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Micro-Paleontology of the Colorado Formation in Montana

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MICRO-PAIE02T0L00Y OF THE COLORADO POSllATIOJST
IN 110UTAM
A Thesis
Submitted t o
t h e Department of Geology
Montana School of Mines
B u t t e , Montana
In P a r t i a l
Fulfillment
of t h e Requirements f o r t h e Degree
M a s t e r of S c i e n c e i n G e o l o g i c a l E n g i n e e r i n g
by
Roy Keyi'ick 'price Jones
June 1941
UMI Number: EP33282
All rights reserved
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TABLE 0? C0NT2I:TS
PAGE
ABSTRACT
1
INTRODUCTION
1
ACCTO'-TLEDGEIilENT
4
LABORATORY PROCEDURE
5
DESCRIPTION OF" SAMPLES
•
9
NATURE OF FAUNA
14
CHECKLIST OF FORAMINIFSRA
16
CLASSIFICATION
Reophax t e x a n a Cushman and W a t e r s
18
Ammodiscus c r e t a c e a I Reuss)
19
Trochamminoides n. sp
20
Pseudocyclammina n. sp
SO
Spiroplectammina bentonensis Carman
El
Gaudryina bentonensis Carman
22
Dorothia b u l l e t t a (Carsey). .
22
T r i l o c u l i n a n . sp
23
L e n t i c u l i n a s u b l a e v i s borrow
24
Lenticulina n.sp
25
Dentalina communis (d'Qrbigny)
25
Nodosaria zippei Reuss
26
Vaginulina n. s p .
27
Gumbelina globuloso (Shrenberg)
27
Gumbelina g l o b i f e r a (Reuss) . . .
28
PAGE
Turrilina n. sp
Buliminella carseyae Plummer
29
....29
Neobulimina canadensis Cushman and Wickenden . . . . 30
Bpistomina caracolla (Roemer).
31
Cassidulina cretacea Cushman
32
Cassidulina n. sp
32
Cassidulina n. sp
33
Globigerina cretacea d'Orbigny . . . .
33
Planulina kansasenais Morrow
34
Cibicides n. sp
35
Shark's Denticle
36
Fish Scale
36
Ostracoda
36
Echinoid Spines
37
Bryozoa
37
Charophyta
38
BIBLIOGRAPHY
39
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
Plate I
**
Plate II
*":
Plate III
-^
Plate IV
**
Figure 1
.
2
Figure 2
*
Figure 3
*
Figure 4
s
Figure 5
6
Figure 6
1
Figure 7
8
Figure 8 (Location Map)
Figure 9
» I1
MICRO-PALEONTOLOGY OF COLORADO
FORMATION OF MONTANA
by
Hoy M. P. Jones
ABSTRACT
Colorado material from key points in Montana and neighboring areas was analyzed for
micro-fossil3. No fossils were found in the
samples of the Lower Colorado studied, but
the Upper Colorado and the Telegraph Creek
formation were found to contain 25 species of
foraminifera, 9 of which are believed to be
new species, some ostracods and other microfossils. The fauna is sparse and composed of
long-range type3.
INTRODUCTION
This thesis deals with the collection and classification of a representative group of micro-fossils from the
Colorado formation of Montana.
Colorado shale from Alberta
and South Dakota was also examined for the sake of comparison.
The Montana material was collected from several locali-
ties in the state, from Shelby in north-western Montana to
the Baker-Glendive oil field in the extreme east.
Micropaleontology is an entirely new field in Montana
and the literature is therefore practically non-existent.
This work, carried on during 1940 and 1941, was in the nature
2
Figure 1. The Montana School of Mines where
this investigation was conducted.
of a reconnaissance survey of the possibilities of micropaleontological studies of the Cretaceous in the northern
Great Plains region.
The Colorado being a formation of
approximately 2000 feet in thickness, it was virtually
impossible in the time available to make a detailed, footby-foot examination of the entire Colorado from all the
localities from which collections were made.
Also in many,
if not all, localities the entire 2000 feet of the Colorado
was not available for study.
These more detailed studies
will be necessary if it is thought that the Colorado merits
further investigation.
Finally it is sincerely hoped that the fact that the
3
author was, at the start of this thesis, a complete novice
in micropaleontological study will not detract too greatly
from the value of the work, and that it will represent a
contribution, however small, to the future micropaleontology
of a large and important region.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT S
Acknowledgement is made of the generous aid and advice given by all members of the faculty of the Montana
School of Mines, and especially by Dr. E. S. Perry and Dr.
L. L. Sloss of the geological staff.
I also wish to thank
the following people through whose generosity many of the
samples use-d in this thesis were obtained; Dr. T. A. Link
and Mr. G. E. Jones, Mr. D. Feray, Mr. 3. Scholtz, Mr. 0.
Lewis, Mr. P. Negus, and Dr. J. P. Gries.
The valuable
assistance given to me by Mrs. H. J. Plummer and Dr. G. J.
Loetterle in the classification of the fauna is duly appreciated.
Finally I wish to express my gratitude to Mr. D.
Feray for personal guidance in what was to the writer an
entirely new field.
LABORATORY PROCEDURE
The following treatment was used on the 133 samples
involved in this investigation.
A little over half a pint
of material was taken from each sample.
After being soaked
in water for about 24 hours, it was boiled in about a quart
of water.
While it was boiling a full tablespoonful of com-
mon soda (sodium carbonate) was added.
The mud was stirred
gently and allowed to boil until it disintegrated into grain
sizes.
When the material had broken up, the lighter and fin-
er materials were decanted off and washed continuously until
the water added came off clear after a short settling period.
The residue, consisting of heavy minerals, coarser material,
and possibly micro-fossils, was then examined under the binocular microscope usually after the coarse material had
been sieved off.
If micro-fossils were observed the resi-
due was sieved into three sizes by cloth sieves - plus 50,
minus 50 and plus 90 mesh.
This material was then ready to
be studied and picked.
Most of the foraminifera were found in the medium
size, although the extremes were found in the other two.
They were picked out by the use of a very fine moistened
camel or sable hair brush, and mounted on slides with numbered spaces (as illustrated).
These slides were covered
with gum tragacanth, a water-soluble transparent glue which,
when touohed by the moistened brush, would dissolve and
Figure 2. Material boiled
till it disintegrates
Figure 3. Binocular microscope
used in picking and classifying
Figure 4. Residues dried
and placed in bags
Figure 5. Residues sieved and
fossiliferous portion placed
in glass vials
7
then harden to hold the micro-fossils deposited.
In taking pictures of the micro-fossils a KorelleReflex camera was used.
The camera lens was removed and
a reflecting microscope with prism removed was put in its
place.
The chief difficulties were in obtaining adequate
depth of focus and sufficient lighting.
The depth of focus
was greatly aided by cutting down the objective aperture to
a pin-point, and the use of a bull's-eye lantern partially
solved the light problem.
A separate picture of each spec-
imen was taken on 35 mm. positive film.
These were enlarged
on outline bromide paper, a fast thin paper.
The pictures
were cut out and pasted on a black cardboard sheet (the size
of the finished plate) with rubber cement.
The pictures
were then labelled, and after some slight retouching the
final negatives taken on 60 x 90 mm. process film.
These
negatives were enlarged on 8 1/2 x 11 inch Kodabrom to form
the finished plates.
/
Figure 6. Materials and instruments
used in making micro-paleontological
slides
11111
m
o^
I3IS
ill
•••••iiiiEiisnnin
IIIIIIHHiiilliifiiiiiilHlill
Figure 7. Various slide spacings commonly used in mounting
foraminifera
DESCRIPTION OF SAMPLES
One serious difficulty encountered in this investigation was the fact that the author was unable to collect
material personally.
However, samples were obtained from
several of the prominent Colorado outcrops in Montana and
drill cuttings were utilized in the eastern part of the
state where no outcrops occur.
Material was obtained from the following localities-.
1.
One mile south of Sunburst, Montana.
2.
Five miles north of Shelby, Montana.
3.
River bluff at Marias River bridge 4 miles south
of Shelby, Montana.
4.
Six miles past highway fork at Vaughn west of
Great Falls, Montana.
5.
Above the Duck Creek bridge on the Yellowstone
River southwest of Billings, Montana.
6.
Along the Big Horn River to Beauvais Creek southeast of Billings, Montana.
7.
Callahan no.
1 well, in Gas Dome, southwest of
Glendive near Yellowstone River.
8.
Near Rapid City, South Dakota.
9.
Foothills No. 8 well in Turner Valley, Alberta.
10.
Northwest Vfest No. 1 well near Lethbridge,
Alberta.
Figure 8
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LOCALITIES
Scale
May,
1941
SAMPLED
I In. = 9 4 mi.
R.Jones
11
The most fossiliferous material was found to be a
zone of the Upper Colorado collected south of Shelby on the
banks of the Marias River near the bridge and characterized
by Globigerina, Planulina, and Spiroplectammina in abundance.
In the same locality, material was collected from the approximate equivalent of Telegraph Creek beds 200 feet above
the Upper Colorado.
These formations represent the transi-
tion beds between the Upper Colorado and the Eagle formations,
They were quite sandy and contained more siliceous forms
such as Reophax, and some that looked as if they might have
been siliceous replacements.
One sample of Telegraph Creek
material and 20 samples of Upper Colorado were obtained
from this area.
Figure 9. Sta. 3. Marias River Bluff,
highly fossiliferous zone
12
Material was also collected from 5 miles north of
Shelby, and proved to be similarly fossiliferous, although
only one sample was obtained.
A single sample collected one mile south of Sunburst
not far from the International Boundary was quite productive
and contained a giant Pseudocyclammina species in large numbers.
In 11 samples collected near the highway fork at
Vaughn west of Great Falls not one contained any foraminifera and the evidence seemed to indicate that they were
definitely Lox^er Colorado Sediments.
In southern Montana, 8 samples were collected southwest of Billings along the Yellowstone River below the Duok
Creek bridge.
No microfossils were found as this material
was apparently Lower Colorado.
Along the Big Horn River and Beauvais Creek, southeast of Billings, 30 more samples of unproductive Lower
Colorado were collected.
Drillings from the Callahan NO. 1 well in Gas Dome
(northern part of the Baker-Glendive anti-cline) were obtained and the 12 samples used were of cuttings from 1500 to
2200 feet.
The well is located southwest of Glendive near
the Yellowstone River and unfortunately, was only sunk to a
depth of 2200 feet.
The 700 feet sampled represented the
Upper Colorado of the region.
The foraminifera were lighter
13
in colour and, in addition to the forms found in the Marias
River area, contained Bulliminella and Dorothia.
From Rapid City, South Dakota, five samples of Colorado material were obtained representing the Lower Graneros,
the Mowry, the Upper Graneros, the Greenhorn, and the Carlile formations.
The Mowry, the Greenhorn, and the Carlile
all contained foraminifera which were white and consisted
mainly of Planulina, Globigerina, and Gumbelina.
Twenty-four samples of drill cuttings from Foothills
No. 8 well in Turner Valley, Alberta, from 370 to 4140 feet
were studied, but they were so indurated that it was impossible to break them down even after 5 hours of boiling.
There was insufficient time available to try the new sodium
Hyposulphate treatment recently developed and successfully
used by Mr. R. Gallant of this school to break down sandstone with siliceous cement to grain size.
Drill cuttings were also obtained from Northwest
West No. 1 well, Lethbridge, Alberta.
Cuttings from 3220
to 5500 feet were sampled into 20 samples of about 150 feet
apiece but were also too indurated to break down to any extent.
Some of the material between 3570 and 3850 feet broke
down to a small extent and yielded forms of Cibicides,
Miliolidae, and a considerable number of ostracods.
(location of sample stations shown on map Fig. 8 ) .
iV
NATURE OF FAUNA
To understand fully the type of fauna, brief mention
must be made of the historical geology involved in the
problem.
During Kootenai time there was a large amount of
continental deposition.
At the beginning of Colorado time
the seas began moving in from the east and the deposition
changed to marine shale.
There are few or no foraminifera
present in this Lower Colorado material so it can be concluded that the invading sea was still too brackish for
this marine animal.
However a brackish water fauna appears
of wide range even in northwestern Montana in late Colorado
time and possibly earlier farther east.
By comparison with
Texas fauna of the same age, this fauna is limited and impoverished.
Due, no doubt, to the dumping of the loose
Kootenai elastics in the sea, the fauna is partly arenaceous In character and is a dull grey colour (except the
South Dakotan fauna).
It diminishes again in the upper,
sandy transition beds of the Colorado (Telegraph Creek) and
probably ceases altogether in the Eagle Sandstone above.
The possible immediate economic uses of this fauna
to identify formations appears small.
It does not occur in
sufficient numbers; it has too long a geologic range; and
the fauna (except in the case of the Pseudocyclammina) is
too colourless.
As Mrs. H. J. Plummer comments, the fauna
15
is so undistinctive that it is hard to tell whether it is
Cretaceous or Tertiary.
Also it is not very closely cor-
related to the faunas of the Gulf Coast.
While it is evident that this fauna will never be as
useful in providing index fossils as the short-lived abundant deep sea foraminifera of the Gulf Coast, still it is
possible that 'there are fossiliferous beds or zones within
the Colorado from which material was not made available for
this study; and a more detailed investigation might possibly
reveal zones which would be diagnostic.
As previously sta-
ted, this study is not to be considered exhaustive on the
Colorado, nor a complete record of all foraminiferal occurrences.
By making a comparison of faunal assemblages of
complete sections taken in reasonably close localities,
some useful zone fossils might be revealed.
14
CHECKLIST OF FORAMINIFERA
Reophax texana Cushman and Waters
very scarce
Ammodlscus Cretacea (Reuss)
scarce
Trochamminoides n. sp.
scarce
Pseudoeyelammina n. sp.
common
Spirople ctammina bentonensis Carman
common
Gaudryina bentonensis Carman
rather common
Dorothia bulletta (Carsey)
scarce
Trlloculina n. sp.
rare
Lenticulina sublaevis Morrow
rather common
Lenticulina n. sp.
rare
Dentalina communis (d'Orbigny)
scarce
Nodosaria zippei Reuss
very scarce
Vaginulina n. sp.
scarce
Gumbelina globuloso (Shrenberg)
rather common
Gumbelina globifera (Reuss)
common
Turrilina n. sp.
rare
Buliminella carseyae Plummer
rather scarce
Neobulimina canadensis Cushman and Wickenden rather scarce
Bpistomina caracolla (Roemer)
scarce
Cassidulina cretacea Cushman
rare
Cassidulina n. sp.
rare
Cassidulina n. sp.-
rare
Globigerina cretacea d'Orbigny
abundant
17
Planulina kansasensis Morrow
common
Cibicides n. sp.
rare
CLASSIFICATION
PHYLUM PROTOZOA
CLASS SARCODINA
SUBCLASS RHIZAPODA
Order FORAMINIFERA
Family REOPHACIDAE
Subfamily Reophacinae
Genus REOPHAX Montfort, 1808
Genotype Reophax scorpiurus Montfort
REOPHAI TEJANA Cushman and Waters
not figured
(1)
1940, Cushman, Foraminifera, Harvard Univ. Press,
p. 430, pi. 3, fig. 28.
Test elongate, chambers rounded, in rectilinear
series, sutures indistinct but visible, depressed, wall
agglutinated sand grains, aperture somewhat obscure but
apparently simple, terminal.
Length .57 mm., breadth .25 mm.
Collected in samples from Sta. 1 - the Telegraph
Creek formation.
Specimens not numerous and generally
crrushed and rather poor probably because of the quartzitic
nature of the formation.
19
Family AMMODISCIDAS
Subfamily Ammodiscinae
Genus AMMODISCUS Reuss, 1861
Genotype Operculina incerta d'Orbigny
AMMODISCUS CRETACEA (?) (Reuss)
Plate I, figures 8, 9.
(1)
1937, Loetterle, Neb. Geol. Surv., Bull. 12, p. 56,
pi. 10, fig. 1.
Test planispiral, flat, oval, composed of a long
planispiral tube and numerous coils, sutures fairly distinct and depressed, wall arenaceous using a fine cement,
aperture formed by open end of tube.
Diameter of figured specimen No. 9 .59 mm.
Collected in material from Sta. 7 and 8 (Mowry Formation) and not very numerous in either locality.
Apparent-
ly it is Ammodiscus cretacea although all specimens examined
were oval-shaped.
This might possibly be the result of dis-
tortion.
Family LITUOLIDAE
Subfamily Haplophragmiinae
Genus TR0CHAJ2.IIN0IDES Cushman, 1910
Genotype Trachammlna proteus Karrer
TROCHAMMINOIDES n. sp.
Plate III, figure 11.
Test coiled, evolute; about 8 chambers visible;
sutures distinct; wall of fine sand with a cement, yellowish brown to red colour; aperture obscure but apparently
simple.
Diameter of figured specimen .37 mm., thickness
.09 mm.
Found in samples from Sta. 2 and 3, not very numerous.
It is apparently too evolute to be classified as
Haplophragmoides.
Subfamily Lituolinae
Genus PSEUDOCYCLAMMINA Yabe and Hanzawa, 1926
Genotype Cyclammina littuus Yokoyama
PSEUDOCYCLAMMINA n. sp.
Plate I, figure 7.
Test very large, elongate, starts as a planispiral
coil and later uncoils in a rectilinear series; chambers
rounded, compressed; sutures distinct, depressed; wall
dark brown arenaceous material; aperture indistinct.
Length of figured specimen (broken) 1.90 mm.,
breadth .57 mm.
Found in sample from Sta. 1, abundant in this ma-
21
terial.
Probably the first appearance of this Japanese ge-
nus in American formations.
Family TEXTULARIIDAE
Subfamily Spiroplectammininae
Genus SPIROPLECTAMMINA Cushman, 1927
Genotype Textularia agglutinans, var. biformis Parker and Jones
SPIROPLECTAMMINA BENTONENSIS Carman
Plate I, figures 1, 2.
(1)
1929, Carman, Jour. Pal., Vol. 3, p. 311, pi. 34,
figs. 8, 9.
Test elongate; early chambers in planispiral coil,
later biserial portion making up greater part of test; sutures not very clear; wall arenaceous with dark brown cement; aperture in last formed coil obscure.
Length of figured specimen .95 mm., breadth .20 mm.
Found in material from Sta. 3 near Marias River.
Occurs in abundance here.
Most of the specimens seem badly
deformed and chambers and sutures are hard to see.
Family VERNSUILINIDAE
Genus GAUDRYINA d'Orbigny, 1839
Genotype Gaudryina rugosa d'Orbigny
22
GAUDRYINA B3NT0N3NSIS (?) Carman
Plate I, figures 3, 4, 5.
Synonymy unchecked as yet.
Test elongate; early chambers triserial, later biserial, chambers somewhat rounded; sutures depressed, distinct in the adult stage, fairly plain- in early portion;
wall arenaceous throughout, using a yellowish brown cement,
medium smooth appearance; aperture somewhat obscure but
appears terminal in final chamber.
Length of figured specimen No. 5 .53 mm., thickness
.16 mm.
Collected in samples from Sta. 3 and 7.
Occurs in
fair numbers in the Marias River collection but only one
deformed specimen from Glendive (No. 3 ) . The biseriality
of the adult portion of No. 3 is not evident in the figure
but it is present though distorted.
Family VALVULINIDA3
Subfamily Eggerellinae
Genus DOROTKIA Plummer, 1931
Genotype Gaudryina bulletta Carsey
DOROTHIA (?) BULLETTA (Carsey)
(1)
1926 Carsey, Univ. Tex. Bull. 2612, p. 28, pi. 4, fig. 4.
23
(2)
1931 Plummer, Univ. Tex. Bull. 3101, p. 132, pi. 8,
figs. 13-17.
Test cylindrical, elongate, rounded extremity; cham-
bers start out with about 4 or 5 in the first whorl and
gradually increase in size and diminish in numbers until
biseriality is reached; sutures smooth and somewhat indistinct in the early portion, later depressed slightly; wall
calcareous agglutinated material of light grey colour,
smooth appearance; aperture round arched opening in side of
final chamber.
Length of figured specimen .72 mm., breadth .34 mm.
Obtained from material collected from Sta. 7.
Small
number of specimens present.
Family MILIOLIDAE
Genus TRILOCULINA d'Orbigny, 1826
Genotype Miliola trigonula Lamarck
TRILOCULINA n. sp.
Plate I, figures 10a, b.
Test coiled, slight points at the ends; exposes
three chambers on the exterior; sutures distinct; wall
calcareous, porcellanous; aperture on end rounded, no tooth
visible.
24
Length of figured specimen .50 mm., width .32 mm.
Collected in a sample from Sta. 10, near Lethbridge,
Alta.
Only one specimen found although it was well-pre-
served.
Family LAGENIDAE
Subfamily Nodosariinae
Genus LENTICULINA Lamarek, 1804
Genotype Lenticulina rotulata Lamarck
LENTICULINA SUBLASVIS Morrow
Plate II, figures 5, 6 a-c.
(1)
1934, Morrow, Jour. Pal., vol. 8, p. 185, pi. 30,
figs. 14, 20a, b.
(2)
1937, Loetterle, Neb. Geol. Surv. Bull. 12, p. 22,
pi. 1, figs. 7a, b.
Test large, lenticular, completely involute, slight-
ly oval in outline, periphery slightly keeled; chambers numerous, 10 or 12 visible in final whorl, gradual increase in
size; sutures limbate, slightly curved and elevated; wall
calcareous and varies from light yellow to dark grey; aperture below periphery, indistinct.
Diameter of figured specimen No. 6 .88 mm., thickness
.33 mm.
25
This species occurs at Sta. 3 on the Marias River.
Found in small numbers.
In one sample several of the speci-
mens resembled Lenticulina kansasensis in their strong
elevation of suture. However, there was insufficient curving of the sutures (less than in the figured specimens) and
specimens were poor and possibly eroded.
LENTICULINA n. sp.
Plate 3, figures 7a, b.
Test small, oval, clean-cut, periphery with rounded
keel; chamber and sutures indistinct; walls white, calcareous; aperture at periphery, rounded.
Diameter of figured specimen .44 mm., breadth .27 mm.
Collected from a sample from Sta. 7 in Gas Dome.
Very rare.
Genus DENTALINA d'Orbigny, 1826
Genotype Nodosaria (Dentalina) obliqua d'Orbigny
DENTALINA CUMMUNIS (d*Orbigny)
Plate II, figure 3.
(1)
1937, Loetterle, Neb. Geol. Surv. Bull. 12, p. 25,
pi. 3, fig. 1.
Test elongate, slightly curved; chambers increase
regularly in size, inflated in later portions; sutures
26
distinct, slightly oblique; wall white, calcareous; aperture radiate terminal.
Length of figured specimen .95 mm., width .18 mm.
Obtained in material from Sta. 7.
Single perfect
specimen.
Genus NODOSARIA Lamarck, 1812
Genotype Nautilus radicula Linne
NODOSARIA ZIPPEI (?) Reuss
Plate II, figures 1, 2.
(1)
1937, Loetterle, Neb. Geol. Surv. Bull. 12, p. 26,
pi. 3, fig. 2.
Test elongate, straight, neat appearance, 15 or 16
faint costae on specimen; little constriction for chambers
and sutures; wall grey calcareous; aperture terminal radiate.
Length of figured specimen No. 1 .73 mm., breadth
.13 mm.
Collected in material from Sta. 3, No. 1 from the
Upper Colorado and No. 2 from the Telegraph Creek Formation.
No. 2 is probably only a siliceous cast of the original
Nodosaria.
No. 1 may not be Nodosaria zippei as the con-
striction at the sutures is small and the costae faint and
more numerous than on a typical Nodosaria zippei.
Only one
27
p e r f e c t specimen found.
Genus VAGINULINA d'Orbigny, 1826
Genotype Nautilus legumen Linne
VAGINULINA n. sp.
Test elongate, one side straight, covered by numerous
faint costae; slight constriction at sutures marking off
the chambers, last chamber points off at a 60° angle; wall
grey, calcareous; aperture oblique, apparently radiate.
Length of figured specimen 1.33 mm., breadth .22 mm.
Collected in material from Sta. 1.
Not numerous.
Does not resemble a typical Vaginulina but seems closest to
that genus.
Family HET3R0HELICIDAE
Genus GUMBELINA Egger, 1899.
Genotype Textularia globuloso Ehrenberg
GUMBELINA 3L03UL0S0 (Ehrenberg)
Plate III, figures 8a, b.
(1)
1937, Loetterle, Neb. Geol. Surv. Bull. 12, p. 33,
pi. 4, figs. 8a, b.
Test triangular, appears coiled in early state,
28
widest at apertural end tapering to a point; chambers inflated, globular, increasing rapidly in size; sutures distinct and depressed; wall calcareous, bright white; aperture
highly arched, on inner edge of last chamber.
Length of figured specimen .38 mm., breadth .28 mm.
Found in samples from sta. 7 near Glendive.
Not
uncommon.
GUMJBILIUA (*L0BIFERA (Reuss)
Plate III, figure 3.
(1)
1937, Loetterle, Neb. Geol. Surv. Bull. 12, p. 34,
pi. 5, fig. 3.
Test elongate, widest near apertural end, tapering
to a bluntly pointed initial stage; chambers increase gradually in size; sutures depressed; wall white, calcareous;
aperture arched on inner edge of last chamber.
Length of figured specimen .25 mm., breadth .11 mm.
Collected in samples from sta. 3 and 8.
A common
species particularly in sizes below .18 mm. in the South
Dakotan material.
Not quite so numerous in the Marias River
samples.
Family BULIMINIDAE
29
Subfamily Turrilininae
Genotype Turrilina alsatioa Andreas, 1884
TURRILINA n. sp.
Plate III, figure 4.
Test small, spiral; chambers rather indistinct; spiral suture distinct, continuous, 5 whorls visible; walls
light-coloured, arenaceous, possibly replacement, aperture
obscure.
Length of figured specimen .47 mm., breadth .10 mm.
Found in sample from Sta. 2.
tained.
Only one specimen ob-
Line down centre is due to incorrect retouching
and was later found to be non-existent.
The specimen ap-
pears to be a siliceous replacement of the original calcite
test.
,*fc
Genus BULIMINELLA Cushman, 1911
Genotype Buliminella elegantis3ima d'Orbigny
BULIMINELLA CARSSYAE Plummer
Plate II, figure 8a, b.
(1)
1931, Plummer, Univ. Tex. Bull. 3101, p. 179, pi. 8,
fig. 9.
Test ovate, initial extremity blunted; spiral su-
30
tures distinct, depressed; wall calcareous, smooth, white
or brownish colihur; aperture large in figured specimens possibly broken, in smaller specimens like a comma.
Length of figured specimen .45 mm., breadth .32 mm.
Collected in material from Sta. 7. Not numerous.
Figured specimen was largest obtained.
It was a little
less elongated -in proportion to its width than the smaller
specimens.
Genus NEOBULIMINA Cushman and Wickenden, 1928
Genotype Neobulimina canadensis Cushman and Wickenden
NEOBULIMINA CANADENSIS Cushman and Wickenden
Plate I, figure 6.
(1)
1931, Cushman, Tenn. Div. Geol. Bull. 41, p. 48, pi. 8,
fig. la, b.
Test minute, elongate, tapering towards the ends;
early portion triserial, later biserial; chambers globular;
sutures distinct, depressed; wall calcareous, dark; aperture large, round, oblique, on last chamber, apparently
with a flattened tooth.
Length of figured specimen .29 mm., breadth .9 mm.
Collected in a sample from Sta. 3. on the Marias
River.
Fairly plentiful.
31
Family ROTAllIDAS
Subfamily Siphonininae
Genus BPISTOMINA Terquem, 1883
Genotype Bpistomina regular!s Terquem
BPISTOMINA CARACOLLA (Roemer)
Plate III, figure 5a, b, c.
(1)
1931, Cushman, Tenn. Div. Geol. Bull. 41, p. 55,
pi. 10, figs. 1 a-c.
(2)
1937, Loetterle, Neb. Geol. Surv. Bull. 12, p. 62,
pi. 11, figs. 2 a-o.
Test trochoid, biconvex; chambers numerous, 6 to 8
in final whorl, all visible on dorsal side, slowly increase
in size; sutures curved, limbate, flush with the surface,
merge with central boss; wall calcareous, parts glassy,
transparent; primary aperture ventral, somewhat indistinct,
secondary apertures are elongate areas of clear shell near
outer margin of each chamber.
Diameter of figured specimen .34 mm., thickness
.19 mm.
Collected in material from Sta. 3.
mon species.
Family CASSIDULINIDAB
Not a very com-
32
Subfamily Cassidulininae
Genus CASSIDULINA d1Orbigny, 1826
Genotype Cassidulina laevigata d1Orbigny
CASSIDULINA CRETACEA Cushman
Plate III, figure 8 a-c
(1)
1931, Cushman, Tenn. Div. Geol. Bull. 41, p. 56,
pi. 10, figs. 3 a-c.
Test small, rounded into a spherical ball, compres-
sed; sutures distinct, slightly depressed, narrow; wall
smooth, calcareous, brownish; aperture elongate, in centre
of last chamber.
Diameter of figured specimen .30 mm., thickness
•21 mm.
Collected in samples from Sta. 2 and from Sta. 8
in the Mowry formation.
Single specimens obtained in each
location.
CASSIDULINA n. sp.
Plate III, figure 6.
Test close-coiled, lenticular, involute, glossy
narrow keel; chambers smooth, distinct; sutures curved,
limbate, level with chambers; walls white calcareous;
aperture indistinct.
Diameter of figured specimen .36 mm., thickness
•16 mm.
Collected in sample from Sta. 2 and 8 (Mowry).
A
rare species.
CASSIDULINA n. sp.
Plate III, figures 8 a-c
Test close-coiled, biconvex, trochoid, coming to
almost a point on ventral side; chambers and sutures level
but fairly distinct, sutures somewhat limbate; walls calcareous, smooth and finely perforate; aperture ventral.
Diameter of figured specimen .29 mm., thickness
•18 mm.
Obtained in samples from Sta. 7 near Glendive.
rare species.
Family GLOBIGSRINIDAE
Subfamily Globigerininae
Genus GLOBIGERINA d'Orbigny, 1826
Genotype Globigerina bulloides d*Orbigny
GLOBIGERINA CRETACEA d1Orbigny
Plate III, figure la, b.
A
34
(1) 1937, Loetterle, Neb. Geol. Surv. Bull. 12, p. 44, pi.
7, figs. 1 a-c, 2 a-c.
Test trochoid, low spire; chambers globular and inflated, number varies from 4 to 6 possibly due to age variation, surface covered with minute spines, umbilicus
broad and open; sutures deep and depressed; wall white,
calcareous; aperture is an opening in the umbilicus.
Diameter of figured specimen .40 mm., thickness
•16 mm*
Found in samples from Sta. 1, 2, 3, 7, and 8,
It
is apparently a typical fossil of the Colorado as it is of
the Cretaceous in many localities elsewhere.
Family ANOMALINIDAE
Subfamily Anomalininae
Genus PLANULINA d*Orbigny, 1826
Genotype Planulina ariminensis d*Orbigny
PLANULINA KANSASENSIS Morrow
Plate III, figure 10a, b, 12.
(1)
1934, Morrow, Jour. Pal. vol. 8, p. 201, pi. 30,
figs. 2, 12, 15.
(2)
1937, Loetterle, Neb. Geol. Surv. Bull. 12, p. 49,
pi. 8, figs. 2 a-c.
35
Test quite compressed, only slightly trochoid; numerous chambers, 9 visible in last whorl, slightly inflated, increase slowly in size as added; sutures depressed,
distinct, curved backwards; walls calcareous, light grey to
white; aperture indistinct at periphery.
Diameter of figured specimen No. 10 .47 mm., thickness .15 mm. "
Found in material from Sta. 2, 3, and (Carlile
Formation).
In fair abundance.
GQ nus
CIBICIDES Montfort, 1808
Genotype Cibicides refulgens Montfort
CIBICIDES n. sp.
Plate III, figures 9a, b.
Test minute, slightly planoconvex, raised boss on
ventral side; 9 chambers visible, sutures clear, slightly
limbate and curved; wall grey, calcareous, finely perforate;
aperture peripheral.
Diameter of figured specimen .27 mm., thickness
• 12 mm.
Found in drillings from Sta. 7 in abundance and also
in Sta. 10. Possibly quite abundant in Sta. 10 if samples
could be broken down sufficiently.
PHYLLUM VERTEBRATE
Class CHONDRICHTHYS
SHARK'S DENTICLE (?)
Plate IV, figure 5.
Blongate, toothlike affair made of a black material
that seems to be carboniferous.
Might be a cast.
Length of figured specimen .95 mm.
Colleoted in material from Sta. 5.
Only specimen
obtained.
Class OSTEICHTHYS
FISH SCALE
Plate IV, figure 8.
Thin flat piece covered with parallel lines; wall
dark brown, chitinous (?)i
Collected in samples from Sta. 2.
ments were found.
Several frag-
None found in the Mowry material exa-
mined.
PHYLUM ARTHROPODA
Class CRUSTACEA
Order OSTRACODA
37
Plate IV, figures 1, 2, 3.
Carapace in side view generally ovate (in No. 3,
elongate); wall grey calcareous; not plentiful enough to
warrant complete classification.
Length figured specimen No. 1 .72 mm., breadth
•31 mm.
Collected from material from Sta. 7 and 10. Fairly
plentiful, particularly in Canadian material.
PHYLUM ECHINODERMUTA
Class ECHINOIDEA (?)
BCHINOID SPINES
Plate IV, figure 6, 7.
Spines elongate, with a fine laced pattern along
them; white calcareous material.
Length of figured specimen No. 6 .61 mm.
Found in material from Sta. 7 and 10.
Apparently
rare in this section of the Colorado.
PHYLUM BRYOZOA (?)
Plate IV, figures 9, 10.
Tubular fragments of thick white calcareous material.
38
Length of figured specimen No. 10 .56 mm.
Collected in material from Sta. 3.
Not particularly
numerous.
PLANTS
PHYLUM THALLOPHYTA .
Class CHAROPHYTA
Family TROCHILISCACBAB
Plate IV, figures 4a, b.
Oogonium oval in side view, round in end view, with
prominent Intercellular ridges, wall calcareous, grey.
Length of figured specimen .32 mm., breadth .21 mm.
Found in a sample from Sta. 10.
was collected.
Only one specimen
39
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Carman, Katherine, (1929), Some Foraminifera from the
_
Niobrara and Benton Formation of Wyoming, Jour, of
Pal., Vol. 3, No. 3, p. 309-315, pi. 34.
Carsey, Dorothy Ogden, (1926), Foraminifera of the Cretaceous of Central Texas, Univ. Tex. Bull. 2612, p. 1-56,
pis. 1-8.
Cushman, Joseph A. (1927), Some Foraminifera from the Cretaceous of Canada, Trans. Roy. Soc. Can. Series 3,
Vol. 21, Pt. 2, Sec. 4, p. 127-132, pi. 1.
, (1931), The Foraminifera of the Saratoga Chalk,
Jour. Pal., Vol. 5, No. 4, p. 297-315, pis. 34-36.
, (1931), A Preliminary Report on the Foraminifera
of Tennessee, Tenn. Div. Geol. Full. 41, p. 1-113,
pis. 1-13.
, Foraminifera, Harvard Univ. Press, p. 1-535, pis.
1-48.
Knappen, R. S. and Moulton, G. F. (1930), Geology and Mineral Resources of Parts of Carbon, Big Horn, Yellowstone, and Stillwater Counties, Montana, U. S. G. S.
Bull. 822-A, p. 1-67, pis. 1-5, fig. 1.
40
Loetterle, Gerald J., (1937), The Micropaleontology of
the Niobrara Formation in Kansas, Nebraska, and South
Dakota, Neb. Geol. Surv. Bull. 12, Series 2, p. 1-73,
pis. 1-11.
Morrow, A. L . , ( 1 9 3 4 ) , F o r a m i n i f e r a and O s t r a c u d a from t h e
__
Upper C r e t a c e o u s of K a n s a s , J o u r . P a l . , Vol. 8, No. 2,
p . 186-205, p i s . 2 9 - 3 1 .
P e c k , Raymond S . , ( 1 9 3 4 ) , The North American T r o o h i l i s c l d s ,
P a l e o z o i c Charophyta, J o u r . P a l . , Vol. 8, No. 2 , p . 8 3 119, p i s . 9 - 1 3 .
Plummer, Helen J e a n n e , ( 1 9 3 1 ) , Some C r e a t a c e o u s
Foraminifera
i n T e x a s , Univ. of Tex. B u l l . 3 1 0 1 , p . 109-203, p i s . 8 - 1 5 .
Schenk, Edward T . , and McMasters, John H . , ( 1 9 3 6 ) ,
i n Taxanomy, S t a n f o r d Univ. P r e s s , p .
Procedure
1-72,
Vaughan, Thomas Wayland, and C o l e , W. S t o r r s , ( 1 9 4 1 ) , P r e l i m i n a r y Report on t h e C r e t a c e o u s and T e r t i a r y Larger
F o r a m i n i f e r a of T r i n i d a d ,
B r i t i s h West I n d i e s , G. S. A.
S p e c i a l P a p e r s , No. 30, p . 1-137, p i s .
1-46.
Wickenden, Robert T. D. , ( 1 9 3 2 ) , New S p e c i e s of
Foraminifera
from the Upper C r e t a c e o u s of t h e P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e s , T r a n s .
Roy. Soc. Can., S e r i e s 3 , Vol. 26, S e c . 4 , p . 8 5 - 9 1 ,
pl.l.
PLATE I
Figure
1,2.
Page
Spiroplectammina bentonensis Carman,
21
x 55; Sta. 3.
3,4,5.
Gaudryina bentonensis Carman.
22
x 55; Sta. 7 (3), and 3 (4,5).
6.
Neobulimina canadensis Cushman and Waters.
30
x 55; Sta. 3,
7,
Pseudoeyelammlna n. sp.
20
x 35; Sta. 1,
8,9,
Ammodiscu8 cretacea (Reuss)
19
x 55; Sta. 7 and 8 (Mowry)
10.
Trlloculina n. sp.
x 55; Sta. 10.
a, dorsal view; b, ventral view.
23
PLATE II
Figure
1,2.
Page
Nodosaria zippei Reuss.
26
x 55; Sta. 3 (No. 1), Telegraph Creek (No.2)
3.
Dentalina cummunis (d'Orbigny).
25
x 55; Sta. 7.
4.
Vaglnullna n. sp.
27
x 55; Sta. 1.
5,6.
Lenticulina sublaevis Morrow.
24
x 55; Sta. 3.
a,c, side views; b, apertural view,
7.
Lenticulina n. sp.
25
x 55; Sta. 7.
8.
Buliminella carseyae Plummer
29
x 55; S t a . 7.
9 , 1 0 , l l , D o r o t h i a b u l l e t t a (Carsey)
x 55; S t a . 3 .
22
PLATE III
Figure
I.
Globigerina cretacea d'Orbigny,
x 55; Sta. 3.
a, dorsal view; b, ventral view.
2".
Gumbelina globulosa (Ehrenberg),
x 55; Sta. 7.
a, side view; b, apertural view.
3,
Gumbelina globifera (Reuss),
x 55; Sta. 3,
4,
Turrlllna n. sp.
x 55; Sta. 2. .
5,
Bpistomina caracolla (Hoemer).
x 85; Sta. 3.
a, c, side views; b, apertural view.
6,
Cassi dulina n. sp.
x 85; Sta. 8 (Mowry),
7,
Cassidulina cretacea Cushman,
x 85; Sta. 2.
8,
Cassidulina n. sp.
x 85; Sta. 7,
a, o, side views; b, apertural view,
9,
Cibicides n, sp.
x 85; Sta. 10.
10,12, Planulina kansasensis Morrow.
x 55; Sta. 8 (No. 10) and 3(No. 12).
a, side view; b, apertural view.
II.
Trochamninoides n. sp.
x 55; Sta. 3.
PLATE IV
Figure
1,2,3.
Page
Ostracoda.
36
x 5 5 ; S t a . 10 (No. 1) and 7 (Nos. 2 , 3 )
4.
Charophyta.
38
x 55; Sta. 10.
a, end v i e w ; b , s i d e v i e w .
5,
Shark's denticle.
36
x 55; Sta. 5.
6,7,
Echinoid Spines,
37
x 55; Sta. 7 (No. 6), sta. 10 (No. 7).
8.
Fish Scale.
36
x 35 (approx.); Sta. 2.
9,10.
Bryozoa.
x 55; Sta. 3.
37
Mr. Roy Meyrick Price Jones has on this twenty-first
day of June, one thousand nine hundred and forty-one, satisfactorily completed all requirements prescribed by the Montana School of Mines for the degree of Master of Science in
Geological Engineering.
Graduate Committee
n
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