presented
by
Lauren M. Dannenberg
In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of
Master of Science
In the field of
Applied Behavior Analysis
Northeastern University
Boston, Massachusetts
August 2010
UMI Number: 1479338
All rights reserved
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UMI 1479338
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Video Modeling and Matrix Training 2
NORTHEASTERN UNIVERSITY
Bouvé College of Health Sciences Graduate School
Thesis Title: A replication of Video Modeling and Matrix Training to teach pretend play in
children with autism.
Author: Lauren M. Dannenberg
Masters of Science in Applied Behavior Analysis
Committee members:
_________________________________________________
Rebecca MacDonald
_________________________________________________
William Ahearn
_________________________________________________
Chata Dickson
______________
Date
______________
Date
______________
Date
Video Modeling and Matrix Training 3
Video Modeling and Matrix Training to Teach Pretend Play in
Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder
Lauren Dannenberg
Northeastern University
Submitted In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of
Master of Science in Applied Behavior Analysis
in the Bouvé College of Health Sciences Graduate School
of Northeastern University, August 2010
Video Modeling and Matrix Training 4
Acknowledgements
Thanks and appreciation to Rebecca MacDonald, the research supervisor of this Master’s Thesis,
for her guidance and support throughout the data collection and writing of this Thesis. Special
thanks are also offered to Cara Grieco for her assistance with data collection and to Cormac
MacManus for his assistance throughout the process of this project.
Video Modeling and Matrix Training 5
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to combine video modeling with matrix training to teach play
skills in young children with autism. Three children with autism were taught scripted
vocalizations and actions for three play sets. Scripted play scenarios were developed using a 3 x
3 x 3 matrix involving characters, vehicles and objects. A within subject multiple probe design
across play sets was used to demonstrate experimental control with each participant.
Additionally, a multiple probe design across participants was used to demonstrate experimental
control across participants. Baseline data were collected for each participant with each play set.
During training the participant watched a video model consisting of an adult engaging in the
scripted scenario. After the participant watched the video twice they had five minutes to play
with the toys. Once mastery criteria were achieved, untrained stimuli were presented to the
participant to assess the emergence of recombinative play behaviors. Results showed that after
training on at least one of the play sets, 1 of the 3 participants demonstrated emergence of script
recombination. Recombination was performed by the second and third participant after a brief
recombination training session. The use of a matrix was a beneficial way to systematically teach
pretend play skills to the three participants of this study.
Video Modeling and Matrix Training 6
Table of Contents
A. Abstract…………………………………………………………………………………....5
B. Introduction……………………………………………………………………………….7
C. Method
Participants……………………………………………………………………………....12
Setting……………………………………………………………………………….......13
Materials……………………………………………………………………………....…13
Independent Variable…………………………………………………………................15
Dependent Variable……………………………………………………………….....…..16
Experimental Design………………………………………………………………..…...18
Procedure……………………………………………………………...…………….......19
Interobserver Agreement………………………...………………………………………20
D. Results………………………………………………………………………….....……..23
E. Discussion……………………………………………………………………...………..46
F. References……………………………………………………….…………………...….48
G. Figure Captions……………………………………………………………………...…..57
H. Figures……………………………………………………………...……………...…….58
I. Appendices
Appendix 1: Bank play set and materials……………………………..…………………65
Appendix 2: Mansion play set and materials……………………………...……...……..66
Appendix 3: Castle play set and materials……………………………….…………...…67
Appendix 4: Bank script……………………………..……………………………...…..68
Appendix 5: Mansion script………………………………………………………...…..69
Appendix 6: Castle script………………………………………………………...……..70
Appendix 7: 3D matrices with trained scripts………………………..………...……….71
Appendix 8: 3D matrices with alternative probes…………………………………...….72
Appendix 9: Scoring guidelines for bank script………………………………...………73
Appendix 10: Scoring guidelines for mansion script………………………….………..74
Appendix 11: Scoring guidelines for castle script………………….……...……………75
Video Modeling and Matrix Training 7
Using Video Modeling with Matrix Training to Teach Pretend Play.
Autism is a developmental disability which significantly affects a child’s education (U.S.
Department of Education, 1999). This disability often presents with severe deficits in displaying
appropriate affect, which ultimately impedes social development (McGee, Feldman, & Chernin,
1991). Children with autism may engage in repetitive behaviors or resist changes in the
environment (Delano, 2007). Another deficit observed within this population is that they may be
less likely to accept or make social initiations (Koegal, Koegal, Frea, & Fredeen, 2001). As a
result of these deficits, children with autism are less likely to develop play skills at the same rate
as their typically developing peers.
In past studies researchers developed ways to teach different skills to children with
autism. An effective way to teach children with autism is modeling. Modeling has been shown
to be effective because it leads to skills being acquired and generalized quickly (Coleman &
Stedman, 1974). Learning through observation of peers has also been effective in teaching
various skills to children with autism (Garfinkle & Schwartz, 2002). Charlop-Christy, Le, and
Freeman (2000) found that video modeling was more effective than in-vivo modeling. Video
modeling interventions involve the learner watching a video of a typically developing peer or
adult modeling appropriate skills. Ideally after repeated exposures the learner demonstrates
imitation of those skills.
The use of a video modeling can be very effective because the same model can be used
multiple times. If a video is developed to teach one skill it can be used with different students to
teach the same skill. It has been found to be cost effective. Using video modeling can enhance
learning by showing edited video which highlights particular behaviors and can be repeatedly
viewed (Ayres & Langone, 2005).Videos that are developed to teach different skills may
Video Modeling and Matrix Training 8
produce a learning tool that is student specific by incorporating stimuli that are salient to that
student.
Reciprocating play actions and vocalizations are two marked deficits observed in children
with autism. Taylor, Levin, and Jasper (1999) focused on teaching commenting during play to
two children with autism via video modeling. A child with autism viewed a video with scripted
play statements made between his sibling and an adult. Treatment sessions involved a child
watching a video and then interacting with an adult. The children were taught to participate in an
interaction with an adult. The adult also provided reinforcement for correct scripted comments
made by the child. Results of this study showed that the children with autism were able to learn
three different scripted scenarios. During these scenarios only scripted comments were made by
the child. No novel unscripted comments were observed in this study.
Video modeling has been very successful in teaching both scripted play actions and
scripted play statements. Children with autism have also been taught to initiate play with peers
and adults through video modeling. MacDonald, Sacramone, Mansfield, Wiltz, and Ahearn
(2009) used video modeling to teach reciprocal play to children with autism. The purpose of this
study was to teach the children with autism to engage in longer sequences of reciprocal play with
their typically developing peers. The participants included two typically developing children and
two children with autism. Three different play sets were used to teach the children reciprocal
pretend play skills. During the study the researchers took data on scripted vocalizations and
actions as well as those that were unscripted. Results of this study showed that video modeling
was an effective tool to use to produce extended sequences of reciprocal play.
Video Modeling and Matrix Training 9
Video modeling studies have also been shown to be effective for teaching reciprocal play.
Reagon, Higbee, and Endicott (2006) taught pretend play skills to a student with autism using
video modeling with his sibling as a model and play partner. A 4-year-old boy diagnosed with
autism participated in the study. The boy was provided instruction on play in four play scenarios,
each was approximately 30 seconds long. Each episode of play consisted of 5 scripted
statements and 6 scripted actions. The participant’s sibling and two typically developing peers
were used as models for the scenarios. The video modeling phase of the study resulted in an
increase in play skills for the child with autism.
Generative play is an area of focus in many video modeling studies. Generative play can
be defined as play in which repertoires that have been taught in particular situations emerge in
novel untrained situations (Dauphin, Kinney, & Stromer, 2004). A review of the current video
modeling literature conducted by McCoy and Hermansen (2007) found that out of the three
studies about play skills, only 1 of the studies showed a development of novel play.
Roberts, MacDonald, and Ahearn (2007) examined the use of video modeling and
scripted substitutable loops to teach children to vary their play. Three children between the ages
of 5 and 6 years old participated. Participants were shown a video of scripted toy play with a
segment that was repeated using multiple characters. These scripted loops contained a series of
actions and vocalizations that were modeled with several characters in the play set, additional
characters were present but never trained. Following video modeling training, children used
characters that were both trained and untrained in their play. The short substitutable loops
resulted in greater variation in character use while longer loops resulted in play with trained
characters instead of untrained characters.
Video Modeling and Matrix Training 10
Another strategy used to develop generative play was included in a study conducted by
Paterson and Arco (2007). Four boys ranging in ages 6-9 were taught to interact with six sets of
toys. The toys were broken up into two different groups; related toys and unrelated toys. The
researchers found that appropriate play increased as a result of video modeling. Generalized
appropriate play was observed in one of the participants when he was presented with toys that
were related to each other. The authors used three sets of similar toys. The toys shared common
components; the different sets of toys may have been less discriminable which lead to the
generalized toy play that was observed.
Using a matrix has been an effective tool to produce untrained combinations. Goldstein
and Mousetis (1989) used matrix training and observational learning to teach 6 children with
developmental disabilities to combine known words into two- or three-word utterances. The
researchers used 3 x 5 x 6 object-preposition-location language matrix, which included three
known object words, two known and three unknown prepositions, and three known and three
unknown locations. The participants demonstrated generalization with novel combinations or
recombitative generalization of an unknown preposition or location with a known location or
object. Using a matrix provided a way to organize the material that the participant was being
taught and the recombinations that were possible.
Dauphin et al. (2004) examined the use of a video-enhanced activity schedule and matrix
training to teach sociodramatic play to a child with autism. During the first phase of the study
they used a computer based program was used to teach, various scripted actions and scripted
vocalizations. The modeled actions and figurines formed a 3 x 3 matrix. Within the matrix there
were three animals that performed three actions which formed nine combinations. The child was
taught three of the nine combinations possible. The participant was also taught three 3-item
Video Modeling and Matrix Training 11
schedules each contained one social activity, one closed activity, and one open activity.
Following the completion of training, the three schedules were intermixed which created three
novel schedules which the participant completed with 96% accuracy or better. In the final phase
of the study the researchers replicated the first phase of the study combined with an activity
schedule. They did this by using three novel matrices with three exemplars of each toy set. The
results showed that this type of teaching procedure was effective in teaching the participant to
use an activity schedule and to engage in sociodramatic play. Using video modeling training with
matrices resulted in an increase in novel play.
MacManus and MacDonald (2010) used video modeling combined with matrix training
to teach three children with autism spectrum disorder to engage in novel play. In this study a
3x3x3 tiered matrix was used to teach play. Each play set was similar, but included different
villains, heroes, vehicles, and objects. Each play scenario was made up of three scenes and all of
the participants received instruction for three play scripts. Playing according to the scripts was
trained to mastery criteria and subsequent alternative material probes were then conducted. In
these probes the participants were presented with different materials from the training materials,
these probes were conducted based on the matrix model used in the study. MacManus and
MacDonald found that once a participant had been trained on at least one of the play sets they
performed both recombined actions and vocalizations with a play set which had not been
previously trained. They demonstrated that using matrix training along with video modeling was
a more systematic approach to increasing novel play.
The purpose of the current study is to replicate the MacManus and MacDonald study by
examining the effects of combining matrix training with video modeling to increase pretend play,
including scripted actions and vocalizations as well as recombined actions and vocalizations.
Video Modeling and Matrix Training 12
Method
Participants
Three children diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder were selected for
participation in this study Bonnie, Vincent, and Peter. The participants were enrolled in an
intensive instruction preschool program. Bonnie was five years old at the beginning of the study
(Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test- Fourth Edition Form A (PPVT- 4A): age equivalent: 6 years
1 month, raw score: 99, 50th percentile). Bonnie communicated vocally to peers and adults using
phrases for the purposes of requesting desired items and activities. Vincent was a 4-year-old
male at the beginning of the study (Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test- Fourth Edition Form A
(PPVT- 4A): age equivalent: 5 years 4 months, raw score: 86, 63th percentile). He
communicated primarily through 3-7 word phrases and sentences for the purposes of requesting
desired items and activities. Peter was a 4-year-old male at the beginning of the study (Peabody
Picture Vocabulary Test- Fourth Edition Form A (PPVT- 4A): age equivalent 5 years 2 months,
raw score: 92, 82nd percentile). Peter communicated primarily through 1-4 word phrases and
sentences primarily for the purpose of requesting desired items. All participants were selected
based on their prior experience with video modeling and their scores on the video modeling
assessment conducted at the participants’ school. This assessment tested areas which included;
motor imitation, actions with objects, picture to object matching, computer picture to object,
delayed computer picture to object, and video modeling. Their scores ranged from .75- 1.0.
Video modeling was also included in each participant’s Individualized Education Plan (IEP).
Video Modeling and Matrix Training 13
Setting
All sessions were conducted in a research room (2.7 m x 4.3 m) at the participants’
school. The room was separate from the participants’ classroom and free from distractions. The
room had a table and chair where the participant viewed the training videos. The play sets and
materials were placed on the floor adjacent to the participant. A DVD with training videos for
the scenario they were currently training on, DVD player and video camera which recorded all
sessions for later scoring.
Materials
The materials used were toys primarily from the Fisher Price Imaginext ® toy line for
ages 3-8. The three play set locations included a bank play set (46 x 7 x 30 cm) from Hasbro
Marvel Superhero Squad range of preschool toys, a mansion play set (26 x 21 x 32 cm) from
Kenner Batman Forever range of action figure toys, and a castle play set (53 x 30 x 42 cm) from
Fisher Price Magic Adventures range of preschool toys. Each play scenario had one of the play
set locations (bank, mansion, or castle), 2 characters, 1 object, and 1 vehicle. A Batcave play set
(55x 15 x 39 cm), “Batcomputer” play piece (11 x 2.5 x 10.5 cm) and “Bat-a-rang” weapon piece
(1 x 5 cm) were available in each of the three scenarios. The Batcave play set had 2 tiers with a
flat roof. It had 2 blue doors on the first tier that could be opened by turning red dials, a purple
spiral door that could be opened with a yellow switch from the outside of the play set or a red
dial on the inside, and elevator was located on the right side of the Batcave play set that could be
raised by turning a red dial next to the top of the elevator. All the characters were (6 x 7 cm) and
included hero characters and villain characters.
Video Modeling and Matrix Training 14
The bank play set had 2 tiers on the left hand side of the structure with a flat roof, and
one tier on the right hand side with a pointed roof. It had 2 doors that were able to be opened and
a vault door that could be opened by using a TNT button. The characters for this play set
included Joker and Batman. Additional objects included a money piece (5 x 2 cm) and a
Batmobile vehicle (14.5 x 9 x 7 cm) which had a roof that could be opened (see Appendix 1).
The mansion play set had 2 tiers, with 2 windows on the bottom floor, a balcony and a flat roof.
The characters for this play set included Penguin and Robin. Additional objects included a
diamond piece (4 x 40 cm, and a Batcycle vehicle (10.5 x 4 x 6cm) (see Appendix 2). The castle
play set had 2 windows on the side wall, a hidden room on the left hand side, and a flat spot
where characters could walk on the top of the castle. The characters for this play set included Mr.
Freeze and Superman. Additional objects included a ring piece (2 x 2 cm), and a Batcopter
vehicle (20 x 8 x 15 cm) which had a roof that was able to be opened and propellers that could be
turned (see Appendix 3).
Videos
Scripts were recorded on a camcorder and shown on a Portable DVD player with a 13 x
18 cm screen. The training video included one adult holding and speaking for each character.
The scripts included the characters manipulating the play materials, for example Mr. Freeze
putting the ring on his arm or Superman sitting in the Batcopter and flying it.
In the Bank scenario the Joker stole money from the bank. There was a call at the
Batcave that Batman answered and then he drove the Batmobile to the bank to stop the Joker.
This script contained 41 actions and 30 vocalizations and had a running time of 3 minutes and 14
s (see Appendix 4). The characters in this script included: 1 Batman figurine and 1 Joker
Video Modeling and Matrix Training 15
figurine. The scenario included the Fisher Price Batcave play set, Bank play set, Batmobile,
money bag piece, and Bat-a-rang piece.
In the mansion scenario the Penguin stole the diamond from the mansion. There was a
call at the Batcave that Robin answered and then he drove the Batcycle to the mansion to stop the
Penguin. This script contained 30 actions and 29 vocalizations and had a running time of 2
minutes and 52 seconds (see Appendix 5). The characters in this script included: 1 Robin
figurine and 1 Penguin figurine. The scenario included the Fisher Price Batcave play set,
mansion play set, Batcycle, diamond piece, and a Bat-a-rang piece.
In the castle scenario Mr. Freeze stole the ring from the castle. There was a call at the
Batcave that Superman answered and then he flew the Batcopter to the castle to stop Mr. Freeze.
This scenario contained 36 actions and 29 vocalizations and had a running time of 3 minutes and
21 seconds (see Appendix 6). The characters in this script included: 1 Superman figurine and 1
Mr. Freeze figurine. The scenario included the Fisher Price Batcave play set, Castle play set,
Batcopter, ring piece, and Bat-a-rang piece.
Independent Variable
The presentation of video models that showed the scripted play scenarios for each of the
play sets, and the three dimensional matrix the scripts and probes were arranged in were the
independent variables. Scripts were arranged in a three dimensional matrix based on Goldstein &
Mousetis (1989). The three 3 x 3 x 3 tiers in the matrix design describe each of the scenes in
each scripted scenario (see Appendix 7). The 3D matrices on the left indicate the 3 scenes for the
bank scenario and all of the combinations of the materials, the 3D matrices in the middle indicate
the 3 scenes for the mansion scenario and all of the combinations of the materials, and the 3D
Video Modeling and Matrix Training 16
matrices on the right indicate the 3 scenes for the castle scenario and the possible combinations.
The black shaded areas in the matrices indicate what was trained in each video model. For
example, in the first script, the participants use the Joker figurine to steal the money from the
bank on the first scene of the bank script. In the first script, second scene the matrix on the left in
the middle (see Appendix 7) the participants use the Batman figurine to drive the Batmobile to
the bank. In the third scene of the first script the participants use the Batman figurine to fight the
Joker figurine at the Bank play set, this is indicated by the black shaded in square (see Appendix
7). A matrix design identical to training was used during the alternative materials probe. During
these probes materials other than what was trained with the play set were included (see Appendix
8). For example in the first scene of the alternative bank materials probe, the first scene in the top
left corner, the participant is either given the Penguin figurine and the diamond or the Mr.
Freeze figurine and the ring. The participant uses the villain figurine to steal one of the objects.
Dependent Measures
All sessions were videotaped and data were collected on the occurrence of: (a) scripted
play actions, (b) scripted vocalizations, (c) unscripted vocalizations, (d) recombined actions, and
(e) recombined vocalizations. Data were collected during each 5-minute session on the number
of scripted vocalizations and scripted actions. Data were collected on unscripted vocalizations
during the Baseline, Probe, and Alternative Probe sessions. Data were collected on script
recombinations during the Alternative Probe sessions. Specific scoring guidelines were created
for each script. (see Appendices 9, 10, and 11).
Scripted Actions. Scripted actions were defined as any action that was identical or similar
to those modeled in the video, and resulted in the same change as seen in the model. For
Video Modeling and Matrix Training 17
example, the participant puts Batman in the Batmobile to drive to the bank. A nonexample was
the participant put the Joker in the Batmobile to drive to the bank.
Scripted Vocalizations. Scripted vocalizations were defined as vocal statements that
matched the statement of the video model. In addition, statements that were similar to the
modeled response but not identical were also scored. For example, when the participant said,
“Crime doesn’t pay Joker!” instead of “Remember Joker, crime doesn’t pay!” Statements that
included the incorrect naming of characters, objects, vehicles, or locations were not scored as
correct. For example, the participant referred to Batman as “Superman” when Superman was not
present.
Unscripted Vocalizations. Unscripted vocalizations were scored as a vocal statement that
did not meet the definition of the scripted statements in the video model, but that were
contextually appropriate to the scenario or characters (e.g., talking about characters, objects,
vehicles and/or locations, or talking for the characters). If the participant repeated the same
statement data was only taken first time that the statement was made. Repetitions Unscripted
vocalizations were scored by transcribing the unscripted vocalizations that each participant
emitted and the time that the participant emitted such vocalizations. Unscripted vocalization data
were taken during the Baseline sessions, Mastery Probe sessions, and Alternative Material Probe
sessions. This was to assess the changes in unscripted vocalizations as a result of video modeling
(MacDonald et al., 2009).
Recombination Actions: Script recombination actions were defined as actions in which
the participant substituted one character, object, or vehicle for another one. Script recombination
data were taken during the Alternative Materials Probes. For example a recombined action was
Video Modeling and Matrix Training 18
scored when the participant used the Joker to climb to the top of the Castle play-set instead of
Mr. Freeze which was unavailable during the Alternative Material Probe sessions or when the
participant used the Batcopter to fly to the bank when the Batmobile was unavailable during the
Alternative Material Probe sessions.
Recombinations Vocalizations: Script recombinations vocalizations were defined as
vocalizations in which the participant substituted one character’s scripted vocalization for
another character. A recombined vocalization for example, the participant used Batman to say, “I
arrived at the castle,” when the Bank play-set was unavailable during the Alternative Material
Probe sessions or when the participant uses the Joker to say, “I am going to steal the world’s
biggest diamond from the mansion,” when the money and the Bank play-set were unavailable
during the Alternative Material Probe sessions.
Experimental Design
A multiple probe design across play sets and a multiple probe design across participants
were used to evaluate the effect of training on the dependent measures. In the multiple probe
across participants design, the independent variable was applied to one of the participants while
baseline conditions remain in effect for the other participants.
Once the first participant
performed at mastery criteria for each play scenario, the independent variable was applied to the
next participant.
In the multiple probe design intermittent measures are taken at the beginning of the study
for each participant and after each play set is mastered for each participant. The play sets were
taught in the same order for all participants starting with the bank, the mansion, and then the
castle. Participants were required to perform at or above mastery criteria for scripted
Video Modeling and Matrix Training 19
vocalizations and scripted actions before training could begin on the next play set. Baseline
sessions were conducted prior to the training for each play set and mastery probes were
conducted following the acquisition of each script.
Procedure
Play Script Baseline: Prior to all Baseline, Training, and Probe sessions play materials
were arranged in front of and to the side of the Batcave play set. During the baseline sessions the
participant began the session sitting or standing beside the play materials. The session began
when the experimenter gave the instruction, “It’s time to play,” and lasted approximately 5
minutes. All sessions were videotaped by the experimenter and later scored. During play script
baseline sessions only the materials necessary for the targeted script were available.
All Materials Baseline: During all materials baselines all play-sets and figurines were
present for the participant to engage with. The conditions and instruction given by the
experimenter were identical to the play script baseline sessions.
Training: During training sessions the experimenter started the video which was set up in
front of the participant on a table playing in the portable DVD player. The play script materials
were positioned adjacent to the participant. After viewing the model twice the participant was
instructed to play with the specific materials for the play scenario they were currently being
trained on the participants were trained on the video scripts indicated by the black shaded areas
in Appendix 7. During the first scene of the bank script the Joker stole the money from the bank,
in the second scene Batman drove the Batmobile to the bank, and in the third scene of the bank
script Batman stopped the Joker at the bank. The participant continued training until they scored
80% or better of the scripted actions and vocalizations for two consecutive sessions. Once
Video Modeling and Matrix Training 20
mastery criteria were achieved a probe was conducted. They then began training on the mansion
scenario as indicated by the black shaded area in Appendix 7 of the middle matrices, finally after
that script was mastered the participant began training on the castle scenario as indicated by the
black shading in the matrices in the right of Appendix 7.
Mastery Probe: Mastery probes were identical to play script baseline sessions.
Participants were told, “It’s time to play,” and given 5 minutes to engage with the play materials.
If the participant scored 80% or better of the scripted actions and vocalizations for one session
the play scenario was considered mastered. At this point an alternative materials probe was
conducted.
Alternative Materials Probes: Alternative materials probes were identical to baseline
sessions and mastery probes except the materials specific to the current script were removed and
the materials from one of the other scripts were made available. In Appendix 11, the dark grey
shaded areas indicate the recombinations that could emerge. After the participant met mastery
criteria with the bank scenario they were presented with alternative figurines, play objects, and
vehicles to the ones that had been previously trained with the bank scenario. For example during
the alternative materials probe after the bank the participant was presented with the Penguin,
diamond, Robin, and Batcycle instead of the Joker, money, Batman, and Batmobile.
Interobserver Agreement
Sessions were independently scored by a second observer for purposes of interobserver
agreement (IOA). The observer scored scripted vocalizations and actions during baseline,
training, and probe sessions. This observer also scored scripted vocalizations and actions as well
as recombined vocalizations and actions in the alternative materials probes. Unscripted
Video Modeling and Matrix Training 21
vocalizations were scored during baseline, mastery probe, and alternative material probe
sessions. Interobserver agreement was calculated for by dividing the number of trials with
agreement by the total number of sessions with agreement plus disagreement and multiplying by
100. IOA was scored for at least 33% of sessions for scripted and recombined vocalizations and
actions across all participants. IOA was scored for 31% of scored sessions for Participant 1, 38%
of scored sessions for Participant 2, and 36% of scored sessions for Participant 3.
Table 1 shows mean interobserver agreement for Participant 1. Participant 1’s mean IOA
score for scripted vocalizations in the bank script was 97.5% (range, 88%-100%). The mean IOA
for scripted actions for the bank script was 95.3% (range, 88%-100%). For the mansion script the
mean IOA for scripted vocalizations was 99% (range, 97%-100%). The mean IOA for scripted
actions was 95.3% (range, 93%-100%). For the castle script the mean IOA for scripted
vocalizations was 98% (range, 97%-100%). Mean IOA for the scripted actions for the castle
script was 96% (range, 91%-100%). For the alternative bank script IOA for recombined
vocalizations was 96% and 95.5% for recombined actions. For the alternative mansion script
mean IOA for recombined vocalizations was 98.2% (range, 96.3%-100%) and for recombined
actions mean IOA was 91.5% (range, 86%-97%). For the alternative castle script IOA for
recombined vocalizations was 98% and 80% for recombined actions. For unscripted
vocalizations the mean IOA was 93% (range, 80%-100%).
Table 2 shows mean interobserver agreement for Participant 2. Participant 2’s mean IOA
score for scripted vocalizations in the bank script was 97.4% (range, 93%-100%). The mean IOA
for scripted actions for the bank script was 96.2% (range, 93%-100%). For the mansion script the
mean IOA for scripted vocalizations was 99.3% (range, 97%-100%). The mean IOA for scripted
actions was 97.4 (range, 87%-100%). For the castle script the mean IOA for scripted
Video Modeling and Matrix Training 22
vocalizations was 99.3% (range, 97%-100%). Mean IOA for the scripted actions for the castle
script was 96.5% (range, 89%-100%). For the alternative bank script IOA for recombined
vocalizations was 100% and 95% for recombined actions. For the alternative mansion script
mean IOA for recombined vocalizations was 94% (range, 88%-100%) and for recombined
actions mean IOA was 86% (range, 83%-88%). For the alternative castle script IOA for
recombined vocalizations was 98% (range, 96%-100%) and 83% (range, 80%-85%) for
recombined actions. For unscripted vocalizations the mean IOA was 100%.
Table 3 shows mean interobserver agreement for Participant 3. Participant 3’s mean
IOA score for scripted vocalizations in the bank script was 95% (range, 90%-100%). The mean
IOA for scripted actions for the bank script was 93% (range, 80%-100%). For the mansion script
the mean IOA for scripted vocalizations was 96% (range, 83%-100%). The mean IOA for
scripted actions was 96% (range, 83%-100%). For the castle script the mean IOA for scripted
vocalizations was 99.6% (range, 97%-100%). Mean IOA for the scripted actions for the castle
script was 94% (range, 85%-100%). For the alternative bank script IOA for recombined
vocalizations was 94% (range, 92%-96%) and 91.5% (range, 91%-92%) for recombined actions.
For the alternative mansion script mean IOA for recombined vocalizations was 98% and for
recombined actions mean IOA was 93% (range, 91%-94%). For the alternative castle script IOA
for recombined vocalizations was 100% and 100% for recombined actions. For unscripted
vocalizations the mean IOA was 100%.
Video Modeling and Matrix Training 23
Results
Bonnie’s Baseline, Training, and Mastery Probes
Results for Bonnie are shown in Figure 1. Bonnie’s two initial baseline scores for the
bank were 0% for scripted vocalizations, 0% and 3% for scripted actions. Bonnie completed 0%
of the scripted vocalizations and 20% and 7% of the scripted actions of the mansion play script.
During the two initial castle baselines Bonnie completed 0% of the scripted vocalizations and 0%
and 17% of the scripted actions.
Bonnie began training on the bank play set and took 6 sessions to meet mastery criteria.
In session 9, Bonnie completed 93% of the scripted vocalizations and 90% of the scripted
actions. During the mansion and castle baselines following bank training, Bonnie completed 0%
of the scripted vocalizations and 20% of the scripted actions of the mansion script and 17% of
the scripted vocalizations and 33% of the scripted actions of the castle script.
Training began on the mansion play set in session 20. It took Bonnie 3 sessions to meet
mastery criteria. Bonnie completed 83% of the scripted vocalizations and 100% of the scripted
actions. Following mansion script training, Bonnie completed 24% of the scripted vocalizations
and 39% of the scripted actions of the castle script.
Training for the castle play set began in session 28 and took Bonnie 3 sessions to meet
mastery criteria. Bonnie completed 93% of the scripted vocalizations and 83% of the scripted
actions. In bank probe 2 Bonnie completed 90% of scripted vocalizations and 93% of scripted
actions. In mansion probe 2 Bonnie completed 76% of the scripted vocalizations and 73% of the
scripted actions.
Video Modeling and Matrix Training 24
Bonnie’s Alternative Material Probes
In the alternative bank material probes 1 and 2 (mansion and castle materials), sessions
10 and 11. Bonnie completed 13% of the recombined vocalizations and 24% of the recombined
actions of bank alternative materials probe 1(mansion materials). Bonnie completed 6% of the
recombined vocalizations and 29% of the recombined actions during the bank alternative
materials probe 2 (castle materials). During the bank alternative probe 3 (mansion materials),
session 36, Bonnie completed 67% of the recombined vocalizations and 92% of the recombined
actions. Bonnie completed 67% of the recombined vocalizations and 91% of the scripted actions
during the bank alternative probe 4 (castle materials), session 37.
During the alternative mansion material probes1 and 2 (bank materials and castle
materials). During the alternative mansion material probe 1(bank materials) session 24, Bonnie
completed 31% of the recombined vocalizations and 56% of the recombined actions. Bonnie
completed 31% of the recombined vocalizations and 69% of the recombined actions during the
mansion alternative materials probe 2(castle materials) session 25. During the mansion
alternative probe 3 (bank materials), session 39, Bonnie completed 6% of the recombined
vocalizations and 76% of the recombined actions. Bonnie completed 75% of the recombined
vocalizations and 83% of the recombined actions of the mansion alternative probe 4 (castle
materials), session 40.
During the castle alternative probe l (bank materials), session 32 Bonnie completed 88%
of the recombined vocalizations and 82% of the recombined actions. Bonnie completed 79% of
the recombined vocalizations and 90% of the recombined actions during the castle alternative
probe 2 (mansion materials), session 33.
Video Modeling and Matrix Training 25
Bonnie’s Recombined Vocalizations and Actions
Table 4 shows the percentage of actions and vocalizations recombined for each character,
object, vehicle, and play set for Bonnie. In alternative bank probes 1 and 3 (mansion materials)
sessions10 and 36, Bonnie recombined 55% of the actions completed by the villain after
mastering the bank script and 88% after mastering the castle script. She recombined 0% of the
actions using a hero character after mastering the bank script and 86% once the castle script was
mastered. Recombined vocalizations said by the villain were scored at 0% after the bank script
was mastered and 100% after the castle was mastered. Recombined vocalizations said by the
hero increased 20% after bank script mastery to 100% after castle script mastery. Recombined
vocalizations in which the object, villain, hero, vehicle, or bank were mentioned increased from
an average of 24% after bank script mastery to 85% after castle script mastery.
In alternative bank probes 2 and 4 (castle materials) sessions 11 and 37, Bonnie
recombined 33% of the actions completed by the villain after mastering the bank script and 67%
of mastering the castle script. She recombined 27% of the actions using a hero character after
mastering the bank script and 79% once the castle script was mastered. Recombined
vocalizations said by the villain were scored at 0% after the bank script was mastered and 100%
after the castle was mastered. Recombined vocalizations said by the hero increased 0% after
bank script mastery to 60% after castle script mastery. Recombined vocalizations in which the
object, villain, hero, vehicle, or bank were mentioned increased from an average of 23% after
bank script mastery to 69% after castle script mastery.
In alternative mansion probes 1 and 3 (bank materials) sessions 24 and 39, Bonnie
recombined 67% of the actions completed by the villain after mastering the mansion script and
Video Modeling and Matrix Training 26
54% of mastering the castle script. She recombined 33% of the actions using a hero character
after mastering the mansion script and 67% once the castle script was mastered. Recombined
vocalizations said by the villain were scored at 25% after the mansion script was mastered and
25% after the castle was mastered. Recombined vocalizations said by the hero increased 27%
after mansion script mastery to 100% after castle script mastery. Recombined vocalizations in
which the object, villain, hero, vehicle, or mansion were mentioned decreased from 36% after
mansion script mastery to 7% after castle script mastery. During the second alternative mansion
probe A the participant ran out of time to complete the session.
In alternative mansion probes 2 and 4 (castle materials) sessions 25 and 40, Bonnie
recombined 44% of the actions completed by the villain after mastering the mansion script and
56% of mastering the castle script. She recombined 67% of the actions using a hero character
after mastering the mansion script and 87% once the castle script was mastered. Recombined
vocalizations said by the villain were scored at 89% after the mansion script was mastered and
100% after the castle was mastered. Recombined vocalizations said by the hero increased 45%
after mansion script mastery to 55% after castle script mastery. Recombined vocalizations in
which the object, villain, hero, vehicle, or mansion were mentioned increased from an average of
0% after mansion script mastery to 81% after castle script mastery.
Two alternative castle probes were administered after mastery of the castle script. In
alternative castle probe 1 (bank materials) session 32, Bonnie recombined 78% of the actions she
recombined 85% of the actions using a hero. Recombined vocalizations said by the villain were
scored at 100%. Recombined vocalizations said by the hero were scored at 100%. Recombined
vocalizations in which the object, villain, hero, vehicle, or castle were mentioned were scored at
87%.
Video Modeling and Matrix Training 27
In alternative castle probe 2 (mansion materials) session 33, Bonnie recombined 82% of
the actions she recombined 85% of the actions using a hero. Recombined vocalizations said by
the villain were scored at 67%. Recombined vocalizations said by the hero were scored at 100%.
Recombined vocalizations in which the object, villain, hero, vehicle, or castle were mentioned
were scored at 76%.
Bonnie’s Unscripted Vocalizations
Bonnie’s unscripted vocalizations are shown in Figure 2. Unscripted vocalization data
was taken in the initial baseline, baseline before training, mastery probe, and the alternative
materials probes for each play set. In the first bank baseline, the session before training, Bonnie
had 7 unscripted vocalizations scored. In the bank mastery probe, Bonnie had 0 vocalizations
scored. In the bank alternative probe 1 (mansion materials), Bonnie had 9 vocalizations scored.
In the bank alternative probe 2 (castle materials), Bonnie had 8 vocalizations scored. In Bonnie’s
second bank probe she had 5 unscripted vocalizations scored. In bank alternative probe 3
(mansion materials), Bonnie had 15 unscripted vocalizations scored and in bank alternative
probe 4 (castle materials), Bonnie had 16 unscripted vocalizations scored.
In the first mansion baseline, Bonnie had 8 unscripted vocalizations scored. In the third
mansion baseline, the session before training Bonnie had 18 unscripted vocalizations scored. In
the mansion mastery probe, Bonnie had 0 unscripted vocalizations scored. In the mansion
alternative probe 1 (bank materials); Bonnie had 5 unscripted vocalizations scored. In the
mansion alternative probe 2 (castle materials), Bonnie had 0 unscripted vocalizations scored. In
Bonnie’s second mansion probe she had 10 unscripted vocalizations scored. In mansion
Video Modeling and Matrix Training 28
alternative probe 3 (bank materials), Bonnie had 18 unscripted vocalizations scored and in
mansion alternative probe 4 (castle materials), Bonnie had 13 unscripted vocalizations scored.
In the first castle baseline, Bonnie had 3 unscripted vocalizations scored. In fourth castle
baseline, the baseline before training, Bonnie had 11 unscripted vocalizations scored. In the
castle mastery probe, Bonnie had 8 unscripted vocalizations scored. In castle alternative probe
1(bank materials), Bonnie had 5 unscripted vocalizations scored and in the castle alternative
probe 2 (mansion materials), Bonnie had 9 unscripted vocalizations scored.
Vincent’s Baseline, Training, and Mastery Probes
Results for Vincent are shown in Figure 3. Vincent had 5 baseline sessions on each play
set prior to training. Vincent’s average baseline scores for the bank were 0% for scripted
vocalizations, 9% for scripted actions. Average of the first five mansion baseline scores were 0%
of the scripted vocalizations and 4% of the scripted actions. The average of the first five castle
baseline session was 0% of the scripted vocalizations and 17% of the scripted actions.
Vincent began training on the bank play set at session 21 and took 5 sessions to meet
mastery criteria. Vincent completed 96% of the scripted vocalizations and 95% of the scripted
actions. Following bank training, Vincent completed 0% of the scripted vocalizations and 0% of
the scripted actions of the mansion script and 0% of the scripted vocalizations and 27% of the
scripted actions of the castle script.
Training began on the mansion play set in session 32. It took Vincent 6 sessions to meet
mastery criteria. Vincent completed 100% of the scripted vocalizations and 87% of the scripted
actions. Following mansion training, Vincent completed 5% of the scripted vocalizations and
17% of the scripted actions of the castle script.
Video Modeling and Matrix Training 29
Training for the castle play set began in session 51 and took Vincent 3 sessions to meet
mastery criteria. Vincent completed 97% of the scripted vocalizations and 94% of the scripted
actions. In bank probe 2 Vincent completed 87% of scripted vocalizations and 95% of scripted
actions. In mansion probe 2 Vincent completed 97% of the scripted vocalizations and 95% of the
scripted actions.
Vincent’s Alternative Material Probes
During alternative bank material probes 1 and 2, sessions 27 and 28, Vincent completed
5% of the recombined vocalizations and 17% of the recombined actions of alternative bank
probe 1(mansion materials). Vincent completed 0% of the recombined vocalizations and 37% of
the recombined actions during the bank alternative materials probe 2 (castle materials). During
the bank alternative probe 3 (mansion materials), session 50, Vincent completed 16% of the
recombined vocalizations and 37% of the recombined actions. During bank alternative probe
4(castle materials), session 51, Vincent completed 6% of the recombined vocalizations and 16%
of the recombined.
During mansion alternative materials probe 1 (bank materials) session 40, Vincent
completed 6% of the recombined vocalizations and 44% of the recombined actions. During
mansion alternative materials probe 2 (castle materials) session 41, Vincent completed 0% of the
recombined vocalizations and 28% of the recombined scripted actions. During the mansion
alternative probe 3 (bank materials) session 52 Vincent completed 2% of the recombined
vocalizations and 42% of the recombined actions. During mansion alternative probe 4 (castle
materials) session 53, Vincent completed 6% of the recombined vocalizations and 35% of the
recombined actions.
Video Modeling and Matrix Training 30
During the castle alternative probe l (bank materials) session 48 Vincent completed 2%
of the recombined vocalizations and 36% of the recombined actions. Vincent completed 6% of
the recombined vocalizations and 15% of the recombined actions during the castle alternative
probe 2 (mansion materials) session 49.
Vincent’s Alternative Materials Probes after Instructional Session
Prior to session 54 an additional recombined instructional session was run with this
participant to demonstrate how to recombine the actions and vocalizations with untrained
characters and materials. All the alternative material probes were then conducted. During the
bank alternative probe 5 (mansion materials) session 54, Vincent completed 88% of the
recombined vocalizations and 92% of the recombined actions. Vincent completed 82% of the
recombined vocalizations and 92% of the recombined actions during the bank alternative probe 6
(castle materials) session 55. During the mansion alternative probe 5 (bank materials) session 56
Vincent completed 79% of the recombined vocalizations and 92% of the recombined actions.
Vincent completed 6% of the recombined vocalizations and 35% of the recombined actions of
the mansion alternative probe 6 (castle materials) session 57. During the castle alternative probe
3(bank materials) session 58, Vincent completed 80% of the recombined vocalizations and 88%
of the recombined actions. Vincent completed 74% of the recombined vocalizations and 90% of
the recombined actions during the castle alternative probe 4 (mansion materials) session 59.
Vincent’s Percentage of Recombined Vocalizations and Actions
Table 5 shows the percentage of actions and vocalizations recombined for each character,
object, vehicle, and play set for Vincent. In alternative bank probes 1 and 3 (mansion materials)
sessions 27 and 50, Vincent recombined 11% of the actions completed by the villain after
Video Modeling and Matrix Training 31
mastering the bank script and 0% of mastering the castle script. He recombined 29% of the
actions using a hero character after mastering the bank script and 43% once the castle script was
mastered. Recombined vocalizations said by the villain were scored at 8% after the bank script
was mastered and 20% after the castle was mastered. Recombined vocalizations said by the hero
increased 0% after bank script mastery to 28% after castle script mastery. Recombined
vocalizations in which the object, villain, hero, vehicle, or bank were mentioned increased from
an average of 0% after bank script mastery to 8% after castle script mastery.
In alternative bank probes 2 and 4 (castle materials) sessions 28 and 51, Vincent
recombined 0% of the actions completed by the villain after mastering the bank script and 0% of
mastering the castle script. He recombined 43% of the actions using a hero character after
mastering the bank script and 21% once the castle script was mastered. Recombined
vocalizations said by the villain were scored at 0% after the bank script was mastered and 0%
after the castle was mastered. Recombined vocalizations said by the hero increased 0% after
bank script mastery to 6% after castle script mastery. Recombined vocalizations in which the
object, villain, hero, vehicle, or bank were mentioned maintained an average of 0% after bank
script mastery to 0% after castle script mastery.
In alternative mansion probes 1 and 3 (bank materials) sessions 40 and 52, Vincent
recombined 0% of the actions completed by the villain after mastering the mansion script and
0% of mastering the castle script. He recombined 40% of the actions using a hero character after
mastering the mansion script and 33% once the castle script was mastered. Recombined
vocalizations said by the villain were scored at 0% after the mansion script was mastered and 0%
after the castle was mastered. Recombined vocalizations said by the hero decreased from 13%
after mansion script mastery to 0% after castle script mastery. Recombined vocalizations in
Video Modeling and Matrix Training 32
which the object, villain, hero, vehicle, or mansion were mentioned decreased from 2% after
mansion script mastery to 0% after castle script mastery.
In alternative mansion probes 2 and 4 (castle materials) session 41 and 53, Vincent
recombined 0% of the actions completed by the villain after mastering the mansion script and
0% of mastering the castle script. He recombined 33% of the actions using a hero character after
mastering the mansion script and 20% once the castle script was mastered. Recombined
vocalizations said by the villain were scored at 0% after the mansion script was mastered and 0%
after the castle was mastered. Recombined vocalizations said by the hero increased from 0%
after mansion script mastery to 45% after castle script mastery. Recombined vocalizations in
which the object, villain, hero, vehicle, or mansion were mentioned maintained at an average of
0% after mansion script mastery to 0% after castle script mastery.
In alternative castle probe 1(bank materials) session 48; Vincent recombined 11% of the
actions using the villain. He recombined 31% of the actions using a hero. Recombined
vocalizations said by the villain were scored at 0%. Recombined vocalizations said by the hero
were scored at 0%. Recombined vocalizations in which the object, villain, hero, vehicle, or castle
were mentioned were scored at 0%.
In alternative castle probe 2 (mansion materials) session 49, Vincent recombined 22% of
the actions. He recombined 15% of the actions using a hero. Recombined vocalizations said by
the villain were scored at 10%. Recombined vocalizations said by the hero were scored at 12%.
Recombined vocalizations in which the object, villain, hero, vehicle, or castle were mentioned
were scored at 3%.
Video Modeling and Matrix Training 33
Vincent’s Recombined Vocalizations and Actions after Instructional Session
Prior to session 54 an additional recombined instructional session was run with this
participant to demonstrate how to recombine the actions and vocalizations with untrained
characters and materials. All the alternative material probes were administered. In alternative
bank probe 5 (mansion materials) session 54; Vincent recombined an average of 5.5% of the
actions completed by the villain prior to the instructional session and 100% after. He
recombined an average of 36% of the actions using a hero character prior to the instructional
session which increased to 70% after instruction. Recombined vocalizations said by the villain
were scored at an average of 14% which increased to 83% after the instructional session.
Recombined vocalizations said by the hero increased averaged 14% prior to instruction and
increased to 100%. Recombined vocalizations in which the object, villain, hero, vehicle, or bank
were mentioned increased from an average of 4% prior to instructional recombination to 72%
after training.
In alternative bank probe 6 (castle materials) session 55; Vincent recombined an average
of 0% of the actions completed by the villain which increased to 100% after recombination
instruction. He recombined an average of 32% of the actions using a hero character prior to
instruction and 71% after. Recombined vocalizations said by the villain were scored at an
average of 0% which increased to100% after the participant was taught to recombine.
Recombined vocalizations said by the hero increased from an average of 3% to 100%.
Recombined vocalizations in which the object, villain, hero, vehicle, or bank were mentioned
increased from an average of 0% to 75% after recombination instruction.
Video Modeling and Matrix Training 34
In alternative mansion probe 5 (bank materials) session 56; Vincent recombined an
average of 0% of the actions completed by the villain and 100% after the instructional session.
He recombined an average of 37% of the actions using a hero character after prior to instruction
and 87% after. Recombined vocalizations said by the villain was scored averaged 0% and
increased to 73% after recombination instruction. Recombined vocalizations said by the hero
increased from an average of 7% to 100% after the participant was taught to recombine.
Recombined vocalizations in which the object, villain, hero, vehicle, or mansion were mentioned
increased from an average of 1% to an average of 85%.
In alternative mansion probe 6 (castle materials) session 57, Vincent recombined an
average of 0% of the villain’s actions prior to the instructional session and increased to 89%. He
recombined an average of 27% of the actions using a hero character which increased to 73%
after instruction. Recombined vocalizations said by the villain was scored with an average of 0%
and increased to 82%. Recombined vocalizations said by the hero averaged 23% and increased to
94% after recombination instruction. Recombined vocalizations in which the object, villain,
hero, vehicle, or mansion were mentioned averaged 0% prior to instruction and increased to an
average of 78% after training.
In alternative castle probe 3 (bank materials) session 58; prior to recombination
instruction, Vincent recombined 11% of the actions using the villain which increased to 89%. He
recombined 31% of the actions using a hero prior to instruction and 92% after. Recombined
vocalizations said by the villain were scored at 0% prior to recombination instruction, which
increased to 90%. Recombined vocalizations said by the hero were scored at 0% before training
and 88% after. Prior to recombination instruction recombined vocalizations in which the object,
villain, hero, vehicle, or castle were mentioned were scored at 0% this increased to76%.
Video Modeling and Matrix Training 35
In alternative castle probe 4 (mansion materials) session 59, Vincent recombined 22% of
the actions of the villain prior to recombination instruction which increased to 100%. He
recombined 15% of the actions using a hero prior to instruction which increased to 85%. Prior to
recombination instruction recombined vocalizations said by the villain was scored at 10% this
increased to 80%. Recombined vocalizations said by the hero was scored at 12% before training
and increased to 81%. Recombined vocalizations in which the object, villain, hero, vehicle, or
castle were mentioned were scored at 3% prior to recombination instruction and increased to an
average of 71%.
Vincent’s Unscripted Vocalizations
Vincent’s unscripted vocalizations are shown in Figure 4. Unscripted vocalization data
was taken in the initial baseline, baseline before training, mastery probe, and the alternative
materials probes for each play set. In the first bank baseline, Vincent had 0 unscripted
vocalizations scored. In bank baseline 5, the baseline before training, Vincent had 0 unscripted
vocalizations scored. In the bank mastery probe, Vincent had 0 vocalizations scored. In the bank
alternative probe 1 (mansion materials), Vincent had 4 vocalizations scored. In the bank
alternative probe 2 (castle materials), Vincent had 1 vocalizations scored. In Vincent’s second
bank probe he had 0 unscripted vocalizations scored. In bank alternative probe 3 (mansion
materials), Vincent had 1 unscripted vocalizations scored and in the bank alternative probe 4
(castle materials), Vincent had 4 unscripted vocalizations scored. In bank alternative probe 5
(mansion materials), Vincent had 0 unscripted vocalizations scored and in the bank alternative
probe 6 (castle materials), Vincent had 0 unscripted vocalizations scored.
Video Modeling and Matrix Training 36
In the first mansion baseline, Vincent had 0 unscripted vocalizations scored. In the sixth
mansion baseline, the session before training, Vincent had 9 unscripted vocalizations scored. In
the mansion mastery probe, Vincent had 0 unscripted vocalizations scored. In the mansion
alternative probe 1 (bank materials), Vincent had 1 unscripted vocalizations scored. In the
mansion alternative probe 2 (castle materials), Vincent had 1 unscripted vocalizations scored. In
Vincent’s second mansion probe he had 0 unscripted vocalizations scored. In mansion alternative
probe 3 (bank materials), Vincent had 3 unscripted vocalizations scored and in mansion
alternative probe 4 (castle materials), Vincent had 3 unscripted vocalizations scored. In mansion
alternative probe 5 (bank materials), Vincent had 0 unscripted vocalizations scored and in
mansion alternative probe 6 (castle materials),
Vincent had 0 unscripted vocalizations scored. In the first castle baseline, Vincent had 0
unscripted vocalizations scored. In seventh castle baseline, the baseline before training, Vincent
had 6 unscripted vocalizations scored. In the castle mastery probe, Vincent had 0 unscripted
vocalizations scored. In castle alternative probe 1(bank materials), Vincent had 2 unscripted
vocalizations scored and in the castle alternative probe 2 (mansion materials), Vincent had 7
unscripted vocalizations scored. In castle alternative probe 3(bank materials), Vincent had 0
unscripted vocalizations scored and in the castle alternative probe 4 (mansion materials), Vincent
had 0 unscripted vocalizations scored.
Peter’s Baseline, Training, and Mastery Probes
Results for Peter are shown in Figure 5. Peter had 8 baseline sessions before training
began. Peter’s average baseline scores for the bank were 0% for scripted vocalizations, and 2 %
for scripted actions. Peter completed 0% of the scripted vocalizations and 7% of the scripted
Video Modeling and Matrix Training 37
actions for the mansion script. During the castle baselines Peter completed 1% of the scripted
vocalizations and 13% of the scripted actions. Peter began training on the bank play set at
session 31 and took 11 sessions to meet mastery criteria. Peter completed 93% of the scripted
vocalizations and 90% of the scripted actions. During baseline sessions following bank training,
Peter completed 0% of the scripted vocalizations and 13% of the scripted actions of the mansion
script and 0% of the scripted vocalizations and 14% of the scripted actions of the castle script.
Training began on the mansion play set in session 48. It took Peter 6 sessions to meet
mastery criteria. Peter completed 100% of the scripted vocalizations and 83% of the scripted
actions. In bank probe 2 Peter completed 93% of scripted vocalizations and 88% of scripted
actions. During a castle baseline following mansion training Peter completed 0% of the scripted
vocalizations and 14% of the scripted actions.
Training for the castle play set began in session 74 and took Peter 6 sessions to meet
mastery criteria. Peter completed 97% of the scripted vocalizations and 81% of the scripted
actions. In bank probe 3 Peter completed 100% of scripted vocalizations and 88% of scripted
actions. In mansion probe 2 Peter completed 100% of the scripted vocalizations and 77% of the
scripted actions.
Peter’s Alternative Materials Probes
During bank alternative materials probe 1 (mansion materials) session 43, Peter
completed 2% of the recombined vocalizations and 13% of the recombined actions. During bank
alternative probe 2 (castle materials), session 44, Peter completed 0% of the recombined
vocalizations and 13% of the recombined actions. During the bank alternative materials probe 3
(mansion materials) session 58, Peter completed 0% of the recombined vocalizations and 3% of
Video Modeling and Matrix Training 38
the recombined actions. Peter completed 0% of the recombined vocalizations and 14% of the
recombined actions during the bank alternative materials probe 4 (castle materials) session 59.
During bank alternative probe 5 (bank materials) session 72, Peter completed 6% of the
recombined vocalizations and 8% of the recombined actions. Peter completed 2% of the
recombined vocalizations and 16% of the recombined actions during the bank alternative probe 6
(castle materials), session 73.
During mansion alternative materials probe 1 (bank materials) session 55, Peter
completed 0% of the recombined vocalizations and 26% of the recombined actions. During
mansion alternative materials probe 2 (castle materials) session 56, Peter completed 2% of the
recombined vocalizations and 9% of the recombined actions. During the mansion alternative
probe 3 (bank materials) session 75, Peter completed 0% of the recombined vocalizations and
6% of the recombined actions.
During the castle alternative probe l (bank materials) session 69, Peter completed 4% of
the recombined vocalizations and 6% of the recombined actions. Peter completed 2% of the
recombined vocalizations and 0% of the recombined actions during the castle alternative probe 2
(mansion materials) session 70.
Peter’s Alternative Materials Probes after Instructional Session
At this point an instruction session was run with this participant to demonstrate how to
recombine actions and vocalizations with untrained characters and materials a preferred item was
also given to the participant contingent upon completion of the session. Peter completed 65% of
the recombined vocalizations and 43% of the recombined actions of the mansion alternative
probe 4 (castle materials) session 76.
Video Modeling and Matrix Training 39
After recombination training the previous alternative material probes were run.
During the castle alternative probe 3 (bank materials) session77, Peter completed 83% of the
recombined vocalizations and 74% of the recombined actions. Peter completed 100% of the
recombined vocalizations and 60% of the recombined actions during the castle alternative probe
4 (mansion materials) session 78. During the bank alternative probe 7 (mansion materials)
session 79, Peter completed 96% of the recombined vocalizations and 81% of the recombined
actions. Peter completed 89% of the recombined vocalizations and 80% of the recombined
actions during the bank alternative probe 8 (castle materials) session 80. During the mansion
alternative probe 5 (bank materials) session 81, Peter completed 98% of the recombined
vocalizations and 81% of the recombined actions. Peter completed 94% of the scripted
vocalizations and 82% of the scripted actions of the mansion alternative probe 6 (castle
materials) session 82.
Peter’s Recombined Vocalizations and Actions
Table 6 shows the percentage of actions and vocalizations recombined for each character,
object, vehicle, and play set for Peter. In alternative bank probes 1, 3, and 5 (mansion materials)
sessions 43, 58, and 72, recombined 0% of the actions completed by the villain after mastering
the bank script and 0% and recombined 11 % after mastery of both the mansion and the castle
script. He recombined 11% of the actions using a hero character after mastering the bank script
11% after the mansion script and decreased to 0% once the castle script was mastered.
Recombined vocalizations said by the villain was scored at 0% after the bank script and
remained at 0% after both the mansion and castle scripts were mastered. Recombined
vocalizations remained at 0% after mastery of the bank script, mansion script, and castle script.
Recombined vocalizations in which the object, villain, hero, vehicle, or bank were mentioned
Video Modeling and Matrix Training 40
decreased from an average of 3% after bank script mastery to 0% after both mansion script
mastery and castle script mastery.
In alternative bank probes 2, 4, and 6 (castle materials) sessions 44, 59, and 73,Peter
recombined 11% of the actions completed by the villain after mastering the bank script his
percent of recombination’s remained at 11% after both the mansion and castle script were
mastered. He recombined 7% of the actions using a hero character after mastering the bank script
8% once the mansion script was mastered and increased to 14% once the castle script was
mastered. Recombined vocalizations said by the villain was scored at 0% after the bank script,
and remained at 0% after mansion script, and castle script mastery. Recombined vocalizations
said by the hero remained at 0% after the bank, mansion, and castle script were mastered.
Recombined vocalizations in which the object, villain, hero, vehicle, or bank were mentioned
remained at 0% after bank mastery, mansion mastery, and castle mastery.
In alternative mansion probes 1 and 3 (bank materials) sessions 55 and 75, Peter
recombined 0% of the actions completed by the villain after mastering the mansion script and
0% of mastering the castle script. He recombined 7% of the actions using a hero character after
mastering the mansion script and 0% once the castle script was mastered. Recombined
vocalizations said by the villain were scored at 0% after the mansion script was mastered and 0%
after the castle was mastered. Recombined vocalizations said by the hero remained at 0% after
mansion script mastery and 0% after castle script mastery. Recombined vocalizations in which
the object, villain, hero, vehicle, or mansion were mentioned remained at 0% after mansion script
mastery and 0% after castle script mastery.
Video Modeling and Matrix Training 41
In alternative castle probe 1 (bank materials present) session 69, Peter recombined 0% of
the actions using the villain. He recombined 0% of the actions using a hero. Recombined
vocalizations said by the villain were scored at 0%. Recombined vocalizations said by the hero
were scored at 6%. Recombined vocalizations in which the object, villain, hero, vehicle, or castle
were mentioned averaged a score of 0%.
In alternative castle probe 2 (mansion materials) session 70, Peter recombined 0% of the
actions. He recombined 0% of the actions using a hero. Recombined vocalizations said by the
villain were scored at 0%. Recombined vocalizations said by the hero were scored at 6%.
Recombined vocalizations in which the object, villain, hero, vehicle, or castle were mentioned
were scored at 0%.
Peter’s Recombined Vocalizations and Actions after Instructional Session
Prior to session 76, an additional recombination instructional session was administered a
preferred item was also offered to the participant contingent on completion of the session. In
alternative mansion probe 4 (castle materials) session 76, Peter recombined 0% of the actions
completed by the villain after mastering the mansion script and 22% after the recombination
instructional session. He recombined 7% of the actions using a hero character after mastering the
mansion script and 20% once the instructional session was administered. Recombined
vocalizations said by the villain was scored at 0% after the mansion and increased to 27% after
the instructional session. Recombined vocalizations said by the hero increased from 0% after
mansion script mastery to 94% after recombination instruction. Recombined vocalizations in
which the object, villain, hero, vehicle, or mansion were mentioned increased from an average of
0% after mansion script mastery to 76% after recombination training.
Video Modeling and Matrix Training 42
In alternative bank probe 7 (mansion materials) session 79; Peter recombined an average
of 7% of the actions completed by the villain prior to the instructional session and 89% after. He
recombined an average of 0% of the actions using a hero character prior to the instructional
session which increased to 64% after instruction. Recombined vocalizations said by the villain
were scored at an average of 0% which increased to 100% after the instructional session.
Recombined vocalizations said by the hero increased from an averaged 2% prior to instruction
to100% after. Recombined vocalizations in which the object, villain, hero, vehicle, or bank were
mentioned increased from an average of 0% prior to instructional recombination to 96% after
training.
In alternative bank probe 8 (castle materials) session 80; Peter recombined an average of
7% of the actions completed by the villain which increased to an average of 78% after
recombination instruction. He recombined an average of 10% of the actions using a hero
character prior to instruction and 57% after. Recombined vocalizations said by the villain were
scored at an average of 0% which increased to 92% after the participant was taught to
recombine. Recombined vocalizations said by the hero increased from an average of 0% to
100%. Recombined vocalizations in which the object, villain, hero, vehicle, or bank were
mentioned increased from an average of 0% to 96% after recombination instruction.
Two alternative mansion probes were administered after recombination instruction. In
alternative mansion probe 5 (bank materials) session 81; Peter recombined an average of 0% of
the actions completed by the villain and 78% after the instructional session. He recombined an
average of 3.5% of the actions using a hero character after prior to instruction and 60% after.
Recombined vocalizations said by the villain was scored averaged 0% and increased to 92% after
recombination instruction. Recombined vocalizations said by the hero increased from an average
Video Modeling and Matrix Training 43
of 0% to 83% after the participant was taught to recombine. Recombined vocalizations in which
the object, villain, hero, vehicle, or mansion were mentioned increased from an average of 0% to
an average of 97%.
In alternative mansion probe 6 (castle materials present) session 82, Peter recombined an
average of 0% of the villain’s actions prior to the instructional session and increased to an
average 44.5%. He recombined an average of 7% of the actions using a hero character which
increased to an average of 43.5% after instruction. Recombined vocalizations said by the villain
was scored with an average of 0% and increased to an average of 59%. Recombined
vocalizations said by the hero averaged 0% and increased to 97% after recombination
instruction. Recombined vocalizations in which the object, villain, hero, vehicle, or mansion
were mentioned averaged 0% prior to instruction and increased to an average of 88% after
training.
In alternative castle probe 3 (bank materials) session 77, prior to recombination
instruction, Peter recombined 0% of the actions using the villain which increased to 56%. He
recombined 0% of the actions using a hero prior to instruction and 62% after. Recombined
vocalizations said by the villain were scored at 0% prior to recombination instruction, which
increased to 50%. Recombined vocalizations said by the hero were scored at 6% before training
and 100% after. Prior to recombination instruction recombined vocalizations in which the
object, villain, hero, vehicle, or castle were mentioned were scored at 0% this increased to 85%.
In alternative castle probe 4 (mansion materials) session 78, Peter recombined 0% of the
actions of the villain prior to recombination instruction which increased to 67%. He recombined
0% of the actions using a hero prior to instruction which increased to 69%. Prior to
Video Modeling and Matrix Training 44
recombination instruction recombined vocalizations said by the villain was scored at 0% this
increased to 100%. Recombined vocalizations said by the hero was scored at 6% before the
instructional session and increased to 100%. Recombined vocalizations in which the object,
villain, hero, vehicle, or castle were mentioned were scored at 0% prior to recombination
instruction and increased to an average of 100%.
Peter’s Unscripted Vocalizations
Results for Peter’s unscripted vocalizations are shown in Figure 6. Unscripted
vocalization data was taken in the initial baseline, baseline before training, mastery probe, and
the alternative materials probes for each play set. In the first bank baseline, Peter had 1
unscripted vocalization scored. In bank baseline 8, the baseline before training, Peter had 1
unscripted vocalization scored. In the bank mastery probe, Peter had 1 vocalization scored. In the
bank alternative probe 1 (mansion materials), Peter had 0 vocalizations scored. In the bank
alternative probe 2 (castle materials), Peter had 1 vocalization scored. In Peter’s second bank
probe he had 1 unscripted vocalization scored. In bank alternative probe 3(mansion materials),
Peter had 1 unscripted vocalization scored and in the bank alternative probe 4 (castle materials),
Peter had 1 unscripted vocalization scored. In Peter’s third bank probe he had 1 unscripted
vocalization scored. In bank alternative probe 5 (mansion materials), Peter had 2 unscripted
vocalizations scored and in the bank alternative probe 6 (castle materials), Peter had 0 unscripted
vocalizations scored. In bank alternative probe 7 (mansion materials), Peter had 0 unscripted
vocalizations scored and in the bank alternative probe 8 (castle materials), Peter had 1 unscripted
vocalization scored.
Video Modeling and Matrix Training 45
In Peter’s first mansion baseline, 0 unscripted vocalizations were scored. In the first
mansion baseline, Peter had 2 unscripted vocalizations scored. In the ninth mansion baseline, the
session before training, Peter had 1 unscripted vocalization scored. In the mansion mastery
probe, Peter had 0 unscripted vocalizations scored. In the mansion alternative probe 1 (bank
materials); Peter had 1 unscripted vocalization scored. In the mansion alternative probe 2 (castle
materials), Peter had 0 unscripted vocalizations scored. In Peter’s second mansion probe he had 1
unscripted vocalization scored. In mansion alternative probe 3 (bank materials), Peter had 0
unscripted vocalizations scored and in mansion alternative probe 4 (castle materials), Peter had 1
unscripted vocalization scored. In mansion alternative probe 5 (bank materials), Peter had 1
unscripted vocalization scored and in mansion alternative probe 6 (castle materials), Peter had 2
unscripted vocalizations scored.
In the first castle baseline, Peter had 1 unscripted vocalization scored. In tenth castle
baseline, the baseline before training, Peter had 0 unscripted vocalizations scored. In the castle
mastery probe, Peter had 0 unscripted vocalizations scored. In castle alternative probe 1(bank
materials), Peter had 1 unscripted vocalization scored and in the castle alternative probe 2
(mansion materials), Peter had 0 unscripted vocalizations scored. In castle alternative probe 3
(bank materials), Peter had 0 unscripted vocalizations scored and in the castle alternative probe 4
(mansion materials), Peter had 1 unscripted vocalization scored.
Total Script Completion for All Participants
Figure 7 shows the total script completion for all 3 participants. Bonnie finished the study
in session 40. She was in baseline until session 8. She had 6 bank training sessions before a
Video Modeling and Matrix Training 46
mastery probe in session 14. Mansion training started in session 20 she mastered this script in 3
sessions, before a mastery probe in session 23. Castle training began in session 28.
Vincent completed the study in session 81. He was in baseline until session 39. He had 5
bank training sessions before a mastery probe in session 45. Mansion training started in session
53, he had 6 training session before a mastery probe in session 58. He had 3 castle training
sessions starting in session 63. A mastery probe was run in session 66.
Peter completed the study in session 134. He was in baseline until session 83. He had 11
bank training sessions before a mastery probe in session 94. Mansion training started in session
100 and lasted until session 105. Castle training began in session 114 and finished in session 118.
Discussion
There have been several approaches to teaching children to engage in generative play.
The substitutable loops used in Roberts (2007), were successful in producing novel play
behavior. Using toys that are share similar components may also produce generative play. The
use of a matrix attempts to demonstrate the various recombinations are possible. The several
studies that have employed matrix training to teach various skills have been successful producing
novel or generative recombinations. Using matrices to teach participants to engage in novel play
have proven to be successful.
In the current study, all three participants acquired the scripts at a rapid rate. Each
participant mastered the scripts at a more rapid rate after being trained on at least one script. This
may have been due to the similarities in each script. The training sessions only included the play
sets and materials that were included in the specific training video. During training sessions only
scripted actions and scripted vocalizations were scored. If all materials were present during
training there may be a slightly different outcome.
Video Modeling and Matrix Training 47
It would be interesting to examine the effects of combining substitutable loops in video
modeling used in the Roberts (2007) study with the matrix. By adding these two techniques
together it may be more likely to produce results in which the participant combines several of the
scripts together. If all the materials were available in a probe after the participant learned the
scripts with a substitutable loop the participant may perform more recombinations.
The results obtained from this study are similar to those found by MacManus and
MacDonald (2010). After one of the play sets was mastered the participants performed some of
the recombinations with the other untrained characters, objects, and play sets. Two of the three
participants did not recombine the vocalizations and actions until additional instructional
sessions were administered. This may have been due to the length and difficulty of the scripts.
Although recombination did not occur during the first alternative probe sessions, both
participants, performed the majority of the recombination’s immediately after the recombination
instructional session without any further prompting. One of the participants was noncompliant
during some of the baseline and probe sessions this could have been due to his familiarity with
the experimenter. During all sessions participants were given approximately 5 minutes to
manipulate the play materials. Given this short duration the participants only had a short time to
perform the scripted play scenario. With longer sessions there is a possibility of more
recombinations or more unscripted play.
There are many options for future research. Matrix training offers a systematic approach
to developing probes to anticipate the recombinations that are possible with this type of
procedure. Future research should aim to use matrix training when teaching various skills to
children in this population. An important area of research may be teaching social skills to
children with an autism spectrum disorder.
Video Modeling and Matrix Training 48
References
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autism: a review of the literature. Education and Training in Developmental Disabilities,
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Calabrese, N. (2003). Developing quality sociodramatic play for young children. Education,123,
3.
Charlop M., & Milstein, J. (1989). Teaching autistic children conversational speech using video
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Charlop-Christy, M. H., Le, L., & Freeman, K. A. (2000). A comparison of video modeling
with in vivo modeling for teaching children with autism. Journal of Autism and
Developmental Disorders, 30, 537-555.
Coleman, S., & Stedman, J.M. (1974). Use of a peer model in language training in an echoic
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Dauphin, M., Kinney, E.M., & Stromer, R. (2004). Using video-enhanced activity schedules and
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Behavior Interventions, 6, 238-251.
Delano, M., E. (2007). Video modeling interventions for individuals with autism. Remedial and
Special Education, 28, 33-42.
Garfinkle, A. N., & Schwartz, I. S. (2002). Peer imitation: increasing social interactions in
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classrooms. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 22, 26-38.
Goldstein, H., & Mousetis, L., (1989). Generalized language learning by children with severe
mental retardation: effects of peers’ expressive modeling. Journal of Applied Behavior
Analysis, 22, 245-259.
Koegel, L. K., Koegal, R. L., Frea, W. D., & Fredeen, R. M., (2001). Identifying early
intervention target for children with autism in inclusive school settings. Behavior
Modification, 25, 754-761.
Video Modeling and Matrix Training 49
MacDonald, R.P.F., Sacramone, S.R., Mansfield, R., Wiltz, K., & Ahearn, W.H. (2009).
Using video modeling to teach reciprocal pretend play to children with autism. Journal
of Applied Behavior Analysis. 42, 43-55.
MacManus, C., & MacDonald, R.P.F. (May 2010). Video modeling and matrix training to teach
pretend play in children with autism. Paper to be presented at the annual conference of
the Association for Behavior Analysis, San Antonio, TX.
McCoy, K., & Hermansen, E. (2007) Video modeling for individuals with autism: a review of
model types and effects. Education & Treatment of Children, 30, 183-214.
McGee, G.C., Feldman, R.S., & Chernin, L., (1991). A comparison of emotional facial display
by children with autism and typical preschoolers. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis,
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Nikopoulos, C. K., & Keenan, M. (2004). Effects of video modeling on social initiations by
children with autism. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 37, 93-96.
Paterson, C. R., & Arco, L., (2007). Using Video modeling for generalizing toy play in children
with autism, Behavior Modification 31(5) 660-681.
Reagon, K. A., Higbee, S., & Endicott, K. (2006). Teaching pretend play skills to a student with
autism using video modeling with a sibling as model and play partner. Education and
Treatment of Children, 29, 1-12.
Roberts, S., MacDonald, R. P. F., & Ahearn, W. H. (2007). A method to teach varied play to
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Federal Register, 64 (8), 12418-12480.
Video Modeling and Matrix Training 50
Table 1 Mean interobserver Agreement for Bonnie across all play sets.
Bank
IOA for
Vocalizations
IOA for Actions
IOA for Recombined
Vocalizations
Mansion
99%
(range, 97%-100%)
Castle
98%
(range, 97%-100%)
96%
(range, 91%-100%)
96%
95.3%
(range, 93%-100%)
98.2%
(range, 96.3%-100%)
95.5%
91.5%
(range, 86%-97%)
97.5%
(range, 88%-100%)
95.3%
(range, 88%-100%)
98%
(During Alterative Materials
Probes)
IOA for
Recombined Actions
(During Alterative Materials
Probes)
IOA for Unscripted
Vocalizations
(During Baseline, Probes, and
Alternative Material Probes)
93%
(range, 80%-100%)
80%
Video Modeling and Matrix Training 51
Table 2 Mean interobserver agreement for Vincent across all play sets.
Bank
IOA for
Vocalizations
IOA for Actions
IOA for Recombined
Vocalizations
Mansion
99.3%
(range, 97%-100%)
Castle
99.3%
(range, 97%-100%)
100%
97.4%
(range, 87%-100%)
94%
(range, 88%-100%)
96.5%
(range, 89%-100%)
98%
(range, 96%-100%)
95%
86%
(range, 83%-88%)
83%
(range, 80%-85%)
97.4%
(range, 93%-100%)
96.2%
(range, 93%-100%)
(During Alterative Materials
Probes)
IOA for
Recombined Actions
(During Alterative Materials
Probes)
IOA for Unscripted
Vocalizations
(During Baseline, Probes, and
Alternative Material Probes)
100%
Video Modeling and Matrix Training 52
Table 3 Mean interobserver agreement for Peter across all play sets.
Bank
95%
(range, 90%-100%)
Mansion
96%
(range, 83%-100%)
Castle
99.6%
(range, 97%-100%)
IOA for Actions
93%
(range, 80%-100%)
96%
(range, 83%-100%)
94%
(range, 85%-100%)
IOA for Recombined
Vocalizations
94%
(range, 92%-96%)
98%
100%
IOA for
Recombined Actions
91.5%
(range, 91%-92%)
93%
(range, 91%-94%)
100%
IOA for
Vocalizations
(During Alterative Materials
Probes)
(During Alterative Materials
Probes)
IOA for Unscripted
Vocalizations
(During Baseline, Probes, and
Alternative Material Probes)
100%
Video Modeling and Matrix Training 53
Table 4 The percentage of actions and vocalizations recombined for each character, object,
vehicle, and play set for Bonnie.
After Bank Training
Actions using Villain
Actions using Hero
Actions using Object
Actions using Vehicle
Vocals said by Villain
Vocals said by Hero
Vocals in which Object is mentioned
Vocals in which Villain is mentioned
Vocals in which Hero is mentioned
Vocals in which Vehicle is mentioned
Vocals in which Bank is mentioned
Actions using Villain
Actions using Hero
Actions using Object
Actions using Vehicle
Vocals said by Villain
Vocals said by Hero
Vocals in which Object is mentioned
Vocals in which Villain is mentioned
Vocals in which Hero is mentioned
Vocals in which Vehicle is mentioned
Vocals in which Mansion is mentioned
Actions using Villain
Actions using Hero
Actions using Object
Actions using Vehicle
Vocals said by Villain
Vocals said by Hero
Vocals in which Object is mentioned
Vocals in which Villain is mentioned
Vocals in which Hero is mentioned
Vocals in which Vehicle is mentioned
Vocals in which Castle is mentioned
Alt. Bank Probe
1(Mansion
materials)
% of recombs.
55
0
0
0
20
6
20
0
0
10 0
0
After Mansion Training
After Castle Training
Alt. Bank Probe
3 (Mansion
materials)
% of recombs.
88
86
100
100
60
94
40
100
100
100
83
Alt. Bank Probe
2 (Castle
materials)
% of recombs.
33
27
33
75
0
11
0
0
0
100
17
Alt. Mansion
Probe 1 (Bank
materials)
% of recombs.
67
33
25
83
27
50
50
17
0
100
0
Alt. Mansion
Probe 2(Castle
materials)
% of recombs.
44
67
0
89
45
75
0
0
0
0
0
Alt. Bank Probe
4 (Castle
materials) 6
% of recombs.
67
79
75
100
60
100
60
33
100
100
50
Alt. Mansion
Probe 3 (Bank
materials)
% of recombs.
44
67
25
100
9
0
25
0
0
0
14
Alt. Mansion
Probe 4(Castle
materials)
% of recombs.
56
87
75
100
55
88
67
83
100
100
57
Alt. Castle Probe
1 (Bank
materials)
Alt. Castle
Probe 2
(Mansion
materials)
% of recombs.
82
85
67
100
80
100
0
100
100
100
50
% of recombs.
78
85
100
100
82
100
100
100
100
100
33
Video Modeling and Matrix Training 54
Table 5 The percentage of actions and vocalizations recombined for each character, object,
vehicle, and play set for Vincent.
After Bank
Training
Actions using Villain
Actions using Hero
Actions using Object
Actions using Vehicle
Vocals said by Villain
Vocals said by Hero
Vocals in which Object is mentioned
Vocals in which Villain is mentioned
Vocals in which Hero is mentioned
Vocals in which Vehicle is
mentioned
Vocals in which Bank is mentioned
Actions using Villain
Actions using Hero
Actions using Object
Actions using Vehicle
Vocals said by Villain
Vocals said by Hero
Vocals in which Object is mentioned
Vocals in which Villain is mentioned
Vocals in which Hero is mentioned
Vocals in which Vehicle is
mentioned
Vocals in which Mansion is
mentioned
Actions using Villain
Actions using Hero
Actions using Object
Actions using Vehicle
Vocals said by Villain
Vocals said by Hero
Vocals in which Object is mentioned
Vocals in which Villain is mentioned
Vocals in which Hero is mentioned
Vocals in which Vehicle is
mentioned
Vocals in which Castle is mentioned
After Mansion
Training
After Castle
Training
After Recomb.
Rec
Alt. Bank
Probe 1
(Mansion
materials)
% of
recombs.
Alt. Bank
Probe
2(Castle
materials)
% of
recombs.
Alt. Bank
Probe 3
(Mansion
materials)
% of
recombs.
Alt. Bank
Probe 4
(Castle
materials)
% of
recombs.
Alt. Bank
Probe 5
(Mansion
materials)
% of
recombs.
Alt. Bank
Probe 6
(Castle
materials)
% of
recombs.
11
29
0
8
0
0
0
0
0
0
43
0
83
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
43
0
100
20
28
0
0
0
0
0
21
0
67
0
6
0
0
0
0
100
70
100
100
83
100
80
100
0
100
100
71
100
100
67
100
80
83
50
100
0
0
40
0
80
60
Alt.
Mansion
Probe 1
(Bank
materials)
% of
recombs.
Alt.
Mansion
Probe 2
(Castle
materials)
% of
recombs.
Alt.
Mansion
Probe
3Bank
materials)
% of
recombs.
Alt.
Mansion
Probe 4
(Castle
materials)
% of
recombs.
Alt.
Mansion
Probe5(B
ank
materials)
% of
recombs.
Alt.
Mansion
Probe 6
(Castle
materials)
% of
recombs.
0
40
0
83
0
13
0
0
0
0
0
33
0
44
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
30
0
100
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
20
0
67
0
13
0
0
0
0
100
87
100
100
73
100
83
83
100
100
89
73
75
100
82
94
50
83
100
100
0
0
0
0
57
57
Alt.
Castle
Probe
1(Bank
materials)
% of
recombs.
Alt.
Castle
Probe 2
(Mansion
materials)
% of
recombs.
Alt.
Castle
Probe 3
(Bank
materials)
% of
recombs.
Alt.
Castle
Probe 4
(Mansion
materials)
% of
recombs.
11
31
0
83
0
0
0
0
0
0
22
15
5
33
10
12
0
0
0
0
89
92
75
100
90
88
60
50
100
100
100
85
100
100
80
81
60
80
50
100
0
17
71
67
Video Modeling and Matrix Training 55
Table 6 The percentage of actions and vocalizations recombined for each character, object,
vehicle, and play set for Peter.
After Bank
Training
Actions using Villain
Actions using Hero
Actions using Object
Actions using Vehicle
Vocals said by Villain
Vocals said by Hero
Vocals in which Object is mentioned
Vocals in which Villain is mentioned
Vocals in which Hero is mentioned
Vocals in which Vehicle is
mentioned
Vocals in which Bank is mentioned
Actions using Villain
Actions using Hero
Actions using Object
Actions using Vehicle
Vocals said by Villain
Vocals said by Hero
Vocals in which Object is mentioned
Vocals in which Villain is mentioned
Vocals in which Hero is mentioned
Vocals in which Vehicle is
mentioned
Vocals in which Mansion is
mentioned
Actions using Villain
Actions using Hero
Actions using Object
Actions using Vehicle
Vocals said by Villain
Vocals said by Hero
Vocals in which Object is mentioned
Vocals in which Villain is mentioned
Vocals in which Hero is mentioned
Vocals in which Vehicle is
mentioned
Vocals in which Castle is mentioned
After Mansion
Training
After Castle
Training
Recomb.
Alt. Bank
Probe 1
(Mansion
materials)
% of
recombs.
Alt. Bank
Probe2
(Castle
materials)
% of
recombs.
Alt. Bank
Probe 3
(Mansion
materials)
% of
recombs.
Alt. Bank
Probe 4
(Castle
materials)
% of
recombs.
Alt. Bank
Probe 5
(Mansion
materials)
% of
recombs.
Alt. Bank
Probe 6
(Castle
materials)
% of
recombs.
Alt. Bank
Probe 7
(Mansion
materials)
% of
recombs.
Alt. Bank
Probe 8
(Castle
materials)
% of
recombs.
0
0
0
0
0
6
0
17
0
0
7
0
44
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
11
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
8
0
56
0
0
0
0
0
0
11
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
14
0
67
0
0
0
0
0
0
89
64
33
100
100
80
100
100
100
100
78
57
75
100
92
100
80
100
100
100
0
0
0
0
0
0
100
100
Alt.
Mansion
Probe
1(Bank
materials)
% of
recombs.
Alt.
Mansion
Probe 2
(Castle
materials)
% of
recombs.
Alt.
Mansion
Probe
3(Bank
materials)
% of
recombs.
Alt.
Mansion
Probe 4
(Castle
materials)
% of
recombs.
Alt.
Mansion
Probe
5(Bank
materials)
% of
recombs.
Alt.
Mansion
Probe 6
(Castle
materials)
% of
recombs.
0
7
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
7
0
44
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
22
20
25
78
27
94
33
100
100
100
78
60
75
100
91
83
83
83
100
100
67
67
75
100
91
100
100
100
100
100
0
0
0
48
100
100
Alt.
Castle
Probe 1
(Bank
materials)
% of
recombs.
Alt.
Castle
Probe 2
(Mansion
materials)
% of
recombs.
Alt.
Castle
Probe 3
(Bank
materials)
% of
recombs.
Alt.
Castle
Probe 4
(Mansion
materials)
% of
recombs.
0
0
0
17
0
6
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
6
0
0
0
0
56
62
75
100
50
100
60
100
100
100
67
69
50
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
0
0
67
100
Video Modeling and Matrix Training 56
Figure Captions
Figure 1 Bonnie’s scripted vocals and actions and recombined vocals and actions for each play
set.
Figure 2 Bonnie’s unscripted vocals for baseline, mastery probes, and alternative material probes
for each play set.
Figure 3 Vincent’s scripted vocals and actions and recombined vocals and actions for each play
set.
Figure 4 Vincent’s unscripted vocals for baseline, mastery probes, and alternative material
probes for each play set.
Figure 5 Peter’s scripted vocals and actions and recombined vocals and actions for each play set.
Figure 6 Peter’s unscripted vocals for baseline, mastery probes, and alternative material probes
for each play set.
Figure 7 Combined percentage of vocals and actions for all participants.
Video Modeling and Matrix Training 57
Figure 1.
Video Modeling and Matrix Training 58
Unscripted Vocalizations
20
18
Bank
Mansion
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
Figure 2.
Castle
Video Modeling and Matrix Training 59
Probes after
Recombination
Instruction
Probes after
Recombination
Instruction
Probes after
Recombination
Instruction
Figure 3.
8
Figure 4.
Mansion
Baseline 1
Baseline 7
Probe
Alternative Materials Probe 1
Alternative Materials Probe 2
Aternative Materials Probe 3
Alternative Materials Probe 4
Bank
Baseline 1
Baseline 6
Probe
Alternative Materials Probe 1
Alternative Materials Probe 2
Probe
Alternative Materials Probe 3
Alternative Materials Probe 4
Alternative Materials Probe 5
Alternative Materials Probe 6
Baseline 5
Probe
Alternative Materials Probe 1
Alternative Materials Probe 2
Probe 2
Alternative Materials Probe 3
Alternative Materials Probe 4
Alternative Materials Probe 5
Alternative Materials Probe 6
Video Modeling and Matrix Training 60
Unscripted Vocalizations
10
9
Castle
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Video Modeling and Matrix Training 61
Probes after
Recombination
Instruction
1
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
-0.1
Mastery Probes
Vocals
Baseline
Bank
6 11 16 21 26 31 36 41 46 51 56 61 66 71 76 81 86 91 96
Probes after
Recombination
Instruction
1
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
-0.1
Mastery Probes
Baseline
Vocals
Recombined
Probes
Actions
Training
Mansion
1
6 11 16 21 26 31 36 41 46 51 56 61 66 71 76 81 86 91 96
Probes after
RecombinedRecombination
Probes
Instruction
Baseline
Mastery
Probe
Vocals
Actions
Castle
1
Figure 5
Actions
Training
1
1
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
-0.1
Recombined
Probes
6 11 16 21 26 31 36 41 46 51 56 61 66 71 76 81 86 91 96
Bank
Figure 6.
Mansion
castle
Baseline 1
Baseline 10
Probe
Alternative Materials Probe 1
Alternative Materials Probe 2
Alternative Materials Probe 3
Alternative Materials Probe 4
1.5
Mansion
Baseline 1
Baseline 9
Probe
Alternative Materials Probe 1
Alternative Materials Probe 2
Probe 2
Alternative Materials Probe 3
Alternative Materials Probe 4
Alternative Materials Probe 5
Alternative Materials Probe 6
Baseline 1
Baseline 8
Probe
Alternative Materials Probe 1
Alternative Materials Probe 2
Probe 2
Alternative Materials Probe 3
Alternative Materials Probe 4
Probe 3
Alternative Materials Probe 5
Alternative Materials Probe 6
Alternative Materials Probe 7
Alternative Materials Probe 8
Video Modeling and Matrix Training 62
Unscripted Vocalizations
2.5
2
Castle
1
0.5
0
Video Modeling and Matrix Training 63
Figure 7.
Video Modeling and Matrix Training 64
Appendices
Appendix 1. Bank play set and materials
Video Modeling and Matrix Training 65
Appendix 2. Mansion play set and materials
Video Modeling and Matrix Training 66
Appendix 3. Castle play set and materials
Video Modeling and Matrix Training 67
Appendix 4. Bank scenario script
OBJECTS
ACTIONS (41)
Bank playset & Joker
Joker
Joker
White door
Joker
White door
Joker
Black door
Joker
Black door
Joker
Joker
Joker
TNT Button
Joker
Joker & money
Joker
Joker & money
Joker
Joker walks in from the left
Batcave playset
Batcave playset
Batman
Batman
Batman
Batman
Batman
Batcave
Batmobile
Batman
Batmobile
Batman & Batmobile
Batman
Bat-a-rang
Bat-a-rang
Batmobile
Batman in Batmobile
Batman in Batmobile
Batman in Batmobile
Batman in Batmobile
Batmobile
Bat-a-rang
Batman
Batman & Bat-a-rang
Batman
Batman
White door
Batman
White door
Batman
Black door
Batman
Black door
Joker
Joker
Batman
Batman
Joker
Batman
Batman & Bat-a-rang
Batman
Bat-a-rang
Bat-a-rang & Joker
Joker
Joker & money
Batman
Batman & money
Batman
VOCALS (30)
“Ha, ha, ha! I’m going to steal all the money from the bank!”
Walk Joker to the white door
Open white door
“Rats! It’s not in this room!”
Close white door
Walk Joker to the black door
Open black door
“Double rats! It’s not in this room!”
Close black door
“The money must be in the vault!”
Walk Joker to the vault door
Push TNT button
“I’ll use the dynamite to open the vault
“BOOM!”
“Wow! That’s a lot of money! I’m going to be rich! Ha, ha, ha!”
Pick Joker up, place money on arm.
“I’ll climb to the top of the bank to wait for my getaway driver to arrive!”
Climb Joker to the roof of the bank
“Now I’ll be able to see any silly hero coming here to try and stop me before they
see me!”
“Ring, ring!”
Slide yellow button to the right to open purple door revealing Batman
“An alarm at the Batcomputer, I’ll answer it!”
Pick up Batman, jump him down to the ground
Walk over to the Batcomputer
Turn red circle beside middle blue door to the right
Reach through and pick up the Batmobile, drive through ramp
Walk Batman over to the Batmobile
Open roof
Pick Batman up and sit him down into the Batmobile
“Someone has stolen the money from the bank!”
“It must be the Joker!”
“I’ll drive the Batmobile to the bank”
“Time to get in”
“I’ll need the Bat-a-rang”
Pick up Bat-a-rang from black alcove
Put in Batmobile beside Batman
Close roof
Drive Batmobile to front of the bank
“To the bank!”
“I must stop the Joker!”
“VROOM! VROOM!”
“I’ve arrived at the bank”
Open roof of Batmobile
Pick Bat-a-rang out of the Batmobile
Pick Batman out of the Batmobile
Pick up Bat-a-rang, put in Batman’s hand
“Now time to find the Joker!”
Walk Batman to the white door
Open white door
“He’s not in here”
Close white door
Walk Batman to the black door
Open black door
“He’s not in here either! Where is he?”
Close black door
“Oh no! That FATman has shown up to stop me! I’ll have to take care of him!”
Jump Joker down to the ground, facing towards Batman
Turn Batman to face Joker
“Joker! You’ll never get away with stealing the money!”
“You’re too late Batman! Ha, ha! Once I deal with you, I’ll be away scot-free! Ha,
ha, ha!”
“I don’t think so Joker!”
Pull Bat-a-rang off of Batman’s hand
“Take this!”
Spin through air towards Joker
Bat-a-rang hits Joker and knocks him over
“AHHH!”
Pull money off Joker
Walk Batman over to Joker
Put money on Batman’s arm
“Remember Joker, crime doesn’t pay!”
Video Modeling and Matrix Training 68
Appendix 5. Mansion scenario script
OBJECTS
ACTIONS (30)
Mansion playset &
Penguin
Penguin
Penguin
Penguin
Penguin
Penguin
Penguin
Penguin
Penguin
Penguin
Penguin
Penguin & diamond
Penguin
Penguin & diamond
Penguin
Penguin walks in from the right to the middle of the mansion playset
Batcave playset
Batcave playset
Robin
Robin
Robin
Robin
Robin
Batcave & Batcycle
Robin
Robin & Batcycle
Robin
Bat-a-rang
Bat-a-rang
Robin in Batcycle
Robin in the Batcycle
Robin in Batcycle
Robin in Batcycle
Bat-a-rang
Robin
Robin & Bat-a-rang
Robin
Robin
Robin
Robin
Robin
Penguin
Penguin
Robin
Robin
Penguin
Robin
Robin & Bat-a-rang
Robin
Bat-a-rang
Bat-a-rang & Penguin
Penguin
Penguin & diamond
Robin
Robin & diamond
Robin
VOCALS (29)
“Ha, ha, ha! I’m going to steal the world’s biggest diamond from the mansion!”
Walk Penguin to the window on the right
“Rats! It’s not in this room!”
Walk Penguin to the window on the left
“Double rats! It’s not in this room!”
Walk Penguin to the middle of the mansion
Climb Penguin up the side of the mansion to the 2nd floor
“The diamond must be on the 2nd floor”
“I’ll climb up the side of the mansion to get it!”
“Wow! That’s a really big diamond! I’m going to be rich! Ha, ha, ha!”
Pick Penguin up, place diamond on arm.
“I’ll climb to the top of the mansion to wait for my getaway driver to arrive!”
Climb Penguin up to the roof of the mansion
Turn red circle at the top right of the Batcave playset to raise the
elevator
Pick up Robin from the elevator
Climb Robin down the purple ladder
Walk over to the Batcomputer
Reach through left hand blue door and pick up the Batcycle, drive
through ramp
Walk Robin over to the Batcycle
Pick Robin up, and sit him down into the Batcycle
“Now I’ll be able to see any silly hero coming here to try and stop me before they
see me!”
“Ring, ring!”
“An alarm at the Batcomputer, I’ll answer it!”
“Someone has stolen the diamond from the mansion!”
“It must be the Penguin!”
“I’ll drive the Batcycle to the mansion”
“Time to get in”
“I’ll need the Bat-a-rang”
Pick up Bat-a-rang from black alcove
Put in Batcycle beside Robin
Drive Batcycle to front of the mansion
“To the mansion!”
“I must stop the Penguin!”
“VROOM, VROOM!”
“I’ve arrived at the mansion”
Pick Bat-a-rang out of the Batcycle
Pick Robin out of the Batcycle
Pick up Bat-a-rang, put in Robin’s hand
“Now time to find the Penguin!”
Walk Robin to the window on the left
“He’s not in here”
Walk Robin to the window on the right
“He’s not in here either! Where is he?”
“Oh no! That bird-brain Robin has shown up to stop me! I’ll have to take care of
him!”
Jump Penguin down to the bottom of mansion, facing towards Robin
Turn Robin to face Penguin
“Penguin! You’ll never get away with stealing the diamond!”
“You’re too late Robin! Ha, ha! Once I deal with you, I’ll be away scot-free! Ha,
ha, ha!”
“I don’t think so Penguin!”
Pull Bat-a-rang off of Robin’s hand
“Take this!”
Spin through air towards Penguin
Bat-a-rang hits Penguin and knocks him over
“Oh no! The diamond!”
Pull diamond off Penguin
Walk Robin over to Penguin
Put diamond on Robin’s hand
“Remember Penguin, crime doesn’t pay!”
Video Modeling and Matrix Training 69
Appendix 6. Castle scenario script
OBJECTS
ACTIONS (36)
Castle playset & Mr.
Freeze
Mr. Freeze
Mr. Freeze
Mr. Freeze
Mr. Freeze
Mr. Freeze
Mr. Freeze
Mr. Freeze
Mr. Freeze
Mr. Freeze & ring
Mr. Freeze
Mr. Freeze
Mr. Freeze
Mr. Freeze
Mr. Freeze walks in from the right to the middle of the castle playset
Batcave playset
Batcave playset
Superman
Superman
Superman
Superman
Superman
Batcopter
Batcopter
Superman
Batcopter
Superman & Batcopter
Batman
Bat-a-rang
Bat-a-rang
Batcopter
Superman in the
Batcopter
Superman in the
Batcopter
Batcopter
Batcopter
Superman in Batcopter
Superman in Batcopter
Batcopter
Bat-a-rang
Superman
Superman & Bat-a-rang
Superman
Superman
Superman
Superman
Superman
Mr. Freeze
Mr. Freeze
Superman
Superman
Mr. Freeze
Superman
Superman & Bat-a-rang
Superman
Bat-a-rang
Bat-a-rang & Mr. Freeze
Mr. Freeze
Mr. Freeze & ring
Superman
Superman & ring
Superman
VOCALS (29)
“Ha, ha, ha! I’m going to steal the world’s most expensive ring from the castle!”
Walk Mr. Freeze to the window on the right, jump up to look in
“Rats! It’s not in this room!”
Walk Mr. Freeze to the window on the left, jump up to look in
“Double rats! It’s not in this room!”
“The ring must be hidden in the castle’s storage room””
Walk Mr. Freeze over to green alcove at the left side of the castle
“Wow! That’s a really beautiful ring! I’m going to be rich! Ha, ha, ha!”
Pick Mr. Freeze up, place ring on arm.
“I’ll climb to the top of the castle to wait for my cold cronies to help me escape!”
Climb Mr. Freeze up steps on the left wall of the mansion
Walk over to top right of castle
Pull yellow rail at the right of the Batcave playset to reveal Superman
Pick up Superman from the ledge
Fly Superman down to the centre of the playset
Walk over to the Batcomputer
Fly Batcopter down to the middle of the Batcave playset
Spin propellers
Walk Superman over to the Batcopter
Open Batcopter roof
Pick Superman up, bend legs and sit him down into the Batcopter
“Now I’ll be able to see any silly hero coming here to try and stop me before they
see me!”
“Ring, ring!”
“An alarm at the Batcomputer, I’ll answer it!”
“Someone has stolen the ring from the castle!”
“It must be the Mr. Freeze!”
“I’ll fly the Batcopter to the castle”
“Choak, Choak, Choak”
“Time to get in”
“I’ll need the Bat-a-rang”
Pick up Bat-a-rang from black alcove
Put in Batcopter beside Superman
Close Batcopter roof
“To the castle!”
“I must stop the Mr. Freeze!”
Lift Batcopter into the air
Spin propeller
Fly Batcopter to front of the castle
“Choak, choak, choak”
“I’ve arrived at the castle”
Open roof
Pick Bat-a-rang out of the Batcopter
Pick Superman out of the Batcopter
Pick up Bat-a-rang, put in Superman’s hand
“Now time to find the Mr. Freeze!”
Walk Superman to the window on the right, jump up to look in
“He’s not in here”
Walk Superman to the window on the left, jump up to look in
“He’s not in here either! Where is he?”
“Oh no! That stupid Superman has shown up to stop me! I’ll have to take care of
him!”
Jump Mr. Freeze down to the right hand side of mansion, facing
towards Superman
Turn Superman to face Mr. Freeze
“Mr. Freeze! You’ll never get away with stealing the ring!”
“You’re too late Superman! Ha, ha! Once I deal with you, I’ll be away scot-free!
Ha, ha, ha!”
“I don’t think so Mr. Freeze!”
Pull Bat-a-rang off of Superman’s hand
“Take this!”
Spin through air towards Mr. Freeze
Bat-a-rang hits Mr. Freeze and knocks him over
“AHHH!”
Pull ring off Mr. Freeze
Walk Superman over to Mr. Freeze
Put ring on Superman’s arm
“Remember Mr. Freeze, crime doesn’t pay!”
Video Modeling and Matrix Training 70
Appendix 7. 3 dimensional matrices with black shaded boxes indicating trained scripts
Video Modeling and Matrix Training 71
Appendix 8. 3 dimensional matrices with dark grey shaded boxes indicating possible emerging
scripts in participant 1 alternative probes
Video Modeling and Matrix Training 72
Appendix 9. Scoring guidelines for bank scenario script
Bank Playset: Action Guidelines
General Scoring rules
•
Actions still count if a character/piece is placed somewhere and then falls off
•
Actions can occur out of order from the original script
Walk Joker to the white door
Open White door
Walk Joker to the black door
Open Black door
Walk Joker to vault door
Climb Joker to the roof of the bank
Slide yellow button to the right to open
purple door revealing Batman
Walk to the Batcomputer
Turn red circle beside middle blue door to
the right
Walk Batman over to the Batmobile
Put (Bat-a-rang) in Batmobile beside
Batman
Drive Batmobile to front of the bank
Pick up Bat-a-rang, put on Batman’s hand
Walk Batman to the white door
Open White door
Walk Batman to the black door
Open Black door
Turn Batman to face Joker
Pull Bat-a-rang off of Batman’s hand
Spin (Bat-a-rang) through air towards Joker
Pull money off Joker
Walk Batman over to Joker
Joker doesn’t have to contact ground when walking
Door can be opened from front or back of the playset
Joker doesn’t have to contact ground when walking
Door can be opened from front or back of the playset
Joker doesn’t have to contact ground when walking
Joker & money may stand on the left or right of the bank. Money may or may not be
on Joker’s arm but must be on bank roof
Batman must be on the other side of the purple door
Batman doesn’t have to contact ground when walking
Do not score correct if Batmobile is not behind blue door
Batman may not contact ground when walking but must go to the Batmobile, not
Batmobile to where Batman is
Still score correct even if participant does not retrieve from black alcove. May sit on
top of Batman in Batmobile.
Batmobile can drive in straight line or side to side. Do not score correct if participant
drives Batmobile but not to bank. Do not score if Batman is not in Batmobile.
Bat-a-rang must clip into Batman’s hand
Batman doesn’t have to contact ground when walking. Still score correct even if Bata-rang is not in Batman’s hand
Door can be opened from front or back of the playset
Batman doesn’t have to contact ground when walking. Still score correct even if Bata-rang is not in Batman’s hand
Door can be opened from front or back of the playset
Still correct if Batman is already facing Joker
Bat-a-rang must already be in Batman’s hand
Still score correct if Bat-a-rang doesn’t spin
Still score correct if money falls off Joker’s hand when getting knocked over with Bata-rang
Batman doesn’t have to contact ground when walking but must go to Joker, not Joker
to where Batman is
Bank Playset: Vocal Guidelines
General Scoring rules:
•
Scored as + if it is complete and matches the script.
•
Scored as + if it is a partial vocal (at least 50%) or a paraphrase of a vocal (example: script says “Remember Joker, crime
doesn’t pay!” and student says “Crime doesn’t pay Joker!”)
•
Student does not have to be holding/manipulating character for +
•
Do not score as + if it is with the wrong character
•
Vocals are only counted once, but do not count against student if they repeat them
•
Scored as + if they occur out of order from the original script
Video Modeling and Matrix Training 73
Appendix 10. Scoring guidelines for mansion scenario script
Mansion Playset: Action Guidelines
General Scoring rules
•
Actions still count if a character/piece is placed somewhere and then falls off
•
Actions can occur out of order from the original script
Walk Penguin to the window on the right
Walk Penguin to the window on the left
Climb Penguin to the roof of the mansion
Turn red circle at the top right of the
Batcave playset to raise the elevator
Climb Robin down the purple ladder
Walk to the Batcomputer
Walk Robin over to the Batcycle
Put (Bat-a-rang) in Batcycle beside Robin
Drive Batcycle to front of the bank
Pick up Bat-a-rang, put on Robin’s hand
Walk Robin to the window on the right
Walk Robin to the window on the left
Turn Robin to face Penguin
Pull Bat-a-rang off of Robin’s hand
Spin (Bat-a-rang) through air towards
Penguin
Pull diamond off Penguin
Walk Robin over to Penguin
Penguin doesn’t have to contact ground when walking
Penguin doesn’t have to contact ground when walking
Penguin & diamond may stand on the left or right of the bank. Diamond may or may
not be on Penguin’s arm but must be on mansion roof
Robin must be in the elevator
Robin touches purple ladder. Do not score correct if Robin Jumps down or flies down
Robin doesn’t have to contact ground when walking. Score correct if Robin has
directly climbed to Batcomputer
Robin may not contact ground when walking but must go to the Batcycle, not Batcycle
to where Robin is
Still score correct even if participant does not retrieve from black alcove
Batcycle can drive in straight line or side to side. Do not score correct if participant
drives Batcycle but not to mansion. Do not score if Robin is not in Batcycle.
Bat-a-rang must clip into Robin’s hand
Robin doesn’t have to contact ground when walking. Still score correct even if Bat-arang is not in Robin’s hand
Robin doesn’t have to contact ground when walking. Still score correct even if Bat-arang is not in Robin’s hand
Still correct if Robin is already facing Penguin
Bat-a-rang must already be in Robin’s hand
Still score correct if Bat-a-rang doesn’t spin
Still score correct if diamond falls off Penguin’s hand when getting knocked over with
Bat-a-rang
Robin doesn’t have to contact ground when walking but must go to Penguin, not
Penguin to where Robin is
Mansion Playset: Vocal Guidelines
General Scoring rules:
•
Scored as + if it is complete and matches the script.
•
Scored as + if it is a partial vocal (at least 50%) or a paraphrase of a vocal (example: script says “Remember Penguin,
crime doesn’t pay!” and student says “Crime doesn’t pay Penguin!”)
•
Student does not have to be holding/manipulating character for +
•
Do not score as + if it is with the wrong character
•
Vocals are only counted once, but do not count against student if they repeat them
•
Scored as + if they occur out of order from the original script
Video Modeling and Matrix Training 74
Appendix 11. Scoring guidelines for castle scenario script
Castle Playset: Action Guidelines
General Scoring rules
•
Actions still count if a character/piece is placed somewhere and then falls off
•
Actions can occur out of order from the original script
Walk Mr. Freeze to the window on the
right, jump to look in
Walk Mr. Freeze to the window on the left,
jump to look in
Walk Mr. Freeze to the green alcove at the
left side of the castle
Climb Mr. Freeze up steps on the left wall
of the castle
Walk Mr. Freeze to the top right of the
castle
Pull yellow rail at the right of the Batcave
playset to reveal Superman
Fly Superman down to the centre of the
playset
Walk to the Batcomputer
Walk Superman over to the Batcopter
Put (Bat-a-rang) in Batcopter beside
Superman
Fly Batcopter to front of the castle
Pick up Bat-a-rang, put on Superman’s
hand
Walk Superman to the window on the right,
jump to look in
Walk Superman to the window on the left,
jump to look in
Turn Superman to face Mr. Freeze
Pull Bat-a-rang off of Superman’s hand
Spin (Bat-a-rang) through air towards Mr.
Freeze
Pull ring off Mr. Freeze
Walk Superman over to Mr. Freeze
Mr. Freeze doesn’t have to contact ground when walking
Mr. Freeze doesn’t have to contact ground when walking
Mr. Freeze doesn’t have to contact ground when walking
Mr. Freeze touches wall of the castle where steps are. Do not score correct if Mr.
Freeze jumps up or flies up
Mr. Freeze doesn’t have to contact ground when walking. Ring may or may not be on
Mr. Freeze’s arm but must be on castle roof
Superman must be on the platform
Superman must fly down. Do not score correct if Superman uses the purple ladder to
climb down. Score correct if Superman flies directly to Batcomputer.
Superman doesn’t have to contact ground when walking. Score correct if Superman
has directly flown to Batcomputer
Superman doesn’t have to contact ground when walking but must go to the Batcopter,
not Batcopter to where Superman is
Still score correct even if participant does not retrieve from black alcove
Batcopter can fly in straight line or side to side. Do not score correct if participant flies
Batcycle but not to castle. Do not score if Superman is not in Batcopter.
Bat-a-rang must clip into Superman’s hand
Superman doesn’t have to contact ground when walking. Still score correct even if
Bat-a-rang is not in Superman’s hand
Superman doesn’t have to contact ground when walking. Still score correct even if
Bat-a-rang is not in Superman’s hand
Still correct if Superman is already facing Mr. Freeze
Bat-a-rang must already be in Superman’s hand
Still score correct if Bat-a-rang doesn’t spin
Still score correct if ring falls off Mr. Freeze’s hand when getting knocked over with
Bat-a-rang
Superman doesn’t have to contact ground when walking but must go to Mr. Freeze,
not Mr. Freeze to where Superman is
Castle Playset: Vocal Guidelines
General Scoring rules:
•
Scored as + if it is complete and matches the script.
•
Scored as + if it is a partial vocal (at least 50%) or a paraphrase of a vocal (example: script says “Remember Mr. Freeze,
crime doesn’t pay!” and student says “Crime doesn’t pay Mr. Freeze!”)
•
Student does not have to be holding/manipulating character for +
•
Do not score as + if it is with the wrong character
•
Vocals are only counted once, but do not count against student if they repeat them
•
Scored as + if they occur out of order from the original script
Video Modeling and Matrix Training 75
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